Science.gov

Sample records for agmatine inhibits hypoxia-induced

  1. Galectin-3 inhibition ameliorates hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Mingwen; Li, Miaomiao; Li, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which is important in inflammation, fibrosis and heart failure. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of Gal-3 in hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Male C57BL/6J and Gal-3−/− mice were exposed to hypoxia, then the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and Fulton's index were measured, and Gal-3 mRNA and protein expression in the pulmonary arteries was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Compared with the control, hypoxia increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Gal-3 in wild type murine pulmonary arteries. Gal-3 deletion reduced the hypoxia-induced upregulation of RVSP and Fulton's index. Furthermore, human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs) and human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) were stimulated by hypoxia in vitro, and Gal-3 expression was inhibited by small interfering RNA. The inflammatory response of HPAECs, and the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of HPASMCs was also analyzed. Gal-3 inhibition alleviated the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response in HPAECs, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 secretion, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and adhesion of THP-1 monocytes. Gal-3 inhibition also reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation of HPASMCs, partially by reducing cyclin D1 expression and increasing p27 expression. Furthermore, Gal-3 inhibition suppressed HPASMC switching from a ‘contractile’ to a ‘synthetic’ phenotype. In conclusion, Gal-3 serves a fundamental role in hypoxia-induced PAH, and inhibition of Gal-3 may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hypoxia-induced PAH. PMID:27959409

  2. Cinnamic aldehyde suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression during tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woom-Yee; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Ja-Eun; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    During tumor progression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by regulating the transcription of several genes in response to a hypoxic environment and changes in growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of cinnamic aldehyde (CA) on tumor growth and angiogenesis and the mechanisms underlying CA's anti-angiogenic activities. We found that CA administration inhibits tumor growth and blocks tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c mice. In addition, CA treatment decreased HIF-1α protein expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse tumors and Renca cells exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Interestingly, CA treatment did not affect the stability of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL)-associated HIF-1α and CA attenuated the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that the anti-angiogenic activity of CA is, at least in part, regulated by the mTOR pathway-mediated suppression of HIF-1α protein expression and these findings suggest that CA may be a potential drug for human cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Honokiol inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lan, Keng-Li; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Shih, Yi-Sheng; Hsu, Fu-Chih; Wang, Hong-Ming; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Yen, Sang-Hue

    2011-06-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a pivotal role in the reaction of a tumour to hypoxia. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of a natural compound, honokiol, on HIF-1α activity and tumour growth in combination with radiation. The inhibitory effect of honokiol on hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) controlled luciferase activity and HIF-1α accumulations stimulated by CoCl(2), or hypoxia was examined. Effect of honokiol on HIF-1α levels within hypoxic tumour microenvironment was investigated by immunohistochemical and in vivo bioluminescent studies. The in vivo radiosensitising activity of honokiol was evaluated with subcutaneous murine colon carcinoma, CT26, xenografts of BALB/c mice treated with honokiol, radiation, or both. Suppression of luciferase (luc) activity in HRE-luc stable cells by honokiol was in agreement with the results of decreased HIF-1α accumulation. In CT26-HRE-luc tumour-bearing mice, the inhibitory effect of intraperitoneally injected honokiol on HIF-1α-regulated luciferase activities induced by either CoCl(2) or radiation could be monitored non-invasively. Lastly, honokiol in combination with irradiation produced synergistic delay of CT26 tumour growth. Our data suggest that honokiol can exert its anticancer activity as a HIF-1α inhibitor by reducing HIF-1α protein level and suppressing the hypoxia-related signaling pathway. The animal experiment indicates that honokiol improves the therapeutic efficacy of radiation.

  4. The intravenous anesthetics barbiturates inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Takuhiko; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Oda, Seiko; Nishi, Kenichiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Daijo, Hiroki; Takabuchi, Satoshi; Kai, Shinichi; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kiichi

    2009-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master transcription factor of hypoxia-induced gene expression. Anesthetics and perioperative drugs have been reported to affect HIF-1 activity. However, the effect of barbiturates on HIF-1 activity has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of thiopental and thiamylal on HIF-1 activity using the neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, the non-neuronal HEK293 cells, and the macrophage-differentiated THP-1 cells. Cells were exposed to 20% or 1% O(2) conditions with or without thiopental or thiamylal treatment. The cell lysate were subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-HIF-1alpha and -HIF-1beta antibodies. HIF-1-dependent gene expression was investigated by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR and luciferase assay. Hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha protein was evaluated by in vitro pulldown assay using recombinant protein. Both thiopental and thiamylal reversibly suppressed hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation in the neuronal and the non-neuronal cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the barbiturates inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced HIF-1alpha expression in THP-1 cells. The HIF-1-downstream gene expression was also inhibited by the barbiturates. HIFalpha-hydroxylases activity and HIF-1alpha stability were not affected but the HIF-1alpha protein neosynthesis was inhibited by the barbiturates. Our experimental results indicate that barbiturates inhibit induced HIF-1 activation and downstream genes expression.

  5. Agmatine: identification and inhibition of methamphetamine, kappa opioid, and cannabinoid withdrawal in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Gerber, Kristin; Ding, Zhe; Roth, Christopher; Raffa, Robert B

    2008-12-01

    Agmatine blocks morphine physical dependence in mammals, but its effects on withdrawal signs caused by other abused drugs have been less studied. One of the reasons is that withdrawal to some of these drugs is difficult to quantify in mammals. An alternative to mammals is planarians, a type of flatworm. Planarians possess mammalian-like neurotransmitters and display withdrawal from amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids. The withdrawal is manifested as a reduction in locomotor behavior following discontinuation of drug exposure. In the present study, our goal was to identify agmatine in planarians and to determine if planarians exposed to agmatine display withdrawal to methamphetamine, a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2), or a kappa-opioid receptor agonist (U-50,488H). Neurochemical experiments revealed that the concentration of agmatine in planarians was 185 +/- 33.7 pmol per mg of planarian weight (dry weight). In behavioral experiments, withdrawal (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) was observed when planarians exposed to each drug (10 microM) for 60 min were placed into water. The withdrawal was attenuated when methamphetamine- or U-50,488H-exposed planarians were tested in agmatine (100 microM). Withdrawal was inhibited similarly when planarians coexposed to agmatine (100 microM) plus methamphetamine (10 microM), WIN 55,212-2 (10 microM), or U-50,488H (10 microM) were tested in water. Arginine, the metabolic precursor to agmatine, was ineffective. Our results identify endogenous agmatine in planarians and demonstrate that agmatine exposure blocks withdrawal to three different drugs in planarians. This suggests that a change in agmatine signaling is a common mechanism in the withdrawal caused by these drugs, at least in planarians.

  6. Identification of approved and investigational drugs that inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Wen; Huang, Ruili; Khuc, Thai; Shou, David; Bullock, Joshua; Grooby, Suzanne; Griffin, Sue; Zou, Chaozhong; Little, Annette; Astley, Holly; Xia, Menghang

    2016-01-01

    One of the requirements for tumor development is blood supply, most often driven by hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Hypoxia induces the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which induces expression of an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The purpose of this study is to validate a new screening platform combined with orthogonal assays to rapidly identify HIF-1 inhibitors and to evaluate the effectiveness of approved drugs on modulating HIF-1 signaling. We generated an endogenous HIF-1α–NanoLuc luciferase reporter allele in the human HCT116 colon cancer cell line using genome editing and screened a panel of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to 960 druggable targets and approximately 2,500 drugs on a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform. Selected compounds were further investigated with secondary assays to confirm their anti-HIF activity and to study their mode of action. The qHTS assay identified over 300 drugs that inhibited HIF-1α-NanoLuc expression. The siRNA screening results supported the effectiveness of several target-specific inhibitors. Moreover, the identified HIF-1 inhibitors, such as mycophenolate mofetil, niclosamide, and trametinib, were able to suppress cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Our study indicates that blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and HIF-1α transactivation and that proteasome inhibitors induce accumulation and decrease transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These findings underline the importance of developing a battery of robust assay platforms and confirmation studies that focus on endogenous protein targets so that only relevant and reliable data will be taken into pre-clinical and clinical studies. PMID:26882567

  7. Midazolam inhibits the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of erythropoietin in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tomonori; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Tatsumi, Kenichiro; Daijo, Hiroki; Kai, Shinichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-15

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a regulator of red blood cell production, is endogenously expressed in the central nervous system. It is mainly produced by astrocytes under hypoxic conditions and has proven to have neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of midazolam on EPO expression in primary cultured astrocytes and the mouse brain. Midazolam was administered to 6-week-old BALB/c male mice under hypoxic conditions and pregnant C57BL/6N mice under normoxic conditions. Primary cultured astrocytes were also treated with midazolam under hypoxic conditions. The expression of EPO mRNA in mice brains and cultured astrocytes was studied. In addition, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), known as the main regulator of EPO, was evaluated. Midazolam significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of EPO in BALB/c mice brains and primary cultured astrocytes and suppressed EPO expression in the fetal brain. Midazolam did not affect the total amount of HIF proteins but significantly inhibited the nuclear expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins. These results demonstrated the suppressive effects of midazolam on the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of EPO both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pentoxifylline inhibits hypoxia-induced upregulation of tumor cell tissue factor and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Meyer, T; Warnes, G; Amaya, M; Malik, Z; Biggerstaff, J P; Siddiqui, F A; Sherman, P; Francis, J L

    1998-10-01

    Tissue factor (TF), the membrane glycoprotein that initiates blood coagulation, is constitutively expressed by many tumor cells and is implicated in peri-tumor fibrin deposition and hypercoagulability in cancer. Upregulation of tumor TF correlates with enhanced metastatic potential. Furthermore, TF has been colocalized with VEGF in breast cancer, specially at sites of early angiogenesis. There are no data on the effect of hypoxia on tumor cell TF expression. Since hypoxia is known to stimulate VEGF production, we studied whether this also induces tumor cell TF expression. Confluent monolayers of A375 melanoma, MCF-7 breast carcinoma and A549 lung carcinoma were cultured in either 95% air, 5% CO2 (normoxic) or 95% N2, 5% CO2 (hypoxic; 25-30 mmHg) for 24 h. Procoagulant activity (PCA) was measured by amidolytic and clotting assays, surface TF antigen by flow cytometry, early apoptosis by annexin V binding and VEGF levels in culture supernatants by ELISA. Hypoxia significantly increased tumor cell PCA in all three cell lines tested and TF antigen on A375 cells was increased four-fold (P <0.05). Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in PCA as well as VEGF release in all three cell lines tested. In A375 cells, PTX significantly inhibited TF antigen expression by both normoxic and hypoxic cells. Hypoxia induced a slight (5%) but not significant, increase in early apoptosis. Intravenous injection of hypoxic A375 cells into nude rats produced more pronounced thrombocytopenia (n = 5, P <0.01) and more lung metastases (n = 3, P <0.05) compared to normoxic cells. We conclude that hypoxia increases TF expression by malignant cells which enhances tumor cell-platelet binding and hematogenous metastasis. Hypoxia-induced upregulation of TF appears to parallel that of VEGF, although the mechanism remains unclear.

  9. Flavonoids inhibit hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression by a HIF-1 independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ansó, Elena; Zuazo, Alicia; Irigoyen, Marta; Urdaci, María C; Rouzaut, Ana; Martínez-Irujo, Juan J

    2010-06-01

    Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic dietary compounds that have been proposed to possess chemopreventive properties against lung cancer. In this work we analyzed the effect of a group of 20 structurally related flavonoids, including flavones, flavonols and isoflavones, on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by hypoxia in NCI-H157 cells. VEGF is the main regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis and is highly stimulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We found that apigenin, luteolin, fisetin and quercetin inhibited hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated that flavone derivatives were the most active compounds and that hydroxylation of the A ring at the positions 5 and 7 and of the B ring at the 4' position were important for this activity. Interestingly, only a group of VEGF inhibitors, including apigenin, flavone and 4',7-dihydroxiflavone, reduced the expression of HIF-1alpha under these conditions, whereas others, such as fisetin, luteolin, galangin or quercetin, induced HIF-1alpha expression while reducing those of VEGF. When cells were exposed to hypoxia in the presence of these flavonoids, HIF-1alpha translocated to the nucleus and interacted with p300/CBP, but this complex was transcriptionally inactive. Taken together these findings indicate that flavonoids impair VEGF transcription by an alternative mechanism that did not depend on nuclear HIF levels. We also found that flavonoids suppressed hypoxia-induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and that this activity correlated with their potency as VEGF inhibitors, suggesting that inhibition of STAT3 function may play a role in this process.

  10. Pien Tze Huang Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis via HIF-1α/VEGF-A Pathway in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Yuchen; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis plays an important role in the development and metastasis of solid tumors and is highly regulated by HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. Therefore, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling represents a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. As a traditional Chinese medicine formula, Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer in China and Southeast Asia. Previously, we reported that PZH inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) growth both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the antitumor mechanisms of PZH, in the present study we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells to evaluate the effects of PZH on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH could inhibit hypoxia-induced migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells in a dose-dependent manner, although the low concentrations of PZH had no effect on HUVEC viability. Moreover, PZH inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1α signaling and the expression of VEGF-A and/or VEGFR2 in both HCT-8 and HUVEC cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that PZH can inhibit hypoxia-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. PMID:25649293

  11. Pien Tze Huang Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis via HIF-1 α /VEGF-A Pathway in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Yuchen; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis plays an important role in the development and metastasis of solid tumors and is highly regulated by HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. Therefore, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling represents a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. As a traditional Chinese medicine formula, Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer in China and Southeast Asia. Previously, we reported that PZH inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) growth both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the antitumor mechanisms of PZH, in the present study we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells to evaluate the effects of PZH on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH could inhibit hypoxia-induced migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells in a dose-dependent manner, although the low concentrations of PZH had no effect on HUVEC viability. Moreover, PZH inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1α signaling and the expression of VEGF-A and/or VEGFR2 in both HCT-8 and HUVEC cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that PZH can inhibit hypoxia-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway.

  12. Isorhamnetin Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-1α Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Suho; Seo, Kyuhwa; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi

    2016-01-01

    Isorhamnetin is a flavonoid metabolite of quercetin and isolated from water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica, Umbelliferae). It has been reported that isorhamnetin exerts beneficial effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. The present study investigated whether the antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin is correlated with its anti-cancer effects on colorectal cancer cells. Isorhamnetin significantly repressed cobalt chloride (CoCl2)- or hypoxia-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) accumulation in HCT116 and HT29 cells. When compared with quercetin, isorhamnetin showed potent inhibition of HIF-1α. Moreover, it inhibited CoCl2-induced activity of hypoxia response element reporter gene and HIF-1α-dependent transcription of genes such as glucose transporter 1, lactate dehydrogenase A, carbonic anhydrase-IX, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1. Isorhamnetin also blocked hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced HIF-1α accumulation. The antioxidant effects of isorhamnetin were confirmed by observation of CoCl2- or H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Consistently, overexpressed HIF-1α was decreased by isorhamnetin or N-acetyl-L-cysteine in HEK293 cells. In vitro migration and invasion assay further confirmed the inhibitory effects of isorhamnetin on cancer cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that isorhamnetin inhibits ROS-mediated HIF-1α accumulation, which contributes to its anti-metastatic efficacy.

  13. Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-induced migration in K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Lin, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Rong-Rong; Bao, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, traditionally used as food and medicinal purposes, has recently been reported to have protective efficacy against hypoxia. Hypoxia is one of the important reactive factors in tumor metastasis, which is a key problem in clinical thyroid cancer therapy. In present study, we investigate the anti-metastatic effect of curcumin on the K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells as well as its potential mechanisms. The results show that curcumin effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) upregulation and significantly decreases the mRNA and protein expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in K1 cells. Curcumin also decreases the DNA binding ability of HIF-1α to hypoxia response element (HRE). Furthermore, curcumin enhances E-cadherin expression, inhibits metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzyme activity, and weakens K1 cells migration under hypoxic conditions. In summary, these results indicate that curcumin possesses a potent anti-metastatic effect and might be an effective tumoristatic agent for the treatment of aggressive papillary thyroid cancers. PMID:25349216

  14. [Inhibition of NHE1 promotes hypoxia-induced differentiation of K562 leukemic cells].

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei-Na; Wang, Jian; Chang, Guo-Qiang; Lin, Ya-Ni; Wang, Li-Hong; Li, Hua-Wen; Gao, Wei; Li, Qing-Hua; Pang, Tian-Xiang

    2011-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the effect of hypoxia microenvironment on K562 leukemic cell differentiation, and characteristics of NHE1 involvement in this process. The K562 cells were treated with hypoxia-mimical agent CoCl₂ or under actual hypoxia culture, and the specific NHE1 inhibitor Cariporide was used to inhibit NHE1 activity. The fluorescent probe BCECF was used for pH(i) measurements. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. The morphological characteristics was determined by Wright's staining. Signaling pathways were detected by Western blot using phosphospecific antibodies. The results indicated that the hypoxia or mimetic hypoxia favored K562 cells differentiation with up-regulation of C/EBPα. Moreover, treatment with Cariporide under hypoxia synergistically enhanced leukemia cell differentiation. Treatment with Cariporide increased levels of phosphorylated ERK5 and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). It is concluded that the hypoxia or mimetic hypoxia can induce the differentiation of K562 cells, the inhibition of NHE1 activity can promote the hypoxia-induced K562 cell differentiation. The enhancement of hypoxia-induced K562 differentiation by Cariporide via MAPK signal pathway suggests a possible therapeutic target of NHE1 under hypoxia microenvironment in the treatment of leukemias.

  15. A synthetic manassantin a derivative inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lang, Liwei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yan; Zhou, Qing; Xie, Ping; Yan, Chunhong; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    The dineolignan manassantin A from Saururaceae was recently identified as a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, but its in-vivo anti-tumor effect has not been explored. We synthesized a series of manassantin A derivatives, and found that replacing the central tetrahydrofuran moiety with a cyclopentane ring yielded a compound (LXY6006) with increased HIF-1-inhibitory activity yet decreased stereochemically complexity amenable to a simplified synthesis scheme. LXY6006 inhibited HIF-1α nuclear accumulation induced by hypoxia, and inhibited cancer cell growth as a consequence of G2/M arrest. Oral administration of LXY6006 significantly inhibited growth of breast, lung, and pancreatic tumors implanted in nude mice. These results indicate that LXY6006 represents a novel class of agents targeting a broad range of human cancers.

  16. A Synthetic Manassantin A Derivative Inhibits Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Qing; Xie, Ping; Yan, Chunhong; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    The dineolignan manassantin A from Saururaceae was recently identified as a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, but its in-vivo anti-tumor effect has not been explored. We synthesized a series of manassantin A derivatives, and found that replacing the central tetrahydrofuran moiety with a cyclopentane ring yielded a compound (LXY6006) with increased HIF-1-inhibitory activity yet decreased stereochemically complexity amenable to a simplified synthesis scheme. LXY6006 inhibited HIF-1α nuclear accumulation induced by hypoxia, and inhibited cancer cell growth as a consequence of G2/M arrest. Oral administration of LXY6006 significantly inhibited growth of breast, lung, and pancreatic tumors implanted in nude mice. These results indicate that LXY6006 represents a novel class of agents targeting a broad range of human cancers. PMID:24925080

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Manassantin Analogues for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do-Yeon; Lee, Hye Eun; Weitzel, Douglas H; Park, Kyunghye; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Chen-Ting; Stephenson, Tesia N; Park, Hyeri; Fitzgerald, Michael C; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Mook, Robert A; Dewhirst, Mark W; Lee, You Mie; Hong, Jiyong

    2015-10-08

    To cope with hypoxia, tumor cells have developed a number of adaptive mechanisms mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) to promote angiogenesis and cell survival. Due to significant roles of HIF-1 in the initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment of most solid tumors, a considerable amount of effort has been made to identify HIF-1 inhibitors for treatment of cancer. Isolated from Saururus cernuus, manassantins A (1) and B (2) are potent inhibitors of HIF-1 activity. To define the structural requirements of manassantins for HIF-1 inhibition, we prepared and evaluated a series of manassantin analogues. Our SAR studies examined key regions of manassantin's structure in order to understand the impact of these regions on biological activity and to define modifications that can lead to improved performance and drug-like properties. Our efforts identified several manassantin analogues with reduced structural complexity as potential lead compounds for further development. Analogues MA04, MA07, and MA11 down-regulated hypoxia-induced expression of the HIF-1α protein and reduced the levels of HIF-1 target genes, including cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These findings provide an important framework to design potent and selective HIF-1α inhibitors, which is necessary to aid translation of manassantin-derived natural products to the clinic as novel therapeutics for cancers.

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Manassantin Analogues for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To cope with hypoxia, tumor cells have developed a number of adaptive mechanisms mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) to promote angiogenesis and cell survival. Due to significant roles of HIF-1 in the initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment of most solid tumors, a considerable amount of effort has been made to identify HIF-1 inhibitors for treatment of cancer. Isolated from Saururus cernuus, manassantins A (1) and B (2) are potent inhibitors of HIF-1 activity. To define the structural requirements of manassantins for HIF-1 inhibition, we prepared and evaluated a series of manassantin analogues. Our SAR studies examined key regions of manassantin’s structure in order to understand the impact of these regions on biological activity and to define modifications that can lead to improved performance and drug-like properties. Our efforts identified several manassantin analogues with reduced structural complexity as potential lead compounds for further development. Analogues MA04, MA07, and MA11 down-regulated hypoxia-induced expression of the HIF-1α protein and reduced the levels of HIF-1 target genes, including cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These findings provide an important framework to design potent and selective HIF-1α inhibitors, which is necessary to aid translation of manassantin-derived natural products to the clinic as novel therapeutics for cancers. PMID:26394152

  19. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  20. Sulforaphane inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression and migration of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Kang, Yong Jung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Im, Eunok; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-12-01

    The effects of sulforaphane (a natural product commonly found in broccoli) was investigated on hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in HCT116 human colon cancer cells and AGS human gastric cancer cells. We found that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein expression in HCT116 and AGS cells, while treatment with sulforaphane markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited HIF-1α expression in both cell lines. Treatment with sulforaphane inhibited hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in HCT116 cells. Treatment with sulforaphane modulated the effect of hypoxia on HIF-1α stability. However, degradation of HIF-1α by sulforaphane was not mediated through the 26S proteasome pathway. We also found that the inhibition of HIF-1α by sulforaphane was not mediated through AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation under hypoxic conditions. Finally, hypoxia-induced HCT116 cell migration was inhibited by sulforaphane. These data suggest that sulforaphane may inhibit human colon cancer progression and cancer cell angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α and VEGF expression. Taken together, these results indicate that sulforaphane is a new and potent chemopreventive drug candidate for treating patients with human colon cancer.

  1. Pyrithione Zn selectively inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase PHD3.

    PubMed

    Na, Yu-Ran; Woo, Dustin J; Kim, So Yeon; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence emphasizes the role of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) isoforms in regulating non-HIF substrates, but isoform selective PHD inhibitors under physiological conditions have not yet been reported. Here we have identified pyrithione Zn (PZ) as a potent, isoform-selective PHD3 inhibitor. The IC50 value of PZ was determined as 0.98 μM for PHD3, while it did not show any inhibitory activity toward full length and truncated PHD2 up to 1 mM. The selective efficacy of PZ was further demonstrated at the cellular level by observing inhibition of the PHD3-dependent DNA damage response pathway without stabilization of HIF-1α.

  2. TIPE2 Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Activation and EMT in Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Hong-Lin; Zhou, Hai-Cun; Wang, Gui-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) could facilitate tumor progression. TIPE2, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced protein 8-like 2 (also known as TNFAIP8L2), is a member of the TNF-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8, TIPE) family and has been involved in the development and progression of several tumors. However, the effects of TIPE2 on the EMT process in glioma cells and the underlying mechanisms of these effects have not been previously reported. In our study, we assessed the roles of TIPE2 in the EMT process in glioma cells in response to hypoxia. Our results indicated that TIPE2 expression was significantly decreased in human glioma cell lines. TIPE2 overexpression significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced migration and invasion, as well as suppressed the EMT process in glioma cells. Furthermore, TIPE2 overexpression prevented hypoxia-induced expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc in human glioma cells. In summary, these data suggest that TIPE2 overexpression inhibited hypoxia-induced Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation and EMT in glioma cells.

  3. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factors limits tumor progression in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simon, M.Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) accumulate in both neoplastic and inflammatory cells within the tumor microenvironment and impact the progression of a variety of diseases, including colorectal cancer. Pharmacological HIF inhibition represents a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. We show here that acriflavine (ACF), a naturally occurring compound known to repress HIF transcriptional activity, halts the progression of an autochthonous model of established colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) in immunocompetent mice. ACF treatment resulted in decreased tumor number, size and advancement (based on histopathological scoring) of CAC. Moreover, ACF treatment corresponded with decreased macrophage infiltration and vascularity in colorectal tumors. Importantly, ACF treatment inhibited the hypoxic induction of M-CSFR, as well as the expression of the angiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor), a canonical HIF target, with little to no impact on the Nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in bone marrow-derived macrophages. These effects probably explain the observed in vivo phenotypes. Finally, an allograft tumor model further confirmed that ACF treatment inhibits tumor growth through HIF-dependent mechanisms. These results suggest pharmacological HIF inhibition in multiple cell types, including epithelial and innate immune cells, significantly limits tumor growth and progression. PMID:24408928

  4. cGMP-Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Prevents Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death Activation in Porcine Retinal Explants

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-González, Lorena; Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Hervás, David; Marín, María Pilar; Lahoz, Agustin; Millán, José María

    2016-01-01

    Retinal hypoxia and oxidative stress are involved in several retinal degenerations including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, central retinal artery occlusion, or retinopathy of prematurity. The second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) has been reported to be protective for neuronal cells under several pathological conditions including ischemia/hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the accumulation of cGMP through the pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) with Zaprinast prevented retinal degeneration induced by mild hypoxia in cultures of porcine retina. Exposure to mild hypoxia (5% O2) for 24h reduced cGMP content and induced retinal degeneration by caspase dependent and independent (PARP activation) mechanisms. Hypoxia also produced a redox imbalance reducing antioxidant response (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) and increasing superoxide free radical release. Zaprinast reduced mild hypoxia-induced cell death through inhibition of caspase-3 or PARP activation depending on the cell layer. PDE inhibition also ameliorated the effects of mild hypoxia on antioxidant response and the release of superoxide radical in the photoreceptor layer. The use of a PKG inhibitor, KT5823, suggested that cGMP-PKG pathway is involved in cell survival and antioxidant response. The inhibition of PDE, therefore, could be useful for reducing retinal degeneration under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. PMID:27861632

  5. cGMP-Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Prevents Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death Activation in Porcine Retinal Explants.

    PubMed

    Olivares-González, Lorena; Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Hervás, David; Marín, María Pilar; Lahoz, Agustin; Millán, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Retinal hypoxia and oxidative stress are involved in several retinal degenerations including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, central retinal artery occlusion, or retinopathy of prematurity. The second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) has been reported to be protective for neuronal cells under several pathological conditions including ischemia/hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the accumulation of cGMP through the pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) with Zaprinast prevented retinal degeneration induced by mild hypoxia in cultures of porcine retina. Exposure to mild hypoxia (5% O2) for 24h reduced cGMP content and induced retinal degeneration by caspase dependent and independent (PARP activation) mechanisms. Hypoxia also produced a redox imbalance reducing antioxidant response (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) and increasing superoxide free radical release. Zaprinast reduced mild hypoxia-induced cell death through inhibition of caspase-3 or PARP activation depending on the cell layer. PDE inhibition also ameliorated the effects of mild hypoxia on antioxidant response and the release of superoxide radical in the photoreceptor layer. The use of a PKG inhibitor, KT5823, suggested that cGMP-PKG pathway is involved in cell survival and antioxidant response. The inhibition of PDE, therefore, could be useful for reducing retinal degeneration under hypoxic/ischemic conditions.

  6. Brazilian Green Propolis Suppresses the Hypoxia-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Aiqin; Takayama, Fumiko; Liu, Yicong; Harada, Yuka; Wu, Shizheng; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia has been recently proposed as a neuroinflammatogen, which drives microglia to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-6. Considering the fact that propolis has hepatoprotective, antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects, propolis may have protective effects against the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, propolis (50 μg/mL) was found to significantly inhibit the hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, by MG6 microglia following hypoxic exposure (1% O2, 24 h). Furthermore, propolis significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in microglia. Moreover, systemic treatment with propolis (8.33 mg/kg, 2 times/day, i.p.) for 7 days significantly suppressed the microglial expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker for oxidative damaged DNA, in the somatosensory cortex of mice subjected to hypoxia exposure (10% O2, 4 h). These observations indicate that propolis suppresses the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses through inhibition of the NF-κB activation in microglia. Furthermore, increased generation of ROS from the mitochondria is responsible for the NF-κB activation. Therefore, propolis may be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation. PMID:23983903

  7. Noggin inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation by targeting store-operated calcium entry and transient receptor potential cation channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Lu, Wenju; Jia, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Mingming; Wang, Sabrina; Jiang, Haiyang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Abnormally elevated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression and mediated signaling play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (CHPH). In this study, we investigated the expression level and functional significance of four reported naturally occurring BMP4 antagonists, noggin, follistatin, gremlin1, and matrix gla protein (MGP), in the lung and distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC). A 21-day chronic hypoxic (10% O2) exposure rat model was utilized, which has been previously shown to successfully establish experimental CHPH. Among the four antagonists, noggin, but not the other three, was selectively downregulated by hypoxic exposure in both the lung tissue and PASMC, in correlation with markedly elevated BMP4 expression, suggesting that the loss of noggin might account for the hypoxia-triggered BMP4 signaling transduction. Then, by using treatment of extrogenous recombinant noggin protein, we further found that noggin significantly normalized 1) BMP4-induced phosphorylation of cellular p38 and ERK1/2; 2) BMP4-induced phosphorylation of cellular JAK2 and STAT3; 3) hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation; 4) hypoxia-induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), and 5) hypoxia-increased expression of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC1 and TRPC6) in PASMC. In combination, these data strongly indicated that the hypoxia-suppressed noggin accounts, at least partially, for hypoxia-induced excessive PASMC proliferation, while restoration of noggin may be an effective way to inhibit cell proliferation by suppressing SOCE and TRPC expression.

  8. Factor inhibiting HIF limits the expression of hypoxia-inducible genes in podocytes and distal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Schödel, Johannes; Bohr, Daniela; Klanke, Bernd; Schley, Gunnar; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Warnecke, Christina; Kurtz, Armin; Amann, Kerstin; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Willam, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    The two hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) are transcription factors that regulate the response to hypoxia. Recently, the factor inhibiting HIF (FIH1) was identified as a molecular oxygen-dependent dioxygenase that blunts the transcriptional activity of HIF and has also been implicated in HIF-dependent and -independent hypoxia responses. Interestingly, HIF accumulation in the kidney has been shown to confer renal protection and to also cause glomerular injury or enhance renal fibrosis. In order to better understand the regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes, we determined the expression of FIH1 in the kidney and its functional role in isolated renal cells. FIH1 was expressed only in distal tubules and in podocytes, thus showing a very distinct expression pattern, partially overlapping with sites of HIF-1α expression. In tubular cells, RNA silencing of FIH1 caused transcriptional activation of HIF target genes during hypoxia. In contrast, FIH1 silencing in podocytes enhanced transcription of hypoxia-inducible genes in an HIF-independent manner. Using the anti-Thy.1 rat model of glomerulonephritis, we found a gradual decrease of glomerular FIH1 expression during disease progression paralleled by an increase in hypoxia-inducible genes including CXCR4, a mediator of glomerular inflammation. Thus, FIH1 appears to be a suppressor of oxygen-dependent genes in the kidney, operating through HIF-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

  9. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-delivered hypoxia-inducible stanniocalcin-1 expression effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xin; Wang, Jianzhong; Qin, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Ischemia/hypoxia-induced oxidative stress is detrimental for the survival of cardiomyocytes and cardiac function. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1), a glycoprotein, has been found to play an inhibitory role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we speculated that the overexpression of STC-1 might alleviate oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes under conditions of hypoxia. To control the expression of STC-1 in hypoxia, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) to mediate hypoxia induction. Cardiomyocytes were infected with AAV-HRE-STC-1 and cultured in normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and STC-1 overexpression was only detected in hypoxic cultured cardiomyocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection was shown to significantly enhance cell survival under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis was inhibited by AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection by using the Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide apoptosis assay. Moreover, the proapoptotic protein Caspase-3 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which were dysregulated by hypoxia, were reversed by AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection. AAV-HRE-STC-1-mediated STC-1 overexpression markedly inhibited ROS production in cardiomyocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions. AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection significantly upregulated uncoupled protein 3 (UCP3), whereas silencing of UCP3 blocked the inhibitory effect of AAV-HRE-STC-1 on ROS production. In contrast, AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection had no effect on UCP2, and knockdown of UCP2 did not block the inhibitory effect of AAV-HRE-STC-1 on ROS production in the cardiomyocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions. Taken together, STC1 activates antioxidant pathway in cardiomyocytes through the induction of UCP3, implying that AAV-HRE-STC-1 has potential in the treatment of ischemic

  10. COX-2 inhibition and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension: effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling and contractility

    PubMed Central

    Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Ma, Jun; Perrella, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a significant disease process characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to increased right ventricular afterload and ultimately progressing to right ventricular dysfunction and often death. Irreversible remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature is the hallmark of pulmonary hypertension and frequently leads to progressive functional decline in patients with PAH despite treatment with currently available therapies. Metabolites of the arachidonic acid cascade play an important homeostatic role in the pulmonary vasculature and dysregulation of pathways downstream of arachidonic acid play a central role in the pathobiology of PAH. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is upregulated in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and inflammatory cells during hypoxia and plays a protective role in the lung’s response to hypoxia. We recently demonstrated that absence of COX-2 was detrimental in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Exposure of COX-2 null mice to hypoxia resulted in severe pulmonary hypertension characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular remodeling and significant upregulation of the ET-1 receptor (ETAR) in the lung following hypoxia. Absence of COX-2 in vitro led to enhanced contractility of PASMC following exposure to hypoxia that could be attenuated by iloprost, a prostaglandin I2 analog. These findings suggest that selective inhibition of COX-2 may have detrimental pulmonary vascular consequences in patients with pre-existing pulmonary hypertension or underlying hypoxemic lung diseases. Here we discuss our recent data demonstrating the adverse consequences of COX-2 inhibition on pulmonary vascular remodeling and PASMC contractility. PMID:19577709

  11. Galectin-1 inhibition attenuates profibrotic signaling in hypoxia-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kathiriya, Jaymin J; Nakra, Niyati; Nixon, Jenna; Patel, Puja S; Vaghasiya, Vijay; Alhassani, Ahmed; Tian, Zhi; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Davé, Vrushank

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by lung remodeling arising from epithelial injury, aberrant fibroblast growth, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Repeated epithelial injury elicits abnormal wound repair and lung remodeling, often associated with alveolar collapse and edema, leading to focal hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia is a physiological insult that contributes to pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and define its molecular roles in profibrotic activation of lung epithelial cells. Hypoxia increased transcription of profibrotic genes and altered the proteomic signatures of lung epithelial cells. Network analysis of the hypoxic epithelial proteome revealed a crosstalk between transforming growth factor-β1 and FAK1 (focal adhesion kinase-1) signaling, which regulated transcription of galectin-1, a profibrotic molecule. Galectin-1 physically interacted with and activated FAK1 in lung epithelial cells. We developed a novel model of exacerbated PF wherein hypoxia, as a secondary insult, caused PF in mice injured with subclinical levels of bleomycin. Hypoxia elevated expression of phosphorylated FAK1, galectin-1, and α-smooth muscle actin and reduced caspase-3 activation, suggesting aberrant injury repair. Galectin-1 inhibition caused apoptosis in the lung parenchyma and reduced FAK1 activation, preventing the development of hypoxia-induced PF. Galectin-1 inhibition also attenuated fibrosis-associated lung function decline. Further, galectin-1 transcript levels were increased in the lungs of IPF patients. In summary, we have identified a profibrotic role of galectin-1 in hypoxia signaling driving PF.

  12. Galectin-1 inhibition attenuates profibrotic signaling in hypoxia-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kathiriya, Jaymin J; Nakra, Niyati; Nixon, Jenna; Patel, Puja S; Vaghasiya, Vijay; Alhassani, Ahmed; Tian, Zhi; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Davé, Vrushank

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by lung remodeling arising from epithelial injury, aberrant fibroblast growth, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Repeated epithelial injury elicits abnormal wound repair and lung remodeling, often associated with alveolar collapse and edema, leading to focal hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia is a physiological insult that contributes to pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and define its molecular roles in profibrotic activation of lung epithelial cells. Hypoxia increased transcription of profibrotic genes and altered the proteomic signatures of lung epithelial cells. Network analysis of the hypoxic epithelial proteome revealed a crosstalk between transforming growth factor-β1 and FAK1 (focal adhesion kinase-1) signaling, which regulated transcription of galectin-1, a profibrotic molecule. Galectin-1 physically interacted with and activated FAK1 in lung epithelial cells. We developed a novel model of exacerbated PF wherein hypoxia, as a secondary insult, caused PF in mice injured with subclinical levels of bleomycin. Hypoxia elevated expression of phosphorylated FAK1, galectin-1, and α-smooth muscle actin and reduced caspase-3 activation, suggesting aberrant injury repair. Galectin-1 inhibition caused apoptosis in the lung parenchyma and reduced FAK1 activation, preventing the development of hypoxia-induced PF. Galectin-1 inhibition also attenuated fibrosis-associated lung function decline. Further, galectin-1 transcript levels were increased in the lungs of IPF patients. In summary, we have identified a profibrotic role of galectin-1 in hypoxia signaling driving PF. PMID:28417017

  13. Emodin Decreases Hepatic Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text] by Inhibiting its Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feifei; Hu, Lijuan; Yu, Ming; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an [Formula: see text] dimeric transcription factor. Because HIF-1[Formula: see text] is instable with oxygen, HIF-1 is scarce in normal mammalian cells. However, HIF-1[Formula: see text] is expressed in pathological conditions such as cancer and obesity. Inhibiting HIF-1[Formula: see text] may be of therapeutic value for these pathologies. Here, we investigated whether emodin, derived from the herb of Rheum palmatum L, which is also known as Chinese rhubarb, and is native to China, regulates HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression. Male C57BL/6 mice without or with diet-induced obesity were treated with emodin for two weeks, while control mice were treated with vehicle. HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression was determined by Western blot. We found that emodin inhibited obesity-induced HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in liver and skeletal muscle but did not regulate HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in the kidneys or in intra-abdominal fat. In vitro, emodin inhibited HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in human HepG2 hepatic cells and Y1 adrenocortical cells. Further, we investigated the mechanisms of HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in emodin-treated HepG2 cells. First, we found that HIF-1[Formula: see text] had normal stability in the presence of emodin. Thus, emodin did not decrease HIF-1[Formula: see text] by stimulating its degradation. Importantly, emodin decreased the activity of the signaling pathways that led to HIF-1[Formula: see text] biosynthesis. Interestingly, emodin increased HIF-1[Formula: see text] mRNA in HepG2 cells. This may be a result of feedback in response to the emodin-induced decrease in the protein of HIF-1[Formula: see text]. In conclusion, emodin decreases hepatic HIF-1[Formula: see text] by inhibiting its biosynthesis.

  14. Suppression of Akt-HIF-1α signaling axis by diacetyl atractylodiol inhibits hypoxia-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sik-Won; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Jin Hwan; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Hyun Young; Park, Kie-In; Kim, Sun-Lim; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Seo, Woo Duck

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a key regulator associated with tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. HIF-1α regulation under hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. Here, we demonstrate that diacetyl atractylodiol (DAA) from Atractylodes japonica (A. japonica) is a potent HIF-1α inhibitor that inhibits the Akt signaling pathway. DAA dose-dependently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and downregulated Akt signaling without affecting the stability of HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, DAA prevented hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis based on in vitro tube formation and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Therefore, DAA might be useful for treatment of hypoxia-related tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 508-513] PMID:27439603

  15. Four-and-a-Half LIM Domain Proteins Inhibit Transactivation by Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1*

    PubMed Central

    Hubbi, Maimon E.; Gilkes, Daniele M.; Baek, Jin H.; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis, metabolic reprogramming, and other critical aspects of cancer biology. The four-and-a-half LIM domain (FHL) proteins are a family of LIM domain-only proteins implicated in transcriptional regulation and suppression of tumor growth. Here we describe functional interactions between the FHL proteins and HIF-1. FHL1–3 inhibit HIF-1 transcriptional activity and HIF-1α transactivation domain function by oxygen-independent mechanisms. FHL2 directly interacts with HIF-1α to repress transcriptional activity. FHL1 binds to the p300/CBP co-activators and disrupts binding with HIF-1α. FHL3 does not bind to HIF-1α or p300, indicating that it regulates transactivation by a novel molecular mechanism. Expression of the FHL proteins increased upon HIF-1α induction, suggesting the existence of a feedback loop. These results identify FHL proteins as negative regulators of HIF-1 activity, which may provide a mechanism by which they suppress tumor growth. PMID:22219185

  16. TrxR1 inhibition overcomes both hypoxia-induced and acquired bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma through NF-кβ inhibition.

    PubMed

    Raninga, Prahlad V; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Vuckovic, Slavica; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Introduction of the proteasome-inhibitor bortezomib has improved MM prognosis and survival; however hypoxia-induced or acquired bortezomib resistance remains a clinical problem. This study highlighted the role of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in the hypoxia-induced and acquired bortezomib resistance in MM. Higher TrxR1 gene expression correlated with high-risk disease, adverse overall survival, and poor prognosis in myeloma patients. We demonstrated that hypoxia induced bortezomib resistance in myeloma cells and increased TrxR1 protein levels. Inhibition of TrxR1 using auranofin overcame hypoxia-induced bortezomib resistance and restored the sensitivity of hypoxic-myeloma cells to bortezomib. Hypoxia increased NF-кβ subunit p65 nuclear protein levels and TrxR1 inhibition decreased hypoxia-induced NF-кβ p65 protein levels in the nucleus and reduced the expression of NF-кβ-regulated genes. In addition, higher TrxR1 protein levels were observed in bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells compared to the naïve cells, and its inhibition using either auranofin or TrxR1-specific siRNAs reversed bortezomib resistance. TrxR1 inhibition reduced p65 mRNA and protein expression in bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells, and also decreased the expression of NF-кβ-regulated anti-apoptotic and proliferative genes. Thus, TrxR1 inhibition overcomes both hypoxia-induced and acquired bortezomib resistance by inhibiting the NF-кβ signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that elevated TrxR1 levels correlate with the acquisition of bortezomib resistance in MM. We propose considering TrxR1-inhibiting drugs, such as auranofin, either for single agent or combination therapy to circumvent bortezomib-resistance and improve survival outcomes of MM patients.

  17. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krekorian, Massis; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Mackaaij, Claire; Verheij, Joanne; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of HIF-1-associated proteins in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, (2) investigate the role of HIF-1 in PDT-treated human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma cells, and (3) determine whether HIF-1 inhibition reduces survival signaling and enhances PDT efficacy. Results: Increased expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was confirmed in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine caused HIF-1α stabilization in SK-ChA-1 cells and increased transcription of HIF-1α downstream genes. Acriflavine was taken up by SK-ChA-1 cells and translocated to the nucleus under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, pretreatment of SK-ChA-1 cells with acriflavine enhanced PDT efficacy via inhibition of HIF-1 and topoisomerases I and II. Methods: The expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. In addition, the response of human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (SK-ChA-1) cells to PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine was investigated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Acriflavine, a HIF-1α/HIF-1β dimerization inhibitor and a potential dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor, was evaluated for its adjuvant effect on PDT efficacy. Conclusions: HIF-1, which is activated in human hilar cholangiocarcinomas, contributes to tumor cell survival following PDT in vitro. Combining PDT with acriflavine pretreatment improves PDT efficacy in cultured cells and therefore warrants further preclinical validation for therapy-recalcitrant perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:26657503

  18. Featured Article: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α dependent nuclear entry of factor inhibiting HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ke; Ding, Xue-qin; Lin, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional activity in the nucleus is related to factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1). FIH-1 hydrolyzes asparagine at the C-terminal of HIF-1α, preventing the interaction between HIF-1α and its associated cofactors, and leading to suppressed activation of HIF-1. FIH-1 is a cytosolic protein and its entry to the nucleus has to be coordinated with HIF-1α. The present study was undertaken to examine the correlation between HIF-1α and FIH-1 in their nuclear entry. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with dimethyloxalylglycine at a final concentration of 100 µM for 4 h, resulting in an accumulation of HIF-1α and an increase of FIH-1 in the nucleus as determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreatment of the cells with copper (Cu) chelator tetraethylenepentamine at 50 µM in cultures for 24 h reduced both HIF-1α protein levels and the HIF-1α entry to the nucleus, along with decreased FIH-1 protein levels in the nucleus but no changes in the total FIH-1 protein levels in the cells. These effects were prevented by simultaneous addition of 50 µM CuSO4 with tetraethylenepentamine. Gene-silencing of HIF-1α significantly inhibited FIH-1 entry to the nucleus, but did not affect the total protein levels of FIH-1 in the cells. This work demonstrates that the nuclear entry of FIH-1 depends on HIF-1α. Cu deficiency caused a decrease of HIF-1α, leading to suppression of FIH-1 entry to the nucleus. PMID:25687434

  19. Featured Article: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α dependent nuclear entry of factor inhibiting HIF-1.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ke; Ding, Xue-Qin; Lin, Chen; Kang, Y James

    2015-11-01

    The regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional activity in the nucleus is related to factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1). FIH-1 hydrolyzes asparagine at the C-terminal of HIF-1α, preventing the interaction between HIF-1α and its associated cofactors, and leading to suppressed activation of HIF-1. FIH-1 is a cytosolic protein and its entry to the nucleus has to be coordinated with HIF-1α. The present study was undertaken to examine the correlation between HIF-1α and FIH-1 in their nuclear entry. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with dimethyloxalylglycine at a final concentration of 100 µM for 4 h, resulting in an accumulation of HIF-1α and an increase of FIH-1 in the nucleus as determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreatment of the cells with copper (Cu) chelator tetraethylenepentamine at 50 µM in cultures for 24 h reduced both HIF-1α protein levels and the HIF-1α entry to the nucleus, along with decreased FIH-1 protein levels in the nucleus but no changes in the total FIH-1 protein levels in the cells. These effects were prevented by simultaneous addition of 50 µM CuSO4 with tetraethylenepentamine. Gene-silencing of HIF-1α significantly inhibited FIH-1 entry to the nucleus, but did not affect the total protein levels of FIH-1 in the cells. This work demonstrates that the nuclear entry of FIH-1 depends on HIF-1α. Cu deficiency caused a decrease of HIF-1α, leading to suppression of FIH-1 entry to the nucleus.

  20. Daxx inhibits hypoxia-induced lung cancer cell metastasis by suppressing the HIF-1α/HDAC1/Slug axis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Wen; Wang, Lu-Kai; Wang, Shu-Ping; Chang, Yi-Liang; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Lai, Wei-Yun; Lu, Hsuan-Hsuan; Chang, Ya-Hsuan; Yang, Shuenn-Chen; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a major driving force of cancer invasion and metastasis. Here we show that death domain-associated protein (Daxx) acts to negatively regulate hypoxia-induced cell dissemination and invasion by inhibiting the HIF-1α/HDAC1/Slug pathway. Daxx directly binds to the DNA-binding domain of Slug, impeding histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) recruitment and antagonizing Slug E-box binding. This, in turn, stimulates E-cadherin and occludin expression and suppresses Slug-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell invasiveness. Under hypoxic conditions, stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α downregulates Daxx expression and promotes cancer invasion, whereas re-expression of Daxx represses hypoxia-induced cancer invasion. Daxx also suppresses Slug-mediated lung cancer metastasis in an orthotopic lung metastasis mouse model. Using clinical tumour samples, we confirmed that the HIF-1α/Daxx/Slug pathway is an outcome predictor. Our results support that Daxx can act as a repressor in controlling HIF-1α/HDAC1/Slug-mediated cancer cell invasion and is a potential therapeutic target for inhibition of cancer metastasis. PMID:28004751

  1. Direct Inhibition of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factor Complex with Designed Dimeric Epidithiodiketopiperazine

    PubMed Central

    Block, Katherine M.; Wang, Hui; Szabo, Lajos Z.; Polaske, Nathan W.; Henchey, Laura K.; Dubey, Ramin; Kushal, Swati; Laszlo, Csaba F.; Makhoul, Joshua; Song, Zuohe; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.

    2009-01-01

    Selective blockade of hypoxia-inducible gene expression by designed small molecules would prove valuable in suppressing tumor angiogenesis, metastasis and altered energy metabolism. We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine (ETP) small molecule transcriptional antagonist targeting the interaction of the p300/CBP coactivator with the transcription factor HIF-1α. Our results indicate that disrupting this interaction results in rapid downregulation of hypoxia-inducible genes critical for cancer progression. The observed effects are compound-specific and dose-dependent. Controlling gene expression with designed small molecules targeting the transcription factor-coactivator interface may represent a new approach for arresting tumor growth. PMID:20000859

  2. Noggin inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation by targeting store-operated calcium entry and transient receptor potential cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Lu, Wenju; Jia, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Mingming; Wang, Sabrina; Jiang, Haiyang; Xu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally elevated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression and mediated signaling play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (CHPH). In this study, we investigated the expression level and functional significance of four reported naturally occurring BMP4 antagonists, noggin, follistatin, gremlin1, and matrix gla protein (MGP), in the lung and distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC). A 21-day chronic hypoxic (10% O2) exposure rat model was utilized, which has been previously shown to successfully establish experimental CHPH. Among the four antagonists, noggin, but not the other three, was selectively downregulated by hypoxic exposure in both the lung tissue and PASMC, in correlation with markedly elevated BMP4 expression, suggesting that the loss of noggin might account for the hypoxia-triggered BMP4 signaling transduction. Then, by using treatment of extrogenous recombinant noggin protein, we further found that noggin significantly normalized 1) BMP4-induced phosphorylation of cellular p38 and ERK1/2; 2) BMP4-induced phosphorylation of cellular JAK2 and STAT3; 3) hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation; 4) hypoxia-induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), and 5) hypoxia-increased expression of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC1 and TRPC6) in PASMC. In combination, these data strongly indicated that the hypoxia-suppressed noggin accounts, at least partially, for hypoxia-induced excessive PASMC proliferation, while restoration of noggin may be an effective way to inhibit cell proliferation by suppressing SOCE and TRPC expression. PMID:25740156

  3. Hypoxia-induced nitric oxide production and tumour perfusion is inhibited by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Natalie; Cane, Gaelle; Robson, Mathew; Gaude, Edoardo; Howat, William J; Szlosarek, Peter W; Pedley, R Barbara; Frezza, Christian; Ashcroft, Margaret; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2016-03-14

    The hypoxic tumour microenvironment represents an aggressive, therapy-resistant compartment. As arginine is required for specific hypoxia-induced processes, we hypothesised that arginine-deprivation therapy may be useful in targeting hypoxic cancer cells. We explored the effects of the arginine-degrading agent ADI-PEG20 on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activation, the hypoxia-induced nitric oxide (NO) pathway and proliferation using HCT116 and UMUC3 cells and xenografts. The latter lack argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) making them auxotrophic for arginine. In HCT116 cells, ADI-PEG20 inhibited hypoxic-activation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, leading to decreased inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO-production, and VEGF. Interestingly, combining hypoxia and ADI-PEG20 synergistically inhibited ASS1. ADI-PEG20 inhibited mTORC1 and activated the unfolded protein response providing a mechanism for inhibition of HIF and ASS1. ADI-PEG20 inhibited tumour growth, impaired hypoxia-associated NO-production, and decreased vascular perfusion. Expression of HIF-1α/HIF-2α/iNOS and VEGF were reduced, despite an increased hypoxic tumour fraction. Similar effects were observed in UMUC3 xenografts. In summary, ADI-PEG20 inhibits HIF-activated processes in two tumour models with widely different arginine biology. Thus, ADI-PEG20 may be useful in the clinic to target therapy-resistant hypoxic cells in ASS1-proficient tumours and ASS1-deficient tumours.

  4. Hypoxia-induced nitric oxide production and tumour perfusion is inhibited by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20)

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Natalie; Cane, Gaelle; Robson, Mathew; Gaude, Edoardo; J. Howat, William; Szlosarek, Peter W.; Pedley, R. Barbara; Frezza, Christian; Ashcroft, Margaret; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxic tumour microenvironment represents an aggressive, therapy-resistant compartment. As arginine is required for specific hypoxia-induced processes, we hypothesised that arginine-deprivation therapy may be useful in targeting hypoxic cancer cells. We explored the effects of the arginine-degrading agent ADI-PEG20 on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activation, the hypoxia-induced nitric oxide (NO) pathway and proliferation using HCT116 and UMUC3 cells and xenografts. The latter lack argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) making them auxotrophic for arginine. In HCT116 cells, ADI-PEG20 inhibited hypoxic-activation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, leading to decreased inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO-production, and VEGF. Interestingly, combining hypoxia and ADI-PEG20 synergistically inhibited ASS1. ADI-PEG20 inhibited mTORC1 and activated the unfolded protein response providing a mechanism for inhibition of HIF and ASS1. ADI-PEG20 inhibited tumour growth, impaired hypoxia-associated NO-production, and decreased vascular perfusion. Expression of HIF-1α/HIF-2α/iNOS and VEGF were reduced, despite an increased hypoxic tumour fraction. Similar effects were observed in UMUC3 xenografts. In summary, ADI-PEG20 inhibits HIF-activated processes in two tumour models with widely different arginine biology. Thus, ADI-PEG20 may be useful in the clinic to target therapy-resistant hypoxic cells in ASS1-proficient tumours and ASS1-deficient tumours. PMID:26972697

  5. Methylalpinumisoflavone Inhibits Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) Activation by Simultaneously Targeting Multiple Pathways*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Veena, Coothan K.; Morgan, J. Brian; Mohammed, Kaleem A.; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors, and the extent of tumor hypoxia correlates with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents an important tumor-selective molecular target for anticancer drug discovery directed at tumor hypoxia. A natural product chemistry-based approach was employed to discover small molecule inhibitors of HIF-1. Bioassay-guided isolation of an active lipid extract of the tropical legumaceous plant Lonchocarpus glabrescens and structure elucidation afforded two new HIF-1 inhibitors: alpinumisoflavone (compound 1) and 4′-O-methylalpinumisoflavone (compound 2). In human breast tumor T47D cells, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 5 and 0.6 μm, respectively. At the concentrations that in hibited HIF-1 activation, compound 2 inhibited hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes (CDKN1A, GLUT-1, and VEGF), tumor angiogenesis in vitro, cell migration, and chemotaxis. Compound 2 inhibits HIF-1 activation by blocking the induction of nuclear HIF-1α protein, the oxygen-regulated subunit that controls HIF-1 activity. Mechanistic studies indicate that, unlike rotenone and other mitochondrial inhibitors, compound 2 represents the first small molecule that inhibits HIF-1 activation by simultaneously suppressing mitochondrial respiration and disrupting protein translation in vitro. This unique mechanism distinguishes compound 2 from other small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors that are simple mitochondrial inhibitors or flavanoid-based protein kinase inhibitors. PMID:19091749

  6. Folic Acid Represses Hypoxia-Induced Inflammation in THP-1 Cells through Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinwei; Hou, Mengjun; Tang, Zhihong; Zhen, Xiaozhou; Liang, Yuming; Ma, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Though hypoxia has been implicated as a cause of inflammation, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Folic acid has been shown to provide protection against oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with cardiovascular disease and various models approximating insult to tissue via inflammation. It has been reported that hypoxia-induced inflammation is associated with oxidative stress, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Whether folic acid protects human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) against hypoxia-induced damage, however, remains unknown. We used THP-1 cells to establish a hypoxia-induced cellular injury model. Pretreating THP-1 cells with folic acid attenuated hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses, including a decrease in protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), coupled with increased levels of IL-10. Folic acid also reduced hypoxia-induced Akt phosphorylation and decreased nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α protein. Both LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase, PI3K) and KC7F2 (a HIF-1α inhibitor) reduced levels of hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines. We also found that insulin (an Akt activator) and dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG, a HIF-1α activator) induced over-expression of inflammatory cytokines, which could be blocked by folic acid. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how folic acid attenuates the hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses of THP-1 cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α pathway. PMID:26974319

  7. [Knockdown of RUNX3 inhibits hypoxia-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition of human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Li, Bingong; Wang, Yuqin; Wang, Delong; Zou, Jin; Ke, Xuan; Hao, Yanqin

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) knockdown on hypoxia-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) of human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs), and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods HCMECs were cultured in hypoxic conditions and infected with RUNX3-RNAi lentivirus to knock-down the expression of RUNX3. Reverse transcription PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expressions of RUNX3 and EndoMT related genes such as CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1); Western blotting was used to determine the protein expressions of RUNX3, CD31, α-SMA and another molecules involved in EndoMT; and immunofluorescence cytochemistry was applied to observe the colocalization of CD31 and α-SMA. Results Hypoxia induced the transition of HCMECs to mesenchymal cells. Hypoxia up-regulated the expression of TGF-β2, Smad2/3, phosphorylation of Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3), Notch-1, Hes1, and Hey1; knockdown of RUNX3 down-regulated the levels of Smad2/3, p-Smad2/3, Hes1, and Hey1 to different extents, and raised the levels of TGF-β2 and Notch-1. Conclusion Knockdown of RUNX3 in HCMECs attenuates hypoxia-induced EndoMT via partially inhibiting TGF-β and Notch signaling pathway.

