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Sample records for agitation speed temperature

  1. Investigating the influence of pH, temperature and agitation speed on yellow pigment production by Penicillium aculeatum ATCC 10409.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Majid; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Tabatabai, Farideh; Es'haghi, Zarin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined effect of pH, temperature and agitation speed on yellow pigment production and mycelial growth of Penicillium aculeatum ATCC 10409 was investigated in whey media. Different pH levels (5, 6.5 and 8), temperatures (25, 30 and 35°C) and agitation speed levels (100 and 150 rpm) were tested to determine the best conditions to produce a fungal yellow pigment under submerged fermentation. The best production of yellow pigment (1.38 g/L) was obtained with a pH value of 6.5, a temperature of 30°C and an agitation speed of 150 rpm. In contrast, the maximal biomass concentration (11.12 g/L) was obtained at pH value of 8, a temperature of 30°C and an agitation speed of 100 rpm. These results demonstrated that biomass and yellow pigment production were not directly associated. The identification of the structure of unknown P. aculeatum yellow pigment was detected using UV absorption spectrum and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  2. The Effects of Nutrient Concentration, Addition of Thickeners, and Agitation Speed on Liquid Fermentation of Steinernema feltiae

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis G.; Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Hazir, Selcuk; Jackson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematode production in liquid fermentation still requires improvements to maximize efficiency, yield, and nematode quality. Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid medium for mass production of Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, thickeners (primarily agar), and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. Base medium (BM) contained yeast extract (2.3%), egg yolk (1.25%), NaCl (0.5%), and corn oil (4%). All media were inoculated with Xenorhabdus bovienii, and 2 d later, with 2-d-old S. feltiae juveniles. For the nutrient concentration experiment, we evaluated the base medium versus a modified base medium containing all the components, but with 3× concentrations of yeast extract (6.9%), egg yolk (3.75%), and corn oil (12%). The nematodes and bacteria were cultured in 150-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml of liquid medium at (25°C) and 180 rpm on a rotary shaker incubator. To assess the effect of thickeners, IJs were inoculated in BM with agar (0.2%), carrageen (0.2%), and carboxymethyl cellulose (0.2% and 0.5%). The addition of 3× more nutrients relative to the BM resulted in a significantly lower yield of nematodes. For agar and agitation speed experiments, five levels of agar in the BM (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% agar) and two agitation speeds (180 and 280 rpm) were evaluated for production. Increasing agitation speed from 180 to 280 rpm and higher levels of agar in the medium (> 0.2%) significantly increased the yield of bacteria. At the lower agitation speed, media amended with 0.4% and 0.6% agar produced higher nematode yields compared to media without agar. Media with 0.2% and 0.8% agar resulted in intermediate levels of nematode production. At the higher agitation speed, media supplemented with 0.8% agar resulted in the lowest yield of nematodes when compared to the other media tested. Results indicated that increasing nutrient concentration levels was

  3. Effects of agitation speed on the ex vivo expansion of cord blood hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in stirred suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qiang; Cai, Haibo; Du, Zheng; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-song

    2013-04-01

    The mononuclear cells were cultivated in stirred flasks at different agitation speeds of 30 rpm, 45 rpm, 60 rpm and 80 rpm. At the agitation speed of 30 rpm, total cells achieved higher expansion folds and the CFC density increased. When at higher agitation speed of 60 rpm or 80 rpm, the number of cells dropped rapidly and characteristics of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) were not maintained. Moreover, the culture duration of 6-9 days was better for HSPCs ex vivo expansion. These data indicated that HSPCs should be cultured at relatively low agitation speed and for a short-term period when cultured in stirred suspension system.

  4. The effects of nutrient concentration, addition of thickeners, and agitation speed on liquid fermentation of Steinernema feltiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid media for mass production of Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, media viscosity, and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. For all the experiments, the base medium contained yeast ...

  5. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  6. Effect of agitation and storage temperature on water sorption and solubility of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Argolo, Saryta; Mathias, Paula; Aguiar, Thaiane; Lima, Adriano; Santos, Sara; Foxton, Richard; Cavalcanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and flask agitation on the water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) of simplified adhesive systems. Seventy-two disc-shaped specimens were prepared according to the adhesive system (water/ethanol-based: Adper Single Bond 2; and water-based: One Coat Bond SL) and experimental conditions tested (mechanical agitation and storage temperature). Statistical analysis (3-way ANOVA, alpha=5%) found significantly greater WS and SL means for the water/ethanol-based system when compared to the water-based. Irrespective of factors studied, significant differences in WS and SL were noted between cold and room temperatures, with greater values been obtained at 1°C, and lower ones at 20°C. Agitation provided increased WS for both materials at all temperatures, but did not affect their SL. The mechanical agitation of the flask may negatively affect the dynamics of diffusion of simplified adhesive systems, even at extremely cold or warm temperatures.

  7. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed III. Effect of scale, agitator rotational speed and blade shape on granule properties and development of a high accuracy scale-up theory.

    PubMed

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Ono, Tetsuo; Ono, Masaki; Tsunenari, Yoshinobu; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2009-04-01

    The preparation of core particles suitable for subsequent film coating was examined using different scales of agitation fluidized beds. Specifically, the effects of agitator rotational speed and agitator blade shape in different scales of granulators on granule properties such as mass median diameter, apparent density, friability and shape factor were studied. As the agitator rotational speed was increased or when the agitator blade height and angle were large, the mass median diameter and friability of the granules decreased, while the apparent density and shape factor increased, in a manner independent of the vessel size because the granules were subjected to greater compression, shearing and rolling effects. The same core particles could not be prepared using granulators with different vessel sizes by simply adopting a conventional scale-up theory(1,2)) based on kinetic energy similarity. Here, a novel scale-up theory that takes into account agitator blade shape factors is proposed.(3)) When the two scale-up theories were compared, our new theory was capable of predicting the granule properties more accurately than the conventional theory. By adopting this novel theory, the same core particles could be prepared under different operating conditions in any scale of granulator.

  8. Nonthermal microwave effects revisited: on the importance of internal temperature monitoring and agitation in microwave chemistry.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M Antonia; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Kappe, C Oliver

    2008-01-04

    The concept of nonthermal microwave effects has received considerable attention in recent years and is the subject of intense debate in the scientific community. Nonthermal microwave effects have been postulated to result from a direct stabilizing interaction of the electric field with specific (polar) molecules in the reaction medium that is not related to a macroscopic temperature effect. In order to probe the existence of nonthermal microwave effects, four synthetic transformations (Diels-Alder cycloaddition, alkylation of triphenylphosphine and 1,2,4-triazole, direct amide bond formation) were reevaluated under both microwave dielectric heating and conventional thermal heating. In all four cases, previous studies have claimed the existence of nonthermal microwave effects in these reactions. Experimentally, significant differences in conversion and/or product distribution comparing the conventionally and microwave-heated experiments performed at the same measured reaction temperature were found. The current reevaluation of these reactions was performed in a dedicated reactor setup that allowed accurate internal reaction temperature measurements using a multiple fiber-optic probe system. Using this technology, the importance of efficient stirring and internal temperature measurement in microwave-heated reactions was made evident. Inefficient agitation leads to temperature gradients within the reaction mixture due to field inhomogeneities in the microwave cavity. Using external infrared temperature sensors in some cases results in significant inaccuracies in the temperature measurement. Applying the fiber-optic probe temperature monitoring device, a critical reevaluation of all four reactions has provided no evidence for the existence of nonthermal microwave effects. Ensuring efficient agitation of the reaction mixture via magnetic stirring, no significant differences in terms of conversion and selectivity between experiments performed under microwave or oil bath

  9. Simple and Reproducible Two-Stage Agitation Speed Control Strategy for Enhanced Triterpene Production by Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum ACCC G0119 (Higher Basidiomycetes) Based on Submerged Liquid Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Feng, Na; Yang, Yan; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Jingsong; Jia, Wei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Triterpenes are important anticancer agents produced by batch submerged liquid fermentation, with the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum ACCC G0119, which was investigated under various dissolved oxygen levels by varying agitation speeds. Three kinetic parameters were analyzed: specific mycelial growth rate (μsmg), specific glucose consumption rate (qsgc), and specific triterpene production rate (qstp). High concentration, yield, and productivity of triterpenes were achieved by developing a simple and reproducible two-stage agitation speed control strategy. At the first 40 h, agitation speed was controlled at 150 rpm to obtain the quickest peak qstp for triterpene production, subsequently agitation speed was controlled at 100 rpm to maintain high qstp for high triterpene accumulation. The maximum concentration of triterpenes reached 0.086 g/l with the yield of 6.072 g/kg and the productivity of 6.532 × 10-4 g/(l·h), which were 39.61%, 36.48%, and 49.22%, respectively, better than the best results controlled by fixed agitation speeds. Conceivably, such a triterpene fermentation production strategy would be useful for industrial large-scale production of triterpenes with G. lucidum.

  10. Impact of vibration and agitation speed on dissolution of USP prednisone tablets RS and various IR tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Nicole; Lange, Sigrid; Klein, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Dissolution testing is an in vitro procedure which is widely used in quality control (QC) of solid oral dosage forms and, given that real biorelevant test conditions are applied, can also be used as a predictive tool for the in vivo performance of such formulations. However, if a dissolution method is intended to be used for such purposes, it has to deliver results that are only determined by the quality of the test product, but not by other variables. In the recent past, more and more questions were arising on how to address the effects of vibration on dissolution test results. The present study was performed to screen for the correlation of prednisone dissolution of USP Prednisone Tablets RS with vibration caused by a commercially available vibration source as well as to investigate how drug release from a range of immediate release formulations containing class 1-4 drugs of the biopharmaceutical classification scheme is affected by vibration when performing dissolution experiments at different agitation rates. Results of the present study show that the dissolution process of oral drug formulations can be affected by vibration. However, it also becomes clear that the degree of which a certain level of vibration impacts dissolution is strongly dependent on several factors such as drug properties, formulation parameters, and the design of the dissolution method. To ensure the establishment of robust and predictive dissolution test methods, the impact of variation should thus be considered in method design and validation.

  11. Self-assembly of cyclodextrin complexes: effect of temperature, agitation and media composition on aggregation.

    PubMed

    Messner, Martin; Kurkov, Sergey V; Maraver Palazón, Marta; Álvarez Fernández, Berta; Brewster, Marcus E; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2011-10-31

    Recently it has been shown that aggregation of drug/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes is strongly influenced by the drug molecule in addition to self-assembling tendencies of the cyclodextrin itself in aqueous media. Whereas the mechanistic basis of cyclodextrin self-assembly is known, the driving forces for complex aggregation are still unknown. In the present study, the influence of temperature on hydrocortisone/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex aggregation is investigated as are influences associated with the addition of ethanol or water soluble polymers to the aqueous systems. Furthermore the effect of stirring on the aggregation is assessed. Size exclusion permeability studies were conducted to estimate complex aggregation tendencies. The results indicate that self-assembled complex aggregates are metastable and notably become smaller with increasing temperature and the addition of ethanol. Water soluble polymers also reduce the size of the complex aggregates. Specifically, hexadimethrine bromide had the greatest impact, since addition of this compound eliminated aggregates from the systems or reduced their size below the molecular weight cut-off of the sizing membrane (8 kDa). Similar observations are made when aqueous solutions of hydrocortisone and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin are equilibrated by stirred.

  12. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process.

  13. Effect of period, water temperature and agitation on loss of water-soluble carbohydrates and protein from grass hay: implications for equine feeding management.

    PubMed

    Longland, A C; Barfoot, C; Harris, P A

    2014-01-18

    The effects of different water-soaking treatments on removal of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), WSC constituents and protein from four UK hays were determined. Hays were soaked in water for up to 16 hours at mean temperatures of 8°C, 16°C, in hot tap water (initially 49°C) or agitated and rinsed in clean water at 16°C. Initial hay WSC contents ranged from 154 to 216 g/kg dry matter. Losses of WSC from hays after 16 hours soaking at 8°C, 16°C, 16°C plus agitation and 49°C averaged 28, 46, 49 and 44 per cent, respectively. Corresponding percentage losses of fructan were 16, 37, 39 and 33. Percentage losses of sucrose averaged 55 (8°C), 86 (16°C), 91 (16°C+agitation) and 82 (initial temperature 49°C), those of glucose were 60, 85, 75 and 75, and of fructose were 41, 52, 54 and 46. Hay crude protein contents were not significantly changed by any of the soaking treatments. Soaking at 8°C generally resulted in reduced losses of WSC compared to when soaked at the higher temperatures. Thus, in cold weather using warmer water to soak hays may effect greater WSC loss, although very prolonged soaking at warm temperatures might encourage the proliferation of unwanted micro-organisms in the soak liquor.

  14. Effects of cooling rate, saturation temperature, and agitation on the metastable zone width of DL-malic acid-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Leng, Yixin; Huang, Chunxiang; Yue, Mingxuan; Tan, Qian

    2015-09-01

    A study of metastable zone width (MSZW) and nucleation parameters for a cooling crystallization of DL-malic acid-water system is described in this paper. Experimental determination of the MSZW was performed using a laser method in order to carry out the estimation of nucleation parameters. Measured MSZWs can be affected by a variety of parameters, such as cooling rate, saturation temperature, agitation rate, and so on. In this work, the MSZWs were found to decrease with an increase of saturation temperature, and levels of agitation, while it increased with an increase of cooling rate. Two classical theoretical approaches, Nyvlt's approach and self-consistent Nyvlt-like approach were used to analyze the experimental data on MSZWs.

  15. Cavitation-controlled ultrasonic agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Raptis, A.C.

    1989-10-01

    High-intensity ultrasound generally produces nonlinear acoustic cavitation and streaming in liquids. The ultrasonic energy required to cause cavitation and streaming in a liquid depends on the physical properties of the liquid, e.g., surface tension, viscosity, and entrained gases. Both cavitation and streaming generate acoustic noise whose signatures may be used to distinguish the stage of agitation and thus allow the process to be controlled. An ultrasonic agitator has been designed for application in a confined area with a high-temperature, high-pressure, and corrosive environment. Control of this agitator is based on the detection of noise levels and subharmonics produced during cavitation and streaming. Noise signatures of agitation in different liquids and in liquids with particles have been determined, and discussed. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  16. An Agitation Experiment with Multiple Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a multifaceted agitation and mixing experiment. The relatively inexpensive apparatus includes a variable-speed stirrer motor, two polycarbonate tanks, and an instrumented torque table. Students measure torque as a function of stirrer speed, and use conductive tracer data to estimate two parameters of a flow model. The effect…

  17. Reducing agitator energy consumption without sacrificing agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Golobic, R.A.; Derrickson, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Rising energy costs and their increasing net effect on the cost of a mineral product requires that every aspect of processing-plant operations reduce consumed horsepower without sacrificing the grade of the product. This paper addresses two principles in the design and selection of axial-flow agitator propellers that contribute to significant reductions in required horsepower. The first of these involves the use of good design principles. The swirling wake generated by an agitator propeller induces losses in the pumping action. By designing an agitator of proper twist and shape one can minimize these losses. Depending upon the design chosen for comparison, these losses can be reduced by 30 to 50% without any sacrifice in pumping or without increasing the complexity of the design. The second aspect involves an appropriate selection of the agitator propeller diameter. The required horsepower can be significantly reduced by using a propeller of larger diameter while operating it at a lower revolutions per minute (RPM) with no sacrifice in the pumping. 3 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Particle Breakage in Agitated Dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Colin L.; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Dennehy, Robert; Collier, Alan

    2009-06-01

    A method for predicting particle breakage in agitated dryers is described. The method utilizes an estimation of stresses and strains occurring in a dryer bed sheared by an impeller using the Distinct Element Method (DEM). An assemblage of particles is then subjected to these stresses in a shear cell to assess the extent of attrition under a range of stresses and strains. Paracetamol particles in the size range 500-600 μm are used for the experimental work. The relationship of attrition with stress and strain is then incorporated into the distribution of stress and strain in the dryer estimated by DEM. The extent of attrition for a range of conditions including the impeller speed has been analysed. The prediction shows impeller speed to have limited effect on attrition within the range of speeds tested.

  19. Implementation of Temperature Sequential Controller on Variable Speed Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2008-10-01

    There are many pump and motor installations with quite extensive speed variation, such as Sago conveyor, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and water pumping system. A common solution for these applications is to run several fixed speed motors in parallel, with flow control accomplish by turning the motors on and off. This type of control method causes high in-rush current, and adds a risk of damage caused by pressure transients. This paper explains the design and implementation of a temperature speed control system for use in industrial and commercial sectors. Advanced temperature speed control can be achieved by using ABB ACS800 variable speed drive-direct torque sequential control macro, programmable logic controller and temperature transmitter. The principle of direct torque sequential control macro (DTC-SC) is based on the control of torque and flux utilizing the stator flux field orientation over seven preset constant speed. As a result of continuous comparison of ambient temperature to the references temperatures; electromagnetic torque response is particularly fast to the motor state and it is able maintain constant speeds. Experimental tests have been carried out by using ABB ACS800-U1-0003-2, to validate the effectiveness and dynamic respond of ABB ACS800 against temperature variation, loads, and mechanical shocks.

  20. Role of temperature, solvent, and agitation in coal dissolution and liquefaction. Quarterly report for the period September-November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.E.; Ebnesajjad, S.

    1981-12-01

    The following results and tentative conclusions are drawn from the data taken: when the coal is heated to 340/sup 0/C in the solvents and subsequently cooled, the dissolution yield obtained by Soxhlet extraction in pyridine is 25.1 +- 5.2%, practically identical to Soxhlet extraction of Kentucky No. 9 coal (26.54%) in pyridine. If any of the coal has been peptized or dissolved at 340/sup 0/C, it becomes pyridine insoluble upon cooling. Few or no chemical bonds are broken. Up to 90% of the DMMF coal becomes pyridine soluble when heated to 400/sup 0/C in the solvent mixture given. A minimum rotation rate is required to keep the coal particles suspended with the propeller/impeller. This rate was estimated from empirical correlations and substantiated from experimental results. Below this rotation rate, some coal particles apparently settle to the bottom of the reactor and pyrolyze giving rise to unusually high gas formation and the appearance of exothermic peaks in the temperature profile. Dissolution yield remains unchanged when rotation rate is increased beyond the value required for complete suspension of coal particles and adequate heat transfer at the reactor surfaces. The onset temperature of dissolution of Kentucky No. 9 coal lies in the range of 355 to 375/sup 0/C. It is marked by the onet of gas formation. While dissolution is rapid at 400/sup 0/C, it does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 370/sup 0/C.

  1. Agitated Depression in Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711

  2. Temperature distribution in an aircraft tire at low ground speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to define temperature profiles of 22 x 5.5, type 7, bias ply aircraft tires subjected to freely rolling, yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. Temperatures along the inner wall of freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer surface. The effect of increasing tire deflection was to increase the temperature within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering and braking was to increase the treat temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles, temperature profiles were not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in tread temperature, whereas temperatures in the carcass shoulder and sidewall were essentially unaffected.

  3. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  4. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  5. Modelling gas exchange during platelet storage without agitation.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Tormey, C A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to create a model of oxygen distribution within platelet storage bags to evaluate implications of reduced agitation approaches. Based on our model, platelet concentration and surface area most affect internal partial pressure of oxygen, while temperature modifications have least effect, indicating primary potential approaches for optimization of platelet storage with reduced or absent agitation.

  6. Temperature - speed characteristics of new motors utilizing temperature - sensitive magnetic cores

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, K.; Matsuki, H.; Murakami, K.; Shida, J.

    1982-11-01

    The possibility of using temperature-sensitive magnetic cores in the field of rotating electric machinery has been proposed, and new motors with such cores as a part of the magnetic path have been made. These simplified motors of which the speed is automatically controlled by the temperature change have a larger temperature dependence than ordinary motors.

  7. Agitation apparatus. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

    1982-03-12

    Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

  8. Monitoring Temperature and Fan Speed Using Ganglia and Winbond Chips

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, Cattie; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    Effective monitoring is essential to keep a large group of machines, like the ones at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), up and running. SLAC currently uses Ganglia Monitoring System to observe about 2000 machines, analyzing metrics like CPU usage and I/O rate. However, metrics essential to machine hardware health, such as temperature and fan speed, are not being monitored. Many machines have a Winbond w83782d chip which monitors three temperatures, two of which come from dual CPUs, and returns the information when the sensor command is invoked. Ganglia also provides a feature, gmetric, that allows the users to monitor their own metrics and incorporate them into the monitoring system. The programming language Perl is chosen to implement a script that invokes the sensors command, extracts the temperature and fan speed information, and calls gmetric with the appropriate arguments. Two machines were used to test the script; the two CPUs on each machine run at about 65 Celsius, which is well within the operating temperature range (The maximum safe temperature range is 77-82 Celsius for the Pentium III processors being used). Installing the script on all machines with a Winbond w83782d chip allows the SLAC Scientific Computing and Computing Services group (SCCS) to better evaluate current cooling methods.

  9. Thermometry of a high temperature high speed micro heater.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Slovin, G; Paramesh, J; Schlesinger, T E; Bain, J A

    2016-02-01

    A high temperature high-speed tungsten micro heater was fabricated and tested for application in phase change switches to indirectly heat and transform phase change material. Time domain transmissometry was used to measure heater temperature transients for given electrical inputs. Finite element modeling results on heater temperature transients show a good consistency between experiments and simulations with 0.2% mismatch in the best case and 13.1% in the worst case. The heater described in this work can reliably reach 1664 K at a rate of 1.67 × 10(10) K/s and quench to room temperature with a thermal RC time constant (time for T to fall by a factor of e) of less than 40 ns.

  10. A speed of sound based feed water temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klason, P.; Holmsten, M.; Andersson, A.; Lau, P.; Kok, G. J. P.

    2013-09-01

    Controlling thermal power in the feed water line of a power plant presupposes both accurate flow and temperature measurement. In this application the temperature measurement is usually a single Pt-100. This results in a measurement error of several kelvin. In this study we have investigated two different sensors based on the speed of sound (SoS) in the flowing medium for measuring the average temperature across a flow pipe cross-section. This is a task within the on-going European research project called ENG-06. The two SoS-based temperature measuring sensors were investigated under laboratory conditions. Investigations were done using both homogenous and non-homogenous temperature distributions with temperature differences up to 25 K. In addition the influence of pressure (50-200 kPa) and flow rates (0.5-2 m/s) on the SoS devices were also investigated. Our results show that the SoS-based temperature principle is working. Furthermore, depending on the measurement conditions a SoS temperature measurement device significantly can reduce the deviation to the reference sensor compared with a single Pt-100 sensor. Relative reductions in the deviation to the reference of 20-85 % were possible to achieve. This opens for the possibility of increasing the energy efficiency in power plants as aimed for in the ENG-06 project.

  11. Design of agitation systems in Bingham slurries by pilot simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method was required to determine the optimum agitator speed needed to produce overall motion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high-level waste slurries in remote process cell vessels. Project schedule and limited process space required an accurate determination of agitator horsepower and size without the benefit of full-scale testing. The small scale testing of unique clear rheologically similar fluid is described along with tests and scale-up procedures. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Agitator Mixing Analysis in a HB-Line Flat Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    2002-07-31

    In support of the HB-Line Engineering agitator mixing project, flow pattern calculations have been made for a 45 degrees pitched three-blade agitator submerged in a flat rectangular tank. The work is intended to determine agitator speeds that provide acceptable mixing performance for various tank liquid levels based on flow rates past solids deposited on the bottom surface of the flat tank. The modeling results will help ensure the acceptable suspension of solid particles as a function of agitator speed and tank liquid level during precipitation operations. The numerical modeling and calculations have been performed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. Three-dimensional steady-state momentum and continuity equations were used as the basic equations to estimate fluid motion driven by an agitator with three 45 degrees pitched blades. Hydraulic conditions were fully turbulent (Reynolds number about 2x104). A standard two-equation turbulence model (k-e), was used to capture turbulent eddy motion. The commercial finite volume code, Fluent [7], was used to create a prototypic geometry file with a non-orthogonal mesh. Hybrid meshing was used to fill the computational region between the round-edged tank bottom and agitator regions. At high rotational speeds and low tank levels, a surface vortex can reach the agitator blades and allow air to be drawn into the solid-fluid mixing zone. This is not desirable in terms of mixing performance. The analysis results show that the lowest liquid level among the four considered, 4.5 inches, is higher than the critical liquid height for air entrainment for agitator speeds up to 600 rpm. All the analysis results demonstrate that about 600 rpm provides adequate solids mixing capability for various tank levels (12, 8.5, 7, and 4.5 inches) containing 20-micron solids with a specific gravity of 2.5.

  13. Downhole gaseous liquid flow agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilos, N.; Kennedy, D.D.; Lederhos, L.J. Jr.

    1989-03-14

    An apparatus is described for agitating and mixing of a gaseous phase and a liquid phase comprising: a first tube having non-blocking internal threads within the first tube to agitate a liquid phase adhering thereto with a gaseous phase passing therethrough, whereby a uniform gaseous phase and liquid phase mixture is formed; and a second tube connected to an end of the first tube having non-blocking internal threads of opposite handedness.

  14. Variation of the average 'freezing-in' temperature of oxygen ions with solar wind speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Vogt, C.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of the average oxygen ionization equilibrium as a function of speed of the solar wind are presented. At low solar wind speeds they indicate a coronal temperature at the freezing-in point of (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 6th K. At speeds above 450 km/sec the apparent temperature starts to rise rapidly. This rise is tentatively interpreted in terms of a lack of thermodynamic equilibrium in the source region.

  15. Speed of sound and temperature in the ocean by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, J. G.; Byrne, J. D.; Wouters, A. W.; Boynton, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described to measure the speed of sound and the temperature in the sea as functions of depth. Backscattered laser light is analyzed with an interferometric spectrometer. The speed of sound at very short acoustic wavelengths is obtained directly from the wavelength shift of the Brillouin scattered light, and the temperature is deduced from the speed of sound together with auxiliary information on depth and salinity. Experiments are described.

  16. Treating agitation with dexmedetomidine in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit frequently experience delirium, anxiety, and agitation, with a variety of treatments used. This article discusses the role of an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, and its clinical relevance and advantages for the agitated patient.

  17. The temperature of unheated bodies in a high-speed gas stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E; Weise, W

    1941-01-01

    The present report deals with temperature measurements on cylinders of 0.2 to 3 millimeters diameter in longitudinal and transverse air flow at speeds of 100 to 300 meters per second. Within the explored test range, that is, the probable laminar boundary layer region, the temperature of the cylinders in axial flow is practically independent of the speed and in good agreement with Pohlhausen's theoretical values; Whereas, in transverse flow, cylinders of certain diameter manifest a close relationship with speed, the ratio of the temperature above the air of the body to the adiabatic stagnation temperature decreases with rising speed and then rises again from a Mach number of 0.6. The importance of this "specific temperature" of the body for heat-transfer studies at high speed is discussed.

  18. Agitation in DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1986-01-20

    An experimental program to test the reference agitator design for DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks has been completed. It was not known whether the reference agitator design would produce uniform mixing of precipitate slurry. There was also a concern that the reference agitator would produce excessive foaming of precipitate. An alternative agitator design that produces good mixing with little or no foam buildup was identified in the tests and is recommended for use in DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks. 7 refs.

  19. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  20. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  1. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  2. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  3. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  4. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  5. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  6. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  7. Ultrasonic agitation-floating classification of nano-sized Ba-Mg ferrites particles formed by using self-propagating high temperature synthesis and fabrication of nickel-ferrites thin sheet by pulse-electroforming.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-nano-sized ferrites composites sheet for electromagnetic shielding was produced by pulse-electroforming in a modified nickel sulfamate solution. The ferrite particles were prepared by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) followed by mechanical milling, and classified with an ultrasonic agitation-floating unit to obtain about 100 nm in size. Average combustion temperature and combustion propagating rate during SHS reaction were 1190 K and 5.8 mm/sec at the oxygen pressure of 1.0 MPa, respectively. The nickel-ferrite composite sheet had preferred orientation which (100) pole clearly concentrated to normal direction, whereas, (110) and (111) poles tended to split to the longitudinal direction, respectively. Maximum magnetization, residual magnetization and coercive force of the nano-sized ferrites were 27.13 A x m2/kg, 6.4 A x m2/kg and 14.58 kA/m, respectively. Complex permeability of the composites decreased with an increase in frequency, and its real value (mu'r) had the maximum at about 0.3 GHz. The dielectric constants of the composites were epsilon'r = 6.7 and epsilon"r = 0.

  8. Agitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... alertness (altered consciousness) can be a sign of delirium . Delirium has a medical cause and should be checked ... PCP, or opiates) Hospitalization (older adults often have delirium while in the hospital) Overactive thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ) ...

  9. Sound speed as a proxy variable to temperature in Fram Strait.

    PubMed

    Dushaw, Brian D; Sagen, Hanne; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    The application of ocean acoustic tomography in Fram Strait requires a careful assessment of the accuracy to which estimates of sound speed from tomography can be converted to estimates of temperature. The Fram Strait environment is turbulent, with warm, salty, northward-flowing North Atlantic water interacting with cold, fresh, southward-flowing Arctic water. The nature of this environment suggests that salinity could play an important role with respect to sound speed. The properties of sound speed with respect to temperature and salinity in this environment were examined using climatological and in situ glider data. In cold water, a factor of about 4.5 m s(-1) °C(-1) can be used to scale between sound speed and temperature. In situ data obtained by gliders were used to determine the ambiguities between temperature, salinity, and sound speed. Tomography provides a depth-averaging measurement. While errors in the sound speed-temperature conversion at particular depths may be 0.2 °C or larger, particularly within 50 m of the surface, such errors are suppressed when the depth is averaged. Using a simple scale factor to compute temperature from sound speed introduced an error of about 20 m °C for depth-averaged temperature, a value less than formal uncertainties estimated from acoustic tomography.

  10. Speed of sound as a function of temperature for ultrasonic propagation in soybean oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound has been used for characterization of liquid in several productive sectors and research. This work presents the studied about the behavior of the speed of sound in soybean oil with increasing temperature. The pulse echo technique allowed observing that the speed of sound decreases linearly with increasing temperature in the range 20 to 50 °C at 1 MHz. As result, a characteristic function capable to reproduce the speed of sound behavior in soybean oil, as a function of temperature was established, with the respective measurement uncertainty.

  11. Low Temperature Performance of High-Speed Neural Network Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, T.; Tran, M.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    1995-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, derived from their biological counterparts, offer a new and enabling computing paradigm specially suitable for such tasks as image and signal processing with feature classification/object recognition, global optimization, and adaptive control. When implemented in fully parallel electronic hardware, it offers orders of magnitude speed advantage. Basic building blocks of the new architecture are the processing elements called neurons implemented as nonlinear operational amplifiers with sigmoidal transfer function, interconnected through weighted connections called synapses implemented using circuitry for weight storage and multiply functions either in an analog, digital, or hybrid scheme.

  12. A high speed data acquisition system for the analysis of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clukey, Steven J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Stainback, P. Calvin

    1988-01-01

    The use of a high-speed Dynamic Data Acquisition System (DDAS) to measure simultaneously velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations is described. The DDAS is used to automate the acquisition of hot-wire calibration data. The data acquisition, data handling, and data reporting techiques used by DDAS are described. Sample data are used to compare results obtained with the DDAS with those obtained from the FM tape and post-test digitization method.

  13. High Temperature VSCF (Variable Speed Constant Frequency) Generator System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    be’ing developed to reduce size and weight on all production programs. Monsanto OS-124 oil properties were used for heat transfer and fluid flow...is an important design consideration for higher temperature operation. Use of a lower expansion and stronger composite material such as cast AZ91 mg...systems were investigated. Figures 5 through 7 give a comparison of the tensile properties of composites with the properties of an unreinforced alloy. It

  14. A General Protocol for Temperature Calibration of MAS NMR Probes at Arbitrary Spinning Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xudong; Stark, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    A protocol using 207Pb NMR of solid lead nitrate was developed to determine the temperature of magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR probes over a range of nominal set temperatures and spinning speeds. Using BioMAS and fastMAS probes with typical sample spinning rates of 8 and 35 kHz, respectively, empirical equations were devised to predict the respective sample temperatures. These procedures provide a straightforward recipe for temperature calibration of any MAS probe. PMID:21036557

  15. Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.

  16. Effects of load, speed, and surface roughness on sliding EHD contact temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraj, H. S.; Sanborn, D. M.; Winer, W. O.

    1976-01-01

    An infrared technique has been used to determine the effects of load, speed and surface roughness on temperature in a sliding elastohydrodynamic (EHD) point contact. Ball surface temperatures are reported for sliding speeds of 0.35 to 5.08 m/s at 0.52 to 2.03 GN/per sq m maximum pressure with surface roughness in the range 0.01 to 0.38 micron c.l.a. The relationship between asperity interaction, as measured by relocation surface profilimetry and high frequency temperature measurements, and the ratio of film thickness to surface roughness has also been studied.

  17. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  18. Temperature and Transpiration Resistances of Xanthium Leaves as Affected by Air Temperature, Humidity, and Wind Speed 1

    PubMed Central

    Drake, B. G.; Raschke, K.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1970-01-01

    Transpiration and temperatures of single, attached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. were measured in high intensity white light (1.2 calories per square centimeter per minute on a surface normal to the radiation), with abundant water supply, at wind speeds of 90, 225, and 450 centimeters per second, and during exposure to moist and dry air. Partitioning of absorbed radiation between transpiration and convection was determined, and transpiration resistances were computed. Leaf resistances decreased with increasing temperature (down to a minimum of 0.36 seconds per centimeter). Silicone rubber replicas of leaf surfaces proved that the decrease was due to increased stomatal apertures. At constant air temperature, leaf resistances were higher in dry than in moist air with the result that transpiration varied less than would have been predicted on the basis of the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and air. The dependence of stomatal conductance on temperature and moisture content of the air caused the following effects. At air temperatures below 35 C, average leaf temperatures were above air temperature by an amount dependent on wind velocity; increasing wind diminished transpiration. At air temperatures above 35 C, leaf temperatures were below air temperatures, and increasing wind markedly increased transpiration. Leaf temperatures equaled air temperature near 35 C at all wind speeds and in moist as well as in dry air. PMID:16657458

  19. Investigation of transient temperature's influence on damage of high-speed sliding electrical contact rail surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Sun, Shasha; Guo, Quanli; Yang, Degong; Sun, Dongtao

    2016-11-01

    In the high speed sliding electrical contact with large current, the temperature of contact area rises quickly under the coupling action of the friction heating, the Joule heating and electric arc heating. The rising temperature seriously affects the conductivity of the components and the yield strength of materials, as well affects the contact state and lead to damage, so as to shorten the service life of the contact elements. Therefore, there is vital significance to measure the temperature accurately and investigate the temperature effect on damage of rail surface. Aiming at the problem of components damage in high speed sliding electrical contact, the transient heat effect on the contact surface was explored and its influence and regularity on the sliding components damage was obtained. A kind of real-time temperature measurement method on rail surface of high speed sliding electrical contact is proposed. Under the condition of 2.5 kA current load, based on the principle of infrared radiation non-contact temperature sensor was used to measure the rail temperature. The dynamic distribution of temperature field was obtained through the simulation analysis, further, the connection between temperature changes and the rail surface damage morphology, the damage volume was analyzed and established. Finally, the method to reduce rail damage and improve the life of components by changing the temperature field was discussed.

  20. Emma Goldman: A Study in Female Agitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Elizabeth

    The role of the agitator in society and the special characteristics of women agitators--in particular, Emma Goldman, an American anarchist from the early twentieth century--are discussed in this paper. Specific examples of the rhetoric used by Emma Goldman in her speeches (supporting anarchism, against women's suffrage, against abortion control,…

  1. Wind speed and temperature trends impacts on reference evapotranspiration in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the impacts of both temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration have been assessed using as a case study the Southern Italy, which present a wide variety of combination of such climatic variables trends in terms of direction and magnitude. The existence of statistically significant trends in wind speed and temperature from observational datasets, measured in ten stations over Southern Italy during the period 1968-2004, has been investigated. Time series have been examined using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric statistical test in order to detect possible evidences of wind speed and temperature trends at different temporal resolution and significance level. Once trends have been examined and quantified, the effects of these trends on seasonal reference evapotranspiration have been evaluated using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation. Results quantified the effects of extrapolated temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration. Where these climatic drivers are on the same direction, reference evapotranspiration generally increases during the growing season due to a nonlinear overlapping of effects. Whereas wind speed decreases and temperature increases, there is a sort of counterbalancing effect between the two considered climatic forcing in determining future reference evapotranspiration.

  2. High temperature measurement using very high shutter speed to avoid image saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    This paper explores the adaptation of the two-colour principle to develop a high-speed colour temperature correlation system, which is able to cover a range of temperature that is challenging to achieve before. A colour digital camera has built in RGB filters. It is possible to measure the temperature from the ratio of intensity of the green and red pixels using the two-colour principle based on the expansion of the Plank's radiation law. In this study, experiments were carried out using a temperature calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp which can be tuned to vary from 1300 to 2200°C. Using very high shutter speed and small aperture, the high-speed camera successfully captured the tungsten ribbon without image saturation at the full temperature scale. Tests have been carried out at different temperature and camera settings. The sensitivity and errors have been analysed, and experiment results demonstrate the potential of using very high shutter speed is available for measuring the temperature even beyond 2200°C.

  3. High-speed phase-shifting interferometry using triangular prism for time-resolved temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Eita; Komiya, Atsuki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2015-07-10

    This study proposes a high-speed phase-shifting interferometer with an original optical prism. This phase-shifting interferometer consists of a polarizing Mach-Zehnder interferometer, an original optical prism, a high-speed camera, and an image-processing unit for a three-step phase-shifting technique. The key aspect of the application of the phase-shifting technique to high-speed experiments is an original prism, which is designed and developed specifically for a high-speed phase-shifting technique. The arbaa prism splits an incident beam into four output beams with different information. The interferometer was applied for quantitative visualization of transient heat transfer. In order to test the optical system for measuring high-speed phenomena, the temperature during heat conduction was measured around a heated thin tungsten wire (diameter of 5 μm) in water. The visualization area is approximately 90  μm×210  μm, and the spatial resolution is 3.5 μm at 300,000 fps of the maximum temporal resolution with a high-speed camera. The temperature fields around the heated wire were determined by converting phase-shifted data using the inverse Abel transform. Finally, the measured temperature distribution was compared with numerical calculations to validate the proposed system; a good agreement was obtained.

  4. The Effects of Engine Speed and Mixture Temperature on the Knocking Characteristics of Several Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1940-01-01

    Six 100-octane and two 87-octane aviation engine fuels were tested in a modified C.F.R. variable-compression engine at 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 rpm. The mixture temperature was raised from 50 to 300 F in approximately 50 degree steps and, at each temperature, the compression ratio was adjusted to give incipient knock as shown by a cathode ray indicator. The results are presented in tabular form. The results are analyzed on the assumption that the conditions which determine whether a given fuel will knock are the maximum values of density and temperature reached by the burning gases. A maximum permissible density factor, proportional to the maximum density of the burning gases just prior to incipient knock, and the temperature of the burning gases at that time were computed for each of the test conditions. Values of the density factors were plotted against the corresponding end-gas temperatures for the three engine speeds and also against engine speed for several and end-gas temperatures. The maximum permissible density factor varied only slightly with engine speed but decreased rapidly with an increase in the end-gas temperature. The effect of changing the mixture temperature was different for fuels of different types. The results emphasize the desirability of determining the anti knock values of fuels over a wide range of engine and intake-air conditions rather that at a single set of conditions.

  5. Determination of the Effects of Speed, Temperature, and Fuel Factors on Exhaust Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Yang David

    1995-11-01

    This study provided a comprehensive approach to examining the relative significance and possible synergistic effects of speed, temperature, and fuel on mobile source emissions modeling. Eleven passenger vehicles from three fuel delivery system control groups were tested, namely, three from carburetor (CARBU), three from throttle body injection (TBI), and five from multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) group. A minimum of 90 tests were conducted on each vehicle with a random combination of three fuel types (Phase 1, Phase 2, and Indolene), three temperatures (50 F, 75 F, and 100 F), and ten speed cycles. Each vehicle was repeated for ten speed cycles (75 F and Indolene). In general, exhaust emissions descended in the order of CARBU, TBI, and MPFI. All vehicles in the CARBU group contained a "dead" catalyst, which probably explained why vehicles in CARBU were "high emitters.". Results from the paired t-test indicated that exhaust emissions difference between Phase 1 and Phase 2 fuels for all vehicles was significant. The net exhaust emissions reduction of Phase 2 over Phase 1 fuel for HC and NOx was 21% and 12%, respectively; which is in good agreements with the CARB projected 17% HC (including evaporative and exhaust emissions) and 11% CO emissions reduction based on 1996 calendar year when Phase 2 fuel is introduced. Temperature had minimal effects on exhaust emissions especially the test cycles were in hot-stabilized mode. Nevertheless, exhaust emissions from cold-start mode were higher than hot-start mode because the catalyst had not reached to optimal operating temperature during the cold-start mode. The relative contributions of speed, temperature, and fuel to exhaust emissions were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and it was found interaction terms among fuel, speed, and temperature were statistically insignificant. Individually, the temperature and fuel factor played a minor role in exhaust emission modeling. Speed and vehicle type were the two

  6. Temperature rule for the speed of sound in water: a chemical kinetics model

    PubMed

    Okazaki

    2000-09-15

    Water forms three-dimensional polymeric structures due to the influence of hydrogen bonds and is fundamentally different from other substances. One of the simplest ways to analyze the structure of water in any system, such as hydration, is to measure the degree of compressibility, which can be determined from the speed of sound, by making use of the physical laws established by Newton and later perfected by Laplace. Although the speed of sound is strongly dependent on the temperature of a liquid, Laplace's equation does not refer to temperature in any of its terms. It is necessary, therefore, to determine the degree of temperature dependency. However, only approximate expressions of a fifth-order polynomial have been reported so far in the literature. In this paper, a universal method for describing the speed of sound from the perspective of physicochemical reaction kinetics is presented. It is shown that the speed of sound U [ms(-1)] changes with temperature T [K] according to a thermodynamically-derived formula given as U= exp(-A/T-BlnT+C) and that the motion and propagation phenomena of sound energy can also be regarded as chemical reactions.

  7. Temperature prediction in high speed bone grinding using motor PWM signal.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Anthony C; Sullivan, Stephen; Wang, Guangjun; Shih, Albert J

    2013-10-01

    This research explores the feasibility of using motor electrical feedback to estimate temperature rise during a surgical bone grinding procedure. High-speed bone grinding is often used during skull base neurosurgery to remove cranial bone and approach skull base tumors through the nasal corridor. Grinding-induced heat could propagate and potentially injure surrounding nerves and arteries, and therefore, predicting the temperature in the grinding region would benefit neurosurgeons during the operation. High-speed electric motors are controlled by pulse-width-modulation (PWM) to alter the current input and thus maintain the rotational speed. Assuming full mechanical to thermal power conversion in the grinding process, PWM can be used as feedback for heat generation and temperature prediction. In this study, the conversion model was established from experiments under a variety of grinding conditions and an inverse heat transfer method to determine heat flux. Given a constant rotational speed, the heat conversion was represented by a linear function, and could predict temperature from the experimental data with less than 20% errors. Such results support the advance of this technology for practical application.

  8. Properly choose mechanical agitators for viscous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, A.; Gates, L.E.

    1995-12-01

    High-viscosity mixing applications occur in most chemical process industries (CPI) plants. High-viscosity applications occur in the production of food, paint, drilling mud, and greases, to name a few. Mixing can occur in pipeline systems with motionless mixers, or in vessels using mechanical agitators, depending on the application and the process requirements. A wide variety of both motionless mixers and mechanical agitators is available to handle specific mixing problems and fluid types. This article gives an overview of designing the most commonly used agitator for blending applications: a top-entering agitator with a single shaft. The agitator can be equipped with multiple turbine-style impellers of different design, or with helical-ribbon or anchor-style impellers to optimize the agitator for the specific application and blending problem on hand. Although turbulent blending will be briefly discussed here also, this article will focus on blending in the laminar and transitional regimes. Also, the authors will discuss the special requirements for blending non-newtonian fluids, with and without yield stress. They first discuss the flow patterns and applicability of different impeller types and then present some design guidelines.

  9. Effect of Initial Mixture Temperature on Flame Speed of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial temperature over the temperature range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of temperature on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.