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibition: robust new target or another big bust for stroke therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in developing stroke therapeutics that augment adaptive pathways to stress has been to identify targets that can activate compensatory programs without inducing or adding to the stress of injury. In this regard, hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylases (HIF PHDs) are central gatekeepers of posttranscriptional and transcriptional adaptation to hypoxia, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity. Indeed, some of the known salutary effects of putative ‘antioxidant' iron chelators in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke may derive from their abilities to inhibit this family of iron, 2-oxoglutarate, and oxygen-dependent enzymes. Evidence from a number of laboratories supports the notion that HIF PHD inhibition can improve histological and functional outcomes in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke models. In this review, we discuss this evidence and highlight important gaps in our understanding that render HIF PHD inhibition a promising but not yet preclinically validated target for protection and repair after stroke. PMID:22415525

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibition: robust new target or another big bust for stroke therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2012-07-01

    A major challenge in developing stroke therapeutics that augment adaptive pathways to stress has been to identify targets that can activate compensatory programs without inducing or adding to the stress of injury. In this regard, hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylases (HIF PHDs) are central gatekeepers of posttranscriptional and transcriptional adaptation to hypoxia, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity. Indeed, some of the known salutary effects of putative 'antioxidant' iron chelators in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke may derive from their abilities to inhibit this family of iron, 2-oxoglutarate, and oxygen-dependent enzymes. Evidence from a number of laboratories supports the notion that HIF PHD inhibition can improve histological and functional outcomes in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke models. In this review, we discuss this evidence and highlight important gaps in our understanding that render HIF PHD inhibition a promising but not yet preclinically validated target for protection and repair after stroke.

  10. Aloe-emodin suppresses hypoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianming; Ke, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongcheng; Ma, Na; Fu, Wei; Zhao, Manxi; Gao, Xiaoping; Hao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe-emodin (AE) has been reported to possess the antiangiogenic effect on laser induced choroidal neovascularization. AE inhibits the vessel formation in the zebrafish embryos. However, it is still unclear whether AE can alleviate neovascularization. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of AE on the hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization and the possible mechanisms. Methods: We established a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion model under chemical induced hypoxia by exposure of 150 µM CoCl2 to the ARPE-19 cells, then treated the cells with different concentrations of AE (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 µg/mL) or a special hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) inhibitor [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, YC-1, 1.0 µg/mL]. The cellular supernatants were collected 48 h later to measure the VEGFA concentrations by human VEGFA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, the mRNA expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 by Western blots. For in vivo study, the rat pups with oxygen-induced retinopathy were treated with Conbercept ophthalmic injection (1.0 mg/kg) or AE (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) for five days, then the retinal avascular areas were assessed via visualization of the retinal vasculature with ADPase and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stains. Results: AE inhibits the VEGFA secretion of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia condition, decreases the mRNA expressions of VEGFA and PHD-2 and the protein expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and PHD-2 in vitro and prevents hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization in vivo.Conclusions: AE ameliorates retinal neovascularization throuth inhibition of the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. AE may be developed as a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Aloe-emodin suppresses hypoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianming; Ke, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongcheng; Ma, Na; Fu, Wei; Zhao, Manxi; Gao, Xiaoping; Hao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe-emodin (AE) has been reported to possess the antiangiogenic effect on laser induced choroidal neovascularization. AE inhibits the vessel formation in the zebrafish embryos. However, it is still unclear whether AE can alleviate neovascularization. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of AE on the hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization and the possible mechanisms. Methods: We established a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion model under chemical induced hypoxia by exposure of 150 µM CoCl2 to the ARPE-19 cells, then treated the cells with different concentrations of AE (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 µg/mL) or a special hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) inhibitor [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, YC-1, 1.0 µg/mL]. The cellular supernatants were collected 48 h later to measure the VEGFA concentrations by human VEGFA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, the mRNA expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 by Western blots. For in vivo study, the rat pups with oxygen-induced retinopathy were treated with Conbercept ophthalmic injection (1.0 mg/kg) or AE (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) for five days, then the retinal avascular areas were assessed via visualization of the retinal vasculature with ADPase and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stains. Results: AE inhibits the VEGFA secretion of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia condition, decreases the mRNA expressions of VEGFA and PHD-2 and the protein expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and PHD-2 in vitro and prevents hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization in vivo. Conclusions: AE ameliorates retinal neovascularization throuth inhibition of the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. AE may be developed as a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27877088

  12. Agmatine protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage via N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yu, Li; Song, Zhidu; Luo, Lifu; Wu, Yazhen

    2015-07-01

    Neural injury is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. Müller cells provide structural and metabolic support for retinal neurons. High glucose concentrations are known to induce Müller cell activity. Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine, which is enzymatically formed in the mammalian brain and has exhibited neuroprotective effects in a number of experimental models. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether agmatine protects Müller cells from glucose-induced damage and to explore the mechanisms underlying this process. Lactate dehydrogenase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression were significantly reduced in Müller cells exposed to a high glucose concentration, following agmatine treatment, compared with cells not treated with agmatine. In addition, agmatine treatment inhibited glucose-induced Müller cell apoptosis, which was associated with the regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression. Agmatine treatment suppressed glucose-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein in Müller cells. The present study demonstrated that the protective effects of agmatine on Müller cells were inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The results of the present study suggested that agmatine treatment protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage. The underlying mechanisms may relate to the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of agmatine, as well as to the inhibition of the MAPK pathway, via NMDA receptor suppression. Agmatine may be of use in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Nobiletin inhibited hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells by inactivating of Notch-1 signaling and switching on miR-200b.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-Jun; Liu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Guang; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Hong-Jian

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an early step in the process of tumor metastasis. It is well known that tumor microenvironment affects malignancy in various carcinomas; in particular, that hypoxia induces EMT. Deregulated notch signaling also contributes a lot to the development of EMT in lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the use of Notch-1-inhibiting compound as novel therapeutic candidates to regulate hypoxia-induced EMT in lung cancer cells. According to previous screening, nobiletin was selected as a Notch-1 inhibitor. Hypoxia-induced EMT was characteristic of increased N-cadherin & vimentin expressions and decreased E-cadherin expressions. Treatment with nobiletin notably attenuated hypoxia-induced EMT, invasion and migration in H1299 cells, accompanied with reduced Notch-1, Jagged1/2 expressions and its downstream genes Hey-1 and Hes-1. Nobiletin treatment also promoted tumorsuppressive miR-200b level. Moreover, notch-1 siRNA prevented hypoxia-mediated cell migration and decreased Twist1, Snail1, and ZEB1/2 expressions, which are key EMT markers. Re-expression of miR-200b blocked hypoxia-induced EMT and cell invasion. Our findings suggest that downregulation of Notch-1 and reexpression of miR-200b by nobiletin might be a novel remedy for the therapy of lung cancer.

  14. Further analysis of the inhibition by agmatine on the cardiac sympathetic outflow: Role of the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Cobos-Puc, Luis; Aguayo-Morales, Hilda; Ventura-Sobrevilla, Janeth; Luque-Contreras, Diana; Chin-Chan, Miguel

    2017-06-15

    This study has investigated the role of the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the inhibition of the cardiac sympathetic outflow induced by intravenous (i.v) infusions of agmatine. Therefore, we analysed the effect of an i.v. bolus injections of the selective antagonists BRL 44408 (300μg/kg; α2A), imiloxan (3000μg/kg; α2B), and JP-1302 (300μg/kg; α2C) given separately, and their combinations: BRL 44408 plus Imiloxan, JP 1302 plus imiloxan, BRL 44408 plus JP-1302, BRL 44408 plus imiloxan plus JP-1302 on the cardiac sympatho-inhibition of agmatine. Also, the effect of the combination BRL 44408 plus JP-1302 plus AGN 192403 (3000μg/kg; I1 antagonist) was evaluated. In this way, i.v. infusions of 1000μg/kg min of agmatine, but not 300, inhibited the tachycardic response induced by electrical stimulation. Furthermore, the antagonists used or their combinations had no effect on the electrically-induced tachycardic response. On the other hand, the inhibitory response of agmatine was: (1) partially antagonized by BRL 44408 or JP-1302 given separately, a similar response was observed when we administered their combination with imiloxan, but not by imiloxan alone, (2) antagonized in greater magnitude by the combination BRL 44408 plus JP-1302 or the combination BRL 44408 plus imiloxan plus JP-1302, and (3) abolished by the combination BRL 44408 plus JP-1302 plus AGN 192403. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the α2A- and α2C-adrenoceptor subtypes and I1-imidazoline receptors are involved in the inhibition of the cardiac sympathetic outflow induced by agmatine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Salidroside inhibits hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Lü, Bo-Dong; Chen, Shi-Tao; Zhang, Shi-Geng; Yang, Ke-Bing

    2013-08-01

    To explore the effects of salidroside on the phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMC) in hypoxic SD rats. CCSMCs were cultured in vitro and identified by immunohistochemistry. The cells were divided into six groups: normal control (21% O2), hypoxia (1% O2), hypoxia + salidroside 1 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 3 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L and hypoxia + PGE1 0.4 microg/L, and then cultured for 48 hours. The relative expressions of alpha-actin and osteopontin (OPN) in each group were determined by RT-PCR. The in vitro cultured CCSMCs grew well, with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin monoclonal antibodies immunohistochemically positive. The relative expression of alpha-actin was markedly decreased while that of OPN remarkably increased in the hypoxia group as compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). The hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L group showed a significantly higher expression of alpha-actin and lower expression of OPN than the hypoxia group (P < 0.01), but exhibited no significant differences from the hypoxia + PGE group (P > 0.05). Hypoxia can reduce the relative expression level of alpha-actin and increase that of OPN in the CCSMCs of SD rats, namely, induce their phenotypic modulation from the contraction to the non-contraction type. Salidroside can restrain hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of CCSMCs, and its inhibitory effect at 5 mg/L is similar to that of PGE1.

  16. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of JNK ameliorates hypoxia-induced retinopathy through interference with VEGF expression

    PubMed Central

    Guma, Monica; Rius, Jordi; Duong-Polk, Karen X.; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Lindsey, James D.; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many ocular pathologies, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, result in vision loss because of aberrant neoangiogenesis. A common feature of these conditions is the presence of hypoxic areas and overexpression of the proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The prevailing current treatment, laser ablation of the retina, is destructive and only partially effective. Preventive and less destructive therapies are much more desirable. Here, we show that mice lacking c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) exhibit reduced pathological angiogenesis and lower levels of retinal VEGF production in a murine model of ROP. We found that hypoxia induces JNK activation and regulates VEGF expression by enhancing the binding of phospho-c-Jun to the VEGF promoter. Intravitreal injection of a specific JNK inhibitor decreases retinal VEGF expression and reduces pathological retinal neovascularization without obvious side effects. These results strongly suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in retinal neoangiogenesis and that it represents a new pharmacological target for treatment of diseases where excessive neoangiogenesis is the underlying pathology. PMID:19433784

  17. Leptin Counteracts the Hypoxia-Induced Inhibition of Spontaneously Firing Hippocampal Neurons: A Microelectrode Array Study

    PubMed Central

    Gavello, Daniela; Rojo-Ruiz, Jonathan; Marcantoni, Andrea; Franchino, Claudio; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Besides regulating energy balance and reducing body-weight, the adipokine leptin has been recently shown to be neuroprotective and antiapoptotic by promoting neuronal survival after excitotoxic and oxidative insults. Here, we investigated the firing properties of mouse hippocampal neurons and the effects of leptin pretreatment on hypoxic damage (2 hours, 3% O2). Experiments were carried out by means of the microelectrode array (MEA) technology, monitoring hippocampal neurons activity from 11 to 18 days in vitro (DIV). Under normoxic conditions, hippocampal neurons were spontaneously firing, either with prevailing isolated and randomly distributed spikes (11 DIV), or with patterns characterized by synchronized bursts (18 DIV). Exposure to hypoxia severely impaired the spontaneous activity of hippocampal neurons, reducing their firing frequency by 54% and 69%, at 11 and 18 DIV respectively, and synchronized their firing activity. Pretreatment with 50 nM leptin reduced the firing frequency of normoxic neurons and contrasted the hypoxia-induced depressive action, either by limiting the firing frequency reduction (at both ages) or by increasing it to 126% (in younger neurons). In order to find out whether leptin exerts its effect by activating large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK), as shown on rat hippocampal neurons, we applied the BK channel blocker paxilline (1 µM). Our data show that paxilline reversed the effects of leptin, both on normoxic and hypoxic neurons, suggesting that the adipokine counteracts hypoxia through BK channels activation in mouse hippocampal neurons. PMID:22848520

  18. A viral vector expressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha inhibits hippocampal neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xiqing; Kong, Weina; Liu, Lingyun; Yu, Wenguo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Sun, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) attenuates amyloid-beta protein neurotoxicity and decreases apoptosis induced by oxidative stress or hypoxia in cortical neurons. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human HIF-1α gene (rAAV-HIF-1α), and tested the assumption that rAAV-HIF-1α represses hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein. Our results confirmed that rAAV-HIF-1α significantly reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Direct intracerebral rAAV-HIF-1α administration also induced robust and prolonged HIF-1α production in rat hippocampus. Single rAAV-HIF-1α administration resulted in decreased apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in an Alzheimer's disease rat model established by intracerebroventricular injection of aggregated amyloid-beta protein (25–35). Our in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that HIF-1 has potential for attenuating hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein, and provides experimental support for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases using gene therapy. PMID:25206774

  19. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis*

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Marina T.; Danai, Laura V.; Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J.; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation. PMID:25922078

  20. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Marina T; Danai, Laura V; Roth Flach, Rachel J; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P

    2015-06-12

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation.

  1. RUNX3 inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein stability by interacting with prolyl hydroxylases in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Bae, S C; Kim, K W; Lee, Y M

    2014-03-13

    RUNX3 is silenced by histone modification and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is stabilized under hypoxia, but little is known of cross-talk between RUNX3 and HIF-1α under hypoxia. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of RUNX3 on HIF-1α stability in gastric cancer cells. RUNX3 overexpression was found to downregulate HIF-1α stability under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the activity of a luciferase reporter containing five copies of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter hypoxia-responsive element (5 × HRE) and the amount of secreted VEGF, were diminished in RUNX3-expressing but increased in RUNX3-knockdown cells. When expression of RUNX3 was recovered using epigenetic reagents the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were clearly suppressed under hypoxic conditions. RUNX3 also significantly attenuated the half-life of HIF-1α protein, and induced the cytosolic localization and ubiquitination of HIF-1α. In addition, RUNX3 directly interacted with the C-terminal activation domain of HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 2 and enhanced the interaction between HIF-1α and PHD2, which potentiated proline hydroxylation and promoted the degradation of HIF-1α. Furthermore, RUNX3 overexpression significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that RUNX3 destabilizes HIF-1α protein by promoting the proline hydroxylation of HIF-1α through binding to HIF-1α/PHD2. RUNX3 appears to be a novel suppressor of HIF-1α and of hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis in gastric cancer cells.

  2. Asparagine and Aspartate Hydroxylation of the Cytoskeletal Ankyrin Family Is Catalyzed by Factor-inhibiting Hypoxia-inducible Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Ge, Wei; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Kramer, Holger B.; Schmierer, Bernhard; McDonough, Michael A.; Gong, Lingzhi; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Coleman, Mathew L.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyzes the β-hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the C-terminal transcriptional activation domain of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a modification that negatively regulates HIF transcriptional activity. FIH also catalyzes the hydroxylation of highly conserved Asn residues within the ubiquitous ankyrin repeat domain (ARD)-containing proteins. Hydroxylation has been shown to stabilize localized regions of the ARD fold in the case of a three-repeat consensus ankyrin protein, but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated for the extensive naturally occurring ARDs. Here we report that the cytoskeletal ankyrin family are substrates for FIH-catalyzed hydroxylations. We show that the ARD of ankyrinR is multiply hydroxylated by FIH both in vitro and in endogenous proteins purified from human and mouse erythrocytes. Hydroxylation of the D34 region of ankyrinR ARD (ankyrin repeats 13–24) increases its conformational stability and leads to a reduction in its interaction with the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (CDB3), demonstrating the potential for FIH-catalyzed hydroxylation to modulate protein-protein interactions. Unexpectedly we found that aspartate residues in ankyrinR and ankyrinB are hydroxylated and that FIH-catalyzed aspartate hydroxylation also occurs in other naturally occurring AR sequences. The crystal structure of an FIH variant in complex with an Asp-substrate peptide together with NMR analyses of the hydroxylation product identifies the 3S regio- and stereoselectivity of the FIH-catalyzed Asp hydroxylation, revealing a previously unprecedented posttranslational modification. PMID:21177872

  3. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced relaxation of rabbit isolated coronary arteries by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine but not glibenclamide.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, C.; Collins, P.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, tetrodotoxin and glibenclamide on hypoxia-induced coronary artery relaxation, induced by bubbling Krebs solution with 95% N2 and 5% CO2 instead of 95% O2 and 5% CO2, were assessed by measuring the changes in isometric tension in isolated epicardial coronary artery rings of the rabbit. In addition, the effects of glibenclamide on the relaxation induced by adenosine were investigated. 2. Hypoxia caused a transient relaxation of 38 +/- 3% (P < 0.01) and 17 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) in endothelium-intact or -denuded arteries respectively. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (30 and 100 microM) inhibited the relaxation in endothelium-intact rings to 31 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 16 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) respectively and slightly but significantly attenuated the relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings to 15 +/- 1% and 13 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) respectively. 3. Glibenclamide, a potassium channel inhibitor, did not significantly after the hypoxia-induced relaxation. 4. Incubation with tetrodotoxin (3 and 10 microM) for 30 min reduced the relaxation to 31 +/- 3% (P < 0.05) and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.01), and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 11 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) in endothelium-intact and -denuded rings respectively. However, indomethacin (10 microM), atropine (1 microM), propranolol (10 microM) and phentolamine (10 microM) did not significantly affect the relaxation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8019749

  4. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K.; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1–5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47phox). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity. PMID:26979487

  5. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-03-16

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1-5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47(phox)). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity.

  6. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway and suppresses breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Hongchuan; Cheng, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is one of the most compelling anticancer targets. Andrographolide (Andro) was newly identified to inhibit HIF-1 in T47D cells (a half maximal effective concentration [EC50] of 1.03×10−7 mol/L), by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. It suppressed HIF-1α protein and gene accumulation, which was dependent on the inhibition of upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. It also abrogated the expression of HIF-1 target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and protein. Further, Andro inhibited T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, it exhibited significant in vivo efficacy and antitumor potential against the MDA-MB-231 xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which inhibits HIF-1, and hence may be developed as an antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy in future. PMID:25709476

  7. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tieshan; Yao, Qian; Cao, Fei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Binlei; Wang, Xiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. PMID:27994464

  8. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tieshan; Yao, Qian; Cao, Fei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Binlei; Wang, Xiu-Hong

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis.

  9. PEDF attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cells by inhibiting p53 mitochondrial translocation via PEDF-R.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yiqian; Lu, Peng; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Dong, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhongming

    2015-09-25

    Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional secreted glycoprotein, which could protect against hypoxia-induced cell death related to its anti-oxidative effect in cultured cardiomyocytes. However, the pathway mediating this cytoprotective process has not been fully established. Here we confirmed that PEDF bound to pigment epithelial-derived factor receptor (PEDF-R) expressed on the membrane of H9c2 cells. Under hypoxic condition, PEDF increased the ratio of MDM2:p53, so as to inhibited p53 mitochondrial translocation via PEDF-R. As a result, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening were inhibited, meanwhile cleaved caspase-3, PARP and the release of HMGB1 were reduced. Accordingly, apoptosis and necrosis were attenuated simultaneously. We conclude that PEDF-R mediates PEDF attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cells by inhibiting p53 mitochondrial translocation.

  10. Tuning the Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia by Inhibiting Hypoxia-inducible Factor (HIF) Prolyl and Asparaginyl Hydroxylases*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Mun Chiang; Ilott, Nicholas E.; Schödel, Johannes; Sims, David; Tumber, Anthony; Lippl, Kerstin; Mole, David R.; Pugh, Christopher W.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Ponting, Chris P.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) system orchestrates cellular responses to hypoxia in animals. HIF is an α/β-heterodimeric transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes in a tissue context-dependent manner. The major hypoxia-sensing component of the HIF system involves oxygen-dependent catalysis by the HIF hydroxylases; in humans there are three HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1–3) and an asparaginyl hydroxylase (factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH)). PHD catalysis regulates HIFα levels, and FIH catalysis regulates HIF activity. How differences in HIFα hydroxylation status relate to variations in the induction of specific HIF target gene transcription is unknown. We report studies using small molecule HIF hydroxylase inhibitors that investigate the extent to which HIF target gene expression is induced by PHD or FIH inhibition. The results reveal substantial differences in the role of prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation in regulating hypoxia-responsive genes in cells. PHD inhibitors with different structural scaffolds behave similarly. Under the tested conditions, a broad-spectrum 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase inhibitor is a better mimic of the overall transcriptional response to hypoxia than the selective PHD inhibitors, consistent with an important role for FIH in the hypoxic transcriptional response. Indeed, combined application of selective PHD and FIH inhibitors resulted in the transcriptional induction of a subset of genes not fully responsive to PHD inhibition alone. Thus, for the therapeutic regulation of HIF target genes, it is important to consider both PHD and FIH activity, and in the case of some sets of target genes, simultaneous inhibition of the PHDs and FIH catalysis may be preferable. PMID:27502280

  11. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factors combined with all-trans retinoic acid treatment enhances glial transdifferentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Flora; Pezone, Lucia; Avitabile, Marianna; Acierno, Giovanni; Andolfo, Immacolata; Capasso, Mario; Iolascon, Achille

    2015-06-09

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a heterogeneous tumor characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations. A high tumor cell differentiation grade correlates to a favorable stage and positive outcome. Expression of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF1-α (HIF1A gene) and HIF2-α (EPAS1 gene) and/or hypoxia-regulated pathways has been shown to promote the undifferentiated phenotype of NBL cells. Our hypothesis is that HIF1A and EPAS1 expression represent one of the mechanisms responsible for the lack of responsiveness of NBL to differentiation therapy. Clinically, high levels of HIF1A and EPAS1 expression were associated with inferior survival in two NBL microarray datasets, and patient subgroups with lower expression of HIF1A and EPAS1 showed significant enrichment of pathways related to neuronal differentiation. In NBL cell lines, the combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with HIF1A or EPAS1 silencing led to an acquired glial-cell phenotype and enhanced expression of glial-cell differentiation markers. Furthermore, HIF1A or EPAS1 silencing might promote cell senescence independent of ATRA treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that HIF inhibition coupled with ATRA treatment promotes differentiation into a more benign phenotype and cell senescence in vitro. These findings open the way for additional lines of attack in the treatment of NBL minimal residue disease.

  12. Wheatgrass extract inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in not only cancer development and metastasis but also non-cancerous conditions. Hypoxia is one of the proposed critical factors contributing to formation of chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) has antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we analyzed whether wheatgrass has an inhibitory effect on the EMT process in airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of wheatgrass extract (50, 75, 100, and 150 µg/mL) and changes in expression of epithelial or mesenchymal markers were evaluated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Accordingly, associated EMT-related transcriptional factors, Snail and Smad, were also evaluated. RESULTS Hypoxia increased expression of N-cadherin and reduced expression of E-cadherin. Mechanistically, E-cadherin levels were recovered during hypoxia by silencing hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α or administering wheatgrass extract. Wheatgrass inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT by reducing the expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3) and Snail. It suppressed the hypoxia-mediated EMT processes of airway epithelial cells via HIF-1α and the pSmad3 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION These results suggest that wheatgrass has potential as a therapeutic or supplementary agent for HIF-1-related diseases. PMID:28386380

  13. Involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) in inhibition of benzene on mouse hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xing; Zhang, Juan; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is an occupational and environmental pollutant that damages the hematopoietic system through oxidant mechanisms. The aims of this study were to assess the role of oxidation in benzene-mediated damage by determination of the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to evaluate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in this process. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to benzene at varying concentrations of 60, 150, or 300 mg/kg/d for 15 d. Mice in the benzene groups displayed weight loss, and hematologic consequences including decreased red and white blood cell counts, reduced platelet count, diminished hemoglobin content, and lower number of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow (BM). There was an elevated proportional neutrophil count and decrease in relative thymus weight. In BM there was a significant increase in ROS levels at 150 mg/kg benzene. However, as a result of diminished cellular viability, ROS levels were not markedly different between the 300-mg/kg benzene dose and the control, as the number of hematopoietic stem cells was reduced. HIF-1α expression and protein levels were decreased in BM cells at all doses of benzene. In conclusion, data indicated that HIF-1α may be involved in benzene-induced inhibition of mouse hematopoiesis and that oxidative stress may play a role in the observed toxicity.

  14. LXY6090 – a novel manassantin A derivative – limits breast cancer growth through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Fangfang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ji, Ming; Xie, Ping; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents a novel antitumor target owing to its involvement in vital processes considered hallmarks of cancer phenotypes. Manassantin A (MA) derived from Saururus cernuus has been reported as a selective HIF-1 inhibitor. Herein, the structure of MA was optimized to achieve new derivatives with simple chemical properties while retaining its activity. LXY6090 was designed to replace the central tetrahydrofuran moiety of MA with a cyclopentane ring and was identified as a potent HIF-1 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 4.11 nM. It not only inhibited the activity of HIF-1 in breast cancer cells but also downregulated the protein level of HIF-1α, which depended on von Hippel–Lindau for proteasome degradation. The related biological evaluation showed that the activity of HIF-1 target genes, VEGF and IGF-2, was decreased by LXY6090 in breast cancer cell lines. LXY6090 presented potent antitumor activity in vitro. Furthermore, LXY6090 showed in vivo anticancer efficacy by decreasing the HIF-1α expression in nude mice bearing MX-1 tumor xenografts. In conclusion, our data provide a basis for the future development of the novel compound LXY6090 as a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:27445487

  15. LXY6090 - a novel manassantin A derivative - limits breast cancer growth through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fangfang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ji, Ming; Xie, Ping; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents a novel antitumor target owing to its involvement in vital processes considered hallmarks of cancer phenotypes. Manassantin A (MA) derived from Saururus cernuus has been reported as a selective HIF-1 inhibitor. Herein, the structure of MA was optimized to achieve new derivatives with simple chemical properties while retaining its activity. LXY6090 was designed to replace the central tetrahydrofuran moiety of MA with a cyclopentane ring and was identified as a potent HIF-1 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 4.11 nM. It not only inhibited the activity of HIF-1 in breast cancer cells but also downregulated the protein level of HIF-1α, which depended on von Hippel-Lindau for proteasome degradation. The related biological evaluation showed that the activity of HIF-1 target genes, VEGF and IGF-2, was decreased by LXY6090 in breast cancer cell lines. LXY6090 presented potent antitumor activity in vitro. Furthermore, LXY6090 showed in vivo anticancer efficacy by decreasing the HIF-1α expression in nude mice bearing MX-1 tumor xenografts. In conclusion, our data provide a basis for the future development of the novel compound LXY6090 as a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  16. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Aling; Zhang, Yuchen; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas; Peng, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity.

  17. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, HONGWEI; SHEN, ALING; ZHANG, YUCHEN; CHEN, YOUQIN; LIN, JIUMAO; LIN, WEI; SFERRA, THOMAS; PENG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity. PMID:24940418

  18. Anthrax lethal toxin inhibits translation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and causes decreased tolerance to hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Weiming; Torigoe, Chikako; Fang, Hui; Xie, Tao; Frucht, David M

    2014-02-14

    Hypoxia is considered to be a contributor to the pathology associated with administration of anthrax lethal toxin (LT). However, we report here that serum lactate levels in LT-treated mice are reduced, a finding inconsistent with the anaerobic metabolism expected to occur during hypoxia. Reduced lactate levels are also observed in the culture supernatants of LT-treated cells. LT inhibits the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a subunit of HIF-1, the master regulator directing cellular responses to hypoxia. The toxin has no effect on the transcription or protein turnover of HIF-1α, but instead it acts to inhibit HIF-1α translation. LT treatment diminishes phosphorylation of eIF4B, eIF4E, and rpS6, critical components of the intracellular machinery required for HIF-1α translation. Moreover, blockade of MKK1/2-ERK1/2, but not p38 or JNK signaling, lowers HIF-1α protein levels in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, consistent with a role for MKK1 and MKK2 as the major targets of LT responsible for the inhibition of HIF-1α translation. The physiological importance of the LT-induced translation blockade is demonstrated by the finding that LT treatment decreases the survival of hepatocyte cell lines grown in hypoxic conditions, an effect that is overcome by preinduction of HIF-1α. Taken together, these data support a role for LT in dysregulating HIF-1α and thereby disrupting homeostatic responses to hypoxia, an environmental characteristic of certain tissues at baseline and/or during disseminated infection with Bacillus anthracis.

  19. MiR224-3p inhibits hypoxia-induced autophagy by targeting autophagy-related genes in human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xing; Xue, Hao; Guo, Xiaofan; Gao, Xiao; Xu, Shugang; Yan, Shaofeng; Han, Xiao; Li, Tong; Shen, Jie; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant solid tumor characterized by severe hypoxia. Autophagy plays a protective role in cancer cells under hypoxia. However, the microRNA (miRNA)-related molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia-reduced autophagy remain poorly understood in GBM. In this study, we performed a miRNA microarray analysis on GBM cells and found that numerous miRNAs were differentially expressed under hypoxic conditions. Further research showed that miR224-3p, one of the significantly down-regulated miRNAs, was involved in regulating hypoxia-induced autophagy in GBM cells. Overexpression of miR224-3p abolished hypoxia-induced autophagy, whereas knocking down endogenous miR224-3p increased autophagic activity under normoxia. In addition, we demonstrated that miR224-3p inhibited autophagy by directly suppressing the expression of two autophagy-related genes (ATGs), ATG5 and FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200). Furthermore, in vitro, miR224-3p attenuated cell proliferation and promoted hypoxia-induced apoptosis, and in vivo, overexpression of miR224-3p inhibited tumorigenesis of GBM cells. Collectively, our study identified a novel hypoxia-down-regulated miRNA, miR224-3p, as a key modulator of autophagy by inhibiting ATGs in GBM cells. PMID:26536662

  20. Up-regulation of miR-138 inhibits hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via down-regulating lipocalin-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haowei; Luo, Tiantian; He, Wenshuai; Xi, Dan; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Liu, Jichen

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes significantly to the development of numerous cardiac diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, etc. Promoting cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis is one of the available strategies to attenuate cardiac dysfunction caused by cardiomyocyte loss. Previous studies have been demonstrated that miR-138 and lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) play important roles in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and survival. We presently determined whether Lcn2 is a target gene of miR-138 involved in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Firstly, mimics of miR-138 were transfected into HL-1 cells to investigate its effect on cell apoptosis. Using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-y1) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometer assays, over-expression of miR-138 significantly enhanced the cell growth and significantly attenuated the cell apoptosis in hypoxic conditions. Dual-luciferase reporter gene and western blot results confirmed Lcn2 was a direct target of miR-138. Then, the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3.1/Lcn2 was transfected into the HL-1 cells that over-expressed miR-138. We further observed that the over-expression of Lcn2 diminished the protection of miR-138 over-expression from hypoxia-induced cell survival and apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-138 inhibits the hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via down-regulating the pro-apoptotic gene expression of Lcn2. PMID:26129883

  1. Hypoxia-induced inhibition of calcium channels in guinea-pig taenia caeci smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rekalov, V; Juránek, I; Máleková, L; Bauer, V

    1997-01-01

    1. The effects of hypoxia on whole-cell current in single smooth muscle cells and on a high K(+)-induced contraction of strips of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were studied. 2. In physiological salt solution (PSS) and K(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg) reversibly inhibited both the inward Ca2+ current (ICa) and outward Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) components of the whole-cell current. 3. In PSS and Cs(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia reversibly suppressed ICa by 30 +/- 5% at 0 mV. 4. When Ba2+ was used as a charge carrier, the IBa was suppressed by hypoxia in a potential-dependent manner, with the maximum of 40 +/- 7% at +10 mV. Alterations of concentrations of EGTA, GDB beta S or ATP in the pipette solution did not change the inhibitory effects of hypoxia on ICa and IBa. 5. In PSS with 2 mM CaCl2 replaced by CoCl2, hypoxia did not affect the Ca2+ influx-independent potassium current. 6. In cells voltage clamped at -20 mV hypoxia reversibly inhibited the spontaneous transient outward currents. 7. The response of high K(+)-contracted taenia caeci to hypoxia was composed of an initial rapid relaxation followed by a small transient contraction and slow relaxation. The transient contraction was blocked by atropine (1-10 microM), while relaxations were unaffected by atropine and guanethidine (10 microM). 8. The results show that hypoxia reversibly inhibits ICa and secondarily suppresses IK(Ca) due to decreased Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels. 9. It is suggested that inhibition of ICa was responsible for the rapid relaxation, whereas transient contraction may have been due to release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals upon hypoxia. PMID:9409475

  2. The Rate-Limiting Step of O2 Activation in the α-Ketoglutarate Oxygenase Factor Inhibiting Hypoxia Inducible Factor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) is a cellular O2-sensing enzyme, which hydroxylates the hypoxia inducible factor-1α. Previously reported inverse solvent kinetic isotope effects indicated that FIH limits its overall turnover through an O2 activation step (HangaskyJ. A., SabanE., and KnappM. J. (2013) Biochemistry52, 1594−160223351038). Here we characterize the rate-limiting step for O2 activation by FIH using a suite of mechanistic probes on the second order rate constant kcat/KM(O2). Steady-state kinetics showed that the rate constant for O2 activation was slow (kcat/KM(O2)app = 3500 M–1 s–1) compared with other non-heme iron oxygenases, and solvent viscosity assays further excluded diffusional encounter with O2 from being rate limiting on kcat/KM(O2). Competitive oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effect measurements (18kcat/KM(O2) = 1.0114(5)) indicated that the transition state for O2 activation resembled a cyclic peroxohemiketal, which precedes the formation of the ferryl intermediate observed in related enzymes. We interpret this data to indicate that FIH limits its overall activity at the point of the nucleophilic attack of Fe-bound O2— on the C-2 carbon of αKG. Overall, these results show that FIH follows the consensus mechanism for αKG oxygenases, suggesting that FIH may be an ideal enzyme to directly access steps involved in O2 activation among the broad family of αKG oxygenases. PMID:25423620

  3. Kinetic Investigations of the Role of Factor Inhibiting Hypoxia-inducible Factor (FIH) as an Oxygen Sensor*

    PubMed Central

    Tarhonskaya, Hanna; Hardy, Adam P.; Howe, Emily A.; Loik, Nikita D.; Kramer, Holger B.; McCullagh, James S. O.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Flashman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases regulate hypoxia sensing in animals. In humans, they comprise three prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1–3 or EGLN1–3) and factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). FIH is an asparaginyl hydroxylase catalyzing post-translational modification of HIF-α, resulting in reduction of HIF-mediated transcription. Like the PHDs, FIH is proposed to have a hypoxia-sensing role in cells, enabling responses to changes in cellular O2 availability. PHD2, the most important human PHD isoform, is proposed to be biochemically/kinetically suited as a hypoxia sensor due to its relatively high sensitivity to changes in O2 concentration and slow reaction with O2. To ascertain whether these parameters are conserved among the HIF hydroxylases, we compared the reactions of FIH and PHD2 with O2. Consistent with previous reports, we found lower Kmapp(O2) values for FIH than for PHD2 with all HIF-derived substrates. Under pre-steady-state conditions, the O2-initiated FIH reaction is significantly faster than that of PHD2. We then investigated the kinetics with respect to O2 of the FIH reaction with ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) substrates. FIH has lower Kmapp(O2) values for the tested ARDs than HIF-α substrates, and pre-steady-state O2-initiated reactions were faster with ARDs than with HIF-α substrates. The results correlate with cellular studies showing that FIH is active at lower O2 concentrations than the PHDs and suggest that competition between HIF-α and ARDs for FIH is likely to be biologically relevant, particularly in hypoxic conditions. The overall results are consistent with the proposal that the kinetic properties of individual oxygenases reflect their biological capacity to act as hypoxia sensors. PMID:26112411

  4. Inhibition of Breast Cancer by Repression of Angiogenic Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    cancer cells to death receptor-induced apoptosis by inhibition ofNF-KB: Synergistic action of Apo2L/TRAIL, Interferon-y, Aspirin and Apigenin . (Abstract...of !KK0 (with ::leety! ,~81iCy!iC ::H~irl" ASA), and CK2 (with the plant flavonoid, apigenin ), results in loss of NF-KB-dependent expression of BcI...reduction of NF-KS-induced survival proteins by ASA and apigenin synergizes with interferon-y-mediated elevation of death signaling proteins to

  5. Vitamin C inhibits hypoxia-induced damage and apoptotic signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes and ischemic hearts.

    PubMed

    Guaiquil, Victor H; Golde, David W; Beckles, Daniel L; Mascareno, Eduardo J; Siddiqui, M A Q

    2004-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a central role in myocardial ischemic injury and are a target for therapeutic intervention. Vitamin C is an essential antioxidant yet difficult to deliver in pharmacologic concentration to the myocardium. We found that adult rat cardiomyocytes accumulate vitamin C by transporting dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), the oxidized form of vitamin C, but do not transport ascorbic acid. Loading cells with vitamin C by DHA treatment resulted in resistance to hypoxia- and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell death associated with the quenching of reactive oxygen species. When rats were injected with DHA before coronary occlusion, the ascorbic acid content in the heart was six to eight times higher than in untreated controls and myocardial infarction was reduced by 62%. DHA also provided significant protection when administered intravenously 2 h after coronary occlusion. In cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation, DHA treatment resulted in decreased apoptosis associated with inhibition of Bax expression, caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c translocation into the cytoplasm. DHA treatment also inhibited Jak2, STAT1, and STAT5 phosphorylation, and increased STAT3 phosphorylation, in hypoxic cardiomyocytes and ischemic myocardial tissue. Our findings suggest that DHA may be useful as a cardioprotectant in ischemic heart disease.

  6. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced miR-155 radiosensitizes hypoxic lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Babar, Imran A; Czochor, Jennifer; Steinmetz, Allison; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Glazer, Peter M; Slack, Frank J

    2011-11-15

    miR-155 is a prominent microRNA (miRNA) that regulates genes involved in immunity and cancer-related pathways. miR-155 is overexpressed in lung cancer, which correlates with poor patient prognosis. It is unclear how miR-155 becomes increased in lung cancers and how this increase contributes to reduced patient survival. Here, we show that hypoxic conditions induce miR-155 expression in lung cancer cells and trigger a corresponding decrease in a validated target, FOXO3A. Furthermore, we find that increased levels of miR-155 radioprotects lung cancer cells, while inhibition of miR-155 radiosensitizes these cells. Moreover, we reveal a therapeutically important link between miR-155 expression, hypoxia, and irradiation by demonstrating that anti-miR-155 molecules also sensitize hypoxic lung cancer cells to irradiation. Our study helps explain how miR-155 becomes elevated in lung cancers, which contain extensive hypoxic microenvironments, and demonstrates that inhibition of miR-155 may have important therapeutic potential as a means to radiosensitize hypoxic lung cancer cells.

  7. A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors inhibit LPS-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 accumulation in murine astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Stefanelli, Angela; Fazzi, Debora; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Adenosine (Ado) exerts neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory functions by acting through four receptor subtypes A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Astrocytes are one of its targets in the central nervous system. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is induced after hypoxia, ischemia and inflammation and plays an important role in brain injury. HIF-1 is expressed by astrocytes, however the regulatory role played by Ado on HIF-1α modulation induced by inflammatory and hypoxic conditions has not been investigated. Primary murine astrocytes were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without Ado, Ado receptor agonists, antagonists and receptor silencing, before exposure to normoxia or hypoxia. HIF-1α accumulation and downstream genes regulation were determined. Ado inhibited LPS-increased HIF-1α accumulation under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, through activation of A1 and A3 receptors. In cells incubated with the blockers of p44/42 MAPK and Akt, LPS-induced HIF-1α accumulation was significantly decreased in normoxia and hypoxia, suggesting the involvement of p44/42 MAPK and Akt in this effect and Ado inhibited kinases phosphorylation. A series of angiogenesis and metabolism related genes were modulated by hypoxia in an HIF-1 dependent way, but not further increased by LPS, with the exception of GLUT-1 and hexochinase II that were elevated by LPS only in normoxia and inhibited by Ado receptors. Instead, genes involved in inflammation, like inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and A2B receptors, were increased by LPS in normoxia, strongly stimulated by LPS in concert with hypoxia and inhibited by Ado, through A1 and A3 receptor subtypes. In conclusion A1 and A3 receptors reduce the LPS-mediated HIF-1α accumulation in murine astrocytes, resulting in a downregulation of genes involved in inflammation and hypoxic injury, like iNOS and A2B receptors, in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

  8. Nifedipine inhibits hypoxia induced transvascular leakage through down regulation of NFkB.

    PubMed

    S K S, Sarada; Veeramohan; P, Himadri; Mathew, Titto; S, Saumya; M, Chitharanjan

    2012-07-31

    We have studied the prophylactic administration of nifedipine and its molecular mechanism involved in reducing the transvascular leakage and inflammation in rats under hypoxia. Rats exposed to an altitude of 7620m for 6h resulted into significant increase in transvascular leakage, oxidative stress with increased NFkB expression in lungs followed by significant increase in pro inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α) with up regulation of cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-I, VCAM-I, E-selectin, and P-selectin) in the lungs over control. Prophylactic administration of nifedipine significantly reduced the transvascular leakage, oxidative stress, inhibited the up regulation of NFkB in lungs of rats compared to control. In addition, nifedipine significantly suppressed the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules and stabilized the HIF1-α accumulation in the lungs of rats compared to control. These results indicate that, nifedipine has an inhibitory effect on initial leaking and showed reduction in progression of inflammation through down regulation of NFkB activity in lungs of rats under hypoxia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. BAY 87-2243, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of hypoxia-induced gene activation has antitumor activities by inhibition of mitochondrial complex I

    PubMed Central

    Ellinghaus, Peter; Heisler, Iring; Unterschemmann, Kerstin; Haerter, Michael; Beck, Hartmut; Greschat, Susanne; Ehrmann, Alexander; Summer, Holger; Flamme, Ingo; Oehme, Felix; Thierauch, Karlheinz; Michels, Martin; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Ziegelbauer, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an essential role in tumor development, tumor progression, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In order to identify compounds targeting the HIF pathway, a small molecule library was screened using a luciferase-driven HIF-1 reporter cell line under hypoxia. The high-throughput screening led to the identification of a class of aminoalkyl-substituted compounds that inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 target gene expression in human lung cancer cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations. Lead structure BAY 87-2243 was found to inhibit HIF-1α and HIF-2α protein accumulation under hypoxic conditions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H460 but had no effect on HIF-1α protein levels induced by the hypoxia mimetics desferrioxamine or cobalt chloride. BAY 87-2243 had no effect on HIF target gene expression levels in RCC4 cells lacking Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) activity nor did the compound affect the activity of HIF prolyl hydroxylase-2. Antitumor activity of BAY 87-2243, suppression of HIF-1α protein levels, and reduction of HIF-1 target gene expression in vivo were demonstrated in a H460 xenograft model. BAY 87-2243 did not inhibit cell proliferation under standard conditions. However under glucose depletion, a condition favoring mitochondrial ATP generation as energy source, BAY 87-2243 inhibited cell proliferation in the nanomolar range. Further experiments revealed that BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity but has no effect on complex III activity. Interference with mitochondrial function to reduce hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activity in tumors might be an interesting therapeutic approach to overcome chemo- and radiotherapy-resistance of hypoxic tumors. PMID:24403227

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Hypoxia- But Not Anoxia-Induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Activation in a von Hippel-Lindau- and Mitochondria-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Daijo, Hiroki; Harada, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Shun; Suzuki, Kengo; Takabuchi, Satoshi; Takenaga, Keizo; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously synthesized gaseous molecule that acts as an important signaling molecule in the living body. Transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is known to respond to intracellular reduced oxygen (O2) availability, which is regulated by an elaborate balance between O2 supply and demand. However, the effect of H2S on HIF-1 activity under hypoxic conditions is largely unknown in mammalian cells. In this study, we tried to elucidate the effect of H2S on hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation adopting cultured cells and mice. Results: The H2S donors sodium hydrosulfide and sodium sulfide in pharmacological concentrations reversibly reduced cellular O2 consumption and inhibited hypoxia- but not anoxia-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation and expression of genes downstream of HIF-1 in established cell lines. H2S did not affect HIF-1 activation induced by the HIF-α hydroxylases inhibitors desferrioxamine or CoCl2. Experimental evidence adopting von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)- or mitochondria-deficient cells indicated that H2S did not affect neosynthesis of HIF-1α protein but destabilized HIF-1α in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that exogenously administered H2S inhibited HIF-1–dependent gene expression in mice. Innovation: For the first time, we show that H2S modulates intracellular O2 homeostasis and regulates activation of HIF-1 and the subsequent gene expression induced by hypoxia by using an in vitro system with established cell lines and an in vivo system in mice. Conclusions: We demonstrate that H2S inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 203–216. PMID:22004513

  11. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice. PMID:25587430

  12. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice.

  13. Suppression of Akt1 phosphorylation by adenoviral transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chunxia; Yi, Bin; Bai, Li; Xia, Yongzhi; Wang, Guansong; Qian, Guisheng; Feng, Hua

    2010-07-02

    Recent findings identify the role of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has been identified as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling that inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway. However, little is known about the role of PTEN/Akt signaling in hypoxia-associated vascular remodeling. In this study, we found that hypoxia-induced the expression of Akt1 mRNA and phosphorylated protein by at least twofold in rat PASMCs. Phospho-PTEN significantly decreased in the nuclei of PASMCs after hypoxic stimulation. After forcing over-expression of PTEN by adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) transfection, the expression of phospho-Akt1 was significantly suppressed in PASMCs at all time-points measured. Additionally, we showed here that hypoxia increased proliferation of PASMCs by nearly twofold and over-expression of PTEN significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation. These findings suggest that phospho-PTEN loss in the nuclei of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions may be the major cause of aberrant activation of Akt1 and may, therefore, play an important role in hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling. Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-PTEN inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt1 in PASMCs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling.

  14. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Yoon, Changhwan; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Yeo-Jung; Schmidt, Benjamin; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Tap, William D.; Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Choy, Edwin; Kirsch, David G.; Simon, M. Celeste; and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  15. Fucosterol protects cobalt chloride induced inflammation by the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor through PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengwang; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Park, Sang Yong; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2015-12-01

    Fucosterol is a phytosterol commonly extracted from algae. It has been proved that fucosterol possesses antioxidant activity that is capable of scavenging the free radicals causing skin damages. In this study, we investigated the protective mechanisms of fucosterol on cobalt chloride (CoCl2) induced hypoxia damages to keratinocytes (HaCaT). We found that fucosterol inhibited CoCl2 induced cytotoxicity and inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, fucosterol attenuated CoCl2 induced excess expression of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in HaCaT cells. In addition, fucosterol surpressed the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt and accumulation of HIF1-α simulated by CoCl2. Taken together, these results suggested that fucosterol executed its protective effects against CoCl2 induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor through PI3K/Akt pathway.

  16. Inhibition of phospholipaseD2 increases hypoxia-induced human colon cancer cell apoptosis through inactivating of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maoxi; Fu, Zhongxue; Wu, Xingye; Du, Kunli; Zhang, Shouru; Zeng, Li

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumor, and is a direct stress that triggers apoptosis in many human cell types. As one of solid cancer, hypoxia exists in the whole course of colon cancer occurrence and progression. Our previous studies shown that hypoxia induce high expression of phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and survivin in colon cancer cells. However, the correlation between PLD2 and survivin in hypoxic colon cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, we observed significantly elevated PLD2 and survivin expression levels in colon cancer tissues and cells. This is a positive correlation between of them, and co-expression of PLD2 and survivin has a positive correlation with the clinicpatholic features including tumor size, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. We also found that hypoxia induced the activity of PLD increased significant mainly caused by PLD2 in colon cancer cells. However, inhibition the activity of PLD2 induced by hypoxia promotes the apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, as well as decreased the expression of apoptosis markers including survivin and bcl2. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/AKT supported the hypothesis that promotes the apoptosis of hypoxic colon cancer cells by PLD2 activity inhibition may through inactivation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, interference the PLD2 gene expression leaded to the apoptosis of hypoxic colon cancer cells increased and also decreased the expression level of survivin and bcl2 may through inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These results indicated that PLD2 play antiapoptotic role in colon cancer under hypoxic conditions, inhibition of the activity, or interference of PLD2 gene expression will benefit for the treatment of colon cancer patients.

  17. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevents hypoxia-induced metabolic shift and cellular proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Parra, Valentina; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Hernández-Fuentes, Carolina P; Gómez-Contreras, Andrés G; Verdejo, Hugo E; Mellado, Rosemarie; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Castro, Pablo F

    2017-07-22

    Chronic hypoxia exacerbates proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), thereby reducing the lumen of pulmonary arteries. This leads to poor blood oxygenation and cardiac work overload, which are the basis of diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Recent studies revealed an emerging role of mitochondria in PAH pathogenesis, as key regulators of cell survival and metabolism. In this work, we assessed whether hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fragmentation contributes to the alterations of both PASMC death and proliferation. In previous work in cardiac myocytes, we showed that trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, stimulates mitochondrial fusion and preserves mitochondrial function. Thus, here we evaluated whether TMZ-induced mitochondrial fusion can prevent human PASMC proliferation in an in vitro hypoxic model. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we showed that prolonged hypoxia (48h) induces mitochondrial fragmentation along with higher levels of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1. Concomitantly, both mitochondrial potential and respiratory rates decreased, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. In accordance with a metabolic shift towards non-mitochondrial ATP generation, mRNA levels of glycolytic markers HK2, PFKFB2 and GLUT1 increased during hypoxia. Incubation of PASMC with TMZ, prior to hypoxia, prevented all these changes and precluded the increase in PASMC proliferation. These findings were also observed using Mdivi-1 (a pharmacological DRP1 inhibitor) or a dominant negative DRP1 K38A as pre-treatments. Altogether, our data indicate that TMZ exerts a protective role against hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation, by preserving mitochondrial function, thus highlighting DRP1-dependent morphology as a novel therapeutic approach for diseases such as PAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Canstatin inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis through activation of integrin/focal adhesion kinase/Akt signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    A hypoxic stress which causes apoptosis of cardiomyocytes is the main problem in the ischemic heart disease. Canstatin, a non-collagenous fragment of type IV collagen α2 chain, is an endogenous anti-angiogenic factor. We have previously reported that canstatin has a cytoprotective effect on cardiomyoblasts. In the present study, we examined the effects of canstatin on hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Cell counting assay was performed to determine a cell viability. Western blotting was performed to detect expression of cleaved casepase-3 and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Akt. Immunocytochemical staining was performed to observe a distribution of αv integrin. Hypoxia (1% O2, 48 h) significantly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase-3 expression. Canstatin (10–250 ng/ml) significantly inhibited these changes in a concentration-dependent manner. Cilengitide (1 μM), an αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin inhibitor, significantly prevented the protective effects of canstatin on cell viability. Canstatin significantly increased phosphorylation of FAK and Akt under hypoxic condition, which were inhibited by cilengitide. LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway, suppressed the canstatin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reversed the protective effects of canstatin. It was observed that hypoxia caused a localization of αv integrin to focal adhesion. In summary, we for the first time clarified that canstatin inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis via FAK and Akt pathways through activating integrins in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. PMID:28235037

  19. Gene Transfer of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain 2 Inhibits Hypoxia-inducible Angiogenesis in a Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Anna; Ekström, Malena; Mammadzada, Parviz; Aronsson, Monica; Yu, Ma; Kvanta, Anders; André, Helder

    2017-01-01

    Cellular responses to hypoxia are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In normoxia, HIF-α proteins are regulated by a family of dioxygenases, through prolyl and asparagyl hydroxylation, culminating in proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inactivation. In hypoxia, the dioxygenases become inactive and allow formation of HIF transcription factor, responsible for upregulation of hypoxia genes. In ocular neoangiogenic diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), hypoxia seems pivotal. Here, we investigate the effects of HIF regulatory proteins on the hypoxia pathway in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, critically involved in nAMD pathogenesis. Our data indicates that, in ARPE-19 cells, prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)2 is the most potent negative-regulator of the HIF pathway. The negative effects of PHD2 on the hypoxia pathway were associated with decreased HIF-1α protein levels, and concomitant decrease in angiogenic factors. ARPE-19 cells stably expressing PHD2 impaired angiogenesis in vitro by wound healing, tubulogenesis, and sprouting assays, as well as in vivo by iris-induced angiogenesis. Gene transfer of PHD2 in vivo resulted in mitigation of HIF-mediated angiogenesis in a mouse model of nAMD. These results may have implications for the clinical treatment of nAMD patients, particularly regarding the use of gene therapy to negatively regulate neoangiogenesis. PMID:28186209

  20. In vitro Ischemia Suppresses Hypoxic Induction of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α by Inhibition of Synthesis and Not Enhanced Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S.; Basso, Manuela; Sleiman, Sama F.; Ma, Thong C.; Speer, Rachel E.; Smirnova, Natalya A.; Gazaryan, Irina G.; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) mediates a broad, conserved adaptive response to hypoxia, and the HIF pathway is a potential therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which in vitro ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation, OGD) affects canonical hypoxic HIF-1α stabilization. We validated the use of a reporter containing the oxygen dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α fused to firefly luciferase (ODD-luc) to quantitatively monitor distinct biochemical events leading to hypoxic HIF-1α expression or stabilization in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). When OGD was imposed following a 2 hour hypoxic stabilization of ODD-luc, the levels of the reporter were reduced, consistent with prior models proposing that OGD enhances HIF prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity. Surprisingly, PHD inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors do not stabilize ODD-luc in OGD. Further, OGD does not affect the half-life of ODD-luc protein following hypoxia, suggesting that OGD abrogates hypoxic HIF-1α induction by reducing HIF-1α synthesis rather than by enhancing its degradation. We observed ATP depletion under OGD versus hypoxia, and propose that ATP depletion enhances translational suppression, overcoming the selective synthesis of HIF concurrent with global decreases in protein synthesis in hypoxia. Taken together, these findings biochemically characterize a practical reporter for monitoring HIF-1α levels and support a novel model for HIF regulation in an in vitro model of human ischemia. PMID:23456821

  1. Hypoxia-inducible Factor Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Inhibition A TARGET FOR NEUROPROTECTION IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM*

    PubMed Central

    Siddiq, Ambreena; Ayoub, Issam A.; Chavez, Juan C.; Aminova, Leila; Shah, Sapan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Patton, Stephanie M.; Connor, James R.; Cherny, Robert A.; Volitakis, Irene; Bush, Ashley I.; Langsetmo, Ingrid; Seeley, Todd; Gunzler, Volkmar; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl 4-hydroxylases are a family of iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that negatively regulate the stability of several proteins that have established roles in adaptation to hypoxic or oxidative stress. These proteins include the transcriptional activators HIF-1α and HIF-2α. The ability of the inhibitors of HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases to stabilize proteins involved in adaptation in neurons and to prevent neuronal injury remains unclear. We reported that structurally diverse low molecular weight or peptide inhibitors of the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases stabilize HIF-1α and up-regulate HIF-dependent target genes (e.g. enolase, p21waf1/cip1, vascular endothelial growth factor, or erythropoietin) in embryonic cortical neurons in vitro or in adult rat brains in vivo. We also showed that structurally diverse HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitors prevent oxidative death in vitro and ischemic injury in vivo. Taken together these findings identified low molecular weight and peptide HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitors as novel neurological therapeutics for stroke as well as other diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:16227210

  2. Gene Transfer of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain 2 Inhibits Hypoxia-inducible Angiogenesis in a Model of Choroidal Neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Takei, Anna; Ekström, Malena; Mammadzada, Parviz; Aronsson, Monica; Yu, Ma; Kvanta, Anders; André, Helder

    2017-02-10

    Cellular responses to hypoxia are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In normoxia, HIF-α proteins are regulated by a family of dioxygenases, through prolyl and asparagyl hydroxylation, culminating in proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inactivation. In hypoxia, the dioxygenases become inactive and allow formation of HIF transcription factor, responsible for upregulation of hypoxia genes. In ocular neoangiogenic diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), hypoxia seems pivotal. Here, we investigate the effects of HIF regulatory proteins on the hypoxia pathway in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, critically involved in nAMD pathogenesis. Our data indicates that, in ARPE-19 cells, prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)2 is the most potent negative-regulator of the HIF pathway. The negative effects of PHD2 on the hypoxia pathway were associated with decreased HIF-1α protein levels, and concomitant decrease in angiogenic factors. ARPE-19 cells stably expressing PHD2 impaired angiogenesis in vitro by wound healing, tubulogenesis, and sprouting assays, as well as in vivo by iris-induced angiogenesis. Gene transfer of PHD2 in vivo resulted in mitigation of HIF-mediated angiogenesis in a mouse model of nAMD. These results may have implications for the clinical treatment of nAMD patients, particularly regarding the use of gene therapy to negatively regulate neoangiogenesis.

  3. Novel agmatine analogue, {gamma}-guanidinooxypropylamine (GAPA) efficiently inhibits proliferation of Leishmania donovani by depletion of intracellular polyamine levels

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sushma; Jhingran, Anupam; Sharma, Ankur; Simonian, Alina R.; Soininen, Pasi; Vepsalainen, Jouko; Khomutov, Alex R.; Madhubala, Rentala

    2008-10-10

    The efficacy of {gamma}-guanidinooxypropylamine (GAPA), a novel agmatine analogue against protozoan parasite, Leishmaniadonovani was evaluated. Wild-type and ornithine decarboxylase-overexpressors of L. donovani were used to study the effect and mode of action of this inhibitor. GAPA inhibited the growth of both promastigotes and amastigotes. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine levels were markedly lower in cells treated with GAPA and proliferation was rescued by addition of putrescine or spermidine. GAPA inhibited L. donovani recombinant ODC with K{sub i} value of {approx}60 {mu}M. The ODC-overexpressors showed significant resistance to GAPA. GAPA has pK{sub a} 6.71 and at physiological pH the analogue can mimic protonated state of putrescine and can probably use putrescine transport system. Transport of putrescine in wild-type L. donovani promastigotes was inhibited by GAPA. We for the first time report that GAPA is a potential antileishmanial lead compound and it possibly inhibits L. donovani growth by depletion of intracellular polyamine levels.

  4. Sirtuin 6 Modulates Hypoxia-induced Apoptosis in Osteoblasts via Inhibition of Glycolysis: Implication for Pathogenesis of Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kok, Sang-Heng; Hou, Kuo-Liang; Hong, Chi-Yuan; Chao, Ling-Hsiu; Hsiang-Hua Lai, Eddie; Wang, Han-Wei; Yang, Hsiang; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wang, Juo-Song; Lin, Sze-Kwan

    2015-10-01

    Osteoblast apoptosis is important in the regulation of inflammatory bone resorption. Hypoxia resulting from inflammation enhances glycolysis and apoptosis. Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a modulator of glucose metabolism and apoptosis. In the study we assessed the role of SIRT6 in hypoxia-induced glycolysis and apoptosis in osteoblasts, with special attention on the significance of these cellular processes in periapical lesions. Human bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured under hypoxia. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase A was examined by Western blot, and production of lactate was measured by colorimetric assay. Cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase was used as an apoptosis marker and assessed by Western blot. SIRT6 was overexpressed in osteoblasts by lentiviral gene transduction, and then glycolytic and apoptotic responses were studied. In a rat model of bacteria-induced periapical lesions, expressions of SIRT6 and markers of glycolysis and apoptosis in osteoblasts were examined. Hypoxia enhanced lactate dehydrogenase A expression and lactate production in osteoblasts. Poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase cleavage was induced by hypoxia or lactate treatment. SIRT6 suppressed hypoxia-augmented glycolysis and inhibited apoptosis induced by hypoxia or lactate treatment. Expression of SIRT6 in osteoblasts was downregulated by hypoxia and inflammatory mediators. Development of periapical lesions in rats was associated with decreased expression of SIRT6 and increased glycolysis and apoptosis in osteoblasts. Our study suggested that hypoxia-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts is dependent on glycolytic activity. SIRT6 is a negative regulator of inflammation and may alleviate periapical lesions by suppressing osteoblastic glycolysis and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Baicalin Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via the AKT/HIF-1α/p27-Associated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Pu, Zhichen; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Hu, Dongmei; Wang, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid compound purified from the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to possess various pharmacological actions. Previous studies have revealed that baicalin inhibits the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMCs) proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. However, the potential mechanism of baicalin in the regulation of PASMC proliferation and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases remains unexplored. To test the effects of baicalin on hypoxia, we used rats treated with or without baicalin (100 mg·kg−1 each rat) at the beginning of the third week after hypoxia. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), the weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV + S) ratio and the medial width of pulmonary arterioles were much higher in chronic hypoxia. However, baicalin treatment repressed the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV + S and attenuated the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling (PVSR) of pulmonary arterioles induced by chronic hypoxia. Additionally, baicalin (10 and 20 μmol·L−1) treatment suppressed the proliferation of PASMCs and attenuated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α) under hypoxia exposure. Meanwhile, baicalin reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction of p27 and increased AKT/protein kinase B phosphorylation p-AKT both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggested that baicalin could effectively attenuate PVSR and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24821539

  6. Hypoxia-Inducible Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is vital for the existence of all multicellular organisms, acting as a signaling molecule regulating cellular activities. Specifically, hypoxia, which occurs when the partial pressure of oxygen falls below 5%, plays a pivotal role during development, regeneration, and cancer. Here we report a novel hypoxia-inducible (HI) hydrogel composed of gelatin and ferulic acid that can form hydrogel networks via oxygen consumption in a laccase-mediated reaction. Oxygen levels and gradients within the hydrogels can be accurately controlled and precisely predicted. We demonstrate that HI hydrogels guide vascular morphogenesis in vitro via hypoxia-inducible factors activation of matrix metalloproteinases and promote rapid neovascularization from the host tissue during subcutaneous wound healing. The HI hydrogel is a new class of biomaterials that may prove useful in many applications, ranging from fundamental studies of developmental, regenerative and disease processes through the engineering of healthy and diseased tissue models towards the treatment of hypoxia-regulated disorders. PMID:24909742

  7. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.

  8. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor via upregulation of von Hippel-Lindau protein induces “angiogenic switch off” in a hepatoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Hideki; Nakamura, Toru; Koga, Hironori; Izaguirre-Carbonell, Jesus; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Iwabata, Kazuki; Ikezono, Yu; Sakaue, Takahiko; Masuda, Atsutaka; Yano, Hirohisa; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakano, Masahito; Shimose, Shigeo; Shirono, Tomotake; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    “Angiogenic switch off” is one of the ideal therapeutic concepts in the treatment of cancer. However, the specific molecules which can induce “angiogenic switch off” in tumor have not been identified yet. In this study, we focused on von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the effects of sulfoquinovosyl-acylpropanediol (SQAP), a novel synthetic sulfoglycolipid, for HCC. We examined mutation ratio of VHL gene in HCC using 30 HCC samples and we treated the HCC-implanted mice with SQAP. Thirty clinical samples showed no VHL genetic mutation in HCC. SQAP significantly inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis in a hepatoma mouse model. SQAP induced tumor “angiogenic switch off” by decreasing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, 2α protein via pVHL upregulation. pVHL upregulation decreased HIFα protein levels through different multiple mechanisms: (i) increasing pVHL-dependent HIFα protein degradation; (ii) decreasing HIFα synthesis with decrease of NF-κB expression; and (iii) decrease of tumor hypoxia by vascular normalization. We confirmed these antitumor effects of SQAP by the loss-of-function experiments. We found that SQAP directly bound to and inhibited transglutaminase 2. This study provides evidence that upregulation of tumor pVHL is a promising target, which can induce “angiogenic switch off” in HCC. PMID:27119112

  9. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Pathway Inhibition Resolves Tumor Hypoxia and Improves Local Tumor Control After Single-Dose Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, Linda; Koi, Lydia; Brüchner, Kerstin; Gurtner, Kristin; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Unterschemmann, Kerstin; Pruschy, Martin; and others

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of BAY-84-7296, a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activity, on hypoxia, microenvironment, and radiation response of tumors. Methods and Materials: UT-SCC-5 and UT-SCC-14 human squamous cell carcinomas were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice. When tumors reached 4 mm in diameter BAY-84-7296 (Bayer Pharma AG) or carrier was daily administered to the animals. At 7 mm tumors were either excised for Western blot and immunohistologic investigations or were irradiated with single doses. After irradiation animals were randomized to receive BAY-84-7296 maintenance or carrier. Local tumor control was evaluated 150 days after irradiation, and the dose to control 50% of tumors (TCD{sub 50}) was calculated. Results: BAY-84-7296 decreased nuclear HIF-1α expression. Daily administration of inhibitor for approximately 2 weeks resulted in a marked decrease of pimonidazole hypoxic fraction in UT-SCC-5 (0.5% vs 21%, P<.0001) and in UT-SCC-14 (0.3% vs 19%, P<.0001). This decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in fraction of perfused vessels in UT-SCC-14 but not in UT-SCC-5. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 labeling indices were significantly reduced only in UT-SCC-5. No significant changes were observed in vascular area or necrosis. BAY-84-7296 before single-dose irradiation significantly decreased TCD{sub 50}, with an enhancement ratio of 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.72) in UT-SCC-5 and of 1.55 (95% CI 1.26-1.94) in UT-SCC-14. BAY-84-7296 maintenance after irradiation did not further decrease TCD{sub 50}. Conclusions: BAY-84-7296 resulted in a marked decrease in tumor hypoxia and substantially reduced radioresistance of tumor cells with the capacity to cause a local recurrence after irradiation. The data suggest that reduction of cellular hypoxia tolerance by BAY-84-7296 may represent the primary biological mechanism underlying the observed enhancement of

  10. Formononetin, an active compound of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, inhibits hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization via the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianming; Ke, Xiao; Ma, Na; Wang, Wei; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zhao, Manxi; Gao, Xiaoping; Hao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that formononetin (FMN), one of the main ingredients from famous traditional Chinese medicine “Huang-qi” (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bunge) for Qi-tonifying, exhibits the effects of immunomodulation and tumor growth inhibition via antiangiogenesis. Furthermore, A. membranaceus may alleviate the retinal neovascularization (NV) of diabetic retinopathy. However, the information of FMN on retinal NV is limited so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FMN on the hypoxia-induced retinal NV and the possible related mechanisms. Materials and methods The VEGF secretion model of acute retinal pigment epithelial-19 (ARPE-19) cells under chemical hypoxia was established by the exposure of cells to 150 μM CoCl2 and then cells were treated with 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1, a potent HIF-1α inhibitor, 1.0 μg/mL) or different concentrations of FMN (0.2 μg/mL, 1.0 μg/mL, and 5.0 μg/mL). The supernatants of cells were collected 48 hours later to measure the VEGF concentrations, following the manufacturer’s instruction. The mRNA expressions of VEGF, HIF-1α, PHD-2, and β-actin were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 were determined by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the rats with retinopathy were treated by intraperitoneal administration of conbercept injection (1.0 mg/kg) or FMN (5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg) in an 80% oxygen atmosphere. The retinal avascular areas were assessed through visualization of the retinal vasculature by adenosine diphosphatase staining and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results FMN can indeed inhibit the VEGF secretion of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia, downregulate the mRNA expression of VEGFA and PHD-2, and decrease the protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PHD-2 in vitro. Furthermore, FMN can prevent hypoxia-induced retinal NV in vivo. Conclusion FMN can ameliorate

  11. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction.

  12. Inhibitive effects of low oxygen and glucose deprivation on brain-pancreas relative protein expression via hypoxia- inducible factor-1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanhua; Liu, Aihua; Lu, Ning; Li, Yuhua; Song, Qianliu; Yu, Heming; Li, Xuejun

    2008-01-01

    Brain-Pancreas Relative Protein (BPRP), a novel protein discovered in our lab, was decreased in ischemic rat brain. However, the mechanisms regulating BPRP expression during ischemia need further investigation. In the present study we cultured PC12 cells with low oxygen and glucose deprivation (LOGD, a model of ischemia in vitro) media, then examined the signal transduction pathways of BPRP expression under LOGD. It was found that LOGD significantly decreased BPRP expression, but increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF-1alpha) expression. However, BAPTA-AM (an intracellular calcium chelator), SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38) and HIF-1alpha antisense significantly inhibited the [Ca(2+)](i), p38 MAPK phosphorylation and HIF-1alpha expression respectively. Our results also showed that p38 MAPK phosphorylation was reduced by BAPTA-AM, and HIF-1alpha expression was inhibited by SB203580 and BAPTA-AM, suggesting that calcium, p38 MAPK and HIF-1alpha are in the same signal transduction pathways during LOGD. Noticeably, reduced BPRP expression by LOGD can be recovered by SB203580, BAPTA-AM and HIF-1alpha antisense. All together, our observations suggest that calcium, p38 MAPK activation and HIF-1alpha are necessary for LOGD-reduced BPRP expression in PC12 cells. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Both microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing drugs inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha accumulation and activity by disrupting microtubule function.

    PubMed

    Escuin, Daniel; Kline, Erik R; Giannakakou, Paraskevi

    2005-10-01

    We have recently identified a mechanistic link between disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. Based on this model, we hypothesized that other microtubule-targeting drugs may have a similar effect on HIF-1alpha. To test that hypothesis, we studied the effects of different clinically relevant microtubule-disrupting agents, including taxotere, epothilone B, discodermolide, vincristine, 2-methoxyestradiol, and colchicine. In all cases, HIF-1alpha protein, but not mRNA, was down-regulated in a drug dose-dependent manner. In addition, HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity was also inhibited by all drugs tested. To further examine whether these effects were dependent on microtubule network disruption, we tested the ability of epothilone B to inhibit HIF-1alpha protein in the human ovarian cancer cell line 1A9 and its beta-tubulin mutant epothilone-resistant subclone 1A9/A8. Our data showed that epothilone B treatment down-regulated HIF-1alpha protein in the parental 1A9 cells but had no effect in the resistant 1A9/A8 cells. These observations were confirmed by confocal microscopy, which showed impaired nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha in parental 1A9 cells at epothilone B concentrations that induced extensive microtubule stabilization. In contrast, epothilone B treatment had no effect on either microtubules or HIF-1alpha nuclear accumulation in the resistant 1A9/A8 cells. Furthermore, epothilone B inhibited HIF-1 transcriptional activity in 1A9 cells, as evidenced by a hypoxia response element-luciferase reporter assay, but had no effect on HIF-1 activity in the resistant 1A9/A8 cells. These data directly link beta-tubulin drug binding with HIF-1alpha protein inhibition. Our results further provide a strong rationale for testing taxanes and epothilones in clinical trials targeting HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  14. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition produced anti-allodynia effect and suppressed inflammatory cytokine production in early stage of mouse complex regional pain syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Tsung; Lin, Ya-Chi; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Yen-Chin

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is related to microcirculation impairment associated with tissue hypoxia and peripheral cytokine overproduction in the affected limb. Previous studies suggest that the pathogenesis involves hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and exaggerated regional inflammatory response. 1-methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide (PX-12) acts as the thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) inhibitor and decreases the level of HIF-1α, and can rapidly be metabolized for Trx-1 redox inactivation. This study hypothesized that PX-12 can decrease the cytokine production for nociceptive sensitization in the hypoxia-induced pain model. CD1 mice weighing around 30 g were used. The animal CRPS model was developed via the chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model. The model was induced by using O-rings on the ankles of the mice hind limbs to produce 3-h ischaemia-reperfusion injury on the paw. PX-12 (25 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) was given through tail vein injection immediately after ischaemia. Animal behaviour was tested using the von Frey method for 7 days. Local paw skin tissue was harvest from three groups (control, 5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg) 2 h after injection of PX-12. The protein expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and HIF-1α was analysed with the Western blotting method. Mice significantly present an anti-allodynia effect in a dose-related manner after the PX-12 administration. Furthermore, PX-12 not only decreased the expression of HIF-1α but also decreased the expression of IL-1β over the injured palm. This study, therefore, shows the first evidence of the anti-allodynia effect of PX-12 in a CPIP animal model for pain behaviour. The study concluded that inhibition of HIF-1α may produce an analgesic effect and the associated suppression of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in a CPIP model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases by citric acid cycle intermediates: possible links between cell metabolism and stabilization of HIF.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, Peppi; Hirsilä, Maija; Remes, Anne M; Hassinen, Ilmo E; Kivirikko, Kari I; Myllyharju, Johanna

    2007-02-16

    The stability and transcriptional activity of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are regulated by two oxygen-dependent events that are catalyzed by three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (HIF-P4Hs) and one HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). We have studied possible links between metabolic pathways and HIF hydroxylases by analyzing the abilities of citric acid cycle intermediates to inhibit purified human HIF-P4Hs and FIH. Fumarate and succinate were identified as in vitro inhibitors of all three HIF-P4Hs, fumarate having K(i) values of 50-80 microM and succinate 350-460 microM, whereas neither inhibited FIH. Oxaloacetate was an additional inhibitor of all three HIF-P4Hs with K(i) values of 400-1000 microM and citrate of HIF-P4H-3, citrate being the most effective inhibitor of FIH with a K(i) of 110 microM. Culturing of cells with fumarate diethyl or dimethyl ester, or a high concentration of monoethyl ester, stabilized HIF-1alpha and increased production of vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoietin. Similar, although much smaller, changes were found in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency and upon silencing FH using small interfering RNA. No such effects were seen upon culturing of cells with succinate diethyl or dimethyl ester. As FIH was not inhibited by fumarate, our data indicate that the transcriptional activity of HIF is quite high even when binding of the coactivator p300 is prevented. Our data also support recent suggestions that the increased fumarate and succinate levels present in the FH and succinate dehydrogenase-deficient tumors, respectively, can inhibit the HIF-P4Hs with consequent stabilization of HIF-alphas and effects on tumor pathology.

  16. NNC 55-0396, a T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor, inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Dongyoung; Park, Ju Yeol; Jung, Hye Jin; Cho, Yong-Hee; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial respiration is required for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization, which is important for tumor cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Herein, small molecules that inhibit HIF-1α protein stability by targeting mitochondrial energy production were screened using the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and cell growth assay in galactose or glucose medium. NNC 55-0396, a T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, was selected as a hit from among 1,280 small molecules. NNC 55-0396 suppressed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated HIF-1α expression as well as stabilization by inhibiting protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. NNC 55-0396 inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by suppressing HIF-1α stability. Moreover, NNC 55-0396 significantly suppressed glioblastoma tumor growth in a xenograft model. Thus, NNC 55-0396, a small molecule targeting T-type Ca(2+) channel, was identified by the systemic cell-based assay and was shown to have antiangiogenic activity via the suppression of HIF-1α signal transduction. These results provide new insights into the biological network between ion channel and HIF-1α signal transduction. HIF-1α overexpression has been demonstrated in hypoxic cancer cells. NNC 55-0396, a T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, inhibited HIF-1α expression via both proteasomal degradation and protein synthesis pathways. T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors block angiogenesis by suppressing HIF-1α stability and synthesis. NNC 55-0396 could be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for cancer treatment.

  17. Dauricine inhibits insulin-like growth factor-I-induced hypoxia inducible factor 1α protein accumulation and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xu-dong; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Ke-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of dauricine (Dau) on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-induced hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Methods: Serum-starved MCF-7 cells were pretreated for 1 h with different concentrations of Dau, followed by incubation with IGF-I for 6 h. HIF-1α and VEGF protein expression levels were analyzed by Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. In vitro angiogenesis was observed via the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation assay. An in vitro invasion assay on HUVECs was performed. Results: Dau significantly inhibited IGF-I-induced HIF-1α protein expression but had no effect on HIF-1α mRNA expression. However, Dau remarkably suppressed VEGF expression at both protein and mRNA levels in response to IGF-I. Mechanistically, Dau suppressed IGF-I-induced HIF-1α and VEGF protein expression mainly by blocking the activation of PI-3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, Dau reduced IGF-I-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation by inhibiting its synthesis as well as by promoting its degradation. Functionally, Dau inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Moreover, Dau had a direct effect on IGF-I-induced invasion of HUVECs. Conclusion: Dau inhibits human breast cancer angiogenesis by suppressing HIF-1α protein accumulation and VEGF expression, which may provide a novel potential mechanism for the anticancer activities of Dau in human breast cancer. PMID:19349962

  18. In vivo topoisomerase I inhibition attenuates the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α target genes and decreases tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Eric; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Pencreach, Erwan; Maier, Armin; Neuville, Agnès; Schneider, Anne; Bachellier, Philippe; Rohr, Serge; Petitprez, Amélie; Poch, Olivier; Moras, Dino; Oudet, Pierre; Larsen, Annette K; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Guenot, Dominique

    2012-02-10

    Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I-directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies.

  19. In Vivo Topoisomerase I Inhibition Attenuates the Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Target Genes and Decreases Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Eric; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Pencreach, Erwan; Maier, Armin; Neuville, Agnès; Schneider, Anne; Bachellier, Philippe; Rohr, Serge; Petitprez, Amélie; Poch, Olivier; Moras, Dino; Oudet, Pierre; Larsen, Annette K; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Guenot, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I–directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies. PMID:22033674

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Dexmedetomidine Against Hypoxia-Induced Nervous System Injury are Related to Inhibition of NF-κB/COX-2 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wanying; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Nan; Yuan, Fuli; Hua, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yueting; Mo, Liqiu

    2016-10-01

    Dexmedetomidine has been reported to provide neuroprotection against hypoxia-induced damage. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether dexmedetomidine's neuroprotective effects were mediated by the NF-κB/COX-2 pathways. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a 30-min hypoxic treatment followed by recovery to normal conditions. They received dexmedetomidine (16 or 160 μg/kg) or 25 mg/kg atipamezole, an α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, intraperitoneally before exposure to hypoxia. The whole brain was harvested 6, 18, or 36 h after the hypoxia to determine the histopathological outcome and cleaved caspase-3, Bax/Bcl, NF-κB, and COX-2 levels. Hypoxia treatment induced significant neurotoxicity, including destruction of the tissue structure and upregulation of the protein levels of caspase-3, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, NF-κB, and COX-2. Dexmedetomidine pretreatment effectively improved histological outcome and restored levels of caspase-3, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, NF-κB, and COX-2. Atipamezole reversed the neuroprotection induced by dexmedetomidine. Neuroprotection was achieved by PDTC and NS-398, inhibitors of NF-κB and COX-2, respectively. Dexmedetomidine use before hypoxia provides neuroprotection. Inhibition of NF-κB/COX-2 pathways activation may contribute to the neuroprotection of dexmedetomidine.

  1. A new anti-angiogenic small molecule, G0811, inhibits angiogenesis via targeting hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α signal transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •G0811 suppresses HIF-1α expression without cell toxicity. •G0811 exhibits anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. •G0811 provides a new molecular scaffold for the development of therapeutics targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization, which in turn contributes to adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. We have identified a new small molecule, G0811, as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that targets HIF-1α signal transduction. G0811 suppressed HIF-1α stability in cancer cells and inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis, as validated by tube formation, chemoinvasion, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. In addition, G0811 effectively decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of target genes of HIF-1α. However, G0811 did not exhibit anti-proliferative activities or toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at effective doses. These results demonstrate that G0811 could be a new angiogenesis inhibitor that acts by targeting HIF-1α signal transduction pathway.

  2. A possible therapeutic potential of quercetin through inhibition of μ-calpain in hypoxia induced neuronal injury: a molecular dynamics simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Anand Kumar; Shukla, Swet Chand; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    The neuroprotective property of quercetin is well reported against hypoxia and ischemia in past studies. This property of quercetin lies in its antioxidant property with blood-brain barrier permeability and anti-inflammatory capabilities. µ-Calpain, a calcium ion activated intracellular cysteine protease causes serious cellular insult, leading to cell death in various pathological conditions including hypoxia and ischemic stroke. Hence, it may be considered as a potential drug target for the treatment of hypoxia induced neuronal injury. As the inhibitory property of µ-calpain is yet to be explored in details, hence, in the present study, we investigated the interaction of quercetin with µ-calpain through a molecular dynamics simulation study as a tool through clarifying the molecular mechanism of such inhibition and determining the probable sites and modes of quercetin interaction with the µ-calpain catalytic domain. In addition, we also investigated the structure-activity relationship of quercetin with μ-calpain. Affinity binding of quercetin with µ-calpain had a value of –28.73 kJ/mol and a Ki value of 35.87 µM that may be a probable reason to lead to altered functioning of µ-calpain. Hence, quercetin was found to be an inhibitor of µ-calpain which might have a possible therapeutic role in hypoxic injury. PMID:27651771

  3. Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation and invasion of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells via downregulating Notch1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Yangjun; Wang, Dengfeng; Shao, Yuxiong; Zhang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Curcumin is a biologically active ingredient abundantly present in the ground rhizomes of Curcuma longa with a wide range of bioactive properties, including antitumor effects. Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors, including osteosarcoma. However, whether curcumin has antitumor effects on osteosarcoma under hypoxic conditions, and its underlying molecular mechanisms, remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that the MG‑63 osteosarcoma cell line exhibited increased proliferation and enhanced invasiveness upon exposure to hypoxic conditions. However, these effects were prevented by curcumin treatment. Further investigation revealed that curcumin may inhibit Notch1 upregulation induced by hypoxia. Overexpression of Notch1 via Notch1 cDNA transfection ameliorated curcumin‑inhibited MG‑63 cell growth under hypoxic conditions. Taken together, these data revealed that curcumin may suppress the growth of osteosarcoma cells in hypoxia via inhibiting Notch1 signaling.

  4. Agmatine : metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain.

    PubMed

    Halaris, Angelos; Plietz, John

    2007-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that, based on animal studies, has the potential for new drug development. As an endogenous aminoguanidine compound (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), it is structurally unique compared with other monoamines. Agmatine was long thought to be synthesised only in lower life forms, until its biosynthetic pathway (decarboxylation of arginine) was described in the mammalian brain in 1994. Human arginine decarboxylase has been cloned and shown to have 48% identity to ornithine decarboxylase. In neurons of the brain and spinal cord, agmatine is packaged into synaptic vesicles and released upon neuronal depolarisation. Other evidence of a neuromodulation role for agmatine is the presence of a specific cellular uptake mechanism and a specific metabolic enzyme (agmatinase; which forms putrescine).Initially, agmatine was conceptualised as an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance of imidazoline receptors; however, it has now been established to have affinity for several transmembrane receptors, such as alpha(2)-adrenergic, imidazoline I(1) and glutamatergic NMDA receptors. In addition to activity at these receptors, agmatine irreversibly inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase and downregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase. Endogenous agmatine is induced in response to stress and/or inflammation. Stressful conditions that induce agmatine include hypoxic-ischaemia and cold-restraint stress of ulcerogenic proportion. Induction of agmatine in the brain seems to occur in astrocytes, although neurons also synthesise agmatine. The effects of injected agmatine in animals include anticonvulsant-, antineurotoxic- and antidepressant-like actions. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections of agmatine rapidly elicit antidepressant-like behavioural changes in the rodent forced swim test and tail suspension test. Intraperitoneal injections of agmatine into rats and mice also elicit acute anxiolytic-like behavioural changes in the elevated

  5. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Kotaro; Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  6. Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bryan L.; Skuli, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The vascular network delivers oxygen (O2) and nutrients to all cells within the body. It is therefore not surprising that O2 availability serves as a primary regulator of this complex organ. Most transcriptional responses to low O2 are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), highly conserved transcription factors that control the expression of numerous angiogenic, metabolic, and cell cycle genes. Accordingly, the HIF pathway is currently viewed as a master regulator of angiogenesis. HIF modulation could provide therapeutic benefit for a wide array of pathologies, including cancer, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, wound healing, and neovascular eye diseases. Hypoxia promotes vessel growth by upregulating multiple pro-angiogenic pathways that mediate key aspects of endothelial, stromal, and vascular support cell biology. Interestingly, recent studies show that hypoxia influences additional aspects of angiogenesis, including vessel patterning, maturation, and function. Through extensive research, the integral role of hypoxia and HIF signaling in human disease is becoming increasingly clear. Consequently, a thorough understanding of how hypoxia regulates angiogenesis through an ever-expanding number of pathways in multiple cell types will be essential for the identification of new therapeutic targets and modalities. PMID:22866203

  7. IGF-1 Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Atrophy but Inhibits Myoglobin Expression in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva L; van der Linde, Sandra M; Vogel, Ilse S P; Haroon, Mohammad; Offringa, Carla; de Wit, Gerard M J; Koolwijk, Pieter; van der Laarse, Willem J; Jaspers, Richard T

    2017-09-01

    Chronic hypoxia is associated with muscle wasting and decreased oxidative capacity. By contrast, training under hypoxia may enhance hypertrophy and increase oxidative capacity as well as oxygen transport to the mitochondria, by increasing myoglobin (Mb) expression. The latter may be a feasible strategy to prevent atrophy under hypoxia and enhance an eventual hypertrophic response to anabolic stimulation. Mb expression may be further enhanced by lipid supplementation. We investigated individual and combined effects of hypoxia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and lipids, in mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured for 24 h under 20%, 5% and 2% oxygen with or without IGF-1 and/or lipid treatment. In culture under 20% oxygen, IGF-1 induced 51% hypertrophy. Hypertrophy was only 32% under 5% and abrogated under 2% oxygen. This was not explained by changes in expression of genes involved in contractile protein synthesis or degradation, suggesting a reduced rate of translation rather than of transcription. Myoglobin mRNA expression increased by 75% under 5% O₂ but decreased by 50% upon IGF-1 treatment under 20% O₂, compared to control. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation using rapamycin restored Mb mRNA expression to control levels. Lipid supplementation had no effect on Mb gene expression. Thus, IGF-1-induced anabolic signaling can be a strategy to improve muscle size under mild hypoxia, but lowers Mb gene expression.

  8. IGF-1 Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Atrophy but Inhibits Myoglobin Expression in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Ilse S. P.; Offringa, Carla; de Wit, Gerard M. J.; Koolwijk, Pieter; van der Laarse, Willem J.; Jaspers, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia is associated with muscle wasting and decreased oxidative capacity. By contrast, training under hypoxia may enhance hypertrophy and increase oxidative capacity as well as oxygen transport to the mitochondria, by increasing myoglobin (Mb) expression. The latter may be a feasible strategy to prevent atrophy under hypoxia and enhance an eventual hypertrophic response to anabolic stimulation. Mb expression may be further enhanced by lipid supplementation. We investigated individual and combined effects of hypoxia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and lipids, in mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured for 24 h under 20%, 5% and 2% oxygen with or without IGF-1 and/or lipid treatment. In culture under 20% oxygen, IGF-1 induced 51% hypertrophy. Hypertrophy was only 32% under 5% and abrogated under 2% oxygen. This was not explained by changes in expression of genes involved in contractile protein synthesis or degradation, suggesting a reduced rate of translation rather than of transcription. Myoglobin mRNA expression increased by 75% under 5% O2 but decreased by 50% upon IGF-1 treatment under 20% O2, compared to control. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation using rapamycin restored Mb mRNA expression to control levels. Lipid supplementation had no effect on Mb gene expression. Thus, IGF-1-induced anabolic signaling can be a strategy to improve muscle size under mild hypoxia, but lowers Mb gene expression. PMID:28862673

  9. Sodwanone and Yardenone Triterpenes from a South African Species of the Marine Sponge Axinella Inhibit Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) Activation in both Breast and Prostate Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jingqiu; Fishback, James A.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that promotes tumor cell adaptation and survival under hypoxic conditions. HIF-1 is currently recognized as an important molecular target for anti-cancer drug discovery. A T47D breast tumor cell-based reporter assay was used to evaluate the NCI Open Repository of marine invertebrates and algae lipid extracts for HIF-1 inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of an active extract from Axinella sp. yielded seven new sodwanone triterpenoids [3-epi-sodwanone K (1), 3-epi-sodwanone K 3-acetate (2), 10,11-dihydrosodwanone B (4), sodwanones T–W (3, 7, 8, 9), the new yardenone triterpene 12R-hydroxyyardenone (10), and the previously reported compounds sodwanone A (5), sodwanone B (6), and yardenone (11). The structures and relative configurations of these Axinella metabolites were determined spectroscopically. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the modified Mosher ester procedure. Sodwanone V (8) inhibited both hypoxia-induced and iron chelator (1,10-phenanthroline)-induced HIF-1 activation in T47D breast tumor cells (IC50 15 μM) and 8 was the only sodwanone that inhibited HIF-1 activation in PC-3 prostate tumor cells (IC50 15 μM). Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 5 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation in T47D cells (IC50 values 20-25 μM). Compound 2 was cytotoxic to T47D cells (IC50 22 μM) and 8 showed cytotoxicity to MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells (IC50 23 μM). PMID:17190448

  10. Inflammatory Levels of Nitric Oxide Inhibit Airway Epithelial Cell Migration by Inhibition of the Kinase ERK1/2 and Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1α*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Peter F.; Hristova, Milena; Wesley, Umadevi V.; Olson, Nels; Lounsbury, Karen M.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Increased synthesis of NO during airway inflammation, caused by induction of nitric-oxide synthase 2 in several lung cell types, may contribute to epithelial injury and permeability. To investigate the consequence of elevated NO production on epithelial function, we exposed cultured monolayers of human bronchial epithelial cells to the NO donor diethylenetriaamine NONOate. At concentrations generating high nanomolar levels of NO, representative of inflammatory conditions, diethylenetriaamine NONOate markedly reduced wound closure in an in vitro scratch injury model, primarily by inhibiting epithelial cell migration. Analysis of signaling pathways and gene expression profiles indicated a rapid induction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MPK)-1 and decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation, as well as marked stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and activation of hypoxia-responsive genes, under these conditions. Inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling using U0126 enhanced HIF-1α stabilization, implicating ERK1/2 dephosphorylation as a contributing mechanism in NO-mediated HIF-1α activation. Activation of HIF-1α by the hypoxia mimic cobalt chloride, or cell transfection with a degradation-resistant HIF-1α mutant construct inhibited epithelial wound repair, implicating HIF-1α in NO-mediated inhibition of cell migration. Conversely, NO-mediated inhibition of epithelial wound closure was largely prevented after small interfering RNA suppression of HIF-1α. Finally, NO-mediated inhibition of cell migration was associated with HIF-1α-dependent induction of PAI-1 and activation of p53, both negative regulators of epithelial cell migration. Collectively, our results demonstrate that inflammatory levels of NO inhibit epithelial cell migration, because of suppression of ERK1/2 signaling, and activation of HIF-1α and p53, with potential consequences for epithelial repair and remodeling during airway inflammation. PMID

  11. Menadione and ethacrynic acid inhibit the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway by disrupting HIF-1α interaction with p300.

    PubMed

    Na, Yu-Ran; Han, Ki-Cheol; Park, Hyunsung; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2013-05-17

    Hypoxia is a general characteristic of most solid malignancies and intimately related to neoplastic diseases and cancer progression. Homeostatic response to hypoxia is primarily mediated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α that elicits transcriptional activity through recruitment of the CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 coactivator. Targeted blockade of HIF-1α binding to CBP/p300 would thus constitute a novel approach for cancer treatment by suppressing tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, we identified inhibitors against the interaction between HIF-1α and p300 by a fluorescence polarization-based assay employing a fluorescently-labeled peptide containing the C-terminal activation domain of HIF-1α. Two small molecule inhibitors, menadione (MD) and ethacrynic acid (EA), were found to decrease expression of luciferase under the control of hypoxia-responsive elements in hypoxic cells as well as to efficiently block the interaction between the full-length HIF-1α and p300. While these compounds did not alter the expression level of HIF-1α, they down-regulated expression of a HIF-1α target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. Considering hypoxia-induced VEGF expression leading to highly aggressive tumor growth, MD and EA may provide new scaffolds for development of tumor therapeutic reagents as well as tools for a better understanding of HIF-1α-mediated hypoxic regulation.

  12. Characterization and Inactivation of an Agmatine Deiminase from Helicobacter Pylori†||

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Justin E.; Causey, Corey P.; Lovelace, Leslie; Knuckley, Bryan; Flick, Heather; Lebioda, Lukasz; Thompson, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori encodes a potential virulence factor, agmatine deiminase (HpAgD), which catalyzes the conversion of agmatine to N-carbamoyl putrescine (NCP) and ammonia - agmatine is decarboxylated arginine. Agmatine is an endogenous human cell signaling molecule that triggers the innate immune response in humans. Unlike H. pylori, humans do not encode an AgD; it is hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme would increase the levels of agmatine, and thereby enhance the innate immune response. Taken together, these facts suggest that HpAgD is a potential drug target. Herein we describe the optimized expression, isolation, and purification of HpAgD (10–30 mg/L media). The initial kinetic characterization of this enzyme has also been performed. Additionally, the crystal structure of wild-type HpAgD has been determined at 2.1 Å resolution. This structure provides a molecular basis for the preferential deimination of agmatine, and identifies Asp198 as a key residue responsible for agmatine recognition, which has been confirmed experimentally. Information gathered from these studies led to the development and characterization of a novel class of haloacetamidine based HpAgD inactivators. These compounds are the most potent AgD inhibitors ever described. PMID:20036411

  13. Characterization and inactivation of an agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Justin E.; Causey, Corey P.; Lovelace, Leslie; Knuckley, Bryan; Flick, Heather; Lebioda, Lukasz; Thompson, Paul R.

    2010-11-12

    Helicobacter pylori encodes a potential virulence factor, agmatine deiminase (HpAgD), which catalyzes the conversion of agmatine to N-carbamoyl putrescine (NCP) and ammonia - agmatine is decarboxylated arginine. Agmatine is an endogenous human cell signaling molecule that triggers the innate immune response in humans. Unlike H. pylori, humans do not encode an AgD; it is hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme would increase the levels of agmatine, and thereby enhance the innate immune response. Taken together, these facts suggest that HpAgD is a potential drug target. Herein we describe the optimized expression, isolation, and purification of HpAgD (10-30 mg/L media). The initial kinetic characterization of this enzyme has also been performed. Additionally, the crystal structure of wild-type HpAgD has been determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. This structure provides a molecular basis for the preferential deimination of agmatine, and identifies Asp198 as a key residue responsible for agmatine recognition, which has been confirmed experimentally. Information gathered from these studies led to the development and characterization of a novel class of haloacetamidine-based HpAgD inactivators. These compounds are the most potent AgD inhibitors ever described.

  14. The antiproliferative effects of agmatine correlate with the rate of cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Isome, Masato; Lortie, Mark J; Murakami, Yasuko; Parisi, Eva; Matsufuji, Senya; Satriano, Joseph

    2007-08-01

    Polyamines are small cationic molecules required for cellular proliferation. Agmatine is a biogenic amine unique in its capacity to arrest proliferation in cell lines by depleting intracellular polyamine levels. We previously demonstrated that agmatine enters mammalian cells via the polyamine transport system. As polyamine transport is positively correlated with the rate of cellular proliferation, the current study examines the antiproliferative effects of agmatine on cells with varying proliferative kinetics. Herein, we evaluate agmatine transport, intracellular accumulation, and its effects on antizyme expression and cellular proliferation in nontransformed cell lines and their transformed variants. H-ras- and Src-transformed murine NIH/3T3 cells (Ras/3T3 and Src/3T3, respectively) that were exposed to exogenous agmatine exhibit increased uptake and intracellular accumulation relative to the parental NIH/3T3 cell line. Similar increases were obtained for human primary foreskin fibroblasts relative to a human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080. Agmatine increases expression of antizyme, a protein that inhibits polyamine biosynthesis and transport. Ras/3T3 and Src/3T3 cells demonstrated augmented increases in antizyme protein expression relative to NIH/3T3 in response to agmatine. All transformed cell lines were significantly more sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of agmatine than nontransformed lines. These effects were attenuated in the presence of exogenous polyamines or inhibitors of polyamine transport. In conclusion, the antiproliferative effects of agmatine preferentially target transformed cell lines due to the increased agmatine uptake exhibited by cells with short cycling times.

  15. Agmatine ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis and inflammatory cachexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Hypoxia induces autophagy in cardiomyocytes via a hypoxia-inducible factor 1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    GUI, LAN; LIU, BATU; LV, GUANG

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia frequently accompanies such vascular disorders as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, in particular, is a major contributor to cardiomyocyte impairment. Autophagy is a dynamic, self-catabolic process that has been implicated in a wide range of physiological processes and the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the promotion of autophagy by hypoxia in a rat H9c2 heart cell line and determine the regulatory role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the hypoxia-induced autophagy in H9c2 cells, using quantitative green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 analysis and electron microscopy of autophagic vesicles. In addition, western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of autophagy-associated markers was conducted. In addition, the role of HIF-1-mediated autophagy in the hypoxia-induced impairment of H9c2 cells was examined, as a measure of cellular viability, using an MTT assay. The results demonstrated that autophagy was induced in H9c2 cells under hypoxia, and the autophagy induction triggered by hypoxia could be enhanced by HIF-1α overexpression and inhibited by HIF-1α knockdown. Furthermore, the HIF-1-mediated autophagy ameliorated the reduction in the H9c2 cell viability induced by hypoxia. These findings provide a novel insight into the hypoxic-ischemic injury to cardiomyocytes and give evidence for the occurrence of HIF-1-mediated autophagy in myocardial ischemia. PMID:27284306

  17. β-Carotene inhibits neuroblastoma cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo by decreasing level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Yang; Jung, Chang-Hwan; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2014-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most prevalent extracranial solid tumor in childhood and has poor clinical outcome due to its high potential for metastasis. Consequently, an understanding of the mechanisms that modulate cancer cell invasion, migration and metastasis is important for the development of more effective chemotherapeutic agents. While β-carotene is a vitamin A precursor that has been shown to exert antioxidant and anticancer effects, the anti-metastatic effects of β-carotene on neuroblastoma cells remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-metastatic effects of β-carotene on highly malignant SK-N-BE(2)C neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of SK-N-BE(2)C cells with β-carotene was found to attenuate the migratory and invasive capabilities of the cells. In addition, the enzymatic activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 was suppressed following β-carotene treatment under both normoxia and hypoxia. To induce metastasis, immunodeficient nude mice were injected with SK-N-BE(2)C cells via the tail vein in vivo. The incidence of liver metastasis and mean tumor volume in mice that were administered β-carotene was decreased compared to controls. Furthermore, mRNA levels of MMPs, membrane-type (MT) 2 MMP and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in liver tumor tissues were also lower following β-carotene treatment. Level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), were lower both in vitro and in vivo following β-carotene treatment. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that β-carotene may represent an effective chemotherapeutic agent by regulating the invasion and metastasis of neuroblastoma via HIF-1α.

  18. Inhibition of oxygen-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha degradation unmasks estradiol induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in ECC-1 cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Molitoris, Kristin Happ; Kazi, Armina A; Koos, Robert D

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol (E(2)) rapidly and strongly induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription in uterine endometrial epithelial cells in vivo. We have shown that this is mediated by both the estrogen receptor-alpha and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha. By contrast, E(2) induces little or no VEGF expression in cultured breast or endometrial cancer cells, which lack HIF-1alpha due to the abnormally high concentration of oxygen ( approximately 20%) to which they are exposed. To test the hypothesis that restoring HIF-1alpha in cultured cells would restore the ability of E(2) to induce VEGF expression, we treated human endometrial cancer cells (ECC-1) with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2);100 microm), which prevents oxygen-induced HIF-1alpha degradation. HIF-1alpha was absent in untreated ECC-1 cells but detectable by 4 h after treatment with CoCl(2) alone, as was a significant increase in VEGF mRNA. E(2) plus CoCl(2) induced detectable HIF-1alpha expression at 2 h and an even higher level than that induced by CoCl(2) alone at 4 h; this HIF-1alpha was localized in the nuclei. This was accompanied by increasing VEGF expression, with the increase at 4 h severalfold higher than that induced by CoCl(2) alone and was concurrent with recruitment of both HIF-1alpha and estrogen receptor-alpha to the VEGF promoter. These results confirm that HIF-1alpha plays an essential role in E(2)-induced expression of VEGF. Through the induction of increased microvascular permeability and the consequent exudation of plasma growth factors, VEGF in turn may play an essential role in cancer cell proliferation in vivo.

  19. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxyde synthase increases capillary formation via Rac1-dependent induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    PubMed

    Petry, Andreas; BelAiba, Rachida S; Weitnauer, Michae; Görlach, Agnes

    2012-11-01

    Disruption of endothelial homeostasis results in endothelial dysfunction, characterised by a dysbalance between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels often accompanied by a prothrombotic and proproliferative state. The serine protease thrombin not only is instrumental in formation of the fibrin clot, but also exerts direct effects on the vessel wall by activating proliferative and angiogenic responses. In endothelial cells, thrombin can induce NO as well as ROS levels. However, the relative contribution of these reactive species to the angiogenic response towards thrombin is not completely clear. Since plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a direct target of the proangiogenic transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), exerts prothrombotic and proangiogenic activities we investigated the role of ROS and NO in the regulation of HIF-1α, PAI-1 and capillary formation in response to thrombin. Thrombin enhanced the formation of NO as well as ROS generation involving the GTPase Rac1 in endothelial cells. Rac1-dependent ROS formation promoted induction of HIF-1α, PAI-1 and capillary formation by thrombin, while NO reduced ROS bioavailability and subsequently limited induction of HIF-1α, PAI-1 and the angiogenic response. Importantly, thrombin activation of Rac1 was diminished by NO, but enhanced by ROS. Thus, our findings show that capillary formation induced by thrombin via Rac1-dependent activation of HIF-1 and PAI-1 is limited by the concomitant release of NO which reduced ROS bioavailability. Rac1 activity is sensitive to ROS and NO, thereby playing an essential role in fine tuning the endothelial response to thrombin.

  20. Cromolyn sodium does not prevent hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn and young lambs.

    PubMed

    Frantz, E G; Schreiber, M D; Soifer, S J

    1988-12-01

    Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension may be mediated by leukotrienes. Pulmonary mast cells produce leukotrienes, histamine and prostaglandin D2, and degranulate in response to hypoxia. Cromolyn sodium, a mast cell membrane stabilizing agent, may prevent hypoxia-induced mast cell degranulation. To investigate the role of mast cell products in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, we studied the haemodynamic responses to alveolar hypoxia before and during an intravenous infusion of 3-5 mg/min per kg of cromolyn sodium in 6 chronically instrumented, spontaneously breathing lambs. Since there are age-dependent differences in the response of the pulmonary circulation to some mast cell products, we studied the effects of cromolyn sodium on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn (4-7 days) and young lambs (15-18 days). During alveolar hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased by 68% (P less than 0.05) and 59% (P less than 0.05) in the newborn and young lambs, respectively. With alveolar hypoxia during cromolyn sodium infusion, mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased by 71% (P less than 0.05) and 42% (P less than 0.05) in the newborn and young lambs, respectively. Cromolyn sodium did blunt the hypoxia-induced release of histamine into the circulation. Because hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was not inhibited by cromolyn sodium in either age group, mast cell products are not important mediators of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Sirtuin 6 suppresses hypoxia-induced inflammatory response in human osteoblasts via inhibition of reactive oxygen species production and glycolysis-A therapeutic implication in inflammatory bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Sze-Kwan; Chao, Ling-Hsiu; Hsiang-Hua Lai, Eddie; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Shun, Chia-Tung; Lu, Wan-Yu; Wang, Jyh-Horng; Hsiao, Michael; Hong, Chi-Yuan; Kok, Sang-Heng

    2017-03-01

    Elevated glycolytic activity and redox imbalance induced by tissue hypoxia are common phenomena of chronic inflammation, including inflammatory bone diseases such as arthritis. However, relation between glycolysis and redox signaling in the inflammatory milieu is unclear. The histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a crucial modulator of inflammation and glucose metabolism, and it is also involved in cellular protection against oxidative injury. The aims of the study were to examine the connection between glycolysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human osteoblastic cells (HOB) and whether SIRT6 modulates inflammatory response via regulation of glycolytic activity and ROS generation. In HOB cultured under hypoxia, expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), lactate production and ROS generation were examined. The reciprocal effects between lactate and ROS production and their impact on inflammatory cytokine induction were assessed. The action of SIRT6 on the above reactions was determined. In a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), the relation between inflammatory activity and osteoblastic expression of LDHA, level of oxidative lesions, Cyr61 synthesis and macrophage recruitment were examined in joints with or without lentiviral-SIRT6 gene therapy. Results showed that hypoxia stress enhanced lactate and LDHA production in HOB. ROS generation was also increased, and there was a positive feedback between glycolysis and ROS formation. Overexpression of SIRT6 attenuated hypoxia-enhanced glycolysis and ROS generation. Hypoxia-induced expressions of Cyr61, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were suppressed by SIRT6 and the inhibitory effects overlapped with antiglycolytic and antioxidation mechanisms. In the model of CIA, forced expression of SIRT6 ameliorated disease progression, osteoblastic synthesis of Cyr61, and macrophage recruitment. More importantly, expression of LDHA and oxidative lesions were decreased in osteoblasts of SIRT6-treated joints

  2. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides inhibit expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines and a mouse ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Grijalva, Victor; Su, Feng; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Farias-Eisner, Robin

    2012-08-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides L-4F and L-5F inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor production and tumor angiogenesis. The present study was designed to test whether apoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which plays a critical role in the production of angiogenic factors and angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of HIF-1α in tumor tissues. Immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and luciferase activity assays were used to determine the expression and activity of HIF-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that L-4F treatment dramatically decreased HIF-1α expression in mouse ovarian tumor tissues. L-4F inhibited the expression and activity of HIF-1α induced by low oxygen concentration, cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a hypoxia-mimic compound), lysophosphatidic acid, and insulin in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OV2008 and CAOV-3. L-4F had no effect on the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p70s6 kinase, leading to the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis. Pretreatment with L-4F dramatically accelerated the proteasome-dependent protein degradation of HIF-1α in both insulin- and CoCl(2)-treated cells. The inhibitory effect of L-4F on HIF-1α expression is in part mediated by the reactive oxygen species-scavenging effect of L-4F. ApoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of HIF-1α in both in vivo and in vitro models, suggesting the inhibition of HIF-1α may be a critical mechanism responsible for the suppression of tumor progression by apoA-I mimetic peptides.

  3. Suppression of the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α by RNA interference alleviates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Shi, Bo; Huang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Yu, Xiaona; Guo, Baosheng; Ren, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the potential clinical value of HIF-1α as a therapeutic target in the treatment of PH has not yet been evaluated. In this study, an animal model of hypoxia-induced PH was established by exposing adult rats to 10% O2 for 3 weeks, and the effects of the lentivirus-mediated delivery of HIF-1α short hairpin RNA (shRNA) by intratracheal instillation prior to exposure to hypoxia on the manifestations of hypoxia-induced PH were assessed. The successful delivery of HIF-1α shRNA into the pulmonary arteries effectively suppressed the hypoxia-induced upregulation of HIF-1α, accompanied by the prominent attenuation the symptoms associated with hypoxia-induced PH, including the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), as well as the muscularization of pulmonary arterioles. In addition, the knockdown of HIF-1α in cultured rat primary PASMCs significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced acceleration of the cell cycle and the proliferation of the PASMCs, suggesting that HIF-1α may be a direct mediator of PASMC hyperplasia in hypoxia-induced PH. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potent suppressive effects of HIF-1α shRNA on hypoxia-induced PH and PASMC hyperplasia, providing evidence for the potential application of HIF-1α shRNA in the treatment of hypoxic PH. PMID:27748831

  4. Resveratrol reduces the hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Takakazu; Ito, Yuta; Harada, Naoki; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is known to enhance the cytotoxicity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, breast cancer MCF-7 cells acquire resistance to doxorubicin under hypoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells. Resveratrol and its derivative 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene, but not 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene, cancelled hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin at a concentration of 10 μM. Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) catalyzes the conversion of doxorubicin to its metabolite doxorubicinol, which is much less effective than doxorubicin. Hypoxia increased the expression of CBR1 at both mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of CBR1 inhibited hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α repressed the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1. Resveratrol repressed the expression of HIF-1α protein, but not HIF-1α mRNA, and decreased hypoxia-activated HIF-1 activity. Resveratrol repressed the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Likewise, 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene decreased the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1 protein, but not 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene. Furthermore, resveratrol decreased the expression of HIF-1α protein even in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in hypoxia. Theses results indicate that in MCF-7 cells, HIF-1α-increased CBR1 expression plays an important role in hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin and that resveratrol and 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene decrease CBR1 expression by decreasing HIF-1α protein expression, perhaps through a proteasome-independent pathway, and consequently repress hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin.

  5. The connectivity map links iron regulatory protein-1-mediated inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-2a translation to the anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Michael; Lamb, Justin; Ebert, Benjamin L; Lynch, Mary; Neil, Christopher; Schmidt, Emmett; Golub, Todd R; Iliopoulos, Othon

    2010-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2 (HIF1 and HIF2) are heterodimeric transcription factors consisting of alpha regulatory subunits and a constitutively expressed beta subunit. The expression of alpha regulatory subunits is promoted by hypoxia, cancer-associated mutations, and inflammatory cytokines. Thus, HIF1 and HIF2 provide a molecular link between cancer and inflammation. We have recently identified novel small molecules that selectively inhibit translation of the HIF2a message and thereby powerfully inhibit the expression of HIF2a target genes. We report here that Connectivity Map analysis links three of these compounds to the anti-inflammatory cytokine 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (PGJ(2)). As with our identified compounds, PGJ(2) inhibits translation of the HIF2a message in a mammalian target of rapamycin-independent manner by promoting the binding of iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP1) to a noncanonical iron responsive element (IRE) embedded within the 5'-untranslated region of the HIF2a message. The IRE is necessary and sufficient for mediating the effect. Mutation of the IRE sequence, or downregulation of IRP1 expression, blocks the effect of PGJ(2) on HIF2a translation. This is the first report of an endogenous natural molecule regulating HIF2a translation, and it suggests that part of the anti-inflammatory and putative antineoplastic effects of PGJ(2) may be mediated through inhibition of HIF2a within tumor epithelial cells themselves and/or mesenchymal cells of the tumor microenvironment.

  6. The anti-diabetic drug metformin inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling pathway in ELT-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tadakawa, Mari; Takeda, Takashi; Li, Bin; Tsuiji, Kenji; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-05

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether metformin can regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cells (ELT-3 cells). In vitro studies were conducted using ELT-3 cells. Under normoxic conditions, metformin suppressed VEGF protein levels in the supernatant and cells in a dose-dependent manner. In hypoxia-mimicking conditions, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) proteins were both highly expressed and were suppressed by the metformin treatment. Metformin did not affect HIF-1α mRNA levels, which indicated that its effects occurred at the post-translational level. Metformin inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity by phosphorylating the mTORC1 component raptor. This study revealed the anti-angiogenic activity of metformin in ELT-3 cells by suppressing the expression of VEGF via the mTORC1/HIF-1α pathway. These results indicate that metformin may represent an effective alternative in the future treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Agmatine in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus stimulates feeding in rats: involvement of neuropeptide Y

    PubMed Central

    Taksande, BG; Kotagale, NR; Nakhate, KT; Mali, PD; Kokare, DM; Hirani, K; Subhedar, NK; Chopde, CT; Ugale, RR

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Agmatine, a multifaceted neurotransmitter, is abundantly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Our aim was to assess (i) the effect of agmatine on feeding behaviour and (ii) its association, if any, with neuropeptide Y (NPY). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Satiated rats fitted with intra-PVN cannulae were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (i) α2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, or antagonist, yohimbine; (ii) NPY, NPY Y1 receptor agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, or antagonist, BIBP3226; or (iii) yohimbine and NPY. Cumulative food intake was monitored at different post-injection time points. Furthermore, the expression of hypothalamic NPY following i.p. treatment with agmatine, alone or in combination with yohimbine (i.p.), was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. KEY RESULTS Agmatine robustly increased feeding in a dose-dependent manner. While pretreatment with clonidine augmented, yohimbine attenuated the orexigenic response to agmatine. Similarly, NPY and [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY potentiated the agmatine-induced hyperphagia, whereas BIBP3226 inhibited it. Moreover, yohimbine attenuated the synergistic orexigenic effect induced by the combination of NPY and agmatine. Agmatine increased NPY immunoreactivity in the PVN fibres and in the cells of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and this effect was prevented by pretreatment with yohimbine. NPY immunoreactivity in the fibres of the ARC, dorsomedial, ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus was not affected by any of the above treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The orexigenic effect of agmatine is coupled to increased NPY activity mediated by stimulation of α2-adrenoceptors within the PVN. This signifies the importance of agmatine or α2-adrenoceptor modulators in the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat feeding-related disorders. PMID:21564088

  8. Agmatine Prevents Adaptation of the Hippocampal Glutamate System in Chronic Morphine-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Tai-Yun; Su, Rui-Bin; Wu, Ning; Li, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Chronic exposure to opioids induces adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission, which plays a crucial role in addiction. Our previous studies revealed that agmatine attenuates opioid addiction and prevents the adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of chronic morphine-treated rats. The hippocampus is important for drug addiction; however, whether adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission is modulated by agmatine in the hippocampus remains unknown. Here, we found that continuous pretreatment of rats with ascending doses of morphine for 5 days resulted in an increase in the hippocampal extracellular glutamate level induced by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) precipitation. Agmatine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) administered concurrently with morphine for 5 days attenuated the elevation of extracellular glutamate levels induced by naloxone precipitation. Furthermore, in the hippocampal synaptosome model, agmatine decreased the release and increased the uptake of glutamate in synaptosomes from chronic morphine-treated rats, which might contribute to the reduced elevation of glutamate levels induced by agmatine. We also found that expression of the hippocampal NR2B subunit, rather than the NR1 subunit, of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) was down-regulated after chronic morphine treatment, and agmatine inhibited this reduction. Taken together, agmatine prevented the adaptation of the hippocampal glutamate system caused by chronic exposure to morphine, including modulating extracellular glutamate concentration and NMDAR expression, which might be one of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of opioid addiction by agmatine.