  10. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Vold, E. L.; Boettger, J. C.; Fernández, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  11. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Bang, W; Albright, B J; Bradley, P A; Vold, E L; Boettger, J C; Fernández, J C

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1-100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  12. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; ...

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly withmore » temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.« less

  13. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Vold, Erik Lehman; Boettger, Jonathan Carl; Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  14. Global measurements of sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric water content from satellite microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Swanson, L.

    1983-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) was launched on the Seasat and Nimbus 7 satellites in 1978. The SMMR has the ability to measure sea surface temperature and wind speed with the aid of microwaves. In addition, the instrument was designed to measure water vapor and cloud liquid water with better spatial resolution than previous microwave radiometers, and to make sea-ice measurements with higher precision. A description is presented of the results of global analyses of sea surface temperature, wind speed, water vapor, and cloud liquid water, taking into account data provided by the SMMR on the Seasat satellite. It is found that the SMMR data show good self-consistency, and can usefully measure global distributions of sea surface temperatures, surface winds, water vapor, and cloud liquid water.

  15. Demonstration, Testing and Qualification of a High Temperature, High Speed Magnetic Thrust Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The gas turbine industry has a continued interest in improving engine performance and reducing net operating and maintenance costs. These goals are being realized because of advancements in aeroelasticity, materials, and computational tools such as CFD and engine simulations. These advancements aid in increasing engine thrust-to-weight ratios, specific fuel consumption, pressure ratios, and overall reliability through higher speed, higher temperature, and more efficient engine operation. Currently, rolling element bearing and squeeze film dampers are used to support rotors in gas turbine engines. Present ball bearing configurations are limited in speed (<2 million DN) and temperature (<5OO F) and require both cooling air and an elaborate lubrication system. Also, ball bearings require extensive preventative maintenance in order to assure their safe operation. Since these bearings are at their operational limits, new technologies must be found in order to take advantage of other advances. Magnetic bearings are well suited to operate at extreme temperatures and higher rotational speeds and are a promising solution to the problems that conventional rolling element bearings present. Magnetic bearing technology is being developed worldwide and is considered an enabling technology for new engine designs. Using magnetic bearings, turbine and compressor spools can be radically redesigned to be significantly larger and stiffer with better damping and higher rotational speeds. These advances, a direct result of magnetic bearing technology, will allow significant increases in engine power and efficiency. Also, magnetic bearings allow for real-time, in-situ health monitoring of the system, lower maintenance costs and down time.

  16. A New Apparatus for Measuring the Temperature at Machine Parts Rotating at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnam, E.

    1945-01-01

    After a brief survey of the available methods for measuring the temperatures of machine parts at high speed, in particular turbine blades and rotors, an apparatus is described which is constructed on the principle of induction. Transmission of the measuring current by sliding contacts therefore is avoided. Up-to-date experiments show that it is possible to give the apparatus a high degree of sensitivity and accuracy. In comparison with sliding contact types, the present apparatus shows the important advantage that it operates for any length of time without wear, and that the contact difficulties, particularly occurring at high sliding speeds,are avoided.

  17. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, M.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500{degree}C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Crystallization speed of salbutamol as a function of relative humidity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Narygina, Olga; Resch, Christian; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2015-07-15

    Spray dried salbutamol sulphate and salbutamol base particles are amorphous as a result of spray drying. As there is always the risk of recrystallization of amorphous material, the aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature and humidity dependent recrystallization of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and base. Therefore in-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) studies of the crystallization process at various temperature (25 and 35 °C) and humidity (60%, 70%, 80%, 90% relative humidity) conditions were performed. It was shown that the crystallization speed of salbutamol sulphate and base is a non-linear function of both temperature and relative humidity. The higher the relative humidity the higher is the crystallization speed. At 60% relative humidity salbutamol base as well as salbutamol sulphate were found to be amorphous even after 12 h, however samples changed optically. At 70% and 90% RH recrystallization of salbutamol base is completed after 3 h and 30 min and recrystallization of salbutamol sulphate after 4h and 1h, respectively. Higher temperature (35 °C) also leads to increased crystallization speeds at all tested values of relative humidity.

  19. Dynamics of thermographic skin temperature response during squat exercise at two different speeds.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Trecroci, Athos; Gargano, Marco; Michielon, Giovanni; Caumo, Andrea; Alberti, Giampietro

    2016-07-01

    Low intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation has been shown to create blood flow restriction within muscles that may affect thermoregulation through the skin. We aimed to investigate the influence of two speeds of exercise execution on skin temperature dynamics using infrared thermography. Thirteen active males performed randomly two sessions of squat exercise (normal speed, 1s eccentric/1s concentric phase, 1s; slow speed, 5s eccentric/5s concentric phase, 5s), using ~50% of 1 maximal repetition. Thermal images of ST above muscles quadriceps were recorded at a rate of 0.05Hz before the exercise (to determine basal ST) and for 480s following the initiation of the exercise (to determine the nonsteady-state time course of ST). Results showed that ST changed more slowly during the 5s exercise (p=0.002), whereas the delta (with respect to basal) excursions were similar for the two exercises (p>0.05). In summary, our data provided a detailed nonsteady-state portrait of ST changes following squat exercises executed at two different speeds. These results lay the basis for further investigations entailing the joint use of infrared thermography and Doppler flowmetry to study the events taking place both at the skin and the muscle level during exercises executed at slow speed.

  20. Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.

    PubMed

    Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an H(∞) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions.

  1. Temperature measurement of mineral melt by means of a high-speed camera.

    PubMed

    Bizjan, Benjamin; Širok, Brane; Drnovšek, Janko; Pušnik, Igor

    2015-09-10

    This paper presents a temperature evaluation method by means of high-speed, visible light digital camera visualization and its application to the mineral wool production process. The proposed method adequately resolves the temperature-related requirements in mineral wool production and significantly improves the spatial and temporal resolution of measured temperature fields. Additionally, it is very cost effective in comparison with other non-contact temperature field measurement methods, such as infrared thermometry. Using the proposed method for temperatures between 800°C and 1500°C, the available temperature measurement range is approximately 300 K with a single temperature calibration point and without the need for camera setting adjustments. In the case of a stationary blackbody, the proposed method is able to produce deviations of less than 5 K from the reference (thermocouple-measured) temperature in a measurement range within 100 K from the calibration temperature. The method was also tested by visualization of rotating melt film in the rock wool production process. The resulting temperature fields are characterized by a very good temporal and spatial resolution (18,700 frames per second at 128  pixels×328  pixels and 8000 frames per second at 416  pixels×298  pixels).

  2. Speed of Sound versus Temperature Using PVC Pipes Open at Both Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the speed of sound in air as a function of temperature using a simple and inexpensive apparatus. For this experiment it is essential that the appropriate end corrections be taken into account. In a recent paper the end corrections for 2-in i.d. (5.04-cm) PVC pipes open at both ends were investigated. The air column…

  3. Microbial Ecology in Anaerobic Digestion at Agitated and Non-Agitated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhuoli; Cabrol, Léa; Ruiz-Filippi, Gonzalo; Pullammanappallil, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the distribution and dynamics of microbial community in anaerobic digestion at agitated and non-agitated condition, 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA was conducted. It revealed the distinct community compositions between the two digesters and their progressive shifting over time. Methanogens and syntrophic bacteria were found much less abundant in the agitated digester, which was mainly attributed to the presence of bacterial genera Acetanaerobacterium and Ruminococcus with relatively high abundance. The characterization of the microbial community corroborated the digestion performance affected at the agitated condition, where lower methane yield and delayed methane production rate were observed. This was further verified by the accumulation of propionic acid in the agitated digester. PMID:25313520

  4. High-resolution daily gridded data sets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Sven; Krähenmann, Stefan; Bissolli, Peter

    2016-10-01

    New high-resolution data sets for near-surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D data set (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data. By spatial interpolation of these station observations, grid data in a resolution of 0.044° (≈ 5km) on a rotated grid with virtual North Pole at 39.25° N, 162° W are derived. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al.(2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are used for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Variance explained by the regression ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 K and 1-1.5 ms-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters

  5. High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, S.; Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.

    2015-08-01

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are hourly SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D dataset (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0.044° (5 km) are derived by spatial interpolation of these station data into the CORDEX area. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al. (2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Explained variance ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 °C and 1-1.5 m s-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters and daily mean wind speed, respectively. The datasets presented in this article are published at http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_CDC/DECREG0110v1.

  6. Temperature Distribution in Teeth and Blanks of Ultra-High-Speed Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozaki, Yasuyoshi; Matsumoto, Susumu; Fukutomi, Masatoshi

    Currently in industries, high-speed turbo machineries such as compressors and steam or gas turbines are required to have increased power capacities. Due to this, a large gear size is required which leads to nonuniform temperature distribution. As the result of nonuniform temperature distribution, nonuniform thermal distortion occurs. Change in load distribution due to this thermal distortion is considered to be closely related to scoring and pitting failures. In order to ensure reliability of high-speed gear units, it is necessary to improve the following techniques. (1) The method of predicting the temperature rise of gears and thermal distortion. (2) Tooth correction against thermal distortion. In this paper, a three-dimensional model for calculating the temperature of teeth surfaces and blanks is presented. This model includes the effects of convective cooling by lubricating oil and the change in load distribution due to mechanical deformation. The calculated results of gear teeth temperature and bending stress are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. It is confirmed that the analytical method is practical and useful.

  7. Performance of High-Speed PWM Control Chips at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard; Overton, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The operation of power electronic systems at cryogenic temperatures is anticipated in many NASA space missions such as planetary exploration and deep space probes. In addition to surviving the space hostile environment, electronics capable of low temperature operation would contribute to improving circuit performance, increasing system efficiency, and reducing development and launch costs. As part of the NASA Glenn Low Temperature Electronics Program, several commercial high-speed Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) chips have been characterized in terms of their performance as a function of temperature in the range of 25 to -196 C (liquid nitrogen). These chips ranged in their electrical characteristics, modes of control, packaging options, and applications. The experimental procedures along with the experimental data obtained on the investigated chips are presented and discussed.

  8. PULPAL TEMPERATURE INCREASE WITH HIGH-SPEED HANDPIECE, ER:YAG LASER AND ULTRASOUND TIPS

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Camargo, Fernanda Pelogia; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Teixeira, Symone Cristina; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intrapulpal temperature increase produced by high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and CVDentus ultrasound tips during cavity preparation. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors with an enamel/dentin thickness of 4 mm at buccal surface had their roots amputated and were allocated to the following groups (n=10): Group I- high-speed handpiece; Group II- noncontact Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/4Hz); and Group III- CVDentus ultrasouns tips. All devices were used with water cooling. Class V cavities were prepared to a depth of 3.5 mm, measured with a periodontal probe. A type T thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine the temperature increase (°C), which was recorded by a data acquisition system ADS 2000 IP (Lynx Technology) linked to a notebook computer. Data were analyzed statistically by oneway ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mean temperature rises were: 1.10°C (±0.56) for Group I, 0.84°C (±0.55) for Group II, and 3.00°C (± 1.34) for Group III. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between Groups I and II, but both of them differed significantly from Group III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece for cavity preparation resulted in similar temperature increase. Although ultrasound tips generated significantly higher intrapulpal temperature increase, it remained below the critical value of 5.5°C and may be considered safe for use. PMID:19089220

  9. The temperature during the high speed friction experiments estimated by ESR signals in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, T.; Toyoda, S.; Mizoguchi, K.; Shimamoto, T.; Hirose, T.

    2004-12-01

    ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method has been developed to obtain ages of quaternary geological events using calcite, aragonite, hydroxyapatite, and quartz. In natural quartz, paramagnetic (ESR sensitive) defects such as Al center (an Al atom replacing a Si, trapping an electronic hole) and Ti-Li center (a Ti atom replacing a Si, trapping an electron together with Li+ as a charge compensator) are stable for the geological time scale while they decay on heating according to the thermal activation processes. In the present study, we use these ESR signals as indicators of temperature during the high speed friction experiments. The present experiment will also tell the conditions of faulting which completely zero the ESR signals, which is necessary for ESR dating of faulting to work. The gamma ray irradiated quartz grains of 0.5 to 1 mm were sandwitched by two gabrro columns of 25 mm in diameter with a tephron sleeve. The friction expereiments were performed with a load of 30 kg and with speeds of 75 to 300 rotation per minutes. After removing the columns, the crushed quartz powder was divided into three parts, outer, intermediate, and inner parts. ESR measurements were performed by an ESR spectrometer, JEOL PX-2300, at 83-87K, with a microwave power of 5 mW, and with an modulation amplitude of 0.1 mT. The estimated temperatures are higher for outer part where the frictional speed is higher while lower for inside, with systematic difference for different ESR signals, when assuming that the temperature was constant during friction experiments. The temperatures will be estimated again, in the presentation, with considering the temperature change with time while friction experiments, also with taking into account the results of heating experiments.

  10. Pulpal temperature increase with high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and ultrasound tips.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Camargo, Fernanda Pelogia; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Teixeira, Symone Cristina; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intrapulpal temperature increase produced by high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and CVDentus ultrasound tips during cavity preparation. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors with an enamel/dentin thickness of 4 mm at buccal surface had their roots amputated and were allocated to the following groups (n=10): Group I- high-speed handpiece; Group II- noncontact Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/4 Hz); and Group III- CVDentus ultrasouns tips. All devices were used with water cooling. Class V cavities were prepared to a depth of 3.5 mm, measured with a periodontal probe. A type T thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine the temperature increase (degrees C), which was recorded by a data acquisition system ADS 2000 IP (Lynx Technology) linked to a notebook computer. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mean temperature rises were: 1.10 degrees C (+/-0.56) for Group I, 0.84 degrees C (+/-0.55) for Group II, and 3.00 degrees C (+/- 1.34) for Group III. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between Groups I and II, but both of them differed significantly from Group III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece for cavity preparation resulted in similar temperature increase. Although ultrasound tips generated significantly higher intrapulpal temperature increase, it remained below the critical value of 5.5 degrees C and may be considered safe for use.

  11. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1984-09-11

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  12. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, Charles S.; Lackey, Mack E.; Sy, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  13. High-speed Imaging of Global Surface Temperature Distributions on Hypersonic Ballistic-Range Projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration

  14. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions.

  15. The influence of turbulence on aggregation of small particles in agitated vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusters, Karel Antonius

    The influence of the hydrodynamics in baffled turbine agitated vessels on the turbulent coagulation of small solid particles is studied, with focus on the dependence of the aggregate size on stirrer speed, concentration of solids, destabilizer concentration, and vessel size. The following studies are presented: aggregation theory; hydrodynamics in stirred tanks; numerical particle tracking in a turbine agitated vessel; aggregation kinetics in stirred tanks; and maximum aggregate size in stirred tanks. The application of the model to describe the aggregation process in strirred tanks to experimental conditions other than those tested and to particulate systems with different physical properties is discussed.

  16. Cylinder head temperature determination using high-speed phosphor thermometry in a fired internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Litterscheid, C.; Ding, C.-P.; Brübach, J.; Albert, B.; Dreizler, A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper documents the application of high-speed phosphor thermometry to measure cylinder head temperatures under fired engine conditions. The thermographic phosphor Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce was synthesized with a special composition to meet the requirements of the measurement technique and the device under test. Calibration measurements are given in the first section, providing the temperature lifetime characteristic and temporal standard deviations in order to quantify single-shot precision. Accuracy was investigated for laser-induced heating. Measurements inside an optically accessible combustion engine are presented in the second section. Measurement locations at the cylinder head were determined, as well as temperature evolutions for variations in spark timing and air-fuel ratio.

  17. CFD simulation of local and global mixing time in an agitated tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liangchao; Xu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The Issue of mixing efficiency in agitated tanks has drawn serious concern in many industrial processes. The turbulence model is very critical to predicting mixing process in agitated tanks. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software package Fluent 6.2, the mixing characteristics in a tank agitated by dual six-blade-Rushton-turbines(6-DT) are predicted using the detached eddy simulation(DES) method. A sliding mesh(SM) approach is adopted to solve the rotation of the impeller. The simulated flow patterns and liquid velocities in the agitated tank are verified by experimental data in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the DES method can obtain more flow details than Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) model. Local and global mixing time in the agitated tank is predicted by solving a tracer concentration scalar transport equation. The simulated results show that feeding points have great influence on mixing process and mixing time. Mixing efficiency is the highest for the feeding point at location of midway of the two impellers. Two methods are used to determine global mixing time and get close result. Dimensionless global mixing time remains unchanged with increasing of impeller speed. Parallel, merging and diverging flow pattern form in the agitated tank, respectively, by changing the impeller spacing and clearance of lower impeller from the bottom of the tank. The global mixing time is the shortest for the merging flow, followed by diverging flow, and the longest for parallel flow. The research presents helpful references for design, optimization and scale-up of agitated tanks with multi-impeller.

  18. Development of high speed fiber grating sensor solutions for measuring velocity, position, pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric; Benterou, Jerry

    2013-05-01

    A novel very high speed fiber grating sensor system has been used to support velocity, position, temperature and pressure measurements during burn, deflagration and detonation of energetic materials in Russian DDT tests. For the first time the system has been demonstrated in card gap testing and has allowed real time measurements of the position of the blast front into the card gap and monitoring of pressure at key locations in the card gap test. This paper provides an overview of this technology and examples of its application.

  19. Should We Believe Atmospheric Temperatures Measured by Entry Accelerometers Traveling at "Slow" Near-Sonic Speeds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withers, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's Accelerometer instrument measured an unexpected and large temperature inversion between 10 and 20 kilometer altitude. Other instruments have failed to detect similar temperature inversions. I test whether this inversion is real or not by examining what changes have to be made to the assumptions in the accelerometer data processing to obtain a more "expected" temperature profile. Changes in derived temperature of up to 30K, or 15%, are necessary, which correspond to changes in derived density of up to 25% and changes in derived pressure of up to 10%. If the drag coefficient is changed to satisfy this, then instead of decreasing from 1.6 to 1.4 from 20 kilometers to 10 kilometers, the drag coefficient must increase from 1.6 to 1.8 instead. If winds are invoked, then speeds of 60 meters per second are necessary, four times greater than those predicted. Refinements to the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium modify the temperature profile by an order of magnitude less than the desired amount. Unrealistically large instrument drifts of 0.5-1.0 meters per square second are needed to adjust the temperature profile as desired. However, rotational contributions to the accelerations may have the necessary magnitude and direction to make this correction. Determining whether this hypothesis is true will require further study of the rigid body equations of motion, with detailed knowledge of the positions of all six accelerometers. The paradox concerning this inversion is not yet resolved. It is important to resolve it because the paradox has some startling implications. At one extreme, are temperature profiles derived from accelerometers inherently inaccurate by 20K or more? At the other extreme, are RS temperature profiles inaccurate by this same amount?

  20. Multigrid Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations at Low Speeds with Large Temperature Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sockol, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    Multigrid methods for the Navier-Stokes equations at low speeds and large temperature variations are investigated. The compressible equations with time-derivative preconditioning and preconditioned flux-difference splitting of the inviscid terms are used. Three implicit smoothers have been incorporated into a common multigrid procedure. Both full coarsening and semi-coarsening with directional fine-grid defect correction have been studied. The resulting methods have been tested on four 2D laminar problems over a range of Reynolds numbers on both uniform and highly stretched grids. Two of the three methods show efficient and robust performance over the entire range of conditions. In addition none of the methods have any difficulty with the large temperature variations.

  1. Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Film Growth with rotational speed variation as a satellite temperature sensor prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyadi; Rika, W.; Sulidah; Irzaman; Hardhienata, Hendradi

    2017-01-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate(BST) is a promising material for sensor devices such as temperature and infrared sensor. BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films with affordable Si substrate were prepared by chemical solution deposition method and spin coating technique for 30 seconds with variation in rotation speed (3000 rpm, 5500 rpm and 8000 rpm). A high baking temperature at 8500C has been used for 15 hours during the annealing process. The thickness of BST film was calculated via gravimetric calculation. USB 2000 VIS-NIR was used to characterize the optical properties of BST thin film. The obtained reflectance curve showed that the most reflected wavelengths were in the range of 408-452 nm respectively. The result of the optical film characterization is very important for further development as a sensor in satellite technology.

  2. Effect of banana flour, screw speed and temperature on extrusion behaviour of corn extrudates.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Singh, Mrinal; Singh, Narpinder; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Baljit

    2015-07-01

    Effect of extrusion parameters (banana flour, screw speed, extrusion temperature) on extrusion behaviour of corn grit extrudates were studied. Second order quadratic equations for extrusion properties as function of banana flour (BF), screwspeed (SS) and extrusion temperature (ET) were computed. BF had predominant effect on the Hunter color (L*, a*, b*) parameters of the extrudates. Addition of BF resulted in corn extrudates with higher L* and lower a* and b* values. Higher ET resulted in dark colored extrudates with lower L* and a* value. Higher SS enhanced the lightness of the extrudates. Expansion of the extrudates increased with increase in the level of BF and ET. WAI of the extrudates decreased with BF whereas increased with SS. However, reversed effect of BF and SS on WSI was observed. Flextural strength of the extrudates increased with increase in SS followed by BF and ET. The addition of BF and higher ET resulted in extrudates with higher oil uptake.

  3. A Miniature Fiber-Optic Sensor for High-Resolution and High-Speed Temperature Sensing in Ocean Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    fiber-optic sensor for high-resolution and high-speed temperature sensing in ocean environment Guigen Liu1, Ming Han1,* Weilin Hou2, Silvia Matt2... sensor performance. In this paper, we present an optical fiber sensor for the high-resolution and high-speed temperature profiling. The developed sensor ...silicon, such as large thermal diffusivity, notable thermo-optic effects and thermal expansion coefficients of silicon, the proposed sensor exhibits

  4. Bivariate ensemble model output statistics approach for joint forecasting of wind speed and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Sándor; Möller, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Forecast ensembles are typically employed to account for prediction uncertainties in numerical weather prediction models. However, ensembles often exhibit biases and dispersion errors, thus they require statistical post-processing to improve their predictive performance. Two popular univariate post-processing models are the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and the ensemble model output statistics (EMOS). In the last few years, increased interest has emerged in developing multivariate post-processing models, incorporating dependencies between weather quantities, such as for example a bivariate distribution for wind vectors or even a more general setting allowing to combine any types of weather variables. In line with a recently proposed approach to model temperature and wind speed jointly by a bivariate BMA model, this paper introduces an EMOS model for these weather quantities based on a bivariate truncated normal distribution. The bivariate EMOS model is applied to temperature and wind speed forecasts of the 8-member University of Washington mesoscale ensemble and the 11-member ALADIN-HUNEPS ensemble of the Hungarian Meteorological Service and its predictive performance is compared to the performance of the bivariate BMA model and a multivariate Gaussian copula approach, post-processing the margins with univariate EMOS. While the predictive skills of the compared methods are similar, the bivariate EMOS model requires considerably lower computation times than the bivariate BMA method.

  5. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  6. Bivariate ensemble model output statistics approach for joint forecasting of wind speed and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Sándor; Möller, Annette

    2016-06-01

    Forecast ensembles are typically employed to account for prediction uncertainties in numerical weather prediction models. However, ensembles often exhibit biases and dispersion errors, thus they require statistical post-processing to improve their predictive performance. Two popular univariate post-processing models are the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and the ensemble model output statistics (EMOS). In the last few years, increased interest has emerged in developing multivariate post-processing models, incorporating dependencies between weather quantities, such as for example a bivariate distribution for wind vectors or even a more general setting allowing to combine any types of weather variables. In line with a recently proposed approach to model temperature and wind speed jointly by a bivariate BMA model, this paper introduces an EMOS model for these weather quantities based on a bivariate truncated normal distribution. The bivariate EMOS model is applied to temperature and wind speed forecasts of the 8-member University of Washington mesoscale ensemble and the 11-member ALADIN-HUNEPS ensemble of the Hungarian Meteorological Service and its predictive performance is compared to the performance of the bivariate BMA model and a multivariate Gaussian copula approach, post-processing the margins with univariate EMOS. While the predictive skills of the compared methods are similar, the bivariate EMOS model requires considerably lower computation times than the bivariate BMA method.

  7. Effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard and active metabolic rate in vendace (Coregonus albula).

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Staaks, Georg; Hölker, Franz

    2007-11-01

    This study gives an integrated analysis of the effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard metabolism and aerobic swimming performance in vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)). The metabolic rate was investigated at 4, 8 and 15 degrees C using one flow-through respirometer and two intermittent-flow swim tunnels. We found that the standard metabolic rate (SMR), which increased significantly with temperature, accounted for up to 2/3 of the total swimming costs at optimum speed (U (opt)), although mean U (opt) was high, ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 body lengths per second. Net swimming costs increased with swimming speed, but showed no clear trend with temperature. The influence of body mass on the metabolic rate varied with temperature and activity level resulting in scaling exponents (b) of 0.71-0.94. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to integrate the effects of temperature, speed and mass (AMR = 0.82M (0.93) exp(0.07T) + 0.43M (0.93) U (2.03)). The regression analysis showed that temperature affects standard but not net active metabolic costs in this species. Further, we conclude that a low speed exponent, high optimum speeds and high ratios of standard to activity costs suggest a remarkably efficient swimming performance in vendace.

  8. 82. VIEW OF AGITATORS FROM EAST. DRIVE AND STRUCTURAL SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. VIEW OF AGITATORS FROM EAST. DRIVE AND STRUCTURAL SUPPORT OF AGITATOR No. 1 IN FOREGROUND. HORIZONTAL AIR LINE PARALLELS AGITATORS IN RIGHT HALF OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 83. AGITATORS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 4 FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. AGITATORS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 4 FROM EAST. AIR SUPPLY RUNS THROUGH BENT BRACES ON RIGHT. NOTE AGITATOR RAKE LEANING AGAINST RETAINING WALL BETWEEN AGITATOR No. 2 AND No. 3. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. Real-time monitoring of changes of adsorbed and crystalline water contents in tablet formulation powder containing theophylline anhydrate at various temperatures during agitated granulation by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Kanai, Yoshinori; Hattori, Yusuke

    2014-09-01

    Real-time monitoring of adsorbed water content (FW) and hydrate formation of theophylline anhydrate (THA) in tablet formulation during agitated granulation was investigated by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. As the wet-granulation process of THA tablet formulation involves change in pseudo-polymorphs between THA and theophylline monohydrate (THM), the pharmaceutical properties of THA tablet depend on the degree of hydration during granulation. After mixing of the powder materials (4 g) containing THA, and excipients and the addition of 600 μL of binding water, the powder was kneaded at 27°C, 40°C, and 50°C and then dried. The mixing, granulating, and drying processes were monitored using NIR. The calibration models to predict THM and total water contents during granulation in THA tablet formulation were obtained by partial least-squares regression. The FW in the formulation was determined by subtracting THM from the water content. The results of the THA formulation powder bed during granulation by NIR monitoring indicated that the transformation pathway of the THA powder was THA ⇒ THM ⇒ THA at 27°C and 40°C, but that at 50°C was THA ⇒ THA ⇒ THA. The pharmaceutical properties, such as tablet porosity, hardness, tablet disintegration time, and dissolution rate of the final THA tablet products, were affected by the degree of crystalline transformation during granulation.

  11. Advanced impeller geometry boosts liquid agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fasano, J.B.; Bakker, A.; Penney, W.R. )

    1994-08-01

    A traditional agitator impeller often functions as a rather inefficient pump because of the way it produces fluid motion and pressure head. However, one can improve the amount of flow or shear generated by an impeller at constant power consumption and torque by changing its design. For example, a high-efficiency, axial-flow impeller produces more fluid motion per unit of power at constant torque than an otherwise similar pitched-blade turbine. The more-vigorous fluid motion cuts blend time and enhances heat-transfer in various flow-controlled mixing operations, such as blending of miscible fluids. For most applications, a higher degree of agitation intensity can be achieved on the same machine by substituting a high-efficiency impeller for a conventional pitched-blade unit. The high-efficiency impeller features a larger geometric pitch angle (30--60 deg) at the hub than at the tip (10--30 deg). Results from recently conducted controlled experiments indicate the beneficial effects of the high-efficiency impeller on blend time and heat-transfer coefficients in liquid-liquid mixing as well as solids suspension. This articles focuses on liquid agitation, with discussions of solids suspension set aside for a forthcoming piece in this series of articles on mixing.

  12. Flame Speeds of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures at Low Initial Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds were determined for methane-air, propane-air, and ethylene-air mixtures at -73 C and for methane-air mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture temperature previously established for the range from room temperature to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture temperature T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial temperatures were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial temperatures. The low-temperature data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-temperature data.

  13. Optical Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air Over the Temperature Range 300-650 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    Using laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), the speed of sound in room air (1 atm) is measured over the temperature range 300-650 K. Since the LITA apparatus maintains a fixed sound wavelength as temperature is varied, this temperature range simultaneously corresponds to a sound frequency range of 10-15 MHz. The data are compared to a published model and typically agree within 0.1%-0.4% at each of 21 temperatures.

  14. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  15. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  16. Low-speed flowfield characterization by infrared measurements of surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Mcree, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program was aimed at identifying areas in low speed aerodynamic research where infrared imaging systems can make significant contributions. Implementing a new technique, a long electrically heated wire was placed across a laminar jet. By measuring the temperature distribution along the wire with the IR imaging camera, the flow behavior was identified. Furthermore, using Nusselt number correlations, the velocity distribution could be deduced. The same approach was used to survey wakes behind cylinders in a wind-tunnel. This method is suited to investigate flows with position dependent velocities, e.g., boundary layers, confined flows, jets, wakes, and shear layers. It was found that the IR imaging camera cannot accurately track high gradient temperature fields. A correlation procedure was devised to account for this limitation. Other wind-tunnel experiments included tracking the development of the laminar boundary layer over a warmed flat plate by measuring the chordwise temperature distribution. This technique was applied also to the flow downstream from a rearward facing step. Finally, the IR imaging system was used to study boundary layer behavior over an airfoil at angles of attack from zero up to separation. The results were confirmed with tufts observable both visually and with the IR imaging camera.

  17. Speed of Sound Versus Temperature Using PVC Pipes Open at Both Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the speed of sound in air as a function of temperature using a simple and inexpensive apparatus. For this experiment it is essential that the appropriate end corrections be taken into account. In a recent paper the end corrections for 2-in i.d. (5.04-cm) PVC pipes open at both ends were investigated. The air column resonance was excited using a paddle as in Blue Man Group® pipes.2 The "open end" end correction is given by 0.6133r in accordance with recent experiments3 and detailed theoretical calculations.4 This correction amounted to 1.56 cm for the 2-in PVC pipe used. However, the paddle end correction was found to be influenced by the transient position of the paddle during the excitation process. The paddle end correction was found to be 1.94 cm.

  18. Measuring the temperature dependent thermal diffusivity of geomaterials using high-speed differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Heat diffusion in the Earth's crust is critical to fundamental geological processes, such as the cooling of magma, heat dissipation during and following transient heating events (e.g. during frictional heating along faults), and to the timescales of contact metamorphosis. The complex composition and multiphase nature of geomaterials prohibits the accurate modeling of thermal diffusivities and measurements over a range of temperatures are sparse due to the specialized nature of the equipment and lack of instrument availability. We present a novel method to measure the thermal diffusivity of geomaterials such as minerals and rocks with high precision and accuracy using a commercially available differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). A DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® equipped with a Netzsch high-speed furnace was used to apply a step-heating program to corundum single crystal standards of varying thicknesses. The standards were cylindrical discs of 0.25-1 mm thickness with 5.2-6 mm diameter. Heating between each 50 °C temperature interval was conducted at a rate of 100 °C/min over the temperature range 150-1050 °C. Such large heating rates induces temperature disequilibrium in the samples used. However, isothermal segments of 2 minutes were used during which the temperature variably equilibrated with the furnace between the heating segments and thus the directly-measured heat-flow relaxed to a constant value before the next heating step was applied. A finite-difference 2D conductive heat transfer model was used in cylindrical geometry for which the measured furnace temperature was directly applied as the boundary condition on the sample-cylinder surfaces. The model temperature was averaged over the sample volume per unit time and converted to heat-flow using the well constrained thermal properties for corundum single crystals. By adjusting the thermal diffusivity in the model solution and comparing the resultant heat-flow with the measured values, we obtain a model

  19. Effect of agitation on removal of acetic acid from pretreated hydrolysate by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Priddy, Sarah A; Hanley, Thomas R

    2003-01-01

    The effect of agitation on the adsorption of acetic acid by activated carbon was tested utilizing an external mass transfer-diffusion model. Simulated pretreated biomass was contacted with activated carbon under prescribed conditions of temperature and agitation. Adsorption isotherm studies are presented as well as batch kinetic rate studies. Use of these data enabled the determination of isotherm constants, an external mass transfer coefficient, and an effective diffusivity for each agitation rate studied. The external film coefficient results ranged from 33.62 microm/s to a complete absence of external mass transfer resistance, and the diffusivity results ranged from 0.8625 to 10.70 microm(2)/s. The optimum combination of no external film resistance, and highest diffusivity, 10.70 microm(2)/s, occurred at 250 rpm and 25 degrees C. The results of these models and the experimental parameters suggested an efficacious method and conditions for the removal of this undesirable chemical.

  20. A high speed data acquisition and analysis system for transonic velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clukey, Steven J.

    1988-01-01

    The high speed Dynamic Data Acquisition System (DDAS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. The data acquisition and data reduction process has been combined within DDAS. DDAS receives input from hot wires and anemometers, amplifies and filters the signals with computer controlled modules, and converts the analog signals to digital with real-time simultaneous digitization followed by digital recording on disk or tape. Automatic acquisition (either from a computer link to an existing wind tunnel acquisition system, or from data acquisition facilities within DDAS) collects necessary calibration and environment data. The generation of hot wire sensitivities is done in DDAS, as is the application of sensitivities to the hot wire data to generate turbulence quantities. The presentation of the raw and processed data, in terms of root mean square values of velocity, density and temperature, and the processing of the spectral data is accomplished on demand in near-real-time- with DDAS. A comprehensive description of the interface to the DDAS and of the internal mechanisms will be prosented. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAS will be provided.

  1. Temperature and Light Control of Three phase Induction Motor Speed Drive by PIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2010-06-01

    PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller". PICs are popular with the developers and the hobbyists due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. In modern days, PIC microcontrollers are used in the industrial world to control many types of equipment, ranging from consumer to specialized devices. They have replaced older types of controllers, including microprocessors. Also, there is a growing need for off-line support of a computer's main processor. The demand is going to grow with more equipment uses more intelligence. In the engineering field for instance, PIC has brought a very positive impact in designing an automation control system and controlling industrial machineries. Accordingly, this paper shows the change in the motor speed by the use of PIC in accordance to the light and level of temperature. The project focuses on programming the PIC by embedded software that detects the temperature and light signals and send it to 3 phase induction motor of 240 volt. A theoretical analysis and the practical approach in achieving this work goal have proved that PIC plays an important role in the field of electronics control.

  2. Fuel agitating device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Scouten, D.G.

    1992-09-22

    This patent describes an agitator for fuel being conducted to an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a casing, a chamber within the casing between the fuel inlet conduit and the fuel outlet conduit, flow divider means in the chamber for dividing the chamber into a plurality of fuel flow paths on opposite sides thereof, an inner wall in the casing defining the exit portion, flange means in the casing within the chamber and spaced radially inwardly from the inner wall, and conduit means within the flange means for conducting fuel to the outlet conduit.

  3. Anomalous temperature dependence of speed of sound of bulk poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels near the phase transition.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ezekiel; Reyes, Delfino; Krokhin, Arkadii; Neogi, Arup

    2014-07-01

    Bulk Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogels are thermally responsive polymers that undergo a sharp volumetric phase transition around its lower critical solution temperature of 33 °C. The physical characteristics of bulk, micro-, and nano-form PNIPAm hydrogel have been well-studied, and have applications ranging from biomedical devices to mechanical actuators. An important physical characteristics which reveals lack of available information is speed of sound. Prior studies have utilized Brillouin scattering, multi-echo reflection ultrasound spectroscopy, the sing-around method, and others in measuring the speed of sound. We use a planar resonant cavity with bulk PNIPAm hydrogel in aqueous solution to determine the temperature dependent speed of sound around the lower critical solution temperature. The results show sharp nonmonotonic behavior of the sound velocity in vicinity of the phase transition.

  4. Temperature imaging with speed of ultrasonic transmission tomography for medical treatment control: A physical model-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhe-Qi; Yuan, Jie; Stephen, Z. Pinter; Oliver, D. Kripfgans; Wang, Xue-Ding; Paul, L. Carson; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Hyperthermia is a promising method to enhance chemo and radiation therapy of breast cancer. In the process of hyperthermia, temperature monitoring is of great importance to assure the effectiveness of treatment. The transmission speed of ultrasound in biomedical tissue changes with temperature. However, when mapping the speed of sound directly to temperature in each pixel as desired for using all speeds of ultrasound data, temperature bipolar edge enhancement artifacts occur near the boundary of two tissues with different speeds of ultrasound. After the analysis of the reasons for causing these artifacts, an optimized method is introduced to rebuild the temperature field image by using the continuity constraint as the judgment criterion. The significant smoothness of the rebuilding image in the transitional area shows that our proposed method can build a more precise temperature image for controlling the medical thermal treatment. Project supported in part by DoD/BCRP Idea Award, BC095397P1, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61201425), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131280), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions, China, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of United States (Grant Nos. R01AR060350, R01CA91713, and R01AR055179).

  5. High Speed, High Temperature, Fault Tolerant Operation of a Combination Magnetic-Hydrostatic Bearing Rotor Support System for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark; Montague, Gerald; Provenza, Andrew; Palazzolo, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Closed loop operation of a single, high temperature magnetic radial bearing to 30,000 RPM (2.25 million DN) and 540 C (1000 F) is discussed. Also, high temperature, fault tolerant operation for the three axis system is examined. A novel, hydrostatic backup bearing system was employed to attain high speed, high temperature, lubrication free support of the entire rotor system. The hydrostatic bearings were made of a high lubricity material and acted as journal-type backup bearings. New, high temperature displacement sensors were successfully employed to monitor shaft position throughout the entire temperature range and are described in this paper. Control of the system was accomplished through a stand alone, high speed computer controller and it was used to run both the fault-tolerant PID and active vibration control algorithms.

  6. Spontaneous knotting of an agitated string.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Dorian M; Smith, Douglas E

    2007-10-16

    It is well known that a jostled string tends to become knotted; yet the factors governing the "spontaneous" formation of various knots are unclear. We performed experiments in which a string was tumbled inside a box and found that complex knots often form within seconds. We used mathematical knot theory to analyze the knots. Above a critical string length, the probability P of knotting at first increased sharply with length but then saturated below 100%. This behavior differs from that of mathematical self-avoiding random walks, where P has been proven to approach 100%. Finite agitation time and jamming of the string due to its stiffness result in lower probability, but P approaches 100% with long, flexible strings. We analyzed the knots by calculating their Jones polynomials via computer analysis of digital photos of the string. Remarkably, almost all were identified as prime knots: 120 different types, having minimum crossing numbers up to 11, were observed in 3,415 trials. All prime knots with up to seven crossings were observed. The relative probability of forming a knot decreased exponentially with minimum crossing number and Möbius energy, mathematical measures of knot complexity. Based on the observation that long, stiff strings tend to form a coiled structure when confined, we propose a simple model to describe the knot formation based on random "braid moves" of the string end. Our model can qualitatively account for the observed distribution of knots and dependence on agitation time and string length.

  7. A wave tank study of the dependence of X band cross sections on wind speed and water temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Mary Ruth; Keller, William C.; Plant, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of varying the water temperature, wind speed, and wind stress on the values of backscatter were investigated using measurements of normalized radar cross sections of wind-generated waves, made at X band for both vertical and horizontal polarization for incidence angles 10, 28, 48, and 68 deg. The experiment was conducted using the Naval Research Laboratory wind-wave tank. Measurements made for a wide range of wind speeds and water temperatures are compared with results of backscattering models currently in use.

  8. Finite element analysis of vessel nozzle for agitator supports

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.M.

    1996-12-01

    There are many industrial applications involving agitators/mixers supported by a vessel head and nozzle. The flow-induced agitator loads are often neglected or only partially considered in the vessel design stage. Inadequate supports reduce agitator drive operating life and in most cases promote vibration problems leading to fatigue failures. The vessel head and nozzle should be stiff enough to withstand the induced agitator loads. Some of the more significant design criteria are: (1) nozzle and head stiffness should be at least 1 million lb/in; (2) agitator shaft deflection should not be more than 1/32 inch per foot of shaft extension; (3) agitator support plane should not rotate more than 0.15 degree. This paper deals with a parametric finite element study of three tank sizes (4 ft., 8 ft. and 12 ft. diameter) to verify the validity and ease of compliance of these criteria in vessel design.

  9. Correlations of global sea surface temperatures with the solar wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Limin; Tinsley, Brian; Chu, Huimin; Xiao, Ziniu

    2016-11-01

    A significant correlation between the solar wind speed (SWS) and sea surface temperature (SST) in the region of the North Atlantic Ocean has been found for the Northern Hemisphere winter from 1963 to 2010, based on 3-month seasonal averages. The correlation is dependent on Bz (the interplanetary magnetic field component parallel to the Earth's magnetic dipole) as well as the SWS, and somewhat stronger in the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) west phase than in the east phase. The correlations with the SWS are stronger than those with the F10.7 parameter representing solar UV inputs to the stratosphere. SST responds to changes in tropospheric dynamics via wind stress, and to changes in cloud cover affecting the radiative balance. Suggested mechanisms for the solar influence on SST include changes in atmospheric ionization and cloud microphysics affecting cloud cover, storm invigoration, and tropospheric dynamics. Such changes modify upward wave propagation to the stratosphere, affecting the dynamics of the polar vortex. Also, direct solar inputs, including energetic particles and solar UV, produce stratospheric dynamical changes. Downward propagation of stratospheric dynamical changes eventually further perturbs tropospheric dynamics and SST.

  10. Optimization of aeration and agitation rate for lipid and gamma linolenic acid production by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Saad, Normah; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The locally isolated filamentous fungus Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was cultivated in a 5 L bioreactor to produce lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The optimization was carried out using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. A statistical model, second-order polynomial model, was adjusted to the experimental data to evaluate the effect of key operating variables, including aeration rate and agitation speed on lipid production. Process analysis showed that linear and quadratic effect of agitation intensity significantly influenced lipid production process (P < 0.01). The quadratic model also indicated that the interaction between aeration rate and agitation speed had a highly significant effect on lipid production (P < 0.01). Experimental results showed that a lipid content of 38.71% was produced in optimum conditions using an airflow rate and agitation speed of 0.32 vvm and 599 rpm, respectively. Similar results revealed that 0.058(g/g) gamma-linolenic acid was produced in optimum conditions where 1.0 vvm aeration rate and 441.45 rpm agitation rate were used. The regression model confirmed that aeration and agitation were of prime importance for optimum production of lipid in the bioreactor.

  11. Worldwide influence of Lamb Weather Types on Temperature, Precipitation and Wind Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, Nicola; Torralba, Veronica; Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-01

    One of the main objectives of synoptic climatology is the detection of large-scale atmospheric drivers determining local climate variability. Especially in the extra-tropical regions, synoptic circulation plays an important role in driving local climate; for example, it is known that Atlantic weather fronts are responsible of a high amount of winter precipitation in Europe. In this research, the Weather Type catalogue developed by Lamb to classify the continuum of the atmospheric circulation in 10-26 classes was obtained individually at each grid point of the mean sea level pressure Era-Interim dataset (spatial resolution 0.7°), spanning the whole world. Although the analysis was performed globally, Tropical and Polar regions were excluded, the former because the Coriolis effect is weak at 0-23° N-S (nullifying the vorticity index), and the latter due to the spatial distortion of the Lamb grid at very high latitudes. Each resulting Weather Type was related to the local observed average daily 2-m Temperature, Precipitation and 10-m Wind speed anomalies from Era-Interim during last 30 years (1985-2014) to identify the Weather Types that behave as climate drivers at seasonal and yearly time scale. While some countries and regions have already been analysed in detail individually at higher spatial and/or temporal resolutions, this study provides a global view, filling the existing gap in literature, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere (South Africa, South America, Australia) and over oceans, providing a bigger picture of the influence of Weather Types on climate.

  12. High-temperature and high-speed oxidation of 4H-SiC by atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Ishimaru, Ryosuke; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2017-04-01

    The application of atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet (TPJ) annealing to the high-temperature and high-speed thermal oxidation of Si-face of 4H-SiC wafer is reported. A high SiO2 film growth rate of 288 nm min‑1 was obtained at an oxidation temperature of 1640 °C without intentional dry O2 gas feeding. Ambient analysis suggested that ozone generated from oxygen in the ambient air by the plasma irradiation was supplied to the SiC surface. It is implied that a mono-oxygen decomposed from ozone was diffused into the oxide growth interface. As a result, high-speed oxidation occurred by combination of high-temperature TPJ annealing and ozone feeding.

  13. Enhancement of USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for High-Speed High-Temperature Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.

    2009-01-01

    Large temperature and pressure fluctuations have a profound effect on turbulence development in transonic and supersonic jets. For high-speed, high-temperature jet flows, standard turbulence models lack the ability to predict the observed mixing rate of a shear layer. Several proposals to address this deficiency have been advanced in the literature to modify the turbulence transport equations in a variety of ways. In the present study, some of the most proven and simple modifications to two-equation turbulence models have been selected and implemented in NASA's USM3D tetrahedral Navier-Stokes flow solver. The modifications include the addition of compressibility correction and pressure dilatation terms in the turbulence transport equations for high-speed flows, and the addition of a simple modification to the Boussinesq's closure model coefficient for high-temperature jets. The efficacy of the extended models is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data for two supersonic axisymmetric jet test cases at design pressure ratio.

  14. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p < 0.001), followed by a temperature stabilization until the end of the session. No significant asymmetry between the front and back sides of legs was observed. Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  15. Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Williams, Reg Arthur; Lee, Donghyun

    2016-04-01

    Agitation is a common behavioral problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which threatens the safety of patients and caregivers and disrupts the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preferred music intervention on the reduction of agitation in TBI patients and to compare the effects of preferred music with those of classical "relaxation" music. A single group, within-subjects, randomized crossover trial design was formed, consisting of 14 agitated patients with cognitive impairment after severe TBI. Patients listened to preferred music and classical "relaxation" music, with a wash-out period in between. Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical "relaxation" music intervention (p = .046). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI.

  16. Effects of Tween 80 on cellulase stability under agitated conditions.

    PubMed

    Okino, Shohei; Ikeo, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshiki; Taneda, Daisuke

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism of the increase in the hydrolysis rate and yield by the addition of Tween 80 to the hydrolysis reaction of filter paper was investigated under static and agitated conditions. The increase in the hydrolysis rate by addition of Tween 80 was observed under the agitated condition only. The effects of Tween 80 on the changes in the protein concentration of individual cellulase components were investigated in the absence of substrates. Agitation of the enzyme solution resulted in the drastic decrease of SDS-PAGE bands intensity of CBH2 (cellobiohydrolase 2). The addition of Tween 80 prevented this. Thus, the Tween 80 functions to stabilize instable cellulase components under the agitated condition. Moreover, addition of Tween 80 completely suppressed the decrease of CBH2 intensity by agitation at 30°C. Results suggest that Tween 80 stabilizes instable cellulase components not only during hydrolysis, but during enzyme production also.

  17. Thermal analysis and temperature characteristics of a braking resistor for high-speed trains for changes in the braking current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Kang, Hyun-Il; Shim, Jae-Myung

    2015-09-01

    Electric brake systems are used in high-speed trains to brake trains by converting the kinetic energy of a railway vehicle to electric energy. The electric brake system consists of a regenerative braking system and a dynamic braking system. When the electric energy generated during the dynamic braking process is changed to heat through the braking resistor, the braking resistor can overheat; thus, failures can occur to the motor block. In this paper, a braking resistor for a high-speed train was used to perform thermal analyses and tests, and the results were analyzed. The analyzed data were used to estimate the dependence of the brake currents and the temperature rises on speed changes up to 300 km/h, at which a test could not be performed.

  18. Effect of Austenitizing Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Semi-High-Speed Steel Cold-Forged Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Da-Le; Liu, Chang-Sheng

    2009-10-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of semi-high-speed steel (S-HSS) cold-forged rolls was investigated. Low-temperature austenitizing below 1313 K induced carbide coarsening during subsequent tempering at 973 K due to the nucleation effect of undissolved M7C3. On the other hand, the heavy dissolution of M7C3 above 1353 K caused the fine carbide formation on lath and plate boundaries, which retarded the subgrain growth during tempering. The increase in strength with increasing austenitizing temperature was attributed to the fine carbide distribution and the high dislocation density. Furthermore, as the austenitizing temperature increased, the impact energy markedly reduced, due to the large prior austenite grain size and the high strength. Finally, based on the microstructure and mechanical properties, an optimal austenitizing temperature range between 1313 and 1333 K was determined.

  19. Agitated Honeybees Exhibit Pessimistic Cognitive Biases

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1–3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4–8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9–11]. Recently, mammals [12–16] and birds [17–20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Video Abstract PMID:21636277

  20. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  1. NFLUX PRE: Validation of New Specific Humidity, Surface Air Temperature, and Wind Speed Algorithms for Ascending/Descending Directions and Clear or Cloudy Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    Validation of New Specific Humidity, Surface Air Temperature , and Wind Speed Algorithms for Ascending/ Descending Directions and Clear or Cloudy...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT NFLUX PRE: Validation of New Specific Humidity, Surface Air Temperature , and Wind Speed Algorithms for Ascending/Descending...satellite retrieval algorithms. In addition to data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding

  2. Analysis on atmospheric pressure, temperature, and wind speed profiles during total solar eclipse 9 March 2016 using time series clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Wihardi, Yaya; Nurdin, Enjang Ali; Dwi Ardi, Nanang; Puji Asmoro, Cahyo; Wijaya, Agus Fany Chandra; Aria Utama, Judhistira; Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Asep

    2016-11-01

    Air temperature, pressure, and wind speed measurements on the surface taken during the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) of March 9, 2016, are made. They were taken in Terentang Beach, Bangka Island, Indonesia. In this paper, we propose to analyze them by using time series clustering. The following steps are conducted: data collecting, splitting, smoothing, distance calculation, and clustering. The final results show cluster memberships of the three parameters on 3 time frames: one day before, the TSE day, and one day after. After doing some simulations, it can be seen that the profiles of temperature and pressure on the TSE day are on the same cluster while the wind-speed profile on the TSE day is the same as on the one day after.

  3. Risk factors for agitation in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Thiago Miranda Lopes; de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Nosé, Paulo Maurício Garcia; de Freitas, Flavio Geraldo Resende; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of agitation in the first 7 days after intensive care unit admission, its risk factors and its associations with clinical outcomes. Methods This single-center prospective cohort study included all patients older than 18 years with a predicted stay > 48 hours within the first 24 hours of intensive care unit admission. Agitation was defined as a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score ≥ +2, an episode of agitation or the use of a specific medication recorded in patient charts. Results Agitation occurred in 31.8% of the 113 patients. Multivariate analysis showed that delirium [OR = 24.14; CI95% 5.15 - 113.14; p < 0.001], moderate or severe pain [OR = 5.74; CI95% 1.73 - 19.10; p = 0.004], mechanical ventilation [OR = 10.14; CI95% 2.93 - 35.10; p < 0.001], and smoking habits [OR = 4.49; CI95% 1.33 - 15.17; p = 0.015] were independent factors for agitation, while hyperlactatemia was associated with a lower risk [OR = 0.169; CI95% 0.04 - 0.77; p = 0.021]. Agitated patients had fewer mechanical ventilation-free days at day 7 (p = 0.003). Conclusion The incidence of agitation in the first 7 days after admission to the intensive care unit was high. Delirium, moderate/severe pain, mechanical ventilation, and smoking habits were independent risk factors. Agitated patients had fewer ventilator-free days in the first 7 days. PMID:28099638

  4. ON THE RELATIVE SPEED AND TEMPERATURE RATIO OF SOLAR WIND ALPHA PARTICLES AND PROTONS: COLLISIONS VERSUS WAVE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Marsch, Eckart; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    2011-02-10

    We study the relative flow speed and the temperature ratio of alpha particles and protons and their connections to the helium ion abundance, the collisional age, and the power of transverse fluctuations within the inertial range. It is found that the alpha-to-proton temperature ratio, T{sub {alpha}}/T{sub p} , anti-correlates with the helium ion abundance. Despite a relatively high collisional age and small wave power, the ratio T{sub {alpha}}/T{sub p} can reach comparatively high values (even above 2) whenever the helium ion abundance is below about 0.02. In contrast, the differential speed of alpha particles with respect to protons is correlated with the total wave power and anti-correlated with the collisional age. Ultimately, the individual heating of each ion species is positively correlated with the total wave power. Our findings suggest that a high-friction collision could be efficient in reducing the differential speed between alpha particles and protons, but appears not to be sufficient to equalize the alpha and proton temperatures, i.e., to make T{sub {alpha}} {approx_equal} T{sub p} . This is a hint that the local wave heating process is acting on a timescale shorter than the collision time.

  5. Instantaneous 2D Velocity and Temperature Measurements in High Speed Flows Based on Spectrally Resolved Molecular Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for high speed flows is described for the simultaneous, instantaneous measurement of gas temperature and velocity at a number (up to about one hundred) of locations in a plane illuminated by an injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. Molecular Rayleigh scattered light is collected and passed through a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer. The resulting image is analyzed to determine the gas temperature and bulk velocity at each of the regions. The Cramer Rao lower bound for measurement uncertainty is calculated. Experimental data is presented for a free jet and for preliminary measurements in the Lewis 4 inch by 10 inch supersonic wind tunnel.

  6. Room and Low Temperature Performance of High-Speed Neural Network Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have described a challenging neural-network hardware implementation that would mate a 64x64-pixel infrared sensor directly on to a 3-dimensionally packaged set of neural processing chips with parallel input for high speed image processing. Non linearity effects and range compression are also discussed.

  7. Micro acoustic resonant chambers for heating/agitating/mixing (MARCHAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita M.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Grunthaner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A variety of applications require the mixing and/or heating of a slurry made from a powder/fluid mixture. One of these applications, Sub Critical Water Extraction (SCWE), is a process where water and an environmental powder sample (sieved soil, drill cuttings, etc.) are heated in a sealed chamber to temperatures greater than 200 degrees Celsius by allowing the pressure to increase, but without reaching the critical point of water. At these temperatures, the ability of water to extract organics from solid particulate increases drastically. This paper describes the modeling and experimentation on the use of an acoustic resonant chamber which is part of an amino acid detection instrument called Astrobionibbler [Noell et al. 2014, 2015]. In this instrument we use acoustics to excite a fluid- solid fines mixture in different frequency/amplitude regimes to accomplish a variety of sample processing tasks. Driving the acoustic resonant chamber at lower frequencies can create circulation patterns in the fluid and mixes the liquid and fines, while driving the chamber at higher frequencies one can agitate the fluid and powder and create a suspension. If one then drives the chamber at high amplitude at resonance heating of the slurry occurs. In the mixing and agitating cell the particle levitation force depends on the relative densities and compressibility's of the particulate and fluid and on the kinetic and potential energy densities associated with the velocity and pressure fields [Glynne-Jones, Boltryk and Hill 2012] in the cell. When heating, the piezoelectric transducer and chamber is driven at high power in resonance where the solid/fines region is modelled as an acoustic transmission line with a large loss component. In this regime, heat is pumped into the solution/fines mixture and rapidly heats the sample. We have modeled the piezoelectric transducer/chamber/ sample using Mason's equivalent circuit. In order to assess the validity of the model we have built and

  8. High-speed mixture fraction and temperature imaging of pulsed, turbulent fuel jets auto-igniting in high-temperature, vitiated co-flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorge, Michael J.; Arndt, Christoph; Fuest, Frederik; Meier, Wolfgang; Sutton, Jeffrey A.

    2014-07-01

    In this manuscript, we describe an experimental approach to simultaneously measure high-speed image sequences of the mixture fraction and temperature fields during pulsed, turbulent fuel injection into a high-temperature, co-flowing, and vitiated oxidizer stream. The quantitative mixture fraction and temperature measurements are determined from 10-kHz-rate planar Rayleigh scattering and a robust data processing methodology which is accurate from fuel injection to the onset of auto-ignition. In addition, the data processing is shown to yield accurate temperature measurements following ignition to observe the initial evolution of the "burning" temperature field. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence (CL) was used to determine the spatial location of the initial auto-ignition kernel. In order to ensure that the ignition kernel formed inside of the Rayleigh scattering laser light sheet, OH* CL was observed in two viewing planes, one near-parallel to the laser sheet and one perpendicular to the laser sheet. The high-speed laser measurements are enabled through the use of the unique high-energy pulse burst laser system which generates long-duration bursts of ultra-high pulse energies at 532 nm (>1 J) suitable for planar Rayleigh scattering imaging. A particular focus of this study was to characterize the fidelity of the measurements both in the context of the precision and accuracy, which includes facility operating and boundary conditions and measurement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The mixture fraction and temperature fields deduced from the high-speed planar Rayleigh scattering measurements exhibited SNR values greater than 100 at temperatures exceeding 1,300 K. The accuracy of the measurements was determined by comparing the current mixture fraction results to that of "cold", isothermal, non-reacting jets. All profiles, when properly normalized, exhibited self-similarity and collapsed upon one another. Finally, example mixture fraction, temperature, and OH* emission

  9. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-01

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  10. 91. VIEW OF PORTLAND FILTER VACUUM RECEIVER FROM NORTHWEST. AGITATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW OF PORTLAND FILTER VACUUM RECEIVER FROM NORTHWEST. AGITATORS No. 4 AND No. 5 VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. 84. AGITATORS No. 3, No. 4 AND No. 5 FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. AGITATORS No. 3, No. 4 AND No. 5 FROM SOUTHEAST. OLD PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR IS SEEN THROUGH FRAMING, LOWER RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. Agitation in Dementia: Relation to Core Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bloniecki, Victor; Aarsland, Dag; Cummings, Jeffrey; Blennow, Kaj; Freund-Levi, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the associations of agitation with the cerebrospinal fluid dementia biomarkers total-tau (T-tau), phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) and Aβ1-42. Methods One hundred patients (mean age ± SD, 78.6 ± 7.5 years) with dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms, of whom 67% were female, were included. Agitation was measured using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI; 46.5 ± 11.8 points). Results Total CMAI correlated with T-tau [rs (31) = 0.36, p = 0.04] and P-tau [rs (31) = 0.35, p = 0.05] in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 33) but not in the total dementia population (n = 95). Conclusions Our results suggest that tau-mediated pathology including neurofibrillary tangles and the intensity of the disease process might be associated with agitation in AD. PMID:25298777

  13. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  14. Hydrodynamic effects on cell growth in agitated microcarrier bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1988-01-01

    The net growth rate of bovine embryonic kidney cells in microcarrier bioreactor is the result of a variable death rate imposed on a cell culture trying to grow at a constant intrinsic growth rate. The death rate is a function of the agitation conditions in the system, and increases at higher agitation because of increasingly energetic interactions of the cell covered microcarriers with turbulent eddies in the fluid. At very low agitation rates bead-bead bridging becomes important; the large clumps formed by bridging can interact with larger eddies than single beads, leading to a higher death rate at low agitation. The growth and death rate were correlated with a dimensionless eddy number which compares eddy forces to the buoyant force on the bead.

  15. Effect of design variables, temperature gradients and speed of life and reliability of a rotating disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Smith, T. E.; August, R.

    1986-01-01

    A generalized methodology to predict the fatigue life and reliability of a rotating disk such as used for aircraft engine turbines and compressors is advanced. The approach incorporates the computed life of elemental stress volumes to predict system life and reliability. Disk speed and thermal gradients as well as design variables such as disk diameter and thickness and bolt hole size, number and location are considered.

  16. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  17. Simulation of effects of direction and air flow speed on temperature distribution in the room covered by various roof materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukanto, H.; Budiana, E. P.; Putra, B. H. H.

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research is to get a comparison of the distribution of the room temperature by using three materials, namely plastic-rubber composite, clay, and asbestos. The simulation used Ansys Fluent to get the temperature distribution. There were two conditions in this simulations, first the air passing beside the room and second the air passing in front of the room. Each condition will be varied with the air speed of 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s, 5 m/s for each material used. There are three heat transfers in this simulation, namely radiation, convection, and conduction. Based on the ANSI/ ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, the results of the simulation showed that the best temperature distribution was the roof of plastic-rubber composites.

  18. Cross-correlation velocimetry for measurement of velocity and temperature profiles in low-speed, turbulent, nonisothermal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Motevalli, V. ); Marks, C.H. ); McCaffrey, B.J. )

    1992-05-01

    A technique utilizing thermocouple pairs as sensors to measure velocity and temperature profiles in low-speed, turbulent, nonisothermal flows is described here. In this technique, Cross-Correlation Velocimetry (CCV), the temperature-time records from a pair of thermocouples, one downstream of the other, are cross-correlated to determine the flow's preferred mean velocity while temperature is measured directly. The velocity measurements have undergone extensive verification using hotwire, pitot tube, and Laser-Doppler Velocimetry to determine the degree of confidence in this technique. This work demonstrates that the CCV technique is quite reliable and can measure the mean preferred component of the convective velocity with better than {plus minus}5 percent certainty. Application of this technique to the measurement of velocities in a ceiling jet induced by a fire plume is briefly presented here.

  19. The effects of the variations in sea surface temperature and atmospheric stability in the estimation of average wind speed by SEASAT-SASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The average wind speeds from the scatterometer (SASS) on the ocean observing satellite SEASAT are found to be generally higher than the average wind speeds from ship reports. In this study, two factors, sea surface temperature and atmospheric stability, are identified which affect microwave scatter and, therefore, wave development. The problem of relating satellite observations to a fictitious quantity, such as the neutral wind, that has to be derived from in situ observations with models is examined. The study also demonstrates the dependence of SASS winds on sea surface temperature at low wind speeds, possibly due to temperature-dependent factors, such as water viscosity, which affect wave development.

  20. Highly sensitive detection and stochastic analysis of magnetization agitation induced in a single layered magnetic wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Motoi, Keiichi; Miyajima, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    This study shows that broadband magnetic noise in a ferromagnetic wire can be detected over a wide frequency range between 500 MHz and 8 GHz using a lock-in detection technique. The magnetic noise spectrum from a 20 nm-thick single-layered Fe19Ni81 wire biased with a dc current is measured as functions of an external field and dc current. This noise is caused by thermal agitation in magnetization due to ambient temperature and Joule heating. The noise behaviors are well reproduced by a stochastic model. Thus, this paper presents a stochastic analysis of magnetic noise behaviors induced by thermal agitation using a highly sensitive technique for detecting the magnetic noise in a single layered ferromagnetic wire.

  1. Effect of Agitation on Acidogenesis Stage of Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) into Biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisakti, B.; Irvan; Adipasah, H.; Taslim; Turmuzi, M.

    2017-03-01

    The acidogenesis stage in two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was studied in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). This research investigated the effect of agitation rate on the growth of microorganisms, the degradation of organic substances, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT 6.7, 5.0, and 4.0 days in a 2 L CSTR with agitation rate 50 rpm, pH 6.0 ± 0.2, at room temperature. Next, effect of agitation on the process was determined by varying agitation rate at 25, 50, 100, and 200 rpm. Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce VFA. The highest growth of microorganisms was achieved at HRT 4.0 day with microorganism concentration was 20.62 mg VSS/L and COD reduction was 15.7%. The highest production of total VFA achieved was 5,766.61 mg/L mg/L at agitation rate 200 rpm, with concentration of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were 1,889.23; 1,161.43; and 2,725.95 mg/L, respectively. While degradation VS and COD were 16.61 and 38.79%.

  2. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gabriel A.; Clissold, Fiona J.; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38°C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate diets or a choice between both. Locusts placed in a thermal gradient selected temperatures near 38°C, maximizing rates of weight gain; however, this enhanced growth rate came at the cost of poor protein and carbohydrate utilization. Protein and carbohydrate were equally digested across temperature treatments, but once digested both macronutrients were converted to growth most efficiently at the intermediate temperature (32°C). Body temperature preference thus yielded maximal growth rates at the expense of efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:19625322

  3. Computer modeling of the sensitivity of a laser water vapor sensor to variations in temperature and air speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, George F.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, there is disagreement among existing methods of determining atmospheric water vapor concentration at dew-points below -40 C. A major source of error is wall effects which result from the necessity of bringing samples into the instruments. All of these instruments also have response times on the order of seconds. NASA Langley is developing a water vapor sensor which utilizes the absorption of the infrared radiation produced by a diode laser to estimate water vapor concentration. The laser beam is directed through an aircraft window to a retroreflector located on an engine. The reflected beam is detected by an infrared detector located near the laser. To maximize signal to noise, derivative signals are analyzed. By measuring the 2f/DC signal and correcting for ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and air speed (which results in a Doppler shifting of the laser beam), the water vapor concentration can be retrieved. Since this is an in situ measurement there are no wall effects and measurements can be made at a rate of more than 20 per second. This allows small spatial variations of water vapor to be studied. In order to study the sensitivity of the instrument to variations in temperature and air speed, a computer program which generated the 2f, 3f, 4f, DC and 2f/DC signals of the instrument as a function of temperature, pressure and air speed was written. This model was used to determine the effect of errors in measurement of the temperature and air speed on the measured water vapor concentration. Future studies will quantify the effect of pressure measurement errors, which are expected to be very small. As a result of these studied, a retrieval algorithm has been formulated, and will be applied to data taken during the PEM-West atmospheric science field mission. Spectroscopic studies of the water vapor line used by the instrument will be used to refine this algorithm. To prepare for these studies, several lasers have been studied to determine their

  4. Fast calibration of speed-of-sound using temperature prior in whole-body small animal optoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Subhamoy; Nasonova, Elena; Deán-Ben, X. L.; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The speed of sound (SoS) in the imaged sample and in the coupling medium is an important parameter in optoacoustic tomography that must be specified in order to accurately restore maps of local optical absorbance. In this work, several hybrid focusing functions are described that successfully determine the most suitable SoS based on post-reconstruction images. The SoS in the coupling medium (water) can be determined from temperature readings. Thereby, this value is suggested to be used as an initial guess for faster SoS calibration in the reconstruction of tissues having a different SoS than water.

  5. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm Diode Laser EDTA Agitation on the Retention of an Epoxy-Based Sealer to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Helena Suleiman de; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob; Oliveira, Ligia Teixeira de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci-Neto, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Root canal irrigants are used to minimize the negative effects of smear layer on endodontic sealer retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of agitation of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with ultrasonic, 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser on the retention of an epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls. Forty single-rooted bovine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary system and divided into four groups according to the final irrigation protocol (n = 10): (1) 17% EDTA (control); (2) 17% EDTA with 50-s ultrasonic agitation; (3) 17% EDTA with 50-s diode laser (2-W) agitation; and (4) 17% EDTA with 50-s Nd:YAG (1.5-W) laser agitation. After endodontic filling with gutta-percha F5 master cone and Sealer 26, the roots were sectioned at the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds to obtain 1.5-mm slices. Push-out tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Apical root thirds had significant higher retention values than cervical and middle thirds (p < 0.05). EDTA with 1064-nm Nd:YAG or 980-nm diode laser presented the highest retention values and was significantly different from EDTA with ultrasonic agitation and EDTA only (p < 0.05). Adhesive failures were predominant to EDTA only group. Mixed failures were predominant to all agitation groups. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser EDTA agitation enhanced the retention of the epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls compared with that due to EDTA only or EDTA with ultrasonic agitation.

  6. The annual and interannual variabilities of precipitable water, surface wind speed, and sea surface temperature over the tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SSMR) provided simultaneous measurements of three geophysical parameters, each of which describing a certain aspect of the evolution of the 1982-1983 ENSO: the sea-surface temperature (T), precipitable water (W), and surface-wind speed (U). In this paper, values derived from the SSMR were compared with in situ measurements from ships, research buoys, and operational island stations in the tropical Pacific between January 1980 and October 1983, demonstrating the temporal and spatial coherence of the SSMR measurements. The results show that the variabilities of the surface convergence, sea surface temperature, and precipitable water are related. It was found that W anomalies were not always colocated with T anomalies, and that W anomalies were often associated with negative U anomalies, interpreted as surface convergence.

  7. Effects of temperature, salinity, body length, and starvation on the critical swimming speed of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xiumei; Duan, Yan; Zhang, Peidong; Miao, Zhenqing

    2010-12-01

    The critical swimming speed (U(crit), cms⁻¹) of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, exposed to various temperatures (17, 20, 25, and 29 °C), salinities (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40), and starvation days (1, 4, and 8d), was determined in a flume tank. Body length (5.5, 6.6, 7.3, 9.4, and 10.0 cm) was also studied in relation to the U(crit). Temperature, salinity, body length and starvation significantly affected the U(crit) of whiteleg shrimp. The U(crit) increased as temperature increased from 17 to 29 °C. The relationship between temperature (t, °C) and U(crit) can be described by the linear model as U(crit)=1.5916t+0.8892, R²=0.9992 (P<0.01). The U(crit) increased and then decreased as salinity increased from 20 to 40. The optimum salinity and the corresponding maximum U(crit) are 36.17 and 42.87 cms⁻¹, respectively. The relationship between salinity (s) and U(crit) can be described by the quadratic model as U(crit)=-0.0171s²+1.2371s+20.497, R²=0.7667 (P=0.234). The U(crit) increased as body length increased from 5.5 to 10.0 cm, whereas relative critical swimming speed (U(crit)', BLs⁻¹) decreased. The relationship between body length (l, cm) and U(crit) or U(crit)' can be described by the quadratic model as U(crit)=-0.6233l²+12.302l-20.264, R²=0.9942 (P<0.01) or U(crit)'=-0.0514l²+0.5351l+3.8132, R²=0.9862 (P<0.05). The U(crit) decreased as starvation days increased from 1 to 8d. The relationship between starvation day (d, d) and U(crit) can be described by the quadratic model as U(crit)=-0.1262d²-0.0395d +40.979, R²=1. Low temperatures and salinity and starvation can reduce the swimming speed of whiteleg shrimp. Results can be of value in evaluating the locomotive ability, understanding ecological processes, and improving the capture and stock enhancement of whiteleg shrimp.

  8. Ultrasonic speed, densities and viscosities of xylitol in water and in aqueous tyrosine and phenylalanine solutions at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bidhuri, P.; Uzair, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic speed u, densities ρ and viscosities η of xylitol in water and in 0.001 m aqueous l-tyrosine (Tyr) and l-phenylalanine (Phe) have been measured at different temperatures. From the density and ultrasonic speed measurements apparent molar isentropic compression κ_{φ}, apparent molar isentropic compressions at infinite dilution κ_{{S,φ}}0 , experimental slope S K , hydration number n H , transfer partial molar isentropic compressibility Δ_{tr} κ_{{S,φ}}0 of xylitol from water to aqueous Tyr and Phe have been obtained. From the viscosity data, B-coefficient and B-coefficient of transfer Δ tr B of xylitol from water to aqueous Phe and Tyr at different temperatures have also been estimated. Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of solvent Δ μ 1 0# and per mole of solute Δ μ 2 0# have been calculated by using Feakins transition state theory for the studied systems. The calculated parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and hydration behavior of xylitol.

  9. Some Effects of Injection Advance Angle, Engine-Jacket Temperature, and Speed on Combustion in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1936-01-01

    An optical indicator and a high-speed motion-picture camera capable of operating at the rate of 2,000 frames per second were used to record simultaneously the pressure development and the flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. Tests were made at engine speeds of 570 and 1,500 r.p.m. The engine-jacket temperature was varied from 100 degrees to 300 degrees F. And the injection advance angle from 13 degrees after top center to 120 degrees before top center. The results show that the course of the combustion is largely controlled by the temperature and pressure of the air in the chamber from the time the fuel is injected until the time at which combustion starts and by the ignition lag. The conclusion is presented that in a compression-ignition engine with a quiescent combustion chamber the ignition lag should be the longest that can be used without excessive rates of pressure rise; any further shortening of the ignition lag decreased the effective combustion of the engine.

  10. Evaluating the Uncertainties in the Electron Temperature and Radial Speed Measurements Using White Light Corona Eclipse Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginald, Nelson L.; Davilla, Joseph M.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Rastaetter, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We examine the uncertainties in two plasma parameters from their true values in a simulated asymmetric corona. We use the Corona Heliosphere (CORHEL) and Magnetohydrodynamics Around the Sphere (MAS) models in the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) to investigate the differences between an assumed symmetric corona and a more realistic, asymmetric one. We were able to predict the electron temperatures and electron bulk flow speeds to within +/-0.5 MK and +/-100 km s(exp-1), respectively, over coronal heights up to 5.0 R from Sun center.We believe that this technique could be incorporated in next-generation white-light coronagraphs to determine these electron plasma parameters in the low solar corona. We have conducted experiments in the past during total solar eclipses to measure the thermal electron temperature and the electron bulk flow speed in the radial direction in the low solar corona. These measurements were made at different altitudes and latitudes in the low solar corona by measuring the shape of the K-coronal spectra between 350 nm and 450 nm and two brightness ratios through filters centered at 385.0 nm/410.0 nm and 398.7 nm/423.3 nm with a bandwidth of is approximately equal to 4 nm. Based on symmetric coronal models used for these measurements, the two measured plasma parameters were expected to represent those values at the points where the lines of sight intersected the plane of the solar limb.

  11. Silicon solar cells by high-speed low-temperature processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for silicon solar cell fabrication is being developed around ion implantation and pulsed electron beam techniques. Cells are fabricated totally in a vacuum environment at room temperature. Major reductions result in the time, energy consumption, and waste material generation associated with solar cell production. Cells to date have exhibited air mass zero efficiencies exceeding 10 percent.

  12. Imaging of temperature distribution and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Heike H.; Ptaszynski, Lars; Schlott, Kerstin; Bonin, Tim; Bever, Marco; Koinzer, Stefan; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2011-03-01

    Considerable improvement in the reproducibility of retinal photocoagulation is expected if degree and extend of the heat-induced tissue damage can be visualized on-line during the treatment. Experimental laser treatments of the retina with enucleated pig eyes were investigated by high speed phase-sensitive OCT. OCT could visualize the increase of tissue scattering during the photocoagulation in a time-resolved way. Immediate and late tissue changes were visualized with more than 15 µm resolution. Changes of the reflectance in the OCT images had a similar sensitivity in detecting tissue changes than macroscopic imaging. By using Doppler OCT slight movements of the tissue in the irradiated spot were detected. At low irradiance the thermal expansion of the tissue is observed. At higher irradiance irreversible tissue changes dominate the tissue expansion. OCT may play an important role in understanding the mechanisms of photocoagulation. This may lead to new treatment strategies. First experiments with rabbits demonstrate the feasibility of in-vivo measurements.

  13. Comparison of ultrasonic wave speed measurements on wax at elevated temperatures to numerical method predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, David G.; Stair, Sarah L.; Jack, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic stress wave amplitude and time-of-flight values may change as a media is heated. The measurement of relatively small variations in velocity and material attenuation can detect and quantify significant variations within a material's microstructure, such as a change in phase from solid to liquid. This paper discusses the experimental setup, ultrasonic wave speed tracking methods and signal analysis algorithms that are used in this study to document the changes within highly attenuative wax material as it is either being heated or cooled from 25°C to 90°C. The experimental set-up utilizes ultrasonic probes in a through-transmission configuration. The ultrasonic waveforms are recorded and analyzed during long duration thermal experiments. To complement the ultrasonic data, a Discontinuous-Galerkin Model (DGM) was also created, which uses unstructured meshes to determine how waves travel in this media and how the sound interacts with the prescribed boundary conditions. This numerical method solves particle motion travel using partial differential equations and outputs a wave trace per unit time. Both experimental and analytical data are presented and compared. The experimental and analytical data share some similarities; however, the differences between the two, including a high frequency component present in the analytical data that is not observed in the experimental data, are continuing to be studied and addressed in the model.

  14. Effect of refrigerant flow control on the performance variation of a variable-speed heat pump operating at low outdoor temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.H.; O'Neal, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of electronic flow control on the performance of a variable speed heat pump typically operating in both cooling and heating mode. For this purpose, cooling and heating capacity, EER and refrigerant mass flow rate were measured as functions of compressor speed, length of capillary tube (or valve opening of the electronic valve), refrigerant charge, and outdoor temperature. From the experimental results, it was found that performance enhancement due to the electronic flow control became more significant as the operating conditions (evaporating temperature and compressor speed) deviated from the standard condition at which capacity and EER were rated for the given capillary tube.

  15. Dependence of penicillium chrysogenum growth, morphology, vacuolation, and productivity in fed-batch fermentations on impeller type and agitation intensity

    PubMed

    J sten P; Paul; Nienow; Thomas

    1998-09-20

    The influence of the agitation conditions on the growth, morphology, vacuolation, and productivity of Penicillium chrysogenum has been examined in 6 L fed-batch fermentations. A standard Rushton turbine, a four-bladed paddle, and a six-bladed pitched blade impeller were compared. Power inputs per unit volume of liquid, P/VL, ranged from 0.35 to 7.4 kW/m3. The same fermentation protocol was used in each fermentation, including holding the dissolved oxygen concentration above 40% air saturation by gas blending. The mean projected area (for all dispersed types, including clumps) and the clump roughness were used to characterize the morphology. Consideration of clumps was vital as these were the predominant morphological form. For a given impeller, the batch-phase specific growth rates and the overall biomass concentrations increased with agitation intensity. Higher fragmentation at higher speeds was assumed to have promoted growth through increased formation of new growing tips. The mean projected area increased during the rapid growth phase followed by a sharp decrease to a relatively constant value dependent on the agitation conditions. The higher the speed, the lower the projected area for a given impeller type. The proportion by volume of hyphal vacuoles and empty regions decreased with speed, possibly due to fragmentation in the vacuolated regions. The specific penicillin production rate was generally higher with lower impeller speed for a given impeller type. The highest value of penicillin production as well as its rate was obtained using the Rushton turbine impeller at the lowest speed. At given P/VL, changes in morphology, specific growth rate, and specific penicillin production rate depended on impeller geometry. The morphological data could be correlated with either tip speed or the "energy dissipation/circulation function," but a reasonable correlation of the specific growth rate and specific production rate was only possible with the latter. Copyright

  16. High-speed measurement of an air transect's temperature shift heated by laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, WenYu; Jiang, ZongFu; Xi, Fengjie; Li, Qiang; Xie, Wenke

    2005-02-01

    Laser beam heat the air on the optic path, Beam-deflection optical tomography is a non-intrusive method to measure the 2-dimension temperature distribution in the transect. By means of linear Hartmann Sensor at the rate of 27kHz, the optic path was heated by a 2.7μm HF laser, continuous and high time resolution gradients of optic phase were obtained. the result of analysing and calculation showed the temperament shift in the heated beam path was not higher than 50K when the HF laser power was 9W. The experiment showed that it is a practical non-intrusive temperature shift measurement method for a small area aero-optical medium.

  17. A Novel, High-Resolution, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor for Oceanographic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-11

    sharp thermo -gradient underwater. Keywords— Fiber-optic thermometer; Fabry-Pérot interferometer; ocean microstructure; turbulence I...in this paper is based on a FP cavity formed by thin crystalline silicon film attached to the end face of a single-mode fiber. Due to the thermo ...the dynamic temperature variations associated with a strong microstructure thermo -gradient is demonstrated. A. Sensitivity (a) (b) Fig. 1. (a

  18. Riverine skin temperature response to subsurface processes in low wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, Sophia E.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Anderson, Steven P.; Dugan, John P.

    2016-03-01

    Both surface and subsurface processes modulate the surface thermal skin and as such the skin temperature may serve as an indicator for coastal, estuarine, and alluvial processes. Infrared (IR) imagery offers the unique tool to survey such systems, allowing not only to assess temperature variability of the thermal boundary layer, but also to derive surface flow fields through digital particle image velocimetry, optical flow techniques, or spectral methods. In this study, IR time-series imagery taken from a boat moored in the Hudson River estuary is used to determine surface flow, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, and characteristic temperature and velocity length scales. These are linked to subsurface measurements provided by in situ instruments. Under the low wind conditions and weak stratification, surface currents and dissipation rate are found to reflect subsurface mean flow (r2 = 0.89) and turbulence (r2 = 0.75). For relatively low dissipation rates, better correlations are obtained by computing dissipation rates directly from wavenumber spectra rather than when having to assume the validity of the Taylor hypothesis. Furthermore, the subsurface dissipation rate scales with the surface length scales (L) and mean flow (U) using ɛ ∝ U3/L (r2 = 0.9). The surface length scale derived from the thermal fields is found to have a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.88) to water depth (D) with (D/L) ˜ 13. Such a relation may prove useful for remote bathymetric surveys when no waves are present.

  19. Large Area Divertor Temperature Measurements Using A High-speed Camera With Near-infrared FiIters in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, B C; Zweben, S J; Gray, T K; Hosea, J; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; Maqueda, R J; McLean, A G; Roquemore, A L; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2011-04-05

    Fast cameras already installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have be equipped with near-infrared (NIR) filters in order to measure the surface temperature in the lower divertor region. Such a system provides a unique combination of high speed (> 50 kHz) and wide fi eld-of-view (> 50% of the divertor). Benchtop calibrations demonstrated the system's ability to measure thermal emission down to 330 oC. There is also, however, signi cant plasma light background in NSTX. Without improvements in background reduction, the current system is incapable of measuring signals below the background equivalent temperature (600 - 700 oC). Thermal signatures have been detected in cases of extreme divertor heating. It is observed that the divertor can reach temperatures around 800 oC when high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating is used. These temperature profiles were fi t using a simple heat diffusion code, providing a measurement of the heat flux to the divertor. Comparisons to other infrared thermography systems on NSTX are made.

  20. Characterization of High-Speed Impinging Jets in a High Pressure and Temperature Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-20

    aqueous glycerol solu~on impingring jet spray hologram at an ambient temperature of (a) 250C and (b) 2000C. T =25 ’CD 0.8 mm 29 90 V = 12.5m/s Ethanal ...Impingement Point (12 *1 ’ 40 mm 3 W~i (a) x-~ IV.-- - T=2:.SfC D=z0.8nmm 29=90’ N’= 1’_Smi/s Ethanal Impinemn Point 40 mm i3 2 Fig~ure 6 Images of an

  1. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. ); Bethmann, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  2. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  3. Coal storage hopper with vibrating-screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1982-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyer mechanism. The vibrating scrren agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  4. Observations During GRIP from HIRAD: Images of C-Band Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Jones, W. L.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Biswas, S.; May, C.; Shah, G.; Black, P.; Buckley, C. D.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD (Hurricane Imaging Radiometer) flew on the WB-57 during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain cross-track resolution of approximately 3 degrees, out to approximately 60 degrees to each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be inferred. This technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years. The advantage of HIRAD over SFMR is that HIRAD can observe a +/- 60-degree swath, rather than a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP campaign will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. To the extent possible, comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the GRIP campaign, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eyewall, location of vortex wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  5. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  6. Development of ball bearings with solid film for high-vacuum, high-temperature, high-speed application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Takashi; Konishi, Kazuaki; Aihara, Satoru; Sawamoto, Takeshi

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes the experimental results of long-life solid lubricated ball bearings tested under high-vacuum of 10 exp -4 Pa, high-temperature of 300 C, and high-speed (9000 rpm) conditions. For full ball-type bearings, the thin soft metals, either Ag or Pb, which were coated on the races and balls, appeared to have good torque properties. However, the durability of such bearings was less than 300 hours. The transfer films from the lamellar solid MoS2 and metal composite retainers improved the torque and wear properties. For ceramic, i.e., silicon nitride, balls used with steel rings, wear occurred on the inner rings. All ceramic bearings with composite retainers showed improved torque and wear properties.

  7. Isolation of all-trans lycopene by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a temperature-controlled solvent system.

    PubMed

    Baldermann, Susanne; Ropeter, Katharina; Köhler, Nils; Fleischmann, Peter

    2008-05-23

    The effect of solvent system, partition coefficient, retention of stationary phase, column, revolution speed, and flow rate of mobile phase are well known parameters to effect HSCCC (high-speed counter-current chromatography) separations. Temperature effects on chromatographic techniques like HPLC and GC are well studied, but the influence of temperature on CCC solvent systems is hardly investigated. This paper presents the influence of temperature on several key parameters (partition coefficient, settling time, volume ratios) in the hydrophobic HSCCC solvent system hexane:dichloromethane:acetonitrile (30:11:18, v/v/v) used for the isolation of lycopene from tomato paste at 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C.

  8. Mechanisms of cell damage in agitated microcarrier tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1986-01-01

    Cells growing on microcarriers may be damaged by collisions of the microcarrier against another microcarrier or the reactor agitator. Bead-bead collisions are caused by small-scale turbulence, which can also cause high local shear stress on the cells. The cells are also exposed to 10-20 Hz cyclic shear stress by bead rotation.

  9. Using high-resolution fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing to measure spatially resolved speed and temperature of airflows in a shallow gully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christoph; Sayde, Chadi; Selker, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel observational technique that was applied to study transient shallow cold-air drainages and pools in undulating terrain in weak-wind conditions. Wind speed and air temperature at thousands of closely co-located locations were measured simultaneously at high spatial (0.25m) and temporal (5s) resolution using paired passive and actively heated optical fibers with a distributed temperature sensing system (DTS). The fibers were deployed in a transect across a shallow gully with a total length of 230 m at three levels (0.5, 1, and 2m above ground level) during the Shallow Cold Pool (SCP) Experiment in Northern Colorado, USA in October and November 2012. While we previously demonstrated that air temperature and the thermal structure of the near-surface turbulence can be observed with the DTS technique (Thomas et al., 2012, Zeeman et al., 2014), the novelty here consists of additionally measuring wind speed on horizontal scales of several hundreds of meters with fine resolution. Analogous to a hot-wire anemometer, the approach is based on the principal of velocity-dependent heat transfer from a heated surface. We present the theoretical basis for the DTS wind and temperature measurements and validate it against point observations from sonic anemometers and thermo-hygrometers. A space-time analysis of the near-surface gully flow and temperature field is presented based upon the observations subject to an orthogonal multi-resolution decomposition for selected cases. The temporal variability of near-surface air temperature was largest half-way up the slope caused be shifts of the very sharp thermal boundary between the density driven cold-air drainage flow in the gully bottom and the lower density air on the slopes, which was significantly warmed by enhanced downward mixing of sensible heat in the lee of the gully shoulder. Stationary horizontal temperature gradients at this thermal boundary amounted to 6 to 8 K m-1 and persisted for several hours unless

  10. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels <6.7 or <6.3 on days 5 or 7, respectively, the pH in the matched product stored in the 1.3 L container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation.

  11. Magnetic shaft seals prevent hazardous leakage from wastewater agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Traino, F.A.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's laboratory in Miamisburg, OH, operated by Monsanto Research Corporation, processes approximately 45,000 gallons per week of low-level radioactive wastewater to meet Federal Environmental Protection Agency quality standards. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination throughout the operating area demands effective sealing of all process piping, valves, pumps, and agitators. Rotating shafts of pumps and agitators installed a the start of operations in 1947 were sealed by stuffing glands with graphite impregnated asbestos packing. These pumps proved to be unsatisfactory. In the mid-1970's, new process pumps with mechanical seals and some with magnetic drives were installed. Later, in January 1979, new agitator shaft drives with double tandem, spring-loaded mechanical seals were installed, maintenance of these pumps was costly. The agitator drive shafts were redesigned to accommodate magnetic seals of the type successfully used in blowers and vacuum/pressure pumps in other plant locations. One inherent advantage of the magnetic seal is that it operates with a face loading as much as 50% less than a conventional spring-loaded mechanical seal. The lower loading by a predetermined uniform magnetic force contributes to long face life. Other advantages include compactness, ease of assembly with only a few parts, and insensitivity to vibration. The magnetic shaft seals installed on the agitator shafts in February 1983 are still in service without any leakage or need for maintenance. Based on current operating data and a projected five-year meantime between failures, the estimated cost benefit of the magnetic seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals will be $640 vs $2400 respectively per seal, with 60% less downtime for maintenance.

  12. Effect of aeration and agitation regimes on lipase production by newly isolated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa-MTCC 8737 in stirred tank reactor using molasses as sole production medium.