  9. HS-1793, a resveratrol analogue, downregulates the expression of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 and VEGF and inhibits tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in a nude mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Jin-Ah; Kang, Yong Jung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Hwang, Na-Lam; Suh, Hongsuk; Choi, Yung Hyun; Im, Eunok; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2017-08-01

    A synthetic analogue of resveratrol, 4-(6-hydroxy-2-naphtyl)-1,3-benzenediol (HS-1793), with improved photosensitivity and stability profiles, has been recently reported to exert anticancer activity on various cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of action and in vivo efficacy of HS-1793 in breast cancer cells have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of HS-1793 on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which drives angiogenesis and the growth of solid tumors, in addition to the in vivo therapeutic effects of HS-1793 on breast cancer cells. HS-1793 was found to inhibit hypoxia (1.0% oxygen)-induced HIF-1α expression at the protein level, and its inhibitory effect was more potent than that of resveratrol in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, HS-1793 reduced the secretion and mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key mediator of HIF-1-driven angiogenesis, without affecting cell viability. To evaluate the anticancer effects of HS-1793 in vivo, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts were established in nude mice. HS-1793 significantly suppressed the growth of breast cancer tumor xenografts, without any apparent toxicity. Additionally, decreases in Ki-67, a proliferation index marker, and CD31, a biomarker of microvessel density, were observed in the tumor tissue. Expression of HIF-1 and VEGF was also downregulated in xenograft tumors treated with HS-1793. These in vivo results reinforce the improved anticancer activity of HS-1793 when compared with that of resveratrol. Overall, the present study suggests that the synthetic resveratrol analogue HS-1793 is a potent antitumor agent that inhibits tumor growth via the regulation of HIF-1, and demonstrates significant therapeutic potential for solid cancers.

  10. Environmental Enrichment Prevent the Juvenile Hypoxia-Induced Developmental Loss of Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Cells in the Prefrontal Cortex and Neurobehavioral Alterations Through Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase-2-Derived Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingqiang; Wu, Jing; Huo, Lan; Luo, Liang; Song, Xi; Fan, Fei; Lu, Yiming; Liang, Dong

    2016-12-01

    We compared the expression of phenotype of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive cells in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of juvenile rats reared in enriched environment (EE) after daily intermittent hypoxia (IH) exposure to those reared in standard environment (SE) and investigated the involvement of NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2)-derived oxidative stress in the IH-induced neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral consequences in a juvenile rat model of obstructive sleep apnea. Postnatal day 21 (P21) rats were exposed to IH or room air 8 h daily for 14 consecutive days. After the daily exposure, the rats were raised in SE or EE. In the PFC of P34 rats, we determined the impact (i) of IH exposures on NOX2-derived oxidative stress and PV immunoreactivity, (ii) of pharmacological NOX2 inhibition on IH-induced oxidative stress and PV immunoreactivity, and (iii) of EE on the IH-induced oxidative stress and PV immunoreactivity. Behavioral testing of psychiatric anxiety was carried out consecutively in the open-field test and elevated plus maze at P35 and P36. The results showed IH exposures increased NOX2 expression in the PFC of P34 rats, which was accompanied with elevation of NOX activity and indirect markers of oxidative stress (4-HNE). IH exposures increased 4-HNE immunoreactivity in cortical PV cells, which was accompanied with reduction of PV immunoreactivity. Treatment of IH rats with the antioxidant/NOX inhibitor apocynin prevented the PV cells loss in the PFC and reversed the IH-induced psychiatric anxiety. EE attenuated the NOX2-derived oxidative stress and reversed the PV-immunoreactivity reduction in the PFC induced by IH. Our data suggest that EE might prevent the juvenile hypoxia-induced developmental loss of PV cells in the PFC and attenuate the neurobehavioral alterations through inhibition of NOX2-derived oxidative stress.

  11. Regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes by ETS1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Salnikow, Konstantin; Aprelikova, Olga; Ivanov, Sergey; Tackett, Sean; Kaczmarek, Monika; Karaczyn, Aldona; Yee, Herman; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S; Niederhuber, John

    2008-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) regulates the expression of genes that facilitate tumor cell survival by making them more resistant to therapeutic intervention. Recent evidence suggests that the activation of other transcription factors, in cooperation with HIF-1 or acting alone, is involved in the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Here we report that high cell density, a condition that might mimic the physiologic situation in growing tumor and most probably representing nutritional starvation, upregulates hypoxia-inducible genes. This upregulation can occur in HIF-independent manner since hypoxia-inducible genes carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), lysyloxidase like 2 (LOXL2) and n-myc-down regulated 1 (NDRG1)/calcium activated protein (Cap43) can be upregulated by increased cell density under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in both HIF-1 alpha-proficient and -deficient mouse fibroblasts. Moreover, cell density upregulates the same genes in 1HAEo- and A549 human lung epithelial cells. Searching for other transcription factors involved in the regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes by cell density, we focused our attention on ETS1. As reported previously, members of v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ETS) family transcription factors participate in the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Here, we provide evidence that ETS1 protein is upregulated at high cell density in both human and mouse cells. The involvement of ETS1 in the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible genes was further confirmed in a luciferase reporter assay using cotransfection of ETS1 expression vector with NDRG1/Cap43 promoter construct. The downregulation of ETS1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the upregulation of CA9 and NDRG1/Cap43 caused by increased cell density. Collectively, our data indicate the involvement of ETS1 along with HIF-1 in regulating hypoxia-inducible genes.

  12. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate inhibits hypoxia-induced enhancement of SOCE in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the PKG-PPAR-γ signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Lu, Wenju; Yang, Kai; Hadadi, Cyrus; Fu, Xin; Chen, Yuqin; Yun, Xin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Meichan; Xu, Lei; Tang, Haiyang; Yuan, Jason X-J; Wang, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    Our laboratory previously showed that sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) inhibited store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCC) via downregulating the expression of transient receptor potential canonical proteins (TRPC), which contribute to the formation of SOCC (Wang J, Jiang Q, Wan L, Yang K, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Wang E, Lai N, Zhao L, Jiang H, Sun Y, Zhong N, Ran P, Lu W. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 48: 125-134, 2013). The detailed molecular mechanisms by which STS inhibits SOCE and downregulates TRPC, however, remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that, under hypoxic conditions, inhibition of protein kinase G (PKG) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) signaling axis results in the upregulation of TRPC (Wang J, Yang K, Xu L, Zhang Y, Lai N, Jiang H, Zhang Y, Zhong N, Ran P, Lu W. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 49: 231-240, 2013). This suggests that strategies targeting the restoration of this signaling pathway may be an effective treatment strategy for pulmonary hypertension. In this study, our results demonstrated that STS treatment can effectively prevent the hypoxia-mediated inhibition of the PKG-PPAR-γ signaling axis in rat distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and distal pulmonary arteries. These effects of STS treatment were blocked by pharmacological inhibition or specific small interfering RNA knockdown of either PKG or PPAR-γ. Moreover, targeted PPAR-γ agonist markedly enhanced the beneficial effects of STS. These results comprehensively suggest that STS treatment can prevent hypoxia-mediated increases in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cell proliferation, by targeting and restoring the hypoxia-inhibited PKG-PPAR-γ signaling pathway in PASMCs.

  13. Amelioration of apelin-13 in chronic normobaric hypoxia-induced anxiety-like behavior is associated with an inhibition of NF-κB in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Junming; Ding, Lu; Xia, Dongmei; Chen, Danyang; Jiang, Pu; Ge, Wenhua; Zhao, Ru; Guo, Jinbin; Fan, Xiaofang; Xue, Feng; Wang, Yongyu; Mao, Sunzhong; Hu, Lianggang; Gong, Yongsheng

    2017-04-01

    Apelin, a small bioactive peptide, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mood disorders through the endogenous ligand APJ. Although the anxiolytic effect of apelin is well established, the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that apelin played an anxiolytic role in chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH)-induced anxiety like behavior in mice, which might be associated with an inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in the hippocampus. To this end, mice were exposed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2, ∼10%, 23h/d) with or without apelin-13 application (20 nmolkg(-1)d(-1), i.p.), for 4 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior was tested by elevated plus maze and open field. Activities of NF-κB, microglial, and related signaling pathways in the hippocampus during this pathological process were examined. We found that CNH treatment decreased APJ but increased Iba-1 proteins expression, as well as nucleus translocation of p50 and p65 in the hippocampus, which were reversed by apelin-13 treatment. In addition, apelin-13 treatment ameliorated CNH-induced anxiety-like behavior in mice, suggesting anxiogenic effect of apelin-13 might be mediated by an inhibition of NF-κB activation in microglial of the hippocampus. Furthermore, apelin-13 treatment reversed p-CAMKII decrease in the hippocampus under CNH treatment. Apelin-13 treatment did not affect anxiety-like behavior and relative proteins expression in normoxia control mice. Finally, we found that rats with CNH treatment decreased APJ expression while enhanced NF-κB activation in the hippocampus, providing additional evidences that NF-κB activation in hippocampus in CNH-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats we reported previously might be associated with an inhibition of APJ activity. In conclusion, the present results illustrated that inhibition of APJ and promotion of NF-κB activation in the microglial of hippocampus might be involved in

  14. Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity: model for the potential involvement of the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donna W; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Siddiq, Ambreena; Gwiazda, Roberto; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M Flint; Ratan, Rajiv R; Andersen, Julie K

    2009-10-16

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) plays an important role in cell survival by regulating iron, antioxidant defense, and mitochondrial function. Pharmacological inhibitors of the iron-dependent enzyme class prolyl hydroxylases (PHD), which target alpha subunits of HIF proteins for degradation, have recently been demonstrated to alleviate neurodegeneration associated with stroke and hypoxic-ischemic injuries. Here we report that inhibition of PHD by 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic cell loss and up-regulates HIF-1alpha within these neurons. Elevations in mRNA and protein levels of HIF-dependent genes heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mnsod) following DHB pretreatment alone are also maintained in the presence of MPTP. MPTP-induced reductions in ferroportin and elevations in nigral and striatal iron levels were reverted to levels comparable with that of untreated controls with DHB pretreatment. Reductions in pyruvate dehydrogenase mRNA and activity resulting from MPTP were also found to be attenuated by DHB. In vitro, the HIF pathway was activated in N27 cells grown at 3% oxygen treated with either PHD inhibitors or an iron chelator. Concordant with our in vivo data, the MPP(+)-elicited increase in total iron as well as decreases in cell viability were attenuated in the presence of DHB. Taken together, these data suggest that protection against MPTP neurotoxicity may be mediated by alterations in iron homeostasis and defense against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction brought about by cellular HIF-1alpha induction. This study provides novel data extending the possible therapeutic utility of HIF induction to a Parkinson disease model of neurodegeneration, which may prove beneficial not only in this disorder itself but also in other diseases associated with metal-induced oxidative stress.

  15. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Jung, Deok-Beom; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Hanna Hyun; Park, Moon Nyeo; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seok Geun; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Although cryptotanshinone (CT) was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23243443

  16. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor Prevents Steroid-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Rabbits by Promoting Angiogenesis and Inhibiting Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lihong; Li, Jia; Yu, Zefeng; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(EDHB) on steroid-associated femoral head osteonecrosis(ONFH) in a rabbit model. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (prevention group and model group), each containing 24 rabbits. Osteonecrosis was induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS) combined with methylprednisolone(MPS). The prevention group received an intraperitoneal injection of EDHB at 50 mg/kg body weight every other day starting three days before establishing rabbit models of osteonecrosis, for a total of nine doses. Osteonecrosis was verified by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Angiogenesis, apoptosis and microstructural parameters were also analyzed. The rabbit models of osteonecrosis were successfully established and observed by HE staining. Histopathological observations indicated that EDHB reduced the rate of empty lacunae and the incidence of osteonecrosis. Immunohistochemical staining for HIF-1α and VEGF suggested that EDHB therapy inhibited degradation of HIF-1α and promoted expression of VEGF. Ink artery infusion angiography and microvessel density analysis revealed that there were more microvessels in the prevention group than in the model group. The TUNEL apoptosis assay suggested that EDHB intervention could reduce the number of apoptotic cells in avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Micro-CT scanning indicated that the treatment group had better microstructural parameters than the model group. EDHB prevents steroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis of bone cells and hematopoietic tissue. PMID:25244080

  17. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells by a mTOR siRNA-loaded cyclodextrin nanovector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueping; Wang, Guansong; You, Zaichun; Qian, Pin; Chen, Huaping; Dou, Yin; Wei, Zhenghua; Chen, Yan; Mao, Chengde; Zhang, Jianxiang

    2014-05-01

    The proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is a key pathophysiological component of vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), an intractable disease, for which pharmacotherapy is limited and only slight improvement in survival outcomes have achieved over the past few decades. RNA interference provides a highly promising strategy to the treatment of this chronic lung disease, while efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) remains a key challenge for the development of clinically acceptable siRNA therapeutics. With the aim to construct useful nanomedicines, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) siRNA was loaded into hybrid nanoparticles based on low molecular weight (Mw) polyethylenimine (PEI) and a pH-responsive cyclodextrin material (Ac-aCD) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). This hybrid nanoplatform gave rise to desirable siRNA loading, and the payload release could be modulated by the hydrolysis characteristics of carrier materials. Fluorescence observation and flow cytometry quantification suggested that both Ac-aCD and PLGA nanovectors (NVs) may enter PASMCs under either normoxia or hypoxia conditions as well as in the presence of serum, with uptake and transfection efficiency significantly higher than those of cationic vectors such as PEI with Mw of 25 kDa (PEI25k) and Lipofectamine 2000 (Lipo 2k). Hybrid Ac-aCD or PLGA NV containing siRNA remarkably inhibited proliferation and activated apoptosis of hypoxic PASMCs, largely resulting from effective suppression of mTOR signaling as evidenced by significantly lowered expression of mTOR mRNA and phosphorylated protein. Moreover, these hybrid nanomedicines were more effective than commonly used cationic vectors like PEI25k and Lipo 2k, with respect to cell growth inhibition, apoptosis activation, and expression attenuation of mTOR mRNA and protein. Therefore, mTOR siRNA nanomedicines based on hybrid Ac-aCD or PLGA NV may be promising therapeutics

  18. Agmatine modulates melanogenesis via MITF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Agmatine contained in soybean is also found in Manaca, an anti-aging plant, inhabited in Amazon and induces vasodilation by the promotion of NO synthesis in blood vessel. However, the research of agmatine on melanin synthesis related to hair greying is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the melanogenic effect of agmatine via regulation of MITF signaling pathway in B16F1 cells. It was determined whether agmatine regulates melanin synthesis at cellular level in addition to the effect of agmatine on mushroom tyrosinase in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of agmatine. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on the protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, C-KIT, p-p38, MITF and C-FOS were examined by western blot analysis. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was carried out to visualize the location of MITF expression in cell. Agmatine at 256μM or more increased melanin synthesis as well as tyrosinase activity. Moreover, whereas agmatine increased the expression levels of TRP-1, BMP-6, p-p38 and MITF, it reduced the expression level of BMP-4. It was also found that agmatine enhanced the expression level of MITF in nucleus. These results suggest that agmatine could induce melanin synthesis though the regulation of MITF transcription factor via BMP-6/p38 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of diaryl-substituted carboranes as inhibitors of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Hidemitsu; Matsukawa, Takuya; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    Diaromatic-substituted ortho- and meta-carboranes were synthesized as mimics of manassantin A. Among the carboranes synthesized, compounds 1 and 2 showed significant inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity, with IC(50) values of 3.2 and 2.2 μM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 similarly suppressed hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the expression level of HIF-1α mRNA. The hypoxia-induced accumulation and translocation of HIF-1α into nuclei were not observed in HeLa cells treated with compounds 1 and 2 by immunofluorescence analysis, revealing that the inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity is induced by compounds 1 and 2 through a degradation pathway of the HIF-1α protein under hypoxic conditions.

  20. Gefitinib circumvents hypoxia-induced drug resistance by the modulation of HIF-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Rho, Jin Kyung; Choi, Yun Jung; Lee, Jin Kyung; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Na, Im Ii; Yang, Sung Hyun; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yoo, Young Do; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2009-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcriptional factor which is activated by hypoxia and associated with cell survival, proliferation and drug resistance. Recent studies have shown that the down-stream molecules of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signal are involved in the hypoxia-dependent or -independent HIF-1alpha protein accumulation. Thus, we hypothesized that an EGFR-TK inhibitor, gefitinib, might circumvent the hypoxia-induced drug resistance via the regulation of HIF-1alpha expression. In our data, treatment of gefitinib suppressed induced HIF-1alpha by hypoxia. This action of gefitinib was caused by reduced protein stability without any change in the level of HIF-1alpha mRNA. The effect of gefitinib on down-regulation of HIF-1alpha was reversed by transfection of constitutively active form of Akt. The cellular response to gefitinib was similar in both normoxia and hypoxia condition. However, the response to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs decreased >50% under hypoxia condition and they did not change HIF-1alpha expression. In addition, the suppression of HIF-1alpha using siRNA overcame partially hypoxia-induced drug resistance. In conclusion, gefitinib was able to circumvent hypoxia-induced drug resistance suggesting that the effective suppression of HIF-1alpha by the inhibition of EGFR-Akt pathway may overcome the hypoxia-induced drug resistance.

  1. Methyl syringate, a TRPA1 agonist represses hypoxia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonwoo; Shim, Myeong Kuk; Jin, Mirim; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Lee, YoungJoo

    2016-03-15

    We have previously found that methyl syringate is a specific and selective agonist of the human transient receptor potential channel ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and suppresses food intake and gastric emptying in imprinting control region mice. Because TRPA1 has been implicated in inflammatory responses, and inflammation and tumorigenesis are stimulated by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 pathway in hypoxic cancer cells. This study examined the effects of methyl syringate on hypoxia-induced COX-2 in human distal lung epithelial A549 cells. The effect of the methyl syringate on suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in A549 cells were determined by Western blot and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The anti-invasive effect of methyl syringate was evaluated on A549 cells using matrigel invasion assay. Methyl syringate suppressed hypoxia-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity and reduced hypoxia-induced cell migration and invasion and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. These effects were antagonized by a TRPA1 antagonist, implying their mediation by the TRPA1 pathway. Together, these results indicate that methyl syringate inhibits the hypoxic induction of COX-2 expression and cell invasion through TRPA1 activation. These findings suggest that methyl syringate could be effective to suppress hypoxia-induced inflammation and indicate an additional functional effect of methyl syringate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α is essential for hypoxia-induced mesenchymal stem cell mobilization into the peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhen; Yu, Qin; Lin, Jie; Lai, Xiaoyu; Cao, Weijie; Du, Kaili; Wang, Yingjia; Wu, Kangni; Hu, Yongxian; Zhang, Lifei; Xiao, Haowen; Duan, Yanping; Huang, He

    2011-11-01

    Mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. The establishment of an appropriate animal model and clarification of the underlying mechanisms are beneficial to develop the mobilization regimens for therapeutic use. In this study, we therefore established a rat MSC mobilization model and investigated the related mechanisms, using continuous hypoxia as the mobilizing stimulus. We found that MSCs could be mobilized into peripheral blood of rats exposed to short-term hypoxia (2 days) and the mobilization efficiency increased in a time-dependent manner (2-14 days). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was upregulated during hypoxic exposure and was expressed continuously in bone marrow. Inhibition of HIF-1α expression by YC-1 remarkably reduced the number of mobilized MSCs, suggesting that HIF-1α is essential for hypoxia-induced MSC mobilization. Further, we investigated the potential role of HIF-1α target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). VEGF expression was elevated from day 2 to day 7 of hypoxia, stimulating an increase in bone marrow sinusoidal vessels and possibly facilitating the egress of MSCs. SDF-1α protein levels were increased in the peripheral blood of rats during MSC mobilization and promoted the migration of MSCs under hypoxic conditions in vitro. These results suggest that HIF-1α plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced MSC mobilization, possibly acting via its downstream genes VEGF and SDF-1α. These data provide a novel insight into the mechanisms responsible for MSC mobilization and may help in the development of clinically useful therapeutic agents.

  3. Involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-10-01

    Potentiation of opioid analgesia by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, and imidazoline receptor/α₂-adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and agmatine are well known. It is also known that agmatine blocks morphine hyperthermia in rats. However, the effect of agmatine on morphine or oxycodone hypothermia in mice is unknown. The present study was carried out to study the role of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors in morphine and oxycodone hypothermia in mice. Body temperature was determined over 6 h in male Swiss Webster mice treated with morphine, oxycodone, agmatine, and combination of agmatine with morphine or oxycodone. Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, respectively. Morphine and oxycodone produced significant hypothermia that was not affected by α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, imidazoline receptor/α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, or ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874. Agmatine did not produce hypothermia; however, it blocked oxycodone but not morphine-induced hypothermia. Agmatine-induced blockade of oxycodone hypothermia was inhibited by idazoxan and yohimbine. The blockade by idazoxan was more pronounced compared with yohimbine. Combined administration of BMS182874 and agmatine did not produce changes in body temperature in mice. However, when BMS182874 was administered along with agmatine and oxycodone, it blocked agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. This is the first report demonstrating that agmatine does not affect morphine hypothermia in mice, but reverses oxycodone hypothermia. Imidazoline receptors and α₂-adrenoceptors are involved in agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. Our findings also suggest that ET(A) receptors may be involved in blockade of oxycodone hypothermia by agmatine.

  4. Intracrine prostaglandin E(2) signalling regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression through retinoic acid receptor-β.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Jiménez, María I Arenas; Manzano, Victoria Moreno; Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco J

    2012-12-01

    We have previously found in human renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells that hypoxia- and all-trans retinoic acid-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α up-regulation is accompanied by retinoic acid receptor-β up-regulation. Here we first investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression is dependent on retinoic acid receptor-β and our results confirmed it since (i) hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-inducing agents hypoxia, hypoxia-mimetic agent desferrioxamine, all-trans retinoic acid and interleukin-1β increased retinoic acid receptor-β expression, (ii) hypoxia-inducible factor-1α up-regulation was prevented by retinoic acid receptor-β antagonist LE-135 or siRNA retinoic acid receptor-β and (iii) there was direct binding of retinoic acid receptor-β to the retinoic acid response element in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α promoter upon treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and 16,16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E(2). Since intracellular prostaglandin E(2) mediates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α up-regulation in normoxia in HK-2 cells, we next investigated and confirmed, its role in the up-regulation of retinoic acid receptor-β in normoxia by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-inducing agents all-trans retinoic acid, interleukin-1β and 16,16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E(2) by inhibiting cyclooxygenases, prostaglandin influx transporter or EP receptors. Interestingly, the hypoxia-induced increase in retinoic acid receptor-β expression and accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was also blocked by the inhibitors tested. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that retinoic acid receptor-β signalling is involved in the control of the expression of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in both normoxia and hypoxia and that retinoic acid receptor-β expression is found to be strictly regulated by intracellular prostaglandin E(2). Given the relevance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the kidney in terms of tumorigenesis, progressive renal failure, production

  5. Transcriptional Regulation by Hypoxia Inducible Factors

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Joaquín M.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular response to oxygen deprivation is governed largely by a family of transcription factors known as Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs). This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which HIFs regulate the transcriptional apparatus to enable the cellular and organismal response to hypoxia. We discuss here how the various HIF polypeptides, their post-translational modifications, binding partners and transcriptional cofactors affect RNA polymerase II activity to drive context-dependent transcriptional programs during hypoxia. PMID:24099156

  6. Lysyl oxidase is essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis.

    PubMed

    Erler, Janine T; Bennewith, Kevin L; Nicolau, Monica; Dornhöfer, Nadja; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu; Chi, Jen-Tsan Ashley; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Giaccia, Amato J

    2006-04-27

    Metastasis is a multistep process responsible for most cancer deaths, and it can be influenced by both the immediate microenvironment (cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions) and the extended tumour microenvironment (for example vascularization). Hypoxia (low oxygen) is clinically associated with metastasis and poor patient outcome, although the underlying processes remain unclear. Microarray studies have shown the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) to be elevated in hypoxic human tumour cells. Paradoxically, LOX expression is associated with both tumour suppression and tumour progression, and its role in tumorigenesis seems dependent on cellular location, cell type and transformation status. Here we show that LOX expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and is associated with hypoxia in human breast and head and neck tumours. Patients with high LOX-expressing tumours have poor distant metastasis-free and overall survivals. Inhibition of LOX eliminates metastasis in mice with orthotopically grown breast cancer tumours. Mechanistically, secreted LOX is responsible for the invasive properties of hypoxic human cancer cells through focal adhesion kinase activity and cell to matrix adhesion. Furthermore, LOX may be required to create a niche permissive for metastatic growth. Our findings indicate that LOX is essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis and is a good therapeutic target for preventing and treating metastases.

  7. Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell death and the neuroprotective effects of beta-adrenergic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Yamada, Hideyuki; Mao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Aihara, Makoto; Araie, Makoto

    2007-05-07

    Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death has been implicated in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, the precise mechanism of death signaling and how neuroprotective agents affect it are still unclear. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanisms of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cultured purified RGCs and to study the neuroprotective effects of beta-adrenergic antagonists. Rat RGCs were purified utilizing a modified two-step immuno-panning procedure. First, the extent of apoptosis in RGCs under hypoxia was quantified. Next, the effects of glutamate-channel antagonists (MK801 or DNQX), Bax inhibiting peptide (BIP), and beta-adrenergic antagonists (betaxolol, nipradilol, timolol or carteolol) on hypoxia-induced RGC death were investigated by the cell viability assay. Third, the effects of beta-adrenergic antagonists on hypoxia-induced increase of intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and the additional effect of NO scavenger to nipradilol were evaluated. Apoptotic RGC percentages under hypoxia were significantly increased compared to the control. The viability of RGCs under hypoxia was not affected by MK801 or DNQX, whereas it was increased in a dose-dependent manner with exposure to BIP, and to betaxolol, nipradilol, timolol, but not to carteolol. These effective beta-adrenergic antagonists showed no significant change in hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)](i) levels. The NO scavenger alleviated neuroprotective effect by nipradilol. In conclusion, purified RGC damage induced by hypoxia involves Bax-dependent apoptotic pathway, but mostly independent of glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. Betaxolol, timolol and nipradilol showed a protective effect against hypoxia-induced RGC death, which was thought to be irrelevant either to calcium channel or beta-adrenoceptor blocking effects.

  8. Lysyl oxidase mediates hypoxia-induced radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chongwen; Gu, Runxia; Jin, Honglin; Sun, Yao; Li, Zhenyu; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced radioresistance has been well known as the main obstacle in cancer radiotherapy. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) was previously demonstrated to play an important role in hypoxia-induced biological behaviors, such as metastasis and angiogenesis, through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is an important contributing factor to radioresistance in tumor cells. However, how LOX plays a role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance has yet to be determined. Here, we found that LOX expression was in accordance with HIF-1α expression, and LOX expression at the mRNA and protein level, and enzymatic activity were remarkably upregulated in the hypoxic A549 cells, compared with normoxic A549 cells. Inhibition of LOX resulted in the reduction of the ability to repair double-stranded breaks (DSBs), promotion of apoptosis, relief of G2/M cycle arrest, and eventually reduction of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in the hypoxic A549 cells. This suggests that LOX may play an important role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Together, our results might suggest a novel potential therapeutic target in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID:26515140

  9. Agmatine improves renal function in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Abdel Rahim, Mona; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible protective effects of agmatine, a known nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on gentamicin-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was evaluated. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), and gentamicin plus agmatine (40 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood and urine samples and kidneys were taken. Administration of agmatine significantly decreased kidney/body mass ratio, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), renal malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) while it significantly increased creatinine clearance and renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with the gentamicin-treated group. Additionally, agmatine ameliorated tissue morphology as evidenced by histological evaluation and reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that agmatine administration with gentamicin attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation, restoring NO level and inhibiting inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α.

  10. Hypoxia inducible factors and the response to hypoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Majmundar, Amar J.; Wong, Waihay J.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) is an essential nutrient that serves as a key substrate in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. In a variety of physiological and pathological states, organisms encounter insufficient O2 availability, or hypoxia. In order to cope with this stress, evolutionarily conserved responses are engaged. In mammals, the primary transcriptional response to hypoxic stress is mediated by the Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). While canonically regulated by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs), the HIFα subunits are intricately responsive to numerous other factors including Factor Inhibiting HIF-1α (FIH1), sirtuins, and metabolites. These transcription factors function in normal tissue homeostasis and impinge on critical aspects of disease progression and recovery. Insights from basic HIF biology are being translated into pharmaceuticals targeting the HIF pathway. PMID:20965423

  11. Hypoxia-induced IL-32β increases glycolysis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Su; Lee, Sunyi; Jeong, Ae Lee; Han, Sora; Ka, Hye In; Lim, Jong-Seok; Lee, Myung Sok; Yoon, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Yang, Young

    2015-01-28

    IL-32β is highly expressed and increases the migration and invasion of gastric, lung, and breast cancer cells. Since IL-32 enhances VEGF production under hypoxic conditions, whether IL-32β is regulated by hypoxia was examined. Hypoxic conditions and a mimetic chemical CoCl2 enhanced IL-32β production. When cells were treated with various inhibitors of ROS generation to prevent hypoxia-induced ROS function, IL-32β production was suppressed by both NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial ROS inhibitors. IL-32β translocated to the mitochondria under hypoxic conditions, where it was associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, whether hypoxia-induced IL-32β is associated with oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) or glycolysis was examined. Glycolysis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is impaired in IL-32β-depleted cells, and the hypoxia-induced IL-32β increased glycolysis through activation of lactate dehydrogenase. Src is also known to increase lactate dehydrogenase activity, and the hypoxia-induced IL-32β was found to stimulate Src activation by inhibiting the dephosphorylation of Src. These findings revealed that a hypoxia-ROS-IL-32β-Src-glycolysis pathway is associated with the regulation of cancer cell metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RhoB regulates the function of macrophages in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gaoxiang; Su, Jie; Zhang, Mingzhuo; Jin, Yiduo; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Immune cells, particularly macrophages, play critical roles in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response. The small GTPase RhoB is usually rapidly induced by a variety of stimuli and has been described as an important regulator of cytoskeletal organization and vesicle and membrane receptor trafficking. However, it is unknown whether RhoB is involved in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response. Here, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of RhoB and the mechanism and significance of RhoB expression in macrophages. We found that hypoxia significantly upregulated the expression of RhoB in RAW264.7 cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the spleen of rats. Hypoxia-induced expression of RhoB was significantly blocked by a specific inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), or extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), indicating that hypoxia-activated HIF-1α, JNK, and ERK are involved in the upregulation of RhoB by hypoxia. Knockdown of RhoB expression not only significantly suppressed basal production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in normoxia but also more markedly decreased the hypoxia-stimulated production of these cytokines. Furthermore, we showed that RhoB increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and the inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity significantly decreased the RhoB-increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Finally, we demonstrated that RhoB enhanced cell adhesion and inhibited cell migration in normoxia and hypoxia. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoB plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced activation of macrophages and the inflammatory response. PMID:26388235

  13. Hypoxia-induced modulation of PTEN activity and EMT phenotypes in lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Kohnoh, Takashi; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Ando, Akira; Sakamoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Shinichi; Aoyama, Daisuke; Kusunose, Masaaki; Kimura, Motohiro; Omote, Norihito; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Kawabe, Tsutomu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Persistent hypoxia stimulation, one of the most critical microenvironmental factors, accelerates the acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in lung cancer cells. Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression might accelerate the development of lung cancer in vivo. Recent studies suggest that tumor microenvironmental factors might modulate the PTEN activity though a decrease in total PTEN expression and an increase in phosphorylation of the PTEN C-terminus (p-PTEN), resulting in the acquisition of the EMT phenotypes. Nevertheless, it is not known whether persistent hypoxia can modulate PTEN phosphatase activity or whether hypoxia-induced EMT phenotypes are negatively regulated by the PTEN phosphatase activity. We aimed to investigate hypoxia-induced modulation of PTEN activity and EMT phenotypes in lung cancers. Western blotting was performed in five lung cancer cell lines to evaluate total PTEN expression levels and the PTEN activation. In a xenograft model of lung cancer cells with endogenous PTEN expression, the PTEN expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. To examine the effect of hypoxia on phenotypic alterations in lung cancer cells in vitro, the cells were cultured under hypoxia. The effect of unphosphorylated PTEN (PTEN4A) induction on hypoxia-induced EMT phenotypes was evaluated, by using a Dox-dependent gene expression system. Lung cancer cells involving the EMT phenotypes showed a decrease in total PTEN expression and an increase in p-PTEN. In a xenograft model, loss of PTEN expression was observed in the tumor lesions showing tissue hypoxia. Persistent hypoxia yielded an approximately eight-fold increase in the p-PTEN/PTEN ratio in vitro. PTEN4A did not affect stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. PTEN4A blunted hypoxia-induced EMT via inhibition of β-catenin translocation into the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our study strengthens the therapeutic possibility that

  14. RhoB regulates the function of macrophages in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gaoxiang; Su, Jie; Zhang, Mingzhuo; Jin, Yiduo; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Immune cells, particularly macrophages, play critical roles in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response. The small GTPase RhoB is usually rapidly induced by a variety of stimuli and has been described as an important regulator of cytoskeletal organization and vesicle and membrane receptor trafficking. However, it is unknown whether RhoB is involved in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response. Here, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of RhoB and the mechanism and significance of RhoB expression in macrophages. We found that hypoxia significantly upregulated the expression of RhoB in RAW264.7 cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the spleen of rats. Hypoxia-induced expression of RhoB was significantly blocked by a specific inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), or extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), indicating that hypoxia-activated HIF-1α, JNK, and ERK are involved in the upregulation of RhoB by hypoxia. Knockdown of RhoB expression not only significantly suppressed basal production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in normoxia but also more markedly decreased the hypoxia-stimulated production of these cytokines. Furthermore, we showed that RhoB increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and the inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity significantly decreased the RhoB-increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Finally, we demonstrated that RhoB enhanced cell adhesion and inhibited cell migration in normoxia and hypoxia. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoB plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced activation of macrophages and the inflammatory response.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.78.

  15. Hypoxia induces angiogenic factors in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Martinez, J; Yin, X; Sanchez, A; Tripathy, D; Grammas, P

    2012-03-01

    Hypoxia is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to the development of brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the periphery, hypoxia is a powerful regulator of angiogenesis. However, vascular endothelial cells are remarkably heterogeneous and little is known about how brain endothelial cells respond to hypoxic challenge. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of hypoxic challenge on the angiogenic response of cultured brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells. Brain endothelial cell cultures were initiated from isolated rat brain microvessels and subjected to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for various time periods. The results showed that hypoxia induced rapid (≤ 0.5h) expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and that cell viability, assessed by MTT assay, was unaffected within the first 8h. Examination of brain endothelial cell cultures for pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins by western blot, RT-PCR and ELISA revealed that within 0.5 to 2h of hypoxia levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelin-1 mRNA and protein were elevated. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 also increased but only after 8h of hypoxia. In contrast, similar hypoxia exposure evoked a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and thrombospondin-2 levels. Exposure of brain endothelial cell cultures to hypoxia resulted in a significant (p<0.001) decrease (94%) in tube length, an in vitro index of angiogenesis, compared to control cultures. The data indicate that, despite a shift toward a pro-angiogenic phenotype, hypoxia inhibited vessel formation in brain endothelial cells. These results suggest that in brain endothelial cells expression of angiogenic factors is not sufficient for the development of new vessels. Further work is needed to determine what factors/conditions prevent hypoxia-induced angiogenic changes from culminating in the formation of new brain blood vessels and what role this may play in the pathologic

  16. Neonatal epithelial hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression regulates the response of the lung to experimental asthma.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Krista K; Proper, Steven P; Saini, Yogesh; Bramble, Lori A; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R; LaPres, John J

    2012-03-01

    Allergic airway disease is characterized by a T helper type 2 cell-mediated airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Little is known about the role of hypoxia-mediated signaling in the progression of the disease. To address this knowledge gap, a mouse model was created in which doxycycline exposure induces the functional deletion of hypoxia inducible factor-1α from alveolar type II and Clara cells of the lung. When hypoxia inducible factor-1α deletion was induced during the early postnatal development period of the lung, the mice displayed an enhanced response to the ovalbumin model of allergic airway disease. These hypoxia inducible factor-1α-deficient mice exhibit increased cellular infiltrates, eosinophilia in the lavage fluid and parenchyma, and T helper type 2 cytokines, as compared with ovalbumin-treated control mice. Moreover, these hypoxia inducible factor-1α-deficient mice display increased airway resistance when compared with their control counterparts. Interestingly, if the loss of hypoxia inducible factor-1α was induced in early adulthood, the exacerbated phenotype was not observed. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial hypoxia inducible factor-1α plays an important role in establishing the innate immunity of the lung and epithelial-specific deficiency in the transcription factor, during early postnatal development, increases the severity of inflammation and functional airway resistance, following ovalbumin challenge. Finally, these results might explain some of the chronic respiratory pathology observed in premature infants, especially those that receive supplemental oxygen. This early hyperoxic exposure, from normal ambient and supplemental oxygen, would presumably inhibit normal hypoxia inducible factor-1α signaling, mimicking the functional deletion described.

  17. Neonatal epithelial hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression regulates the response of the lung to experimental asthma

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Krista K.; Proper, Steven P.; Saini, Yogesh; Bramble, Lori A.; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergic airway disease is characterized by a T helper type 2 cell-mediated airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Little is known about the role of hypoxia-mediated signaling in the progression of the disease. To address this knowledge gap, a mouse model was created in which doxycycline exposure induces the functional deletion of hypoxia inducible factor-1α from alveolar type II and Clara cells of the lung. When hypoxia inducible factor-1α deletion was induced during the early postnatal development period of the lung, the mice displayed an enhanced response to the ovalbumin model of allergic airway disease. These hypoxia inducible factor-1α-deficient mice exhibit increased cellular infiltrates, eosinophilia in the lavage fluid and parenchyma, and T helper type 2 cytokines, as compared with ovalbumin-treated control mice. Moreover, these hypoxia inducible factor-1α-deficient mice display increased airway resistance when compared with their control counterparts. Interestingly, if the loss of hypoxia inducible factor-1α was induced in early adulthood, the exacerbated phenotype was not observed. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial hypoxia inducible factor-1α plays an important role in establishing the innate immunity of the lung and epithelial-specific deficiency in the transcription factor, during early postnatal development, increases the severity of inflammation and functional airway resistance, following ovalbumin challenge. Finally, these results might explain some of the chronic respiratory pathology observed in premature infants, especially those that receive supplemental oxygen. This early hyperoxic exposure, from normal ambient and supplemental oxygen, would presumably inhibit normal hypoxia inducible factor-1α signaling, mimicking the functional deletion described. PMID:22180657

  18. Mechanistic studies of the agmatine deiminase from Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Charles A.; Knuckley, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive food-borne pathogen that is capable of living within extreme environments (i.e. low temperatures and pH). This ability to survive in such conditions may arise, at least in part, from agmatine catabolism via the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS). This catabolic pathway utilizes an agmatine deiminase (AgD) to hydrolyse agmatine into N-carbamoylputrescine (NCP), with concomitant release of ammonia, which increases the pH, thus mitigating the ill effects of the acidic environment. Given the potential significance of this pathway for cell survival, we set out to study the catalytic mechanism of the AgD encoded by L. monocytogenes. In the present paper, we describe the catalytic mechanism employed by this enzyme based on pH profiles, pKa measurements of the active site cysteine and solvent isotope effects (SIE). In addition, we report inhibition of this enzyme by two novel AgD inhibitors, i.e. N-(4-aminobutyl)-2-fluoro-ethanimidamide (ABFA) and N-(4-aminobutyl)-2-chloro-ethanimidamide (ABCA). In contrast with other orthologues, L. monocytogenes AgD does not use the reverse protonation or substrate-assisted mechanism, which requires an active site cysteine with a high pKa and has been commonly seen in other members of the guanidinium-modifying enzyme (GME) superfamily. Instead, the L. monocytogenes AgD has a low pKa cysteine in the active site leading to an alternative mechanism of catalysis. This is the first time that this mechanism has been observed in the GME superfamily and is significant because it explains why previously developed mechanism-based inactivators of AgDs are ineffective against this orthologue. PMID:27034081

  19. Pharmacological analysis of the cardiac sympatho-inhibitory actions of moxonidine and agmatine in pithed spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Cobos-Puc, Luis E; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión, David

    2016-11-15

    This study shows that in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of 14-weeks-old, the sympathetically-induced, but not noradrenaline-induced tachycardic response are higher than age-matched Wistar normotensive rats. Furthermore, in SHR the sympathetically-induced tachycardic response was: (1) unaffected by moxonidine (3μg/kgmin); (2) partially inhibited by B-HT 933 (30μg/kgmin), both at the lowest doses; and (3) completely inhibited by the highest doses of B-HT 933 (100μg/kgmin), moxonidine (10μg/kgmin) or agmatine (1000 and 3000μg/kgmin) while the noradrenaline-induced tachycardic responses remained unaffected by the above compounds, except by 3000μg/kgmin agmatine. In SHR, 300μg/kg rauwolscine failed to block the sympatho-inhibition to 100μg/kgmin B-HT 933 or 10μg/kgmin moxonidine, but 1000μg/kg rauwolscine abolished, partially antagonized, and did not modify the sympatho-inhibition to the highest doses of B-HT 933, moxonidine, and agmatine, respectively, 3000μg/kg AGN 192403 or 300μg/kg BU224 given alone had no effect in the moxonidine- or agmatine-induced sympatho-inhibition, and the combination rauwolscine plus AGN 192403 but not plus BU224, abolished the sympatho-inhibition to the highest doses of moxonidine and agmatine. In conclusion, the sympathetically-induced tachycardic responses in SHR are inhibited by moxonidine and agmatine. The inhibition of moxonidine is mainly mediated by prejunctional α2-adrenoceptors and to a lesser extent by I1-imidazoline receptors, while the inhibition of agmatine is mediated by prejunctional α2-adrenoceptors and I1-imidazoline receptors at the same extent. Notwithstanding, the inhibitory function of α2-adrenoceptors seems to be altered in SHR compared with Wistar normotensive rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Analysis Reveals the Protection against Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Injury in the Intestine of Tibetans via the Inhibition of GRB2/EGFR/PTPN11 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gesang, Luobu; Dan, Zeng; Gusang, Lamu

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms for hypoxic environment causing the injury of intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB) are widely unknown. To address the issue, Han Chinese from 100 m altitude and Tibetans from high altitude (more than 3650 m) were recruited. Histological and transcriptome analyses were performed. The results showed intestinal villi were reduced and appeared irregular, and glandular epithelium was destroyed in the IMB of Tibetans when compared with Han Chinese. Transcriptome analysis revealed 2573 genes with altered expression. The levels of 1137 genes increased and 1436 genes decreased in Tibetans when compared with Han Chinese. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated most immunological responses were reduced in the IMB of Tibetans when compared with Han Chinese. Gene microarray showed that there were 25-, 22-, and 18-fold downregulation for growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11) in the IMB of Tibetans when compared with Han Chinese. The downregulation of EGFR, GRB2, and PTPN11 will reduce the production of reactive oxygen species and protect against oxidative stress-induced injury for intestine. Thus, the transcriptome analysis showed the protecting functions of IMB patients against hypoxia-induced oxidative injury in the intestine of Tibetans via affecting GRB2/EGFR/PTPN11 pathways. PMID:27594973

  1. Silencing of hypoxia inducible factor-1α by RNA interference inhibits growth of SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumour cells in vitro, and suppresses tumourigenesis and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bo; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiuli; Yang, Yi; Li, Dan; Liu, Xin; Yang, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Wilms tumour is the most common tumour of the pediatric kidney. Elevation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) has been detected in 93% to 100% of human Wilms tumour specimens, suggesting a potential value of HIF-1α as a therapeutic target for Wilms tumour. In the present study, a stable HIF-1α-silenced Wilms tumour cell strain was established by introducing HIF-1α short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) into SK-NEP-1 cells. Silencing of HIF-1α significantly reduced single-cell growth capacity, suppressed proliferation and arrested cell cycle of SK-NEP-1 cells. In addition, reduction of HIF-1α expression induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells, which was accompanied by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bax as well as downregulation of Bcl-2 in the cells. Furthermore, when inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice, HIF-1α-silenced SK-NEP-1 cells displayed retarded tumour growth and impaired tumour angiogenesis. In summary, the findings of this study suggest that HIF-1α plays a critical role in the development of Wilms tumour, and it may serve as a candidate target of gene therapy for Wilms tumour.

  2. Salidroside exerts protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via AMPKα1-dependent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mayun; Cai, Hui; Yu, Chang; Wu, Peiliang; Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Xiaomei; Fan, Rong; Xu, Cunlai; Chen, Yanfan; Wang, Liangxing; Huang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has shown to exert protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the underlying mechanisms were not well known. Based on our recent reports, we predicted the involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects in salidroside regulation of PAH. Firstly, to prove the hypothesis, rats were exposed to chronic hypoxia and treated with increasing concentrations of salidroside or a selective AMPK activator-5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) for 4 weeks. After salidroside or AICAR treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery remodeling were attenuated. Then the effects of salidroside or AICAR on hypoxia-induced excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which contributed to pulmonary arterial remodeling, were investigated. Our results suggested salidroside, as well as AICAR, reversed hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation and apoptosis resistance while AMPK inhibitor Compound C enhanced the effects of hypoxia. To reveal the potential cellular mechanisms, activation of AMPKα1 and expression of the genes related to proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions. The results demonstrated salidroside as well as AICAR might inhibit chronic hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation via AMPKα1-P53-P27/P21 pathway and reverse apoptosis resistance via AMPKα1-P53-Bax/Bcl-2-caspase 9-caspase 3 pathway. PMID:27069536

  3. Salidroside exerts protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via AMPKα1-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mayun; Cai, Hui; Yu, Chang; Wu, Peiliang; Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Xiaomei; Fan, Rong; Xu, Cunlai; Chen, Yanfan; Wang, Liangxing; Huang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has shown to exert protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the underlying mechanisms were not well known. Based on our recent reports, we predicted the involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects in salidroside regulation of PAH. Firstly, to prove the hypothesis, rats were exposed to chronic hypoxia and treated with increasing concentrations of salidroside or a selective AMPK activator-5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) for 4 weeks. After salidroside or AICAR treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery remodeling were attenuated. Then the effects of salidroside or AICAR on hypoxia-induced excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which contributed to pulmonary arterial remodeling, were investigated. Our results suggested salidroside, as well as AICAR, reversed hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation and apoptosis resistance while AMPK inhibitor Compound C enhanced the effects of hypoxia. To reveal the potential cellular mechanisms, activation of AMPKα1 and expression of the genes related to proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions. The results demonstrated salidroside as well as AICAR might inhibit chronic hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation via AMPKα1-P53-P27/P21 pathway and reverse apoptosis resistance via AMPKα1-P53-Bax/Bcl-2-caspase 9-caspase 3 pathway.

  4. Hypoxia-induced autophagy in endothelial cells: a double-edged sword in the progression of infantile haemangioma?

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yin-Ping; Ren, Jian-Gang; Xu, Ning; Liu, Hui; Wang, Feng-Qin; Sun, Zhi-Jun; Jia, Jun; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the precise role of hypoxia-induced autophagy in endothelial cells, and whether it contributes to the distinctive progression of infantile haemangioma (IH). The endothelial cells (EOMA and HUVECs) were cultured under hypoxic conditions for indicated times (0-72 h). The results showed that short exposure of the endothelial cells to hypoxia resulted in increased cell survival and proliferation, accompanied by occurrence of autophagy. Prolonged hypoxia-induced autophagy, correlating with increased cell death, was also detected afterwards. Correspondingly, autophagy inhibition prevented the enhanced cell survival and proliferation capacity, advanced the occurrence of cell-death in early hypoxic stage, and meanwhile attenuated the ability of prolonged hypoxia in cell-death induction. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the functional transformation of hypoxia-induced autophagy, pro-survival to pro-death, was rigorously regulated by the switch between hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Importantly, we also revealed the activation levels of HIF-1α and mTOR, as well as the autophagy status during the progression of IH. This study unmasks the functional switch between HIF-1α and mTOR in regulating hypoxia-induced autophagy in endothelial cells and, more importantly, indicates its potential role in the progression of IH.

  5. Smooth Muscle Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Mediates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miranda; Ramchandran, Ramaswamy; Chen, Jiwang; Yang, Qiwei; Raj, J Usha

    2016-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a potent mitogen of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but its role in pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is not clear. In an earlier study, we implicated IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH in neonatal mice. In this study, we hypothesized that hypoxia-induced up-regulation of IGF-1 in vascular smooth muscle is directly responsible for pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. We studied neonatal and adult mice with smooth muscle-specific deletion of IGF-1 and also used an inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), OSI-906, in neonatal mice. We found that, in neonatal mice, SMC-specific deletion of IGF-1 or IGF-1R inhibition with OSI-906 attenuated hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in small arteries, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right ventricular systolic pressure. Pulmonary arterial SMCs from IGF-1-deleted mice or after OSI-906 treatment exhibited reduced proliferative potential. However, in adult mice, smooth muscle-specific deletion of IGF-1 had no effect on hypoxia-induced PH. Our data suggest that vascular smooth muscle-derived IGF-1 plays a critical role in hypoxia-induced PH in neonatal mice but not in adult mice. We speculate that the IGF-1/IGF-1R axis is important in pathogenesis of PH in the developing lung and may be amenable to therapeutic manipulation in this age group.

  6. Saururus cernuus Lignans - Potent Small Molecule Inhibitors of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Chowdhury Faiz; Kim, Yong-Pil; Baerson, Scott R.; Zhang, Lei; Bruick, Richard K.; Mohammed, Kaleem A.; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents an important tumor-selective therapeutic target for solid tumors. In search of novel small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors, 5400 natural product-rich extracts from plants, marine organisms, and microbes were examined for HIF-1 inhibitory activities using a cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation, followed by structure elucidation, yielded three potent natural product-derived HIF-1 inhibitors and two structurally related inactive compounds. In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, manassantin B1, manassantin A, and 4-O-methylsaucerneol inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 3, 3, and 20 nM, respectively. All three compounds are relatively hypoxia-specific inhibitors of HIF-1 activation, in comparison to other stimuli. The hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes CDKN1A, VEGF and GLUT-1 were also inhibited. These compounds inhibit HIF-1 by blocking hypoxia-induced nuclear HIF-1α protein accumulation without affecting HIF-1α mRNA levels. In addition, preliminary structure-activity studies suggest specific structural requirements for this class of HIF-1 inhibitors. PMID:15967416

  7. Saururus cernuus lignans--potent small molecule inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Chowdhury Faiz; Kim, Yong-Pil; Baerson, Scott R; Zhang, Lei; Bruick, Richard K; Mohammed, Kaleem A; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2005-08-05

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents an important tumor-selective therapeutic target for solid tumors. In search of novel small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors, 5400 natural product-rich extracts from plants, marine organisms, and microbes were examined for HIF-1 inhibitory activities using a cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation, followed by structure elucidation, yielded three potent natural product-derived HIF-1 inhibitors and two structurally related inactive compounds. In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, manassantin B1, manassantin A, and 4-O-methylsaucerneol inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 3, 3, and 20 nM, respectively. All three compounds are relatively hypoxia-specific inhibitors of HIF-1 activation, in comparison to other stimuli. The hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes CDKN1A, VEGF, and GLUT-1 were also inhibited. These compounds inhibit HIF-1 by blocking hypoxia-induced nuclear HIF-1alpha protein accumulation without affecting HIF-1alpha mRNA levels. In addition, preliminary structure-activity studies suggest specific structural requirements for this class of HIF-1 inhibitors.

  8. Human intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory plasticity is not caused by inflammation.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Andrew E; Waltz, Xavier; Pun, Matiram; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Ahmed, Sofia B; Anderson, Todd J; Hanly, Patrick J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-10-01

    Ventilatory instability, reflected by enhanced acute hypoxic (AHVR) and hypercapnic (AHCVR) ventilatory responses is a fundamental component of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathogenesis. Intermittent hypoxia-induced inflammation is postulated to promote AHVR enhancement in OSA, although the role of inflammation in intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory changes in humans has not been examined. Thus, this study assessed the role of inflammation in intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory plasticity in healthy humans.In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover study design, 12 males were exposed to 6 h of intermittent hypoxia on three occasions. Prior to intermittent hypoxia exposures, participants ingested (for 4  days) either placebo or the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin (nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor) and celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). Pre- and post-intermittent hypoxia resting ventilation, AHVR, AHCVR and serum concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assessed.Pre-intermittent hypoxia resting ventilation, AHVR, AHCVR and TNF-α concentrations were similar across all three conditions (p≥0.093). Intermittent hypoxia increased resting ventilation and the AHVR similarly across all conditions (p=0.827), while the AHCVR was increased (p=0.003) and TNF-α was decreased (p=0.006) with only selective COX-2 inhibition.These findings indicate that inflammation does not contribute to human intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory plasticity. Moreover, selective COX-2 inhibition augmented the AHCVR following intermittent hypoxia exposure, suggesting that selective COX-2 inhibition could exacerbate OSA severity by increasing ventilatory instability.

  9. Hypoxia induces arginase II expression and increases viable human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell numbers via AMPKα1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianjing; Nelin, Leif D; Chen, Bernadette

    2017-04-01

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is one of the hallmark features of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. With only supportive treatment options available for this life-threatening disease, treating and preventing the proliferation of PASMCs is a viable therapeutic option. A key promoter of hypoxia-induced increases in the number of viable human PASMCs is arginase II, with attenuation of viable cell numbers following pharmacologic inhibition or siRNA knockdown of the enzyme. Additionally, increased levels of arginase have been demonstrated in the pulmonary vasculature of patients with pulmonary hypertension. The signaling pathways responsible for the hypoxic induction of arginase II in PASMCs, however, remain unknown. Hypoxia is a recognized activator of AMPK, which is known to be expressed in human PASMCs (hPASMCs). Activation of AMPK by hypoxia has been shown to promote cell survival in PASMCs. In addition, pharmacologic agents targeting AMPK have been shown to attenuate chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The present studies tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced arginase II expression in hPASMCs is mediated through AMPK signaling. We found that pharmacologic inhibitors of AMPK, as well as siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1, prevented hypoxia-induced arginase II. The hypoxia-induced increase in viable hPASMC numbers was also prevented following both pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown of AMPK. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of AMPK induced arginase II protein expression and viable cells numbers in hPASMCs. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Role of hydrogen peroxide in hypoxia-induced erythropoietin production.

    PubMed Central

    Fandrey, J; Frede, S; Jelkmann, W

    1994-01-01

    The addition of exogenous H2O2 inhibited hypoxia-induced erythropoietin (Epo) production in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Likewise, elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels by the addition of menadione or the catalase inhibitor, aminotriazole, dose-dependently lowered Epo production. The inhibitory effect of exogenous H2O2 on Epo formation could be completely overcome by co-incubation with catalase. When GSH levels in HepG2 cells were lowered, Epo production was more susceptible to H2O2-induced inhibition, indicating that H2O2 might affect thiol groups in regulatory proteins. Endogenous production of H2O2 in HepG2 cells was dependent on the pericellular O2 tension, being lowest under conditions of hypoxia. Our results support the hypothesis that an H2O2-generating haem protein might be part of the O2 sensor that controls Epo production. High H2O2 levels under conditions of normoxia suppress, whereas lower levels in hypoxic cells allow epo gene expression. Images Figure 1 PMID:7980410

  11. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Jiao, Chengjin; Su, Miao; Yang, Tao; Zhou, Lina; Peng, Renyi; Wang, Ranran; Wang, Chongying

    2013-09-01

    Flooding of soils often results in hypoxic conditions surrounding plant roots, which is a harmful abiotic stress to crops. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly diffusible, gaseous molecule that modulates cell signaling and is involved in hypoxia signaling in animal cells. However, there have been no previous studies of H2S in plant cells in response to hypoxia. The effects of H2S on hypoxia-induced root tip death were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) via analysis of endogenous H2S and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The activities of key enzymes involved in antioxidative and H2S metabolic pathways were determined using spectrophotometric assays. Ethylene was measured by gas chromatography. We found that exogenous H2S pretreatment dramatically alleviated hypoxia-induced root tip death by protecting root tip cell membranes from ROS damage induced by hypoxia and by stimulating a quiescence strategy through inhibiting ethylene production. Conversely, root tip death induced by hypoxia was strongly enhanced by inhibition of the key enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S biosynthesis. Our results demonstrated that exogenous H2S pretreatment significantly alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in pea seedlings and, therefore, enhances the tolerance of the plant to hypoxic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Biliverdin Reductase Mediates Hypoxia-Induced EMT via PI3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Yao, Ying; Han, Min; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wei, Juncheng; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding; Xu, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia in the renal parenchyma is thought to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to fibrogenesis and ultimately end-stage renal failure. Biliverdin reductase, recently identified as a serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase that may activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, is upregulated in response to reactive oxygen species that may accompany hypoxia. We investigated this potential role of biliverdin reductase in hypoxia-induced renal tubular EMT. Expression of biliverdin reductase was upregulated in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) cultured in hypoxic conditions (1% O2), and this was accompanied by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Inhibiting PI3K reversed these changes, consistent with EMT. In normoxic conditions, overexpression of biliverdin reductase promoted similar characteristics of EMT, which were also reversed by inhibiting PI3K. Furthermore, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown biliverdin reductase, we demonstrated that the enzyme associates with phosphorylated Akt and mediates the hypoxia-induced EMT phenotype. In vivo, expression of biliverdin reductase increased in the tubular epithelia of 5/6-nephrectomized rats, and immunohistochemistry of serial sections demonstrated similar localization of phosphorylated Akt and biliverdin reductase. In conclusion, biliverdin reductase mediates hypoxia-induced EMT through a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:18184861

  13. Endocrine targets of hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Chi; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine is an important and tightly regulated system for maintaining body homeostasis. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into blood stream to guide the target cells responding to all sorts of stimulations. For maintaining body homeostasis, the secretion and activity of a particular hormone needs to be adjusted in responding to environmental challenges such as changes in nutritional status or chronic stress. Hypoxia, a status caused by reduced oxygen availability or imbalance of oxygen consumption/supply in an organ or within a cell, is a stress that affects many physiological and pathological processes. Hypoxic stress in endocrine organs is especially critical because endocrine glands control body homeostasis. Local hypoxia affects not only the particular gland but also the downstream cells/organs regulated by hormones secreted from this gland. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that function as master regulators of oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies report that aberrant expression of HIFs in endocrine organs may result in the development and/or progression of diseases including diabetes, endometriosis, infertility and cancers. In this article, we will review recent findings in HIF-mediated endocrine organ dysfunction and the systemic syndromes caused by these disorders. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Structural integration in hypoxia-inducible factors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dalei; Potluri, Nalini; Lu, Jingping; Kim, Youngchang; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2015-08-20

    The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) coordinate cellular adaptations to low oxygen stress by regulating transcriptional programs in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and metabolism. These programs promote the growth and progression of many tumours, making HIFs attractive anticancer targets. Transcriptionally active HIFs consist of HIF-alpha and ARNT (also called HIF-1 beta) subunits. Here we describe crystal structures for each of mouse HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT heterodimers in states that include bound small molecules and their hypoxia response element. A highly integrated quaternary architecture is shared by HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT, wherein ARNT spirals around the outside of each HIF-alpha subunit. Five distinct pockets are observed that permit small-molecule binding, including PAS domain encapsulated sites and an interfacial cavity formed through subunit heterodimerization. The DNA-reading head rotates, extends and cooperates with a distal PAS domain to bind hypoxia response elements. HIF-alpha mutations linked to human cancers map to sensitive sites that establish DNA binding and the stability of PAS domains and pockets.

  15. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis: good and evil.

    PubMed

    Krock, Bryan L; Skuli, Nicolas; Simon, M Celeste

    2011-12-01

    The vascular network delivers oxygen (O(2)) and nutrients to all cells within the body. It is therefore not surprising that O(2) availability serves as a primary regulator of this complex organ. Most transcriptional responses to low O(2) are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), highly conserved transcription factors that control the expression of numerous angiogenic, metabolic, and cell cycle genes. Accordingly, the HIF pathway is currently viewed as a master regulator of angiogenesis. HIF modulation could provide therapeutic benefit for a wide array of pathologies, including cancer, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, wound healing, and neovascular eye diseases. Hypoxia promotes vessel growth by upregulating multiple pro-angiogenic pathways that mediate key aspects of endothelial, stromal, and vascular support cell biology. Interestingly, recent studies show that hypoxia influences additional aspects of angiogenesis, including vessel patterning, maturation, and function. Through extensive research, the integral role of hypoxia and HIF signaling in human disease is becoming increasingly clear. Consequently, a thorough understanding of how hypoxia regulates angiogenesis through an ever-expanding number of pathways in multiple cell types will be essential for the identification of new therapeutic targets and modalities.

  16. Agmatine Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Oxidant Response via Activating PI3K/Akt Pathway and Up-Regulating Nrf2 and HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianshen; Luo, Li; Hou, Fengyan; Fan, Xia; Yu, Jing; Ma, Wei; Tang, Wangqi; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Junyu; Kang, Wenyuan; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are key responders of inflammation and are closely related with oxidative stress. Activated macrophages can enhance oxygen depletion, which causes an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to further excessive inflammatory response and tissue damage. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects based on its antioxidant properties. However, the antioxidant effects of agmatine in peripheral tissues and cells, especially macrophages, remain unclear. In this study we explored the role of agmatine in mediating antioxidant effects in RAW 264.7 cells and studied its antioxidant mechanism. Our data demonstrate that agmatine is an activator of Nrf2 signaling that markedly enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increases nuclear Nrf2 protein level, up-regulates the expression of the Nrf2 downstream effector HO-1, and attenuates ROS generation induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We further demonstrated that the agmatine-induced activation of Nrf2 is likely through the PI3K/Akt pathway. LY294002, a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, abolished agmatine-induced HO-1 up-regulation and ROS suppression significantly. Inhibiting HO-1 pathway significantly attenuated the antioxidant effect of agmatine which the products of HO-1 enzymatic activity contributed to. Furthermore, the common membrane receptors of agmatine were evaluated, revealing that α2-adrenoceptor, I1-imidazoline receptor or I2-imidazoline receptor are not required by the antioxidant properties of agmatine. Taken together, our findings revealed that agmatine has antioxidant activity against LPS-induced ROS accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells involving HO-1 expression induced by Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt pathway activation. PMID:27685463

  17. Involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Gregg L

    2002-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) mediates transcriptional responses to hypoxia. HIF-1 is composed of an O2- and growth factor-regulated HIF-1alpha subunit and a constitutively-expressed HIF-1beta subunit. Four lines of evidence indicate that HIF-1 contributes to tumor progression. First, HIF-1 controls the expression of gene products that stimulate angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, and promote metabolic adaptation to hypoxia, such as glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, thus providing a molecular basis for involvement of HIF-1 in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Second, in mouse xenograft models, tumor growth and angiogenesis are inhibited by loss of HIF-1 activity and stimulated by HIF-1alpha overexpression. Third, immunohistochemical analyses of human tumor biopsies indicate that HIF-1alpha is overexpressed in common cancers and that the level of expression is correlated with tumor grade, angiogenesis, and mortality. Fourth, in addition to intratumoral hypoxia, genetic alterations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes induce HIF-1 activity.

  18. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor

    PubMed Central

    Bertolin, Agustina P.; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M.; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3′ UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available. PMID:27141964

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factor activation in diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Persson, Patrik; Palm, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Tissue hypoxia is present in kidneys from diabetic patients and constitutes a central pathway to diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This review summarizes regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and interventions towards the same for treatment of DKD. In the hypoxic diabetic kidney, HIF activity and the effects of HIF signaling seem to be cell-specific. In mesangial cells, elevated glucose levels induce HIF activity by a hypoxia-independent mechanism. Elevated HIF activity in glomerular cells promotes glomerulosclerosis and albuminuria, and inhibition of HIF protects glomerular integrity. However, tubular HIF activity is suppressed and HIF activation protects mitochondrial function and prevents development of diabetes-induced tissue hypoxia, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and proteinuria. No clinical treatment targeting kidney hypoxia is currently available, but development of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors to promote HIF activity to treat renal anemia could potentially also target diabetes-induced kidney hypoxia. Increasing HIF activity in the diabetic kidney may possess a novel target for treatment of DKD by improving kidney oxygen homeostasis. However, HIF-mediated glomerulosclerosis may be a concern. The kidney outcomes from the ongoing clinical trials using prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors may provide additional insights into the complex role of HIF signaling in the diabetic kidney.

  20. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Agustina P; Katz, Maximiliano J; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-09-19

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3' UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available.

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factors as neuroprotective agent in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Ben Sundra; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Sivanesan, Senthilkumar

    2017-03-01

    Beta amyloid (Aβ)-42 peptide and phosphorylated tau protein have been demonstrated as the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A gradual decline of oxygen and glucose supply to the brain during aging or hypoxia was manifested as a contributing factor to hypometabolism. The brain regions susceptible to hypometabolism are the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and cognition-associated neocortical regions like parietal, temporal and frontal cortex. In AD patients, the brain regions with hypometabolism can trigger overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and decrease the clearance of Aβ. Aβ and hypoxia can evoke inflammation, oxidative stress and finally neuronal cell death. Among the transcription factors involved in the compensatory mechanism, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) has a major role in the cellular adaptation by inducing the expression of several proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Therefore, maintaining the HIF-1α level by inhibiting the prolyl 4-hydroxylase was effective to attenuate the nerve damage during hypoxia and postpone the incidence of AD. Agents such as iron chelators, and heavy metals like cobalt and nickel were demonstrated to be effective in maintaining the HIF-1α level in the nerve. This review article discusses the possible role of HIF-1α as a neuroprotector in AD and the future perspectives. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. The Protective Effect of Salidroside on Hypoxia-Induced Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Fan; Yan, Jun-Feng; Yang, Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Gang; Fu, Hui-Ying; Lv, Bo-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Salidroside, a major active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has a long application in Chinese medical history. It has widely demonstrated effects on fatigue, psychological stress, and depression and exhibits potential antihypoxia activity. Emerging evidence shows that hypoxia is an important independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced phenotypic transformation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs). Our results showed that salidroside decreased the hypoxia-induced expression of collagen and content of vimentin, a corpus cavernosum smooth muscle synthetic protein, in vitro. Simultaneously, salidroside increased expression of the CCSMC contractile proteins, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. In vivo, similarly, the expressions of collagen and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were increased in bilateral cavernous neurectomy (BCN) rats while they were decreased in the salidroside group. Among the phenotypic proteins, α-SMA and desmin increased and vimentin decreased after treating BCN rats with salidroside compared with the BCN alone group. Overall, our results demonstrate that salidroside has the ability to oppose hypoxia and can inhibit the CCSMC phenotypic transformation induced by hypoxia. Salidroside may provide a new treatment method for ED.

  3. [Protective effect of salidroside against high altitude hypoxia-induced brain injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoru; Zhang, Xiangnan; Li, Dan; Li, Bin; Wang, Jiye; Meng, Shanshan; Luo, Wenjing; Zhang, Wenbin

    2015-10-01

    To observe the protective effect of salidroside against brain injury in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, and investigate the molecular mechanism of salidroside in the prevention of hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury. Rats were placed in experiment module simulating 6000 m altitude to establish acute hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury models. Their respiratory frequency was observed and recorded. Cell apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) was detected by TUNEL assay; the expressions of Ras homolog family member A (RhoA), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) were detected by Western blotting. After acute exposure to 6000 m altitude, the respiratory frequency of the rats increased remarkably. The simulation of hypobaric hypoxia induced cell apoptosis in hippocampal DG region, and salidroside intervention inhibited the process of cell apoptosis. The expressions of RhoA, p-ERK, p-JNK decreased after hypobaric hypoxia exposure. Salidroside intervention reversed RhoA expression and raised the levels of p-ERK and p-JNK. Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia can induce cell apoptosis in rat hippocampal DG, and salidroside can protect the cells from the exposure-induced apoptosis.

  4. The Protective Effect of Salidroside on Hypoxia-Induced Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Salidroside, a major active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has a long application in Chinese medical history. It has widely demonstrated effects on fatigue, psychological stress, and depression and exhibits potential antihypoxia activity. Emerging evidence shows that hypoxia is an important independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced phenotypic transformation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs). Our results showed that salidroside decreased the hypoxia-induced expression of collagen and content of vimentin, a corpus cavernosum smooth muscle synthetic protein, in vitro. Simultaneously, salidroside increased expression of the CCSMC contractile proteins, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. In vivo, similarly, the expressions of collagen and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were increased in bilateral cavernous neurectomy (BCN) rats while they were decreased in the salidroside group. Among the phenotypic proteins, α-SMA and desmin increased and vimentin decreased after treating BCN rats with salidroside compared with the BCN alone group. Overall, our results demonstrate that salidroside has the ability to oppose hypoxia and can inhibit the CCSMC phenotypic transformation induced by hypoxia. Salidroside may provide a new treatment method for ED. PMID:28798798

  5. Hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Song, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Song, Q.H.

    2010-04-16

    Angiogenesis and apoptosis are reciprocal processes in endothelial cells. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, has been found to have angiogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2 in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion mouse model was used and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Bcl-2 expression increased in a time-dependent manner in response to hypoxia from 2 to 72 h. Peak expression occurred at 12 h (3- to 4-fold, p < 0.05). p38 inhibitor (SB203580) blocked hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression, whereas PKC, ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors did not. Knockdown of Bcl-2 resulted in decreased HAECs' proliferation and migration. Over-expression of Bcl-2 increased HAECs' tubule formation, whereas knockdown of Bcl-2 inhibited this process. In this model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, Bcl-2 expression was increased and was associated with increased p38 MAPK activation. Our results showed that hypoxia induces Bcl-2 expression in HAECs via p38 MAPK pathway.

  6. Agmatine Induced NO Dependent Rat Mesenteric Artery Relaxation and its Impairment in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gadkari, Tushar V.; Cortes, Natalie; Madrasi, Kumpal; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M.; Joshi, Mahesh S.

    2013-01-01

    L-arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3rd-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. L-arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8 ± 0.7 mM; n = 9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3 ± 1.3 mM; n = 5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7 ± 12.1 μM; n = 22), which was compromised by L-NAME (L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9 ± 23.4 μM; n = 5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:23994446

  7. Agmatine induced NO dependent rat mesenteric artery relaxation and its impairment in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, Tushar V; Cortes, Natalie; Madrasi, Kumpal; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M; Joshi, Mahesh S

    2013-11-30

    l-Arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3rd-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. l-Arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8±0.7mM; n=9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3±1.3mM; n=5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7±12.1μM; n=22), which was compromised by l-NAME (l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9±23.4μM; n=5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Agmatine attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced anxiety, depression-like behaviours and cognitive impairment by modulating nitrergic signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gawali, Nitin B; Bulani, Vipin D; Gursahani, Malvika S; Deshpande, Padmini S; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Juvekar, Archana R

    2017-05-15

    Agmatine, a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, has shown to exert numerous effects on the CNS. Chronic stress is a risk factor for development of depression, anxiety and deterioration of cognitive performance. Compelling evidences indicate an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in these disorders. Hence, investigation of the beneficial effects of agmatine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression, anxiety and cognitive performance with the involvement of nitrergic pathway was undertaken. Mice were subjected to a battery of stressors for 28days. Agmatine (20 and 40mg/kg, i.p.) alone and in combination with NO modulators like L-NAME (15mg/kg, i.p.) and l-arginine (400mg/kg i.p.) were administered daily. The results showed that 4-weeks CUMS produces significant depression and anxiety-like behaviour. Stressed mice have also shown a significant high serum corticosterone (CORT) and low BDNF level. Chronic treatment with agmatine produced significant antidepressant-like behaviour in forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test, whereas, anxiolytic-like behaviour in elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) with improved cognitive impairment in Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, agmatine administration reduced the levels of acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress markers. In addition, agmatine treatment significantly increased the BDNF level and inhibited serum CORT level in stressed mice. Treatment with L-NAME (15mg/kg) potentiated the effect of agmatine whereas l-arginine abolished the anxiolytic, antidepressant and neuroprotective effects of agmatine. Agmatine showed marked effect on depression and anxiety-like behaviour in mice through nitrergic pathway, which may be related to modulation of oxidative-nitrergic stress, CORT and BDNF levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypoxia Induced Energy Stress Regulates mRNA Translation and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liping; Cash, Timothy P.; Jones, Russell G.; Keith, Brian; Thompson, Craig B.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen deprivation, or hypoxia, has profound effects on cell metabolism and growth. Cells can adapt to low O2 in part through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We report here that hypoxia inhibits mRNA translation by suppressing multiple key regulators including eIF2α, eEF2, and the mTOR effectors 4EBP1, p70S6K, and rpS6, independent of HIF. Hypoxia results in energy starvation and activation of the AMPK/TSC2/Rheb/mTOR pathway. Hypoxic AMPK activation also leads to eEF2 inhibition. Moreover, hypoxic effects on cellular bioenergetics and mTOR inhibition increase over time. Mutation of the TSC2 tumor suppressor gene confers a growth advantage to cells by repressing hypoxic mTOR inhibition and hypoxia-induced G1 arrest. Together, eIF2α, eEF2 and mTOR inhibition represent important HIF-independent mechanisms of energy conservation which promote survival under low O2 conditions. PMID:16483933

  10. Novel Pathway for Hypoxia-Induced Proliferation and Migration in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Involvement of HIF-1α, FASN, and mTORC1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jik; Ryu, Jung Min; Jung, Young Hyun; Oh, Sang Yub; Lee, Sei-Jung; Han, Ho Jae

    2015-07-01

    The control of stem cells by oxygen signaling is an important way to improve various stem cell physiological functions and metabolic nutrient alteration. Lipid metabolism alteration via hypoxia is thought to be a key factor in controlling stem cell fate and function. However, the interaction between hypoxia and the metabolic and functional changes to stem cells is incompletely described. This study aimed to identify hypoxia-inducible lipid metabolic enzymes that can regulate umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation and migration and to demonstrate the signaling pathway that controls functional change in UCB-hMSCs. Our results indicate that hypoxia treatment stimulates UCB-hMSC proliferation, and expression of two lipogenic enzymes: fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). FASN but not SCD1 is a key enzyme for regulation of UCB-hMSC proliferation and migration. Hypoxia-induced FASN expression was controlled by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α)/SCAP/SREBP1 pathway. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was phosphorylated by hypoxia, whereas inhibition of FASN by cerulenin suppressed hypoxia-induced mTOR phosphorylation as well as UCB-hMSC proliferation and migration. RAPTOR small interfering RNA transfection significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced proliferation and migration. Hypoxia-induced mTOR also regulated CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and F-actin expression as well as that of c-myc, p-cofilin, profilin, and Rho GTPase. Taken together, the results suggest that mTORC1 mainly regulates UCB-hMSC proliferation and migration under hypoxia conditions via control of cell cycle and F-actin organization modulating factors. In conclusion, the HIF-1α/FASN/mTORC1 axis is a key pathway linking hypoxia-induced lipid metabolism with proliferation and migration in UCB-hMSCs. Stem Cells 2015;33:2182-2195.

  11. Agmatine enhances the antidepressant-like effect of lithium in mouse forced swimming test through NMDA pathway.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Gholmreza; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Imran-Khan, Muhammad; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Samira; Haddadi, Nazgol-Sadat; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-04-01

    Depression is one the world leading global burdens leading to various comorbidities. Lithium as a mainstay in the treatment of depression is still considered gold standard treatment. Similar to lithium another agent agmatine has also central protective role against depression. Since, both agmatine and lithium modulate various effects through interaction with NMDA receptor, therefore, in current study we aimed to investigate the synergistic antidepressant-like effect of agmatine with lithium in mouse force swimming test. Also to know whether if such effect is due to interaction with NMDA receptor. In our present study we found that when potent dose of lithium (30mg/kg) was administered, it significantly decreased the immobility time. Also, when subeffective dose of agmatine (0.01mg/kg) was coadministered with subeffective dose of lithium (3mg/kg), it potentiated the antidepressant-like effect of subeffective dose of lithium. For the involvement of NMDA receptor in such effect, we administered NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.05mg/kg) with a combination of subeffective dose of lithium (3mg/kg) and agmatine (0.001mg/kg). A significant antidepressant-like effect was observed. Furthermore, when subeffective dose (50 and 75mg/kg) of NMDA was given it inhibited the synergistic effect of agmatine (0.01mg/kg) with lithium (3mg/kg). Hence, our finding demonstrate that agmatine have synergistic effect with lithium which is mediated by NMDA receptor pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Agmatine rescues autistic behaviors in the valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Oh, Hyun Ah; Yang, Sung Min; Ko, Mee Jung; Han, Seol-Heui; Banerjee, Sourav; Shin, Chan Young

    2017-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an immensely challenging developmental disorder characterized primarily by two core behavioral symptoms of social communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors. Investigating the etiological process and identifying an appropriate therapeutic target remain as formidable challenges to overcome ASD due to numerous risk factors and complex symptoms associated with the disorder. Among the various mechanisms that contribute to ASD, the maintenance of excitation and inhibition balance emerged as a key factor to regulate proper functioning of neuronal circuitry. Interestingly, our previous study involving the valproic acid animal model of autism (VPA animal model) has demonstrated excitatory-inhibitory imbalance (E/I imbalance) due to enhanced differentiation of glutamatergic neurons and reduced GABAergic neurons. Here, we investigated the potential of agmatine, an endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, as a novel therapeutic candidate in ameliorating ASD symptoms by modulating E/I imbalance using the VPA animal model. We observed that a single treatment of agmatine rescued the impaired social behaviors as well as hyperactive and repetitive behaviors in the VPA animal model. We also observed that agmatine treatment rescued the overly activated ERK1/2 signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of VPA animal models, possibly, by modulating over-excitability due to enhanced excitatory neural circuit. Taken together, our results have provided experimental evidence suggesting a possible therapeutic role of agmatine in ameliorating ASD-like symptoms in the VPA animal model of ASD.

  13. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor as an Angiogenic Master Switch

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) regulate the transcription of genes that mediate the response to hypoxia. HIFs are constantly expressed and degraded under normoxia, but stabilized under hypoxia. HIFs have been widely studied in physiological and pathological conditions and have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In clinical settings, the HIF pathway has been studied for its role in inhibiting carcinogenesis. HIFs might also play a protective role in the pathology of ischemic diseases. Clinical trials of therapeutic angiogenesis after the administration of a single growth factor have yielded unsatisfactory or controversial results, possibly because the coordinated activity of different HIF-induced factors is necessary to induce mature vessel formation. Thus, manipulation of HIF activity to simultaneously induce a spectrum of angiogenic factors offers a superior strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis. Because HIF-2α plays an essential role in vascular remodeling, manipulation of HIF-2α is a promising approach to the treatment of ischemic diseases caused by arterial obstruction, where insufficient development of collateral vessels impedes effective therapy. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit e (eIF3e)/INT6 interacts specifically with HIF-2α and induces the proteasome inhibitor-sensitive degradation of HIF-2α, independent of hypoxia and von Hippel-Lindau protein. Treatment with eIF3e/INT6 siRNA stabilizes HIF-2α activity even under normoxic conditions and induces the expression of several angiogenic factors, at levels sufficient to produce functional arteries and veins in vivo. We have demonstrated that administration of eIF3e/INT6 siRNA to ischemic limbs or cold-injured brains reduces ischemic damage in animal models. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between HIFs and vascular diseases. We also discuss novel oxygen-independent regulatory proteins that bind HIF-α and the implications

  14. Discovery of Indenopyrazoles as a New Class of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The indenopyrazole framework was investigated as a new class of HIF-1α inhibitors. Indenopyrazole 2l was found to most strongly inhibit the hypoxia-induced HIF-1α transcriptional activity (IC50 = 0.014 μM) among all of the known compounds having relatively simple structures, unlike manassantins. Indenopyrazole 2l suppressed HIF-1α transcriptional activity without affecting both HIF-1α protein accumulation and HIF-1α/HIF-1β heterodimerization in nuclei under the hypoxic conditions, suggesting that 2l probably affected the transcriptional pathway induced by the HIF-1α/HIF-1β heterodimer. PMID:24900662

  15. Comparison of agmatine with moxonidine and rilmenidine in morphine dependence in vitro: role of imidazoline I(1) receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Wu, Ning; Su, Rui-Bin; Liu, Yin; Lu, Xin-Qiang; Li, Jin

    2009-06-10

    Moxonidine and rilmenidine are classical imidazoline I(1) receptor agonists, and used as anti-hypertension drugs in clinical practice. Agmatine is an imidazoline I(1) receptor endogenous ligand as well as its agonist, but more and more evidences suggest it has no influence on blood pressure. In the present study we compared the effects of moxonidine, rilmenidine and agmatine in the development of morphine dependence, and investigated the role of imidazoline I(1) receptor in the effects of these agents. Chinese hamster ovary cells co-expressing mu opioid receptor and imidazoline receptor antisera-selected protein (IRAS), the strong candidate for imidazoline I(1) receptor, were used as the cell line. cAMP overshoot, which represents an opioid dependent state in vitro, was measured to study the effects on morphine dependence. siRNA against IRAS was carried out to investigate the role of imidazoline I(1) receptor. Moxonidine and rilmenidine (0.01-10 microM) were ineffective on cAMP level in the cells when given alone, and failed to inhibit chronic morphine exposure, naloxone-precipitated cAMP overshoot when co-pretreated with morphine. Agmatine (0.01-10 microM) by itself was ineffective but co-pretreated with morphine concentration-dependently inhibited chronic morphine exposure, naloxone-precipitated cAMP overshoot in the cells. Furthermore, we found that the inhibitory effect of agmatine (100 nM and 1 microM) on cAMP overshoot was significantly reduced by siRNA against IRAS. This study indicates that agmatine can inhibit the development of morphine dependence in vitro, whereas moxonidine and rilmenidine have no the effect. Imidazoline I(1) receptor plays an important role in agmatine inhibiting morphine dependence.

  16. Hypoxia induces connexin 43 dysregulation by modulating matrix metalloproteinases via MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianghong; Huang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Alain, Laval Andy

    2013-12-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a major structural protein found in the gap junctions of the ventricular myocardium and a major determinant of its electrical properties. The effects of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, transcription factor NF-kB, and activator protein-1 (AP-1)/c-Jun on the regulation of Cx43 gene expression in H9c2 cardiomyocytes were assessed. The MAPK signaling pathway (MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K) and transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1/c-Jun were inhibited, then Cx43 expression was assessed using Western blot analysis, and MMP-9 activity was assessed using gelatin zymography. Hypoxia decreased the Cx43 protein level by approximately 30-50 %. Doxycycline (10 μg/mL), an inhibitor of MMP, markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced downregulation of Cx43 protein expression at 6 h. The hypoxia-induced decrease in Cx43 protein expression was significantly reversed by U0126 (10 μM), a MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor, at 6 and 12 h; LY294002 (30 μM), a PI3K inhibitor, downregulated Cx43 expression. Hypoxia-induced MMP-9 activation was inhibited by treatment with LY294002, U0126, and, most especially, U0126. JSH-23 (30 μM), an NF-kB inhibitor, and SP600125 (10 μM), an AP-1/c-Jun inhibitor, attenuated the loss of Cx43. These results suggest that MAPK signaling and the activities NF-kB and MMPs play an important roles in the regulation of Cx43 expression.

  17. Hypoxia-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Cause Chromosomal Abnormalities in Endothelial Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Yasuhiro; Maishi, Nako; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Inoue, Nobuo; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    There is much evidence that hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor progression. In an earlier study, we reported abnormal phenotypes of tumor-associated endothelial cells such as those resistant to chemotherapy and chromosomal instability. Here we investigated the role of hypoxia in the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells. Tumor-associated endothelial cells isolated from human tumor xenografts showed chromosomal abnormalities, >30% of which were aneuploidy. Aneuploidy of the tumor-associated endothelial cells was also shown by simultaneous in-situ hybridization for chromosome 17 and by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD31 antibody for endothelial staining. The aneuploid cells were surrounded by a pimonidazole-positive area, indicating hypoxia. Human microvascular endothelial cells expressed hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A in response to either hypoxia or hypoxia-reoxygenation, and in these conditions, they acquired aneuploidy in 7 days. Induction of aneuploidy was inhibited by either inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor or by inhibition of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. These results indicate that hypoxia induces chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells through the induction of reactive oxygen species and excess signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24260373

  18. The role of two families of bacterial enzymes in putrescine synthesis from agmatine via agmatine deiminase.

    PubMed

    Landete, José M; Arena, Mario E; Pardo, Isabel; Manca de Nadra, María C; Ferrer, Sergi

    2010-12-01

    Putrescine, one of the main biogenic amines associated to microbial food spoilage, can be formed by bacteria from arginine via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), or from agmatine via agmatine deiminase (AgDI). This study aims to correlate putrescine production from agmatine to the pathway involving N-carbamoylputrescine formation via AdDI (the aguA product) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (the aguB product), or putrescine carbamoyltransferase (the ptcA product) in bacteria. PCR methods were developed to detect the two genes involved in putrescine production from agmatine. Putrescine production from agmatine could be linked to the aguA and ptcA genes in Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 11700, and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. By contrast Lactobacillus sakei 23K was unable to produce putrescine, and although a fragment of DNA corresponding to the gene aguA was amplified, no amplification was observed for the ptcA gene. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces putrescine and is reported to harbour aguA and aguB genes, responsible for agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase activities. The enzyme from P. aeruginosa PAO1 that converts N-carbamoylputrescine to putrescine (the aguB product) is different from other microorganisms studied (the ptcA product). Therefore, the aguB gene from P. aeruginosa PAO1 could not be amplified with ptcA-specific primers. The aguB and ptcA genes have frequently been erroneously annotated in the past, as in fact these two enzymes are neither homologous nor analogous. Furthermore, the aguA, aguB and ptcA sequences available from GenBank were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, revealing that gram-positive bacteria harboured ptcA, whereas gram-negative bacteria harbour aguB. This paper also discusses the role of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) in acid stress resistance.

  19. The hypoxia-inducible miR-429 regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in human endothelial cells through a negative feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Kochan, Kinga; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Ochocka, Renata J.; Collawn, James F.; Bartoszewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) 1 and 2 are dimeric α/β transcription factors that regulate cellular responses to low oxygen. HIF-1 is induced first, whereas HIF-2 is associated with chronic hypoxia. To determine how HIF1A mRNA, the inducible subunit of HIF-1, is regulated during hypoxia, we followed HIF1A mRNA levels in primary HUVECs over 24 hours using quantitative PCR. HIF1A and VEGF A (VEGFA) mRNA, a transcriptional target of HIF-1, increased ∼2.5- and 8-fold at 2–4 hours, respectively. To determine how the mRNAs were regulated, we identified a microRNA (miRNA), miR-429, that destabilized HIF1A message and decreased VEGFA mRNA by inhibiting HIF1A. Target protector analysis, which interferes with miRNA-mRNA complex formation, confirmed that miR-429 targeted HIF1A message. Desferoxamine treatment, which inhibits the hydroxylases that promote HIF-1α protein degradation, stabilized HIF-1 activity during normoxic conditions and elevated miR-429 levels, demonstrating that HIF-1 promotes miR-429 expression. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis indicated that inhibition of miRNA-429 in HUVECs up-regulated 209 mRNAs, a number of which regulate angiogenesis. The results demonstrate that HIF-1 is in a negative regulatory loop with miR-429, that miR-429 attenuates HIF-1 activity by decreasing HIF1A message during the early stages of hypoxia before HIF-2 is activated, and this regulatory network helps explain the HIF-1 transition to HIF-2 during chronic hypoxia in endothelial cells.—Bartoszewska, S., Kochan, K., Piotrowski, A., Kamysz, W., Ochocka, R. J., Collawn, J. F., Bartoszewski, R. The hypoxia-inducible miR-429 regulates hypoxia hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in human endothelial cells through a negative feedback loop. PMID:25550463

  20. KNK437, abrogates hypoxia-induced radioresistance by dual targeting of the AKT and HIF-1{alpha} survival pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Oommen, Deepu; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KNK437, a benzylidene lactam compound, is a novel radiosensitizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KNK437 inhibits AKT signaling and abrogates the accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} under hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KNK437 abrogates hypoxia induced resistance to radiation. -- Abstract: KNK437 is a benzylidene lactam compound known to inhibit stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs promote radioresistance and play a major role in stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}). HIF-1{alpha} is widely responsible for tumor resistance to radiation under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that KNK437 sensitizes cancer cells to radiation and overrides hypoxia-induced radioresistance via destabilizing HIF-1{alpha}. Treatment of human cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T98G with KNK437 sensitized them to ionizing radiation (IR). Surprisingly, IR did not induce HSPs in these cell lines. As hypothesized, KNK437 abrogated the accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} in hypoxic cells. However, there was no induction of HSPs under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, the proteosome inhibitor MG132 did not restore HIF-1{alpha} levels in KNK437-treated cells. This suggested that the absence of HIF-1{alpha} in hypoxic cells was not due to the enhanced protein degradation. HIF-1{alpha} is mainly regulated at the level of post-transcription and AKT is known to modulate the translation of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with KNK437 inhibited AKT signaling. Furthermore, down regulation of AKT by siRNA abrogated HIF-1{alpha} levels under hypoxia. Interestingly, KNK437 reduced cell survival in hypoxic conditions and inhibited hypoxia-induced resistance to radiation. Taken together, these data suggest that KNK437 is an effective radiosensitizer that targets multiple pro-survival stress response pathways.

  1. Resveratrol prevents hypoxia-induced arginase II expression and proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via Akt-dependent signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianjing; Meng, Xiaomei; Slutzky, Jessica L.; Calvert, Andrea E.; Chicoine, Louis G.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation plays a fundamental role in the vascular remodeling seen in pulmonary hypertensive diseases associated with hypoxia. Arginase II, an enzyme regulating the first step in polyamine and proline synthesis, has been shown to play a critical role in hypoxia-induced proliferation of human PASMC (hPASMC). In addition, there is evidence that patients with pulmonary hypertension have elevated levels of arginase in the vascular wall. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in red wine and grape skins, has diverse biochemical and physiological actions including antiproliferative properties. Furthermore, resveratrol has been shown to attenuate right ventricular and pulmonary artery remodeling, both pathological components of pulmonary hypertension. The present studies tested the hypothesis that resveratrol would prevent hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by inhibiting hypoxia-induced arginase II expression. Our data indicate that hypoxia-induced hPASMC proliferation is abrogated following treatment with resveratrol. In addition, the hypoxic induction of arginase II was directly attenuated by resveratrol treatment. Furthermore, we found that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on arginase II in hPASMC was mediated through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Supporting these in vitro findings, resveratrol normalized right ventricular hypertrophy in an in vivo neonatal rat model of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. These novel data support the notion that resveratrol may be a potential therapeutic agent in pulmonary hypertension by preventing PASMC arginase II induction and proliferation. PMID:24951775

  2. Resveratrol prevents hypoxia-induced arginase II expression and proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via Akt-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bernadette; Xue, Jianjing; Meng, Xiaomei; Slutzky, Jessica L; Calvert, Andrea E; Chicoine, Louis G

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation plays a fundamental role in the vascular remodeling seen in pulmonary hypertensive diseases associated with hypoxia. Arginase II, an enzyme regulating the first step in polyamine and proline synthesis, has been shown to play a critical role in hypoxia-induced proliferation of human PASMC (hPASMC). In addition, there is evidence that patients with pulmonary hypertension have elevated levels of arginase in the vascular wall. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in red wine and grape skins, has diverse biochemical and physiological actions including antiproliferative properties. Furthermore, resveratrol has been shown to attenuate right ventricular and pulmonary artery remodeling, both pathological components of pulmonary hypertension. The present studies tested the hypothesis that resveratrol would prevent hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by inhibiting hypoxia-induced arginase II expression. Our data indicate that hypoxia-induced hPASMC proliferation is abrogated following treatment with resveratrol. In addition, the hypoxic induction of arginase II was directly attenuated by resveratrol treatment. Furthermore, we found that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on arginase II in hPASMC was mediated through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Supporting these in vitro findings, resveratrol normalized right ventricular hypertrophy in an in vivo neonatal rat model of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. These novel data support the notion that resveratrol may be a potential therapeutic agent in pulmonary hypertension by preventing PASMC arginase II induction and proliferation.

  3. Cytoprotective effects of fisetin against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Ho, Yi-Ru; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Po-Kong; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol compound of flavonoids, exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytoprotective effect of fisetin and the underlying molecular mechanism against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells. The results of this study showed that fisetin significantly restored the cell viability of PC12 cells under both cobalt chloride (CoCl₂)- and low oxygen-induced hypoxic conditions. Treatment with fisetin successfully reduced the CoCl₂-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was accompanied by an increase in the cell viability of PC12 cells. Furthermore, we found that treatment of PC12 cells with fisetin markedly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), its nuclear accumulation and the hypoxia-response element (HRE)-driven transcriptional activation. The fisetin-mediated cytoprotection during CoCl₂ exposure was significantly attenuated through the administration of HIF-1α siRNA. Moreover, we demonstrated that MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitors significantly blocked the increase in cell survival that was induced by fisetin treatment under hypoxic conditions. Consistently, increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and Akt proteins was observed in PC12 cells treated with fisetin. However, the fisetin-induced HRE-driven transcription was not affected by inhibition of these kinase signaling pathways. Current results reveal for the first time that fisetin promotes cell survival and protects against hypoxia-induced cell death through ROS scavenging and the activation of HIF1α-, MAPK/ERK-, p38 MAPK- and PI3 K/Akt-dependent signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

  4. Mechanisms Of Hypoxia-Induced Immune Escape In Cancer And Their Regulation By Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Graham, Charles; Barsoum, Ivraym; Kim, Judy; Black, Madison; Siemens, Robert D

    2015-08-01

    The acquired ability of tumour cells to avoid destruction by immune effector mechanisms (immune escape) is important for malignant progression. Also associated with malignant progression is tumour hypoxia, which induces aggressive phenotypes such as invasion, metastasis and drug resistance in cancer cells. Our studies revealed that hypoxia contributes to escape from innate immunity by increasing tumour cell expression of the metalloproteinase ADAM10 in a manner dependent on accumulation of the alpha subunit of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α). Increased ADAM10 expression leads to shedding of the NK cell-activating ligand, MICA, from the surface of tumour cells, thereby resulting in resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis. Our more recent studies demonstrated that hypoxia, also via HIF-1α accumulation, increases the expression of the inhibitory co-stimulatory ligand PD-L1 on tumour cells. Elevated PD-L1 expression leads to escape from adaptive immunity via increased apoptosis of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia-induced acquisition of malignant phenotypes, including immune escape, is in part due to impaired nitric oxide (NO)-mediated activation of cGMP signalling and that restoration of cGMP signalling prevents such hypoxic responses. We have shown that NO/cGMP signalling inhibits hypoxia-induced malignant phenotypes likely in part by interfering with HIF-1α accumulation via a mechanism involving calpain. These findings indicate that activation of NO/cGMP signalling may have useful applications in cancer therapy.

  5. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by GABA in the rostral parapyramidal area of the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Osaka, T

    2014-05-16

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature (Tc) in a variety of animals. The neuronal mechanisms of this response include, at least in part, glutamatergic activation in the lateral preoptic area (LPO) of the hypothalamus. As the sympathetic premotor neurons in the medulla oblongata constitute a cardinal relay station in the descending neuronal pathway from the hypothalamus for thermoregulation, their inhibition can also be critically involved in the mechanisms of the hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Here, I examined the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced hypothermia is mediated by glutamate-responsive neurons in the LPO that activate GABAergic transmission in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) and neighboring parapyramidal region (PPy) of the medulla oblongata in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. Unilateral microinjection of GABA (15nmol) into the rRPa and PPy regions elicited a prompt increase in tail skin temperature (Ts) and decreases in Tc, oxygen consumption rate (VO2), and heart rate. Next, when the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide (bicuculline methiodide (BMI), 10pmol) alone was microinjected into the rRPa, it elicited unexpected contradictory responses: simultaneous increases in Ts, VO2 and heart rate and a decrease in Tc. Then, when BMI was microinjected bilaterally into the PPy, no direct effect on Ts was seen; and thermogenic and tachycardic responses were slight. However, pretreatment of the PPy with BMI, but not vehicle saline, greatly attenuated the hypothermic responses evoked by hypoxic (10%O2-90%N2, 5min) ventilation or bilateral microinjections of glutamate (5nmol, each side) into the LPO. The results suggest that hypoxia-induced hypothermia was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of GABAA receptors in the PPy.

  6. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus is attenuated by telmisartan through suppression of iNOS/NO and inhibition of lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Guo, Xueling; Deng, Yan; Zhu, Die; Shang, Jin; Liu, Huiguo

    2015-01-30

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), but little is known about the precise mechanism of OSAS-induced AD. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play key roles in the development of AD. Several studies have confirmed that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, beneficially regulates NOS and NO. Here, we examined the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan against hippocampal apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the most characteristic pathophysiological change of OSAS. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 8h of intermittent hypoxia per day with or without telmisartan for eight weeks. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region, NOS activity, NO content, and the presence of inflammatory agents and radical oxygen species in the hippocampus were determined. The results showed that CIH activated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), increased NO content, and enhanced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in the hippocampus. Treatment with telmisartan inhibited excessive iNOS and NO generation and reduced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses. In addition, telmisartan significantly ameliorated the hippocampal apoptosis induced by CIH. In conclusion, Pre-CIH telmisartan administration attenuated CIH-induced hippocampal apoptosis partly by regulating NOS activity, inhibiting excessive NO generation, and reducing lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through the SIRT1-FoxO1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Juan; Yu, Wei; Fu, Yu-Cai; Wang, Xin; Li, Ji-Lin; Wang, Wei

    2009-01-16

    Loss of cardiomyocytes through apoptosis has been proposed as a cause of ventricular remodeling and heart failure. Ischemia- and hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes reportedly plays an important role in many cardiac pathologies. We investigated whether resveratrol (Res) has direct cytoprotective effects against ischemia/hypoxia for cardiomyocytes. Exposure of H9c2 embryonic rat heart-derived cells to hypoxia for 24h caused a significant increase in apoptosis, as evaluated by TUNEL and flow cytometry, while treatment with 20 microM Res greatly decreased hypoxia-induced apoptosis in these cells. Exposure of the cells to Res (20 microM) caused rapid activation of SIRT1, which had a dual effect on FoxO1 function: SIRT1 increased FoxO1's ability to induce cell cycle arrest, but inhibited FoxO1's ability to induce cell death. This effect could be reversed by SIRT1 inhibition. Results of our study indicate that Res inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis via the SIRT1-FoxO1 pathway in H9c2 cells. This polyphenol may have potential in preventing cardiovascular disease, especially in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.

  8. Apelin Protects Primary Rat Retinal Pericytes from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yong; Feng, Jing; Jiang, Yan Rong

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are a population of cells that participate in normal vessel architecture and regulate permeability. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes. To date, the effect of apelin on pericyte is not clear. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protection mechanisms of apelin, with regard to primary rat retinal pericytes under hypoxia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that pericytes colocalized with APJ in the fibrovascular membranes dissected from proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. In the in vitro studies, we first demonstrated that the expression of apelin/APJ was upregulated in pericytes under hypoxia, and apelin increased pericytes proliferation and migration. Moreover, knockdown of apelin in pericyte was achieved via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. After the inhibition of apelin, pericytes proliferation was inhibited significantly in hypoxia culture condition. Furthermore, exogenous recombinant apelin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis through downregulating active-caspase 3 expression and increasing the ratio of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in pericytes. These results suggest that apelin suppressed hypoxia-induced pericytes injury, which indicated that apelin could be a potential therapeutic target for retinal angiogenic diseases. PMID:26491547

  9. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeong-jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  10. Hypoxia Induces Autophagy through Translational Up-Regulation of Lysosomal Proteins in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Chih; Chang, Chiao-May; Sun, H. Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia occurs in a wide variety of physiological and pathological conditions, including tumorigenesis. Tumor cells have to adapt to hypoxia by altering their gene expression and protein synthesis. Here, we showed that hypoxia inhibits translation through activation of PERK and inactivation of mTOR in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Prolonged hypoxia (1% O2, 16 h) dramatically inhibits general translation in HCT116 cells, yet selected mRNAs remain efficiently translated under such a condition. Using microarray analysis of polysome- associated mRNAs, we identified a large number of hypoxia-regulated genes at the translational level. Efficiently translated mRNAs during hypoxia were validated by polysome profiling and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that many of the up-regulated genes are involved in lysosome, glycan and lipid metabolism, antigen presentation, cell adhesion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. The majority of down-regulated genes are involved in apoptosis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. Further investigation showed that hypoxia induces lysosomal autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction through translational regulation in HCT116 cells. The abundance of several translation factors and the mTOR kinase activity are involved in hypoxia-induced mitochondrial autophagy in HCT116 cells. Our studies highlight the importance of translational regulation for tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:27078027

  11. A neurochemical mechanism for hypoxia-induced anapyrexia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Rocha, Maria J A; Branco, Luiz G S

    2002-12-01

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in body temperature, a response that has been termed anapyrexia, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced anapyrexia results from the activation of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent pathways in the preoptic region (PO). Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-260 g were used. Body temperature was monitored by biotelemetry, and the levels of cAMP and cGMP were determined in the anteroventral third ventricular region (AV3V), where the PO is located. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed that the PO contains a high density of cAMP- and cGMP-containing cells. Interestingly, hypoxia exposure raised the levels of cAMP and cGMP in the AV3V. Intra-PO microinjection of Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, attenuated hypoxia-induced anapyrexia. Similarly, intra-PO microinjection of the mixed beta-adrenoceptor/serotonin (5-HT(1A)) receptor antagonist propranolol also impaired the drop in body temperature in response to hypoxia. The reduction in body temperature evoked by intra-PO serotonin, but not epinephrine, was blocked by Rp-cAMPS, indicating the involvement of a preoptic serotonin-cAMP pathway in the development of anapyrexia. Moreover, microinjection of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, or Rp-cGMPS, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, into the PO also attenuated hypoxia-induced anapyrexia. In conclusion, the present study supports that hypoxia-induced anapyrexia results from the activation of the serotonin-cAMP and NO-cGMP pathways in the PO.

  12. Elk-1-mediated 15-lipoxygenase expression is required for hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular adventitial fibroblast dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, L; Wang, X; Chen, M; Liu, Y; Xing, Y; Wang, X; Gao, S; Zhu, D

    2016-12-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). However, the role of 15-LO in the adventitia of the pulmonary arterial wall is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 15-LO in the modulation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblast (PAF) dynamics. Rats were exposed to normoxic or hypoxic (fraction of inspired O2  = 0.12) treatments for 7 days. PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations were measured by MTT assay, cell immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The 15-LO promoter was analysed by luciferase reporter and ChIP assays. Our results showed that hypoxia induced 15-LO expression in PAFs both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, hypoxia stimulated JNK phosphorylation in PAFs. Blocking 15-LO or JNK suppressed 15-LO-induced PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. The inhibition of p27(kipl) by gene silencing attenuated 15-LO-induced PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. Furthermore, JNK inhibition or Elk-1 knockdown suppressed hypoxia-induced 15-LO expression in PAFs. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays revealed that the 15-LO promoter contains Elk-1-binding sites and also that Elk-1 increased the hypoxia-induced activity of the 15-LO promoter. These results suggest that hypoxia promotes changes in the cellular dynamics of PAFs by inducing 15-LO expression, which leads to vascular adventitial remodelling. The modulation of p27(kipl) expression by 15-LO enhances PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. Furthermore, the JNK-dependent increase in Elk-1 signalling is required for hypoxia-induced 15-LO expression in PAFs. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hypoxia induces heart regeneration in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuji; Canseco, Diana C; Thet, SuWannee; Abdisalaam, Salim; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Santos, Celio X; Shah, Ajay M; Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E; Kinter, Michael T; Szweda, Luke I; Xing, Chao; Hu, Zeping; Deberardinis, Ralph J; Schiattarella, Gabriele; Hill, Joseph A; Oz, Orhan; Lu, Zhigang; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Kimura, Wataru; Sadek, Hesham A

    2017-01-12

    The adult mammalian heart is incapable of regeneration following cardiomyocyte loss, which underpins the lasting and severe effects of cardiomyopathy. Recently, it has become clear that the mammalian heart is not a post-mitotic organ. For example, the neonatal heart is capable of regenerating lost myocardium, and the adult heart is capable of modest self-renewal. In both of these scenarios, cardiomyocyte renewal occurs via the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, and is regulated by aerobic-respiration-mediated oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we reasoned that inhibiting aerobic respiration by inducing systemic hypoxaemia would alleviate oxidative DNA damage, thereby inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation in adult mammals. Here we report that, in mice, gradual exposure to severe systemic hypoxaemia, in which inspired oxygen is gradually decreased by 1% and maintained at 7% for 2 weeks, results in inhibition of oxidative metabolism, decreased reactive oxygen species production and oxidative DNA damage, and reactivation of cardiomyocyte mitosis. Notably, we find that exposure to hypoxaemia 1 week after induction of myocardial infarction induces a robust regenerative response with decreased myocardial fibrosis and improvement of left ventricular systolic function. Genetic fate-mapping analysis confirms that the newly formed myocardium is derived from pre-existing cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate that the endogenous regenerative properties of the adult mammalian heart can be reactivated by exposure to gradual systemic hypoxaemia, and highlight the potential therapeutic role of hypoxia in regenerative medicine.

  14. Role of Autophagy in Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis of RF/6A Cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Du, Junhui; Chang, Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Autophagy plays a role in the pathogenesis of tumor angiogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. The autophagy level in mammalian cells was found to increase in the state of hypoxia or ischemia reperfusion. However, the role of autophagy in ocular angiogenesis has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of autophagy on hypoxia-induced choroidal and retinal angiogenesis in vitro using a rhesus macaque choroid-retinal endothelial (RF/6A) cell line. RF/6A cells were cultured and randomly divided into three groups according to the different culture media: control, hypoxia model[adding 125μMcobalt chloride (CoCl2) to the culture medium], and hypoxia with an autophagy inhibition group [pretreatment with 5 mmol/L 3-methyladenine (3-MA) for 1.5 h and then adding125μmol/LCoCl2 to the culture medium]. The impact of 3-MA's effect on the level of autophagy proteins (Beclin-1 and LC3) was tested by Western blot analysis. The cell proliferation was assessed using the chromogenicmethylthiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye after 24 and 48 hours. Cell migration was investigated by wound assay. The tube formation was measured on Matrigel. Under chemical hypoxia conditions, Beclin-1 and LC3 levels increased and this change can be inhibited by 3-MA. Cell viability was decreased in cells treated with CoCl2 for 24 and 48 h compared with the control, and pretreatment with 3-MA slightly promoted CoCl2-inhibited cell proliferation. Cell migration and tube formation were increased in cells treated with CoCl2 for 24 and 48 h compared with the control. Pretreatment with 3-MA significantly inhibited CoCl2-induced cell migration and tube formation. Hypoxia-induced autophagy decreased the cell viability and increased the cell migration and tube formation of RF/6A cells. 3-MA can inhibit hypoxia-induced angiogenesis of RF/6A cells in vitro. The present study suggests that autophagy plays a role in retinal and choroidal angiogenesis and the autophagy inhibitor

  15. Chronic Normobaric Hypoxia Induces Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats: Role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Fan, Junming; Fan, Xiaofang; Li, Yang; Ding, Lu; Zheng, Qingqing; Guo, Jinbin; Xia, Dongmei; Xue, Feng; Wang, Yongyu; Liu, Shufang; Gong, Yongsheng

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation is involved in chronic normobaric hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH), rats were treated with saline or an NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 150 mg/kg, sc, twice daily), and exposed to normoxia or chronic normobaric hypoxia with a fraction of inspired oxygen of ∼0.1 for 14 days. Lung tissue levels of NF-κB activity, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNAs, were determined, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart function were evaluated. Compared to the normoxia exposure group, rats exposed to chronic normobaric hypoxia showed an increased NF-κB activity, measured by increased nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 proteins, an increased inflammatory gene expression in the lungs, elevated mean pulmonary arterial blood pressure and mean right ventricular pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, as assessed by right ventricle-to-left ventricle plus septum weight ratio, and right heart dysfunction. Treatment of hypoxia-exposed rats with PDTC inhibited NF-κB activity, decreased pulmonary arterial blood pressure and right ventricular pressure, and ameliorated right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart dysfunction. Hypoxia exposure increased protein kinase C activity and promoted pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro. Our data suggest that NF-κB activation may contribute to chronic normobaric hypoxia-induced PH.

  16. Mitochondrial dynamics regulates hypoxia-induced migration and antineoplastic activity of cisplatin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Zhang-Jian; Jiang, Li-Ping; Wei, Yong-Fang; Liao, Ming-Fang; Qian, Yisong; Li, Yong; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Bin; Xin, Hong-Bo; Wan, Yu-Ying

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondria are high dynamic organelles with frequent fission and fusion. Here, we found hypoxia stimulated Drp1 expression, mitochondrial fission and migration in metastatic MDA-MB‑231 cells, but not in non-metastatic MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission by Mdivi-1 or silencing Drp1 attenuated hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fission and migration in MDA-MB‑231 cells. On the other hand, cisplatin induced significant apoptosis and mitochondrial fission in MDA-MB‑231 cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. Mdivi-1 and silencing Drp1 also efficiently prevented cisplatin-induced MMP decrease, ROS production and apoptosis in MDA-MB‑231 cells. Our data suggest that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission not only regulates hypoxia-induced migration of breast cancer cells, but also facilitates its sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, targeting Drp1-dependent mitochondrial dynamics may provide a novel strategy to suppress breast cancer metastasis and improve the chemotherapeutic effect in the future.

  17. The Effects of Portulaca oleracea on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Tan; Xiaosa, Wen; Ruirui, Qi; Wencai, Shi; Hailiang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tan Yue, Wen Xiaosa, Qi Ruirui, Shi Wencai, Xin Hailiang, and Li Min. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema in mice. High Alt Med Biol 16:43–51, 2015—Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) is known as “a vegetable for long life” due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological activities. However, the protective activity of the ethanol extract of PO (EEPO) against hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema has not been fully investigated. In this study, we exposed mice to a simulated altitude of 7000 meters for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h to observe changes in the water content and transvascular leakage of the mouse lung. It was found that transvascular leakage increased to the maximum in the mouse lung after 6 h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Prophylactic administration of EEPO before hypoxic exposure markedly reduced the transvascular leakage and oxidative stress, and inhibited the upregulation of NF-kB in the mouse lung, as compared with the control group. In addition, EEPO significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in the lungs of mice, as compared with the hypoxia group. Our results show that EEPO can reduce initial transvascular leakage and pulmonary edema under hypobaric hypoxia conditions. PMID:25761168

  18. Hypoxia induces TFE3 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Jun; Yu, Guang-Tao; Huang, Cong-Fa; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Ma, Si-Rui; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Lu

    2016-03-08

    To assess the role of transcription factor μE3 (TFE3) in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), human HNSCC tissue arrays were investigated for TFE3 expression. Human HNSCC tissues with neoadjuvant inductive chemotherapey (docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil, TPF) and mice HNSCC tissues from transgenic mice model were evaluated for TFE3 expression and the hypoxia pathway. The roles of EGF/EGFR mediated hypoxia in TFE3 nuclear expression were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. TFE3 expression was higher in human HNSCC tissues compared with that in normal oral mucosa. Moreover, high TFE3 expression was related to HIF-1α, PAI-1, and EGFR, which demonstrated the activation of the hypoxia pathway in HNSCC tissues. Furthermore, elevated TFE3 expression was observed in HNSCC after cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and high TFE3 expression may indicate poor response to TPF inductive chemotherapy. Furthermore, similar changes with increased TFE3 were observed in HNSCC of the transgenic mouse HNSCC model. Hypoxic culture in the human HNSCC cell line increased TFE3 expression, which promoted cell survival under hypoxia. EGFR inhibiton by cetuximab could attenuate hypoxia-induced TFE3 in the HNSCC cell line and transgenic mouse HNSCC model. These findings indicated that TFE3 was an important hypoxia-induced transcriptional factor in HNSCC. TFE3 could be regarded as a durgable therapeutic oncotarget by EGFR inhibition.

  19. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Inactivation Unveils a Link between Tumor Cell Metabolism and Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Elena; Nardo, Giorgia; Persano, Luca; Masiero, Massimo; Moserle, Lidia; Zamarchi, Rita; Rossi, Elisabetta; Esposito, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Sattler, Ulrike; Mann, Thomas; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Amadori, Alberto; Indraccolo, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia and the acquisition of a glycolytic phenotype are intrinsic features of the tumor microenvironment. The hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway is activated under hypoxic conditions and orchestrates a complex transcriptional program that enhances cell survival. Although the consequences of HIF-1α inactivation in cancer cells have been widely investigated, only a few studies have addressed the role of HIF-1α in the survival of cancer cells endowed with different glycolytic capacities. In this study, we investigated this aspect in ovarian cancer cells. Hypoxia-induced toxicity was increased in highly glycolytic cells compared with poorly glycolytic cells; it was also associated with a sharp decrease in intracellular ATP levels and was prevented by glucose supplementation. Stable HIF-1α silencing enhanced hypoxia-induced cell death in vitro due to a lack of cell cycle arrest. Tumors bearing attenuated HIF-1α levels had similar growth rates and vascularization as did controls, but tumors showed higher proliferation levels and increased necrosis. Moreover, tumors formed by HIF-1α deficient cells had higher levels of lactate and lower ATP concentrations than controls as shown by metabolic imaging. The findings that such metabolic properties can affect the survival of cancer cells under hypoxic conditions and that these properties contribute to the determination of the consequences of HIF-1α inactivation could have important implications on the understanding of the effects of anti-angiogenic and HIF-1α-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:18772337

  20. Metformin suppresses hypoxia-induced stabilization of HIF-1α through reprogramming of oxygen metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Min; Liu, Hao; Liang, Min; Shi, Boyun; Fu, Xin; Chen, Yuqin; Chen, Liangcai; He, Zhimin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jifang

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α) has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HIF-1α should therefore be a promising molecular target for the development of anti-HCC agents. Metformin, an established antidiabetic drug, has proved to also be effective in treating cancer although the precise underlying mechanisms of this activity are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metformin on the expression of HIF-1α and oxygen metabolism in HCC. The results showed that metformin inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and activation independent of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, this decrease in HIF-1α accumulation was accompanied by promotion of HIF-1α protein degradation. In addition, metformin significantly decreased oxygen consumption, ultimately leading to increased intracellular oxygen tension and decreased staining with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. In vivo studies demonstrated that metformin delayed tumor growth and attenuated the expression of HIF-1α in HCC tumor xenografts. Together, these findings suggest that metformin decreases hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation by actively suppressing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and enhancing cellular oxygenation ability, providing a fundamental mechanism of metformin activity against HCC. PMID:26621849

  1. Protective effect of HDL on NADPH oxidase-derived super oxide anion mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Su-Ying; Tamilselvi, Shanmugam; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Chun, Li-Chin; Cheng, Li-Yi; Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Chen, Ray-Jade; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of death in Taiwan. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death. Coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries to cause the ischemic heart disease which will enhance myocardial remodeling and also induce myocardial hypoxia. High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to have cardio-protective effects. Under hypoxic conditions (1%O2 for 24hr), in H9c2 cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is induced which leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, the present study described the protective effect of HDL on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte damage. We investigated the NADPH oxidase-produced ROS-related signaling pathways and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under hypoxia conditions. Results showed that the ROS mediated cardiac damage might occur via AT1 and PKC activation. Furthermore, hypoxia downregulated the survival protein (p-AKTser473) and anti-apoptotic protein (BCL2), whereas pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and caspase 3 were upregulated. These detrimental effects by ROS and apoptosis were prevented by HDL pretreatment. Our findings revealed the underlying molecular mechanism by which HDL suppresses the hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Further, we elucidated the role of HDL on preventing hypoxia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS.