    PubMed

    Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Subhakar, Chennupati; Vanajakshi, J; Jetty, Annapurna

    2008-12-01

    The influence of media and process parameters (aeration and agitation) on fermentation broth rheology and biomass formation has been studied in 1.5-l stirred tank reactor for lipase production using Rhodotorula mucilaginosa MTCC 8737. Molasses, as sole production medium, is used for lipase production by varying aeration (1, 2, and 3 vvm) and agitation speeds (100, 200, and 300 rpm). Maximum lipase activity of 72 U/ml was obtained during 96 h of fermentation at 2 vvm, 200 rpm, pH 7, and 25 +/- 2 degrees C temperature. Lipase production kinetics with respect to dry cell weight of biomass showed Y (P/S) of 25.71 U/mg, specific product formation of 10.9 U/mg DC, and Y (X/S) 2.35 mg/mg. Maximum lipase activity (MC 2) of 56 U/ml was observed at 1% molasses, and a further increase in the molasses concentration of (%) 1.5 and 2 inhibited the product formation of lipase with 15 and 8.5 U/ml, respectively. The production kinetics of molasses media showed Y (P/X) was 14 U/mg DC, Y (P/S) 16 U/mg, and Y (X/S) 1.14 mg/mg during 96 h of bioreactor operation. The k(L)a values for all batches (MC 1-MC 4) at 96 h of fermentation were 32, 28, 21, and 19/h, and the |oxygen transfer rate were 54.4, 56, 35.7, and 17.29 mg/l h, respectively. Increase in molasses concentration resulted in decreased lipase activity by increase in viscosity of the fermentation broth.

  13. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    SciTech Connect

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-08

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  14. On the opposing roles of air temperature and wind speed variability in flux estimation from remotely sensed land surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, G.; Albertson, J. D.; Kustas, W. P.; Li, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2007-10-01

    In semi-arid regions the evapotranspiration rates depend on both the spatial distribution of the vegetation and the soil moisture, for a given radiation regime. Remote sensing can provide high resolution spatially distributed estimation (o ˜ 10-100 m) of land surface states. However, data on the near surface air properties are not readily available at the same resolution and are often taken as spatially uniform over a greater region. Concern for how this scale mismatch might lead to erroneous flux estimations motivates this effort. This paper examines the relative roles of variability in the two dominant atmospheric states, wind speed and air temperature, on the variability of the surface fluxes. The study is conducted with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), where the boundary conditions are given by a surface energy balance model based on remotely sensed land surface data. Simulations have been performed for the late morning hours of two clear-sky summer days during the SGP97 experiment with different wetness conditions over an area characterized by a high contrast in surface temperature, canopy cover, and roughness between vegetated and dry bare soil areas. Spatial variability in canopy density effects both the air temperature Ta, through the energy partitioning, and the wind speed U, via the roughness, leading to local variations at 5 m above the ground of the order of 1 K and 1 m/s, respectively. Simulations show that the Ta variability tends to decrease the sensible heat flux H (- 30 W/m2) over bare soil areas and to increase it (+30 W/m2) over dense vegetation, thus reducing the total variability of the surface fluxes relative to those that would be estimated for spatially constant Ta, as observed in previous studies. The variability in U tends to increase H over bare soil (+50 W/m2), while having negligible effects over the vegetation, thus increasing the spatial variance of surface fluxes. However, when considered

  15. Influence of Commercial Saturated Monoglyceride, Mono-/Diglycerides Mixtures, Vegetable Oil, Stirring Speed, and Temperature on the Physical Properties of Organogels

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Amador, Omar Gerardo; Huang, Qingrong; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria Elizabeth; Moreno-Jimenez, Martha Rocio; Gonzalez-Laredo, Ruben F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelator, vegetable oil, stirring speed, and temperature on the physical properties of obtained organogels. They were prepared under varying independent conditions and applying a fractional experimental design. From there a rheological characterization was developed. The physical characterization also included polarized light microscopy and calorimetric analysis. Once these data were obtained, X-Ray diffraction was applied to selected samples and a microstructure lattice was confirmed. Commonly, the only conditions that affect crystallization have been analyzed (temperature, solvent, gelator, and cooling rate). We found that stirring speed is the most important parameter in the organogel preparation. PMID:26904637

  16. The Effect of Temperature and Rotational Speed on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Cu Base Alloy (Cu-Al-Si-Fe) Welded by Semisolid Stir Joining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferasat, Keyvan; Aashuri, Hossein; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Shafizadeh, Mahdi; Nikzad, Siamak

    2015-12-01

    Semisolid stir joining has been under deliberation as a possible method for joining of copper alloys. In this study, the effect of temperature and rotational speed of stirrer on macrostructure evaluation and mechanical properties of samples were investigated. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction were performed for macro and microstructural analysis. A uniform micro-hardness profile was attained by semisolid stir joining method. The ultimate shear strength and bending strength of welded samples were improved in comparison with the cast sample. There is also lower area porosity in welded samples than the cast metal. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing temperature and rotational speed of the joining process.

  17. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  18. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  19. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  1. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  2. [Pain, agitation and delirium in acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Funk, G-C

    2016-02-01

    Avoiding pain, agitation and delirium as well as avoiding unnecessary deep sedation is a powerful yet challenging strategy in critical care medicine. A number of interactions between cerebral function and respiratory function should be regarded in patients with respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. A cooperative sedation strategy (i.e. patient is awake and free of pain and delirium) is feasible in many patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Especially patients with mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) seem to benefit from preserved spontaneous breathing. While completely disabling spontaneous ventilation with or without neuromuscular blockade is not a standard strategy in ARDS, it might be temporarily required in patients with severe ARDS, who have substantial dyssynchrony or persistent hypoxaemia. Since pain, agitation and delirium compromise respiratory function they should also be regarded during noninvasive ventilation and during ventilator weaning. Pharmacological sedation can have favourable effects in these situations, but should not be given routinely or uncritically.

  3. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, S.; Roshan, A.; Ariffin, M. K. A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes.

  4. Power applications of high-temperature superconductivity: Variable speed motors, current switches, and energy storage for end use

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Banerjee, B.B.; Grant, P.M.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct joint research and development activities related to certain electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS). The new superconductors may allow development of an energy-efficient switch to control current to variable speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, and other power conversion equipment. Motor types that were considered include induction, permanent magnet, and superconducting ac motors. Because it is impractical to experimentally alter certain key design elements in radial-gap motors, experiments were conducted on an axial field superconducting motor prototype using 4 NbTi magnets. Superconducting magnetic energy storage technology with 0.25--5 kWh stored energy was studied as a viable solution to short duration voltage sag problems on the customer side of the electric meter. The technical performance characteristics of the device wee assembled, along with competing technologies such as active power line conditioners with storage, battery-based uninterruptible power supplies, and supercapacitors, and the market potential for SMES was defined. Four reports were prepared summarizing the results of the project.

  5. Recession behavior of Lu2SiO5 under a high speed steam jet at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Akira; Ohji, Tatsuki; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2011-01-01

    Study of recession behavior of Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk was performed in high speed steam jet with a velocity of {approx}50 m/s temperature range between 1300 and 1500 C for 100 h. X-ray results showed that no phase change was observed for all samples after steam exposure. Detailed scanning electron microscopy examinations showed some cracks formation was observed on the bulk surface for the samples of 1400 and 1500 C. Also, porous structure was formed on the bulk surface for the samples of 1300 and 1400 C. As for 1500 C sample, the porous structure disappeared after exposure test. The high magnification images of 1300 C sample showed the depletion of grain boundary glassy phase. However, for 1400 C sample, boundary phase was formed again, and the grain growth can be identified for the sample of 1500 C. The recession mechanism can be explained by a mass transfer of evaporated species from the bulk surface and the weight loss rate measured can be expressed by Arrhenius plot.

  6. Ultrasonic agitation method for accelerating batch leaching tests

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.J.; Stegemann, J.A.; Chao, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    A method has been developed which uses ultrasonic cavitation to accelerate batch leaching tests. Batch leaching tests, in which attainment of an equilibrium between the solid sample and liquid leachant is desired, usually involve particle size reduction and mixing to hasten mass transfer of soluble compounds. In the study discussed here, mixing in the form of ultrasonic cavitation was used to supply an intense level of agitation. Breaking the liquid boundary layer surrounding individual waste particles ensured a maximum concentration gradient between the solid and liquid phases and accelerated attainment of steady state concentrations. Evaluation of the acceleration technique was made through comparison of leachate quality of stabilized/solidified (S/S) residue samples tested using the Wastewater Technology Centre`s (WTC) equilibrium extraction (EE) and an ultrasonically agitated version of the same test method (UEE). The sample preparation, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction fluid, etc., specified in the EE method were held constant for the EE and UEE samples, while the duration and method of agitation was altered for the UEE samples. To date, this evaluation has been made using five metal finishing residues, which were selected based on their elevated concentrations of regulated contaminants. The results of the evaluations are presented and suggestions are made as to the applicability of this accelerated test method.

  7. Electron Temperatures and Flow Speeds of the Low Solar Corona: MACS Results from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 in Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginald, Nelson L.; Davila, Joseph M.; SaintCyr, O.; Rabin, Douglas M.; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Hassler, Donald M.; Gashut, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Libya to measure both the electron temperature and its flow speed simultaneously at multiple locations in the low solar corona by measuring the visible K-coronal spectrum. Coronal model spectra incorporating the effects of electron temperature and its flow speed were matched with the measured K-coronal spectra to interpret the observations. Results show electron temperatures of (1.10 +/- 0.05) MK, (0.70 +/- 0.08) MK, and (0.98 +/- 0.12) MK, at 1.1 Solar Radius from Sun center in the solar north, east and west, respectively, and (0.93 +/- 0.12) MK, at 1.2 Solar Radius from Sun center in the solar west. The corresponding outflow speeds obtained from the spectral fit are (103 +/- 92) km/s, (0 + 10) km/s, (0+10) km/s, and (0+10) km/s. Since the observations were taken only at 1.1 Solar Radius and 1.2 Solar Radius from Sun center, these speeds, consistent with zero outflow, are in agreement with expectations and provide additional confirmation that the spectral fitting method is working. The electron temperature at 1.1 Solar Radius from Sun center is larger at the north (polar region) than the east and west (equatorial region).

  8. Temperature-dependent differences in the nonlinear acoustic behavior of ultrasound contrast agents revealed by high-speed imaging and bulk acoustics.

    PubMed

    Mulvana, Helen; Stride, Eleanor; Tang, Mengxing; Hajnal, Jo V; Eckersley, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Previous work by the authors has established that increasing the temperature of the suspending liquid from 20°C to body temperature has a significant impact on the bulk acoustic properties and stability of an ultrasound contrast agent suspension (SonoVue, Bracco Suisse SA, Manno, Lugano, Switzerland). In this paper the influence of temperature on the nonlinear behavior of microbubbles is investigated, because this is one of the most important parameters in the context of diagnostic imaging. High-speed imaging showed that raising the temperature significantly influences the dynamic behavior of individual microbubbles. At body temperature, microbubbles exhibit greater radial excursion and oscillate less spherically, with a greater incidence of jetting and gas expulsion, and therefore collapse, than they do at room temperature. Bulk acoustics revealed an associated increase in the harmonic content of the scattered signals. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting laboratory studies at body temperature if the results are to be interpreted for in vivo applications.

  9. Effect of agitation of EDTA with 808-nm diode laser on dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Yeter, Kübra Y; Karatas, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Cenk B; Ayranci, Leyla B; Ozsu, Damla

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of agitation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with diode laser at different agitation times on root dentin microhardness. Eighty-four specimens were divided randomly into seven groups, as follows: (1) distilled water, (2) 17% EDTA, (3) EDTA with 60 s ultrasonic agitation, (4) EDTA with 10 s laser agitation, (5) EDTA with 20 s laser agitation, (6) EDTA with 30 s laser agitation, and (7) EDTA with 40 s laser agitation. All of the specimens were irrigated with 5% NaOCl and distilled water except the distilled water group. Microhardness values were calculated before and after the procedures. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Statistically significant differences were determined between the distilled water and other groups. Also, statistically significant differences were observed between EDTA with 40 s laser agitation and EDTA, and EDTA with 10 and 20 s laser agitations. Ultrasonic agitation of EDTA affected microhardness of root dentin similar to EDTA (p > .05). All applications decreased the microhardness of root dentin when compared with distilled water. Agitation of EDTA with diode laser for 40 s caused more reduction in microhardness of root dentin when compared with EDTA.

  10. Phosphoglucose isomerase genotype affects running speed and heat shock protein expression after exposure to extreme temperatures in a montane willow beetle.

    PubMed

    Rank, Nathan E; Bruce, Douglas A; McMillan, David M; Barclay, Colleen; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P

    2007-03-01

    Eastern Sierra Nevada populations of the willow beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis commonly experience stressfully high and low environmental temperatures that may influence survival and reproduction. Allele frequencies at the enzyme locus phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) vary across a climatic latitudinal gradient in these populations, with PGI allele 1 being most common in cooler regions and PGI allele 4 in warmer ones. PGI genotypes differ in heat and cold tolerance and in expression of a 70 kDa heat shock protein. Here we examine genetic, behavioral and environmental factors affecting a performance character, running speed, for willow beetles, and assess effects of consecutive cold and heat exposure on running speed and expression of Hsp70 in the laboratory. In nature, running speed depends on air temperature and is higher for males than females. Mating beetles ran faster than single beetles, and differences among PGI genotypes in male running speed depended on the presence of females. In the laboratory, exposure to cold reduced subsequent running speed, but the amount of this reduction depended on PGI genotype and previous thermal history. Effects of exposure to heat also depended on life history stage and PGI genotype. Adults possessing allele 1 ran fastest after a single exposure to stressful temperature, whereas those possessing allele 4 ran faster after repeated exposure. Larvae possessing allele 4 ran fastest after a single stressful exposure, but running speed generally declined after a second exposure to stressful temperature. The ranking of PGI genotypes after the second exposure depended on whether a larva had been exposed to cold or heat. Effects of temperature on Hsp70 expression also varied among PGI genotypes and depended on type of exposure, especially for adults (single heat exposure, two cold exposures: PGI 1-1>1-4>4-4; other multiple extreme exposures: 4-4>1-4>1-1). There was no consistent association between alleles at other polymorphic enzyme loci

  11. The speed of sound and derived thermodynamic properties of pure water at temperatures between (253 and 473) K and at pressures up to 400 MPa.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-W; Trusler, J P M

    2012-03-07

    The speed of sound in high-purity water has been measured in the temperature range (253 to 473) K at pressures up to 400 MPa. The experimental technique used was based on a double-path pulse-echo method with a single 5-MHz ultrasound transducer placed between two unequally spaced reflectors. The cell was calibrated in water at T = 298.15 K and p = 1 MPa against the speed of sound given by the 1995 equation-of-state formulation of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS-95) which, for that state point, has an uncertainty of 0.005%. Corrections for the effects of temperature and pressure on the path length difference are considered in detail. The estimated expanded relative uncertainty of the speed of sound determined in this work is shown to be between 0.03% and 0.04% at a confidence level of 95%. The density and isobaric specific heat capacity of water have been obtained in the temperature range (253.15 to 473.15) K at pressure up to 400 MPa by thermodynamic integration of the sound-speed data subject to initial values computed from IAPWS-95 on the isobar at p = 0.1 MPa. The speed of sound, density, and isobaric specific heat capacity were compared with IAPWS-95 with corresponding absolute relative deviations within 0.3%, 0.03%, and 1%, respectively at T ≥ 273.15 K and p ≤ 400 MPa; larger deviations, especially for heat capacity, were found at lower temperatures. The results imply that the uncertainties of properties computed from IAPWS-95 may be significantly reduced over the major part of the region investigated in this work.

  12. Flow-induced agitations create a granular fluid.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Kiri; Zanin, Alexey; Bastien, Renaud; Wandersman, Elie; van Hecke, Martin

    2010-02-19

    We fluidize a granular medium through localized stirring and probe the mechanical response of quiescent regions far away from the main flow. In these regions the material behaves like a liquid: high-density probes sink, low-density probes float at the depth given by Archimedes' law, and drag forces on moving probes scale linearly with the velocity. The fluidlike character of the material is set by agitations generated in the stirred region, suggesting a nonlocal rheology: the relation between applied stress and observed strain rate in one location depends on the strain rate in another location.

  13. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  14. The significance of variation in extrusion speeds and temperatures on a PEO/PCL blend based matrix for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lyons, John G; Blackie, Paul; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2008-03-03

    The body of work described in this research paper outlines the use of PEO/PCL blends in the production of monolithic matrices for oral drug delivery. Several batches of matrix material were prepared with carvedilol used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The matrices were prepared using various extrusion parameters to investigate the effect of screw speed and barrel temperature on the properties of the drug delivery devices. The resultant extrudate was characterised using steady state parallel plate rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution testing. Higher screw speeds were observed to result in slightly lower matrix melt viscosity when compared with matrices compounded using lower screw speeds. Dissolution testing showed that the incorporation of the hydrophobic PCL polymer into a PEO matrix results in a retarded drug release profile.

  15. Removal of copper powder from aqueous solution by cementation using an agitated vessel.

    PubMed

    Amin, N K; El-Ashtouky, E-S Z; Abdelwahab, O

    2014-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the removal of copper powder from aqueous solution by cementation on a stationary disc placed inside an agitated vessel. The influence of several parameters on the rate of cementation, such as initial copper sulphate concentration, impeller rotational speed, presence of surfactant (Triton X-100), distance between the disc and the impeller, type of blade turbine and presence of baffles, has been investigated. The rate of cementation was found to increase with increasing impeller rotational speed and initial copper sulphate concentration. On the other hand, the rate decreases with increasing distance between the disc and the impeller. The rate of cementation was inhibited in solutions containing Triton X-100. Performance of a four-blade 90 degree turbine with regard to the rate of copper cementation was superior to the performance of a four-blade 45 degree pitched turbine. The present data can be correlated in terms of mass transfer coefficient of cementation as Sh = 0.905 Sc0.33 Re0.89 (d/l)0.41 (four-blade 90 degree turbine); Sh = 0.815 Sc0.33Re0.79 (d/l)0.47 (four-blade 45 degree pitched turbine), for the conditions 2035 < Sc < 2810 and 35,000 < Re < 179,000.

  16. Recovery of Copper from Effluents by Cementation on Aluminum in a Multirotating Cylinder-Agitated Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. H.; El-Ashtoukhy, E.-S. Z.; Bassyouni, M.

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of copper from synthetic waste solution using cementation technique in a new agitated vessel employing multirotating aluminum cylinders impeller was investigated. Parameters studied are cylinder diameter, rotation speed, initial copper ion concentrations, and effect of surfactants. Solution analysis and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the kinetic and mechanism of the process. The rate of recovery was found to be at its maximum value at the operating conditions of 350 rpm rotation speed, 5000 ppm initial CuSO4 concentration, and 1.2 cm cylinder diameter. All data were correlated by the dimensionless equation: {Sh} = 1.16 {Sc}^{0.33} {Re}^{0.63} ( {{d_{{c}} }/L} )^{0.54}, with an average deviation of ±8.5 pct and a standard deviation of 5.88 pct. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the solution decreased the rate of recovery by an amount ranging from 2.94 to 38.57 pct depending on the operating conditions. The present geometry gave higher rates of recovery compared to both the single rotating cylinder and rotating disc reactor.

  17. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  18. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  19. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  20. Effect of viscosity on the mixing efficiency in a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Guo, Yi-Ling; Xue, Mei; Du, Jing-Ru; Li, Weicheng; Li, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    One special self-agitation reactor, which does not require a mechanical mixer or other equipment for mixing, has been introduced. Self-agitation is affected by variation in viscosity property. To obtain and research the effect of viscosity on mixing behavior in the self-agitation reactor, Fluent® was used to create numerical simulations and to visualize the fluid flow status. The results show that when the viscosity of the liquid is 1 mPa s, the entire self-agitation results in an almost completely mixed reactor. The substrate becomes difficult to agitate, and the diffusion of the substrate and the tracer become quite after every self-agitation, as the viscosity increases. Once the viscosity is higher than 25 mPa s, the substrate and tracer could not be mixed in the entire reactor, and the reactor is recognized as the combination of several completely mixed reactors between which little exchange of liquid occurs.

  1. Validation Test Report for NFLUX PRE: Validation of Specific Humidity, Surface Air Temperature, and Wind Speed Precision and Accuracy for Assimilation into Global and Regional Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-02

    Test Report for NFLUX PRE: Validation of Specific Humidity, Surface Air Temperature, and Wind Speed Precision and Accuracy for Assimilation into...THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Validation Test Report for NFLUX PRE: Validation of Specific Humidity, Surface Air...The regional algorithm products overlay the existing global product estimate. The location of the observations is tested to see if it falls within one

  2. Validation Test Report for NFLUX PRE: Validation of Specific Humidity, Surface Air Temperature, and Wind Speed Precision and Accuracy for Assimilation into Global and Regional Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-17

    NRL/MR/7320--14-9523 Validation Test Report for NFLUX PRE: Validation of Specific Humidity, Surface Air Temperature, and Wind Speed...REPORT DATE 17 DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Validation Test Report for NFLUX PRE...products overlay the existing global product estimate. The location of the observations is tested to see if it falls within one of the regional areas

  3. Measured temperature and pressure dependence of compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave speeds in compacted, polycrystalline ice lh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgerud, M.B.; Waite, W.F.; Kirby, S.H.; Nur, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on laboratory measurements of compressional- and shear-wave speeds in a compacted, polycrystalline ice-Ih sample. The sample was made from triply distilled water that had been frozen into single crystal ice, ground into small grains, and sieved to extract the 180-250 ??m diameter fraction. Porosity was eliminated from the sample by compacting the granular ice between a hydraulically driven piston and a fixed end plug, both containing shear-wave transducers. Based on simultaneous compressional- and shear-wave-speed measurements, we calculated Poisson's ratio and compressional-wave, bulk, and shear moduli from -20 to -5??C and 22 to 33 MPa.

  4. State of Acute Agitation at Psychiatric Emergencies in Europe: The STAGE Study

    PubMed Central

    San, Luis; Marksteiner, Josef; Zwanzger, Peter; Figuero, María Aragüés; Romero, Francisco Toledo; Kyropoulos, Grigorios; Peixoto, Alberto Bessa; Chirita, Roxana; Boldeanu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agitation is an array of syndromes and types of behaviors that are common in patients with psychiatric disorders. In Europe, the estimation of prevalence of agitation has been difficult due to the lack of standard studies or systematic data collection done on this syndrome. Objective: An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study aimed to assess the prevalence of agitation episodes in psychiatric emergencies in different European countries. Method: For 1 week, all episodes of acute agitation that were attended to at the psychiatric emergency room (ER) or Acute Inpatient Unit (AIU) in the 27 participating centers were registered. The clinical characteristics and management of the agitation episode were also described. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: A total of 334 agitation episodes out of 7295 psychiatric emergencies were recorded, giving a prevalence rate of 4.6% (95% CI: 4.12-5.08). Of them, 172 [9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-10.9)] were attended at the ER and 162 [2.8% (95% CI: 2.4-3.3)] at AIU. Only data from 165 episodes of agitation (those with a signed informed consent form) was registered and described in this report. The most common psychiatric conditions associated with agitation were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and personality disorder. The management of agitation included from non-invasive to more coercive measures (mechanical, physical restraint or seclusion) that were unavoidable in more than half of the agitation episodes (59.5%). Conclusion: The results show that agitation is a common symptom in the clinical practice, both in emergency and inpatient psychiatric departments. Further studies are warranted to better recognize (using a standardized definition) and characterize agitation episodes. PMID:27857778

  5. Significance of High-Speed Air Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of a Closed-Path Gas Analyzer with a Short Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathilankal, James; Fratini, Gerardo; Burba, George

    2015-04-01

    Eddy covariance gas analyzers measure gas content in a known volume, thus essentially measuring gas density. The fundamental flux equation, however, is based on the dry mole fraction. The relationship between dry mole fraction and density is regulated by the ideal gas law describing the processes of temperature- and pressure-related expansions and contractions, and by the law of partial pressures, describing the process of dilution. As a result, this relationship depends on water vapor content, temperature and pressure of the air sample. If the instrument is able to output precise high-speed dry mole fraction, the flux processing is significantly simplified and WPL density terms accounting for the air density fluctuations are no longer required. This should also lead to the reduction in uncertainties associated with the density terms resulting from the eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes used in these terms. In this framework, three main measurement approaches may be considered: Open-path approach Outputting correct high-speed dry mole fraction from the open-path instrument is difficult because of complexities with maintaining reliable fast temperature measurements integrated over the entire measuring path, and also because of extraordinary challenges with accurate measurements of fast pressure in the open air flow. Classical long-tube closed-path approach For instruments utilizing traditional long-tube closed-path design, with tube length 1000 or more times the tube diameter, the fast dry mole fraction can be used successfully when instantaneous fluctuations in the air temperature of the sampled air are effectively dampened to negligible levels, instantaneous pressure fluctuations are regulated or negligible, and water vapor is measured simultaneously with gas or the air sample is dried. Short-tube closed-path approach, the enclosed design For instruments with a short-tube enclosed design, most - but not all - of the temperature

  6. Risk Factors of Emergence Agitation in Adults Undergoing General Anesthesia for Nasal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Yeol; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Choi, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence and the risk factors of emergence agitation in adults undergoing general anesthesia for nasal surgery. Methods We retrospectively examined 792 patients aged ≥18 years who underwent general anesthesia for elective nasal surgery between July 2012 and August 2013. Patients in the postanesthesia care unit with a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale≥+1 at any time were considered to have emergence agitation. Results The overall incidence of emergence agitation is 22.2%. From multivariate regression analysis, the following six variables were found to be significantly associated with emergence agitation (P<0.05): younger age, recent smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain on the numerical rating scale (NRS)≥5, presence of a tracheal tube, and presence of a urinary catheter. Presence of a tracheal tube was the greatest risk factor, increasing the risk of developing emergence agitation by approximately fivefold (odds ratio, 5.448; 95% confidence interval, 2.973 to 9.982). Younger age was also a strong risk factor (odds ratio, 0.975 for each 1-year increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.964 to 0.987). Current smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain of NRS≥5, and the presence of a urinary catheter nearly doubled the risk of emergence agitation. Conclusion Emergence agitation following general anesthesia is a common complication in adult nasal surgery patients. To reduce the occurrence and consequences of agitation episodes, elimination of the associated risk factors is necessary, especially in at-risk patients. PMID:25729495

  7. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  8. Improved performance in viscous mycelial fermentations by agitator retrofitting.

    PubMed

    Buckland, B C; Gbewonyo, K; Dimasi, D; Hunt, G; Westerfield, G; Nienow, A W

    1988-05-01

    For viscous mycelial fermentations it was demonstrated at the pilot-plant scale that the replacement of standard radial flow Rushton turbines with larger diameter axial-flow Prochem hydrofoil impellers significantly improved oxygen transfer efficiency. It was also determined that the Streptomyces broth under evaluation is highly shear thinning. Separate experiments using a Norcardia broth with similar Theological properties demonstrated that the oxygen transfer coefficient, K(L)a, can be greatly increased by use of water additions to reduce broth viscosity. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the improvement in oxygen transfer by changing agitator types is primarily due to an improvement in bulk mixing. A model is presented, based on the concepts of Bajpai and Reuss, which explains this improvement in performance in terms of enlargement of the well mixed micromixer region for viscous mycelial broths.

  9. Symptoms of agitated depression and/or akathisia.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Marija Vučić; Prološčić, Joško; Blažević-Zelić, Sandra; Skarpa-Usmiani, Ivona; Peitl, Vjekoslav

    2011-03-01

    Akathisia is a syndrome characterized by the unpleasant sensation of "inner" restlessness that manifests itself in the inability of sitting still or not moving. Many types of medicaments can cause akathisia as an adverse event of their use and they include: antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiemetics, antihistamines, and psychoactive substances. We will present the case of a 50 year old patient, treated on two occasions for psychotic depression. During the second hospitalization it is possible that antipsychotic treatment combined with an antidepressant caused akathisia or there were symptoms of agitated depression and akathisia present at the same time, which is very difficult to determine in everyday clinical practice. We can conclude that in this case, as in many others, akathisia as a possible adverse effect of psychopharmacs was very hard to identify. Therefore, it is necessary to have akathisia in mind when using certain medicaments, especially when combining several that use the same enzymatic system and consequently raise levels of at least one of them.

  10. Hydrodynamic effects on cells in agitated tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, R. S.; Papoutsakis, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms by which hydrodynamic forces can affect cells grown on microcarrier beads in agitated cell culture reactors were investigated by analyzing the motion of microcarriers relative to the surrounding fluid, to each other, and to moving or stationary solid surfaces. It was found that harmful effects on cell cultures that have been previously attributed to shear can be better explained as the effects of turbulence (of a size scale comparable to the microcarriers or the spacing between them) or collisions. The primary mechanisms of cell damage involve direct interaction between microcarriers and turbulent eddies, collisions between microcarriers in turbulent flow, and collisions against the impeller or other solid surfaces. The implications of these analytical results for the design of tissue culture reactors are discussed.

  11. Performance Evaluation of an Automotive-Grade, High Speed Gate Driver for SiC FETs, Type UCC27531, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boomer, Kristen; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) devices are becoming widely used in electronic power circuits as replacement for conventional silicon parts due to their attractive properties that include low on-state resistance, high temperature tolerance, and high frequency operation. These attributes have a significant impact by reducing system weight, saving board space, and conserving power. In this work, the performance of an automotive-grade high speed gate driver with potential use in controlling SiC FETs (field-Effect Transistors) in converters or motor control applications was evaluated under extreme temperatures and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to assess performance and to determine suitability of this device for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperature conditions.

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Agitation and Resident Characteristics in the Nursing Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Louis D.; Park, Nan Sook; Hardin, J. Michael; Sun, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Agitation frequently accompanies cognitive decline among nursing home residents. This study used cross-sectional and longitudinal (up to 18 months) methods to examine agitation among profoundly and moderately impaired residents using both staff report and direct observation methods. Design and Methods: The study included participants (N =…

  13. The Relationship between Agitated Behavior and Cognitive Functioning in Nursing Home Residents: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    Agitation is a significant problem for nursing home residents, their families, and their caretakers. Agitation is defined as inappropriate verbal, vocal, or motor activity which is not explained by needs or confusion per se. It includes behaviors such as aimless wandering, pacing, cursing, screaming, biting, and fighting. The inappropriate nature…

  14. Behavioral Characteristics of Agitated Nursing Home Residents with Dementia at the End of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Burgio, Louis D.; Fisher, Susan E.; Hardin, J. Michael; Shuster, John L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in verbal agitation, verbal interaction, bed restraint, pain, analgesic and neuroleptic medication use, and medical comorbidity among agitated nursing home residents who died during a 6-month clinical trial compared with residents of the same gender and similar initial cognitive…

  15. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOEpatents

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  16. Relaxing music at mealtime in nursing homes: effects on agitated patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Hicks-Moore, Sandee Lynn

    2005-12-01

    Agitation in individuals with severe cognitive impairment is a significant problem that affects care and overall quality of life. Building on research conducted by Goddaer and Abraham (1994), this quasi-experimental study proposed that relaxing music played during meals would exert a calming effect and decrease agitated behaviors among nursing home residents with dementia. Thirty residents residing in a Special Care Unit participated in the 4-week study. The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (Cohen-Mansfield, Marx, & Rosenthal, 1989) was used to gather data. Baseline data was obtained in Week 1 (no music). Music was introduced in Week 2, removed in Week 3, and reintroduced in Week 4. At the end of the 4-week study, overall reductions in the cumulative incidence of total agitated behaviors were observed. Reductions in absolute numbers of agitated behaviors were achieved during the weeks with music and a distinct pattern was observed.

  17. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.

  18. Quetiapine reduces irritability and risk of suicide in patients with agitated depression.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2013-07-20

    Patients who suffer from agitated depression accompanied by psychomotor agitation and irritability are prone to suicidal ideation and attempts and must therefore be diagnosed and treated with utmost care. Clinically, there have been more than a few cases of suicidal attempts that seemed to have been provoked by careless prescription of antidepressant medication. In the present study, administration of quetiapine to 3 patients in the acute phase of agitated depression resulted in rapid improvement in irritability and alleviation of depression. Depression in these 3 patients was caused by chronic (persistent) anxiety and tension. During the acute phase, the patients evidenced psychomotor agitation and irritability, often experiencing a sudden, overwhelming urge to commit suicide. Findings from the present study suggest that treatment with quetiapine in patients with this type of agitated depression can quickly alleviate symptoms of anxiety and irritability and reduce the risk of suicide.

  19. Do sound levels and space contribute to agitation in nursing home residents with dementia?

    PubMed

    Joosse, Laura L

    2012-07-01

    Individuals with dementia living in nursing homes may be exposed to non-therapeutic levels of sound. There is insufficient research examining the relationship between sound levels, personal space, and agitation in people with dementia. Using an observational designed study, 53 participants from four southeastern Wisconsin nursing homes were observed; data on sound levels, space, and agitation levels were obtained. Sound was a significant predictor of agitation. The accumulation of sound predicted agitated behavior and explained 16% of the variance, F(5, 47) = 4.520, p < 0.002, and adjusted R(2) = 0.253. The findings suggest agitation may be a clue that sound in the environment is causing stress for residents with dementia.

  20. Effects of age and size on critical swimming speed of juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis at seasonal temperatures.

    PubMed

    He, X; Lu, S; Liao, M; Zhu, X; Zhang, M; Li, S; You, X; Chen, J

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the critical swimming speed (Ucrit , cm s(-1) ) with ontogeny of 2·5-12·5 month-old juvenile anadromous Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinesis were measured in a modified Blazka-type swimming tunnel. The absolute Ucrit increased with length, mass and age; the relative U(')crit (body lengths, s(-1) ), however, decreased. Juvenile A. sinesis did not display a parr-smolt transformation at the length or age threshold to tolerate full-strength seawater.

  1. Studies on heat transfer to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triveni, B.; Vishwanadham, B.; Venkateshwar, S.

    2008-09-01

    Heat transfer studies to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are carried out in a stirred vessel fitted with anchor/turbine impeller and a coil for heating/cooling with an objective of determining experimentally the heat transfer coefficient of few industrially important systems namely castor oil and its methyl esters, soap solution, CMC and chalk slurries. The effect of impeller geometry, speed and aeration is investigated. Generalized Reynolds and Prandtl numbers are calculated using an apparent viscosity for non-Newtonian fluids. The data is correlated using a Sieder-Tate type equation. A trend of increase in heat transfer coefficient with RPM in presence and absence of solids has been observed. Relatively high values of Nusselt numbers are obtained for non-Newtonian fluids when aeration is coupled with agitation. The contribution of natural convection to heat transfer has been accounted for by incorporating the Grashof number. The correlations developed based on these studies are applied for design of commercial scale soponification reactor. Power per unit volume resulted in reliable design of a reactor.

  2. Obtaining Electron Temperatures and Flow Speeds from Thomson Scattered Coronal Emission Observed during the 29 March 2006 Total Solar Eclipse in Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Geginald, Nelson L.; Gashut, Hadi; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Hassler, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment to measure the electron temperature and flow speed in the solar corona by observing the visible K-coronal spectrum was conducted during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Libya. New corona1 models accounting for the effect of electron temperature and flow on the resulting K-corona spectrum were used to interpret the observations. Results show electron temperatures of 1.10 +/- 0.05, 0.98 +/- 0.12, and 0.70 +/- 0.08 MK, at l.l{\\it R)$-{\\odot)$ in the solar north, east and west, respectively, and 0.93 +/- 0.12 MK, at 1.2 R(sub sun) in the solar east. The corresponding outflow speeds obtained from the spectral fit are 103 +/- 92, 0 + 10, 0 + 10, and 0 + 10 km/s. Since the observations are taken only at 1.1 and 1.2 R(sub sun) these velocities , consistent with zero outflow, are in agreement with expectations and provide additional confirmation that the spectral fitting method is working.

  3. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of GEOSAT sea surface height, SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Zlotnicki, V.; Newman, J.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1991-01-01

    Monthly mean global distributions for 1988 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map. Distributions are included for sea surface height variation estimated from GEOSAT; surface wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on NOAA spacecrafts; and the Cartesian components of the 10m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  4. Effects of rotational speed and feed rate on temperature rise, feed force and cutting torque when drilling bovine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, J.; Iriarte, L. M.; Eguren, J. A.; Aristimuño, P.; Garay, A.; Arrazola, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Surgical procedures that affect the human bone structure often entail drilling operations of bone. The post-operative evolution of these interventions is conditioned largely by the damage generated during the operation. The aim of this study was to determine clearly the influence of the cutting conditions on temperatures and forces when drilling bovine cortical bone, in the interests of further optimization of cutting conditions to minimize the generated damage. The infrared thermography technique and a piezoelectric dynamometer were employed as measurement devices. It was observed that the main parameter affecting temperatures was the feed per tooth. The temperatures obtained were lower when drilling with high feed per tooth, even though an opposite effect was noticed on the feed force and torque, with an increase of them. From the experimental results, prediction models of temperature rise, feed force and cutting torque were created, in order to predict the response based on the selected cutting conditions.

  5. Optic nerve surface temperature during intradural anterior clinoidectomy: a comparison between high-speed diamond burr and ultrasonic bone curette.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Jiang, Xiaobing; Chotai, Silky; Ammirati, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic bone curettes are increasingly used in cranial base surgery. The heat generated by these devices during anterior clinoidectomy has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the optic nerve surface temperature during intradural anterior clinoidectomy using the drill and ultrasonic bone curette. Ten fresh cadaver heads were used. During intradural clinoidectomy and optic nerve unroofing with either a 2-mm diamond burr drill or ultrasonic bone curette, temperature was measured along the medial cisternal and proximal intracanalicular segments of the optic nerve. Additional experiments were performed to determine optimal ultrasonic bone curette settings for anterior clinoidectomy. At the lateral cisternal segment, peak and mean temperature were significantly higher with the ultrasonic bone curette (peak 38.8 vs 29.3 °C, p = 0.03, mean 29.5 vs 22.6 °C, p = 0.003). At the proximal intracanalicular segment, only peak temperature was significantly higher with the ultrasonic bone curette (peak 32.0 vs 23.5 °C, p = 0.02, mean 26.9 vs 22.4 °C, p = 0.07). Using standard company settings, room temperature irrigation fluid was heated by the oscillating tip to peak temperature 36.1 °C without drilling. In order to maintain emitted irrigation fluid at room temperature, optimal settings were power 70 %, cool irrigation (5 °C) at 40 mL/min. Using these settings, the ultrasonic bone curette generated optic nerve surface temperature measurements similar to the drill. Further work is necessary to translate these findings into the operating room.

  6. Optical and thermodynamic properties of MgO from radiative shock temperature and sound speed measurements on samples preheated to 2300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatýanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    Thermodynamic properties of MgO, one of the major end-members of deep planetary interiors, play a significant role in the processes inside the Earth's lower mantle. Of particular importance in geophysics and geochemistry is the MgO melting behavior at high pressure. Despite considerable theoretical and experimental efforts over decades, it remains essentially unknown. The melting temperature predictions for MgO at 135 GPa, the Earth's core-mantle boundary pressure, range from 5 to 9 kK. In a continuous effort to resolve this inconsistency and to probe the P-T region previously unexplored, we developed a technique for radiative shock temperature measurements in single-crystal MgO preheated to 2300 K. Large ventilated Mo capsules were employed to hold ~20 mm long MgO crystals with controlled longitudinal thermal gradients. These hot targets were impacted by 0.8 mm thick Ta flyers launched at 6.5 to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Six spectral radiance histories from MgO shock front were recorded in every shot with 3 ns time resolution over 440-750 nm or 500-830 nm spectral range. The majority of our experiments showed smooth pressure dependence of MgO shock temperature and sound speed consistent with the solid phase at 197-243 GPa. Although most observed temperatures are ~700 K lower and sound speeds ~1 km/s higher than the model predictions, the pressure slopes for both parameters are in close agreement with those calculated for the solid phase. Unconfirmed data from a single experiment at 239 GPa and 8.3 kK showed correlated temperature and sound speed anomalies (both values lower than expected) that may be explained by partial melting. Our past and recent data on shock-compressed preheated MgO suggest its melting curve above 200 GPa is higher than the extrapolation of the experiments of Zerr & Boehler or the theoretical calculation by Strachan et. al. These results, features of shock experiments with 2300 K pre-heat temperatures, data analysis

  7. Sensitivity of Global Sea-Air CO2 Flux to Gas Transfer Algorithms, Climatological Wind Speeds, and Variability of Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Signorini, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity analyses of sea-air CO2 flux to gas transfer algorithms, climatological wind speeds, sea surface temperatures (SST) and salinity (SSS) were conducted for the global oceans and selected regional domains. Large uncertainties in the global sea-air flux estimates are identified due to different gas transfer algorithms, global climatological wind speeds, and seasonal SST and SSS data. The global sea-air flux ranges from -0.57 to -2.27 Gt/yr, depending on the combination of gas transfer algorithms and global climatological wind speeds used. Different combinations of SST and SSS global fields resulted in changes as large as 35% on the oceans global sea-air flux. An error as small as plus or minus 0.2 in SSS translates into a plus or minus 43% deviation on the mean global CO2 flux. This result emphasizes the need for highly accurate satellite SSS observations for the development of remote sensing sea-air flux algorithms.

  8. Speed-of-Sound Measurements in (Argon + Carbon Dioxide) over the Temperature Range from (275 to 500) K at Pressures up to 8 MPa.

    PubMed

    Wegge, Robin; McLinden, Mark O; Perkins, Richard A; Richter, Markus; Span, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The speed of sound of two (argon + carbon dioxide) mixtures was measured over the temperature range from (275 to 500) K with pressures up to 8 MPa utilizing a spherical acoustic resonator. The compositions of the gravimetrically prepared mixtures were (0.50104 and 0.74981) mole fraction carbon dioxide. The vibrational relaxation of pure carbon dioxide led to high sound absorption, which significantly impeded the sound-speed measurements on carbon dioxide and its mixtures; pre-condensation may have also affected the results for some measurements near the dew line. Thus, in contrast to the standard operating procedure for speed-of-sound measurements with a spherical resonator, non-radial resonances at lower frequencies were taken into account. Still, the data show a comparatively large scatter, and the usual repeatability of this general type of instrument could not be realized with the present measurements. Nonetheless, the average relative combined expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in speed of sound ranged from (0.042 to 0.056)% for both mixtures, with individual state-point uncertainties increasing to 0.1%. These uncertainties are adequate for our intended purpose of evaluating thermodynamic models. The results are compared to a Helmholtz energy equation of state for carbon capture and storage applications; relative deviations of (-0.64 to 0.08)% for the (0.49896 argon + 0.50104 carbon dioxide) mixture, and of (-1.52 to 0.77)% for the (0.25019 argon + 0.74981 carbon dioxide) mixture were observed.

  9. A statistical examination of Nimbus 7 SMMR data and remote sensing of sea surface temperature, liquid water content in the atmosphere and surfaces wind speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Wang, I.; Chang, A. T. C.; Gloersen, P.

    1982-01-01

    Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperature measurements over the global oceans have been examined with the help of statistical and empirical techniques. Such analyses show that zonal averages of brightness temperature measured by SMMR, over the oceans, on a large scale are primarily influenced by the water vapor in the atmosphere. Liquid water in the clouds and rain, which has a much smaller spatial and temporal scale, contributes substantially to the variability of the SMMR measurements within the latitudinal zones. The surface wind not only increases the surface emissivity but through its interactions with the atmosphere produces correlations, in the SMMR brightness temperature data, that have significant meteorological implications. It is found that a simple meteorological model can explain the general characteristics of the SMMR data. With the help of this model methods to infer over the global oceans, the surface temperature, liquid water content in the atmosphere, and surface wind speed are developed. Monthly mean estimates of the sea surface temperature and surface winds are compared with the ship measurements. Estimates of liquid water content in the atmosphere are consistent with earlier satellite measurements.

  10. A statistical examination of Nimbus-7 SMMR data and remote sensing of sea surface temperature, liquid water content in the atmosphere and surface wind speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Chang, A. T. C.; Gloersen, P.; Wang, I.