  2. Protective effect of salidroside against bone loss via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Jin, Xin; Guo, Xiao Qin; Wang, Yue; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ling Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays a critical role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis during bone development and regeneration. Salidroside (SAL) has shown anti-hypoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible roles of SAL in the prevention of hypoxia-induced osteoporosis have remained unknown. Two osteoblast cell lines, MG-63 and ROB, were employed to evaluate the effects of SAL on cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Rats subjected to ovariectomy-induced bone loss were treated with SAL in vivo. Our results showed that pre-treatment with SAL markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced reductions in cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization. SAL down-regulated HIF-1α expression and inhibited its translocation; however, SAL increased its transcriptional activity and, consequently, up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In vivo studies further demonstrated that SAL caused decreases in the mineral, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and BGP concentrations in the blood of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Moreover, SAL improved the trabecular bone microarchitecture and increased bone mineral density in the distal femur. Additionally, SAL administration partially ameliorated this hypoxia via the HIF-1α-VEGF signalling pathway. Our results indicate that SAL prevents bone loss by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis and that these effects are associated with the activation of HIF-1α signalling. PMID:27558909

  3. Antagonism of Stem Cell Factor/c-kit Signaling Attenuates Neonatal Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karen C; Torres, Eneida; Hehre, Dorothy; Wu, Shu; Suguihara, Cleide; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that c-kit positive cells are present in the remodeled pulmonary vasculature bed of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether stem cell factor (SCF)/ c-kit regulated pathways potentiate pulmonary vascular remodeling is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that attenuated c-kit signaling would decrease chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling by decreasing pulmonary vascular cell mitogenesis. Methods Neonatal FVB/NJ mice treated with non-immune IgG (PL), or c-kit neutralizing antibody (ACK2) as well as c-kit mutant mice (WBB6F1- Kit W− v/ +) and their congenic controls, were exposed to normoxia (FiO2=0.21) or hypoxia (FiO2=0.12) for two weeks. Following this exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling were evaluated. Results As compared to chronically hypoxic controls, c-kit mutant mice had decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular remodeling and proliferation. Consistent with these findings, administration of ACK2 to neonatal mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling. This attenuation in PH was accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Conclusion SCF/c-kit signaling may potentiate chronic hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling by modulating ERK activation. Inhibition of c-kit activity may be a potential strategy to alleviate PH. PMID:26705118

  4. Hypoxia regulates CD44 expression via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gai; Li, Shuang; Du, Wei; Ke, Qinghua; Cai, Jun; Yang, Jiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia induces proliferation and invasion in cancer cells via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. The cell adhesion molecule cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 has been associated with increased cell invasion and metastasis. Whether hypoxia regulates the expression of CD44 in gastric cancer cells remains to be established. In the current study, the effects of hypoxia on HIF-1α and CD44 expression levels in human gastric cell lines SGC-7901 and BGC-823 were evaluated. The cells were cultured in 1% O2 for 1 week and then treated with 20 nM rapamycin for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using the Cell Counting kit-8 assay, and cell invasion was detected by the Transwell invasion assay. The protein and messenger (m) RNA expression levels of HIF-1α and CD44 were detected using western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results revealed that cell viability and invasion increased under hypoxic conditions, but decreased following rapamycin treatment in SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells. Hypoxia also increased the protein and mRNA expression levels of HIF-1α and CD44 in these two cell lines. However, this hypoxia-induced increase in HIF-1α and CD44 protein and mRNA expression levels was inhibited by rapamycin. These findings suggest that hypoxia induced the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, CD44 expression levels were potentially associated with HIF-1α expression levels. Therefore, in gastric cancer cells, hypoxia may regulate CD44 expression via HIF-1α in order to promote cell proliferation and invasion.

  5. Upregulated copper transporters in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zimnicka, Adriana M; Tang, Haiyang; Guo, Qiang; Kuhr, Frank K; Oh, Myung-Jin; Wan, Jun; Chen, Jiwang; Smith, Kimberly A; Fraidenburg, Dustin R; Choudhury, Moumita S R; Levitan, Irena; Machado, Roberto F; Kaplan, Jack H; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular remodeling and increased arterial wall stiffness are two major causes for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients and animals with pulmonary hypertension. Cellular copper (Cu) plays an important role in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling; increased Cu in vascular smooth muscle cells has been demonstrated to be associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension in animal experiments. In this study, we show that the Cu-uptake transporter 1, CTR1, and the Cu-efflux pump, ATP7A, were both upregulated in the lung tissues and pulmonary arteries of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia also significantly increased expression and activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a Cu-dependent enzyme that causes crosslinks of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. In vitro experiments show that exposure to hypoxia or treatment with cobalt (CoCl2) also increased protein expression of CTR1, ATP7A, and LOX in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In PASMC exposed to hypoxia or treated with CoCl2, we also confirmed that the Cu transport is increased using 64Cu uptake assays. Furthermore, hypoxia increased both cell migration and proliferation in a Cu-dependent manner. Downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) with siRNA significantly attenuated hypoxia-mediated upregulation of CTR1 mRNA. In summary, the data from this study indicate that increased Cu transportation due to upregulated CTR1 and ATP7A in pulmonary arteries and PASMC contributes to the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. The increased Cu uptake and elevated ATP7A also facilitate the increase in LOX activity and thus the increase in crosslink of extracellular matrix, and eventually leading to the increase in pulmonary arterial stiffness.

  6. Targeted genes and interacting proteins of hypoxia inducible factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in almost all nucleated mammalian cells. The fundamental process adapted to cellular oxygen alteration largely depends on the refined regulation on its alpha subunit, HIF-1α. Recent studies have unraveled expanding and critical roles of HIF-1α, involving in a multitude of developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes. This review will focus on the current knowledge of HIF-1α-targeting genes and its interacting proteins, as well as the concomitant functional relationships between them. PMID:22773957

  7. Wheatgrass Extract Ameliorates Hypoxia-induced Mucin Gene Expression in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Ju hwan; Choi, Moon-Hee; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wheatgrass is known to have antioxidant, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its protective effect against hypoxia is not yet evaluated. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the protective and anti-inflammatory effect of wheatgrass against the hypoxia in airway epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in a hypoxic condition (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 hr in the presence of different concentration of wheatgrass 50, 75, 100, and 150 μg/mL, and the magnitude of each immunologic response produced by the A549 cells was compared. The mRNA expression level of mucin gene (MUC), 5A, 5B, 8, GM-CSF, TNF-α, and VEGF were evaluated by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MUC proteins level before and after knocking out the hypoxia-inducible factor (hif)-1α via short interfering (si) RNA transfection were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Accordingly, the involved cell signaling pathway was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Results: The inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF- α) and the expressions of MUC 5A, 5B, and 8 were augmented by hypoxia. The augmented MUC expression was decreased by the wheatgrass extract administration. Hif-1α gene expression after hypoxia exposure was decreased by wheatgrass. Knockdown of hif-1α by siRNA reduced the mucin gene expression and which was more enhanced by wheatgrass extract. Conclusion: Theses results suggest that wheatgrass may be useful in the treatment of sinonasal disease by inhibiting mucus hypersecretion in airway epithelium. SUMMARY Wheatgrass extract decreases the hypoxia-induced MUC 5A, 5B and 8 expression.Hif-1α gene expression after hypoxia exposure was decreased by wheatgrass.Wheatgrass inhibits p44/42 phosphorylation in hypoxia-exposed airway epithelial cells. Abbreviations used: A549: human lung adenocarcinoma cells, GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, HIF: hypoxia inducible factor, IL: interleukin, MUC: mucin, MTT: 3

  8. Identification of Functional Amino Acid Residues Involved in Polyamine and Agmatine Transport by Human Organic Cation Transporter 2

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Imamura, Masataka; Fudo, Satoshi; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hoshino, Tyuji; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues. PMID:25019617

  9. Negative regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes by the von Hippel-Lindau protein.

    PubMed Central

    Iliopoulos, O; Levy, A P; Jiang, C; Kaelin, W G; Goldberg, M A

    1996-01-01

    Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal carcinomas and central nervous system hemangioblastomas. These are highly vascular tumors which overproduce angiogenic peptides such as vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF). Renal carcinoma cells lacking wild-type pVHL were found to produce mRNAs encoding VEGF/VPF, the glucose transporter GLUT1, and the platelet-derived growth factor B chain under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Reintroduction of wild-type, but not mutant, pVHL into these cells specifically inhibited the production of these mRNAs under normoxic conditions, thus restoring their previously described hypoxia-inducible profile. Thus, pVHL appears to play a critical role in the transduction of signals generated by changes in ambient oxygen tension. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8855223

  10. Integrin-linked kinase: a hypoxia-induced anti-apoptotic factor exploited by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Elizabeth R; Coffelt, Seth B; Figueroa, Yanira G; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Nelson, Anne B; Sullivan, Deborah E; Morris, Cindy B; Tang, Yan; Beckman, Barbara S; Scandurro, Aline B

    2007-01-01

    Based on cDNA microarray results, integrin-linked kinase (ILK) emerged as an interesting candidate in hypoxia-mediated survival mechanisms employed by cancer cells. This notion was confirmed here by the following observations: the 5' promoter region of the ilk gene contains hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) that bind hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor complexes and drive HRE-luciferase gene expression in reporter assays; ILK protein and kinase activity are induced following hypoxia; downstream targets of ILK signaling are induced following hypoxia treatment; inhibition of ILK leads to increased apoptosis; and HIF and ILK are co-localized within human cancer tissues. The identification of ILK as a player in hypoxia survival signaling employed by cancer cells further validates ILK as a unique target for cancer therapy.

  11. Retinal hypoxia induces vascular endothelial growth factor through induction of estrogen-related receptor γ

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Ji Yeon; Choi, Young Keun; Kook, Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Dong Ho

    2015-05-01

    Ischemic retinopathies causing overexpression of pro-angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are the most common cause of blindness. Thus, understanding the pathophysiology of targetable pathways that regulate retinal VEGF is of great interest. A conserved binding site for estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) has been identified in the promoter of the Vegfa gene. ERRγ is a constitutively active orphan nuclear receptor and its expression is increased by hypoxic stimuli in metabolically active tissues. This study evaluated the role of ERRγ in the ischemic retina and the anti-VEGF potential of GSK5182, a selective inverse agonist of ERRγ. In an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model, immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased ERRγ expression in the ganglion cell layer at postnatal day (P) 17. In a ganglion cell line (RGC-5), mRNA and protein levels of ERRγ were increased by desferrioxamine treatment and hypoxic conditions (1% O{sub 2}). Transient transfection of RGC-5 cells revealed that ERRγ regulated Vegfa expression and this was inhibited by GSK5182. Intravitreal injection of GSK5182 into the OIR model at P14 inhibited retinal Vegfa mRNA expression at P17. GSK5182 suppresses hypoxia-induced VEGF expression via ERRγ; therefore, ERRγ could be a treatment target for ischemic retinopathies. - Highlights: • OIR mice exhibited increased ERRγ expression in the ganglion cell layer. • Hypoxia-induced ERRγ expression was observed in retinal ganglion cells. • ERRγ overexpression increased VEGFA expression in retinal ganglion cells. • An ERRγ inverse agonist suppressed VEGFA expression in retinal ganglion cells. • Intravitreal injection of an ERRγ inverse agonist suppressed VEGFA in OIR mice.

  12. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1{alpha} levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1{alpha} levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients.

  13. Does Acute Normobaric Hypoxia Induce Anapyrexia in Adult Humans?

    PubMed

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Vaughan, Jeremiah; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-06-01

    Seo, Yongsuk, Hayden D. Gerhart, Jeremiah Vaughan, Jung-Hyun Kim, and Ellen L. Glickman. Does acute normobaric hypoxia induce anapyrexia in adult humans? High Alt Med Biol. 18:185-190, 2017.-Exposure to hypoxia is known to induce a reduction in core body temperature as a protective mechanism, which has been shown in both animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to test if acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia (NH) induces anapyrexia in adult humans in association with decreased peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2). Ten healthy male subjects were seated in atmospheres of normobaric normoxia 21% (NN21), NH 17% (NH17), and 13% (NH13) O2 for 60 minutes in a counterbalanced manner. Rectal temperature (Tre) was continuously monitored together with the quantification of metabolic heat production (MHP) and body heat storage (S). Baseline physiological measurements showed no differences between the three conditions. SpO2 was significantly decreased in NH17 and NH13 compared with NN21 (p ≤ 0.001). Tre decreased following 60 minutes of resting in all conditions, but, independent of the conditions, showed no association between Tre and levels of hypoxic SpO2. There was also no significant difference in either MHP or S between conditions. The present results showed no evidence of hypoxia-induced anapyrexia in adult humans during 1 hour of resting after exposure to NH either at 13% or 17% O2.

  14. Hypoxia induced cognitive impairment modulating activity of Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Kandikattu, Hemanth Kumar; Deep, Satya Narayan; Razack, Sakina; Amruta, Narayanappa; Prasad, Dipti; Khanum, Farhath

    2017-03-27

    Hypobaric hypoxia leads to decrease in cellular oxygen content which subsequently damages the hippocampus with an increase in brain oxidative stress and impairs the memory of the individual. In the present study, we have evaluated the cognitive impairment modulating activity of total oligomeric flavonoids fraction of Cyperus rotundus (TOF) in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were trained for memory activity for a period of 7days followed by 7days exposure to 25,000ft. altitude and the spatial reference memory was evaluated. Behavioral analysis of the rats by Morris water maze experiment showed that TOF supplementation enhanced the spatial reference memory activity of the rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. The decrease in antioxidant status of the animals exposed to hypoxia was restored with TOF supplementation. The increase in ROS, lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls of the hippocampus was significantly decreased in animals with TOF administration. The histological assessment of the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of hypoxia-exposed animals showed nuclear damage and TOF supplementation prevented nuclear damage. TOF administration suppressed hypoxia-induced increase in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. GABA and Ach levels were decreased by hypoxia which was prevented by TOF supplementation. The increase in GFAP, HIF-1α and VEGF expression in CA3 region of the hippocampus in hypoxia-exposed rats was decreased in TOF administered rats. Taken together, TOF extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration in hippocampus through its anti-stress effects.

  15. HINCUTs in cancer: hypoxia-induced noncoding ultraconserved transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Ferdin, J; Nishida, N; Wu, X; Nicoloso, M S; Shah, M Y; Devlin, C; Ling, H; Shimizu, M; Kumar, K; Cortez, M A; Ferracin, M; Bi, Y; Yang, D; Czerniak, B; Zhang, W; Schmittgen, T D; Voorhoeve, M P; Reginato, M J; Negrini, M; Davuluri, R V; Kunej, T; Ivan, M; Calin, G A

    2013-01-01

    Recent data have linked hypoxia, a classic feature of the tumor microenvironment, to the function of specific microRNAs (miRNAs); however, whether hypoxia affects other types of noncoding transcripts is currently unknown. Starting from a genome-wide expression profiling, we demonstrate for the first time a functional link between oxygen deprivation and the modulation of long noncoding transcripts from ultraconserved regions, termed transcribed-ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs). Interestingly, several hypoxia-upregulated T-UCRs, henceforth named ‘hypoxia-induced noncoding ultraconserved transcripts' (HINCUTs), are also overexpressed in clinical samples from colon cancer patients. We show that these T-UCRs are predominantly nuclear and that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is at least partly responsible for the induction of several members of this group. One specific HINCUT, uc.475 (or HINCUT-1) is part of a retained intron of the host protein-coding gene, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase, which is overexpressed in epithelial cancer types. Consistent with the hypothesis that T-UCRs have important function in tumor formation, HINCUT-1 supports cell proliferation specifically under hypoxic conditions and may be critical for optimal O-GlcNAcylation of proteins when oxygen tension is limiting. Our data gives a first glimpse of a novel functional hypoxic network comprising protein-coding transcripts and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the T-UCRs category. PMID:24037088

  16. Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress Modulation with Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Debevec, Tadej; Millet, Grégoire P.; Pialoux, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, resulting in molecular damage and disruption of redox signaling, is associated with numerous pathophysiological processes and known to exacerbate chronic diseases. Prolonged systemic hypoxia, induced either by exposure to terrestrial altitude or a reduction in ambient O2 availability is known to elicit oxidative stress and thereby alter redox balance in healthy humans. The redox balance modulation is also highly dependent on the level of physical activity. For example, both high-intensity exercise and inactivity, representing the two ends of the physical activity spectrum, are known to promote oxidative stress. Numerous to-date studies indicate that hypoxia and exercise can exert additive influence upon redox balance alterations. However, recent evidence suggests that moderate physical activity can attenuate altitude/hypoxia-induced oxidative stress during long-term hypoxic exposure. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hypoxia-related oxidative stress modulation by different activity levels during prolonged hypoxic exposures and examine the potential mechanisms underlying the observed redox balance changes. The paper also explores the applicability of moderate activity as a strategy for attenuating hypoxia-related oxidative stress. Moreover, the potential of such moderate intensity activities used to counteract inactivity-related oxidative stress, often encountered in pathological, elderly and obese populations is also discussed. Finally, future research directions for investigating interactive effects of altitude/hypoxia and exercise on oxidative stress are proposed. PMID:28243207

  17. The effect of DN (dominant-negative) Ku70 and reoxygenation on hypoxia cell-kill: evidence of hypoxia-induced potentially lethal damage.

    PubMed

    Urano, Muneyasu; Li, Gloria C; He, Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Burgman, Paul; Ling, C Clifton

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of DN (dominant-negative) Ku70 and reoxygenation on the hypoxia-induced cell-kill. Cell lines were human colorectal carcinoma HCT8 and HT29 cells and their respective derivatives, v-HCT8 and v-HT29 infected with DNKu70-containing adenovirus. Cells were plated in glass tubes and made hypoxic by flushing N(2) gas containing 0, 0.1 or 0.5% O(2). Cell survival was determined by colony formation assay immediately after 0-96 h hypoxia. To reoxygenate medium were replaced fresh following 48 or 72 h in hypoxia and cells were incubated in aerobic environment for 2-24 h before survival assay. When incubated in hypoxia, cells lost reproductive capability ∼ exponentially as a function of time in hypoxia, and depending on the O(2) concentration. DNKu70 rendered cells more prone to hypoxia-induced cell-kill. Following reoxygenation cell survival increased rapidly but without detectable cell proliferation during first 24 hours. This evinced hypoxia-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD) that was repairable upon reoxygenation. DNKu70 did not significantly inhibit this repair. Hypoxia-induced cell lethality was facilitated by DNKu70, but substantially repaired upon reoxygenation. This may have negative impact on the effect of reoxygenation in cancer therapy.

  18. Involvement of nitric oxide in anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine on marble-burying behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Gawali, Nitin B; Chowdhury, Amrita A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Bulani, Vipin D; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M; Juvekar, Archana R

    2016-01-05

    In view of the reports that nitric oxide modulates the neurotransmitters implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), patients with OCD exhibit higher plasma nitrate levels, and drugs useful in OCD influence nitric oxide. Agmatine is a polyamine and widely distributed in mammalian brain which interacts with nitrergic systems. Hence, the present study was carried out to understand the involvement of nitrergic systems in the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine. We used marble-burying behaviour (MBB) of mice as the animal model of OCD, and nitric oxide levels in hippocampus (HC) and cortex homogenate were measured. Results revealed that, agmatine (20 and 40mg/kg, i.p) significantly inhibited the MBB. Intraperitoneal administration of nitric oxide enhancers viz. nitric oxide precursor - l-arginine (l-ARG) (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg) increased MBB as well as brain nitrites levels, whereas treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (30mg/kg and 50mg/kg, i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (20mg/kg and 40mg/kg) attenuated MBB and nitrites levels in brain. Further, in combination studies, the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine (20mg/kg, ip) was exacerbated by prior administration of l-ARG (400mg/kg) and conversely l-NAME (15mg/kg) or 7-NI (10.0mg/kg) attenuated OCD-like behaviour with HC and cortex changes in the levels of NO. None of the above treatment had any significant influence on locomotor activity. In conclusion, Agmatine is effective in ameliorating the compulsive-like behaviour in mice which appears to be related to nitric oxide in brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of endogenous nitric oxide and platelet-activating factor in hypoxia-induced intestinal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Caplan, M S; Hedlund, E; Hill, N; MacKendrick, W

    1994-02-01

    Nitric oxide is an endothelium-derived relaxing factor that promotes capillary integrity, inhibits leukocyte adherence and activation, and scavenges oxygen radicals. Because these effects are important in experimental intestinal injury, we studied the role of NO inhibition on hypoxia-induced bowel necrosis in the rat and investigated the interaction between platelet-activating factor (PAF) and NO in this model. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either hypoxia, NO synthase inhibition (NG-methyl-L-arginine [LNMA] or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]), hypoxia+LNMA, hypoxia+LNMA+NO donors, or hypoxia+LNMA+PAF receptor inhibition. Evaluations included blood pressure, superior mesenteric artery blood flow, arterial blood gases, histological intestinal injury, intestinal myeloperoxidase activity, and intestinal PAF activity. We found that hypoxia alone for 90 minutes (10% O2, partial O2 pressure = 45 mm Hg) or LNMA alone had no detrimental effects. However, hypoxia+LNMA together caused hypotension, metabolic acidosis, intestinal injury, increased intestinal myeloperoxidase activity, and elevated intestinal PAF concentrations that were prevented by exogenous L-arginine. Furthermore, the hypotension and intestinal injury was prevented by PAF receptor blockade. We conclude that endogenous NO protects the intestine from hypoxia-induced inflammation and injury, and the balance between local PAF and NO modulates the outcome of hypoxia-stressed intestine.

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha suppresses the expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Ken; Kizaki, Takako; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Jun-Etsu; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Iijima, Takehiko; Okada, Chikako; Noguchi, Izumi; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Ohno, Hideki

    2009-11-01

    Macrophages are distributed in all peripheral tissues and play a critical role in the first line of the innate immune defenses against bacterial infection by phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens through the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1). Within tissues, the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) decreases depending on the distance of cells from the closest O2-supplying blood vessel. However, it is not clear how the expression of MSR1 in macrophages is regulated by low pO2. On the other hand, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha is well known to control hypoxic responses through regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and HIF-1alpha on MSR1 expression and function in the macrophage cell line RAW264. Exposure to 1% O2 or treatment with the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl2) significantly suppressed the expression of MSR1 mRNA, accompanied by a markedly increase in levels of nuclear HIF-1alpha protein. The overexpression of HIF-1alpha in RAW264 cells suppressed the expression of MSR1 mRNA and protein, transcriptional activity of the MSR1 gene, and phagocytic capacity against the Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. The suppression of MSR1 mRNA by hypoxia or CoCl2 was inhibited by YC-1, an inhibitor of HIF-1alpha, or by the depletion of HIF-1alpha expression by small interference RNA. These results indicate that hypoxia transcriptionally suppresses MSR1 expression through HIF-1alpha.

  1. Wnt5a attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arteriolar remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuling; Wang, Wang; Chai, Sanbao; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), which is characterized by pulmonary arteriolar remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy, is still a life-threatening disease with the current treatment strategies. The underlying molecular mechanisms of HPH remain unclear. Our previously published study showed that Wnt5a, one of the ligands in the Wnt family, was critically involved in the inhibition of hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation by downregulation of β-catenin/cyclin D1 in vitro. In this study, we investigated the possible functions and mechanisms of Wnt5a in HPH in vivo. Recombinant mouse Wnt5a (rmWnt5a) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered to male C57/BL6 mice weekly from the first day to the end of the two or four weeks after exposed to hypoxia (10% O2). Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was associated with a marked increase in β-catenin/cyclin D1 expression in lungs. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy index were reduced in animals treated with rmWnt5a compared with PBS. Histology showed less pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in the group treated with rmWnt5a than with PBS. Treatment with rmWnt5a resulted in a concomitant reduction in β-catenin/cyclin D1 levels in lungs. These data demonstrate that Wnt5a exerts its beneficial effects on HPH by regulating pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in a manner that is associated with reduction in β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling. A therapy targeting the β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling pathway might be a potential strategy for HPH treatment. PMID:25956683

  2. Hypoxia-induced changes in protein s-nitrosylation in female mouse brainstem.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Lisa A; Kimberly deRonde; Brown-Steinke, Kathleen; Gunter, Sonya; Jyothikumar, Vinod; Forbes, Michael S; Lewis, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to hypoxia elicits an increase in minute ventilation that diminishes during continued exposure (roll-off). Brainstem N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) contribute to the initial hypoxia-induced increases in minute ventilation. Roll-off is regulated by platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase (GSNOR). S-nitrosylation inhibits activities of NMDAR and nNOS, but enhances GSNOR activity. The importance of S-nitrosylation in the hypoxic ventilatory response is unknown. This study confirms that ventilatory roll-off is virtually absent in female GSNOR(+/-) and GSNO(-/-) mice, and evaluated the location of GSNOR in female mouse brainstem, and temporal changes in GSNOR activity, protein expression, and S-nitrosylation status of GSNOR, NMDAR (1, 2A, 2B), nNOS, and PDGFR-β during hypoxic challenge. GSNOR-positive neurons were present throughout the brainstem, including the nucleus tractus solitarius. Protein abundances for GSNOR, nNOS, all NMDAR subunits and PDGFR-β were not altered by hypoxia. GSNOR activity and S-nitrosylation status temporally increased with hypoxia. In addition, nNOS S-nitrosylation increased with 3 and 15 minutes of hypoxia. Changes in NMDAR S-nitrosylation were detected in NMDAR 2B at 15 minutes of hypoxia. No hypoxia-induced changes in PDGFR-β S-nitrosylation were detected. However, PDGFR-β phosphorylation increased in the brainstems of wild-type mice during hypoxic exposure (consistent with roll-off), whereas it did not rise in GSNOR(+/-) mice (consistent with lack of roll-off). These data suggest that: (1) S-nitrosylation events regulate hypoxic ventilatory response; (2) increases in S-nitrosylation of NMDAR 2B, nNOS, and GSNOR may contribute to ventilatory roll-off; and (3) GSNOR regulates PDGFR-β phosphorylation.

  3. Fumarate and Succinate Regulate Expression of Hypoxia-inducible Genes via TET Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Laukka, Tuomas; Mariani, Christopher J.; Ihantola, Tuukka; Cao, John Z.; Hokkanen, Juho; Kaelin, William G.; Godley, Lucy A.; Koivunen, Peppi

    2016-01-01

    The TET enzymes are members of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family and comprise three isoenzymes in humans: TETs 1–3. These TETs convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in DNA, and high 5-hmC levels are associated with active transcription. The importance of the balance in these modified cytosines is emphasized by the fact that TET2 is mutated in several human cancers, including myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We characterize here the kinetic and inhibitory properties of Tets and show that the Km value of Tets 1 and 2 for O2 is 30 μm, indicating that they retain high activity even under hypoxic conditions. The AML-associated mutations in the Fe2+ and 2-oxoglutarate-binding residues increased the Km values for these factors 30–80-fold and reduced the Vmax values. Fumarate and succinate, which can accumulate to millimolar levels in succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate hydratase-mutant tumors, were identified as potent Tet inhibitors in vitro, with IC50 values ∼400–500 μm. Fumarate and succinate also down-regulated global 5-hmC levels in neuroblastoma cells and the expression levels of some hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target genes via TET inhibition, despite simultaneous HIFα stabilization. The combination of fumarate or succinate treatment with TET1 or TET3 silencing caused differential effects on the expression of specific HIF target genes. Altogether these data show that hypoxia-inducible genes are regulated in a multilayered manner that includes epigenetic regulation via TETs and 5-hmC levels in addition to HIF stabilization. PMID:26703470

  4. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation in humans.

    PubMed

    Spilk, Samson; Herr, Michael D; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial Po2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P < 0.05) forearm vascular conductance (FVC) by ~10% and ~18%, respectively. During hypoxia and fluconazole (trial 1), FVC increased by 1.76 ± 0.37 and 0.95 ± 0.35 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). During hypoxia and fluconazole + L-NMMA (trial 2), FVC increased by 2.32 ± 0.51 and 0.72 ± 0.22 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, during hypoxia with L-NMMA alone (trial 3; n = 8) FVC increased by 1.51 ± 0.46 and 0.45 ± 0.32 units in control and experimental forearms, respectively (P < 0.05). These effects were not due to altered skin blood flow. We conclude that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to basal vascular tone and to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.

  5. Endogenous ligands of imidazoline receptors: classic and immunoreactive clonidine-displacing substance and agmatine.

    PubMed

    Reis, D J; Li, G; Regunathan, S

    1995-07-12

    1. There are several endogenous ligands that bind to I-receptors of both the I1 and I2 subclass. These include: (a) classic CDS, a partially purified entity isolated by the criteria that it displaces binding ligands to alpha 2- and I-receptors; (b) immunoreactive (ir)-CDS, a moiety that binds to antibodies raised against clonidine, para-amino-clonidine, or idazoxan; and (c) agmatine. 2. Classic-CDS, not yet defined structurally, binds to I1, I2, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, is neither a peptide nor a catecholamine, and has purportedly a molecular weight of 588 Da. By ligand binding assays, it was found in brain, serum, CSF, and placenta and in a neural-glial cell line. Partially purified classic CDS is bioactive. Like clonidine, it contracts aorta and vas deferens and inhibits platelet aggregation, effects largely attributable to agonism at alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. Unlike clonidine, it contracts rat gastric fundus and releases catecholamines from chromaffin cells, effects attributable to actions at I-receptors. Injected into the RVL, classic CDS alters arterial pressure, but the direction of change of pressure has differed between groups of investigators. However, in the absence of structure, it is possible that ligand binding and bioactivity may be attributable to different molecules. 3. Ir-CDS, also of unknown structure, is a material(s) that binds to antibodies raised against clonidine, PAC, or idazoxan. Ir-CDS, measured by radioimmunoassay, is unevenly distributed in brain with highest concentrations in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and dorsal medulla. It is contained in the gastric fundus, adrenal gland, heart, kidney, and serum in amounts substantially higher than found in brain. Ir-CDS may be elevated in the serum of some patients with hypertension and in the CSF of patients with structural brain disease. The concentration of ir-CDS and bioactivity on gastric fundus directly correlates, suggesting that it may share similarities with classic

  6. Rutaecarpine attenuates hypoxia-induced right ventricular remodeling in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qun; Li, Xiao-Hui; Du, Jie; Zhang, Wang; Li, Dai; Xiong, Xiao-Ming; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2016-07-01

    Rutaecarpine has been shown to exhibit wide pharmacological effects in the cardiovascular system via stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release. In the present study, the effect of rutaecarpine on hypoxia-induced right ventricular (RV) remodeling and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated. RV remodeling was induced by hypoxia (10 % O2, 3 weeks) in rats. Rats were treated with rutaecarpine (20 or 40 mg/kg) by intragastric administration. Proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts was induced by TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) and determined by MTS and EdU incorporation method. Cardiac fibroblasts were treated with exogenous CGRP (10 or 100 nM). The concentrations of CGRP and TGF-β1 in plasma were measured by ELISA. The expression of eIF3a, p27, α-SMA, collagen-I/III, ANP, and BNP were measured by real-time PCR or western blot. Hypoxia induced an increase of right ventricle systolic pressure (RVSP), ration of RV/LV+S, and RV/tibial length in rats, while cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, and fibrosis were detected. The expression of ANP, BNP, α-SMA, collagen-I, collagen-III, eIF3a, and TGF-β1 was up-regulated, and the expression of p27 was down-regulated in the right ventricle of hypoxia-treated rats. The plasma concentration of CGRP was decreased and TGF-β1 was increased in hypoxia-treated rats. All of these effects induced by hypoxia were attenuated by rutaecarpine in a dose-dependent manner. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, TGF-β1 significantly promoted the proliferation and up-regulated the expression of α-SMA and collagen-I/III, while the expression of eIF3a was up-regulated and the expression of p27 was down-regulated. The effects of TGF-β1 were attenuated by CGRP. CGRP8-37, a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, abolished the effects of CGRP. Rutaecarpine attenuates hypoxia-induced RV remodeling via stimulation of CGRP release, and the effects of rutaecarpine involve the eIF3a/p27 pathway.

  7. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: Molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, S.; Dhananjay, S.; Anju, B. Lilly, G.; Sai Ram, M.

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NF{kappa}B inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NF{kappa}B in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NF{kappa}B. The lower levels of NF{kappa}B observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NF{kappa}B DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  8. Knockdown of MicroRNA-122 Protects H9c2 Cardiomyocytes from Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis and Promotes Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zaiwei; Li, Hu; Chen, Shasha; Li, Ying; Cui, Zhiyuan; Ma, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a severe disease causing heart failure and sudden death. Studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathophysiology of AMI. In the present study, we carefully explored the effects of miR-122 on myocardial hypoxia injury and its possible underlying mechanism. Material/Methods miR-122 expression was analyzed in H9c2 cardiomyocytes after being transfected with miR-122 mimic, ASO-miR-122, or negative control. Cell viability and apoptosis were investigated by CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Cell migration was analyzed using wound-healing assays. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)/phosphatidylinositol 3-hydroxy kinase (PI3K)/AKT and LC3-II/LC3-I. Result Hypoxia exposure significantly inhibited H9c2 cell viability (P<0.01). miR-122 overexpression promoted the hypoxia-induced H9c2 cell proliferation and migration loss (P<0.05), and cell apoptosis was increased (P<0.05). miR-122 knockdown enhanced cell viability and decreased cell apoptosis (P<0.05). Knockdown of miR-122 enhanced PTEN/PI3K/AKT activation and cell autophagy. Overexpression of miR-122 inhibited the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway and cell autophagy pathway. Conclusions The expression of miR-122 is involved in hypoxia-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury. Knockdown of miR-122 protects H9c2 cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and enhances cell viability. PMID:28871076

  9. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, S; Dhananjay, S; Anju, B; Lilly, G; Sai Ram, M

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor kappaB (NFkappaB) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NFkappaB inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NFkappaB in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NFkappaB. The lower levels of NFkappaB observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NFkappaB DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  10. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on hypoxia-induced desensitization of β2-adrenergic receptors in rat osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, AKIRA; YOSHITANI, KAZUHIRO; SHIMIZU, TAKAMASA; AKAHANE, MANABU; FUJII, HIROMASA; TSUKAMOTO, SHINJI; KONDO, YUMIKO; HONOKI, KANYA; IMANO, MOTOHIRO; TANAKA, YASUHITO

    2012-01-01

    The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) mediates the effects of chronic stress in several neoplasms, however, β2AR signaling is impaired by hypoxia in various tissues. While hypoxia is a common feature significant in the progression of solid tumors, little is known about the effect of hypoxia on β2AR signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Previously, it has been reported that the systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) increased the engraftment and metastatic colonization of rat osteosarcoma (OS) cells. In the current study, the effect of MSCs on the hypoxia-induced desensitization of the β2AR in OS cells was investigated. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol increased the cellular proliferation of the rat OS cell line COS1NR and rat MSCs in a dose-dependent and β2AR antagonist-sensitive manner. While isoproterenol had significant proliferative effects on MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, COS1NR cells did not respond under hypoxic conditions. A sensitivity assay for the β2AR revealed that hypoxia impaired the sensitivity of COS1NR cells, whereas hypoxia did not affect MSCs. An immunoassay revealed no significant change in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) in COS1NR cells, whilst an immunoassay demonstrated a 15% increase in MSCs following isoproterenol stimulation. In COS1NR cells co-cultured with MSCs under hypoxic conditions, isoproterenol caused a significant increase in proliferation and this effect was inhibited by an anti-interleukin (IL)-6 antibody. A tumor formation assay in syngeneic rats revealed that the systemic administration of MSCs enhances the growth of OS and the effect of MSCs was inhibited by IL-6 neutralization. In conclusion, MSCs are resistant to the hypoxia-induced desensitization to β2AR. Hypoxia caused a siginificant desensitization of the β2AR in COS1NR cells alone, whereas MSCs may support tumor progression through cellular interactions. PMID:23205094

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and breast cancer metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-ji; Semenza, Gregg L.; Zhang, Hua-feng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that the hypoxic microenvironment, which is critical during cancer development, plays a key role in regulating breast cancer progression and metastasis. The effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of the hypoxic response, have been extensively studied during these processes. In this review, we focus on the roles of HIF-1 in regulating breast cancer cell metastasis, specifically its effects on multiple key steps of metastasis, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, extravasation, and metastatic niche formation. We also discuss the roles of HIF-1-regulated non-coding RNAs in breast cancer metastasis, and therapeutic opportunities for breast cancer through targeting the HIF-1 pathway. PMID:25559953

  12. Myeloid hypoxia-inducible factors in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, Julian; Elorza, Ainara; Acosta-Iborra, Barbara; Landázuri, Manuel O

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) have emerged as central regulators of the activity of myeloid cells at inflammatory sites where O(2) is frequently limited. Novel insights in the field have revealed that the expression of HIFs by myeloid cells is not exclusively induced by hypoxia but also in response to central inflammatory mediators independently of O(2) shortage. This has substantially elevated the biological significance of HIFs in the context of inflammatory diseases. As a consequence, the loss of HIF1 or HIF2 in myeloid cells specifically compro-mises some of the processes driven by myeloid cells, such as bactericidal activity and myeloid invasion, as well as inflammation-associated detrimental consequences.

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factors as key regulators of tumor inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Soulafa; Wielockx, Ben

    2013-06-15

    Low levels of oxygen or hypoxia is often an obstacle in health, particularly in pathological disorders like cancer. The main family of transcription factors responsible for cell survival and adaptation under strenuous conditions of hypoxia are the "hypoxia-inducible factors" (HIFs). Together with prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs), HIFs regulates tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, in addition to resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Additionally, the entire HIF transcription cascade is involved in the "seventh" hallmark of cancer; inflammation. Studies have shown that hypoxia can influence tumor associated immune cells toward assisting in tumor proliferation, differentiation, vessel growth, distant metastasis and suppression of the immune response via cytokine expression alterations. These changes are not necessarily analogous to HIF's role in non-cancer immune responses, where hypoxia often encourages a strong inflammatory response.

  14. Hypoxia-induced anapyrexia: implications and putative mediators.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Branco, Luiz G S

    2002-01-01

    Hypoxia elicits an array of compensatory responses in animals ranging from protozoa to mammals. Central among these responses is anapyrexia, the regulated decrease of body temperature. The importance of anapyrexia lies in the fact that it reduces oxygen consumption, increases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, and blunts the energetically costly responses to hypoxia. The mechanisms of anapyrexia are of intense interest to physiologists. Several substances, among them lactate, adenosine, opioids, and nitric oxide, have been suggested as putative mediators of anapyrexia, and most appear to act in the central nervous system. Moreover, there is evidence that the drop in body temperature in response to hypoxia, unlike the ventilatory response to hypoxia, does not depend on the activation of peripheral chemoreceptors. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of hypoxia-induced anapyrexia are reviewed.

  15. Hypoxia-inducible factors as molecular targets for liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Ju, Cynthia; Colgan, Sean P; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2016-06-01

    Liver disease is a growing global health problem, as deaths from end-stage liver cirrhosis and cancer are rising across the world. At present, pharmacologic approaches to effectively treat or prevent liver disease are extremely limited. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that regulates diverse signaling pathways enabling adaptive cellular responses to perturbations of the tissue microenvironment. HIF activation through hypoxia-dependent and hypoxia-independent signals have been reported in liver disease of diverse etiologies, from ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute liver injury to chronic liver diseases caused by viral infection, excessive alcohol consumption, or metabolic disorders. This review summarizes the evidence for HIF stabilization in liver disease, discusses the mechanistic involvement of HIFs in disease development, and explores the potential of pharmacological HIF modifiers in the treatment of liver disease.

  16. Functional pathway mapping analysis for hypoxia-inducible factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that play a crucial role in response to hypoxic stress in living organisms. The HIF pathway is activated by changes in cellular oxygen levels and has significant impacts on the regulation of gene expression patterns in cancer cells. Identifying functional conservation across species and discovering conserved regulatory motifs can facilitate the selection of reference species for empirical tests. This paper describes a cross-species functional pathway mapping strategy based on evidence of homologous relationships that employs matrix-based searching techniques for identifying transcription factor-binding sites on all retrieved HIF target genes. Results HIF-related orthologous and paralogous genes were mapped onto the conserved pathways to indicate functional conservation across species. Quantitatively measured HIF pathways are depicted in order to illustrate the extent of functional conservation. The results show that in spite of the evolutionary process of speciation, distantly related species may exhibit functional conservation owing to conservative pathways. The novel terms OrthRate and ParaRate are proposed to quantitatively indicate the flexibility of a homologous pathway and reveal the alternative regulation of functional genes. Conclusion The developed functional pathway mapping strategy provides a bioinformatics approach for constructing biological pathways by highlighting the homologous relationships between various model species. The mapped HIF pathways were quantitatively illustrated and evaluated by statistically analyzing their conserved transcription factor-binding elements. Keywords hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), hypoxia-response element (HRE), transcription factor (TF), transcription factor binding site (TFBS), KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), cross-species comparison, orthology, paralogy, functional pathway PMID:21689478

  17. Functional pathway mapping analysis for hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chia-Sheng; Pai, Tun-Wen; Hu, Chin-Hua; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Dah-Tsyr Chang, Margaret; Chang, Hao-Teng; Chen, Chih-Chia

    2011-06-20

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that play a crucial role in response to hypoxic stress in living organisms. The HIF pathway is activated by changes in cellular oxygen levels and has significant impacts on the regulation of gene expression patterns in cancer cells. Identifying functional conservation across species and discovering conserved regulatory motifs can facilitate the selection of reference species for empirical tests. This paper describes a cross-species functional pathway mapping strategy based on evidence of homologous relationships that employs matrix-based searching techniques for identifying transcription factor-binding sites on all retrieved HIF target genes. HIF-related orthologous and paralogous genes were mapped onto the conserved pathways to indicate functional conservation across species. Quantitatively measured HIF pathways are depicted in order to illustrate the extent of functional conservation. The results show that in spite of the evolutionary process of speciation, distantly related species may exhibit functional conservation owing to conservative pathways. The novel terms OrthRate and ParaRate are proposed to quantitatively indicate the flexibility of a homologous pathway and reveal the alternative regulation of functional genes. The developed functional pathway mapping strategy provides a bioinformatics approach for constructing biological pathways by highlighting the homologous relationships between various model species. The mapped HIF pathways were quantitatively illustrated and evaluated by statistically analyzing their conserved transcription factor-binding elements. hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), hypoxia-response element (HRE), transcription factor (TF), transcription factor binding site (TFBS), KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), cross-species comparison, orthology, paralogy, functional pathway.

  18. ERK/MAPK activation involves hypoxia-induced MGr1-Ag/37LRP expression and contributes to apoptosis resistance in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Zhang, Hongbo; Sun, Li; Gao, Yuqi; Jin, Haifeng; Liang, Shuhui; Wang, Yanxia; Dong, Mingqing; Shi, Yongquan; Li, Zhichao; Fan, Daiming

    2010-08-15

    We previously demonstrated that hypoxia increased the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1)-dependent MGr1-Ag/37LRP expression, which enhanced adhesion of gastric cancer cells to laminin, inhibited drug-induced apoptosis and caused cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Here, we investigated the role of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in the signaling mechanisms underlying these events. We found that hypoxia activated ERK activity in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK), which preferentially activated ERK, mimics, in a nonadditive way, hypoxia-induced activity of MGr1-Ag/37LRP promoter and expression of MGr1-Ag/37LRP. Furthermore, U0126, the MEK inhibitor, inhibited hypoxia- and MEK-induced MGr1-Ag/37LRP promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. MEK inhibition also reversed hypoxia- and MEK-induced HIF-1 protein and its activity in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated reactive oxygen species signaling this response. Exogenous addition of H(2)O(2) was sufficient to activate ERK in a dose-dependent profile. Reactive oxygen species scavengers of H(2)O(2) significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced ERK or HIF-1 activation and sequential expression of MGr1-Ag/37LRP. We also investigated the signaling in hypoxia-induced cell adhesion and apoptosis induced by vincristine. Hypoxia significantly enhanced adhesion of SGC7901 cells to laminin in a time-dependent manner, which might be inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and MGr1-Ag/37LRP siRNA. Consistent with results of adhesion assay, hypoxia-resistant apoptosis might be reversed by U0126 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that hypoxia-elicited MGr1-Ag/37LRP expression activated by HIF-1 depends on ERK activation. These events are dependent of reactive oxygen intermediates.

  19. Hypoxia-induced expression of RTEF-1 (related transcriptional enhancer factor-1) in endothelial cells is independent of HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cuili; Song, Q.H.; Li, Jian; Tian, Ye

    2009-04-10

    Related transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (RTEF-1) plays an important role in transcriptional regulation of angiogenic genes in hypoxic endothelial cells. The mechanisms involved in the induction of RTEF-1 expression in hypoxia are poorly understood. In bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) subjected to hypoxia, Western blot and quantitative PCR analysis revealed that RTEF-1 protein and mRNA levels were significantly increased by hypoxia. To address the potential role of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in RTEF-1 induction, a hepatoma cell line deficient in HIF-1 (c4) and a control HIF-1 positive cell line (vT{l_brace}2{r_brace}) were exposed to hypoxia. We report that RTEF-1 protein expression assessed by either Western blotting or immunofluorescence was increased in both cell lines. This demonstrates that HIF-1 is not required for RTEF-1 upregulation by hypoxia. Conversely, RTEF-1 appeared to regulate the expression of HIF-1: HIF-1{alpha} promoter activity was increased (3.6-fold) by RTEF-1 overexpression in BAEC. Furthermore, RTEF-1 enhanced BAEC proliferation and tubule formation; these were inhibited by RTEF-1 knockdown with siRNA. We propose that RTEF-1, acting via HIF-1, is a key regulator of angiogenesis in response to hypoxia.

  20. Diacetoxyscirpenol as a new anticancer agent to target hypoxia-inducible factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong-Joon; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Chun, Yang-Sook; Leutou, Alain Simplice; Son, Byeng Wha; Park, Jong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1, which promotes the progression of malignancy by stimulating angiogenesis and by augmenting the ability of tumors to survive. Thus, HIF-1 is one of the most compelling targets for treating cancers. The aim of this study was to find a small molecule that inhibits HIF-1 under hypoxia in cancer cells. 7,280 compounds in a chemical library were tested in a cancer cell line expressing luciferase HIF-dependently. Through three rounds of screening, we finally picked up a compound that originates from a marine bacterium parasitizing red alga. The antibiotic potently inhibited HIF-1 expression and its transcriptional activity in cancer cells exposed to hypoxia. Through two-step fractionation, diacetoxyscirpenol was purified and identified as a HIF-inhibiting ingredient. Mechanistically, diacetoxyscirpenol inhibits the synthesis of HIF-1α protein and also interferes with the dimerization of HIF-1α and ARNT. It attenuates HIF-mediated gene expression in cancer cells exposed to hypoxia, and by doing so reduces tumorigenic and angiogenic potentials of cancer cells. More importantly, diacetoxyscirpenol retarded tumor growth in mice, and reduced HIF-1α expression and vascular formation in the tumors. Overall, diacetoxyscirpenol is considered a potential drug deregulating the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and it could be beneficially employed for treating malignant tumors with hypoxic microenvironment. PMID:27613833

  1. [Inhibitory effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced apoptosis of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Feng; Fu, Hui-Ying; Yang, Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Gang; Lü, Bo-Dong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced apoptosis of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) in rats. Rat CCSMCs were cultured in vitro by the enzyme digestion method and identified by immunofluorescent staining of anti-alpha-SMA and anti-Desmin. The non-toxic dose of salidroside was determined by MTT assay. Low-oxygen mixed gas (1% O2, 5% CO2, and 94% N2) was piped into a modular incubator chamber to induce hypoxia. The CCSMCs were divided into a normal, a hypoxia, and a 32 microg/mL salidroside intervention group. The apoptosis of the CCSMCs was detected by flow cytometry and the expression of the caspase-3 protein determined by Western blot. The majority of the CCSMCs were positive for alpha-SMA and Desmin at immunofluorescent staining. Salidroside at < 32 microg/ml produced no obvious toxicity to CCSMCs. Compared with the normal control group, the rates of early and late apoptosis of CCSMCs were both increased significantly in the hypoxia group ([12.77 +/-1.41]% vs [18.69 +/- 1.29]%, P < 0.01 and [14.63 +/- 2.00]% vs [21.03 +/- 1.530]% , P < 0.05). Western blot showed a markedly increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01). Intervention with 32 microg/ml salidroside significantly reduced hypoxia-induced early apoptosis of CCSMCs ([13.46% +/- 1.87]%, P < 0.01) and decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01). Salidroside can reduce the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and inhibit hypoxia-induced apoptosis of CCSMCs in rats.

  2. A Novel Malate Dehydrogenase 2 Inhibitor Suppresses Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 by Regulating Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kusik; Kim, Inhyub; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Kyeong; Won, Misun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 inhibitor LW6, an aryloxyacetylamino benzoic acid derivative, inhibits malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) activity during the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we present a novel MDH2 inhibitor compound 7 containing benzohydrazide moiety, which was identified through structure-based virtual screening of chemical library. Similar to LW6, compound 7 inhibited MDH2 activity in a competitive fashion, thereby reducing NADH level. Consequently, compound 7 reduced oxygen consumption and ATP production during the mitochondrial respiration cycle, resulting in increased intracellular oxygen concentration. Therefore, compound 7 suppressed the accumulation of HIF-1α and expression of its target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Moreover, reduction in ATP content activated AMPK, thereby inactivating ACC and mTOR the downstream pathways. As expected, compound 7 exhibited significant growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Compound 7 demonstrated substantial anti-tumor efficacy in an in vivo xenograft assay using HCT116 mouse model. Taken together, a novel MDH2 inhibitor, compound 7, suppressed HIF-1α accumulation via reduction of oxygen consumption and ATP production, integrating metabolism into anti-cancer efficacy in cancer cells. PMID:27611801

  3. A dynamic model of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) network.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lan K; Cavadas, Miguel A S; Scholz, Carsten C; Fitzpatrick, Susan F; Bruning, Ulrike; Cummins, Eoin P; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Manresa, Mario C; Kholodenko, Boris N; Taylor, Cormac T; Cheong, Alex

    2013-03-15

    Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway is a critical step in the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Although many of the key proteins involved have been characterised, the dynamics of their interactions in generating this response remain unclear. In the present study, we have generated a comprehensive mathematical model of the HIF-1α pathway based on core validated components and dynamic experimental data, and confirm the previously described connections within the predicted network topology. Our model confirms previous work demonstrating that the steps leading to optimal HIF-1α transcriptional activity require sequential inhibition of both prolyl- and asparaginyl-hydroxylases. We predict from our model (and confirm experimentally) that there is residual activity of the asparaginyl-hydroxylase FIH (factor inhibiting HIF) at low oxygen tension. Furthermore, silencing FIH under conditions where prolyl-hydroxylases are inhibited results in increased HIF-1α transcriptional activity, but paradoxically decreases HIF-1α stability. Using a core module of the HIF network and mathematical proof supported by experimental data, we propose that asparaginyl hydroxylation confers a degree of resistance upon HIF-1α to proteosomal degradation. Thus, through in vitro experimental data and in silico predictions, we provide a comprehensive model of the dynamic regulation of HIF-1α transcriptional activity by hydroxylases and use its predictive and adaptive properties to explain counter-intuitive biological observations.

  4. Expression of DDX3 Is Directly Modulated by Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha in Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botlagunta, Mahendran; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Vesuna, Farhad; Winnard, Paul T.; Bol, Guus M.; Patel, Arvind H.; Raman, Venu

    2011-01-01

    DEAD box protein, DDX3, is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer cells ranging from weakly invasive to aggressive phenotypes and functions as an important regulator of cancer cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia inducible factor-1α is a transcriptional activator of DDX3 in breast cancer cells. Within the promoter region of the human DDX3 gene, we identified three putative hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements. By luciferase reporter assays in combination with mutated hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements, we determined that the hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive element at position -153 relative to the translation start site is essential for transcriptional activation of DDX3 under hypoxic conditions. We also demonstrated that hypoxia inducible factor-1 binds to the DDX3 promoter and that the binding is specific, as revealed by siRNA against hypoxia inducible factor-1 and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Thus, the activation of DDX3 expression during hypoxia is due to the direct binding of hypoxia inducible factor-1 to hypoxia responsive elements in the DDX3 promoter. In addition, we observed a significant overlap in the protein expression pattern of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and DDX3 in MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, the role of DDX3 as a hypoxia-inducible gene that exhibits enhanced expression through the interaction of hypoxia inducible factor-1 with hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements in its promoter region. PMID:21448281

  5. Salternamide A Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Accumulation of HIF-1α and Induces Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Bach, Duc-Hiep; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Hong, Ji-Young; Park, Hyen Joo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-11-19

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an essential regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen concentrations, activating a broad range of genes that provide adaptive responses to oxygen deprivation. HIF-1α is overexpressed in various cancers and therefore represents a considerable chemotherapeutic target. Salternamide A (SA), a novel small molecule that is isolated from a halophilic Streptomyces sp., is a potent cytotoxic agent against a variety of human cancer cell lines. However, the mechanisms by which SA inhibits tumor growth remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that SA efficiently inhibits the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in various human cancer cells. In addition, SA suppresses the upstream signaling of HIF-1α, such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p42/p44 MAPK, and STAT3 signaling under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we found that SA induces cell death by stimulating G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, SA was identified as a novel small molecule HIF-1α inhibitor from marine natural products and is potentially a leading candidate in the development of anticancer agents.

  6. HIF-1α-induced microRNA-210 reduces hypoxia-induced osteoblast MG-63 cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanwen; Peng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the ischemic-hypoxia-induced fracture healing impairment, we determined in this study the microRNA-210 expression in broken bone specimens and in osteoblasts under hypoxia and then determined the influence of microRNA-210 overexpression on the osteoblast cell proliferation and apoptosis. Results demonstrated that microRNA-210 expression was upregulated with an association with HIF-1α overexpression in clinical human catagmatic tissues and was upregulated HIF-1α-dependently in response to hypoxia in osteoblast MG-63 cells. CCK-8 assay indicated that microRNA-210 upregulation by microRNA-210 mimics reduced the chemotherapeutic 5-FU-induced osteoblast cell death, and colony formation assay demonstrated that microRNA-210 mimics promoted osteoblast cells growth. Moreover, the microRNA-210 mimics transfection inhibited the hypoxia-induced MG-63 cell apoptosis via inhibiting the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. Therefore, our research indicated a protective role of microRNA-210 in response to hypoxia. And microRNA-210 might serve as a protective role in bone fracture healing.

  7. ADAM12 and ADAM17 are essential molecules for hypoxia-induced impairment of neural vascular barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Dan; Arima, Mitsuru; Takubo, Keiyo; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Minagawa, Takuya; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Neural vascular barrier is essential for the life of multicellular organisms, and its impairment by tissue hypoxia is known to be a central of pathophysiology accelerating the progression of various intractable neural diseases. Therefore, the molecules involved in hypoxia-induced impairment of vascular barrier can be the targets to establish new therapies for intractable diseases. Here, we demonstrate that a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) 12 and 17 expressed in endothelial cells are the molecules responsible for the impairment of neural vascular barrier by hypoxia. Brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro lost their barrier properties immediately after hypoxic stimulation through diminished localization of claudin-5, a tight junction molecule, on cell membranes. Hypoxic disappearance of claudin-5 from cell membranes and the consequent loss of barrier properties were completely suppressed by inhibition of the metalloproteinase activity which was found to be attributed to ADAM12 and ADAM17. Inhibition of either ADAM12 or ADAM17 was sufficient to rescue the in vivo neural vasculature under hypoxia from the loss of barrier function. This is the first report to specify the molecules which are responsible for hypoxia-induced impairment of neural vascular barrier and furthermore can be the targets of new therapeutic strategies for intractable neural diseases. PMID:26242473

  8. ADAM12 and ADAM17 are essential molecules for hypoxia-induced impairment of neural vascular barrier function.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dan; Arima, Mitsuru; Takubo, Keiyo; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Minagawa, Takuya; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Eiji

    2015-08-05

    Neural vascular barrier is essential for the life of multicellular organisms, and its impairment by tissue hypoxia is known to be a central of pathophysiology accelerating the progression of various intractable neural diseases. Therefore, the molecules involved in hypoxia-induced impairment of vascular barrier can be the targets to establish new therapies for intractable diseases. Here, we demonstrate that a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) 12 and 17 expressed in endothelial cells are the molecules responsible for the impairment of neural vascular barrier by hypoxia. Brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro lost their barrier properties immediately after hypoxic stimulation through diminished localization of claudin-5, a tight junction molecule, on cell membranes. Hypoxic disappearance of claudin-5 from cell membranes and the consequent loss of barrier properties were completely suppressed by inhibition of the metalloproteinase activity which was found to be attributed to ADAM12 and ADAM17. Inhibition of either ADAM12 or ADAM17 was sufficient to rescue the in vivo neural vasculature under hypoxia from the loss of barrier function. This is the first report to specify the molecules which are responsible for hypoxia-induced impairment of neural vascular barrier and furthermore can be the targets of new therapeutic strategies for intractable neural diseases.

  9. KV7 channels are involved in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation of porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, E R; Nielsen, B D; Kun, A; Hughes, A D; Krøigaard, C; Mogensen, S; Matchkov, V V; Fröbert, O; Simonsen, U

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hypoxia causes vasodilatation of coronary arteries, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia reduces intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by opening of K channels and release of H2S. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Porcine coronary arteries without endothelium were mounted for measurement of isometric tension and [Ca2+]i, and the expression of voltage-gated K channels KV7 channels (encoded by KCNQ genes) and large-conductance calcium-activated K channels (KCa1.1) was examined. Voltage clamp assessed the role of KV7 channels in hypoxia. KEY RESULTS Gradual reduction of oxygen concentration from 95 to 1% dilated the precontracted coronary arteries and this was associated with reduced [Ca2+]i in PGF2α (10 μM)-contracted arteries whereas no fall in [Ca2+]i was observed in 30 mM K-contracted arteries. Blockers of ATP-sensitive voltage-gated potassium channels and KCa1.1 inhibited hypoxia-induced dilatation in PGF2α-contracted arteries; this inhibition was more marked in the presence of the Kv7 channel blockers, XE991 and linopirdine, while a KV7.1 blocker, failed to change hypoxic vasodilatation. XE991 also inhibited H2S- and adenosine-induced vasodilatation. PCR revealed the expression of KV7.1, KV7.4, KV7.5 and KCa1.1 channels, and KCa1.1, KV7.4 and KV7.5 were also identified by immunoblotting. Voltage clamp studies showed the XE991-sensitive current was more marked in hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION The KV7.4 and KV7.5 channels, which we identified in the coronary arteries, appear to have a major role in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation. The voltage clamp results further support the involvement of KV7 channels in this vasodilatation. Activation of these KV7 channels may be induced by H2S and adenosine. PMID:24111896

  10. Regulation of Hypoxia-Inducible mRNAs by the von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein Requires Binding to Complexes Containing Elongins B/C and Cul2

    PubMed Central

    Lonergan, Kim M.; Iliopoulos, Othon; Ohh, Michael; Kamura, Takumi; Conaway, Ronald C.; Conaway, Joan Weliky; Kaelin, William G.

    1998-01-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) binds to elongins B and C and posttranscriptionally regulates the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs under normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Here we report that pVHL binds, via elongin C, to the human homolog of the Caenorhabditis elegans Cul2 protein. Coimmunoprecipitation and chromatographic copurification data suggest that pVHL-Cul2 complexes exist in native cells. pVHL mutants that were unable to bind to complexes containing elongin C and Cul2 were likewise unable to inhibit the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs. A model for the regulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs by pVHL is presented based on the apparent similarity of elongin C and Cul2 to Skp1 and Cdc53, respectively. These latter proteins form complexes that target specific proteins for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. PMID:9447969

  11. Evaluation of aspirin metabolites as inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylases.

    PubMed

    Lienard, Benoit M; Conejo-García, Ana; Stolze, Ineke; Loenarz, Christoph; Oldham, Neil J; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Schofield, Christopher J

    2008-12-21

    Known and potential aspirin metabolites were evaluated as inhibitors of oxygen-sensing hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) hydroxylases; some of the metabolites were found to stabilise HIF-alpha in cells.

  12. Methylseleninic acid downregulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in invasive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indu; Null, Kevin; Wolter, William; Suckow, Mark A; King, Tonya; Pinto, John T; Sinha, Raghu

    2012-03-15

    Alternative strategies are needed to control growth of advanced and hormone refractory prostate cancer. In this regard, we investigated the efficacy of methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a penultimate precursor to the highly reactive selenium metabolite, methylselenol, to inhibit growth of invasive and hormone refractory rat (PAIII) and human (PC-3 and PC-3M) prostate cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that MSeA inhibits PAIII cell growth in vitro as well as reduces weights of tumors generated by PAIII cells treated ex vivo. A significant reduction in the number of metastatic lung foci by MSeA treatment was also noted in Lobund-Wistar rats. The PAIII cells along with PC-3, DU145 and PC-3M cells undergo apoptosis after MSeA treatments in both normoxia and hypoxia. Treatment of metastatic rat and human prostate cancer cell lines with MSeA decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, HIF-1α transcription activity both in normoxic and hypoxic conditions is reduced after MSeA treatment of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, VEGF and GLUT1, downstream targets of HIF-1α, were also reduced in prostate cancer cells after MSeA treatment. Our study illustrates the efficacy of MSeA in controlling growth of hormone refractory prostate cancer by downregulating HIF-1α, which is possibly occurring through stabilization or increase in prolyl hydroxylase activity. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  13. Repression of hypoxia-inducible factor α signaling by Set7-mediated methylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Chen, Zhu; Xu, Chenxi; Leng, Xiaoqian; Cao, Hong; Ouyang, Gang; Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α are the main regulators of cellular responses to hypoxia. Post-translational modifications of HIF-1α and 2α are necessary to modulate their functions. The methylation of non-histone proteins by Set7, an SET domain-containing lysine methyltransferase, is a novel regulatory mechanism to control cell protein function in response to various cellular stresses. In this study, we show that Set7 methylates HIF-1α at lysine 32 and HIF-2α at lysine K29; this methylation inhibits the expression of HIF-1α/2α targets by impairing the occupancy of HIF-α on hypoxia response element of HIF target gene promoter. Set7-null fibroblasts and the cells with shRNA-knocked down Set7 exhibit upregulated HIF target genes. Set7 inhibitor blocks HIF-1α/2α methylation to enhance HIF target gene expression. Set7-null fibroblasts and the cells with shRNA-knocked down Set7 or inhibition of Set7 by the inhibitor subjected to hypoxia display an increased glucose uptake and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels. These findings define a novel modification of HIF-1α/2α and demonstrate that Set7-medited lysine methylation negatively regulates HIF-α transcriptional activity and HIF-1α-mediated glucose homeostasis. PMID:25897119

  14. Activation of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Is a General Phenomenon in Infections with Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Werth, Nadine; Beerlage, Christiane; Rosenberger, Christian; Yazdi, Amir S.; Edelmann, Markus; Amr, Amro; Bernhardt, Wanja; von Eiff, Christof; Becker, Karsten; Schäfer, Andrea; Peschel, Andreas; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 is the key transcriptional factor involved in the adaptation process of cells and organisms to hypoxia. Recent findings suggest that HIF-1 plays also a crucial role in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Using patient skin biopsies, cell culture and murine infection models, HIF-1 activation was determined by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and reporter gene assays and was linked to cellular oxygen consumption. The course of a S. aureus peritonitis was determined upon pharmacological HIF-1 inhibition. Activation of HIF-1 was detectable (i) in all ex vivo in biopsies of patients suffering from skin infections, (ii) in vitro using cell culture infection models and (iii) in vivo using murine intravenous and peritoneal S. aureus infection models. HIF-1 activation by human pathogens was induced by oxygen-dependent mechanisms. Small colony variants (SCVs) of S. aureus known to cause chronic infections did not result in cellular hypoxia nor in HIF-1 activation. Pharmaceutical inhibition of HIF-1 activation resulted in increased survival rates of mice suffering from a S. aureus peritonitis. Conclusions/Significance Activation of HIF-1 is a general phenomenon in infections with human pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. HIF-1-regulated pathways might be an attractive target to modulate the course of life-threatening infections. PMID:20644645

  15. Design and Synthesis of Novel Small-molecule Inhibitors of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mooring, Suazette Reid; Jin, Hui; Devi, Narra S.; Jabbar, Adnan A.; Kaluz, Stefan; Liu, Yuan; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Wang, Binghe

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia, a reduction in partial oxygen pressure, is a salient property of solid tumors. Hypoxia drives malignant progression and metastasis in tumors and participates in tumor resistance to radio- and chemotherapies. Hypoxia activates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors, which induce target genes that regulate adaptive biological processes such as anaerobic metabolism, cell motility and angiogenesis. Clinical evidence has demonstrated that expression of HIF-1 is strongly associated with poor patient prognosis and activation of HIF-1 contributes to malignant behavior and therapeutic resistance. Consequently, HIF-1 has become an important therapeutic target for inhibition by small molecules. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of small molecules that inhibit the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Many of these compounds exhibit inhibitory activity in the nanomolar range. Separate mechanistic studies indicate that these inhibitors do not alter HIF-1 levels, but interfere with the HIF-1α/HIF-1β/p300/CBP complex formation by interacting with p300 and CBP. PMID:22032632

  16. Endothelin-converting enzyme is a plausible target gene for hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Khamaisi, Mogher; Toukan, Hala; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Rosenberger, Christian; Skarzinski, Galia; Shina, Ahuva; Meidan, Rina; Koesters, Robert; Rosen, Seymour; Walkinshaw, Gail; Mimura, Imari; Nangaku, Masaomi; Heyman, Samuel N

    2015-04-01

    Renal endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 is induced in experimental diabetes and following radiocontrast administration, conditions characterized by renal hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilization, and enhanced endothelin synthesis. Here we tested whether ECE-1 might be a HIF-target gene in vitro and in vivo. ECE-1 transcription and expression increased in cultured vascular endothelial and proximal tubular cell lines, subject to hypoxia, to mimosine or cobalt chloride. These interventions are known to stabilize HIF signaling by inhibition of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases. In rats, HIF-prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition by mimosine or FG-4497 increased HIF-1α immunostaining in renal tubules, principally in distal nephron segments. This was associated with markedly enhanced ECE-1 protein expression, predominantly in the renal medulla. A progressive and dramatic increase in ECE-1 immunostaining over time, in parallel with enhanced HIF expression, was also noted in conditional von Hippel-Lindau knockout mice. Since HIF and STAT3 are cross-stimulated, we triggered HIF expression by STAT3 activation in mice, transfected by or injected with a chimeric IL-6/IL-6-receptor protein, and found a similar pattern of enhanced ECE-1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequence (ChIP-seq) and PCR analysis in hypoxic endothelial cells identified HIF binding at the ECE-1 promoter and intron regions. Thus, our findings suggest that ECE-1 may be a novel HIF-target gene.

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factors in regulation of immune responses in tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinit; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is one of the hallmarks of the tumour microenvironment. It is the result of insufficient blood supply to support proliferating tumour cells. In response to hypoxia, the cellular machinery uses mechanisms whereby the low level of oxygen is sensed and counterbalanced by changing the transcription of numerous genes. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) play a critical role in the regulation of cellular responses to hypoxia. In recent years ample evidence has indicated that HIF play a prominent role in tumour immune responses. Up-regulation of HIF1α promotes immune suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSC) and tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) and rapid differentiation of MDSC to TAM. HIF1α does not affect MDSC differentiation to dendritic cells (DC) but instead causes DC activation. HIF inhibit effector functions of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. HIF1α inhibits regulatory T (Treg) cell development by switching the balance towards T helper type 17 cells. However, as a major part of Treg cell differentiation does not take place in the tumour site, a functionally more important role of HIF1α is in the promotion of Treg cell recruitment to the tumour site in response to chemokines. As a result, the presence of Treg cells inside tumours is increased. Hence, HIF play a largely negative role in the regulation of immune responses inside tumours. It appears that therapeutic strategies targeting HIF in the immune system could be beneficial for anti-tumour immune responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Anti-hypernociceptive properties of agmatine in persistent inflammatory and neuropathic models of pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Paszcuk, Ana Flávia; Gadotti, Vinicius M; Tibola, Daiane; Quintão, Nara L M; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Calixto, João B; Santos, Adair R S

    2007-07-23

    The present study examined the anti-hypernociceptive effects of agmatine (AGM) in acute and chronic models of behavioural pain in mice. Agmatine (30 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min early), produced time-dependent inhibition of mechanical hypernociception induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) injected in the mice paw (inhibition of 52+/-7%) after 4 h. Given chronically (twice a day) during 10 days, AGM significantly reversed the mechanical hypernociception caused by CFA (inhibition of 43+/-6% to 67+/-5%). Moreover, AGM also significantly reduced the mechanical hypernociception caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) during 6 h, with inhibition of 81+/-8%. In thermal hypernociception (cold stimuli) caused by PSNL the antinociceptive effect of AGM was prolonged by 4 h with inhibition of 97+/-3% observed 1 h after the treatment. Nevertheless, AGM failed to inhibit the paw oedema caused by CFA and the myeloperoxidase enzyme activity. Of note, AGM (10-100 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before) also elicited a pronounced inhibition of the biting response induced by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mice, with mean ID(50) values of 61.3 mg/kg (47.7-78.6 mg/kg) and 30.4 mg/kg (18.6-49.8 mg/kg) and inhibitions of 75+/-5% and 66+/-6%, respectively. Together, present and previous findings show that AGM given systemically is effective in inhibiting mechanical and thermal hypernociception present in chronic inflammatory processes caused by CFA and also the neuropathic pain caused by PSNL.

  19. Hypoxia induces discoidin domain receptor-2 expression via the p38 pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells to increase their migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chung; Wang, Bao-Wei; Wang, Danny Ling; Shyu, Kou-Gi

    2008-10-03

    Discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds to the extracellular matrix. We investigated the role of hypoxia in DDR2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the underlying mechanism. Subjecting VSMCs to hypoxia (2.5% O(2)) induced DDR2 expression; treatments with a specific inhibitor (SB203580) of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or p38-specific small interference RNA (siRNA) abolished this hypoxia-induced DDR2 expression. Gel shifting assays showed that hypoxia increased the Myc-Max-DNA binding activity in the promoter region of DDR2; inhibition of p38 MAPK activation by SB203580 and p38-specific siRNA blocked hypoxia-induced DDR2 promoter activity. Hypoxia also induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in VSMCs and increased their migration. These VSMC responses to hypoxia were inhibited by DDR2- and p38-specific siRNAs. Our results suggested that hypoxia induces DDR2 expression in VSMCs at the transcriptional level, which is mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway and contributes to VSMC migration.

  20. Proteomic analysis of hypoxia-induced tube breakdown of an in vitro capillary model composed of HUVECs: potential role of p38-regulated reduction of HSP27.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ryoji; Naitou, Hirotaka; Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ayuzawa, Rie; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Ohashi, Norio; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Toshiro

    2008-07-01

    We recently reported that hypoxia could induce the breakdown of capillary-like tubes formed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that this breakdown was regulated by p38 and not by a caspase cascade, although the exact molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify proteins that regulated hypoxia-induced tube breakdown through p38-regulated and caspase-independent mechanisms. The involvement of adhesion proteins, integrins, VE-cadherin, PECAM-1, and occludin was first investigated. Although some of these proteins decreased after hypoxia, none of them met the conditions of being quantitatively restored by p38 inhibition but not by caspase inhibition. We then conducted 2-D DIGE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS to identify altered protein expression. The differential proteomic analysis of tube-forming HUVECs treated with normoxia or hypoxia and treated with hypoxia in the presence or absence of SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, revealed the involvement of heat shock proteins in this tube breakdown. We also confirmed that the amount of HSP27 and HSP70 changed in a p38-regulated and caspase-independent manner during hypoxia. Knocking down HSP27 expression using RNAi further augmented hypoxia-induced tube breakdown. Taken together, it was shown that p38-regulated and caspase-independent reduction of HSP27 plays an important role in hypoxia-induced tube breakdown.

  1. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 as a Target for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziyan; Yan, Jingqi; Chang, Yanzhong; Yan, Shirley ShiDu; Shi, Honglian

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor responsible for cellular and tissue adaption to low oxygen tension. HIF-1, a heterodimer consisting of a constitutively expressed β subunit and an oxygen-regulated α subunit, regulates a series of genes that participate in angiogenesis, iron metabolism, glucose metabolism, and cell proliferation/survival. The activity of HIF-1 is controlled by post-translational modifications on different amino acid residues of its subunits, mainly the alpha subunit. Besides in ischemic stroke (see review [1]), emerging evidence has revealed that HIF-1 activity and expression of its down-stream genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoietin, are altered in a range of neurodegenerative diseases. At the same time, experimental and clinical evidence has demonstrated that regulating HIF-1 might ameliorate the cellular and tissue damage in the neurodegenerative diseases. These new findings suggest HIF-1 as a potential medicinal target for the neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on HIF-1α protein modifications and HIF-1’s potential neuroprotective roles in Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD), Huntington’s diseases (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PMID:21861815

  2. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Demet; Dursun, Ali D; Xi, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in early 1990s, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been increasingly recognized for its key role in transcriptional control of more than a hundred genes that regulate a wide-spectrum of cellular functional events, including angiogenesis, vasomotor control, glucose and energy metabolism, erythropoiesis, iron homeostasis, pH regulation, cell proliferation and viability. Evidence accumulated during the past 7 years suggests a critical role for HIF-1α in mediating cardioprotection. The purpose of our present article is to provide an updated overview on this important regulator of gene expression in the cellular stress-responsive and adaptive process. We have particularly emphasized the involvement of HIF-1 in the induction of cardioprotective molecules, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1), and erythropoietin (EPO), which in turn alleviate myocardial damages caused by harmful events such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Despite these advances, further in-depth studies are needed to elucidate the possible coordination or interaction between HIF-1α and other key transcription factors in regulating protein expression that leads to cardioprotection. PMID:20711226

  3. Epithelial Barrier Regulation by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor.

    PubMed

    Glover, Louise E; Colgan, Sean P

    2017-09-01

    Mucosal tissues represent surfaces that are exposed to the outside world and provide a conduit for internal and external communication. Tissues such as the intestine and the lung are lined by layer(s) of epithelial cells that, when organized in three dimensions, provide a critical barrier to the flux of luminal contents. This selective barrier is provided through the regulated expression of junctional proteins and mucins. Tissue oxygen metabolism is central to the maintenance of homeostasis in the mucosa. In some organs (e.g., the colon), low baseline Po2 determines tissue metabolism and results in basal expression of the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which is enhanced after ischemia/inflammation. Recent studies have indicated that HIF contributes fundamentally to the expression of barrier-related genes and in the regulation of barrier-adaptive responses within the mucosa. Here, we briefly review recent literature on the topic of hypoxia and HIF regulation of barrier in mucosal health and during disease.

  4. Hypoxia induces re-entry of committed cells into pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Julie; Zhang, Zhan; Nelson, Angelique; Lamba, Deepak A.; Reh, Thomas A.; Ware, Carol; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Adult stem cells reside in hypoxic niches and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from a low oxygen environment. However, it is not clear whether hypoxia is critical for stem cell fate since for example human ESCs (hESCs) are able to self-renew in atmospheric oxygen concentrations as well. We now show that hypoxia can govern cell fate decision since hypoxia alone can revert hESC- or iPSC-derived differentiated cells back to a stem cell-like state, as evidenced by re-activation of an Oct4-promoter reporter. Hypoxia-induced “de-differentiated” cells also mimic hESCs in their morphology, long-term self-renewal capacity, genome wide mRNA and miRNA profiles, Oct4 promoter methylation state, cell surface markers TRA1-60 and SSEA4 expression and capacity to form teratomas. These data demonstrate that hypoxia can influence cell fate decisions and could elucidate hypoxic niche function. PMID:23765801

  5. Regulation of erythropoiesis by hypoxia-inducible factors

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Volker H.

    2012-01-01

    A classic physiologic response to systemic hypoxia is the increase in red blood cell production. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) orchestrate this response by inducing cell-type specific gene expression changes that result in increased erythropoietin (EPO) production in kidney and liver, in enhanced iron uptake and utilization and in adjustments of the bone marrow microenvironment that facilitate erythroid progenitor maturation and proliferation. In particular HIF-2 has emerged as the transcription factor that regulates EPO synthesis in the kidney and liver and plays a critical role in the regulation of intestinal iron uptake. Its key function in the hypoxic regulation of erythropoiesis is underscored by genetic studies in human populations that live at high-altitude and by mutational analysis of patients with familial erythrocytosis. This review provides a perspective on recent insights into HIF-controlled erythropoiesis and iron metabolism, and examines cell types that have EPO-producing capability. Furthermore, the review summarizes clinical syndromes associated with mutations in the O2-sensing pathway and the genetic changes that occur in high altitude natives. The therapeutic potential of pharmacologic HIF activation for the treatment of anemia is discussed. PMID:23291219

  6. Neuroprotective action of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage in mouse hippocampal cells depends on ERα but not ERβ or GPR30 signalling.

    PubMed

    Rzemieniec, J; Litwa, E; Wnuk, A; Lason, W; Gołas, A; Krzeptowski, W; Kajta, M

    2015-02-01

    Raloxifene is the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) currently used in clinical practice to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in bone tissue and to antagonise ERs in breast and uterine cancers. Little is known, however, about mechanisms of action of raloxifene on hypoxia-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective potential of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage of mouse hippocampal cells in primary cultures, with a particular focus on raloxifene interactions with the classical nuclear ERs (ERα, ERβ) and the recently identified membrane ER G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In this study, 18 h of hypoxia increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) mRNA expression and induced apoptotic processes, such as loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-3 and fragmentation of cell nuclei based on Hoechst 33342 staining. These effects were accompanied by reduced ATPase and intracellular esterase activities as well as substantial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells exposed to hypoxia. Our study demonstrated strong neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic caspase-3-independent actions of raloxifene in hippocampal cells exposed to hypoxia. Raloxifene also inhibited the hypoxia-induced decrease in Erα mRNA expression and attenuated the hypoxia-induced rise in Erβ and Gpr30 mRNA expression levels. Impact of raloxifene on hypoxia-affected Erα mRNA was mirrored by fluctuations in the protein level of the receptor as demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescent labelling. Raloxifene-induced changes in Erβ mRNA expression level were in parallel with ERβ immunofluorescent labeling. However, changes in Gpr30 mRNA level were not reflected by changes in the protein levels measured either by ELISA, Western blot or immunofluorescent staining at 24h post-treatment. Using specific siRNAs, we provided evidence for a key involvement of ERα, but not ERβ or GPR30 in

  7. A Dialogue between the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Frédéric; Mazure, Nathalie M.; Brahimi-Horn, M. Christiane

    2008-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor is the key protein responsible for the cellular adaptation to low oxygen tension. This transcription factor becomes activated as a result of a drop in the partial pressure of oxygen, to hypoxic levels below 5% oxygen, and targets a panel of genes involved in maintenance of oxygen homeostasis. Hypoxia is a common characteristic of the microenvironment of solid tumors and, through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor, is at the center of the growth dynamics of tumor cells. Not only does the microenvironment impact on the hypoxia-inducible factor but this factor impacts on microenvironmental features, such as pH, nutrient availability, metabolism and the extracellular matrix. In this review we discuss the influence the tumor environment has on the hypoxia-inducible factor and outline the role of this factor as a modulator of the microenvironment and as a powerful actor in tumor remodeling. From a fundamental research point of view the hypoxia-inducible factor is at the center of a signaling pathway that must be deciphered to fully understand the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. From a translational and pharmacological research point of view the hypoxia-inducible factor and its induced downstream gene products may provide information on patient prognosis and offer promising targets that open perspectives for novel “anti-microenvironment” directed therapies. PMID:19308685

  8. Effect of multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein on the hypoxia-induced multidrug resistance of human laryngeal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Jiameng; Xiao, Xiyan

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study, it was demonstrated that hypoxia upregulated the multidrug resistance (MDR) of laryngeal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, with multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression also being upregulated. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of MDR1/P-gp on hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells. The sensitivity of laryngeal cancer cells to multiple drugs and cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining analysis, respectively. The accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in the cells served as an estimate of drug accumulation and was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). MDR1/P-gp expression was inhibited using interference RNA, and the expression of the MDR1 gene was analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. As a result, the sensitivity to multiple chemotherapeutic agents and the apoptosis rate of the hypoxic laryngeal carcinoma cells increased following a decrease in MDR1/P-gp expression (P<0.05). Additionally, FCM analysis of fluorescence intensity indicated that the downregulated expression of MDR1/P-gp markedly increased intracellular Rh123 accumulation (P<0.05). Such results suggest that MDR1/P-gp serves an important role in regulating hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells through a decrease in intracellular drug accumulation.

  9. Dynamin 2 along with microRNA-199a reciprocally regulate hypoxia-inducible factors and ovarian cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hemant P; Subramanian, Indira V; Schnettler, Erica K; Ghosh, Goutam; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Evans, Colleen; Saluja, Manju; Jing, Yawu; Cristina, Ivan; Roy, Sabita; Zeng, Yan; Shah, Vijay H; Sood, Anil K; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2014-04-08

    Hypoxia-driven changes in the tumor microenvironment facilitate cancer metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory cross talk between endocytic pathway, hypoxia, and tumor metastasis. Dynamin 2 (DNM2), a GTPase, is a critical mediator of endocytosis. Hypoxia decreased the levels of DNM2. DNM2 promoter has multiple hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-binding sites and genetic deletion of them relieved hypoxia-induced transcriptional suppression. Interestingly, DNM2 reciprocally regulated HIF. Inhibition of DNM2 GTPase activity and dominant-negative mutant of DNM2 showed a functional role for DNM2 in regulating HIF. Furthermore, the opposite strand of DNM2 gene encodes miR-199a, which is similarly reduced in cancer cells under hypoxia. miR-199a targets the 3'-UTR of HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Decreased miR-199a expression in hypoxia increased HIF levels. Exogenous expression of miR-199a decreased HIF, cell migration, and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. miR-199a-mediated changes in HIF levels affected expression of the matrix-remodeling enzyme, lysyloxidase (LOX). LOX levels negatively correlated with progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients. These results demonstrate a regulatory relationship between DNM2, miR-199a, and HIF, with implications in cancer metastasis.

  10. Serotonin-mediated modulation of hypoxia-induced intracellular calcium responses in glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takuya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-06-15

    In the present study, we examined serotonin (5-HT)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) responses to hypoxia in glomus cells isolated from carotid body (CB) of the rat. 5-HT did not induce any [Ca(2+)]i responses in clustered glomus cells during normoxia (21% O2), whereas, the perfusion of hypoxic solution (1% O2) induced repetitive increases in [Ca(2+)]i in the same specimens. The frequency and magnitude of hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)]i changes observed in the glomus cells were enhanced in the presence of 5-HT, and this response was inhibited by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis detected the expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT3A, and 5-HT3B receptor mRNAs in extracts of the CB. These results suggest that 5-HT increases hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)]i responses in glomus cells. 5-HT may elevate hypoxic responses in glomus cells in order to increase chemosensory activity of the CB.

  11. Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes myogenesis through the noncanonical Wnt pathway, leading to hypertrophic myotubes.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Federica; Resmini, Giulia; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Piccoli, Marco; Bergante, Sonia; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2017-02-10

    Regeneration of skeletal muscle is a complex process that requires the activation of quiescent adult stem cells, called satellite cells, which are resident in hypoxic niches in the tissue. Hypoxia has been recognized as a key factor to maintain stem cells in an undifferentiated state. Herein we report that hypoxia plays a fundamental role also in activating myogenesis. In particular, we found that the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α under hypoxia, in murine skeletal myoblasts, leads to activation of MyoD through the noncanonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, chemical inhibition of HIF-1α activity significantly reduces differentiation, thus confirming its crucial role in the process. Furthermore, hypoxia-preconditioned myoblasts, once induced to differentiate under normoxic conditions, tend to form hypertrophic myotubes. These results support the notion that hypoxia plays a pivotal role in activating the regeneration process by directly inducing myogenesis through HIF-1α. Although preliminary, these findings may suggest new perspective for novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of several muscle diseases.-Cirillo, F., Resmini, G., Ghiroldi, A., Piccoli, M., Bergante, S., Tettamanti, G., Anastasia, L. Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes myogenesis through the noncanonical Wnt pathway, leading to hypertrophic myotubes.

  12. Hypoxia-induced CCL28 promotes recruitment of regulatory T cells and tumor growth in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Zhifeng; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells craft microenvironment to overcome growth disadvantages and adjust to escape the immunosurveillance during tumorigenesis and metastasis. The evolving adaption to the changing microenvironment is exemplified by the development of strategies to deal with hypoxia resulted from fast proliferation of the tumor cells. In this study, we found that hypoxia hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells recruited Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and expressed more Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28). Deletion of CCL28 inhibited Treg recruitment. Furthermore, overexpression of CCL28 promoted tumor growth and Treg infiltration in vivo. Enhanced angiogenesis and VEGF expression was also observed. Moreover, inhibition of HIF1α reversed hypoxia-induced CCL28 upregulation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HCC recruits Tregs to promote angiogenesis under hypoxic condition by upregulating CCL28 expression. These findings establish a link between Tregs and hypoxia in HCC growth and may provide a new potential therapeutic target for treating HCC. PMID:27716621

  13. Natural Product-Based Inhibitors of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1)

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) regulates the expression of more than 70 genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxic stress. Activation of HIF-1 is associated with numerous physiological and pathological processes that include tumorigenesis, vascular remodeling, inflammation, and hypoxia/ischemia-related tissue damage. Clinical studies suggested that HIF-1 activation correlates directly with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance among cancer patients. Preclinical studies support the inhibition of HIF-1 as a major molecular target for antitumor drug discovery. Considerable effort is underway, in government laboratories, industry and academia, to identify therapeutically useful small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors. Natural products (low molecular weight organic compounds produced by plants, microbes, and animals) continue to play a major role in modern antitumor drug discovery. Most of the compounds discovered to inhibit HIF-1 are natural products or synthetic compounds with structures that are based on natural product leads. Natural products have also served a vital role as molecular probes to elucidate the pathways that regulate HIF-1 activity. Natural products and natural product-derived compounds that inhibit HIF-1 are summarized in light of their biological source, chemical class, ancd effect on HIF-1 and HIF-mediated gene regulation. When known, the mechanism(s) of action of HIF-1 inhibitors are described. Many of the substances found to inhibit HIF-1 are non-druggable compounds that are too cytotoxic to serve as drug leads. The application of high-throughput screening methods, complementary molecular-targeted assays, and structurally diverse chemical libraries hold promise for the discovery of therapeutically useful HIF-1 inhibitors. PMID:16515532

  14. The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wan Xing; Hu, Michael S.; Esquivel, Mikaela; Liang, Grace Y.; Rennert, Robert C.; McArdle, Adrian; Paik, Kevin J.; Duscher, Dominik; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Lorenz, H. Peter; Longaker, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Poor wound healing remains a significant health issue for a large number of patients in the United States. The physiologic response to local wound hypoxia plays a critical role in determining the success of the normal healing process. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), as the master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is an important determinant of healing outcomes. HIF-1 contributes to all stages of wound healing through its role in cell migration, cell survival under hypoxic conditions, cell division, growth factor release, and matrix synthesis throughout the healing process. Recent Advances: Positive regulators of HIF-1, such as prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitors, have been shown to be beneficial in enhancing diabetic ischemic wound closure and are currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of several human-ischemia-based conditions. Critical Issues: HIF-1 deficiency and subsequent failure to respond to hypoxic stimuli leads to chronic hypoxia, which has been shown to contribute to the formation of nonhealing ulcers. In contrast, overexpression of HIF-1 has been implicated in fibrotic disease through its role in increasing myofibroblast differentiation leading to excessive matrix production and deposition. Both positive and negative regulators of HIF-1 therefore provide important therapeutic targets that can be used to manipulate HIF-1 expression where an excess or deficiency in HIF-1 is known to correlate with pathogenesis. Future Directions: Targeting HIF-1 during wound healing has many important clinical implications for tissue repair. Counteracting the detrimental effects of excessive or deficient HIF-1 signaling by modulating HIF-1 expression may improve future management of poorly healing wounds. PMID:24804159

  15. Hypoxia induces an undifferentiated phenotype of oral keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroko; Izumi, Kenji; Uenoyama, Atsushi; Shiomi, Aki; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypoxia on the proliferating potential and phenotype of primary human oral keratinocytes cultured at ambient oxygen tension (20%) or at different levels of hypoxia (2 and 0.5% O2). The effects of oxygen tensions on cellular metabolic activity, cell proliferation, clonogenicity and proliferation heterogeneity were measured. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by a fluorescent-activated cell sorter, and p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in the G0/G1 phase was also concomitantly quantitated. The expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins were examined by immunoblotting, and the cellular senescence was assessed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Basal and suprabasal keratinocyte phenotypes were determined by the expression levels of 14-3-3σ, p75(NTR) and α6 integrin. Despite having a lower metabolism, the proliferation rate and clonogenic potential were remarkably enhanced in hypoxic cells. The significantly higher percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase under hypoxia and the expression patterns of cell cycle regulatory proteins in hypoxic cells were indicative of a state of cell cycle arrest in hypoxia. Furthermore, a decrease in the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p16(INK4A) and fewer β-galactosidase-positive cells suggested a quiescent phenotype rather than a senescent one in hypoxic cells. Compared with normoxic cells, the differential expression patterns of keratinocyte phenotypic markers suggest that hypoxic cells that generate minimal reactive oxygen species, suppress the mammalian target of rapamycin activity and express hypoxia-inducible factor-1α favor a basal cell phenotype. Thus, regardless of the predisposition to the state of cell cycle arrest, hypoxic conditions can maintain oral keratinocytes in vitro in an undifferentiated and quiescent state.

  16. Myeloid derived hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha is required for protection against pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection.

    PubMed

    Shepardson, Kelly M; Jhingran, Anupam; Caffrey, Alayna; Obar, Joshua J; Suratt, Benjamin T; Berwin, Brent L; Hohl, Tobias M; Cramer, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) is the mammalian transcriptional factor that controls metabolism, survival, and innate immunity in response to inflammation and low oxygen. Previous work established that generation of hypoxic microenvironments occurs within the lung during infection with the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we demonstrate that A. fumigatus stabilizes HIF1α protein early after pulmonary challenge that is inhibited by treatment of mice with the steroid triamcinolone. Utilizing myeloid deficient HIF1α mice, we observed that HIF1α is required for survival and fungal clearance early following pulmonary challenge with A. fumigatus. Unlike previously reported research with bacterial pathogens, HIF1α deficient neutrophils and macrophages were surprisingly not defective in fungal conidial killing. The increase in susceptibility of the myeloid deficient HIF1α mice to A. fumigatus was in part due to decreased early production of the chemokine CXCL1 (KC) and increased neutrophil apoptosis at the site of infection, resulting in decreased neutrophil numbers in the lung. Addition of recombinant CXCL1 restored neutrophil survival and numbers, murine survival, and fungal clearance. These results suggest that there are unique HIF1α mediated mechanisms employed by the host for protection and defense against fungal pathogen growth and invasion in the lung. Additionally, this work supports the strategy of exploring HIF1α as a therapeutic target in specific immunosuppressed populations with fungal infections.

  17. Interplay between sirtuins, MYC and hypoxia-inducible factor in cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Zwaans, Bernadette M. M.; Lombard, David B.

    2014-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, Otto Heinrich Warburg described an elevated rate of glycolysis occurring in cancer cells, even in the presence of atmospheric oxygen (the Warburg effect). Despite the inefficiency of ATP generation through glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose into lactate provides cancer cells with a number of advantages, including the ability to withstand fluctuations in oxygen levels, and the production of intermediates that serve as building blocks to support rapid proliferation. Recent evidence from many cancer types supports the notion that pervasive metabolic reprogramming in cancer and stromal cells is a crucial feature of neoplastic transformation. Two key transcription factors that play major roles in this metabolic reprogramming are hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF1) and MYC. Sirtuin-family deacetylases regulate diverse biological processes, including many aspects of tumor biology. Recently, the sirtuin SIRT6 has been shown to inhibit the transcriptional output of both HIF1 and MYC, and to function as a tumor suppressor. In this Review, we highlight the importance of HIF1 and MYC in regulating tumor metabolism and their regulation by sirtuins, with a main focus on SIRT6. PMID:25085992

  18. Loss of Epithelial Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase 2 Accelerates Skin Wound Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalucka, Joanna; Ettinger, Andreas; Franke, Kristin; Mamlouk, Soulafa; Singh, Rashim Pal; Farhat, Katja; Muschter, Antje; Olbrich, Susanne; Breier, Georg; Katschinski, Dörthe M.; Huttner, Wieland; Weidemann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Skin wound healing in mammals is a complex, multicellular process that depends on the precise supply of oxygen. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) serves as a crucial oxygen sensor and may therefore play an important role during reepithelialization. Hence, this study was aimed at understanding the role of PHD2 in cutaneous wound healing using different lines of conditionally deficient mice specifically lacking PHD2 in inflammatory, vascular, or epidermal cells. Interestingly, PHD2 deficiency only in keratinocytes and not in myeloid or endothelial cells was found to lead to faster wound closure, which involved enhanced migration of the hyperproliferating epithelium. We demonstrate that this effect relies on the unique expression of β3-integrin in the keratinocytes around the tip of the migrating tongue in an HIF1α-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show enhanced proliferation of these cells in the stratum basale, which is directly related to their attenuated transforming growth factor β signaling. Thus, loss of the central oxygen sensor PHD2 in keratinocytes stimulates wound closure by prompting skin epithelial cells to migrate and proliferate. Inhibition of PHD2 could therefore offer novel therapeutic opportunities for the local treatment of cutaneous wounds. PMID:23798557

  19. Functional regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α by SET9 lysine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Geng, Hao; Xue, Changhui; Beer, Tomasz M.; Qian, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    HIF-1α is degraded by oxygen-dependent mechanisms but stabilized in hypoxia to form transcriptional complex HIF-1, which transactivates genes promoting cancer hallmarks. However, how HIF-1α is specifically regulated in hypoxia is poorly understood. Here, we report that the histone methyltransferase SET9 promotes HIF-1α protein stability in hypoxia and enhances HIF-1 mediated glycolytic gene transcription, thereby playing an important role in mediating cancer cell adaptation and survival to hypoxic stress. Specifically, SET9 interacts with HIF-1α and promotes HIF-1α protein stability in hypoxia. Silencing SET9 by siRNA reduces HIF-1α protein stability in hypoxia, and attenuates the hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes mediating hypoxic glycolysis. Mechanistically, we find that SET9 is enriched at the hypoxia response elements (HRE) within promoters of the HIF-1-responsive glycolytic genes. Silencing SET9 reduces HIF-1α levels at these HREs in hypoxia, thereby attenuating HIF-1-mediated gene transcription. Further, silencing SET9 by siRNA reduces hypoxia-induced glycolysis and inhibits cell viability of hypoxic cancer cells. Our findings suggest that SET9 enriches at HRE sites of HIF-1 responsive glycolytic genes and stabilizes HIF-1α at these sites in hypoxia, thus establishes an epigenetic mechanism of the metabolic adaptation in hypoxic cancer cells. PMID:25637186

  20. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α regulates a pro-invasive phenotype in acute monocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Migliavacca, Jessica; Percio, Stefano; Valsecchi, Roberta; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Spinelli, Antonello; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Tresoldi, Cristina; Pattini, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are the main regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxia and are often activated in solid tumors, but their role in leukemia is less clear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in particular, controversial new findings indicate that HIF-1α can act either as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene, and this may depend on the stage of leukemia development and/or the AML sub-type. In this study, we find that HIF-1α promotes leukemia progression in the acute monocytic leukemia sub-type of AML through activation of an invasive phenotype. By applying a list of validated HIF-1α-target genes to different AML sub-types, we identified a HIF-1α signature that typifies acute monocytic leukemia when compared with all other AML sub-types. We validated expression of this signature in cell lines and primary cells from AML patients. Interestingly, this signature is enriched for genes that control cell motility at different levels. As a consequence, inhibiting HIF-1α impaired leukemia cell migration, chemotaxis, invasion and transendothelial migration in vitro, and this resulted in impaired bone marrow homing and leukemia progression in vivo. Our data suggest that in acute monocytic leukemia an active HIF-1α-dependent pro-invasive pathway mediates the ability of leukemic cells to migrate and invade extramedullary sites and may be targeted to reduce leukemia dissemination. PMID:27447550

  1. Prodeath or Prosurvival: Two Facets of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 in Perinatal Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqiu; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Obenaus, Andre; Zhang, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia, which occurs in the brain when oxygen availability drops below the normal level, is a major cause of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII). The transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key regulator in the pathophysiological response to the stress of hypoxia. Genes regulated by HIF-1 are involved in energy metabolism, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilatation, cell survival and apoptosis. Compared with the adult brain, the neonatal brain is different in physiological structure, function, cellular composition and signaling pathways related gene activation and response after hypoxia. The purpose of this review is to determine if developmental susceptibility of the brain after hypoxic/ischemic injury is related to HIF-1a, which also plays a pivotal role in the normal brain development. HIF-1a regulates both prosurvival and prodeath responses in the neonatal brain and various mechanisms underlie the apparent contradictory effects, including duration of ischemic injury and severity, cell-types, and/or dependent on the nature of the stimulus after HII. Studies report an excessive induction of HIF-1 in the immature brain, which suggests that a cell death promoting role of HIF may prevail. Inhibition of HIF-1a and targeted activation of its prosurvival genes appear as a favorable therapeutic strategy. However, a better understanding of multifaceted HIF-1 function during brain development is required to explore potential targets for further therapeutic interventions in the neonate. PMID:19041643

  2. Hypoxia-induced gene expression results from selective mRNA partitioning to the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Jonas J.; Naarmann-de Vries, Isabel S.; Ujvari, Stefanie J.; Klinger, Bertram; Kasim, Mumtaz; Benko, Edgar; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Ostareck, Dirk H.; Bondke Persson, Anja; Lorenzen, Stephan; Meier, Jochen C.; Blüthgen, Nils; Persson, Pontus B.; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Mrowka, Ralf; Fähling, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a primary energy-consuming process in the cell. Therefore, under hypoxic conditions, rapid inhibition of global mRNA translation represents a major protective strategy to maintain energy metabolism. How some mRNAs, especially those that encode crucial survival factors, continue to be efficiently translated in hypoxia is not completely understood. By comparing specific transcript levels in ribonucleoprotein complexes, cytoplasmic polysomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes, we show that the synthesis of proteins encoded by hypoxia marker genes is favoured at the ER in hypoxia. Gene expression profiling revealed that transcripts particularly increased by the HIF-1 transcription factor network show hypoxia-induced enrichment at the ER. We found that mRNAs favourably translated at the ER have higher conservation scores for both the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) and contain less upstream initiation codons (uAUGs), indicating the significance of these sequence elements for sustained mRNA translation under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we found enrichment of specific cis-elements in mRNA 5′- as well as 3′-UTRs that mediate transcript localization to the ER in hypoxia. We conclude that transcriptome partitioning between the cytoplasm and the ER permits selective mRNA translation under conditions of energy shortage. PMID:25753659

  3. Fucoidan Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Metastasis in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hongming; Yang, Yazong; Wei, Hengyun; Liu, Zundong; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Yanhong; Gao, Zixiang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2015-06-03

    Metastasis, the greatest clinical challenge associated with cancer, is closely connected to multiple biological processes, including invasion and adhesion. The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor that causes tumor metastasis by activating HIF-1α. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a sulfated polysaccharide and, as a novel marine biological material, has been used to treat various disorders in China, Korea, Japan and other countries. In the present study, we demonstrated that fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls significantly inhibits the hypoxia-induced expression, nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1α, the synthesis and secretion of VEGF-C and HGF, cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis in a mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line. Fucoidan also suppressed lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, accompanied by a reduction in the HIF-1α nuclear translocation and activity, fucoidan significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-ERK, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9, but increased TIMP-1 levels. These results indicate strongly that the anti-metastasis and anti-lymphangiogenesis activities of fucoidan are mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-C, which attenuates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

  4. Follistatin-like 1 protects against hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wang; Liu, Jie; Li, Jinna; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhang, Zhifei; Liu, Yafei; Jin, Yankun; Li, Jifeng; Cao, Jie; Wang, Chen; Ning, Wen; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains a life-limiting disease characterized by pulmonary vascular remodelling due to aberrant proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), thus leading to raised pulmonary arterial pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. Secreted glycoprotein follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) has been reported to ameliorate tissue remodelling in cardiovascular injuries. However, the role of FSTL1 in deranged pulmonary arteries remains elusive. We found that there were higher serum levels of FSTL1 in patients with PH related to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and in mice model of hypoxia-induced PH (HPH). Haploinsufficiency of Fstl1 in mice contributed to an exacerbated HPH, as demonstrated by increased right ventricular systolic pressure, pulmonary arterial muscularization and right ventricular hypertrophy index. Conversely, FSTL1 administration attenuated HPH. In cultured human PASMCs, hypoxia-promoted cellular viability, DNA synthesis and migration were suppressed by exogenous FSTL1 but enhanced by small interfering RNA targeting FSTL1. Additionally, FSTL1 inhibited the proliferation and migration of PASMCs via extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway. All these findings indicate that FSTL1 imposed a protective modulation on pulmonary vascular remodelling, thereby suggesting its role in the regulation of HPH. PMID:28361925

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha suppresses squamous carcinogenic progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Scortegagna, Marzia; Martin, Rebecca J; Kladney, Raleigh D; Neumann, Robert G; Arbeit, Jeffrey M

    2009-03-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a known cancer progression factor, promoting growth, spread, and metastasis. However, in selected contexts, HIF-1 is a tumor suppressor coordinating hypoxic cell cycle suppression and apoptosis. Prior studies focused on HIF-1 function in established malignancy; however, little is known about its role during the entire process of carcinogenesis from neoplasia induction to malignancy. Here, we tested HIF-1 gain of function during multistage murine skin chemical carcinogenesis in K14-HIF-1alpha(Pro402A564G) (K14-HIF-1alphaDPM) transgenic mice. Transgenic papillomas appeared earlier and were more numerous (6 +/- 3 transgenic versus 2 +/- 1.5 nontransgenic papillomas per mouse), yet they were more differentiated, their proliferation was lower, and their malignant conversion was profoundly inhibited (7% in transgenic versus 40% in nontransgenic mice). Moreover, transgenic cancers maintained squamous differentiation whereas epithelial-mesenchymal transformation was frequent in nontransgenic malignancies. Transgenic basal keratinocytes up-regulated the HIF-1 target N-myc downstream regulated gene-1, a known tumor suppressor gene in human malignancy, and its expression was maintained in transgenic papillomas and cancer. We also discovered a novel HIF-1 target gene, selenium binding protein-1 (Selenbp1), a gene of unknown function whose expression is lost in human cancer. Thus, HIF-1 can function as a tumor suppressor through transactivation of genes that are themselves targets for negative selection in human cancers.

  6. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  7. Loss of epithelial hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase 2 accelerates skin wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Kalucka, Joanna; Ettinger, Andreas; Franke, Kristin; Mamlouk, Soulafa; Singh, Rashim Pal; Farhat, Katja; Muschter, Antje; Olbrich, Susanne; Breier, Georg; Katschinski, Dörthe M; Huttner, Wieland; Weidemann, Alexander; Wielockx, Ben

    2013-09-01

    Skin wound healing in mammals is a complex, multicellular process that depends on the precise supply of oxygen. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) serves as a crucial oxygen sensor and may therefore play an important role during reepithelialization. Hence, this study was aimed at understanding the role of PHD2 in cutaneous wound healing using different lines of conditionally deficient mice specifically lacking PHD2 in inflammatory, vascular, or epidermal cells. Interestingly, PHD2 deficiency only in keratinocytes and not in myeloid or endothelial cells was found to lead to faster wound closure, which involved enhanced migration of the hyperproliferating epithelium. We demonstrate that this effect relies on the unique expression of β3-integrin in the keratinocytes around the tip of the migrating tongue in an HIF1α-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show enhanced proliferation of these cells in the stratum basale, which is directly related to their attenuated transforming growth factor β signaling. Thus, loss of the central oxygen sensor PHD2 in keratinocytes stimulates wound closure by prompting skin epithelial cells to migrate and proliferate. Inhibition of PHD2 could therefore offer novel therapeutic opportunities for the local treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  8. Hypoxia increases sirtuin 1 expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Dioum, Elhadji M; Hogg, Richard T; Gerard, Robert D; Garcia, Joseph A

    2011-04-22

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are stress-responsive transcriptional regulators of cellular and physiological processes involved in oxygen metabolism. Although much is understood about the molecular machinery that confers HIF responsiveness to oxygen, far less is known about HIF isoform-specific mechanisms of regulation, despite the fact that HIF-1 and HIF-2 exhibit distinct biological roles. We recently determined that the stress-responsive genetic regulator sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) selectively augments HIF-2 signaling during hypoxia. However, the mechanism by which Sirt1 maintains activity during hypoxia is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that Sirt1 gene expression increases in a HIF-dependent manner during hypoxia in Hep3B and in HT1080 cells. Impairment of HIF signaling affects Sirt1 deacetylase activity as decreased HIF-1 signaling results in the appearance of acetylated HIF-2α, which is detected without pharmacological inhibition of Sirt1. We also find that Sirt1 augments HIF-2 mediated, but not HIF-1 mediated, transcriptional activation of the isolated Sirt1 promoter. These data in summary reveal a bidirectional link of HIF and Sirt1 signaling during hypoxia.

  9. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-Regulated Lysyl Oxidase Is Involved in Staphylococcus aureus Abscess Formation

    PubMed Central

    Beerlage, Christiane; Greb, Jessica; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Assaggaf, Mohammad; Trackman, Philip C.; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Bonin, Michael; Eble, Johannes A.; Peschel, Andreas; Brüne, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is the key transcription factor involved in the adaptation of mammals to hypoxia and plays a crucial role in cancer angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests a leading role for HIF-1 in various inflammatory and infectious diseases. Here we describe the role of HIF-1 in Staphylococcus aureus infections by investigating the HIF-1-dependent host cell response. For this purpose, transcriptional profiling of HIF-1α-deficient HepG2 and control cells, both infected with Staphylococcus aureus, was performed. Four hours after infection, the expression of 190 genes, 24 of which were regulated via HIF-1, was influenced. LOX (encoding lysyl oxidase) was one of the upregulated genes with a potential impact on the course of S. aureus infection. LOX is an amine oxidase required for biosynthetic cross-linking of extracellular matrix components. LOX was upregulated in vitro in different cell cultures infected with S. aureus and also in vivo, in kidney abscesses of mice intravenously infected with S. aureus and in clinical skin samples from patients with S. aureus infections. Inhibition of LOX by β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) did not affect the bacterial load in kidneys or blood but significantly influenced abscess morphology and collagenization. Our data provide evidence for a crucial role of HIF-1-regulated LOX in abscess formation. PMID:23649089

  10. Notch Downregulation and Extramedullary Erythrocytosis in Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase 2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Myllymäki, Mikko N M; Määttä, Jenni; Dimova, Elitsa Y; Izzi, Valerio; Väisänen, Timo; Myllyharju, Johanna; Koivunen, Peppi; Serpi, Raisa

    2017-01-15

    Erythrocytosis is driven mainly by erythropoietin, which is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Mutations in HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylase 2 (HIF-P4H-2) (PHD2/EGLN1), the major downregulator of HIFα subunits, are found in familiar erythrocytosis, and large-spectrum conditional inactivation of HIF-P4H-2 in mice leads to severe erythrocytosis. Although bone marrow is the primary site for erythropoiesis, spleen remains capable of extramedullary erythropoiesis. We studied HIF-P4H-2-deficient (Hif-p4h-2(gt/gt)) mice, which show slightly induced erythropoiesis upon aging despite nonincreased erythropoietin levels, and identified spleen as the site of extramedullary erythropoiesis. Splenic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of these mice exhibited increased erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E) growth, and the mice were protected against anemia. HIF-1α and HIF-2α were stabilized in the spleens, while the Notch ligand genes Jag1, Jag2, and Dll1 and target Hes1 became downregulated upon aging HIF-2α dependently. Inhibition of Notch signaling in wild-type spleen HSCs phenocopied the increased BFU-E growth. HIFα stabilization can thus mediate non-erythropoietin-driven splenic erythropoiesis via altered Notch signaling.

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor directs POMC gene to mediate hypothalamic glucose sensing and energy balance regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Guo; Gonzalez, Frank J; Park, Sung-Min; Cai, Dongsheng

    2011-07-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a nuclear transcription factor that responds to environmental and pathological hypoxia to induce metabolic adaptation, vascular growth, and cell survival. Here we found that HIF subunits and HIF2α in particular were normally expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus of mice. Hypothalamic HIF was up-regulated by glucose to mediate the feeding control of hypothalamic glucose sensing. Two underlying molecular pathways were identified, including suppression of PHDs by glucose metabolites to prevent HIF2α degradation and the recruitment of AMPK and mTOR/S6K to regulate HIF2α protein synthesis. HIF activation was found to directly control the transcription of POMC gene. Genetic approach was then employed to develop conditional knockout mice with HIF inhibition in POMC neurons, revealing that HIF loss-of-function in POMC neurons impaired hypothalamic glucose sensing and caused energy imbalance to promote obesity development. The metabolic effects of HIF in hypothalamic POMC neurons were independent of leptin signaling or pituitary ACTH pathway. Hypothalamic gene delivery of HIF counteracted overeating and obesity under conditions of nutritional excess. In conclusion, HIF controls hypothalamic POMC gene to direct the central nutrient sensing in regulation of energy and body weight balance.

  12. Cancer drug troglitazone stimulates the growth and response of renal cells to hypoxia inducible factors

    SciTech Connect

    Taub, Mary

    2016-03-11

    Troglitazone has been used to suppress the growth of a number of tumors through apoptosis and autophagy. However, previous in vitro studies have employed very high concentrations of troglitazone (≥10{sup −5} M) in order to elicit growth inhibitory effects. In this report, when employing lower concentrations of troglitazone in defined medium, troglitazone was observed to stimulate the growth of primary renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. Rosiglitazone, like troglitazone, is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) that is known to activate Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Υ (PPARΥ). Notably, rosiglitazone also stimulates RPT cell growth, as does Υ-linolenic acids, another PPARΥ agonist. The PPARΥ antagonist GW9662 inhibited the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In addition, troglitazone stimulated transcription by a PPAR Response Element/Luciferase construct. These results are consistent with the involvement of PPARΥ as a mediator of the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In a number of tumor cells, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is increased, promoting the expression of HIF inducible genes, and vascularization. Troglitazone was observed to stimulate transcription by a HIF/luciferase construct. These observations indicate that troglitazone not only promotes growth, also the survival of RPT cells under conditions of hypoxia. - Highlights: • Troglitazone and rosiglitazone stimulate renal proximal tubule cell growth. • Troglitazone and linolenic acid stimulate growth via PPARϒ. • Linolenic acid stimulates growth in the presence of fatty acid free serum albumin. • Rosiglitazone stimulates transcription by a HRE luciferase construct.

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factors regulate pluripotency factor expression by ZNF217- and ALKBH5-mediated modulation of RNA methylation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanzhao; Zhi, Wanqing Iris; Lu, Haiquan; Samanta, Debangshu; Chen, Ivan; Gabrielson, Edward; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia increases the percentage of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are required for tumor initiation and metastasis, and this response is dependent on the activity of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). We previously reported that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia induces the ALKBH5-mediated demethylation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in NANOG mRNA leading to increased expression of NANOG, which is a pluripotency factor that promotes BCSC specification. Here we report that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia also induces ZNF217-dependent inhibition of m6A methylation of mRNAs encoding NANOG and KLF4, which is another pluripotency factor that mediates BCSC specification. Although hypoxia induced the BCSC phenotype in all breast-cancer cell lines analyzed, it did so through variable induction of pluripotency factors and ALKBH5 or ZNF217. However, in every breast cancer line, the hypoxic induction of pluripotency factor and ALKBH5 or ZNF217 expression was HIF-dependent. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of HIF-1α and ALKBH5 was concordant in all human breast cancer biopsies analyzed. ALKBH5 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells significantly decreased metastasis from breast to lungs in immunodeficient mice. Thus, HIFs stimulate pluripotency factor expression and BCSC specification by negative regulation of RNA methylation. PMID:27590511

  14. Suppression of the proliferation of hypoxia-Induced retinal pigment epithelial cell by rapamycin through the /mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF/ signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning-Ning; Zhao, Ning; Cai, Na

    2015-06-01

    Rapamycin, a highly specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), exhibits significant antitumor/antiangiogenic activity in human cancer cells. Its effect on the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was rarely investigated. This study assessed the proliferation of hypoxia-induced RPE and the inhibitory effects of rapamycin using 3-(4,5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and examined the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in RPE cells with or without rapamycin under normoxic and hypoxic conditions using real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that hypoxia increased the levels of mTOR, HIF-1α, and VEGF. The suppression of HIF-1α and VEGF by rapamycin was associated with dephosphorylation of mTOR and the downstream effector ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70S6K) and 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) of mTORC1. Rapamycin only inhibited the protein levels and did not change the mRNA expression of HIF-1α. No cytotoxicity to the RPE cells by rapamycin was caused under either normoxia or hypoxia. Our data suggest that rapamycin suppresses hypoxia-induced RPE cell proliferation through a mechanism related to the targeting of mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling. Rapamycin may potentially provide a safe and effective novel treatment for choroidal vascular disease.