    1983-01-01

    Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperature measurements over the global oceans have been examined with the help of statistical and empirical techniques. Such analyses show that zonal averages of brightness temperature measured by SMMR over the oceans on a large scale are primarily influenced by the water vapor in the atmosphere. Liquid water in the clouds and rain, which has a much smaller spatial and temporal scale, contributes substantially to the variability of the SMMR measurements within the latitudinal zones. The surface wind not only increases the surface emissivity, but through its interactions with the atmosphere produces correlations in the SMMR brightness temperature data that have significant meteorological implications. It is found that a simple meteorological model can explain the general characteristics of the SMMR data. With the help of this model, methods to infer over the global oceans, the surface temperature, liquid water content in the atmosphere, and surface wind speed are developed. Monthly mean estimates of the sea surface temperature and surface winds are compared with the ship measurements. Estimates of liquid water content in the atmosphere are consistent with earlier satellite measurements. Previously announced in STAR as N83-19187

  11. High-speed highly temperature stable 980 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gb/s at up to 85 °C for short reach optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutig, Alex; Lott, James A.; Blokhin, Sergey A.; Moser, Philip; Wolf, Philip; Hofmann, Werner; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The progressive penetration of optical communication links into traditional copper interconnect markets greatly expands the applications of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for the next-generation of board-to-board, moduleto- module, chip-to-chip, and on-chip optical interconnects. Stability of the VCSEL parameters at high temperatures is indispensable for such applications, since these lasers typically reside directly on or near integrated circuit chips. Here we present 980 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating error-free at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s at temperatures as high as 85 °C without adjustment of the drive current and peak-to-peak modulation voltage. The driver design is therefore simplified and the power consumption of the driver electronics is lowered, reducing the production and operational costs. Small and large signal modulation experiments at various temperatures from 20 up to 85 °C for lasers with different oxide aperture diameters are presented in order to analyze the physical processes controlling the performance of the VCSELs. Temperature insensitive maximum -3 dB bandwidths of around 13-15 GHz for VCSELs with aperture diameters of 10 μm and corresponding parasitic cut-off frequencies exceeding 22 GHz are observed. Presented results demonstrate the suitability of our VCSELs for practical high speed and high temperature stable short-reach optical links.

  12. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, and Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Diethylene Glycol with 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, and 1,4-Butanediol at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anwar; Ansari, Sana; Uzair, Sahar; Tasneem, Shadma; Nabi, Firdosa

    2015-11-01

    Densities ρ and ultrasonic speeds u for pure diethylene glycol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1,4-butanediol and for their binary mixtures over the entire composition range were measured at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K. Using these data, the excess molar volumes, VE_m, deviations in isentropic compressibilities, {\\varDelta }ks, apparent molar volumes, V_{φi} , partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i} , and excess partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i}^E , have been calculated over the entire composition range, and also the excess partial molar volumes of the components at infinite dilution, overline{V}_{m,i}^{E,infty } have been calculated. The excess functions have been correlated using the Redlich-Kister equation at different temperatures. The variations of these derived parameters with composition and temperature are presented graphically.

  13. Agitation in nursing home residents: the role of gender and social context.

    PubMed

    Burgio, L D; Butler, F R; Roth, D L; Hardin, J M; Hsu, C C; Ung, K

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the relationship among gender of resident, staff social interaction, and agitation in 46 (31 male and 15 female) nursing home residents with clinically significant agitation. Direct observations were conducted of resident behaviors and environmental contextual events using a computer-assisted, real-time observational system. The system recorded frequency, duration, and temporal sequencing of events. Results show that female residents displayed almost three times the amount of agitation as male residents (35% vs. 13% of total observation time, respectively), although men in the study were more likely to receive psychoactive drugs for their agitation. Staff spent similar amounts of time verbally interacting and touching male and female residents. Sequential analyses were conducted to examine the likelihood of staff verbal and touch interactions both preceding and following resident agitation using Bakeman and Quera's (1995) SDIS-GSEQ program. Results suggest that staff touch and verbal interaction elicit agitation in a significant proportion of residents. Once agitation occurs, staff were likely to respond by interacting verbally, but not physically, with the resident.

  14. Effects of dip-coating speed and annealing temperature on structural, morphological and optical properties of sol-gel nano-structured TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touam, Tahar; Atoui, Mohamed; Hadjoub, Ilhem; Chelouche, Azeddine; Boudine, Boubekeur; Fischer, Alexis; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Doghmane, Abdellaziz

    2014-09-01

    We reported material characterization of the nano-structured TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating process on glass substrates. The dependence of the structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized films on the fabrication parameters such as withdrawal velocity and annealing temperature were investigated by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results indicate that for the TiO2 films annealed at 500 °C there exhibits (1 0 1) XRD peak corresponding to the anatase phase of TiO2. The latter is consistent with the recorded Raman signal observed at 142 cm-1 (Eg mode) and 391 cm-1 (B1g mode), respectively. From the analyses made on the SEM micrographs and AFM images, it was revealed that the morphology and surface roughness of the thin films would depend on the withdrawal speed and the heat treatment temperature. The UV-visible spectroscopy analyses show that all the films were transparent in the visible region with an average transmittance of more than 70%. With an increase on the dip-coating speed from 1 cm/min to 3 cm/min, we observed a spectral red shift of the absorption edge from 3.76 eV to 3.71 eV, indicating a decrease in the bandgap energy (Eg) of the films.

  15. Managing Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder in the Emergency Setting

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Scott L.; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient agitation represents a significant challenge in the emergency department (ED), a setting in which medical staff are working under pressure dealing with a diverse range of medical emergencies. The potential for escalation into aggressive behavior, putting patients, staff, and others at risk, makes it imperative to address agitated behavior rapidly and efficiently. Time constraints and limited access to specialist psychiatric support have in the past led to the strategy of “restrain and sedate,” which was believed to represent the optimal approach; however, it is increasingly recognized that more patient-centered approaches result in improved outcomes. The objective of this review is to raise awareness of best practices for the management of agitation in the ED and to consider the role of new pharmacologic interventions in this setting. Discussion The Best practices in Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation (BETA) guidelines address the complete management of agitation, including triage, diagnosis, interpersonal calming skills, and medicine choices. Since their publication in 2012, there have been further developments in pharmacologic approaches for dealing with agitation, including both new agents and new modes of delivery, which increase the options available for both patients and physicians. Newer modes of delivery that could be useful in rapidly managing agitation include inhaled, buccal/sublingual and intranasal formulations. To date, the only formulation administered via a non-intramuscular route with a specific indication for agitation associated with bipolar or schizophrenia is inhaled loxapine. Non-invasive formulations, although requiring cooperation from patients, have the potential to improve overall patient experience, thereby improving future cooperation between patients and healthcare providers. Conclusion Management of agitation in the ED should encompass a patient-centered approach, incorporating non-pharmacologic approaches

  16. Effects of ultrasonic agitation on adhesion strength of micro electroforming Ni layer on Cu substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong; Du, Liqun; Xu, Zheng; Shao, Ligeng

    2016-03-01

    Micro electroforming is an important technology, which is widely used for fabricating micro metal devices in MEMS. The micro metal devices have the problem of poor adhesion strength, which has dramatically influenced the dimensional accuracy of the devices and seriously limited the development of the micro electroforming technology. In order to improve the adhesion strength, ultrasonic agitation method is applied during the micro electroforming process in this paper. To explore the effect of the ultrasonic agitation, micro electroforming experiments were carried out under ultrasonic and ultrasonic-free conditions. The effects of the ultrasonic agitation on the micro electroforming process were investigated by polarization and alternating current (a.c.) impedance methods. The real surface area of the electroforming layer was measured by cyclic voltammetry method. The compressive stress and the crystallite size of the electroforming layer were measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The adhesion strength of the electroforming layer was measured by scratch test. The experimental results show that the imposition of the ultrasonic agitation decreases the polarization overpotential and increases the charge transfer process at the electrode-electrolyte interface during the electroforming process. The ultrasonic agitation increases the crystallite size and the real surface area, and reduces the compressive stress. Then the adhesion strength is improved about 47% by the ultrasonic agitation in average. In addition, mechanisms of the ultrasonic agitation improving the adhesion strength are originally explored in this paper. The mechanisms are that the ultrasonic agitation increases the crystallite size, which reduces the compressive stress. The lower the compressive stress is, the larger the adhesion strength is. Furthermore, the ultrasonic agitation increases the real surface area, enhances the mechanical interlocking strength and consequently increases the adhesion

  17. Change in agitation in Alzheimer's disease in the placebo arm of a 9-week controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Newell, Jeffery; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Placebo responses raise significant challenges for design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods In the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (Cit AD) study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for 9 weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression. Results Agitation outcomes improved over 9 weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by 3 weeks and was sustained through 9 weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure. Conclusions We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial. PMID:26305876

  18. Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Maseda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Alzheimer's disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement.

  19. Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Maseda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Alzheimer’s disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement. PMID:26955265

  20. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  4. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  5. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  6. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  7. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  9. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  11. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  12. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  14. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  19. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  1. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  2. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  6. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  7. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  8. Effect of impeller type and agitation on the performance of pilot scale ASBR and AnSBBR applied to sanitary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    de Novaes, Luciano Farias; Saratt, Bruna Luckmann; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Ribeiro, Rogers; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of agitation rate and impeller type in two mechanically stirred sequencing batch reactors: one containing granulated biomass (denominated ASBR) and the other immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (denominated AnSBBR). Each configuration, with total volume of 1 m(3), treated 0.65 m(3) sanitary wastewater at ambient temperature in 8-h cycles. Three impeller types were assessed for each reactor configuration: flat-blade turbine impeller, 45 degrees -inclined-blade turbine impeller and helix impeller, as well as two agitation rates: 40 and 80 rpm, resulting in a combination of six experimental conditions. In addition, the ASBR was also operated at 20 rpm with a flat-blade turbine impeller and the AnSBBR was operated with a draft tube and helix impeller at 80 and 120 rpm. To quantify how impeller type and agitation rate relate to substrate consumption rate, results obtained during monitoring at the end of the cycle, as well as the time profiles during a cycle were analyzed. Increasing agitation rate from 40 rpm to 80 rpm in the AnSBBR improved substrate consumption rate whereas in the ASBR this increase destabilized the system, likely due to granule rupture caused by the higher agitation. The AnSBBR showed highest solids and substrate removal, highest kinetic constant and highest alkalinity production when using a helix impeller, 80 rpm, and no draft tube. The best condition for the ASBR was achieved with a flat-blade turbine impeller at 20 rpm. The presence of the draft tube in the AnSBBR did not show significant improvement in reactor efficiency. Furthermore, power consumption studies in these pilot scale reactors showed that power transfer required to improve mass transfer might be technically and economically feasible.

  9. Effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home.

    PubMed

    Park, Heeok; Pringle Specht, Janet K

    2009-08-01

    This pilot study investigated the effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home. Fifteen individuals listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes prior to peak agitation time, two times per week for 2 weeks, followed by no music intervention for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The findings showed that mean agitation levels were significantly lower while listening to music than before listening to the music. The findings of this pilot study suggest the importance of music intervention for individuals with dementia who live at home.

  10. Nonintrusive shaft speed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Wyett, L.; Maram, J.

    1985-01-01

    Reusable rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), the Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV), etc., have throttling capabilities that require real-time, closed-loop control systems of engine propellant flows, combustion temperatures and pressures, and turbopump rotary speeds. In the case of the SSME, there are four turbopumps that require real-time measurement and control of their rotary speeds. Variable-reluctance magnetic speed sensors were designed, fabricated, and tested for all four turbopumps, resulting in the successful implementation and operation of three of these speed sensors during each of the 12 Shuttle flights.

  11. Transformation of the primary carbide networks in high-speed steels by heat treatment at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lenta, E.J.; Pesci, H.; Twentyman, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    This work studies the modifications of eutectic carbide networks following heat treatment at temperatures close to the melting point. The morphological evolution of primary carbides is related to different mechanisms operating in four different stages identified in the transformation process of the eutectic structure. The level of modification attained by lamellar type eutectic colonies, depend chiefly on decomposition of metastable M/sub 2/C carbide, coalescence and dissolution of MC and M/sub 6/C carbides, and polygonization of the primary network.

  12. Hydraulic characteristics simulation of an innovative self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR).

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You

    2013-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR) with agitation caused solely by the release of stored gas. The compound in the reactor is mixed without the use of any mechanical equipment and electricity. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation used to provide details of the flow pattern and information about the agitation process and a solid basis for design and optimization purposes. Every self-agitation cycle could be separated into the pressure energy storage process, the exergonic process and the buffer stage. The reactor is regarded as the combination of continuous stirred tank reactor and a small plug flow reactor. The liquid level and diffusion varies widely depending on the length of the U-tube. The compound transition phenomenon in the 1st chamber mainly occurs during the energy exergonic process and buffer stage. The fluid-diffusion in the 3rd and 4th chambers mainly happens after the buffer period.

  13. A meta-analytic review of the association between agitation and suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Ringer, Fallon B; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Agitation has been implicated as an acute risk factor for suicidal behavior, yet the literature to date has not been consolidated to better understand this relationship. We conducted a meta-analysis of the association between agitation and suicidal behavior to synthesize the existing literature (k=13 studies) and point out future directions for research. Results indicated that the association between agitation and suicidal behavior is moderate (Hedge's g=0.40, p=0.007, 95% CI [0.08, 0.72]). Follow-up meta-regressions revealed that age, gender, and year of publication were not significant moderators of the magnitude of this relationship. However, there was evidence of publication bias, as shown by a funnel plot and Egger's test. These findings suggest the importance of future research that examines the nature of the association between agitation and suicidal behavior longitudinally and with novel research designs, as implications for clinical practice and suicide risk assessment may be substantial.

  14. Flocculation of colloidal sols: Diffusion-controlled vs agitation-induced flocculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A proposal for carrying out flocculation experiments in microgravity is presented. These experiments might allow a correlation between theory and experiment. First, all particles, whether single primary particles or aggregates of primary particles would not settle or cream at any agitation rate, or even in the absence of agitation. This failure to separate would keep all aggregates active, still serving as centers for diffusion-controlled flocculation. Keeping all particles suspended would allow the possibility of determining the total number of particles as a function of time from beginning to end of flocculation. Finally, the experiments would allow a definite separation diffusion-controlled and agitation-induced flocculation by studying diffusion-controlled flocculation with and without agitation.

  15. Biological activity of insulin in GMO gels and the effect of agitation.

    PubMed

    Sadhale, Y; Shah, J C

    1999-11-25

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO)-water cubic phase gel was previously shown to protect insulin from agitation induced aggregation. However, it is not known if insulin is biologically active in the gel and what effect agitation has on insulin in the gel. Therefore, the objective was to determine the stability of insulin in cubic phase gel in terms of its biological activity in a suitable animal model such as Sprague-Dawley rats. Effect of agitation on biological activity of insulin in cubic phase GMO gel was determined by subcutaneous injections of the agitated and non-agitated gels to two groups of previously fasted rats and measuring the effect on their blood glucose levels. Two groups of rats administered with agitated insulin solution and normal saline were used as controls. The biological activity of insulin was evaluated by comparing AAC (area above the blood glucose level-time curve, in %-h), C(max) (maximum % decrease in blood glucose levels) and t(max) (time required to attain C(max), in h) values for the four groups of rats. Since cubic phase gel is highly viscous, therapeutic equivalency of insulin in the lamellar phase gel, which converts in situ into cubic phase gel, was compared to insulin solution with normal saline as the control, using AAC, C(max) and t(max) of the blood glucose profile. Insulin was biologically active in both agitated and non-agitated gels; however, upon agitation, insulin in solution totally lost its hypoglycemic activity. Agitation of insulin in the cubic phase gel was seen to have very little deleterious effect on its biological activity. Insulin in the lamellar phase gel was not only biologically active but also therapeutically equivalent to insulin solution based on AAC (327.9+/-100.8 and 431.7+/-113.3), C(max) (57. 1+/-7.0 and 70.2+/-6.5) and t(max) (2.8+/-0.7 and 4.0+/-1.7) for the lamellar phase gel and insulin solution, respectively (no significant difference, P0.05). In summary, GMO cubic phase gel protected insulin from

  16. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, Omid

    composition and thermodynamic properties. The method was applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen/air and methane/air plasma mixtures for a wide range of temperatures (1,000-100,000 K), pressures (10-6-100 atm) and different equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function. A new differential-based multi-shell model was developed in conjunction with Schlieren photography to measure laminar burning speed and to study the flame instabilities for different alternative fuels such as syngas and GTL. Flame instabilities such as cracking and wrinkling were observed during flame propagation and discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic and thermo-diffusive effects. Laminar burning speeds were measured using pressure rise data during flame propagation and power law correlations were developed over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios. As a part of this work, the effect of EGR addition and substitution of nitrogen with helium in air on flame morphology and laminar burning speed were extensively investigated. The effect of cell formation on flame surface area of syngas fuel in terms of a newly defined parameter called cellularity factor was also evaluated. In addition to that the experimental onset of auto-ignition and theoretical ignition delay times of premixed GTL/air mixture were determined at high pressures and low temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios.

  17. New Observations of C-band Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate From the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Buckley, C. D.; Biswas, S.; May, C.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, Cerese

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on the WB-57 during NASA's GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August September of 2010. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain cross-track resolution of approximately 3 degrees, out to approximately 60 degrees to each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. This technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP campaign will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the GRIP campaign, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eyewall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  18. Modeling the uptake of neutral organic chemicals on XAD passive air samplers under variable temperatures, external wind speeds and ambient air concentrations (PAS-SIM).

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Hayward, Stephen J; Wania, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and demonstrate the utility of a fugacity-based model of XAD passive air samplers (XAD-PAS) designed to simulate the uptake of neutral organic chemicals under variable temperatures, external wind speeds and ambient air concentrations. The model (PAS-SIM) simulates the transport of the chemical across the air-side boundary layer and within the sampler medium, which is segmented into a user-defined number of thin layers. Model performance was evaluated using data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a field calibration study (i.e., active and XAD-PAS data) conducted in Egbert, Ontario, Canada. With some exceptions, modeled PAS uptake curves are in good agreement with the empirical PAS data. The results are highly encouraging, given the uncertainty in the active air sampler data used as input and other uncertainties related to model parametrization (e.g., sampler-air partition coefficients, the influence of wind speed on sampling rates). The study supports the further development and evaluation of the PAS-SIM model as a diagnostic (e.g., to aid interpretation of calibration studies and monitoring data) and prognostic (e.g., to inform design of future passive air sampling campaigns) tool.

  19. Caring for relatives with agitation at home: a qualitative study of positive coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jesnick, Leah; Turner, Rebecca; Leavey, Gerard; Livingston, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Background Trials of psychological interventions for reducing agitation in people with dementia living at home have been unsuccessful. Aims To inform future interventions by identifying successful strategies of family carers with relatives with dementia and agitation living at home. Method Qualitative in-depth individual interviews were performed with 18 family carers. We used thematic analysis to identify emerging themes. Results Carers described initial surprise and then acceptance that agitation is a dementia symptom and learned to respond flexibly. Their strategies encompassed: prevention of agitation by familiar routine; reduction of agitation by addressing underlying causes and using distraction; prevention of escalation by risk enablement, not arguing; and control of their emotional responses by ensuring their relative’s safety then walking away, carving out some time for themselves and using family and services for emotional and practical help. Conclusions These strategies can be manualised and tested in future randomised controlled trials for clinical effectiveness in reducing agitation in people with dementia living at home. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243464

  20. Effect of ketorolac on the prevention of emergence agitation in children after sevoflurane anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deokkyu; Doo, A Ram; Lim, Hyungsun; Son, Ji-Seon; Lee, Jun-Rae; Han, Young-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketorolac on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children recovering from sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Eighty-five children aged 3 to 7 years were randomly assigned to the control group or the ketorolac group (1 mg/kg ketorolac). The children were evaluated by the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale and a four-point agitation scale. Results The median agitation scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. The overall incidence of emergence agitation was similar in the two groups (41% in the control group vs. 32% in the ketorolac group, P = 0.526). The number of children who received rescue drugs for treatment of emergence agitation was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions The administration of 1 mg/kg of ketorolac is not effective in decreasing the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children aged 3 to 7 years after sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:23560190

  1. Effect of agitation on ligninase activity and ligninase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatadri, R.; Irvine, R.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces extracellular ligninases as part of its idiophasic ligninolytic system. Agitation has been widely reported to suppress both ligninase production and lignin degradation. Results show that mechanical inactivation of ligninase is possibly the reason why ligninase accumulation is low or absent in agitated shake-flask cultures. Agitation seems to affect the catalytic activity of ligninase and has no apparent effect on either the rate of ligninase production or the physiology of P. chrysosporium. The detergents Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, Tween 80, and 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesuflonate (CHAPS) are able to protect both purified ligninase and extant ligninase in culture fluids (free of biomass) against mechanical inactivation due to agitation. Addition of Tween 80 at the end of primary growth to agitated shake flasks containing either pelleted or immobilized mycelial cultures results in production and maintenance of high levels of ligninase activity over several days under conditions of high agitation. Possible mechanisms by which the detergents could protect ligninase are discussed.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) insights into agitation stress methods in biopharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Bee, Jared S; Biddlecombe, James G; Chen, Quanmin; Leach, W Thomas

    2012-02-28

    Agitation of small amounts of liquid is performed routinely in biopharmaceutical process, formulation, and packaging development. Protein degradation commonly results from agitation, but the specific stress responsible or degradation mechanism is usually not well understood. Characterization of the agitation stress methods is critical to identifying protein degradation mechanisms or specific sensitivities. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model agitation of 1 mL of fluid by four types of common laboratory agitation instruments, including a rotator, orbital shaker, magnetic stirrer and vortex mixer. Fluid stresses in the bulk liquid and near interfaces were identified, quantified and compared. The vortex mixer provides the most intense stresses overall, while the stir bar system presented locally intense shear proximal to the hydrophobic stir bar surface. The rotator provides gentler fluid stresses, but the air-water interfacial area and surface stresses are relatively high given its low rotational frequency. The orbital shaker provides intermediate-level stresses but with the advantage of a large stable platform for consistent vial-to-vial homogeneity. Selection of experimental agitation methods with targeted types and intensities of stresses can facilitate better understanding of protein degradation mechanisms and predictability for "real world" applications.

  3. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1991 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free-drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components of the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  4. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1990 are proposed with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (US) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components on the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation values are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  5. Flow-induced agitations create a granular fluid: effective viscosity and fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Kiri; van Hecke, Martin

    2012-06-01

    We fluidize a granular medium with localized stirring in a split-bottom shear cell. We probe the mechanical response of quiescent regions far from the main flow by observing the vertical motion of cylindrical probes rising, sinking, and floating in the grains. First, we find that the probe motion suggests that the granular material behaves in a liquid-like manner: high-density probes sink and low-density probes float at the depth given by Archimedes' law. Second, we observe that the drag force on moving probes scales linearly with their velocity, which allows us to define an effective viscosity for the system. This effective viscosity is inversely proportional to the rotation rate of the disk which drives the split bottom flow. Moreover, the apparent viscosity depends on radius and mass of the probe: despite the linear dependence of the drag forces on sinking speed of the probe, the granular medium is not simply Newtonian, but exhibits a more complex rheology. The decrease of viscosity with filling height of the cell, combined with the poor correlation between local strain rate and viscosity, suggests that the fluid-like character of the material is set by agitations generated in the stirred region: the relation between applied stress and observed strain rate in one location depends on the strain rate in another location. We probe the nature of the granular fluctuations that we believe mediates these nonlocal interactions by characterizing the small and random up and down motion that the probe experiences. These Gaussian fluctuations exhibit a mix of diffusive and subdiffusive behavior at short times and saturate at a value of roughly 1/10th of a grain diameter longer times, consistent with the picture of a random walker in a potential well. The product of crossover time and effective viscosity is constant, evidencing a direct link between fluctuations and viscosity.

  6. Grainex Mar-M 247 Turbine Disk Life Study for NASA's High Temperature High Speed Turbine Seal Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental and analytical fatigue life study was performed on the Grainex Mar-M 247 disk used in NASA s Turbine Seal Test Facility. To preclude fatigue cracks from growing to critical size in the NASA disk bolt holes due to cyclic loading at severe test conditions, a retirement-for-cause methodology was adopted to detect and monitor cracks within the bolt holes using eddy-current inspection. For the NASA disk material that was tested, the fatigue strain-life to crack initiation at a total strain of 0.5 percent, a minimum to maximum strain ratio of 0, and a bolt hole temperature of 649 C was calculated to be 665 cycles using -99.95 percent prediction intervals. The fatigue crack propagation life was calculated to be 367 cycles after implementing a safety factor of 2 on life. Thus, the NASA disk bolt hole total life or retirement life was determined to be 1032 cycles at a crack depth of 0.501 mm. An initial NASA disk bolt hole inspection at 665 cycles is suggested with 50 cycle inspection intervals thereafter to monitor fatigue crack growth.

  7. High Speed Ice Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  8. Movement, swimming speed, and oxygen consumption of juvenile white sturgeon in response to changing flows, water temperatures, and light level in the Snake River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Brink, Steve R.; Lepla, Kenneth B.; Bates, Phil; Chandler, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The flow of the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, frequently fluctuates as the dam responds to power production requirements. These flow fluctuations have the potential to increase the energy used by individual juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) that move to avoid unfavorable habitat or that alter their swimming speeds to maintain position over a range of velocities. Following swimming respirometry experiments, a field study using electromyogram (EMG) and sonic telemetry evaluated whether sturgeon were being negatively affected by operations of Hells Canyon Dam during three study periods where flows were artificially fluctuated (247 to 856 m3/s), held high and stable (438 to 600 m3/s), or held low and stable (275 to 284 m3/s). Respirometry results confirmed that oxygen consumption of juvenile sturgeon increased with swim speed and was temperature dependent, and when corrected for fish mass, ranged from 140.2 to 306.5 mg O2 kg-1 h-1. The telemetry study showed that movements and activity levels, as measured by swimming speeds and oxygen consumption, of sturgeon were variable among fish and across study periods. When flows were held low and stable, sturgeon movement increased while activity levels decreased when compared to the study periods when flows were variable or were high and stable. Although the overall trend was for activity levels to be less during the study period when flows were low and stable, the majority of differences between study periods appeared to be due to differences in water temperature and light levels that changed during the three-month investigation. The results suggest high flows, even those of relatively short durations such as what occurs during load-following operations, restrict the movement of juvenile sturgeon, but do not result in an increase of energy expenditure, possibly because of morphological and behavioral adaptations to living in a high-velocity environment. This may have significant

  9. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months ( P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days ( P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  10. Influence of agitation, inoculum density, pH, and strain on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli O157:H7--relevance to risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M E; Tamplin, M L; Phillips, J G; Marmer, B S

    2003-06-15

    Foods may differ in at least two key variables from broth culture systems typically used to measure growth kinetics of enteropathogens: initial population density of the pathogen and agitation of the culture. The present study used nine Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from beef and associated with human illness. Initial kinetic experiments with one E. coli O157:H7 strain in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth at pH 5.5 were performed in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design, testing the effects of a low (ca. 1-10 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) or high (ca. 1000 CFU/ml) initial population density, culture agitation or no culture agitation, and incubation temperatures of 10, 19, and 37 degrees C. Kinetic data were modeled using simple linear regression and the Baranyi model. Both model forms provided good statistical fit to the data (adjusted r(2)>0.95). Significant effects of agitation and initial population density were identified at 10 degrees C but not at 19 or 37 degrees C. Similar growth patterns were observed for two additional strains tested under the same experimental design. The lag, slope, and maximum population density (MPD) parameters were significantly different by treatment. Further tests were conducted in a 96-well microtiter plate system to determine the effect of initial population density and low pH (4.6-5.5) on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 strains in BHI at 10, 19, and 37 degrees C. Strain variability was more apparent at the boundary conditions of growth of low pH and low temperature. This study demonstrates the need for growth models that are specific to food products and environments for plausible extrapolation to risk assessment models.

  11. Air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction in the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction data collected on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior's climate monitoring array, part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost. In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans 68.5°N to 70.5°N and 142.5°W to 161°W, an area of roughly 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with provisional quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes several additional climate variables to be released in subsequent reports, including ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. The effects of excipients on protein aggregation during agitation: an interfacial shear rheology study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Qi, Wei; Schwartz, Daniel K; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the effects of excipients in solutions of keratinocyte growth factor 2 (KGF-2) on protein aggregation during agitation as well as on interfacial shear rheology at the air-water interface. Samples were incubated with or without agitation, and in the presence or absence of the excipients heparin, sucrose, or polysorbate 80 (PS80). The effect of excipients on the extent of protein aggregation was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy and micro-flow imaging. Interfacial shear rheology was used to detect the gelation time and strength of protein gels at the air-water interface. During incubation, protein particles of size ≥1 μm and insoluble aggregates formed faster for KGF-2 solutions subjected to agitation. Addition of either heparin or sucrose promoted protein aggregation during agitation. In contrast, PS80 substantially inhibited agitation-induced KGF-2 aggregation but facilitated protein particulate formation in quiescent solutions. The combination of PS80 and heparin or sucrose completely prevented protein aggregation during both nonagitated and agitated incubations. Interfacial rheological measurements showed that KGF-2 in buffer alone formed an interfacial gel within a few minutes. In the presence of heparin, KGF-2 interfacial gels formed too quickly for gelation time to be determined. KGF-2 formed gels in about 10 min in the presence of sucrose. The presence of PS80 in the formulation inhibited gelation of KGF-2. Furthermore, the interfacial gels formed by the protein in the absence of PS80 were reversible when PS80 was added to the samples after gelation. Therefore, there is a correspondence between formulations that exhibited interfacial gelation and formulations that exhibited agitation-induced aggregation.

  13. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) during GRIP and HS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2013-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and at the time of this writing plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain cross-track resolution of approximately 3 degrees, out to approximately 60 degrees to each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. This technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  14. Observations of C-band Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; May, C.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on the WB-57 over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010. HIRAD is a new Cband radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain cross-track resolution of approximately 3 degrees, out to approximately 60 degrees to each side of nadir. (The resulting swath width for a platform at 60,000 feet is roughly 60 km, and resolution for most of the swath is around 2 km.) By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. This technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP campaign will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the GRIP campaign, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eyewall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  15. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  16. Effect of Citalopram on Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease – The CitAD Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Drye, Lea T.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. Objective The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with AD. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. Design, Setting and Participants The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Study (CitAD) was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable AD and clinically significant agitation from eight academic centers in the US and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Interventions Participants (n=186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n=94) or placebo (n=92) for 9 weeks. Dose began at 10 mg/d with planned titration to 30 mg/d over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) Other outcomes were the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (MMSE), and adverse events. Results Participants on citalopram showed significant improvement compared to placebo on both primary outcome measures. NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was −0.93 [95% CI: −1.80 to −0.06], p = 0.036. mADCS-CGIC results showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared to 26% on placebo, with estimated treatment effect (odds ratio of being at or better than a given CGIC category) of 2.13 [95% CI 1.23 to 3.69], p = 0

  17. An investigation of long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation levels of people with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Alison J; Baker, Felicity A

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation manifested by nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. A non-randomised experimental design was employed with one group receiving weekly music therapy (n = 26) and another group receiving standard nursing home care (n = 19). Agitation levels were measured five times over one year using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1989). Agitation in the elderly. In N. Billig & P. V. Rabins (Eds.), Issues in geriatric psychiatry (pp. 101-113). Basel, Switzerland: Karger). Although music therapy participants showed short-term reductions in agitation, there were no significant differences between the groups in the range, frequency, and severity of agitated behaviours manifested over time. Multiple measures of treatment efficacy are necessary to better understand the long-term effects music therapy programs have on this population.

  18. The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment with Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment With Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours R.R. Leslie-Holt and V. W...EFFECT ON APHERESIS PLATELET QUALITY DURING SHIPMENT WITH CONTINUED INTERRUPTION OF AGITATION FOR 24 AND 48 HOURS. 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT LESLIEHOLT RONNI...maintaining an oxidative metabolism. Key Words: Agitation, apheresis , lactate, pH, platelet , quality 4 INTRODUCTION The Armed Services Blood Program

  19. Stabilization of tetanus toxoid formulation containing aluminium hydroxide adjuvant against agitation.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Vipul A; Jain, Nishant K; Roy, Ipsita

    2012-02-28

    The aggregation of tetanus toxoid leads to reduced bioavailability of the vaccine and failure of immunization programmes in many parts of the globe. One of the main reasons for denaturation and aggregation of tetanus toxoid formulations is agitation of the protein during transport. We have identified that agitation leads to collapse of the gel matrix of aluminium hydroxide which is used as an adjuvant in these preparations. This results in desorption of the toxoid from the matrix, which then loses its antigenicity due to agitation-induced denaturation of the protein. We show that incorporation of some compatible osmolytes like sorbitol, glucose and arginine, but not trehalose, is able to protect the adjuvant matrix from degradation, and retain the integrity of the vaccine preparation in terms of its antigenicity.

  20. The effects of researcher-composed music at mealtime on agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Yuan; Lai, Hui-Ling; Jeng, Shaw-Yeu; Tang, Chih-Wei; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Pin-Wen

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of music at mealtimes on agitation in 22 nursing home residents with dementia. We used a pretest-posttest research design. We played researcher-composed music to residents at each of two mealtimes daily over a consecutive 4-week period. We observed and recorded agitation 24 hours daily for the 4-week period and the following 2-week period. Results revealed a significant decline in mean agitation scores. A cumulative dose effect and a short-term linger effect were observed. Findings suggest that soothing music may be beneficial in managing agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

  1. Study of dissolution hydrodynamic conditions versus drug release from hypromellose matrices: the influence of agitation sequence.

    PubMed

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-12-01

    In this article, the influence of agitation in descending and ascending sequences as a systematic method development process for potentially discriminating fed and fasted states and evaluation of its effects on the drug release from swelling gel-forming hydrophilic matrix tablets were investigated. Theophylline extended release (ER) matrices containing hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)) were evaluated in media with a pH range of 1.2-7.5, using an automated USP type III, Bio-Dis dissolution apparatus at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 dips per minute (dpm). Agitation had a profound effect on the drug release from the HPMC K100LV matrices. Drug release in pH 1.2 changed from about 40% at 5 dpm to about 80% at 30 dpm over a 60 min period alone. The matrices containing HPMC K4M, K15M and K100M however were not significantly affected by the agitation rate. The similarity factor f2 was calculated using drug release at 10 dpm as a reference. The ascending agitations of 5-30 dpm and the descending order of agitation 30-5 dpm were also evaluated. Anomalous transport was the only kinetic of release for the K4M, K15M and K100M tablet matrices. The lower viscous polymer of K100LV had some matrices exhibiting Fickian diffusion as its kinetics of release. The use of systematic change of agitation method may indicate potential fed and fasted effects on drug release from hydrophilic matrices.

  2. Time to response to citalopram treatment for agitation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Daniel; Drye, Lea T.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Agitation is a common and significant problem in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the recent Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease (CitAD) study, citalopram was efficacious for the treatment of AD agitation. Here we examined the time course and predictors of response to treatment. Methods Response in CitAD was defined as a modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) score of 1 or 2, or a Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) score reduction ≥50% from baseline. “Stable early response” was defined as meeting the aforementioned criteria at both weeks 3 and 9, “late response” was response at week 9 but not at week 3, and “unstable response” was response at week 3 but not at week 9. Results In the primary analyses, citalopram was superior to placebo on both the CGIC and the NBRS-A response measures. There were little between-group differences in response rates in the first three weeks of the study (21% vs 19% on the CGIC). Citalopram patients were more likely than placebo patients to be a late responder (18% vs. 8% on CGIC, Fisher’s exact p=0.09; 31% vs. 15% on NBRS-A, Fisher’s exact p=0.02). Approximately half (45–56%) of citalopram responders at end-of-study achieved response later in the study, compared with 30–44% of placebo responders. Discussion Treatment with citalopram for agitation in AD needs to be at least nine weeks in duration to allow sufficient time for full response, and study duration is an important factor to consider in the design of clinical trials for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26238225

  3. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R.; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M.; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m2 of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  4. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m(2) of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  5. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior Evaluation of Grainex Mar-M 247 for NASA's High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Rimnac, Clare M.; Lewandowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Grainex Mar-M 247 is evaluated for NASA s Turbine Seal Test Facility. The facility is used to test air-to-air seals primarily for use in advanced jet engine applications. Because of extreme seal test conditions of temperature, pressure, and surface speeds, surface cracks may develop over time in the disk bolt holes. An inspection interval is developed to preclude catastrophic disk failure by using experimental fatigue crack growth data. By combining current fatigue crack growth results with previous fatigue strain-life experimental work, an inspection interval is determined for the test disk. The fatigue crack growth life of the NASA disk bolt holes is found to be 367 cycles at a crack depth of 0.501 mm using a factor of 2 on life at maximum operating conditions. Combining this result with previous fatigue strain-life experimental work gives a total fatigue life of 1032 cycles at a crack depth of 0.501 mm. Eddy-current inspections are suggested starting at 665 cycles since eddy current detection thresholds are currently at 0.381 mm. Inspection intervals are recommended every 50 cycles when operated at maximum operating conditions.

  6. Women, Scientists, Agitators: Magazine Portrayal of Rachel Carson and Theo Colborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julia B.

    2001-01-01

    Utilizes a theoretical framework of the media's role in reporting conflict and uncertain science, and feminism and science in a thematic analysis of magazine coverage given Rachel Carson and "the Rachel Carson of '90s," Theo Colborn. Notes that Carson and Colborn's identities as women, scientists, and agitators led critics to charge that…

  7. The effect of agitation state on polyol synthesis of silver nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Marashi, Pirooz; Fatmehsari, Davoud Haghshenas

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of agitation rate on the growth mechanism of silver nanowires is evaluated during polyol process. It was found that increasing the agitation rate leads to the increase in the oxygen transfer rate which in turn enhances the oxidative etching conditions leading to the formation of a variety of nanostructures (nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires). In light of the obtained experimental results, it can be stated that agitation is not essential for synthesizing silver nanowires by polyol method and it is possible to obtain uniform nanowires with ~200 nm diameters in the length of 20-30 microns several microns length in the stagnant condition. By setting the stirring rate at 200 rpm, it is possible to reduce the nanowires diameters to ~130 nm and the obtained nanostructures are still mono-dispersed. This paper provides complete information about the effect of agitation state on the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires which is truly useful for further studies in this case.

  8. Boiling heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids on a smooth surface with agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xin; Qi, Baojin; Wei, Jinjia; Li, Wei; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Yonghai

    2016-12-01

    The pool boiling heat transfer performance on a smooth silicon chip surface with agitation was experimentally investigated in this study. The nanofluids (Ag/alcohol) of 0.02 % volume concentration and ethyl alcohol with purification over 99.9 % were the two contrast working fluids. For each group, subcoolings of 40, 50 and 60 K were conducted under atmospheric pressure. To enhance the heat transfer performance, an agitating device was fixed above the top of the chip. The experimental results indicated that nanofluids could enhance the heat transfer performance especially in the nucleate boiling region. The heat transfer coefficient was significantly increased with nanofluids, while the critical heat flux (CHF) was nearly not changed. In the agitation Reynolds number of 20,300, the heat transfer performance of nanofluids was significantly enhanced in the convection region, and the CHF was increased by more than 25 % for all groups. This boiling phenomenon was observed for both nanofluids and alcohol groups. Meanwhile, the boiling curves of different liquid subcoolings in the nucleate region were quite similar to each other under agitation.

  9. 5-day storage of platelet concentrates in CLX containers: effect of type of agitation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, E L; Bookbinder, M; Kakaiya, R; Ferri, P; Kiraly, T

    1983-01-01

    To determine the degree of platelet damage produced by different modes of agitation during storage of concentrates for 5 days in CLX blood bags, we studied pH, platelet counts, release of LDH and beta thromboglobulin, morphology and osmotic recovery. Platelets were maintained at 20-24 degrees C on elliptical, 6-rpm circular, 2-rpm circular and flat bed agitators. At 72-120 h platelet concentrates stored on the flat bed shaker had significantly lower pH values than units stored on the elliptical or on either of the circular rotators (p less than 0.05). The percent LDH discharged was highest for the units stored on the elliptical rotator (p less than 0.05). Remaining tests of platelet function were not significantly different for concentrates stored on any of the four agitators. Flat bed shakers were unable to resuspend the platelet 'button' which formed after the final preparative centrifugation. Based on our in vitro studies, we conclude that due to problems with low pH values, flat bed shakers may not be optimal for storing platelet concentrates in CLX blood bags and that some other form of agitation should be used.

  10. Pharmacological Management of Agitation and Aggression in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Findling, Robert L.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Hamarman, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an "autism vignette" and then poses an evaluative question to several autism specialists, documenting their varied responses to the scenario and question posed. A 13-year-old boy with autism and severe mental retardation presented to the inpatient psychiatric unit due to a recent increase in agitation and physical aggression.…

  11. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  12. Escalation of Agitative Rhetoric: A Case Study of Mattachine Midwest, 1967-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darsey, James

    This paper examines the adequacy of Bowers and Ochs' theory of social movements as applied to the escalating agitative strategies of a dissident group, the homosexual-rights organization Mattachine Midwest. The group's activities are described chronologically, in terms of the strategies employed: petition, promulgation, polarization,…

  13. Brief Report: Retrospective Case Series of Oxcarbazepine for Irritability/Agitation Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jessica F.; Sanders, Kevin B.; Benneyworth, M. Hannah; Smith, Jessica L.; DeJean, Virginia M.; McGrew, Susan G.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We examined response to oxcarbazepine prescribed for irritability/agitation symptoms in a retrospective case series of 30 patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The average patient was 12.0 years old (range 5-21) and taking two other psychotropic medications (range 0-4). Fourteen patients (47 %) had a clinical global impression of…

  14. Effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation and CO2 stress on Phytophthora nicotianae zoospore survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan was used as a model pathogen to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation, and aeration with CO2 or breathable air on the survival of Phytophthora zoospores in water. Injecting CO2 into 2 liters of zoospore-infested water for 5 min at 110.4 ml ...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  20. A case study of effects of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence, wind speed, and stability on wind farm induced temperature changes using observations from a field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Geng; Zhou, Liming; Freedman, Jeffrey M.; Roy, Somnath Baidya; Harris, Ronald A.; Cervarich, Matthew Charles

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies using satellite observations show that operational wind farms in west-central Texas increase local nighttime land surface temperature (LST) by 0.31-0.70 °C, but no noticeable impact is detected during daytime, and that the diurnal and seasonal variations in the magnitude of this warming are likely determined by those in the magnitude of wind speed. This paper further explores these findings by using the data from a year-long field campaign and nearby radiosonde observations to investigate how thermodynamic profiles and surface-atmosphere exchange processes work in tandem with the presence of wind farms to affect the local climate. Combined with satellite data analyses, we find that wind farm impacts on LST are predominantly determined by the relative ratio of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) induced by the wind turbines compared to the background TKE. This ratio explains not only the day-night contrast of the wind farm impact and the warming magnitude of nighttime LST over the wind farms, but also most of the seasonal variations in the nighttime LST changes. These results indicate that the diurnal and seasonal variations in the turbine-induced turbulence relative to the background TKE play an essential role in determining those in the magnitude of LST changes over the wind farms. In addition, atmospheric stability determines the sign and strength of the net downward heat transport as well as the magnitude of the background TKE. The study highlights the need for better understanding of atmospheric boundary layer and wind farm interactions, and for better parameterizations of sub-grid scale turbulent mixing in numerical weather prediction and climate models.

  1. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, Alkhafaji R.; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  2. Enhancing the adhesion strength of micro electroforming layer by ultrasonic agitation method and the application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong; Du, Liqun; Tao, Yousheng; Li, Qingfeng; Luo, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Micro electroforming is widely used for fabricating micro metal devices in Micro Electro Mechanism System (MEMS). However, there is the problem of poor adhesion strength between micro electroforming layer and substrate. This dramatically influences the dimensional accuracy of the device. To solve this problem, ultrasonic agitation method is applied during the micro electroforming process. To explore the effect of the ultrasonic agitation on the adhesion strength, micro electroforming experiments were carried out under different ultrasonic power (0W, 100W, 150W, 200W, 250W) and different ultrasonic frequencies (0kHz, 40kHz, 80kHz, 120kHz, 200kHz). The effects of the ultrasonic power and the ultrasonic frequency on the micro electroforming process were investigated by polarization method and alternating current (a.c.) impedance method. The adhesion strength between the electroforming layer and the substrate was measured by scratch test. The compressive stress of the electroforming layer was measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The crystallite size of the electroforming layer was measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) method. The internal contact surface area of the electroforming layer was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. The experimental results indicate that the ultrasonic agitation can decrease the polarization overpotential and increase the charge transfer process. Generally, the internal contact surface area is increased and the compressive stress is reduced. And then the adhesion strength is enhanced. Due to the different depolarization effects of the ultrasonic power and the ultrasonic frequency, the effects on strengthening the adhesion strength are different. When the ultrasonic agitation is 200W and 40kHz, the effect on strengthening the adhesion strength is the best. In order to prove the effect which the ultrasonic agitation can improve the adhesion strength of the micro devices, micro pillar arrays were fabricated under

  3. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration.

    PubMed

    Abood, Alkhafaji R; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH3-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s(-1) within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD5/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD5, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH3-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD5, suspended solid (SS), NH3-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L(-1), 22.8 mg L(-1), 24.2 mg L(-1), 18.4 mg L(-1) and 50.8 mg L(-1) respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated pollutant loading from landfill leachate.

  4. Swelling and erosion properties of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Hypromellose) matrices--influence of agitation rate and dissolution medium composition.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Nicole; Corrigan, Owen I

    2004-07-26

    The effect of dissolution medium variables, such as medium composition, ionic strength and agitation rate, on the swelling and erosion of Hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC) matrices of different molecular weights was examined. Swelling and erosion of HPMC polymers was determined by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of matrices. It was possible to describe the rate of dissolution medium uptake in terms of a square root relationship and the erosion of the polymer in terms of the cube root law. The extent of swelling increased with increasing molecular weight, and decreased with increasing agitation rate. The erosion rate was seen to increase with decrease in polymer molecular weight, with a decrease in ionic strength and with increasing agitation rate. The sensitivity of polymer erosion to the degree of agitation may influence the ability of these polymers to give reproducible, agitation-independent release, compared to more rigid non-eroding matrix materials, in the complex hydrodynamic environment of the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, AMI surface wind velocity, TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height, and ECMWF surface wind velocity during 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Fu, L.; Knauss, W.; Pihos, G.; Brown, O.; Freilich, M.; Wentz, F.

    1995-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1993 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (U.S.) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite; 10-m height wind speed and direction estimated from the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) on the European Space Agency (ESA) European Remote Sensing (ERS-1) satellite; sea surface height estimated from the joint U.S.-France Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON spacecraft; and 10-m height wind speed and direction produced by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of annual mean, monthly mean, and sampling distributions are displayed.

  6. Measurement of agitation and aggression in adult and aged neuropsychiatric patients: review of definitions and frequently used measurement scales.

    PubMed

    Volicer, Ladislav; Citrome, Leslie; Volavka, Jan

    2017-02-09

    Agitation and aggression in adult psychiatric patients with psychoses and in persons with dementia increase the burden of disease and frequently cause hospitalization. The implementation of currently available management strategies and the development of new ones is hindered by inconsistent terminology that confuses agitation with aggression. This confusion is maintained by many rating scales that fail to distinguish between these two syndromes. We review the frequently used rating scales with a particular focus on their ability to separate agitation from aggression. Agitation and aggression are two different syndromes. For example, reactive aggression is often precipitated by rejection of care and may not be associated with agitation per se. We propose, in treatment studies of behavioral symptoms of dementia and challenging behaviors in psychoses, that outcomes should be evaluated separately for agitation and aggression. This is important for investigation of drug effectiveness since the medication may be effective against one syndrome but not the other. Separate assessments of agitation and aggression should be a general principle of trial design with particular salience for registration studies of medications proposed for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory bodies.

  7. Process agitator operating problems and equipment failures, F-Canyon Reprocessing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Starks, J.B.; Low, J.M.; Galloway, W.D.

    1988-09-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) maintains a compilation of operating problems and equipment failures that have occurred in the fuel reprocessing areas of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). At present, the data bank contains more than 200,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with the potential for injury or contamination of personnel, or for economic loss. The data bank has been used extensively for a wide variety of purposes, such as failure analyses, trend analyses, and preparation of safety analyses. Typical of the data are problems associated with the F-Canyon process agitators. This report contains a compilation of the agitator operating problems and equipment failures primarily as an aid to organizations with related equipment. Publication of these data was prompted by a number of requests for this information by other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Dispersal of Aspergillus fumigatus from Sewage Sludge Compost Piles Subjected to Mechanical Agitation in Open Air

    PubMed Central

    Millner, Patricia D.; Bassett, David A.; Marsh, Paul B.

    1980-01-01

    Aerosolization of the thermophilous fungal opportunist Aspergillus fumigatus from mechanically agitated compost piles was examined at a pilot-scale sewage sludge composting facility and two other selected test sites. Aerosols of A. fumigatus downwind from stationary compost piles were insignificant in comparison with those downwind from agitated piles. These aerosols were generated by a front-end loader moving and dropping compost. Aerial concentrations of the fungus at distances downwind from the point of emission were used to determine an emission rate for A. fumigatus associated with the moving operations. The maximum emission rate, 4.6 × 106A. fumigatus particles per s, was used to calculate predicted concentrations in an unobstructed plume with restrictive, neutral, and dispersive atmospheric mixing conditions up to 1 km downwind from the emission source. PMID:16345563

  9. Effects of Tween 20 and Tween 80 on the stability of Albutropin during agitation.

    PubMed

    Chou, Danny K; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F; Manning, Mark Cornell

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of nonionic surfactants (Tween 20 and Tween 80) on agitation-induced aggregation of the recombinant fusion protein, Albutropintrade mark (human growth hormone genetically fused to human albumin), and to characterize the binding interactions between the surfactants and the protein. Knowing the binding stoichiometry would allow a rational choice of surfactant concentration to protect the protein from surface-induced aggregation. Fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were employed to study Albutropin surfactant binding. Albutropin was agitated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C to induce aggregation, and samples were taken during a 96-h incubation. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC) (HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography) was used to detect and quantify the extent of protein aggregation. The effect of surfactants on the protein's free energy of unfolding was determined using guanidine HCl as a denaturant. Tween 20 and Tween 80 had saturable binding to Albutropin with a molar binding stoichiometry of 10:1 and 9:1 (surfactant:protein), respectively. Binding of the surfactants to Albutropin increased the free energy of unfolding by over 1 and 0.6 kcal/mol, respectively. In protein samples that were agitated in the absence of surfactant, soluble aggregates were detected within 24 h, and there was almost complete loss of monomer to soluble aggregates by the end of the 96-h experiment. At the molar binding stoichiometry, Tween 20 and Tween 80 prevented the formation of soluble aggregates, even though the concentrations of surfactants were well below their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). Tween 20 and Tween 80 protected Albutropin against agitation-induced aggregation, even at concentrations below the CMC. Equilibrium unfolding data indicate that Tween confer protection by increasing the free energy of unfolding of Albutropin.

  10. Agitation and delirium at the end of life: "We couldn't manage him".

    PubMed

    Breitbart, William; Alici, Yesne

    2008-12-24

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric complication experienced by patients with advanced illness, occurring in up to 85% of patients in the last weeks of life. Using the case of Mr L, a 59-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer who developed an agitated delirium in the last week of life, we review the evaluation and management of delirium near the end of life. Although some studies have identified agitation as a central feature of delirium in 13% to 46% of patients, other studies have found up to 80% of patients near the end of life develop a hypoactive, nonagitated delirium. Both the agitated (hyperactive) and nonagitated (hypoactive) forms of delirium are harbingers of impending death and are associated with increased morbidity in patients who are terminally ill, causing distress for patients, family members, and staff. Delirium is a sign of significant physiological disturbance, usually involving multiple causes, including infection, organ failure, and medication adverse effects. Often these causes of delirium are not reversible in the dying patient, and this influences the outcomes of its management. Delirium can also significantly interfere with the recognition and control of other physical and psychological symptoms, such as pain. Unfortunately, delirium is often misdiagnosed or unrecognized and thus inappropriately treated or untreated in terminally ill patients. To manage delirium in terminally ill patients, clinicians must be able to diagnose it accurately, undertake appropriate assessment of underlying causes, and understand the benefits and risks of the available pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions.

  11. Pumping Characteristics of a Helical Screw Agitator with a Draught Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Youn-Jea

    In the use of helical type agitator, the mixing process is usually restricted to the laminar flow regime. Common examples of laminar mixing are found where the fluid has a very high viscosity, i.e., pseudoplastic fluids. It can be indicated that a helical type agitator is sufficiently suited to the creeping flow mixing. The pumping characteristic of a Helical Screw Agitator with a draught tube (HSA) is required to evaluate its capacity for the optimal configuration of the mixing chamber. It could be executed by changing some parameters such as the number of helix, the angular velocity and the rotating direction and so on. In this study, the numerical simulation was carried out with the Eulerian multiphase mixture model and the moving mesh approximation. Some of the optimum design parameters have been developed with the aid of numerical data from the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. Using the commercial code, Fluent, the pumping characteristics in the HSA are investigated from the rheological properties, and the results are graphically depicted.

  12. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

  13. Experimental measurement of speeds of sound in dense supercritical carbon monoxide and development of a high-pressure, high-temperature equation of state.

    PubMed

    Zaug, Joseph M; Carter, Jeffrey A; Bastea, Sorin; Armstrong, Michael R; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Fried, Laurence E

    2013-05-09

    We report the adiabatic sound speeds for supercritical fluid carbon monoxide along two isotherms, from 0.17 to 2.13 GPa at 297 K and from 0.31 to 3.2 GPa at 600 K. The carbon monoxide was confined in a resistively heated diamond-anvil cell, and the sound speed measurements were conducted in situ using a recently reported variant of the photoacoustic light scattering effect. The measured sound speeds were then used to parametrize a single site dipolar exponential-6 intermolecular potential for carbon monoxide. PρT thermodynamic states, sound speeds, and shock Hugoniots were calculated using the newly parametrized intermolecular potential and compared to previously reported experimental results. Additionally, we generated an analytical equation of state for carbon monoxide by fitting to a grid of calculated PρT states over a range of 0.1-10 GPa and 150-2000 K. A 2% mean variation was found between computed high-pressure solid-phase densities and measured data-a surprising result for a spherical interaction potential. We further computed a rotationally dependent fluid to β-solid phase boundary; results signal the relative magnitude of short-range rotational disorder under conditions that span existing phase boundary measurements.

  14. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  15. Non-intrusive speed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Phase I of the Non-Intrusive Speed Sensor program, a computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs. Phase II of this program developed the variable-source magnetic speed sensor through the detailed design task and guided the design into breadboard fabrication. The speed sensor and its integral speed nut were evaluated at both unit and system level testing. The final room-temperature and cryogenic spin testing of the hardware demonstrated that the sensor was capable of generating sufficient output signal to enable remote speed sensing from 1500 to 40000 rpm over a speed nut/sensor separation of 3.5 inches.

  16. Toward an understanding of the effects of agitation and aeration on growth and laccases production by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Gómez-Cruz, Cristina; Galindo, Enrique; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo

    2014-05-10

    Mycelial growth and laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus CP50 cultured in a 10-L mechanically agitated bioreactor were assessed through a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The main effects and interactions of three factors (agitation, aeration and copper induction) over five responses (μ, αLacc, βLacc, maximal volumetric laccase activity and maximal biomass concentration) were analyzed. P. ostreatus growth was significantly improved when culturing was conducted with high agitation (5.9kW/m(3)s) and aeration flow (0.5vvm) rates. Under the experimental conditions evaluated, no evidence of hydrodynamic stress affecting fungal growth was observed. However, the high agitation and aeration conditions were detrimental for the growth-associated laccase production constant (αLacc), leading to a very complex optimization of the process. The maximal laccase volumetric activity (1.2 and 3.8U/ml for non-induced and copper-induced cultures, respectively) was observed when the culturing was performed at a low agitation rate (0.9kW/m(3)s) and a high aeration flow rate (0.5vvm). Laccase proteolysis may explain the complex interactions observed between agitation and aeration and the effects of these factors on the laccase volumetric activity observed in the cultures.

  17. Dexmedetomidine Infusion to Control Agitation due to Anticholinergic Toxidromes in Adolescents, a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ada; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenergic agonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the sedation of adults who are intubated on mechanical ventilation and in non-intubated adults who are undergoing surgical procedures. However, it has also recently become a commonly used sedative agent in varied clinical settings for the pediatric patient as well. We present the use of dexmedetomidine for sedation in a unique clinical scenario, the severely agitated and combative patient following the intentional misuse of anticholinergic drugs. Its applications in this situation are discussed, and previous reports in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26380573

  18. Treatment of post-electroconvulsive therapy delirium and agitation with donepezil.

    PubMed

    Logan, Christopher J; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2007-03-01

    Delirium and agitation are commonly encountered after administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Management is generally fairly straightforward, although some patients may have a severe, prolonged, or refractory course. We recently cared for a 65-year-old man who consistently developed severe and very prolonged post-ECT delirium that did not respond to typical pharmacological agents; the duration of delirium was dramatically shortened by the addition of donepezil. Cholinesterase inhibitors may have a place in mitigating severe and prolonged post-ECT delirium.

  19. Persistent genital arousal disorder: confluent patient history of agitated depression, paroxetine cessation, and a tarlov cyst.

    PubMed

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy.

  20. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy. PMID:25525548

  1. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) during GRIP and HS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Biswas, S.; Jones, W. L.; Johnson, J.; Farrar, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    HIRAD is a new technology developed by NASA/MSFC, in partnership with NOAA and the Universities of Central Florida, Michigan, and Alabama-Huntsville. HIRAD is designed to measure wind speed and rain rate over a wide swath in heavy-rain, strong-wind conditions. HIRAD is expected to eventually fly routinely on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) such as Global Hawk over hurricanes threatening the U.S. coast and other Atlantic basin areas, and possibly in the Western Pacific as well. HIRAD first flew on GRIP in 2010 and is part of the 2012-14 NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission on the Global Hawk, a high-altitude UAV. The next-generation HIRAD will include wind direction observations, and the technology can eventually be used on a satellite platform to extend the dynamical range of Ocean Surface Wind (OSV) observations from space.

  2. Shear and mixing effects on cells in agitated microcarrier tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1987-01-01

    Tissue cells are known to be sensitive to mechanical stresses imposed on them by agitation in bioreactors. The amount of agitation provided in a microcarrier or suspension bioreactor should be only enough to provide effective homogeneity. Three distinct flow regions can be identified in the reactor: bulk turbulent flow, bulk laminar flow and boundary-layer flows. Possible mechanisms of cell damage are examined by analyzing the motion of microcarriers or free cells relative to the surrounding fluid, to each other and to moving or stationary solid surfaces. The primary mechanisms of cell damage appear to result from: (1) direct interaction between microcarriers and turbulent eddies; (2) collisions between microcarriers in turbulent flow; and (3) collisions against the impeller or other stationary surfaces. If the smallest eddies of turbulent flow are of the same size as the microcarrier beads, they may cause high shear stresses on the cells. Eddies the size of the average interbead spacing may cause bead-bead collisions which damage cells. The severity of the collisions increases when the eddies are also of the same size as the beads. Impeller collisions occur when beads cannot avoid the impeller leading edge as it advances through the liquid. The implications of the results of this analysis on the design and operation of tissue culture reactors are discussed.

  3. [Current treatment of depression and agitation in the elderly -- clinical use of trazodone].

    PubMed

    Osváth, Péter

    2013-09-01

    Due to their increasing frequency, mental disorders among the elderly have special importance in the clinical practice. In this article we summarize the characteristics, diagnostic problems and modern treatments of mental disorders (especially depression) in old age. As this period of life means special somatic and psychic features in people's condition, it may be difficult to find the most effective and well-tolerated treatment, especially in case of comorbid dementia or agitated behaviour. In this article we review the therapeutic experience with the SARI antidepressant trazodone. Clinical studies and everyday practice indicate that trazodone due to its special multifunctional receptorprofile can be particularly effective in the treatment of depression accompanied by severe insomnia and anxiety. Due to its special anxiolytic and sleep normalising effect and well-tolerated side effect profile trazodone is found to be clinically useful not only in the treatment of depression in the elderly, but also in the case of serious comorbidity with dementia or agitated behaviour. We also illustrate the possibilities of using trazodone in the everyday practice with the presentation of two case reports. Furthermore we review the viewpoints of complex therapy which facilitates the successful treatment of depression in the elderly and the restoration of quality of life.

  4. Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

    2014-07-01

    Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3.

  5. Properties of a calicivirus isolated from cats dying in an agitated state.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Ohe, K; Fukuyama, M; Furuhata, K; Kishikawa, S; Sakai, S; Kiuchi, A; Hara, M; Watanabe, T; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    In June 1993, two of five pet cats kept in Yokohama city in Japan suddenly became agitated and died. Feline calicivirus (FCV) was isolated from them. One strain (FCV-S) was isolated from the spinal cord, lung and tonsil of cat 1, another (FCV-B) from the ileum, medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord of cat 2, and a third (FCV-SAKURA) from the oral cavity of one of the three surviving cats which showed no clinical signs. These three strains were equally resistant to pH 3.0 and serologically similar to each other, but distinct from strain F9. A genetic analysis, using a 208 base pair fragment from region E of the capsid, showed that FCV-Ari had a 70.4 per cent nucleotide and 77.3 per cent amino acid homology and FCV-F9 had a 68.6 per cent nucleotide and 73.9 per cent amino acid homology with the three strains, indicating that these two strains were genetically distinct from the three new isolates. Unvaccinated cats and cats which had been vaccinated against FCV-F9 developed watery diarrhoea but did not become agitated after the administration of FCV-S. The FCV-S strain did not induce signs of excitability after it was administered orally to specific pathogen-free cats.

  6. Clinical monitoring scales in acute brain injury: assessment of coma, pain, agitation, and delirium.

    PubMed

    Riker, Richard R; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2014-12-01

    Serial clinical examination represents the most fundamental and basic form of neurological monitoring, and is often the first and only form of such monitoring in patients. Even in patients subjected to physiological monitoring using a range of technologies, the clinical examination remains an essential tool to follow neurological progress. Key aspects of the clinical examination have now been systematized into scoring schemes, and address consciousness, pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD). The Glasgow Coma Scale has been the traditional tool to measure consciousness, but the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score has recently been validated in a variety of settings, and at present, both represent clinically useful tools. Assessment of PAD in neurologically compromised patients present special challenges. For pain, the Numeric Rating Scale is the preferred initial approach, with either the Behavioral Pain Scale or the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool in subjects who are not able to respond. The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised may be useful in patients with severe disorders of consciousness. Conventional sedation scoring tools for critical care, such as the Richmond Area Sedation Scale (RASS) and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) may provide reasonable tools in some neurocritical care patients. The use of sedative drugs and neuromuscular blockers may invalidate the use of some clinical examination tools in others. The use of sedation interruption to assess neurological status can result in physiological derangement in unstable patients (such as those with uncontrolled intracranial hypertension), and is not recommended.

  7. Hyperactivity with Agitative-Like Behavior in a Mouse Tauopathy Model.

    PubMed

    Jul, Pia; Volbracht, Christiane; de Jong, Inge E M; Helboe, Lone; Elvang, Anders Brandt; Pedersen, Jan Torleif

    2016-01-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are characterized by formation of neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition to memory loss, patients experience behavioral symptoms such as agitation, aggression, depression, and insomnia. We explored the behavioral phenotype of a mouse model (rTg4510) carrying the human tau P301L mutation found in a familial form of FTD. We tested these mice in locomotor activity assays as well as in the Morris water maze to access spatial memory. In addition to cognitive impairments, rTg4510 mice exhibited a hyperactivity phenotype which correlated with progression of tau pathology and was dependent on P301L tau transgene expression. The hyperactive phenotype was characterized by significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel and in a simulated home cage environment together with a disturbed day/night cycle. The P301L-tau-dependent hyperactivity and agitative-like phenotype suggests that these mice may form a correlate to some of the behavioral disturbances observed in advanced AD and FTD.

  8. Rapid Tranquilization for Psychiatric Patients with Psychomotor Agitation: What is Known About it?

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Clayton Gonçalves; Del Grossi Moura, Mariana; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; de Cássia Bergamaschi, Cristiane

    2017-03-09

    Rapid tranquilization is an intervention used in control of agitation or aggression in patients with mental disorders. This study synthesized the available evidence regarding efficacy and safety of drugs used for rapid tranquilization in psychiatric patients with psychomotor agitation. It is an overview study of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) identified in the database MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and LILACS until April 2015. A team of reviewers, in pairs and independently, identified eligible studies and assessed methodological quality using AMSTAR. Data were extracted from four studies (61 RCT, 8021 participants). The association of haloperidol with promethazine (H + P) promoted tranquilization and presented better safety profile, with moderate quality evidence. Olanzapine demonstrated benefit towards tranquilization and good safety profile, but needed additional administration to keep tranquilization. There was no benefit in the use of haloperidol alone or associated to another psychotropic to most outcomes evaluated. The evidence was of low quality to most of the interventions. H + P was considered a good option for rapid tranquilization, however, more RCT are necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of the available interventions.

  9. Effects of agitation on particle-size distribution and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce and giant reed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixing is an energy demanding process which has been previously shown to affect enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrated biomass slurries are associated with high and non-Newtonian viscosities and mixing in these systems is a complex task. Poor mixing can lead to mass and/or heat transfer problems as well as inhomogeneous enzyme distribution, both of which can cause possible yield reduction. Furthermore the stirring energy dissipation may impact the particle size which in turn may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the current work was to specifically quantify the effects of mixing on particle-size distribution (PSD) and relate this to changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis. Two rather different materials were investigated, namely pretreated Norway spruce and giant reed. Results Changes in glucan hydrolysis and PSD were measured as a function of agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis at fiber loadings of 7 or 13% water-insoluble solids (WIS). Enzymatic conversion of pretreated spruce was strongly affected by agitation rates at the higher WIS content. However, at low WIS content the agitation had almost no effect on hydrolysis. There was some effect of agitation on the hydrolysis of giant reed at high WIS loading, but it was smaller than that for spruce, and there was no measurable effect at low WIS loading. In the case of spruce, intense agitation clearly affected the PSD and resulted in a reduced mean particle size, whereas for giant reed the decrease in particle size was mainly driven by enzymatic action. However, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was not increased after size reduction by agitation. Conclusions The impact of agitation on the enzymatic hydrolysis clearly depends not only on feedstock but also on the solids loading. Agitation was found to affect the PSD differently for the examined pretreated materials spruce and giant reed. The fact that the reduced mean particle diameter could not explain the enhanced hydrolysis rates found for

  10. Speed of sound and acoustic attenuation of compounds affected during optoacoustic monitoring of thermal therapies measured in the temperature range from 5°C to 60°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oruganti, Tanmayi; Petrova, Elena; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2015-03-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging is being adopted for monitoring tissue temperature during hypothermic and hyperthermic cancer treatments. The technique's accuracy benefits from the knowledge of speed of sound (SoS) and acoustic coefficient of attenuation (AcA) as they change with temperature in biological tissues, blood, and acoustic lens of an ultrasound probe. In these studies we measured SoS and AcA of different ex vivo tissues and blood components (plasma and erythrocyte concentrates) in the temperature range from 5°C to 60°C. We used the technique based on measurements of time-delay and spectral amplitude of pressure pulses generated by wideband planar acoustic waves propagating through the interrogated medium. Water was used as a reference medium with known acoustic properties. In order to validate our experimental technique, we measured the temperature dependence of SoS and AcA for aqueous NaCl solution of known concentration and obtained the results in agreement with published data. Similar to NaCl solution and pure water, SoS in blood and plasma was monotonously increasing with temperature. However, SoS of erythrocyte concentrates displayed abnormalities at temperatures above 45°C, suggesting potential effects from hemoglobin denaturation and/or hemolysis of erythrocytes. On the contrary to aqueous solutions, the SoS in polyvinyl-chloride (plastisol) - a material frequently used for mimicking optical and acoustic properties of tissues - decreased with temperature. We also measured SoS and AcA in silicon material of an acoustic lens and did not observe temperature-related changes of SoS.

  11. The Interactive Relationship between Pain, Psychosis, and Agitation in People with Dementia: Results from a Cluster-Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Habiger, Torstein F.; Flo, Elisabeth; Achterberg, Wilco P.; Husebo, Bettina S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in people with dementia, and pain is thought to be an important underlying factor. Pain has previously been associated with agitation, and pain treatment has been shown to ameliorate agitated behaviour. So far, the association between pain and psychosis and the effect of pain treatment on psychotic symptoms is unclear. Furthermore, the impact of opioid treatment on psychosis is not established. Aim. To investigate the efficacy of a stepwise protocol for treating pain (SPTP) on psychosis and agitation measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version, and to explore the impact of opioid analgesics on psychosis. Method. Secondary analyses are from a cluster-randomised controlled trial including 352 patients with advanced dementia and agitation from 18 nursing homes in Western Norway. The intervention group received pain treatment according to SPTP. Results. Pain was associated with disinhibition (adjusted OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10–1.34) and irritability (adjusted OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.21) at baseline. Pain treatment reduced agitation (p < 0.001, df = 1; 300) and aberrant motor behaviour (p = 0.017, df = 1; 300). Psychosis was reduced in people with at least one symptom at baseline (p = 0.034, df = 1; 135). The use of opioid analgesics did not increase psychotic symptoms. Study Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01021696), Norwegian Medicines Agency, EudraCT (EudraCTnr: 2008-007490-20). PMID:27247487

  12. A simple collapse, agitation and pathological crying in a young woman? - Atypical onset of a basilar thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Etgen, Thorleif; Milankovic-Eberl, Dragana; Rieder, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background A collapse and agitation in a young person comprises many differential diagnoses, but usually does not include a life-threatening basilar thrombosis. Methods and Results We report the case of a 19-year old woman who presented mainly with a collapse and agitation. CT and CT-angiography yielded distal basilar thrombosis which was successfully treated by intraarterial thrombolysis. MRI confirmed multiple small ischemic lesions in the vertebrobasilar territory. The patient improved quickly and returned to her normal daily activities of life after a few months. Conclusions Posterior circulation ischemia should be included among the possible differential diagnoses of any acute onset of an agitated or confusional state. Conflicts of interest/Disclosures None to declare. Ethics Written informed consent of the patient has been obtained. PMID:25422712

  13. Paradoxical severe agitation induced by add-on high-doses quetiapine in schizo-affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; MacGregor, Alexandra; Ducasse, Deborah; Brittner, Marie

    2014-05-15

    We report the case of a 35-year-old patient suffering from schizo-affective disorder since the age of 19 years, treated by a combination of first-generation antipsychotics, zuclopenthixol (100 mg/day) and lithium (1200 mg/day) (serum lithium=0.85 mEq/l). This patient had no associated personality disorder (particularly no antisocial disorder) and no substance abuse disorder. Within the 48 h following the gradual introduction of quetiapine (up to 600 mg/day), the patient presented severe agitation without an environmental explanation, contrasting with the absence of a history of aggressiveness or personality disorder. The diagnoses of manic shift and akathisia were dismissed. The withdrawal and the gradual reintroduction of quetiapine 2 weeks later, which led to another severe agitation, enabled us to attribute the agitation specifically to quetiapine.

  14. Time-Average Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Technique for Measurement of Velocity, Denisty, Temperature, and Turbulence Intensity in High Speed Nozzle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Elam, Kristie A.; Panda, Jayanta

    2004-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering based flow diagnostic is developed to measure time average velocity, density, temperature, and turbulence intensity in a 25.4-mm diameter nozzle free jet facility. The spectrum of the Rayleigh scattered light is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer operated in the static imaging mode. The resulting fringe pattern containing spectral information of the scattered light is recorded using a low noise CCD camera. Nonlinear least squares analysis of the fringe pattern using a kinetic theory model of the Rayleigh scattered light provides estimates of density, velocity, temperature, and turbulence intensity of the gas flow. Resulting flow parameter estimates are presented for an axial scan of subsonic flow at Mach 0.95 for comparison with previously acquired pitot tube data, and axial scans of supersonic flow in an underexpanded screeching jet. The issues related to obtaining accurate turbulence intensity measurements using this technique are discussed.

  15. Dexmedetomidine Injection during Strabismus Surgery Reduces Emergence Agitation without Increasing the Oculocardiac Reflex in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ah-Young; Baik, Ji-Seok; Kim, Jin Hee; Hwang, Jung- Won; Jeon, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dexmedetomidine is known to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation, which is a common complication after inhalational anesthesia like sevoflurane or desflurane in children. However, the dose of dexmedetomidine used for this purpose is reported variously and the most effective dose is not known. In this study, we tried to find the most effective dose of dexmedetomidine to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing strabismus surgery without the complications like oculocardiac reflex (OCR) or postoperative vomiting. Methods We randomized 103 pediatric patients aged 2–6 years and undergoing elective strabismus surgery into four groups. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane. At the start of induction, dexmedetomidine, delivered at 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/kg, or saline was infused intravenously in the D0.25, D0.5, D1 groups, respectively. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of emergence agitation and the secondary outcome measure was the incidence of intraoperative OCR, postoperative vomiting, and desaturation events. Results The incidence of emergence agitation was 60, 48, 44, and 21% (P = 0.005) and the incidence of intraoperative OCR was 36, 36, 36, and 37% (P = 0.988) in the control, D0.25, D0.5, and D1 groups, respectively. And, postoperative vomiting rate and desaturation events were low in the all groups. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine decreased the incidence of emergence agitation without increasing intraoperative oculocardiac reflex. Dexmedetomidine delivered at 1 μg/kg was more effective at reducing emergence agitation than lower doses in children undergoing strabismus surgery under desflurane anesthesia. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000141 PMID:27617832

  16. The Role of Inhaled Loxapine in the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    de Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Orsolini, Laura; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Serroni, Nicola; Valchera, Alessandro; Carano, Alessandro; Vellante, Federica; Marini, Stefano; Piersanti, Monica; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Loxapine is a first generation antipsychotic, belonging to the dibenzoxazepine class. Recently, loxapine has been reformulated at a lower dose, producing an inhaled powder that can be directly administered to the lungs to treat the agitation associated with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thus, the aim of this narrative and clinical mini-review was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of inhaled loxapine in the treatment of acute agitation in patients with psychiatric disorders. The efficacy of inhaled loxapine has been evaluated in one Phase II trial on patients with schizophrenia, and in two Phase III trials in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Moreover, there are two published case series on patients with borderline personality disorder and dual diagnosis patients. Inhaled loxapine has proven to be effective and generally well tolerated when administered to agitated patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Two case series have suggested that inhaled loxapine may also be useful to treat agitation in patients with borderline personality disorder and with dual diagnosis, but further studies are needed to clarify this point. However, the administration of inhaled loxapine requires at least some kind of patient collaboration, and is not recommended in the treatment of severe agitation in totally uncooperative patients. Moreover, the drug-related risk of bronchospasm must always be kept in mind when planning to use inhaled loxapine, leading to a careful patient assessment prior to, and after, administration. Also, the higher costs of inhaled loxapine, when compared to oral and intramuscular medications, should be taken into account when selecting it for the treatment of agitation. PMID:28208695

  17. Electroless deposition of nickel-boron coatings using low frequency ultrasonic agitation: Effect of ultrasonic frequency on the coatings.

    PubMed

    Bonin, L; Bains, N; Vitry, V; Cobley, A J

    2017-01-30

    The effect of ultrasound on the properties of Nickel-Boron (NiB) coatings was investigated. NiB coatings were fabricated by electroless deposition using either ultrasonic or mechanical agitation. The deposition of Ni occurred in an aqueous bath containing a reducible metal salt (nickel chloride), reducing agent (sodium borohydride), complexing agent (ethylenediamine) and stabilizer (lead tungstate). Due to the instability of the borohydride in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline media, pH was controlled at pH 12±1 in order to avoid destabilizing the bath. Deposition was performed in three different configurations: one with a classical mechanical agitation at 300rpm and the other two employing ultrasound at a frequency of either 20 or 35kHz. The microstructures of the electroless coatings were characterized by a combination of optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The chemistry of the coatings was determined by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry) after dissolution in aqua regia. The mechanical properties of the coatings were established by a combination of roughness measurements, Vickers microhardness and pin-on-disk tribology tests. Lastly, the corrosion properties were analysed by potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that low frequency ultrasonic agitation could be used to produce coatings from an alkaline NiB bath and that the thickness of coatings obtained could be increased by over 50% compared to those produced using mechanical agitation. Although ultrasonic agitation produced a smoother coating and some alteration of the deposit morphology was observed, the mechanical and corrosion properties were very similar to those found when using mechanical agitation.

  18. Characterization of a continuous agitated cell reactor for oxygen dependent biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Toftgaard Pedersen, Asbjørn; de Carvalho, Teresa Melo; Sutherland, Euan; Rehn, Gustav; Ashe, Robert; Woodley, John M

    2017-02-10

    Biocatalytic oxidation reactions employing molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor are difficult to conduct in a continuous flow reactor because of the requirement for high oxygen transfer rates. In this paper, the oxidation of glucose to glucono-1,5-lactone by glucose oxidase was used as a model reaction to study a novel continuous agitated cell reactor (ACR). The ACR consists of ten cells interconnected by small channels. An agitator is placed in each cell, which mixes the content of the cell when the reactor body is shaken by lateral movement. Based on tracer experiments, a hydrodynamic model for the ACR was developed. The model consisted of ten tanks-in-series with back-mixing occurring within and between each cell. The back-mixing was a necessary addition to the model in order to explain the observed phenomenon that the ACR behaved as two continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at low flow rates, while it at high flow rates behaved as the expected ten CSTRs in series. The performance of the ACR was evaluated by comparing the steady state conversion at varying residence times with the conversion observed in a stirred batch reactor of comparable size. It was found that the ACR could more than double the overall reaction rate, which was solely due to an increased oxygen transfer rate in the ACR caused by the intense mixing as a result of the spring agitators. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kL a, was estimated to be 344 h(-1) in the 100 mL ACR, opposed to only 104 h(-1) in a batch reactor of comparable working volume. Interestingly, the large deviation from plug flow behavior seen in the tracer experiments was found to have little influence on the conversion in the ACR, since both a plug flow reactor (PFR) model and the backflow cell model described the data sufficiently well. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;9999: 1-9. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Successful treatment for psychomotor agitation in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with trazodone-risperidone combination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Narita, Zui; Takano, Harumasa; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a relapsing disease that typically affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. So far, a few studies have reported pharmacologic treatment for psychiatric symptoms in patients with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, no literature has described psychomotor agitation associated with the disease and its treatment. We report an 84-year-old woman with NMOSD whose psychomotor agitation was effectively treated with a combination of trazodone and risperidone. Our observation suggests the ability of augmentation of antipsychotic drugs with antidepressants to ameliorate psychotic symptoms associated with NMOSD.

  20. Efficacy of Memantine for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Chris; Crugel, Monica; Maidment, Ian; Auestad, Bjorn Henrik; Coulton, Simon; Treloar, Adrian; Ballard, Clive; Boustani, Malaz; Katona, Cornelius; Livingston, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background Agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is common and associated with poor patient life-quality and carer distress. The best evidence-based pharmacological treatments are antipsychotics which have limited benefits with increased morbidity and mortality. There are no memantine trials in clinically significant agitation but post-hoc analyses in other populations found reduced agitation. We tested the primary hypothesis, memantine is superior to placebo for clinically significant agitation, in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. Methods and Findings We recruited 153 participants with AD and clinically significant agitation from care-homes or hospitals for a double-blind randomised-controlled trial and 149 people started the trial of memantine versus placebo. The primary outcome was 6 weeks mixed model autoregressive analysis of Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Secondary outcomes were: 12 weeks CMAI; 6 and 12 weeks Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI-C), Standardised Mini Mental State Examination, Severe Impairment Battery. Using a mixed effects model we found no significant differences in the primary outcome, 6 weeks CMAI, between memantine and placebo (memantine lower −3.0; −8.3 to 2.2, p = 0.26); or 12 weeks CMAI; or CGI-C or adverse events at 6 or 12 weeks. NPI mean difference favoured memantine at weeks 6 (−6.9; −12.2 to −1.6; p = 0.012) and 12 (−9.6; −15.0 to −4.3 p = 0.0005). Memantine was significantly better than placebo for cognition. The main study limitation is that it still remains to be determined whether memantine has a role in milder agitation in AD. Conclusions Memantine did not improve significant agitation in people with in moderate-to-severe AD. Future studies are urgently needed to test other pharmacological candidates in this group and memantine for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00371059 Trial Registration International

  1. Successful treatment for psychomotor agitation in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with trazodone–risperidone combination: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Zui; Takano, Harumasa; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a relapsing disease that typically affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. So far, a few studies have reported pharmacologic treatment for psychiatric symptoms in patients with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, no literature has described psychomotor agitation associated with the disease and its treatment. We report an 84-year-old woman with NMOSD whose psychomotor agitation was effectively treated with a combination of trazodone and risperidone. Our observation suggests the ability of augmentation of antipsychotic drugs with antidepressants to ameliorate psychotic symptoms associated with NMOSD. PMID:28331329

  2. Assessment of Electromagnetic Stirrer Agitated Liquid Metal Flows by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Sarma, Mārtiņš; Vontobel, Peter; Trtik, Pavel; Thomsen, Knud; Jakovičs, Andris; Beinerts, Toms

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents qualitative and quantitative characterization of two-phase liquid metal flows agitated by the stirrer on rotating permanent magnets. The stirrer was designed to fulfill various eddy flows, which may have different rates of solid particle entrapment from the liquid surface and their homogenization. The flow was characterized by visualization of the tailored tracer particles by means of dynamic neutron radiography, an experimental method well suited for liquid metal flows due to low opacity of some metals for neutrons. The rather high temporal resolution of the image acquisition (32 Hz image acquisition rate) allows for the quantitative investigation of the flows up to 30 cm/s using neutron particle image velocimetry. In situ visualization of the two-phase liquid metal flow is also demonstrated.

  3. Assessment of Electromagnetic Stirrer Agitated Liquid Metal Flows by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Sarma, Mārtiņš; Vontobel, Peter; Trtik, Pavel; Thomsen, Knud; Jakovičs, Andris; Beinerts, Toms

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents qualitative and quantitative characterization of two-phase liquid metal flows agitated by the stirrer on rotating permanent magnets. The stirrer was designed to fulfill various eddy flows, which may have different rates of solid particle entrapment from the liquid surface and their homogenization. The flow was characterized by visualization of the tailored tracer particles by means of dynamic neutron radiography, an experimental method well suited for liquid metal flows due to low opacity of some metals for neutrons. The rather high temporal resolution of the image acquisition (32 Hz image acquisition rate) allows for the quantitative investigation of the flows up to 30 cm/s using neutron particle image velocimetry. In situ visualization of the two-phase liquid metal flow is also demonstrated.

  4. Remediating agitation-induced antibody aggregation by eradicating exposed hydrophobic motifs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rutilio H; Latypov, Ramil F; De Imus, Cyr; Carter, Jane; Wilson, Zien; Manchulenko, Kathy; Brown, Michael E; Ketchem, Randal R

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies must encompass drug product suitable attributes to be commercially marketed. An undesirable antibody characteristic is the propensity to aggregate. Although there are computational algorithms that predict the propensity of a protein to aggregate from sequence information alone, few consider the relevance of the native structure. The Spatial Aggregation Propensity (SAP) algorithm developed by Chennamsetty et. al. incorporates structural and sequence information to identify motifs that contribute to protein aggregation. We have utilized the algorithm to design variants of a highly aggregation prone IgG2. All variants were tested in a variety of high-throughput, small-scale assays to assess the utility of the method described herein. Many variants exhibited improved aggregation stability whether induced by agitation or thermal stress while still retaining bioactivity. PMID:25484048

  5. Genetic transformation of Platymonas ( Tetraselmis) subcordiformis (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta) using particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yulin; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Fuchao; Chen, Yingjie; Zheng, Guoting; Qin, Song

    2012-05-01

    Platymonas ( Tetraselmis) subcordiformis is a unicellular marine green alga. It was found to be very sensitive to the herbicide Basta through a sensitivity test indicating it could be employed as a selective agent. The bar gene is a practicable and selectable marker gene. The vector containing the expression cassette of the bar gene was transferred to P. subcordiformis by both particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation and transformants were then selected using Basta. Finally, Southern blotting analysis indicated that the bar gene had been successfully integrated into the nuclear genome of P. subcordiformis using both of the transgenic techniques, with the transformation efficiency of the glass-bead method being slightly higher than that of particle bombardment. This is the first report on stable transformation of P. subcordiformis, and will improve fundamental research and enlarge application of this alga.

  6. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Longrie, Delphine Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-01-15

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  7. Theoretical estimate of the effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion generated by stochastic microswimming.

    PubMed

    González-García, José S

    2016-11-04

    The effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion is evaluated through the Péclet number, assuming that the ribosome is self-propelled along the mRNA during protein synthesis by a swimming stroke consisting of a cycle of stochastically-generated ribosome configurations involving its two subunits. The ribosome velocity probability distribution function is obtained, giving an approximately normal distribution. Its mean and variance together with an estimate of the in vivo free diffusion coefficient of the ribosome and using only configuration changes of small size, give a Péclet number similar to motor proteins and microorganisms. These results suggest the feasibility of the stochastic microswimming hypothesis to explain ribosome motion.

  8. Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2001-01-01

    A method for reducing catalyst attrition losses in hydrocarbon synthesis processes conducted in high agitation reaction systems; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst; a catalyst produced by such method; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support; and a catalyst support produced by such method. The inventive method of reducing catalyst attrition losses comprises the step of reacting a synthesis gas in a high agitation reaction system in the presence of a catalyst. In one aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support including an amount of titanium effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support which has been treated, after calcination, with an acidic, aqueous solution. The acidic aqueous solution preferably has a pH of not more than about 5. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support wherein the cobalt has been applied to the .gamma.-alumina support by totally aqueous, incipient wetness-type impregnation. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support with an amount of a lanthana promoter effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support produced from boehmite having a crystallite size, in the 021 plane, in the range of from about 30 to about 55 .ANG.ngstrons. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst comprises the step of treating a .gamma.-alumina support, after calcination of and before adding catalytic material to the support, with an acidic solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support comprises the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina with an acidic, aqueous

  9. A comparison of postoperative emergence agitation between sevoflurane and thiopental anesthesia induction in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Seon; Jang, Eunjoo; Oh, Min Wook; Lee, Ji-Hye; Han, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was performed to compare the incidence of emergence agitation (EA) between inhalation and intravenous anesthesia induction in children after sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods In this prospective and double-blind study, 100 children aged 3 to 7 years were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to the sevoflurane (Group S) or thiopental (Group T) anesthesia induction groups. Anesthesia was induced using 8% sevoflurane and 4-6 mg/kg thiopental in Groups S and T, respectively. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. The children were evaluated at 5 and 20 min after arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with a four-point agitation scale and the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. The incidence of EA and administration of the rescue agent were recorded. Results The incidence of EA was significantly lower in Group T compared to Group S at 5 min after PACU arrival (3/49 patients, 6% vs. 12/47 patients, 26%, P = 0.019). However, there was no difference between the two groups at 20 min after PACU arrival (23/49 vs. 19/47 patients in Group T vs. Group S, P = 0.425). The overall incidence of EA was 60% (28/47 patients) in Group S and 41% (20/49 patients) in Group T (P = 0.102). The number of children who received propofol as a rescue agent was significantly lower in Group T (Group S: 14/47 vs. Group T: 5/49, P = 0.031). Conclusions Intravenous anesthesia induction with thiopental reduced the incidence of EA in the early PACU period compared to inhalation induction with sevoflurane in 3- to 7-year-old children undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26257850

  10. Impact of pharmaceutical care on pain and agitation in a medical intensive care unit in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Dilokpattanamongkol, Pitchaya; Tangsujaritvijit, Viratch; Suansanae, Thanarat; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

    2017-03-29

    Background Currently, a lack of pharmaceutical care exists concerning pain and agitation in medical intensive care units (MICU) in Thailand. Pharmaceutical care focusing on analgesics/sedatives would improve clinical outcomes. Objective To investigate the impact of pharmaceutical care of pain and agitation on ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, ventilator days and mortality. Setting The MICU of a university hospital. Method A before/after study was conducted on mechanically ventilated patients receiving analgesics/sedatives. Medical chart reviews and data collection were conducted in the retrospective group (no pharmacists involved). In the prospective group, pharmacists involved with the critical care team helped select analgesics/sedatives for individual patients. Main outcome measure ICU LOS Results In total, 90 and 66 patients were enrolled in retrospective and prospective groups, respectively. The median duration of ICU LOS was reduced from 10.00 (2.00-72.00) in the retrospective group to 6.50 days (2.00-30.00) in the prospective group (p = 0.002). The median hospital stay was reduced from 30.50 days (2.00-119.00) in the retrospective group to 17.50 days (2.00-110.00) in the prospective group (p < 0.001). Also, the median ventilator days was reduced from 14.00 days (2.00-90.00) to 8.50 days (1.00-45.00), p = 0.008. Mortality was 53.03% in the prospective group and 46.67% in the retrospective group (p = 0.432). Conclusion Pharmacist participation in a critical care team resulted in a significant reduction in the duration of ICU LOS, hospital LOS and ventilator days, but not mortality.

  11. Entropy correlates with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha

    2014-04-01

    Sedation is routinely used in intensive care units. However due to absence of objective scoring systems like Bispectral Index and entropy our ability to regulate the degree of sedation is limited. This deficiency is further highlighted by the fact that agitation scores used in intensive care units (ICU) have no role in paralyzed patients. The present study compares entropy as a sedation scoring modality with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients in an ICU. Twenty-seven, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients of either sex, 16-65 years of age, were studied over a period of 24 h. They received a standard sedation regimen consisting of a bolus dose of propofol 0.5 mg/kg and fentanyl 1 lg/kg followed by infusions of propofol and fentanyl ranging from 1.5 to 5 mg/kg/h and 0.5 to 2.0 lg/kg/h, respectively. Clinically relevant values of RASS for optimal ICU sedation (between 0 and -3) in non-paralyzed patients were compared to corresponding entropy values, to find if any significant correlation exists between the two. These entropy measurements were obtained using the Datex-Ohmeda-M-EntropyTM module. This module is presently not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for monitoring sedation in ICU. A total of 527 readings were obtained. There was a statistically significant correlation between the state entropy (SE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.334, p\\0.0001]; response entropy (RE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.341, p\\0.0001]). For adequate sedation as judged by a RASS value of 0 to -3, the mean SE was 57.86 ± 16.50 and RE was 67.75 ± 15.65. The present study illustrates that entropy correlates with RASS (between scores 0 and -3) when assessing the level of sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

  12. Mathematical model for predicting topographical properties of poly (ε-caprolactone) melt electrospun scaffolds including the effects of temperature and linear transitional speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Junghyuk; Khadem Mohtaram, Nima; Lee, Patrick C.; Willerth, Stephanie M.; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2015-04-01

    Melt electrospinning can be used to fabricate various fibrous biomaterial scaffolds with a range of mechanical properties and varying topographical properties for different applications such as tissue scaffold and filtration and etc, making it a powerful technique. Engineering the topography of such electrospun microfibers can be easily done by tuning the operational parameters of this process. Recent experimental studies have shown promising results for fabricating various topographies, but there is no body of work that focuses on using mathematical models of this technique to further understand the effect of operational parameters on these properties of microfiber scaffolds. In this study, we developed a novel mathematical model using numerical simulations to demonstrate the effect of temperature, feed rate and flow rate on controlling topographical properties such as fiber diameter of these spun fibrous scaffolds. These promising modelling results are also compared to our previous and current experimental results. Overall, we show that our novel mathematical model can predict the topographical properties affected by key operational parameters such as change in temperature, flow rate and feed rate, and this model could serve as a promising strategy for the controlling of topographical properties of such structures for different applications.

  13. A MATLAB toolbox and Excel workbook for calculating the densities, seismic wave speeds, and major element composition of minerals and rocks at pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.; Hacker, Bradley R.

    2016-02-01

    To interpret seismic images, rock seismic velocities need to be calculated at elevated pressure and temperature for arbitrary compositions. This technical report describes an algorithm, software, and data to make such calculations from the physical properties of minerals. It updates a previous compilation and Excel® spreadsheet and includes new MATLAB® tools for the calculations. The database of 60 mineral end-members includes all parameters needed to estimate density and elastic moduli for many crustal and mantle rocks at conditions relevant to the upper few hundreds of kilometers of Earth. The behavior of α and β quartz is treated as a special case, owing to its unusual Poisson's ratio and thermal expansion that vary rapidly near the α-β transition. The MATLAB tools allow integration of these calculations into a variety of modeling and data analysis projects.

  14. Effect of thermal agitation on the switching field distributions of CoPtCr-SiO2 perpendicular recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimatsu, T.; Kondo, T.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Aoi, H.; Muraoka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2006-04-01

    The effect of thermal agitations on the switching field distribution (SFD) of CoPtCr-SiO2 perpendicular media was investigated. Dc demagnetizing (DCD) magnetization curves and minor dc demagnetizing (M-DCD) magnetization curves were measured at applied field sweep rates of ~10 and ~108 Oe/s. We estimated the SFD from the difference between the DCD and M-DCD curves, and defined them as ΔHr/Hr (at ~10 Oe/s) and ΔHrP/HrP (at ~108 Oe/s). The values of ΔHrP/HrP were found to be 60%-70% of ΔHr/Hr. The difference between ΔHrP/HrP and ΔHr/Hr should be caused by thermal agitation of the magnetization. The influence of the distribution of the thermal agitation on SFD was calculated using the distribution of the grain volumes. It is concluded that the SFD measured at vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) time scales is significantly influenced by thermal agitation of the magnetization, and reduction of the grain size distribution is the most effective way to reduce the SFD at VSM time scales.

  15. Music therapy: A nonpharmacological approach to the care of agitation and depressive symptoms for nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kendra D; Mittelman, Mary S

    2015-10-29

    Depression, agitation, and wandering are common behaviors associated with dementia and frequently observed among nursing home residents. Even with pharmacological treatment, behaviors often persist, hindering quality of life for elders, their family, and paid caregivers. This study examined the use of music therapy for treatment of these symptoms among 132 people with moderate to severe dementia in nursing homes. Participants were evaluated for depressive symptoms, agitation, and wandering to determine their predominate behavior. There were two assessments, two weeks apart, prior to intervention, followed by a two-week intervention, and two follow-up assessments, also two weeks apart. A repeated measures ANOVA determined that after two weeks of music therapy, symptoms of depression and agitation were significantly reduced; there was no change for wandering. Multivariate analyses confirmed a relationship between music therapy and change in neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with dementia. Results suggest widespread use of music therapy in long-term care settings may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and agitation.

  16. How to Radicalize Graduate Students: Take These Simple Steps to Intimidate, Alienate, and Agitate Your Own Flock of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Heather

    2011-01-01

    As the recession, budget cuts, endowment losses, and Republican governors gut university funding, campuses across the country have become host to occupations, union actions, and demonstrations. One can take steps to intimidate, alienate, and agitate a flock of graduate students. The author discusses steps that offer simple ways to rile up and…

  17. Communication Capacity Scale and Agitation Distress Scale to measure the severity of delirium in terminally ill cancer patients: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Tsunoda, J; Inoue, S; Chihara, S; Oka, K

    2001-05-01

    Although valid measurement of the severity of terminal delirium is of great importance in palliative care settings, existing instruments have considerable limitations. In order to quantify patients' communication capacity and agitated behaviour, two new operational observer-rating scales, the Communication Capacity Scale (Communication Scale) and Agitation Distress Scale (Agitation Scale), were validated. Thirty terminally ill cancer patients diagnosed with delirium were evaluated simultaneously by two palliative care physicians blinded to each other's coding using the Communication Scale and Agitation Scale. In addition, the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) and Sedation Scale were rated by one researcher. Both scales achieved high internal consistency and inter-rater reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.91 and 0.96, and Cohen's kappa values on each item of 0.72-1.00. The principal components analysis resulted in the emergence of only one component for each scale. The total score on the Communication Scale was highly associated with that of the MDAS (rho = 0.78), Sedation Scale (rho = 0.86), and cognitive items from the MDAS and DRS (rho = 0.83). The whole score on the Agitation Scale was significantly correlated with that of the DRS (rho = 0.61) and agitation items from the MDAS and DRS (rho = 0.61). In conclusion, the Communication Scale and Agitation Scale have acceptable reliability and validity to quantify patients' communication capacity and agitation symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients with delirium.

  18. Use of seagrass meadows as an adaptation measure to climate change for reducing port agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Lin, Jue; Pau Sierra, Joan; Gracia, Vicenç; Casas-Prat, Merce; Virgili, Marc

    2014-05-01

    One of the best-known consequences of the greenhouse effect and the resulting global warming is sea-level rise. However, sea level rise is not the only process of concern to coastal communities. The greenhouse effect and the complex interactions in atmospheric processes is expected to produce changes in near-surface wind and pressure patterns, which in turn can affect the pattern of another important coastal driver: the wave field. Changes in wave conditions can affect the wave pattern within harbours as shown by Casas-Prat and Sierra (2012), increasing port agitation and, as a consequence, reducing the safety and comfort of the users, decreasing operation performance or even generating port inactivity. This effect will be enhanced by an increase in mean sea level. To avoid costly structural measure there are "green" options such as sea-grass that can attenuate wave energy (Koftis et al., 2013), since their roots induce sea bottom roughness and their stems and leaves increase the drag coefficient. The combined effect of vegetation is, thus, to create drag forces that dissipate part of the energy from incoming waves. Casas-Prat and Sierra (2013) showed that wave patterns may change in the future in certain areas of the Catalan Coast (northwestern Mediterranean) and as a consequence port agitation could be affected by changes in wave height or direction as well in those areas. The suggested "green" measures can help to prevent potential negative effects on port operations. The adaptive approach, depending on the downscaled climatic projections, would combine vegetation (as for example the existence of a sea-grass meadow in the vicinity of the harbour entrance) with some structural reinforcement if required. In this paper, the wave projections of Casas-Prat and Sierra (2013) are used together with a Boussinesq-type model to study wave propagation in several harbours of the Catalan Coast. This analysis of harbour oscillations is carried out for present conditions and

  19. Predictors of Nursing Home Admission among Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Psychosis and/or Agitation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Edward Alan; Schneider, Lon S.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict nursing home placement among community-dwelling Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients with psychosis or agitation in a randomized clinical trial. Methods 418 participants with AD enrolled in the CATIE-AD trial of anti-psychotic medications and having no evidence of nursing home use at baseline were followed 9 months post-random assignment using data provided by caregiver proxy. χ2 tests, t-tests and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used to examine the baseline correlates of nursing home use. Results Of outpatients with no prior nursing home use, 15.0% were placed in a nursing home in the 9 months following baseline, with the average time to placement being 122 days. Bivariate analyses indicate that those with prior outpatient mental health use at study entry were more likely to be admitted; so too were those with worse physical functioning—lower scores on the AD Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL), lower utility scores on the Health Utility Index (HUI)-III, and worse cognition on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Controlling for other factors, non-Hispanic white race (hazard ratio [HR]=2.16) and prior mental health use (HR=1.87) increased the likelihood of admission. Those with higher ADCS-ADL scores were less likely to be placed (HR=0.97). Conclusion Factors leading to nursing home entry among psychotic/agitated AD patients are similar to the general population, though high incidence of nursing home entry highlights the importance of accounting for such utilization in health economic studies of AD outcomes. It also highlights the importance of using information on ADLs and other characteristics to develop profiles identifying those at greater or lesser risk of nursing home entry and, in so doing inform population planning associated with AD and identification of those patients and caregivers who might benefit most from interventions to prevent eventual placement

  20. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  1. Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Linde, K; Jonas, W B; Melchart, D; Worku, F; Wagner, H; Eitel, F

    1994-07-01

    1. We conducted an overview and quantitative meta-analysis of all experimental literature on the protective effects of serial agitated dilutions (SADs) of toxin preparations. 2. Articles were systematically collected and evaluated for scientific quality using pre-defined methodological criteria and then independently analysed for validity. 3. We found 105 publications exploring the effects of SAD preparations in toxicological systems. 4. The quality of evidence in these studies was low with only 43% achieving one half of the maximum possible quality score and only 31% reported in a fashion that permitted reevaluation of the data. 5. Very few studies were independently replicated using comparable models. 6. Among the high quality studies, positive effects were reported 50% more often than negative effects. 7. Four of 5 outcomes meeting quality and comparability criteria for meta-analysis showed positive effects from SAD preparations. 8. Average percent protection over controls in these preparations was 19.7 (95%Cl 6.2-33.2). 9. Further research with special attention to methodological detail and independent replication should be done.

  2. Stabilization of bovine insulin against agitation-induced aggregation using RNA aptamers.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ravinder; Roy, Ipsita

    2013-08-16

    Stabilization of monomeric insulin is a primary requirement for preserving the efficacy of the final formulation. Degraded and/or aggregated protein as well as the presence of any of the conventional excipients can result in immunogenic or anaphylactic reactions, and reduced bioavailability of the protein drug. The aim of this work was to select novel RNA-based stabilizers of bovine insulin which would recognize and bind to the monomeric protein and help retain its bioactivity. RNA aptamers were selected by an in vitro selection method. They were screened for their ability to inhibit insulin fibrillation using agitation as a stress condition. The in vitro activity of insulin was determined by phosphorylation of downstream proteins in the cell. In vivo bioactivity was determined in a diabetic rat model. RNA aptamers, which bound to insulin with very low dissociation constants and high specificity, were selected. These sequences were aligned and consensus regions were found. The RNA sequences had no effect on the signalling cascade initiated by insulin. The bioactivity of insulin, as measured by its ability to lower plasma glucose level in a diabetic rat model, also remained unchanged. RNA aptamers are a novel class of protein stabilizers which have the ability to disrupt protein-protein interactions and hence inhibit protein aggregation. Their non-toxic and non-immunogenic nature makes such formulations safe for use.

  3. Successful child psychotherapy of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder: an agitated depression explanation.

    PubMed

    Seitler, Burton Norman

    2008-09-01

    Science tries to explain phenomena in ways that are demonstrable and replicable to develop logical, coherent, parsimonious, and predictive theoretical systems. Yet hyperactive children are given stimulants to "calm" them down, despite the fact that science would predict stimulants would increase hyperactivity. Bradley (1937, 1950) observed that half of the behavior-problem children to whom he administered a stimulant for one week became subdued. He called this finding paradoxical, speculating that inhibitory centers of the central nervous system were stimulated. While Bradley's assertion of a paradoxical reverse effect in children may be an empirical observation, it is not an explanation. The Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is inferred to exist from hyperactive behavior, which in turn, is inferred to be neurological in origin, a circular argument. An inevitable consequence of the belief in the hypothetical neurological etiology of ADHD is that children are typically given stimulants. Using the case of a seven-year old child, described as experiencing ADHD, who was treated successfully without medication as an illustration, the author provides an alternative, more parsimonious explanation of the etiology, suggesting that ADHD is related to agitated depression.

  4. Drying process optimization for an API solvate using heat transfer model of an agitated filter dryer.

    PubMed

    Nere, Nandkishor K; Allen, Kimberley C; Marek, James C; Bordawekar, Shailendra V

    2012-10-01

    Drying an early stage active pharmaceutical ingredient candidate required excessively long cycle times in a pilot plant agitated filter dryer. The key to faster drying is to ensure sufficient heat transfer and minimize mass transfer limitations. Designing the right mixing protocol is of utmost importance to achieve efficient heat transfer. To this order, a composite model was developed for the removal of bound solvent that incorporates models for heat transfer and desolvation kinetics. The proposed heat transfer model differs from previously reported models in two respects: it accounts for the effects of a gas gap between the vessel wall and solids on the overall heat transfer coefficient, and headspace pressure on the mean free path length of the inert gas and thereby on the heat transfer between the vessel wall and the first layer of solids. A computational methodology was developed incorporating the effects of mixing and headspace pressure to simulate the drying profile using a modified model framework within the Dynochem software. A dryer operational protocol was designed based on the desolvation kinetics, thermal stability studies of wet and dry cake, and the understanding gained through model simulations, resulting in a multifold reduction in drying time.

  5. Phosphorus recovery from urine with different magnesium resources in an air-agitated reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Zhengyi; Mu, Jing; Zang, Haixing; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery through struvite formation from urine has gained increasing attention as an approach to alleviate the potential shortage of P. The concentration of magnesium (Mg) is lower than those of ammonium and ortho-phosphate in urine, so the cost of adding Mg is a major economic constraint for P recovery. This study aims at evaluating the potential of seawater and bittern as Mg resources to recover P from urine in an air-agitated reactor. Results indicate that effects of seawater and bittern on P recovery from urine are comparable to that of magnesium chloride, with an average crystal size of around 34 μm under an Mg/P molar ratio of 1.3. The average crystal size of the struvite crystals obtained from high P concentration urine with different Mg resources showed no significant difference, whereas larger crystal size was obtained from low P concentration urine with bittern as Mg resource. Analysis of mainly rod-like crystals produced in the reactor indicates the presence of pure struvite (>98.0% by weight) with small amounts of calcium (<1.39% by weight). Bittern is recommended as a suitable Mg resource for P recovery because of its high Mg content and the convenience it offers in terms of transportation and storage.

  6. Mechanical agitation induces counterintuitive aggregation of pre-dispersed carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ricardo M F; Buzaglo, Matat; Regev, Oren; Furó, István; Marques, Eduardo F

    2017-05-01

    Mechanical agitation is commonly used to fragment and disperse insoluble materials in liquids. However, here we show that when pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes pre-dispersed in water are subject to vortex-shaking for very short periods (typically 10-60s, power density ∼0.002WmL(-1)), re-aggregation counterintuitively occurs. The initial dispersions are produced using surfactants as dispersants and powerful tip sonication (∼1WmL(-1)) followed by centrifugation. Detailed imaging by light and electron microscopies shows that the vortex-induced aggregates consist of loose networks (1-10(2)μm in size) of intertwined tubes and thin bundles. The average aggregate size increases with vortexing time in an apparently logarithmic manner and depends on the dispersant used, initial concentration of nanotubes and size distribution of bundles. The aggregation is, nonetheless, reversible: if the vortex-shaken dispersions are mildly bath-sonicated (∼0.03WmL(-1)), the flocs break down and re-dispersal occurs. Molecular insight for the mechanism behind this surprising phenomenon is put forth.

  7. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  8. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: A delicate sentinel elevated in drug-free acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shujuan; Tan, Yunlong; Yao, Shangwu; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Jing

    2016-12-30

    Increased levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) have been reported in schizophrenia, but to date, no study is designed to examine serum hsCRP in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia, an extreme state that requires immediate diagnosis and medical treatment. Serum hsCRP levels were assessed in 32 clinically acutely agitated patients and 42 healthy control subjects matched for demographic properties. Further, serum hsCRP levels in acutely agitated patients were compared with control subjects and with the levels after the patients were treated with anti-psychiatric medications. Meanwhile, the influence of clinical subtypes, family history, and gender, as well as the levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts were also considered. In results, serum hsCRP levels were significantly higher in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. The elevation of serum hsCRP in patients was not affected by gender, family history (P>0.05), and clinical classification of schizophrenia (P>0.05). However, the elevation of hsCRP was suppressed by the medical treatment for schizophrenia with acute agitation (P<0.05). In addition, WBC counts, another inflammation-related indicator, were also increased significantly in acutely agitated patients compared with healthy subjects, consistent with the elevation of serum hsCRP. In conclusion, hsCRP is an important indicator of immune alterations in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and has potential to be developed into a sensitive marker for the acute agitation in schizophrenia.

  9. Vehicle speed control device

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Trump, W.E.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is described for automatically limiting the speed of a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine having a spark ignition system with an ignition coil, comprising: sensor means for generating a speed signal directly representative of the speed of the vehicle comprising a series of speed signal pulses having a pulse repetition frequency proportional to the speed of the vehicle; control means for converting speed signal pulses into a DC voltage proportional to the vehicle speed; means for comparing the DC voltage to a predetermined DC voltage having substantially zero AC components representative of a predetermined maximum speed and for generating a difference signal in response thereto; and means for generating a pulse-width modulated control signal responsive to the difference signal; power means responsive to the control signal for intermittently interrupting the ignition system.

  10. Speed limits of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everling, E

    1923-01-01

    This paper is restricted to the question of attainable speed limits and attacks the problem from different angles. Theoretical limits due to air resistance are presented along with design factors which may affect speed such as wing loads, wing areas, wing section shifting, landing speeds, drag-lift ratios, and power coefficients.

  11. Agitation Rate and Time for Complete Dissolution in BCS Biowaivers Based on Investigation of a BCS Biowaiver for Dexketoprofen Tablets.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Gordon, John; Gwaza, Luther; Mangas-Sanjuan, V; Álvarez, Covadonga; Torrado, Juan J

    2015-09-08

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the validity of the existing requirements for BCS biowaivers of immediate release products containing a class I drug in relation to the agitation rate (50 or 75 rpm in the paddle apparatus) and the time limit for complete dissolution (30 min) in the current biowaivers in vitro dissolution tests. Further, the possibility of extensions will be examined since it has been proposed that the time limit for complete dissolution should be revised to 60 min, and also, if cone formation occurs with apparatus 2 at 50 rpm, then a higher agitation rate is acceptable to eliminate it. The development of four generic dexketoprofen immediate release tablets is described. Dexketoprofen is the eutomer of ketoprofen. According to the BCS, dexketoprofen is a class I drug. Three out of the four products failed to show bioequivalence for Cmax in the initial bioequivalence study conducted with the product despite similar but nonrapid dissolution profiles at 50 rpm in the paddle apparatus, or similar and very rapid dissolution profiles at 75 rpm. In conclusion, these data indicate that BCS biowaivers for class I drugs should be granted only when dissolution with the paddle apparatus is complete in 30 min at 50 rpm. The time limit for complete dissolution should not be extended to 60 min. Furthermore, the agitation rate should not be increased to 75 rpm, even in the case of a coning effect.

  12. The Closing Group: Therapeutic recreation for nursing home residents with dementia and accompanying agitation and/or anxiety.

    PubMed

    Putman, Laraine; Wang, Jen-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Long-term care residents who have a dementia diagnosis could account for as much 50% of a nursing home's population. Often residents with dementia experience a distressing behavioral symptom that affects the resident experiencing the symptom(s), other nursing home residents, visitors, and staff. The Closing Group intervention was developed as a nonpharmacological alternative that aims to reduce agitation and anxiety, increase socialization, decrease restraint use, and decrease antipsychotic drug use for selected residents with a dementia diagnosis. The program was based on an understanding of the contributing factors to agitation and anxiety, the nursing home environment as it relates to behavior, and the offering of resident-driven recreational activities. The purpose of this 2-year study was, with use of multiple measures, to examine the extent to which the Closing Group intervention has met its goals. A sample of 16 long-term care residents was offered attendance at the group. Findings in the area of reducing agitation and anxiety were encouraging to the extent that further study with larger samples is needed.

  13. Do Bartonella Infections Cause Agitation, Panic Disorder, and Treatment-Resistant Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, James L.; Burkland, Glenn A.; Langhoff, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Bartonella is an emerging infection found in cities, suburbs, and rural locations. Routine national labs offer testing for only 2 species, but at least 9 have been discovered as human infections within the last 15 years. Some authors discuss Bartonella cases having atypical presentations, with serious morbidity considered uncharacteristic of more routine Bartonella infections. Some atypical findings include distortion of vision, abdominal pain, severe liver and spleen tissue abnormalities, thrombocytopenic purpura, bone infection, arthritis, abscesses, heart tissue and heart valve problems. While some articles discuss Bartonella as a cause of neurologic illnesses, psychiatric illnesses have received limited attention. Case reports usually do not focus on psychiatric symptoms and typically only as incidental comorbid findings. In this article, we discuss patients exhibiting new-onset agitation, panic attacks, and treatment-resistant depression, all of which may be attributed to Bartonella. Methods Three patients receiving care in an outpatient clinical setting developed acute onset personality changes and agitation, depression, and panic attacks. They were retrospectively examined for evidence of Bartonella infections. The medical and psychiatric treatment progress of each patient was tracked until both were significantly resolved and the Bartonella was cured. Results The patients generally seemed to require higher dosing of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics in order to function normally. Doses were reduced following antibiotic treatment and as the presumed signs of Bartonella infection remitted. All patients improved significantly following treatment and returned to their previously healthy or near-normal baseline mental health status. Discussion New Bartonella species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have antibody or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of

  14. Variable-Speed Instrumented Centrifuges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, David K.; Brown, Allan H.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes conceptual pair of centrifuges, speed of which varied to produce range of artificial gravities in zero-gravity environment. Image and data recording and controlled temperature and gravity provided for 12 experiments. Microprocessor-controlled centrifuges include video cameras to record stop-motion images of experiments. Potential applications include studies of effect of gravity on growth and on production of hormones in corn seedlings, experiments with magnetic flotation to separate cells, and electrophoresis to separate large fragments of deoxyribonucleic acid.

  15. Hypnotic Depth and the Incidence of Emergence Agitation and Negative Postoperative Behavioral Changes

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, Debra J.; Twite, Mark D.; Zuk, Jeannie; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wallen, Brett; Friesen, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergence agitation (EA) and negative postoperative behavioral changes (NPOBC) are common in children, though the etiology remains unclear. We investigated whether longer times under deep hypnosis as measured by Bispectral Index™ (BIS) monitoring would positively correlate with a greater incidence of EA in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and a greater occurrence of NPOBC in children after discharge. Methods We enrolled 400 children, ages 1–12 years old, scheduled for dental procedures under general anesthesia. All children were induced with high concentration sevoflurane and BIS monitoring was continuous from induction through recovery in the PACU. A BIS reading <45 was considered deep hypnosis. The presence of EA was assessed in the PACU using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale (PAED). NPOBC were assessed using the Post-Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ), completed by parents 3–5 days post-operatively. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, with a p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results The incidence of EA was 27% (99/369) and the incidence of NPOBC was 8.8% (28/318). No significant differences in the incidence of EA or NPOBC were seen with respect to length of time under deep hypnosis as measured by a BIS value of less than 45. Conclusion Our data revealed no significant correlation between the length of time under deep hypnosis (BIS<45) and the incidence of EA or NPOBC. Within this population, these behavioral disturbances do not appear to be related to the length of time under a deep hypnotic state as measured by the BIS. PMID:19968807

  16. Effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation of postoperative patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang; Liu, Shuncui; Chen, Zhenyi; Lin, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation (EA) in postoperative gastric cancer patients. Materials and methods A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer were included and divided into group B (1 mg butorphanol before anesthesia induction, n=50), group K (1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50), and group C (1 mg butorphanol combined with 1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) at the end of operation, just before extubation (T0) and at 0 minute (T1), 5 minutes (T2), and 30 minutes (T3) after extubation were compared. Statistical analysis of recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and EA incidence and adverse reactions were performed. Results There were no differences among groups with respect to MAP and HR at T0 and T1 (P>0.05). Compared with patients in group C, significant reduction of MAP and HR were observed in groups K and B at T2 and T3 (P<0.05), while no differences were found between group K and group B (P>0.05). Recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and incidence of EA in group C were significantly less than those in groups K and B (P<0.05), but no differences were observed between group K and group B (P>0.05). Total incidence of adverse reactions were significantly increased in group K compared to those in groups C and B (P<0.05). Conclusion Injection of ketamine combined with butorphanol before anesthesia induction was more effective than injection of ketamine or butorphanol separately in the prevention of EA. PMID:27217761

  17. Effects of physical agitation on yield of greenhouse-grown soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Agronomic and horticultural crop species experience reductions in growth and harvestable yield after exposure to physical agitation (also known as mechanical stress), as by wind or rain. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the influence of mechanical stress on soybean yield and to determine if exposure to mechanical stress during discrete growth periods has differential effects on seed yield. A modified rotatory shaker was used to apply seismic (i.e., shaking) stress. Brief, periodic episodes of seismic stress reduced stem length, total seed dry weight, and seed number of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Lodging resistance was greater for plants stressed during vegetative growth or throughout vegetative and reproductive growth than during reproductive growth only. Seed dry weight yield was reduced regardless of the timing or duration of stress application, but was lowest when applied during reproductive development. Seismic stress applied during reproductive growth stages R1 to R2 (Days 3 to 4) was as detrimental to seed dry weight accumulation as was stress applied during growth stages R1 to R6 (Days 39 to 42). Seed dry weight per plant was highly correlated with seed number per plant, and seed number was correlated with the seed number of two- and three-seeded pods. Dry weight per 100 seeds was unaffected by seismic-stress treatment. Growth and yield reductions resulting from treatments applied only during the vegetative stage imply that long-term mechanical effects were induced, from which the plants did not fully recover. It is unclear which yield-controlling physiological processes were affected by mechanical stress. Both transient and long-term effects on yield-controlling processes remain to be elucidated.

  18. Barbiturate Induction for the Prevention of Emergence Agitation after Pediatric Sevoflurane Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Haruna; Kimoto, Ayako; Beppu, Yuki; Yoshimura, Maki; Kojima, Toshiyuki; Fukano, Taku

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Emergence agitation (EA) is a common and troublesome problem in pediatric patients recovering from general anesthesia. The incidence of EA is reportedly higher after general anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane, a popular inhalational anesthetic agent for pediatric patients. We conducted this prospective, randomized, double-blind study to test the effect of an intravenous ultra-short–acting barbiturate, thiamylal, administered during induction of general anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in pediatric patients recovering from Sevoflurane anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four pediatric patients (1 to 6 years of age) undergoing subumbilical surgeries were randomized into 2 groups. Patients received either intravenous thiamylal 5mg/kg (Group T) or inhalational Sevoflurane 5% (Group S) as an anesthetic induction agent. Following induction, general anesthesia was maintained with Sevoflurane and nitrous oxide (N2O) in both groups. To control the intra- and post-operative pain, caudal block or ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric block was performed. The incidence and severity of EA were evaluated by using the Modified Objective Pain Scale (MOPS: 0 to 6) at 15 and 30 min after arrival in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after arrival in the PACU, the incidence of EA in Group T (28%) was significantly lower than in Group S (64%; p = 0.023) and the MOPS in Group T (median 0, range 0 to 6) was significantly lower than in Group S (median 4, range 0 to 6; p = 0.005). The interval from discontinuation of Sevoflurane to emergence from anesthesia was not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Thiamylal induction reduced the incidence and severity of EA in pediatric patients immediately after Sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26472953

  19. Effect of speed and load on ultra-high-speed ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of speed and load on the operation of 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings at speeds to 25,000 rpm and thrust loads to 22,240 newtons (5000 lb). Bearing temperature and power consumption increased with increases in load and/or speed. The effect of load on temperature and power consumption was small relative to the speed effect. Actual measurements of bearing operating contact angle were in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Skidding occurred in the bearing in various amounts, generally increasing with speed at given load. The highest amount of skidding, 6 percent, occurred at the highest speed, 25,000 rpm. No visible damage to the bearing surfaces occurred due to the skidding.

  20. Effects of individualized versus classical "relaxation" music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gerdner, L A

    2000-03-01

    Confusion and agitation in elderly patients are crucial problems. This study tested Gerdner's mid-range theory of individualized music intervention for agitation. An experimental repeated measures pretest-posttest crossover design compared the immediate and residual effects of individualized music to classical "relaxation" music relative to baseline on the frequency of agitated behaviors in elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). Thirty-nine subjects were recruited from six long-term-care facilities in Iowa. The sample consisted of 30 women and 9 men (mean age 82 years) with severe cognitive impairment. Baseline data were collected for 3 weeks. Findings from the Modified Hartsock Music Preference Questionnaire guided the selection of individualized music. Group A (n = 16) received individualized music for 6 weeks followed by a 2-week "washout" period and 6 weeks of classical "relaxation" music. Group B (n = 23) received the same protocol but in reverse order. Music interventions were presented for 30 minutes, two times per week. The Modified Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory measured the dependent variable. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a significant reduction in agitation during and following individualized music compared to classical music. This study expands science by testing and supporting a theoretically based intervention for agitation in persons with ADRD.

  1. Effect of aripiprazole lauroxil on agitation and hostility in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Stankovic, Srdjan; Claxton, Amy; Zummo, Jacqueline; Bose, Anjana; Silverman, Bernard L; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aripiprazole lauroxil on hostility and aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Patients aged 18-70 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and currently experiencing an acute exacerbation or relapse were randomized to intramuscular (IM) aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg (n=207), 882 mg (n=208), or placebo (n=207) for 12 weeks. In post-hoc analyses, hostility and aggression were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Hostility item (P7) and a specific antihostility effect was assessed by adjusting for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, somnolence, and akathisia. The PANSS excited component score [P4 (Excitement), P7 (Hostility), G4 (Tension), G8 (Uncooperativeness), and G14 (Poor impulse control)], and the Personal and Social Performance scale disturbing and aggressive behavior domain were also assessed. Of the 147 patients who received aripiprazole lauroxil 882 mg and with a baseline PANSS Hostility item P7 more than 1, there was a significant (P<0.05) improvement versus placebo on the PANSS Hostility item P7 score by mixed-model repeated-measures at the end of the study, which remained significant when PANSS-positive symptoms and somnolence or akathisia were included as additional covariates. The proportion with PANSS Hostility item P7 more than 1 at endpoint was significantly (P<0.05) lower with aripiprazole lauroxil versus placebo (53.6, 46.1, and 66.3% for 441, 882 mg, and placebo). A significant (P<0.05) improvement was found with aripiprazole lauroxil versus placebo for change from baseline in the PANSS excited component score. The proportion of patients with aggressive behavior on the Personal and Social Performance scale was significantly (P<0.05) lower for aripiprazole lauroxil: 30.0% for 441 mg versus 44.1% for placebo (P=0.006) and 22.2% for 881 mg (P<0.001 versus placebo). Treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil resulted in decreases in agitation and hostility in patients

  2. High speed handpieces

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Nayan; Desai, Asavari; Shetty, Y Bharath

    2014-01-01

    High speed instruments are versatile instruments used by clinicians of all specialties of dentistry. It is important for clinicians to understand the types of high speed handpieces available and the mechanism of working. The centers for disease control and prevention have issued guidelines time and again for disinfection and sterilization of high speed handpieces. This article presents the recent developments in the design of the high speed handpieces. With a view to prevent hospital associated infections significant importance has been given to disinfection, sterilization & maintenance of high speed handpieces. How to cite the article: Bhandary N, Desai A, Shetty YB. High speed handpieces. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):130-2. PMID:24653618

  3. High-speed phosphor thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Baum, E.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm.

  4. High-speed phosphor thermometry.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, N; Baum, E; Brübach, J; Dreizler, A

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm.

  5. A Summary of Scatterometer Returns from Water Surfaces Agitated by Rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliven, Larry F.; Giovanangeli, Jean-Paul; Branger, Hubert; Sobieski, Piotr W.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize our initial findings from K(a)- and K(u)-band scatterometers which include: a scaling law for backscattered power as a function of rain rate; a linear superposition model for light rains and low wind speeds; evidence of the importance of scattering from rain-generated ring-waves; and progress towards development of a scattering model for computing normalized radar cross sections from wind and rain roughened water surfaces.

  6. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  7. Experiments on high speed ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the flow and the performance of thrust augmenting ejectors for flight Mach numbers in the range of 0.5 to 0.8, primary air stagnation pressures up to 107 psig (738 kPa), and primary air stagnation temperatures up to 1250 F (677 C). The experiment verified the existence of the second solution ejector flow, where the flow after complete mixing is supersonic. Thrust augmentation in excess of 1.2 was demonstrated for both hot and cold primary jets. The experimental ejector performed better than the corresponding theoretical optimal first solution ejector, where the mixed flow is subsonic. Further studies are required to realize the full potential of the second solution ejector. The research program was started by the Flight Dynamics Research Corporation (FDRC) to investigate the characteristic of a high speed ejector which augments thrust of a jet at high flight speeds.

  8. Solution-dispersed CuO nanoparticles anode buffer layer: Effect of ultrasonic agitation duration on photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji

    2016-11-01

    The performance of inverted type hybrid organic solar cell based on poly(3-hexyltheopene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) can be improved by adding an anode buffer layer of copper oxide (CuO). CuO that serves as an electron blocking layer which could effectively reduce the charge recombination at the photoactive layer (P3HT:PCBM)/silver (Ag) interfaces. At the same time, Cuo anode buffer layer could accelerate the holes collection from the photoactive layer to the top electrode. In this study we investigated the effects of ultrasonic agitation duration in preparation of solution-dispersed CuO anode buffer layer on the performance of the devices with a configuration of fluorine tin oxide (FTO)/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays/P3HT:PCBM/ CuO/Ag. Different durations of ultrasonic agitation (0, 5, 15 and 25 min) were used for CuO nanoparticles solution dispersion to obtain the optimum particle size distribution of CuO. It was found that the smallest average particle size of CuO was obtained by applying the ultrasonic agitation for longest duration of 25 min. The highest power conversion efficiency of 1.22% was recorded from the device incorporating with CuO anode buffer layer with the smallest average particle size. It is believed that CuO anode buffer layer with the smallest average particle size had the least agglomerates, thus leading to better film formation and contact surface area.

  9. Changes in QTc Interval in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Spragg, David; Devanand, D. P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Pollock, Bruce G.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group. Methods CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or placebo in a 1∶1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began. Results Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p = 0.004). More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ≥30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p = 0.046), but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females) at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p = 0.611). One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death. Conclusion Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807 PMID:24914549

  10. Insights into Kinetics of Agitation-Induced Aggregation of Hen Lysozyme under Heat and Acidic Conditions from Various Spectroscopic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chaari, Ali; Fahy, Christine; Chevillot-Biraud, Alexandre; Rholam, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding and amyloid formation are an underlying pathological hallmark in a number of prevalent diseases of protein aggregation ranging from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases to systemic lysozyme amyloidosis. In this context, we have used complementary spectroscopic methods to undertake a systematic study of the self-assembly of hen egg-white lysozyme under agitation during a prolonged heating in acidic pH. The kinetics of lysozyme aggregation, monitored by Thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering and the quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide, is described by a sigmoid curve typical of a nucleation-dependent polymerization process. Nevertheless, we observe significant differences between the values deduced for the kinetic parameters (lag time and aggregation rate). The fibrillation process of lysozyme, as assessed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, is accompanied by an increase in the β-sheet conformation at the expense of the α-helical conformation but the time-dependent variation of the content of these secondary structures does not evolve as a gradual transition. Moreover, the tryptophan fluorescence-monitored kinetics of lysozyme aggregation is described by three phases in which the temporal decrease of the tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield is of quasilinear nature. Finally, the generated lysozyme fibrils exhibit a typical amyloid morphology with various lengths (observed by atomic force microscopy) and contain exclusively the full-length protein (analyzed by highly performance liquid chromatography). Compared to the data obtained by other groups for the formation of lysozyme fibrils in acidic pH without agitation, this work provides new insights into the structural changes (local, secondary, oligomeric/fibrillar structures) undergone by the lysozyme during the agitation-induced formation of fibrils. PMID:26571264

  11. How to Combine Engines to Achieve High Speed, Hypersonic Speed, Speed of Light and Even Higher-Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwizerwa, Celestin; Nishimwe, Celestine

    2014-03-01

    When Einstein left us, he left us a really big problem to solve, does anything can travel faster than the speed of light? There hasn't been any way to try this in the past, because there were any technology which could accelerate objects at this speed. What researchers tried to do, was to accelerate particles. But there must be a way to play with speeds so that, as we do math, we may practically multiply the speed by any number we want, we also may practically divide the speed by any number we want. In this paper I will try to show how. Also, In our real life, there might be a need of such high speeds, so that a lot of problems may be solved, as for example the airplane technology, electric power, space travel, car transmission, industrial high temperature and so on ...I do not say for sure that, the object will move faster than the speed of light, but, people who have ability may try to accelerate it at this speed and even faster to see what will happen as now it is very easy to realize. There are two ways; you go to space to do it or, you create a vacuum and move it inside.

  12. Influence of intergrain interactions and thermal agitation on microwave-assisted magnetization switching behavior of granular magnetic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Kitakami, Osamu; Shimatsu, Takehito

    2017-02-01

    Microwave-assisted magnetization switching (MAS) in a granular magnetic film is examined by computer simulation. Contrary to the macrospin calculation and the experiments on single magnetic dots reported so far, in which the switching field linearly decreases with increasing rf frequency and then sharply increases at the critical frequency, the granular film exhibits considerably broad MAS behavior against the rf frequency. This broad MAS behavior is mainly caused by the dispersion of magnetic properties and thermal agitation. On the other hand, intergrain dipolar and exchange interactions enhance the MAS effect in the granular film and suppress the MAS broadening.

  13. Honeybee flight metabolic rate: does it depend upon air temperature?

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Heinrich, Bernd; Stevenson, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    Differing conclusions have been reached as to how or whether varying heat production has a thermoregulatory function in flying honeybees Apis mellifera. We investigated the effects of air temperature on flight metabolic rate, water loss, wingbeat frequency, body segment temperatures and behavior of honeybees flying in transparent containment outdoors. For periods of voluntary, uninterrupted, self-sustaining flight, metabolic rate was independent of air temperature between 19 and 37 degrees C. Thorax temperatures (T(th)) were very stable, with a slope of thorax temperature on air temperature of 0.18. Evaporative heat loss increased from 51 mW g(-1) at 25 degrees C to 158 mW g(-1) at 37 degrees C and appeared to account for head and abdomen temperature excess falling sharply over the same air temperature range. As air temperature increased from 19 to 37 degrees C, wingbeat frequency showed a slight but significant increase, and metabolic expenditure per wingbeat showed a corresponding slight but significant decrease. Bees spent an average of 52% of the measurement period in flight, with 19 of 78 bees sustaining uninterrupted voluntary flight for periods of >1 min. The fraction of time spent flying declined as air temperature increased. As the fraction of time spent flying decreased, the slope of metabolic rate on air temperature became more steeply negative, and was significant for bees flying less than 80% of the time. In a separate experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship of metabolic rate and air temperature for bees requiring frequent or constant agitation to remain airborne, but no dependence for bees that flew with little or no agitation; bees were less likely to require agitation during outdoor than indoor measurements. A recent hypothesis explaining differences between studies in the slope of flight metabolic rate on air temperature in terms of differences in metabolic capacity and thorax temperature is supported for honeybees in voluntary

  14. The glass is not yet half empty: agitation but not Varroa treatment causes cognitive bias in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Schlüns, Helge; Welling, Helena; Federici, Julian René; Lewejohann, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are prone to judge an ambiguous stimulus negatively if they had been agitated through shaking which simulates a predator attack. Such a cognitive bias has been suggested to reflect an internal emotional state analogous to humans who judge more pessimistically when they do not feel well. In order to test cognitive bias experimentally, an animal is conditioned to respond to two different stimuli, where one is punished while the other is rewarded. Subsequently a third, ambiguous stimulus is presented and it is measured whether the subject responds as if it expects a reward or a punishment. Generally, it is assumed that negative experiences lower future expectations, rendering the animals more pessimistic. Here we tested whether a most likely negatively experienced formic acid treatment against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor also affects future expectations of honey bees. We applied an olfactory learning paradigm (i.e., conditioned proboscis extension response) using two odorants and blends of these odorants as the ambiguous stimuli. Unlike agitating honey bees, exposure to formic acid did not significantly change the response to the ambiguous stimuli in comparison with untreated bees. Overall evidence suggests that the commonest treatment against one of the most harmful bee pests has no detrimental effects on cognitive bias in honey bees.

  15. The effect of additives and mechanical agitation in surface modification of acrylic fibres by cutinase and esterase.

    PubMed

    Matamá, Teresa; Vaz, Filipe; Gübitz, Georg M; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2006-01-01

    The surface of an acrylic fibre containing about 7% of vinyl acetate was modified using Fusarium solani pisi cutinase and a commercial esterase, Texazym PES. The effect of acrylic solvents and stabilising polyols on cutinase operational stability was studied. The half-life time of cutinase increased by 3.5-fold with the addition of 15% N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) and by 3-fold with 1M glycerol. The impact of additives and mechanical agitation in the protein adsorption and in the hydrolysis of vinyl acetate from acrylic fabric was investigated. The hydroxyl groups produced on the surface of the fibre were able to react specifically with Remazol Brilliant Blue R (cotton reactive dye) and to increase the colour of the acrylic-treated fabric. The best staining level was obtained with a high level of mechanical agitation and with the addition of 1% DMA. Under these conditions, the raise in the acrylic fabric colour depth was 30% for cutinase and 25% for Texazym. The crystallinity degree, determined by X-ray diffraction, was not significantly changed between control samples and samples treated with cutinase. The results showed that the outcome of the application of these enzymes depends closely on the reaction media conditions.

  16. Comparison of the Effect of Thiopental Sodium with Midazolam-ketamine on Post-tonsillectomy Agitation in Children.

    PubMed

    Toliyat, Maryam; Zangoee, Maliheh; Ahrari, Shahnaz; Zangoee, Reza

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thiopental sodium with that of midazolam-ketamine on relieving agitation after tonsillectomy in children. In a clinical trial, 50 children aged 5-10 years, candidates for tonsillectomy, were randomly divided into two 25-member groups. In the first group, thiopental sodium 5mg/kg/IV, and in the second group combination of midazolam 0.01 mg/kg/IV and ketamine 1 mg/kg/IV were used to induce anesthesia. The level of sedation was assessed after surgery with the Ramsay scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of heart rate, arterial oxygen pressure (PO2), and duration of anesthesia. The Ramsay sedation score was significantly higher in the thiopental sodium group than in the midazolam-ketamine group (P=0.01). Thiopental sodium can be more effective than the combination of midazolam-ketamine for controlling agitation after tonsillectomy in children.

  17. Shaft speed control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Simple mechanism controls rotation of heavy-duty shaft by mechanical comparison with rotation of small, precise, stepper motor. Mechanism can be used to limit winding and unwinding speeds of large spools and reels and to control speed of other rotating shafts. Setup incorporates reference shaft geared down from stepper motor and feedback shaft geared up from shaft to be controlled. Feedback and reference shafts are coupled with brake assembly inside stationary cylinder. When work shaft speeds up, brakes are activated automatically to slow it down.

  18. Progress in Treatment Development for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Agitation and Aggression. A Report from the EU/US/CTAD Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Soto, M.; Abushakra, S.; Cummings, J.; Siffert, J.; Robert, P.; Vellas, B.; Lyketsos, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Agitation and aggression (A/A) are among the most disruptive symptoms, and given their impact, they are increasingly an important target for development of effective treatments. Considerable progress has been made in the last years with a growing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drugs for NPS. The limited benefits reported in some RCTs may be accounted for by the absence of a biological link of the tested molecule to NPS and also by key methodological issues. In recent RCTs of A/A, a great heterogeneity design was found. Designing trials for dementia populations with NPS presents many challenges, including identification of appropriate participants for such trials, engagement and compliance of patients and caregivers in the trials and the choice of optimal outcome measures to demonstrate treatment effectiveness. The EU/US -CTAD Task Force, an international collaboration of investigators from academia, industry, non-profit foundations, and regulatory agencies met in Philadelphia on November 19, 2014 to address some of these challenges. Despite potential heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and neurobiology, agitation and aggression seems to be accepted as an entity for drug development. The field appears to be reaching a consensus in using both agitation and aggression (or other NPS)-specific quantitative measures plus a global rating of change for agitation outcomes based on clinician judgment as the main outcomes. PMID:26413494

  19. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  20. Speed- Reading Made Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, W. S.

    1970-01-01

    Illustrates a compromise between vertical and horizontal typographies which should make speed reading faster and more reliable, and suggests that computers could prepare text according to this arrangement. (MB)

  1. High Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert E.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Schmitz, Frederic H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the NASA High Speed Research Program will be presented from a NASA Headquarters perspective. The presentation will include the objectives of the program and an outline of major programmatic issues.

  2. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  3. Compact change speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanaga, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-06-06

    A change speed transmission is described comprising: a stationary part; an input member; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets; clutch and brake means for selectively controlling the first and second planetary gear sets to provide a plurality of forward speed rations and a reverse speed ratio between the input and output member; the clutch and brake means including a first clutch, a first one-way clutch, and a second one-way clutch which, when the first clutch is engaged, provide a path of transmission of reaction to the stationary part thereby establishing a path of transmission of torque through at least a part of the first and second planetary gear sets to achieve a predetermined one speed ratio of the forward speed ratios; the clutch and brake means including also a brake and a second slutch which, when both of the brake and the second clutch are engaged, hinder the action of the second one-way clutch and that of the first one-way clutch, respectively, thereby providing engine braking during running with the predetermined one speed ratio; the first clutch including means forming a drum-shaped member disposed radially outwardly of and receiving at least one of the first and second planetary gear sets, and an actuating piston of the first clutch; and the second clutch including an actuating piston slidably disposed within the actuating piston of the first clutch.

  4. [Risk perception and speeding].

    PubMed

    Thielen, Iara Picchioni; Hartmann, Ricardo Carlos; Soares, Diogo Picchioni

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses risk perception comparing drivers with and without fines for speeding. The research aimed to show the interaction between speeding laws and speeding behavior. Speeders' explanations for their behavior revealed important factors in the determination of risk perception: control (driver-centered), risk minimization (drivers claimed there was no risk involved in the way they speeded), self-confidence (they considered themselves good drivers and believed they were able to define what constitutes speeding), and lack of credibility in the institutions that manage traffic risks. Speeders display a cognitive construct of personal invulnerability combined with unrealistic optimism and overrated self-perception, along with an exaggerated perception of their control over the traffic setting, centered on their self-purported driving skills. No difference was found in risk perception between drivers in the two groups. There was no relationship between objective and perceived risks, since drivers from the two groups showed a generic perception of objective risks, but out-of-context in relation to the inherent potential for accidents at different speeds.

  5. Calculating Speed of Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  6. Sustained-release microsphere formulation containing an agrochemical by polyurethane polymerization during an agitation granulation process.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takatoshi; Tagami, Manabu; Ohtsubo, Toshiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-07-25

    In this report, a new solventless microencapsulation method by synthesizing polyurethane (PU) from polyol and isocyanate during an agglomeration process in a high-speed mixing apparatus was developed. Clothianidin (CTD), which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and highly effective against a wide variety of insect pests, was used as the model compound. The microencapsulated samples covered with PU (CTD microspheres) had a median diameter of <75μm and sustained-release properties. The CTD microspheres were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography measurements. Multiple cores of CTD and other solid excipient were dispersed in PU. Although voids appeared in the CTD microspheres after CTD release, the spherical shape of the microspheres remained stable and no change in its framework was observed. The experimental release data were highly consistent with the Baker-Lonsdale model derived from drug release of spherical monolithic dispersions and consistent with the computed tomography measurements.

  7. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: Part I: Effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at high pH.

    PubMed

    Golub, Kristina W; Forrest, Andrea K; Mercy, Kevin L; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-11-01

    Countercurrent fermentation is a high performing process design for mixed-acid fermentation. However, there are high operating costs associated with moving solids, which is an integral component of this configuration. This study investigated the effect of volatile solid loading rate (VSLR) and agitation in propagated fixed-bed fermentation, a configuration which may be more commercially viable. To evaluate the role of agitation on fixed-bed configuration performance, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. VSLR was also varied and not found to affect acid yields. However, increased VSLR and liquid retention time did result in higher conversions, productivity, acid concentrations, but lower selectivities. Agitation was demonstrated to be important for this fermentor configuration, the periodically-mixed fermentation had the lowest conversion and yields. Operating at a high pH (∼9) contributed to the high selectivity to acetic acid, which might be industrially desirable but at the cost of lower yield compared to a neutral pH.

  8. Speed Reading: Remember the Tortoise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Richard G.

    1973-01-01

    After speed-reading partisans questioned the criticisms in a Psychology Today article, another psychologist conducted a controlled study of speed readers. As we said before, "Speed Readers Don't Read; They Skim". (Editor)

  9. Everyone Deserves a Speeding Ticket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Harold

    1993-01-01

    Presents a first day physics activity having students determine the fine for a speeding ticket if the speeds considered include the earth's rotation and revolution speed, and the movement through the galaxy. (MDH)

  10. High-speed Digital Color Imaging Pyrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    and environment of the events. To overcome these challenges, we have characterized and calibrated a digital high-speed color camera that may be...correction) to determine their effect on the calculated temperature. Using this technique with a Phantom color camera , we measured the temperature of...constant value of approximately 1980~K. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Pyrometry, color camera 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. High speed hydrogen/graphite interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Hamman, R.; Sharma, O. P.; Harrje, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of a research program on high speed hydrogen/graphite interaction are presented. Major areas discussed are: (1) theoretical predictions of hydrogen/graphite erosion rates; (2) high temperature, nonequilibrium hydrogen flow in a nozzle; and (3) molecular beam studies of hydrogen/graphite erosion.

  12. Accumulation of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans in agar cultures and in stationary and agitated liquid cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Bucinski, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2016-05-01

    Schisandra chinensis plant in vitro cultures were maintained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in an agar system and also in two different liquid systems: stationary and agitated. Liquid cultures were grown in batch (30 and 60 days) and fed-batch modes. In the methanolic extracts from lyophilized biomasses and in the media, quantification of fourteen dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans identified based on co-chromatography with authentic standards using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and/or liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS) methods. For comparison purposes, phytochemical analyses were performed of lignans in the leaves and fruits of the parent plant. The main lignans detected in the biomass extracts from all the tested systems were schisandrin (max. 65.62 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)), angeloyl-/tigloylgomisin Q (max. 49.73 mg/100 g DW), deoxyschisandrin (max. 43.65 mg/100 g DW), and gomisin A (max. 34.36 mg/100 g DW). The highest total amounts of lignans in the two tested stationary systems were found in extracts from the biomass harvested after 30 days of batch cultivation: 237.86 mg/100 g DW and 274.65 mg/100 g DW, respectively. In the agitated culture, the total content reached a maximum value of 244.80 mg/100 g DW after 60 days of the fed-batch mode of cultivation. The lignans were not detected in the media. This is the first report which documents the potential usefulness of S. chinensis shoot cultures cultivated in liquid systems for practical purposes.

  13. Effect of Mechanical Agitation on Cationic Liposome Transport across an Unstirred Water Layer in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Ayu; Matsuoka, Kenta; Fujita, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    To develop an effective oral delivery system for plasmid DNA (pDNA) using cationic liposomes, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of uptake and transport of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into the intestinal epithelium. In particular, evaluation of the involvement of an unstirred water layer (UWL), which is a considerable permeability barrier, in cationic liposome transport is very important. Here, we investigated the effects of a UWL on the transfection efficiency of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into a Caco-2 cell monolayer. When Caco-2 cells were transfected with cationic liposome/pDNA complexes in shaking cultures to reduce the thickness of the UWL, gene expression was significantly higher in Caco-2 cells compared with static cultures. We also found that this enhancement of gene expression by shaking was not attributable to activation of transcription factors such as activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In addition, the increase in gene expression by mechanical agitation was observed at all charge ratios (1.5, 2.3, 3.1, 4.5) of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes. Transport experiments using Transwells demonstrated that mechanical agitation increased the uptake of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes by Caco-2 cells, whereas transport of the complexes across a Caco-2 cell monolayer did not occurr. Moreover, the augmentation of the gene expression of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes by shaking was observed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These results indicate that a UWL greatly affects the uptake and transfection efficiency of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into an epithelial monolayer in vitro.

  14. Tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction as an efficient method for determination of acidic drugs in complicated matrices.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Hemmati, Maryam

    2016-04-21

    A rapid and simple microextraction method with a high sample clean-up, termed as tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (TAALLME), is described. This method is based upon the tandem implementation of the air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME), and this approach improves the applicability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods in complicated matrices. With very simple tools, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid were efficiently extracted, with an overall extraction time of 7 min. By performing the first AALLME, these acidic analytes, contained in an aqueous sample solution (donor phase, 8.0 mL), were extracted into the organic solvent (1,2-dichloroethane, 37 μL), and their simple back-extraction into the aqueous acceptor solution (pH, 10.01, 51 μL) was obtained in 2 min by a second implementation of AALLME. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of the experimental parameters. The pH values 2.94 and 10.01 were obtained for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, and the volumes 99.5 and 51 μL were obtained for the organic solvent and the acceptor phase, respectively, as the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, tandem AALLME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 0.5-4000 ng mL(-1), limits of detection (0.1-0.3 ng mL(-1)), extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7.7%, n = 5), and the enrichment factors (EFs) of 80-104. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs under study in the wastewater and human plasma samples.

  15. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Elizabeth L.; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen–Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia. PMID:25790457

  16. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia.

  17. Speed of sound in muscle for use in sonomicrometry.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Richard L

    2016-12-08

    Converting ultrasound transit time into a measure of distance when using sonomicrometry requires that the speed of sound be known. A number of different values for the speed of sound in muscle have been assumed in studies of skeletal and cardiac muscle, and in some cases the effect of temperature has been ignored. The speed of ultrasound with frequencies greater than 1MHz in skeletal and cardiac muscle is briefly reviewed, including the effects of temperature and contractile state. A simplified equation for the speed of sound in pure water is presented for the temperature range from 0-50°C. This equation can be used when calibrating sonomicrometer transducers in water. The data available indicate that the speed of sound in both cardiac and skeletal muscle can be approximated by multiplying the speed of sound in pure water at the measurement temperature by 1.045. Differences in the speed of sound in the longitudinal and transverse directions and changes with contractile state appear to be small and in most cases can probably be safely ignored. The normal variation in muscle composition does not greatly affect the speed of ultrasound in muscle, but investigators placing sonomicrometer transducers near tendons should be conscious of the much greater speed of sound in tendon and variation with loading.

  18. Nonintrusive shaft speed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Wyett, L.

    1985-04-01

    A computerized literature search on nonintrusive/noncontacting speed sensing technologies was performed, resulting in 550 abstracts and 42 articles. Fourteen techniques were identified and theoretically analyzed, resulting in the recommendation of the Microwave, Infrared, and Magnetic technologies for experimental evaluation. Test results with a novel magnetic approach, consisting of a permanent magnet placed on the rotating shaft and a pickup coil placed on the housing, indicated detection of a strong signal from 3.5 inches at the lowest required speed (600 rpm), through a 1.75-inch thick Inconel plate. Test results with microwave and infrared speed sensing approaches indicated transmission of sufficient microwave and infrared energy for detection even through heavily bubble-laden water (15 percent cavitation). Although all three techniques demonstrated feasibility, the magnetic sensor was recommended for preliminary design, which indicated no technical obstacles.

  19. SPEEDE Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara H.; Wei, P. Betty

    1993-01-01

    A nontechnical overview of electronic data interchange (EDI) and of the SPEEDE/ExPRESS Project, which uses EDI to transmit transcripts between schools and colleges, is presented. It explores the fundamental value of the technology, specific costs and benefits, and its potential to transform the delivery of academic support services. (Author/MSE)

  20. High speed metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, R. F.; Pohl, R. F.

    1982-10-01

    Four types of steel (AISI 1340, 4140, 4340, and HF-1) which are commonly used in large caliber projectile manufacture were machined at different hardness ranges representing the as-forged and the heat treated condition with various ceramic tools using ceramic coated tungsten carbide as a reference. Results show that machining speeds can be increased significantly using present available tooling.

  1. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  2. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  3. Transition at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morkovin, Mark V.

    1987-01-01

    Certain conjectures on the physics of instabilities in high-speed flows are discussed and the state of knowledge of hypersonic transition summarized. The case is made for an unpressured systematic research program in this area consisting of controlled microscopic experiments, theory, and numerical simulations.

  4. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  5. Rages or Temper Tantrums? The Behavioral Organization, Temporal Characteristics, and Clinical Significance of Angry-Agitated Outbursts in Child Psychiatry Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potegal, Michael; Carlson, Gabrielle; Margulies, David; Gutkovitch, Zinoviy; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Angry, agitated outbursts (AAOs) are a common precipitant of children's psychiatric hospitalization. In the hospital, AAOs present both management and diagnostic challenges, e.g., while they have recently been described as manic "rages", older studies suggest that they may be exacerbated temper tantrums. Factor analyses of 109 AAOs had by 46…

  6. Influence of milk pretreatment on production of free fatty acids and volatile compounds in hard cheeses: heat treatment and mechanical agitation.

    PubMed

    Vélez, M A; Perotti, M C; Wolf, I V; Hynes, E R; Zalazar, C A

    2010-10-01

    This work aimed to identify technological steps that can increase fat hydrolysis and volatile compounds production in hard cheeses; these biochemical events have been related with improved piquant taste and development of genuine flavor during cheese ripening. For that purpose, 2 different pretreatments of cheese milk were tested: heat treatment and mechanical agitation. Both factors were assayed at 2 levels: milk was either batch pasteurized or nonthermally treated, and mechanical agitation was either applied or not applied. For all combinations, hard cheeses (Reggianito type) were produced in a pilot plant and ripened for 90 d. In all cheeses the degree of lipolysis, assessed by gas chromatography, increased similarly during ripening. However, the proportion of short-chain fatty acids was higher in the cheeses made with unpasteurized milk, suggesting a higher activity of lipases with positional specificity toward the sn-3 position of the triglyceride, among which milk lipoprotein lipase is found. Similar results were found for most of the volatile compounds, determined by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography flame-ionization detector/mass spectrometry, which constitute the groups of ketones, alcohols, esters, and the group of acids. On the contrary, no effect of mechanical agitation was observed, although some interactions between factors were found. In the conditions of the study, results suggest that heat treatment had a higher effect on cheese lipolysis and volatile compounds production than partial destabilization of the fat emulsion produced by the agitation method applied.

  7. Impact of aeration and agitation on metabolic heat and protease secretion of Aspergillus tamarii in a real-time biological reaction calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, Balaji; Mahadevan, Surianarayanan; Dhilipkumar, Sathish Sundar; Rajkumar, Suseela; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-06-01

    The effects of aeration and agitation on metabolic heat, alkaline protease production and morphology for Aspergillus tamarii MTCC5152 are reported in this manuscript. Measurement of metabolic heat has been attempted by the continuous and dynamic heat balance method in a biological real-time reaction calorimeter. At lower agitation intensities, growth-related processes were dominating. As a result the protease activity and the product heat yields were lower than those for 350 and 450 rpm. Although biomass growth was necessary to obtain maximum protease yield, agitation seemed to play a vital role in the protease production process. Energy dissipation per circulation function of the process is also deduced from power input. At optimal conditions, 350 rpm and 1 vvm, the gassed power required was 0.133 W. Pellet morphology and protease production were studied under different aeration and agitation intensities of A. tamarii. Pellet structure was considerably influenced by DO, a higher DO level resulted in denser pellets (1,018.4 kg/m(3)) leading to higher protease activity. Coupling of hydrodynamics and bio-reaction highlighted the complex relationship between energy dissipation, substrate uptake rate and fungal physiology. This study emphasised the potential of biocalorimetry as a reliable monitoring and robust control tool for aerobic fermentation of A. tamarii, using agricultural by-products.

  8. The effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Abdulatif, M; Ahmed, A; Mukhtar, A; Badawy, S

    2013-10-01

    This randomised, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effects of intra-operative magnesium sulphate administration on the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia. Seventy children were randomly allocated to receive a 30 mg.kg(-1) bolus of intravenous magnesium sulphate after induction of anaesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) or an equal volume of saline 0.9%. All children received titrated sevoflurane anaesthesia adjusted to maintain haemodynamic stability. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Score were used for the assessment of postoperative emergence agitation and pain, respectively. Emergence agitation was more common in the control group than in the magnesium group (23 (72%) and 12 (36%), respectively (p = 0.004)), with a relative risk of 0.51 (95% CI 0.31-0.84), an absolute risk reduction of 0.35 (95% CI 0.10-0.54), and number needed to treat of 3 (95% CI 2-9). Postoperative pain scores were comparable in the two groups. Magnesium sulphate reduces the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia and is not associated with increased postoperative side-effects or delayed recovery.

  9. High Speed Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.

  10. Time, Light Speed and Space Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Penglin

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a formula that describe the relation with time and the space energy which resolves the key of Lorentz transformation how the time changes in different frames of reference. As the result, it is natural that the light speed is not constant. However, from the formula, in the same space--same space energy, the light speeds in different frames of reference are same. From this, it is easy to explain some facts, for example, light defraction; black holes attract light (it is not attracting, it is defraction); light curving nearby the sun; the temperature of sun surface is higher than inside, etc.)

  11. Comparison of calcium hydroxide removal by self-adjusting file, EndoVac, and CanalBrush agitation techniques: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study comparatively evaluated the efficacy of self-adjusting file (SAF), Endovac, and CanalBrush irrigant agitation protocols in removing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular canine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary instruments to size #40 and dressed with Ca(OH)2. The roots were randomly assigned to four groups according to irrigant agitation protocol used (n = 15). In Group 1: Conventional syringe irrigation (no activation, control); Group 2: Rotary brush agitation (CanalBrush); Group 3: Apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system); and Group 4: Sonic agitation (SAF) were used. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) evaluation was done for assessment of Ca(OH)2 removal in the coronal and apical thirds. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There were statistically significant differences among the groups (P = 0.218). A statistically significant difference was seen between the test groups in Ca(OH)2 removal from the apical third of the canal (P < 0.05). In the coronal third, there was no difference between the groups (P > 0.05). The most efficient Ca(OH)2 removal in apical third was recorded in Group 3 (EndoVac) and Group 4 (SAF) (P < 0.05). In Group 4 (sonic agitation), there was no significantly difference between Ca(OH)2 removal in coronal and apical thirds. Conclusions: SAF and EndoVac showed significantly better performance than CanalBrush and conventional syringe irrigation in removing Ca(OH)2 from apical third of the root canals. PMID:24082574

  12. High-Speed Video Analysis of Damped Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we acquire and analyse high-speed videos of a spring-mass system oscillating in glycerin at different temperatures. Three cases of damped harmonic oscillation are investigated and analysed by using high-speed video at a rate of 120 frames s[superscript -1] and Tracker Video Analysis (Tracker) software. We present empirical data for…

  13. Variable speed controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Christa; Spiggle, Charles; Swift, Shannon; Vangeffen, Stephen; Younger, Frank

    1992-01-01

    This report details a new design for a variable speed controller which can be used to operate lunar machinery without the astronaut using his or her upper body. In order to demonstrate the design, a treadle for an industrial sewing machine was redesigned to be used by a standing operator. Since the invention of an electrically powered sewing machine, the operator has been seated. Today, companies are switching from sit down to stand up operation involving modular stations. The old treadle worked well with a sitting operator, but problems have been found when trying to use the same treadle with a standing operator. Emphasis is placed on the ease of use by the operator along with the ergonomics involved. Included with the design analysis are suggestions for possible uses for the speed controller in other applications.

  14. Forecasting Solar Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2006-03-01

    By explicitly taking into account the effects of Alfvén waves, I derive from a simple energetics argument a fundamental relation that predicts solar wind (SW) speeds in the vicinity of Earth from physical properties on the Sun. Kojima et al. recently found from observations that the ratio of surface magnetic field strength to the expansion factor of open magnetic flux tubes is a good indicator of the SW speed. I show by using the derived relation that this nice correlation is evidence of Alfvén wave acceleration of the SW in expanding flux tubes. The observations further require that the fluctuation amplitudes of magnetic field lines at the surface be almost universal in different coronal holes, which needs to be tested with future observations.

  15. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogardus, Scott; Loper, Brent; Nauman, Chris; Page, Jeff; Parris, Rusty; Steinbach, Greg

    1990-01-01

    The design process of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) combines existing technology with the expectation of future technology to create a Mach 3.0 transport. The HSCT was designed to have a range in excess of 6000 nautical miles and carry up to 300 passengers. This range will allow the HSCT to service the economically expanding Pacific Basin region. Effort was made in the design to enable the aircraft to use conventional airports with standard 12,000 foot runways. With a takeoff thrust of 250,000 pounds, the four supersonic through-flow engines will accelerate the HSCT to a cruise speed of Mach 3.0. The 679,000 pound (at takeoff) HSCT is designed to cruise at an altitude of 70,000 feet, flying above most atmospheric disturbances.

  16. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    PubMed

    van Schagen, Ingrid; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Goldenbeld, Charles; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small road-side radars, mounted in light poles, were used and registered the speeds on 20 locations in built-up areas. Speeds of over 10 million vehicles were measured. Ten locations had a posted speed limit of 50km/h; the other ten had a posted speed limit of 30km/h. Posters were placed at half of each group of locations to remind drivers of the speed limit. The average speed on the 50km/h roads was 46.2km/h, and 36.1km/h on the 30km/h roads. The average proportions of vehicles exceeding the speed limit were 33.3% and 70.1% respectively. For the 30km/h roads, the data shows differences in speed and speeding behaviour between the six distinguished observation periods, but overall these differences cannot be logically linked to the contents of the phases and, hence, cannot be explained as an effect of the campaign. The only exception was an effect of local speed limit reminders on the 30km/h roads. This effect, however, was temporary and had disappeared within a week.

  17. Multi-speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.; Nakayama, H.; Sumi, M.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a multi-speed transmission having forward speed gear trains and at least one reverse speed gear train, comprising, a pair of parallel fork shafts, one the shaft being fixed, the other the shaft being slidable along its axial direction, means to selectively engage the gear trains and means to retain the selective engagement means in the selected position. The means selectively engages the gear trains including a first shift fork connected to the fixed fork shaft so as to slide to either side of its disengaged neutral position, a second shift fork connected to the slideable fork shaft so as to slide to either side of its disengaged neutral position, and a third shift fork connected to the slidable fork shaft so as to slide in one direction by motion of the slideable fork shaft to only one side of its disengaged neutral position. Also included is a reverse shift fork connected to the slideable fork shaft and adapted to be actuated by motion of the slideable fork shaft in a direction opposite to the direction of the motion which engages the third shift fork.

  18. Two-speed transaxle

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  19. High speed multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongxiao; Brustle, Anne; Gautam, Vini; Cockburn, Ian; Gillespie, Cathy; Gaus, Katharina; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in-vivo. Real time processes revealed through live imaging provided many opportunities to capture cellular activities in living animals. The typical parameters that determine the performance of multiphoton microscopy are speed, field of view, 3D imaging and imaging depth; many of these are important to achieving data from in-vivo. Here, we provide a full exposition of the flexible polygon mirror based high speed laser scanning multiphoton imaging system, PCI-6110 card (National Instruments) and high speed analog frame grabber card (Matrox Solios eA/XA), which allows for rapid adjustments between frame rates i.e. 5 Hz to 50 Hz with 512 × 512 pixels. Furthermore, a motion correction algorithm is also used to mitigate motion artifacts. A customized control software called Pscan 1.0 is developed for the system. This is then followed by calibration of the imaging performance of the system and a series of quantitative in-vitro and in-vivo imaging in neuronal tissues and mice.

  20. Do speed cameras reduce speeding in urban areas?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniele Falci de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Costa, Dário Alves da Silva; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This observational study aimed to estimate the prevalence of speeding on urban roadways and to analyze associated factors. The sample consisted of 8,565 vehicles circulating in areas with and without fixed speed cameras in operation. We found that 40% of vehicles 200 meters after the fixed cameras and 33.6% of vehicles observed on roadways without speed cameras were moving over the speed limit (p < 0.001). Motorcycles showed the highest recorded speed (126km/h). Most drivers were men (87.6%), 3.3% of all drivers were using their cell phones, and 74.6% of drivers (not counting motorcyclists) were wearing their seatbelts. On roadway stretches without fixed speed cameras, more women drivers were talking on their cell phones and wearing seatbelts when compared to men (p < 0.05 for both comparisons), independently of speed limits. The results suggest that compliance with speed limits requires more than structural interventions.

  1. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    PubMed

    Lobier, Muriel; Dubois, Matthieu; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  2. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations.

  3. Storage of platelets on flatbed agitators in polyvinyl chloride blood bags plasticized with tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate.

    PubMed

    Champion, A B; Chong, C; Carmen, R A

    1987-01-01

    Data are presented showing that platelets in polyvinyl chloride blood bags plasticized with tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate can be stored on flatbed agitators (shakers) without the pH falling below 6.0. The lowest pH seen after 7 days of storage in 46 units with platelet yields ranging from 3.6 to 13.3 X 10(10) per unit was 6.43. These bags have a O2 transmission rate of 13.3 mumol per hour per bag. Platelet bags with a O2 transmission rate of 7.9 mumol per hour per bag experience a pH fall after 5 days of storage on the shaker in units whose platelet yield on average exceeds 10 X 10(10). Platelets can be stored on first-generation shakers (70 cycles/min, stroke = 1 inch) without an attempt at manual resuspension of the platelet button. The count after 30 minutes on the shaker averaged 89 +/- 15 percent of the expected count, indicating that resuspension was nearly complete after a relatively short period. Red cells, but not platelets, settled out during storage on the shaker.

  4. An efficient approach for phosphorus recovery from wastewater using series-coupled air-agitated crystallization reactors.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Lu, Xiwu; Peng, Yonghong; Zou, Haiming; Shi, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Homogeneous nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallization in high levels of supersaturation solution has a negative effect on phosphorus recovery efficiency because of the poor settleability of the generated HAP microcrystalline. In this study, a new high-performance approach for phosphorus recovery from anaerobic supernatant using three series-coupled air-agitated crystallization reactors was developed and characterized. During 30-day operation, the proposed process showed a high recovery efficiency (∼95.82%) and low microcrystalline ratio (∼3.11%). Particle size analysis showed that the microcrystalline size was successively increased (from 5.81 to 26.32 μm) with the sequence of series-coupled reactors, confirming the conjectural mechanism that a multistage-induced crystallization system provided an appropriate condition for the growth, aggregation, and precipitation of crystallized products. Furthermore, the new process showed a broad spectrum of handling ability for different concentrations of phosphorus-containing solution in the range of 5-350 mg L(-1), and the obtained results of phosphorus conversion ratio and recovery efficiency were more than 92% and 80%, respectively. Overall, these results showed that the new process exhibited an excellent ability of efficient phosphorus recovery as well as wide application scope, and might be used as an effective approach for phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater.

  5. Smoking-Related Correlates of Psychomotor Restlessness and Agitation in a Community Sample of Daily Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jordan A.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Psychomotor restlessness and agitation (PMA) is a putatively important, yet understudied, psychopathologic correlate of smoking. The scant smoking research on PMA previously conducted has been narrow in scope and conducted among psychiatric patients. To examine the generalizability and relevance of PMA to smoking, this cross-sectional study investigated associations between PMA and a variety of smoking processes in a community sample. Methods Participants in this study were non-treatment-seeking smokers (N = 254, ≥10 cig/day, M age = 44 years) from the community without an active mood disorder. At baseline, they completed a PMA symptom checklist, a composite depressive symptom index, and a battery of smoking questionnaires. Results Linear regression models adjusting for depressive symptoms and demographics indicated that PMA level was positively associated with severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms during prior quit attempts (β = .18, p < .05), anticipated likelihood of withdrawal in a future quit attempt (β = .19, p < .05), motivation to smoke for negative reinforcement (β = .14, p < .05), and smoking expectancies for negative reinforcement (β = .17, p < .05), negative consequences (β = .22, p < .01), and positive reinforcement (β = .14, p < .05). PMA was not significantly associated with smoking chronicity, frequency, or dependence severity. Conclusion and Scientific Significance Smokers with elevated PMA appear to experience greater smoking-induced affect modulation and nicotine withdrawal than the average smoker, regardless of other depressive symptoms. Given that PMA differentiates a qualitatively unique profile of smoking characteristics, PMA warrants consideration in tobacco addiction research and practice. PMID:25864606

  6. High speed flywheel

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Stephen V.

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  7. Low speed airfoil study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Airfoil geometries were developed for low speed high lift applications, such as general aviation aircraft, propellers and helicopter rotors. The primary effort was to determine the extent to which the application of turbulent boundary layer separation criteria, plus manipulation of other input parameters, specifically trailing edging velocity ratio, could be utilized to achieve high C sub Lmax airfoils with relatively low drag at C sub Lmax. Both single-element and double-element airfoils were considered. Wind tunnel testing of some airfoils was included.

  8. High speed transient sampler

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-28

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing. 17 figs.

  9. High speed transient sampler

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing.

  10. Control of agitation and aeration rates in the production of surfactin in foam overflowing fed-batch culture with industrial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shulin; Zhao, Shengming; Lu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yuqi; Lv, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens fmb50 produces a high yield of surfactin, a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant that has been widely studied and has potential applications in many fields. A foam overflowing culture has been successfully used in the combined production-enrichment fermentation of surfactin. In this study, the agitation and aeration rates were found to have relationships with foam formation and surfactin enrichment. A maximum surfactin concentration of 4.7g/l of foam was obtained after 21h of culture with an agitation rate of 150rpm and an aeration rate of 1vvm in fed-batch culture. By controlling the foam overflow rate (fout) of a fed-batch culture, surfactin concentration in the foam was continuously maintained above 4g/l.

  11. Development of a new type of high pressure calorimetric cell, mechanically agitated and equipped with a dynamic pressure control system: Application to the characterization of gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Plantier, F. Missima, D.; Torré, J.-P.; Marlin, L.

    2013-12-15

    A novel prototype of calorimetric cell has been developed allowing experiments under pressure with an in situ agitation system and a dynamic control of the pressure inside the cell. The use of such a system opens a wide range of potential practical applications for determining properties of complex fluids in both pressurized and agitated conditions. The technical details of this prototype and its calibration procedure are described, and an application devoted to the determination of phase equilibrium and phase change enthalpy of gas hydrates is presented. Our results, obtained with a good precision and reproducibility, were found in fairly good agreement with those found in literature, illustrate the various interests to use this novel apparatus.

  12. Mathematical modeling of mixer pump performance for agitation of radioactive slurries in one-million-gallon underground storage tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Eyler, L.L.; Dodge, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) feed preparation tank mixing pump agitation design. This was accomplished by (1) reviewing mixing pump characteristics, (2) performing computer modeling of jet mixing and particulate material transport, (3) evaluating the propensity of the tank and mixing pump design to maintain particulate material in the tank in a uniformly mixed state, and (4) identifying important design parameters required to ensure optimum homogeneity and solids content during batch transfers.

  13. A Comparison of the E-BEHAVE-AD, NBRS and NPI in Quantifying Clinical Improvement in the Treatment of Agitation and Psychosis Associated with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Emeremni, Chetachi A; Houck, Patricia R.; Mazumdar, Sati; Rosen, Jules; Rajji, Tarek K.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the Empirical Behavioral Rating Scale (E-BEHAVE AD), Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NBRS), and Neuropsychiatric Interview (NPI) in detecting behavioral disturbance and psychotic symptoms in dementia and characterizing changes in response to treatment. Design 87 subjects in the randomized controlled trial “Continuation Pharmacotherapy for Agitation of Dementia” (CPAD) were included in this analysis. We compared the detection and changes over 12 weeks of both agitation and psychosis using these 3 instruments. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the performance of the three instruments in detecting global improvement. Results The instruments were equally likely to detect agitation. The NBRS was most likely to detect psychosis. While the NPI best detected improvement in agitation, the instruments were equal for detecting improvement in psychosis. In the ROC analysis for overall clinical improvement in response to treatment, there were no differences in the areas under the correlated curves for the three instruments but they demonstrated different sensitivity and specificity at different cut-off points for target symptom reduction. The E-BEHAVE-AD performed best at a cutpoint of 30% target symptom reduction and the NBRS and NPI both performed best at 50%. Conclusion The E-BEHAVE-AD, NBRS, and NPI were more similar than different in characterizing symptoms but differed in detecting response to treatment. Differences in sensitivity and specificity may lead clinicians to prefer a specific instrument, depending on their goal and the expected magnitude of response to any specific intervention. PMID:23290205

  14. Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Abuhamdah, Sawsan; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Dixon, Christine L; Elliot, Mark S J; Ballard, Clive; Holmes, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Perry, Elaine K; Francis, Paul T; Lees, George; Chazot, Paul L

    2008-11-01

    Both Melissa officinalis (Mo) and Lavandula angustifolia (La) essential oils have putative anti-agitation properties in humans, indicating common components with a depressant action in the central nervous system. A dual radioligand binding and electrophysiological study, focusing on a range of ligand-gated ion channels, was performed with a chemically validated essential oil derived from La, which has shown clinical benefit in treating agitation. La inhibited [35S] TBPS binding to the rat forebrain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor channel (apparent IC50 = 0.040 +/- 0.001 mg mL(-1)), but had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A 50:50 mixture of Mo and La essential oils inhibited [3H] flunitrazepam binding, whereas the individual oils had no significant effect. Electrophysiological analyses with rat cortical primary cultures demonstrated that La reversibly inhibited GABA-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-1 mg mL(-1)), whereas no inhibition of NMDA- or AMPA-induced currents was noted. La elicited a significant dose-dependent reduction in both inhibitory and excitatory transmission, with a net depressant effect on neurotransmission (in contrast to the classic GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin which evoked profound epileptiform burst firing in these cells). These properties are similar to those recently reported for Mo. The anti-agitation effects in patients and the depressant effects of La we report in neural membranes in-vitro are unlikely to reflect a sedative interaction with any of the ionotropic receptors examined here. These data suggest that components common to the two oils are worthy of focus to identify the actives underlying the neuronal depressant and anti-agitation activities reported.

  15. Comparison of air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in hookah water.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Bazregar, Mohammad; Daneshfar, Ali; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    In this work, two disperser-free microextraction methods, namely, air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction are compared for the determination of a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples, followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The effects of various experimental parameters upon the extraction efficiencies of both methods are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and limits of detection were found to be in the ranges of 327-773 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 406-670 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. The linear dynamic ranges and extraction recoveries were obtained to be in the range of 0.05-120 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.995) and 33-77% for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 0.05-110 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.994) and 41-67% for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. To investigate this common view among some people that smoking hookah is healthy due to the passage of smoke through the hookah water, samples of both the hookah water and hookah smoke were analyzed.

  16. High speed packet switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report prepared by Proteon, Inc. of Westborough, Massachusetts under contract NAS 5-30629 entitled High-Speed Packet Switching (SBIR 87-1, Phase 2) prepared for NASA-Greenbelt, Maryland. The primary goal of this research project is to use the results of the SBIR Phase 1 effort to develop a sound, expandable hardware and software router architecture capable of forwarding 25,000 packets per second through the router and passing 300 megabits per second on the router's internal busses. The work being delivered under this contract received its funding from three different sources: the SNIPE/RIG contract (Contract Number F30602-89-C-0014, CDRL Sequence Number A002), the SBIR contract, and Proteon. The SNIPE/RIG and SBIR contracts had many overlapping requirements, which allowed the research done under SNIPE/RIG to be applied to SBIR. Proteon funded all of the work to develop new router interfaces other than FDDI, in addition to funding the productization of the router itself. The router being delivered under SBIR will be a fully product-quality machine. The work done during this contract produced many significant findings and results, summarized here and explained in detail in later sections of this report. The SNIPE/RIG contract was completed. That contract had many overlapping requirements with the SBIR contract, and resulted in the successful demonstration and delivery of a high speed router. The development that took place during the SNIPE/RIG contract produced findings that included the choice of processor and an understanding of the issues surrounding inter processor communications in a multiprocessor environment. Many significant speed enhancements to the router software were made during that time. Under the SBIR contract (and with help from Proteon-funded work), it was found that a single processor router achieved a throughput significantly higher than originally anticipated. For this reason, a single processor router was

  17. Comparison of oral dexmedetomidine versus oral midazolam as premedication to prevent emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, M Kavya; Mehandale, Sripada G

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Sevoflurane is the most often used inhalational agent in paediatric anaesthesia, but emergence agitation (EA) remains a major concern. Oral midazolam and parenteral dexmedetomidine are known to be effective in controlling EA. We attempted to elucidate whether oral dexmedetomidine is better than midazolam in controlling EA. Methods: Prospective double-blinded study involving ninety patients aged 1–10 years, undergoing elective surgeries of <2 h of expected duration under sevoflurane general anaesthesia, randomised to receive either midazolam (Group A) or dexmedetomidine (Group B) as oral premedication was carried out to record level of sedation before induction, haemodynamic parameters and recovery time. Incidence and severity of EA, post-operative pain and requirement of rescue analgesic were assessed at 0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min postoperatively. Results: Data were analysed applying Student's t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Mask acceptance was better in Group B (97.8% vs. 73.4%, P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was lower in Group B (P < 0.001) though clinically not significant. More rescue analgesic was required in Group A (5.6% vs. 0%). There was no significant difference in adverse effects. Although there was a higher incidence of EA in Group A (Aono's score 3 and 4; 40% vs. 4.4%), none of them required intervention (paediatric anaesthesia emergence delirium score >10; 0 vs. 0). Conclusion: Premedication with oral dexmedetomidine provides smooth induction and recovery, reduces the EA and provides better analgesia and sedation as compared to oral midazolam. PMID:28250481

  18. Improvement of the agitation granulation method to prepare granules containing a high content of a very hygroscopic drug.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Nobuaki; Ishikawa, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Koichi

    2006-11-01

    This study describes a new approach to the preparation of a granulate with a high content of a very hygroscopic powder or drug, using the agitation granulation method, and the development of a tablet formulation using these granulates. A Chinese medicine extract, Hatimi-zio-gan, was used as the model of a very hygroscopic drug. Among the several excipients tested, only porous calcium silicate could be used to prepare granules, with a mixing ratio (extract to porous calcium silicate) from 2:1 to 20:1. With other excipients, very large lumps were formed during the granulation process. The best mixing ratio of extract to porous calcium silicate was 6:1. For preparation of the granules, water could be added to the mixed powder within a range of 1- to 4-times the amount of porous calcium silicate. From these results, it was concluded that the ability of porous calcium silicate to hold large amounts of water in its numerous pores may allow for the preparation of granulates with a high content of very hygroscopic drugs. Starch with partial alpha-links, carboxymethyl starch sodium salt and crospovidone were used for selection of the disintegration agent. When crospovidone was used as a disintegration agent, tablets containing about 70% of the Chinese medicine extract disintegrated in less than 7 min, with good dissolution rates. The same process was applied to extracts of Hotyu-ekki-to, Syo-seiryu-to, Boi-ogi-to and Bohu-tusyo-san. The absorption of paeoniflorin, a characteristic monoterpene glucoside contained in Hatimi-zio-gan extract, was evaluated in beagle dogs after oral administration of the Hatimi-zio-gan tablets prepared in this study. The values of C(max) and AUC obtained after administration of the tablets prepared in this study were significantly greater than those obtained for commercial tablets.

  19. Medication development for agitation and aggression in Alzheimer disease: review and discussion of recent randomized clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Soto, Maria; Andrieu, Sandrine; Nourhashemi, Fati; Ousset, Pierre Jean; Ballard, Clive; Robert, Philippe; Vellas, Bruno; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Rosenberg, Paul B

    2014-09-16

    ABSTRACT Background: The management of disruptive neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) such as agitation and aggression (A/A) is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Few effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological options are available. Results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of drugs for A/A have been disappointing. This may result from the absence of biological efficacy for medications tested in treating A/A. It may also be related to methodological issues such as the choice of outcomes. The aim of this review was to highlight key methodological issues pertaining to RCTs of current and emerging medications for the treatment of A/A in AD. Methods: We searched PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs comparing medications with either placebo or other drugs in the treatment of A/A in AD, between January 2008 and December 2013. Results: We identified a total of 18 RCTs; of these, 11 were completed and 7 ongoing. Of the ongoing RCTs, only one is in Phase III. Seven of 10 completed RCTs with reported results did not report greater benefit from drug than placebo. Each of the completed RCTs used a different definition of "clinically significant A/A." There was considerable heterogeneity in study design. The primary endpoints were largely proxy-based but a variety of scales were used. The definition of caregiver and scales used to assess caregiver outcomes were similarly heterogeneous. Placebo response was notable in all trials. Conclusions: This review highlights a great heterogeneity in RCTs design of drugs for A/A in AD and some key methodological issues such as definition of A/A, choice of outcome measures and caregiver participation that could be addressed by an expert consensus to optimize future trials design.

  20. TWO-SPEED DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Brunson, G.S. Jr.

    1961-04-01

    A two-speed device is described comprising a two-part stop engageable with a follower. The two-pant stop comprises first and second members in threaded engagement with each other. The first member is restrained against rotation but is free to move longitudinally, and the second member is free to move arially and rotatively. Means are provided to impart rotation to the second member. The follower is engageable first with an end of one member and then with the corresponding end of the other member after some relative longitudinal movement of the members with respect to one another due to the rotation of the second member and the holding of the first member against rotation.