  15. A positive feedback loop between ROS and Mxi1-0 promotes hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Dong, Na; Lu, Dian; Jiang, Xiuqin; Xu, Jinjin; Wu, Zhiwei; Zheng, Datong; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    VEGF expression induced by hypoxia plays a critical role in promoting tumor angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism that modulates VEGF expression under hypoxia is still poorly understood. In this study, we found that VEGF induction in hypoxic HepG2 cells is ROS-dependent. ROS mediates hypoxia-induced VEGF by upregulation of Mxi1-0. Furthermore, PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α signaling pathway is involved in ROS-mediated Mxi1-0 and VEGF expression in hypoxic HepG2 cells. Finally, Mxi1-0 could in turn regulate ROS generation in hypoxic HepG2 cells, creating a positive feedback loop. Taken together, this study demonstrate a positive regulatory feedback loop in which ROS mediates hypoxia-induced Mxi1-0 via activation of PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α pathway, events that in turn elevate ROS generation and promote hypoxia-induced VEGF expression. These findings could provide a rationale for designing new therapies based on inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) angiogenesis.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha blocks differentiation of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yan; Shu, Minfeng; Tang, Jianjun; Huang, Yijun; Zhou, Yuxi; Liang, Yingjie; Yan, Guangmei

    2009-12-01

    Aberrant differentiation is a characteristic feature of neoplastic transformation, while hypoxia in solid tumors is believed to be linked to aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. However, the possible relationship between hypoxia and differentiation in malignancies remains poorly defined. Here we show that rat C6 and primary human malignant glioma cells can be induced to differentiate into astrocytes by the well-known adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. However, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression stimulated by the hypoxia mimetics cobalt chloride or deferoxamine blocks this differentiation and this effectiveness is reversible upon withdrawal of the hypoxia mimetics. Importantly, knockdown of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by RNA interference restores the differentiation capabilities of the cells, even in the presence of cobalt chloride, whereas stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through retarded ubiquitination by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene silence abrogates the induced differentiation. Moreover, targeting of HIF-1 using chetomin, a disrupter of HIF-1 binding to its transcriptional co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, abolishes the differentiation-inhibitory effect of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. Administration of chetomin in combination with forskolin significantly suppresses malignant glioma growth in an in vivo xenograft model. Analysis of 95 human glioma tissues revealed an increase of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein expression with progressing tumor grade. Taken together, these findings suggest a key signal transduction pathway involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha that contributes to a differentiation defect in malignant gliomas and sheds new light on the differentiation therapy of solid tumors by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

  17. Occurrence of agmatine pathway for putrescine synthesis in Selenomonas ruminatium.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shaofu; Poonpairoj, Phuntip; Ko, Kyong-Cheol; Takatuska, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Selenomonas ruminantium synthesizes cadaverine and putrescine from L-lysine and L-ornithine as the essential constituents of its peptidoglycan by a constitutive lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (LDC/ODC). S. ruminantium grew normally in the presence of the specific inhibitor for LDC/ODC, DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine, when arginine was supplied in the medium. In this study, we discovered the presence of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), the key enzyme in agmatine pathway for putrescine synthesis, in S. ruminantium. We purified and characterized ADC and cloned its gene (adc) from S. ruminantium chromosomal DNA. ADC showed more than 60% identity with those of LDC/ODC/ADCs from Gram-positive bacteria, but no similarity to that from Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we also cloned the aguA and aguB genes, encoding agmatine deiminase (AguA) and N-carbamoyl-putrescine amidohydrolase (AguB), both of which are involved in conversion from agmatine into putrescine. AguA and AguB were expressed in S. ruminantium. Hence, we concluded that S. ruminantium has both ornithine and agmatine pathways for the synthesis of putrescine.

  18. Agmatine: multifunctional arginine metabolite and magic bullet in clinical neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Laube, Gregor; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2017-07-26

    Agmatine, the decarboxylation product of arginine, was largely neglected as an important player in mammalian metabolism until the mid-1990s, when it was re-discovered as an endogenous ligand of imidazoline and α2-adrenergic receptors. Since then, a wide variety of agmatine-mediated effects have been observed, and consequently agmatine has moved from a wallflower existence into the limelight of clinical neuroscience research. Despite this quantum jump in scientific interest, the understanding of the anabolism and catabolism of this amine is still vague. The purification and biochemical characterization of natural mammalian arginine decarboxylase and agmatinase still are open issues. Nevertheless, the agmatinergic system is currently one of the most promising candidates in order to pharmacologically interfere with some major diseases of the central nervous system, which are summarized in the present review. Particularly with respect to major depression, agmatine, its derivatives, and metabolizing enzymes show great promise for the development of an improved treatment of this common disease. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Causes Renal Cyst Expansion through Calcium-Activated Chloride Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schley, Gunnar; Faria, Diana; Kroening, Sven; Willam, Carsten; Schreiber, Rainer; Klanke, Bernd; Burzlaff, Nicolai; Jantsch, Jonathan; Kunzelmann, Karl; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by numerous bilateral renal cysts that continuously enlarge and, through compression of intact nephrons, lead to a decline in kidney function over time. We previously showed that cyst enlargement is accompanied by regional hypoxia, which results in the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the cyst epithelium. Here we demonstrate a correlation between cyst size and the expression of the HIF-1α–target gene, glucose transporter 1, and report that HIF-1α promotes renal cyst growth in two in vitro cyst models—principal-like MDCK cells (plMDCKs) within a collagen matrix and cultured embryonic mouse kidneys stimulated with forskolin. In both models, augmenting HIF-1α levels with the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate enhanced cyst growth. In addition, inhibition of HIF-1α degradation through tubule-specific knockdown of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor increased cyst size in the embryonic kidney cyst model. In contrast, inhibition of HIF-1α by chetomin and knockdown of HIF-1α both decreased cyst growth in these models. Consistent with previous reports, plMDCK cyst enlargement was driven largely by transepithelial chloride secretion, which consists, in part, of a calcium-activated chloride conductance. plMDCKs deficient for HIF-1α almost completely lacked calcium-activated chloride secretion. We conclude that regional hypoxia in renal cysts contributes to cyst growth, primarily due to HIF-1α–dependent calcium-activated chloride secretion. These findings identify the HIF system as a novel target for inhibition of cyst growth. PMID:24203996

  20. Sodium hydrosulfide prevents hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhang, B K; Liu, D; Nie, W; Yuan, J M; Wang, Z; Guo, Y M

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to determine if H(2)S is involved in the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in broilers, a condition frequently observed in a variety of cardiac and pulmonary diseases. 2. Two-week-old broilers were reared under normoxic conditions or exposed to normobaric hypoxia (6 h/day) with tissue levels of H(2)S adjusted by administering sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 10 µmol/kg body weight/day). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular mass, plasma and tissue H(2)S levels, the expression of cystathionine-β-synthase (CSE) and vascular remodeling were determined at 35 d of age. 3. Exposure to hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension was characterized by elevated pulmonary pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and vascular remodeling. This was accompanied by decreased expression of CSE and decreased concentrations of plasma and tissue H(2)S. 4. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was significantly reduced by administration of NaHS but this protective effect was largely abolished by D, L-propargylglycerine, an inhibitor of CSE. 5. The results indicate that H(2)S is involved in the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Supplementing NaHS or H(2)S could be a strategy for reducing hypoxia-induced hypertension in broilers.

  1. Hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI) is a novel mechanism underlying the strengthening of labor contractions, produced by hypoxic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan

    2015-01-01

    For successful birth, contractions need to become progressively stronger. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, however. We have found that a novel mechanism, hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI), is switched on selectively, at term, and is essential to strengthening contractions. HIFI is initiated as contractions cyclically reduce blood flow and produce repeated hypoxic stresses, with associated metabolic and transcriptomic changes. The increases in contractility are a long-lasting, oxytocin-independent, intrinsic mechanism present only in the full-term pregnant uterus. HIFI is inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonism and blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 signaling, and partially reproduced by brief episodes of acidic (but not alkalotic) pH. HIFI explains how labor can progress despite paradoxical metabolic challenge, and provides a new mechanistic target for the 1 in 10 women suffering dysfunctional labor because of poor contractions. PMID:26195731

  2. Hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI) is a novel mechanism underlying the strengthening of labor contractions, produced by hypoxic stresses.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan

    2015-08-04

    For successful birth, contractions need to become progressively stronger. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, however. We have found that a novel mechanism, hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI), is switched on selectively, at term, and is essential to strengthening contractions. HIFI is initiated as contractions cyclically reduce blood flow and produce repeated hypoxic stresses, with associated metabolic and transcriptomic changes. The increases in contractility are a long-lasting, oxytocin-independent, intrinsic mechanism present only in the full-term pregnant uterus. HIFI is inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonism and blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 signaling, and partially reproduced by brief episodes of acidic (but not alkalotic) pH. HIFI explains how labor can progress despite paradoxical metabolic challenge, and provides a new mechanistic target for the 1 in 10 women suffering dysfunctional labor because of poor contractions.

  3. Focused Review: Agmatine in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous substances considered to be bioregulators of numerous cell functions; they take part in cell growth, division, and differentiation. These biogenic amines are also involved in tissue repair and in intracellular signaling; in fact, because of their polycationic character, they interact to a large extent with membrane phospholipids and may play an important role in the regulation of membrane-linked enzymes. The intracellular polyamine content derives from the simultaneous regulation of the synthesis, catabolism, uptake, and elimination of the polyamines; furthermore, PAs are present in all cell types at different concentrations, but the highest levels are found in rapid-turnover tissues. In addition to spermidine, spermine, and putrescine, also agmatine (AGM), deriving from arginine and identified in mammals in the 1990s, is a polyamine and several studies have reported its potentially positive role in the production of secretagogues, and in neuronal, vascular, metabolic, and therapeutic functions. Because of the low arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity in mammalians, the amounts of AGM found in their tissues can be only minimally ascribed to an endogenous de novo synthesis by ADC, while a substantial quantity of AGM may be of dietary origin. Several food products contain only small amounts of polyamines, while higher concentrations can be found in fermented foods. PAs could also be considered as indicators of freshness in fish and meat products; as these moieties are produced during food storage, it would seem to confirm the main role of microorganisms in their synthesis. In particular, high levels of AGM are present in alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, sake, which would seem to confirm the role of yeasts in AGM production. Although many biological functions have been attributed to polyamines, high levels of these compounds in foodstuffs can have toxicological effects; however, no safe level for the intake of polyamines in a

  4. Focused review: agmatine in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous substances considered to be bioregulators of numerous cell functions; they take part in cell growth, division, and differentiation. These biogenic amines are also involved in tissue repair and in intracellular signaling; in fact, because of their polycationic character, they interact to a large extent with membrane phospholipids and may play an important role in the regulation of membrane-linked enzymes. The intracellular polyamine content derives from the simultaneous regulation of the synthesis, catabolism, uptake, and elimination of the polyamines; furthermore, PAs are present in all cell types at different concentrations, but the highest levels are found in rapid-turnover tissues. In addition to spermidine, spermine, and putrescine, also agmatine (AGM), deriving from arginine and identified in mammals in the 1990s, is a polyamine and several studies have reported its potentially positive role in the production of secretagogues, and in neuronal, vascular, metabolic, and therapeutic functions. Because of the low arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity in mammalians, the amounts of AGM found in their tissues can be only minimally ascribed to an endogenous de novo synthesis by ADC, while a substantial quantity of AGM may be of dietary origin. Several food products contain only small amounts of polyamines, while higher concentrations can be found in fermented foods. PAs could also be considered as indicators of freshness in fish and meat products; as these moieties are produced during food storage, it would seem to confirm the main role of microorganisms in their synthesis. In particular, high levels of AGM are present in alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, sake, which would seem to confirm the role of yeasts in AGM production. Although many biological functions have been attributed to polyamines, high levels of these compounds in foodstuffs can have toxicological effects; however, no safe level for the intake of polyamines in a

  5. Wortmannin influences hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression and glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Tang, Na-Na; Zhang, Wei-Feng; He, Gui-Jun; Hao, Bo; Feng, Ya-Dong; Zhu, Hong

    2016-05-28

    To investigate the influence of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT)-HIF-1α signaling pathway on glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells under hypoxia. Esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13 were cultured under hypoxia environment, and the protein, mRNA and activity levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-II, phosphofructokinase 2 and lactate dehydrogenase-A were determined. Supernatant lactic acid concentrations were also detected. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was then inhibited with wortmannin, and the effects of hypoxia on the expression or activities of HIF-1α, associated glycolytic enzymes and lactic acid concentrations were observed. Esophageal carcinoma cells were then transfected with interference plasmid with HIF-1α-targeting siRNA to assess impact of the high expression of HIF-1α on glycolysis. HIF-1α is highly expressed in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines tested, and with decreasing levels of oxygen, the expression of HIF-1α and the associated glycolytic enzymes and the extracellular lactic acid concentration were enhanced in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13. In both normoxia and hypoxic conditions, the level of glycolytic enzymes and the secretion of lactic acid were both reduced by wortmannin. The expression and activities of glycolytic enzymes and the lactic acid concentration in cells were reduced by inhibiting HIF-1α, especially the decreasing level of glycolysis was significant under hypoxic conditions. The PI3K/AKT pathway and HIF-1α are both involved in the process of glycolysis in esophageal cancer cells.

  6. Effect of chemical stabilizers of hypoxia-inducible factors on early lung development.

    PubMed

    Groenman, Freek A; Rutter, Martin; Wang, Jinxia; Caniggia, Isabella; Tibboel, Dick; Post, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Low oxygen stimulates pulmonary vascular development and airway branching and involves hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). HIF is stable and initiates expression of angiogenic factors under hypoxia, whereas normoxia triggers hydroxylation of the HIF-1alpha subunit by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and subsequent degradation. Herein, we investigated whether chemical stabilization of HIF-1alpha under normoxic (20% O(2)) conditions would stimulate vascular growth and branching morphogenesis in early lung explants. Tie2-LacZ (endothelial LacZ marker) mice were used for visualization of the vasculature. Embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) lung buds were dissected and cultured in 20% O(2) in the absence or presence of cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a hypoxia mimetic), dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG; a nonspecific inhibitor of PHDs), or desferrioxamine (DFO; an iron chelator). Vascularization was assessed by X-gal staining, and terminal buds were counted. The fine vascular network surrounding the developing lung buds seen in control explants disappeared in CoCl(2)- and DFO-treated explants. Also, epithelial branching was reduced in the explants treated with CoCl(2) and DFO. In contrast, DMOG inhibited branching but stimulated vascularization. Both DFO and DMOG increased nuclear HIF-1alpha protein levels, whereas CoCl(2) had no effect. Since HIF-1alpha induces VEGF expression, the effect of SU-5416, a potent VEGF receptor (VEGFR) blocker, on early lung development was also investigated. Inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in explants maintained under hypoxic (2% O(2)) conditions completely abolished vascularization and slightly decreased epithelial branching. Taken together, the data suggest that DMOG stabilization of HIF-1alpha during early development leads to a hypervascular lung and that airway branching proceeds without the vasculature, albeit at a slower rate.

  7. Protective effect of dieckol against chemical hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yu Jin; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Song, Kyung-Sik; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Chang, Woochul; Lee, Min Young

    2015-04-01

    Hepatic ischemic injury is a major complication arising from liver surgery, transplantation, or other ischemic diseases, and both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory mediators play the role of key mediators in hepatic ischemic injury. In this study, we examined the effect of dieckol in chemical hypoxia-induced injury in mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased after treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with dieckol before exposure to CoCl2 significantly attenuated the CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability. Additionally, pretreatment with dieckol potentiated the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and attenuated the CoCl2-induced increase in the expression of Bax and caspase-3. Treatment with CoCl2 resulted in an increased intracellular ROS generation, which is inhibited by dieckol or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger), and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which is also blocked by dieckol or NAC. In addition, dieckol and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) increased the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and decreased the CoCl2-induced increase of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated by pretreatment with dieckol, NAC, and SB203580. Furthermore, dieckol attenuated CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Similar to the effect of dieckol, NAC also blocked CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Additionally, CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated not only by dieckol and NAC but also by NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor). In conclusion, dieckol protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against CoCl2-induced cell injury through inhibition of ROS-activated p38 MAPK and COX-2 pathway.

  8. Novel Peptide for Attenuation of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension via Modulation of Nitric Oxide Release and Phosphodiesterase -5 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hanbo; Zharikov, Sergey; Patel, Jawaharlal M.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)-derived NO is the major stimulant of cyclic guanosine 5’ monophosphate (cGMP) production and NO/cGMP-dependent vasorelaxation in the pulmonary circulation. We recently synthesized multiple peptides and reported that an eleven amino acid (SSWRRKRKESS) peptide (P1) but not scrambled P1 stimulated the catalytic activity but not expression of eNOS and causes NO/cGMP-dependent sustained vasorelaxation in isolated pulmonary artery (PA) segments and in lung perfusion models. Since cGMP levels can also be elevated by inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5), this study was designed to test the hypothesis that P1-mediated vesorelaxation is due to its unique dual action as NO-releasing PDE-5 inhibitor in the pulmonary circulation. Treatment of porcine PA endothelial cells (PAEC) with P1 caused time-dependent increase in intracellular NO release and inhibition of the catalytic activity of cGMP-specific PDE-5 but not PDE-5 protein expression leading to increased levels of cGMP. Acute hypoxia-induced PA vasoconstriction ex-vivo and continuous telemetry monitoring of hypoxia (10% oxygen)-induced elevated PA pressure in freely moving rats were significantly restored by administration of P1. Chronic hypoxia (10% oxygen for 4 weeks)-induced alterations in PA perfusion pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling were attenuated by P1 treatment. These results demonstrate the potential therapeutic effects of P1 to prevent and/or arrest the progression of hypoxia-induced PAH via NO/cGMP-dependent modulation of hemodynamic and vascular remodeling in the pulmonary circulation. PMID:22465621

  9. MicroRNA-322 protects hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via BDNF gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liguo; Song, Shigang; Lv, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiomyocytes apoptosis under hypoxia condition contributes significantly to various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNA-322 (miR-322) in regulating hypoxia-induced apoptosis in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes in vitro. Method: Cardiomyocytes of C57BL/6J mice were treated with hypoxia condition in vitro. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. Gene expression pattern of miR-322 was measured by qRT-PCR. Stable downregulation of miR-322 in cardiomyocytes were achieved by lentiviral transduction, and the effect of miR-322 downregulation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis was investigated. Possible regulation of miR-322 on its downstream target gene, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated in cardiomyocytes. BDNF was then genetically silenced by siRNA to evaluate its role in miR-137 mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis protection under hypoxia condition. Results: Under hypoxia condition, significant apoptosis was induced and miR-322 was significantly upregulated in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Through lentiviral transduction, miR-322 was efficiently knocked down in cardiomyocytes. Downregulation of miR-322 protected hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Luciferase assay showed BDNF was the target gene of miR-322. QRT-PCR showed BDNF expression was associated with miR-322 regulation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Silencing BDNF in cardiomyocyte through siRNA transfection reversed the protective effect of miR-322 downregulation on hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Our study revealed that miR-322, in association with BDNF, played important role in regulating hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocyte. PMID:27398164

  10. Hypoxia induces oncogene yes-associated protein 1 nuclear translocation to promote pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma invasion via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Honglong; Xu, Zongzhen; Liu, Feng; Wang, Fuhai; Wang, Xin; Sun, Xueying; Li, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal cancers. The Hippo pathway is involved in tumorigenesis and remodeling of tumor microenvironments. Hypoxia exists in the microenvironment of solid tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and plays a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis. However, it remains unclear how hypoxia interacts with the Hippo pathway to regulate these events. In this study, expressions of yes-associated protein 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were found to be elevated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma samples compared with those in matched adjacent non-tumor samples. Moreover, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression was positively correlated with yes-associated protein 1 level in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues. The higher expression of nuclear yes-associated protein 1 was associated with poor histological grade and prognosis for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. In vitro, yes-associated protein 1 was highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Depletion of yes-associated protein 1 inhibited the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells via downregulation of Vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-13, and upregulation of E-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia promoted the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells via regulating the targeted genes. Hypoxia also deactivated the Hippo pathway and induced yes-associated protein 1 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, depletion of yes-associated protein 1 or hypoxia-inducible factor-1α suppressed the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells under hypoxia. Mechanism studies showed that nuclear yes-associated protein 1 interacted with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and activated Snail transcription to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition-mediated and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated remodeling of tumor microenvironments. Collectively, yes-associated protein 1 is an

  11. Protective effects of agmatine on doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Yarmohmmadi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Nastaran; Faghir-Ghanesefat, Hedyeh; Javadian, Nina; Abdollahi, Alireza; Pasalar, Parvin; Jazayeri, Farahnaz; Ejtemaeemehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-02-05

    The detrimental cardio-toxic effect of doxorubicin, an effective chemotherapeutic agent, limited its clinical use. It has been claimed that doxorubicin cardio-toxicity occurs through calcium ions (Ca(2+)) overload and reactive oxygen species production. Agmatine, an endogenous imidazoline receptor agonist, induce uptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) and cause an increase in activity of calcium pumps, including Ca(2+)-ATPase. Also it shows self-scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effects of agmatine against chronic cardio-toxicity of doxorubicin in rats. Male wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin and agmatine four times a week for a month. Agmatine significantly alleviate the adverse effect of doxorubicin on left ventricular papillary muscle stimulation threshold and contractibility. Chronic co-administration of agmatine with doxorubicin blocked electrocardiographic changes induced by doxorubicin. In addition, agmatine improved body weight and decreased the mortality rate of animals by doxorubicin. Moreover, reversing the doxorubicin induced myocardial lesions was observed in animals treated by agmatine. A significant rise in the total antioxidant capacity of rat plasma was achieved in agmatine-treated animals in comparison to doxorubicin. To conclude, agmatine may improve therapeutic outcomes of doxorubicin since it exerts protective effects against doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Route for Agmatine Catabolism in Aspergillus niger Involves 4-Guanidinobutyrase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Saragadam, Tejaswani; Punekar, Narayan S

    2015-08-15

    Agmatine, a significant polyamine in bacteria and plants, mostly arises from the decarboxylation of arginine. The functional importance of agmatine in fungi is poorly understood. The metabolism of agmatine and related guanidinium group-containing compounds in Aspergillus niger was explored through growth, metabolite, and enzyme studies. The fungus was able to metabolize and grow on l-arginine, agmatine, or 4-guanidinobutyrate as the sole nitrogen source. Whereas arginase defined the only route for arginine catabolism, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches suggested the absence of arginine decarboxylase in A. niger. Efficient utilization by the parent strain and also by its arginase knockout implied an arginase-independent catabolic route for agmatine. Urea and 4-guanidinobutyrate were detected in the spent medium during growth on agmatine. The agmatine-grown A. niger mycelia contained significant levels of amine oxidase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, but no agmatinase activity was detected. Taken together, the results support a novel route for agmatine utilization in A. niger. The catabolism of agmatine by way of 4-guanidinobutyrate to 4-aminobutyrate into the Krebs cycle is the first report of such a pathway in any organism. A. niger GBase peptide fragments were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The corresponding open reading frame from the A. niger NCIM 565 genome was located and cloned. Subsequent expression of GBase in both Escherichia coli and A. niger along with its disruption in A. niger functionally defined the GBase locus (gbu) in the A. niger genome.

  13. Novel Route for Agmatine Catabolism in Aspergillus niger Involves 4-Guanidinobutyrase

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Saragadam, Tejaswani

    2015-01-01

    Agmatine, a significant polyamine in bacteria and plants, mostly arises from the decarboxylation of arginine. The functional importance of agmatine in fungi is poorly understood. The metabolism of agmatine and related guanidinium group-containing compounds in Aspergillus niger was explored through growth, metabolite, and enzyme studies. The fungus was able to metabolize and grow on l-arginine, agmatine, or 4-guanidinobutyrate as the sole nitrogen source. Whereas arginase defined the only route for arginine catabolism, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches suggested the absence of arginine decarboxylase in A. niger. Efficient utilization by the parent strain and also by its arginase knockout implied an arginase-independent catabolic route for agmatine. Urea and 4-guanidinobutyrate were detected in the spent medium during growth on agmatine. The agmatine-grown A. niger mycelia contained significant levels of amine oxidase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, but no agmatinase activity was detected. Taken together, the results support a novel route for agmatine utilization in A. niger. The catabolism of agmatine by way of 4-guanidinobutyrate to 4-aminobutyrate into the Krebs cycle is the first report of such a pathway in any organism. A. niger GBase peptide fragments were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The corresponding open reading frame from the A. niger NCIM 565 genome was located and cloned. Subsequent expression of GBase in both Escherichia coli and A. niger along with its disruption in A. niger functionally defined the GBase locus (gbu) in the A. niger genome. PMID:26048930

  14. Gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and effect of heparin on their expression in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lunyin; Quinn, Deborah A.; Garg, Hari G.; Hales, Charles A. . E-mail: chales@partners.org

    2006-07-14

    The balance between cell proliferation and cell quiescence is regulated delicately by a variety of mediators, in which cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK inhibitors (CDKI) play a very important role. Heparin which inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation increases the levels of two CDKIs, p21 and p27, although only p27 is important in inhibition of PASMC growth in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the expression profile of all the cell cycle regulating genes, including all seven CDKIs (p21, p27, p57, p15, p16, p18, and p19), in the lungs of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. A cell cycle pathway specific gene microarray was used to profile the 96 genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also observed the effect of heparin on gene expression. We found that (a) hypoxic exposure for two weeks significantly inhibited p27 expression and stimulated p18 activity, showing a 98% decrease in p27 and 81% increase in p18; (b) other CDKIs, p21, p57, p15, p16, and p19 were not affected significantly in response to hypoxia; (c) heparin treatment restored p27 expression, but did not influence p18; (d) ERK1/2 and p38 were mediators in heparin upregulation of p27. This study provides an expression profile of cell cycle regulating genes under hypoxia in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and strengthens the previous finding that p27 is the only CDKI involved in heparin regulation of PASMC proliferation and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

  15. Analysis of hypoxia-induced noncoding RNAs reveals metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 as an important regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Brock, Matthias; Schuoler, Claudio; Leuenberger, Caroline; Bühlmann, Carlo; Haider, Thomas J; Vogel, Johannes; Ulrich, Silvia; Gassmann, Max; Kohler, Malcolm; Huber, Lars C

    2017-03-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long noncoding RNA that mediates several biological processes. In the context of vascular biology, MALAT1 has been shown to be inducible by hypoxia and to control cell proliferation. These processes are of major importance for the pathophysiology of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Until now, the physiological role of MALAT1 in PH remains unclear. By using smooth muscle cells and by employing an established PH mouse model, we provide evidence that hypoxia induces MALAT1 expression. Moreover, depletion of MALAT1 inhibited migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells, probably by the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Of note, MALAT1 was significantly increased in mice exposed to hypoxia and silencing of MALAT1 ameliorated heart hypertrophy in mice with hypoxia-induced PH. Since vascular remodeling and right heart failure as a consequence of pulmonary pressure overload is a major problem in PH, these data have implications for our pathogenetic understanding.

  16. Upregulation of vascular calcium channels in neonatal piglets with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hirenallur-S., Dinesh K.; Haworth, Steven T.; Leming, Jeaninne T.; Chang, James; Hernandez, Guillermo; Gordon, John B.; Rusch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of voltage-gated, L-type Ca2+ (CaL) channels by clinical calcium channel blockers provides symptomatic improvement to some pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The present study investigated whether abnormalities of vascular CaL channels contribute to the pathogenesis of neonatal PAH using a newborn piglet model of hypoxia-induced PAH. Neonatal piglets exposed to chronic hypoxia (CH) developed PAH by 21 days, which was evident as a 2.1-fold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance in vivo compared with piglets raised in normoxia (N). Transpulmonary pressures (ΔPtp) in the corresponding isolated perfused lungs were 20.5 ± 2.1 mmHg (CH) and 11.6 ± 0.8 mmHg (N). Nifedipine reduced the elevated ΔPtp in isolated lungs of CH piglets by 6.4 ± 1.3 mmHg but only reduced ΔPtp in lungs of N piglets by 1.9 ± 0.2 mmHg. Small pulmonary arteries from CH piglets also demonstrated accentuated Ca2+-dependent contraction, and Ca2+ channel current was 3.94-fold higher in the resident vascular muscle cells. Finally, although the level of mRNA encoding the pore-forming α1C-subunit of the CaL channel was similar between small pulmonary arteries from N and CH piglets, a profound and persistent upregulation of the vascular α1C protein was detected by 10 days in CH piglets at a time when pulmonary vascular resistance was only mildly elevated. Thus chronic hypoxia in the neonate is associated with the anomalous upregulation of CaL channels in small pulmonary arteries in vivo and the resulting abnormal Ca2+-dependent resistance may contribute to the pathogenesis of PAH. PMID:18776054

  17. Bcl-2 silencing attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongmei; Jiang, Zhen; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Yujing; Gu, Yuchun; Ji, Yingying; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Yingchuan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder that ultimately causes heart failure. While the underlying causes of this condition are not well understood, previous studies suggest that the anti-apoptotic nature of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in hypoxic environments contributes to PAH pathogenesis. In this study, we focus on the contribution of Bcl-2 and hypoxia response element (HRE) to apoptosis-resistant endothelial cells and investigate the mechanism. PMVECs obtained from either normal rats or apoptosis-resistant PMVECs obtained from PAH rats were transduced with recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying either Bcl-2-shRNA or HRE combined Bcl-2-shRNA, and then cultured these cells for 24 h under hypoxic (5% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) conditions. In normal PMVECs, Bcl-2-shRNA or HRE combined with Bcl-2-shRNA transduction successfully decreased Bcl-2 expression, while increasing apoptosis as well as caspase-3 and P53 expression in a normoxic environment. In a hypoxic environment, the effects of Bcl-2-shRNA treatment on cell apoptosis, and on Bcl-2, caspase-3, P53 expression were significantly suppressed. Conversely, HRE activation combined with Bcl-2-shRNA transduction markedly enhanced cell apoptosis and upregulated caspase-3 and P53 expression, while decreasing Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, in apoptosis-resistant PMVECs, HRE-mediated Bcl-2 silencing effectively enhanced cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. The apoptosis rate was significantly depressed when Lv-HRE-Bcl-2-shRNA was combined with Lv-P53-shRNA or Lv-caspase3-shRNA transduction in a hypoxic environment. These results suggest that HRE-mediated Bcl-2 inhibition can effectively attenuate hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in PMVECs by downregulating Bcl-2 expression and upregulating caspase-3 and P53 expression. This study therefore reveals critical insight into potential therapeutic targets for treating PAH.

  18. Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Pedro C; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa M; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Bordón, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed. PMID:19660100

  19. Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression.

    PubMed

    Lara, Pedro C; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa M; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Bordón, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustín

    2009-08-06

    Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed.

  20. Notch signaling modulates hypoxia-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Rosati, Fabiana; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Sturli, Niccolò; Kacer, Doreen; Pennella, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; Barucci, Riccardo; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Prudovsky, Igor; Landriscina, Matteo; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Prostate carcinoma is among the most common causes of cancer-related death in men, representing 15% of all male malignancies in developed countries. Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) has been associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and with the androgen-independent status. Currently, no successful therapy exists for advanced, castration-resistant disease. Because hypoxia has been linked to prostate cancer progression and unfavorable outcome, we sought to determine whether hypoxia would impact the degree of neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Exposure of LNCaP cells to low oxygen tension induced a neuroendocrine phenotype, associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor neurogenin3 and neuroendocrine markers, such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and β3-tubulin. Moreover, hypoxia triggered a significant decrease of Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA and protein expression, with subsequent downregulation of Notch-mediated signaling, as shown by reduced levels of the Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hey1. NED was promoted by attenuation of Hes1 transcription, as cells expressing a dominant-negative form of Hes1 displayed increased levels of neuroendocrine markers under normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia downregulated Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA transcription and receptor activation also in the androgen-independent cell lines, PC-3 and Du145, it did not change the extent of NED in these cultures, suggesting that androgen sensitivity may be required for transdifferentiation to occur. Hypoxia induces NED of LNCaP cells in vitro, which seems to be driven by the inhibition of Notch signaling with subsequent downregulation of Hes1 transcription. ©2011 AACR.

  1. Hypoxia-induced deoxycytidine kinase expression contributes to apoptosis in chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Tingting; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Garcia-Morales, Luis J.; Molina, Jose G.; Pedroza, Mesias; Bunge, Raquel R.; Bruckner, Brian A.; Loebe, Matthias; Seethamraju, Harish; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent inflammation and tissue remodeling and is a leading cause of death in the United States. Increased apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells is thought to play a role in COPD development and progression. Identification of signaling pathways resulting in increased apoptosis in COPD can be used in the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Deoxyadenosine (dAdo) is a DNA breakdown product that amplifies lymphocyte apoptosis by being phosphorylated to deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP). dAdo is maintained at low levels by adenosine deaminase (ADA). This study demonstrated that mice lacking ADA developed COPD manifestations in association with elevated dAdo and dATP levels and increased apoptosis in the lung. Deoxycitidine kinase (DCK), a major enzyme for dAdo phosphorylation, was up-regulated in mouse and human airway epithelial cells in association with air-space enlargement. Hypoxia was identified as a novel regulator of DCK, and inhibition of DCK resulted in diminished dAdo-mediated apoptosis in the lungs. Our results suggest that activating the dAdo-DCK-dATP pathway directly results in increased apoptosis in the lungs of mice with air-space enlargement and suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of COPD.—Weng, T., Karmouty-Quintana, H., Garcia-Morales, L. J., Molina, J. G., Pedroza, M., Bunge, R. R., Bruckner, B. A., Loebe, M., Seethamraju, H., and Blackburn, M. R. Hypoxia-induced deoxycytidine kinase expression contributes to apoptosis in chronic lung disease. PMID:23392349

  2. Targeted activation of endothelin-1 exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Satwiko, Muhammad Gahan; Ikeda, Koji; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Yagi, Keiko; Hocher, Berthold; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Emoto, Noriaki

    2015-09-25

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease that eventually results in right heart failure and death. Current pharmacologic therapies for PAH are limited, and there are no drugs that could completely cure PAH. Enhanced activity of endothelin system has been implicated in PAH severity and endothelin receptor antagonists have been used clinically to treat PAH. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the direct role of enhanced endothelin system activity in PAH. Here, we investigated the correlation between endothelin-1 (ET-1) and PAH using ET-1 transgenic (ETTG) mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia increased right ventricular pressure and pulmonary arterial wall thickness in ETTG mice compared to those in wild type mice. Of note, ETTG mice exhibited modest but significant increase in right ventricular pressure and vessel wall thickness relative to wild type mice even under normoxic conditions. To induce severe PAH, we administered SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, combined with exposure to chronic hypoxia. Treatment with SU5416 modestly aggravated hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary arterial vessel wall thickening in ETTG mice in association with increased interleukin-6 expression in blood vessels. However, there was no sign of obliterative endothelial cell proliferation and plexiform lesion formation in the lungs. These results demonstrated that enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in the development of PAH and provided rationale for the inhibition of endothelin system to treat PAH. - Highlights: • Role of endothelin-1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was investigated. • The endothelin-1 transgenic (ETTG) and wild type (WT) mice were analyzed. • ETTG mice spontaneously developed PAH under normoxia conditions. • SU5416 further aggravated PAH in ETTG mice. • Enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in

  3. Copper is required for cobalt-induced transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liying; Ding, Xueqin; Zhang, Zhen; Kang, Y James

    2012-08-01

    Cobalt inhibits prolyl hydroxylases, leading to the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and a concomitant increase in the transcriptional activity of HIF-1. Therefore, cobalt has been under development as a drug for activating HIF-1 under some disease conditions. However, it has been shown that ischemic conditions resulted in the loss of copper, and the activation of HIF-1 would not occur unless copper was supplemented. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that copper is also required for the cobalt activation of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) at concentrations above 25 μM for 2 h resulted in an accumulation of HIF-1α, which was determined by Western blot analysis, and an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis for mRNA levels and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis for protein levels. The copper chelator tetraethylenepentamine at 25 μM did not significantly affect the accumulation of HIF-1α but blocked increases in VEGF mRNA and protein levels, an effect that could be reversed by the addition of 25 μM copper sulfate (CuSO(4)). In addition, gene silencing of the copper chaperone for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase blocked VEGF expression with little effect on cobalt-induced HIF-1α accumulation. The present study thus demonstrates that copper was required for cobalt-activated transcriptional activity of HIF-1, although copper did not affect cobalt-induced accumulation of HIF-1α in the cells.

  4. Ketosis may promote brain macroautophagy by activating Sirt1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    2015-11-01

    Ketogenic diets are markedly neuroprotective, but the basis of this effect is still poorly understood. Recent studies demonstrate that ketone bodies increase neuronal levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), possibly owing to succinate-mediated inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase activity. Moreover, there is reason to suspect that ketones can activate Sirt1 in neurons, in part by increasing cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of Sirt1's obligate cofactor NAD(+). Another recent study has observed reduced activity of mTORC1 in the hippocampus of rats fed a ketogenic diet - an effect plausibly attributable to Sirt1 activation. Increased activities of HIF-1 and Sirt1, and a decrease in mTORC1 activity, could be expected to collaborate in the induction of neuronal macroautophagy. Considerable evidence points to moderate up-regulation of neuronal autophagy as a rational strategy for prevention of neurodegenerative disorders; elimination of damaged mitochondria that overproduce superoxide, as well as clearance of protein aggregates that mediate neurodegeneration, presumably contribute to this protection. Hence, autophagy may mediate some of the neuroprotective benefits of ketogenic diets. Brain-permeable agents which activate AMP-activated kinase, such as metformin and berberine, as well as the Sirt1 activator nicotinamide riboside, can also boost neuronal autophagy, and may have potential for amplifying the impact of ketogenesis on this process. Since it might not be practical for most people to adhere to ketogenic diets continuously, alternative strategies are needed to harness the brain-protective potential of ketone bodies. These may include ingestion of medium-chain triglycerides or coconut oil, intermittent ketogenic dieting, and possibly the use of supplements that promote hepatic ketogenesis - notably carnitine and hydroxycitrate - in conjunction with dietary regimens characterized by long daily episodes of fasting or carbohydrate avoidance.

  5. NOTCH SIGNALLING MODULATES HYPOXIA-INDUCED NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Rosati, Fabiana; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Sturli, Niccolò; Kacer, Doreen; Pennella, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; Barucci, Riccardo; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Prudovsky, Igor; Landriscina, Matteo; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is among the most common causes of cancer-related death in men, representing 15% of all male malignancies in developed countries. Neuroendocrine differentiation has been associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis and with the androgen-independent status. Currently, no successful therapy exists for advanced, castration-resistant disease. Because hypoxia has been linked to prostate cancer progression and unfavourable outcome, we sought to determine whether hypoxia would impact the degree of neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, in vitro. Results exposure of LNCaP cells to low oxygen tension induced a neuroendocrine phenotype, associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor neurogenin3 and neuroendocrine markers, such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A and β3-tubulin. Moreover, hypoxia triggered a significant decrease of Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA and protein expression, with subsequent down regulation of Notch-mediated signalling, as demonstrated by reduced levels of the Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hey1. Neuroendocrine differentiation was promoted by attenuation of Hes1 transcription, as cells expressing a dominant negative form of Hes1 displayed increased levels of neuroendocrine markers under normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia down regulated Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA transcription and receptor activation also in the androgen independent cell lines, PC3 and Du145, it did not change the extent of NE differentiation in these cultures, suggesting that androgen sensitivity may be required for transdifferentiation to occur. Conclusions hypoxia induces neuroendocrine differentiation of LNCaP cells in vitro, which appears to be driven by the inhibition of Notch signalling with subsequent down-regulation of Hes1 transcription. PMID:22172337

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulates β cell function in mouse and human islets

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kim; Ho, Kenneth; Stokes, Rebecca; Scott, Christopher; Lau, Sue Mei; Hawthorne, Wayne J.; O’Connell, Philip J.; Loudovaris, Thomas; Kay, Thomas W.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Okada, Terumasa; Wang, Xiaohui L.; Yim, Sun Hee; Shah, Yatrik; Grey, Shane T.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Kench, James G.; Laybutt, D. Ross; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Gunton, Jenny E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that regulates cellular stress responses. While the levels of HIF-1α protein are tightly regulated, recent studies suggest that it can be active under normoxic conditions. We hypothesized that HIF-1α is required for normal β cell function and reserve and that dysregulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we show that HIF-1α protein is present at low levels in mouse and human normoxic β cells and islets. Decreased levels of HIF-1α impaired glucose-stimulated ATP generation and β cell function. C57BL/6 mice with β cell–specific Hif1a disruption (referred to herein as β-Hif1a-null mice) exhibited glucose intolerance, β cell dysfunction, and developed severe glucose intolerance on a high-fat diet. Increasing HIF-1α levels by inhibiting its degradation through iron chelation markedly improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in control mice fed a high-fat diet but not in β-Hif1a-null mice. Increasing HIF-1α levels markedly increased expression of ARNT and other genes in human T2D islets and improved their function. Further analysis indicated that HIF-1α was bound to the Arnt promoter in a mouse β cell line, suggesting direct regulation. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role for HIF-1α in β cell reserve and regulation of ARNT expression and demonstrate that HIF-1α is a potential therapeutic target for the β cell dysfunction of T2D. PMID:20440072

  7. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Activation Protects the Kidney from Gentamicin-Induced Acute Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong-myung; You, Sun Jin; Lee, Yun-Mi; Oh, Se-Won; Ahn, Shin-young; Kim, Sejoong; Chin, Ho Jun; Chae, Dong-Wan; Na, Ki Young

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is effective in protecting the kidney from ischemic and toxic injury. Increased expression of HIF-1α mRNA has been reported in rats with gentamicin-induced renal injury. We hypothesizd that we could study the role of HIF in gentamicin-induced AKI by modulating HIF activity. In this study, we investigated whether HIF activation had protective effects on gentamicin-induced renal tubule cell injury. Gentamicin-induced AKI was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cobalt was continuously infused into the rats to activate HIF. HK-2 cells were pre-treated with cobalt or dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) to activate HIF and were then exposed to gentamicin. Cobalt or DMOG significantly increased HIF-1α expression in rat kidneys and HK-2 cells. In HK-2 cells, HIF inhibited gentamicin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HIF also protected these cells from apoptosis by reducing caspase-3 activity and the amount of cleaved caspase-3, and -9 proteins. Increased expression of HIF-1α reduced the number of gentamicin-induced apoptotic cells in rat kidneys and HK-2 cells. HIF activation improved the creatinine clearance and proteinuria in gentamicin-induced AKI. HIF activation also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced macrophage infiltration into the tubulointerstitium. In gentamicin-induced AKI, the activation of HIF by cobalt or DMOG attenuated renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and structural damage through a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:23145036

  8. p300 relieves p53-evoked transcriptional repression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1).

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Tobias; Zhou, Jie; Köhl, Roman; Brüne, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor comprising HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, serves as a key regulator of metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1 activity largely increases during hypoxia by attenuating pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein)-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent 26 S-proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha. Besides HIF-1, the transcription factor and tumour suppressor p53 accumulates and is activated under conditions of prolonged/severe hypoxia. Recently, the interaction between p53 and HIF-1alpha was reported to evoke HIF-1alpha degradation. Destruction of HIF-1alpha by p53 was corroborated in the present study by using pVHL-deficient RCC4 (renal carcinoma) cells, supporting the notion of a pVHL-independent degradation process. In addition, low p53 expression repressed HIF-1 transactivation without affecting HIF-1alpha protein amount. Establishing that p53-evoked inhibition of HIF-1 reporter activity was relieved upon co-transfection of p300 suggested competition between p53 and HIF-1 for limiting amounts of the shared co-activator p300. This assumption was confirmed by showing competitive binding of in vitro transcription/translation-generated p53 and HIF-1alpha to the CH1 domain of p300 in vitro. We conclude that low p53 expression attenuates HIF-1 transactivation by competing for p300, whereas high p53 expression destroys the HIF-1alpha protein and thereby eliminates HIF-1 reporter activity. Thus once p53 becomes activated under conditions of severe hypoxia/anoxia, it contributes to terminating HIF-1 responses. PMID:14992692

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha signaling in aquaporin upregulation after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jamie Y; Kreipke, Christian W; Speirs, Susan L; Schafer, Patrick; Schafer, Steven; Rafols, José A

    2009-03-27

    Previous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain edema via aquaporins (AQPs), the water-transporting proteins. In the present study, we determined the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), which is a transcription factor in response to physiological hypoxia, in regulating expression of AQP4 and AQP9. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-425g) received a closed head injury using the Marmarou weight drop model with a 450g weight and survived for 1, 4, 24 and 48h. Some animals were administered 30min after injury with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a naturally occurring metabolite of estradiol which is known to post-transcriptionally down-regulate HIF-1alpha expression, and sacrificed 4h after injury. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used, respectively, to detect gene and protein expressions of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, showing hypoxic stress), HIF-1alpha, AQP4, and AQP9. ANOVA analysis demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) increase in gene expression of MnSOD, HIF-1alpha, AQP4, and AQP9, starting at 1h after injury through 48h. Western blot analysis further indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase in protein expression of these molecules at the same time points. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1alpha by 2ME2 reduced the up-regulated levels of AQP4 and AQP9 after TBI. The present study suggests that hypoxic conditions determined by MnSOD expression after closed head injury contribute to HIF-1alpha expression. HIF-1alpha, in turn, up-regulates expression of AQP4 and AQP9. These results characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms, and suggest possible therapeutic targets for TBI patients.

  10. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Signaling in Aquaporin Upregulation After Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jamie Y.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Speirs, Susan L.; Schafer, Patrick; Schafer, Steven; Rafols, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain edema via aquaporins (AQPs), the water transporting proteins. In the present study, we determined the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is a transcription factor in response to physiological hypoxia, in regulating expression of AQP4 and AQP9. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400–425g) received a closed head injury using the Marmarou weight drop model with a 450 g weight and survived for 1, 4, 24 and 48 hours. Some animals were administered 30 minutes after injury with 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a naturally occurring metabolite of estradiol which is known to post-transcriptionally down-regulate HIF-1α expression, and sacrificed 4 hours after injury. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used, respectively, to detect gene and protein expressions of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, showing hypoxic stress), HIF-1α, AQP4, and AQP9. ANOVA analysis demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) increase in gene expression of MnSOD, HIF-1α, AQP4, and AQP9, starting at 1 hour after injury through 48 hours. Western blot analysis further indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase in protein expression of these molecules at the same time points. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α by 2ME2 reduced the up-regulated levels of AQP4 and AQP9 after TBI. The present study suggests that hypoxic conditions determined by MnSOD expression after closed head injury contribute to HIF-1α expression. HIF-1α, in turn, up-regulates expression of AQP4 and AQP9. These results characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms, and suggest possible therapeutic targets for TBI patients. PMID:19429018

  11. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α promotes survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bingke; Li, Feng; Fang, Jie; Xu, Limin; Sun, Chengmei; Han, Jianbang; Hua, Tian; Zhang, Zhongfei; Feng, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal materials for cell therapy. Research has indicated that hypoxia benefits MSC survival, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. This study aims to uncover potential mechanisms involving hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) to explain the promoted MSC survival under hypoxia. MSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured under normoxia or hypoxia condition. The overexpression vector or small interfering RNA of Hif1a gene was transfected to MSCs, after which cell viability, apoptosis and expression of HIF1A were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Factors in p53 pathway were detected to reveal the related mechanisms. Results showed that hypoxia elevated MSCs viability and up-regulated HIF1A (P < 0.05) as previously reported. HIF1A overexpression promoted viability (P < 0.01) and suppressed apoptosis (P < 0.001) under normoxia. Correspondingly, HIF1A knockdown inhibited viability (P < 0.05) and promoted apoptosis (P < 0.01) of MSCs under hypoxia. Expression analysis suggested that p53, phosphate-p53 and p21 were repressed by HIF1A overexpression and promoted by HIF1A knockdown, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression had the opposite pattern (P < 0.05). These results suggest that HIF1A may improve viability and suppress apoptosis of MSCs, implying the protective effect of HIF1A on MSC survival under hypoxia. The underlying mechanisms may involve the HIF1A-suppressed p53 pathway. This study helps to explain the mechanism of MSC survival under hypoxia, and facilitates the application of MSCs in cell therapy. PMID:28386377

  12. Hypoxia-induced endothelial NO synthase gene transcriptional activation is mediated through the tax-responsive element in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Jiho; Jin, Yoon-Mi; Moon, Je-Sung; Sung, Min-Sun; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

    2006-06-01

    Although hypoxia is known to induce upregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene expression, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we show that hypoxia increases eNOS gene expression through the binding of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein (pCREB) to the eNOS gene promoter. Hypoxia (1% O2) increased both eNOS expression and NO production, peaking at 24 hours, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, and these increases were accompanied by increases in pCREB. Treatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 or transfection with dominant-negative inhibitor of CREB reversed the hypoxia-induced increases in eNOS expression and NO production, with concomitant inhibition of the phosphorylation of CREB induced by hypoxia, suggesting an involvement of protein kinase A/pCREB-mediated pathway. To map the regulatory elements of the eNOS gene responsible for pCREB binding under hypoxia, we constructed an eNOS gene promoter (-1600 to +22 nucleotides) fused with a luciferase reporter gene [pGL2-eNOS(-1600)]. Hypoxia (for 24-hour incubation) increased the promoter activity by 2.36+/-0.18-fold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells transfected with pGL2-eNOS(-1600). However, progressive 5'-deletion from -1600 to -873 completely attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift, anti-pCREB antibody supershift, and site-specific mutation analyses showed that pCREB is bound to the Tax-responsive element (TRE) site, a cAMP-responsive element-like site, located at -924 to -921 of the eNOS promoter. Our data demonstrate that the interaction between pCREB and the Tax-responsive element site within the eNOS promoter may represent a novel mechanism for the mediation of hypoxia-stimulated eNOS gene expression.

  13. Hypoxia-induced downregulation of miR-30c promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiwei; Yao, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jin; Dong, Baijun; Chen, Qi; Xue, Wei; Liu, Dongming; Huang, Yiran

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which negatively regulate protein expression by binding protein-coding mRNAs, have been integrated into cancer development and progression as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. miR-30c was reported to be downregulated in several types of cancer. However, its role in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains largely unknown. Here, we show that miR-30c is significantly downregulated in human RCC tissues and cell lines. We found that miR-30c downregulation could be induced by hypoxia in RCC cells in a hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) dependent manner. Repression of miR-30c through its inhibitor resulted in reduction of E-cadherin production and promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), while overexpression of miR-30c inhibited EMT in RCC cells. We identified Slug as a direct target of miR-30c in RCC cells. Slug was upregulated in RCC tissues and its expression could be induced by hypoxia, which is consistent with downregulation of miR-30c by hypoxia. Forced overexpression of Slug in 786-O cells reduced E-cadherin production, and promoted EMT as well as cell migration. Moreover, Slug overexpression abrogated the inhibitory role of miR-30c in regulating EMT and cell migration, indicating miR-30c regulates EMT through Slug in RCC cells. Our findings propose a model that hypoxia induces EMT in RCC cells through downregulation of miR-30c, which leads to subsequent increase of Slug expression and repression of E-cadherin production, and suggest a potential application of miR-30c in RCC treatment.

  14. Tumor cycling hypoxia induces chemoresistance in glioblastoma multiforme by upregulating the expression and function of ABCB1

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chii-Wen; Wang, Chi-Chung; Wu, Chung-Pu; Lin, Yu-Jung; Lee, Yu-Chun; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Hsieh, Chia-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cycling hypoxia is now a well-recognized phenomenon in animal and human solid tumors. However, how tumor cycling hypoxia impacts chemotherapy is unclear. In the present study, we explored the impact and the mechanism of cycling hypoxia on tumor microenvironment-mediated chemoresistance. Hoechst 33342 staining and hypoxia-inducible factor–1 (HIF-1) activation labeling together with immunofluorescence imaging and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used to isolate hypoxic tumor subpopulations from human glioblastoma xenografts. ABCB1 expression, P-glycoprotein function, and chemosensitivity in tumor cells derived from human glioblastoma xenografts or in vitro cycling hypoxic stress-treated glioblastoma cells were determined using Western blot analysis, drug accumulation and efflux assays, and MTT assay, respectively. ABCB1 expression and P-glycoprotein function were upregulated under cycling hypoxia in glioblastoma cells concomitant with decreased responses to doxorubicin and BCNU. However, ABCB1 knockdown inhibited these effects. Moreover, immunofluorescence imaging and flow cytometric analysis for ABCB1, HIF-1 activation, and Hoechst 3342 in glioblastoma revealed highly localized ABCB1 expression predominantly in potentially cycling hypoxic areas with HIF-1 activation and blood perfusion in the solid tumor microenvironment. The cycling hypoxic tumor cells derived from glioblastoma xenografts exhibited higher ABCB1 expression, P-glycoprotein function, and chemoresistance, compared with chronic hypoxic and normoxic cells. Tumor-bearing mice that received YC-1, an HIF-1α inhibitor, exhibited suppressed tumor microenvironment-induced ABCB1 induction and enhanced survival rate in BCNU chemotherapy. Cycling hypoxia plays a vital role in tumor microenvironment-mediated chemoresistance through the HIF-1–dependent induction of ABCB1. HIF-1 blockade before and concurrent with chemotherapy could suppress cycling hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. PMID:22946104

  15. Mechanistic studies of Agmatine Deiminase from multiple bacterial species†

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Justin E.; Dreyton, Christina J.; Flick, Heather; Causey, Corey P.; Thompson, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    One subfamily within the guanidino-group modifying enzymes (GMEs) is the agmatine Deiminases (AgD). These enzymes catalyze the conversion of agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) to N-carbamoyl putrescine and ammonia. In plants, viruses, and bacteria, these enzymes are thought to be involved in energy production, biosynthesis of polyamines, and biofilm formation. In particular, we are interested in the role that this enzyme plays in pathogenic bacteria. Previously we reported the initial kinetic characterization of the agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori and described the synthesis and characterization the two most potent inactivators AgD inactivators. Herein we have expanded our initial efforts to characterize the catalytic mechanisms of AgD from H. pylori as well Streptococcus mutans, and Porphromonas gingivalis. Through the use of pH rate profiles, pKa measurements of the active site cysteine, solvent isotope effects, and solvent viscosity effects, we have determined that the AgDs, like PADs 1 and 4, utilize a reverse protonation mechanism. PMID:20939536

  16. Attenuated effects of Neu2000 on hypoxia-induced synaptic activities in a rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jihyun; Koh, Young-Hyun; Chung, Jun-Mo

    2014-02-01

    Neu2000 (NEU; 2-hydroxy-5-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-trifluoromethyl-benzylamino)-benzoic acid), a recently developed derivative of acetylsalicylic acid and sulfasalazine, potently protects against neuronal cell death following ischemic brain injury by antagonizing NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal toxicity and oxidative stress. However, it has yet to be determined whether NEU can attenuate hypoxia-induced impairment of neuronal electrical activity. In this study, we carried out extracellular recordings of hippocampal slices in order to investigate the effects of NEU on the electrical activity of neurons exposed to a hypoxic insult (oxygen and glucose deprivation). NEU prominently suppressed hypoxia-induced impairment of neuronal activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NEU, at a low dose (1 μM), competently depressed the hypoxia-induced convulsive activity in a manner similar to trolox. Furthermore, high concentrations of NEU (50 μM) markedly abolished all hypoxia-mediated impairment of neuronal activity and accelerated the slow recovery of neuronal activity more efficiently than ifenprodil and APV. These results suggest that NEU attenuates hypoxia-induced impairment of neuronal activity more potently than the antioxidant, trolox, and the NMDA receptor antagonists, ifenprodil and APV. We propose that NEU is a striking pharmacological candidate for neuroprotection against hypoxia because of its defensive action on hypoxia-mediated impairment of electrical neurotransmission as well as its neuroprotective action against neuronal cell death induced by exposure to pathological hypoxic conditions.

  17. Hypoxia-Inducible Erythropoietin Signaling in Squamous Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix and Its Potential Role in Cervical Carcinogenesis and Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Acs, Geza; Zhang, Paul J.; McGrath, Cindy M.; Acs, Peter; McBroom, John; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Liu, Suzhen; Lu, Huasheng; Verma, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia is a characteristic property of cervical cancers that makes tumors resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hypoxia-inducible stimulator of erythropoiesis. Acting via its receptor (EpoR), Epo up-regulates bcl-2 and inhibits apoptosis of erythroid cells and rescues neurons from hypoxic damage. In addition to human papillomavirus infection, increased bcl-2 expression and decreased apoptosis are thought to play a role in the progression of cervical neoplasia. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting we showed that HeLa and SiHa cervical carcinoma cells and human cervical carcinomas express EpoR, and that hypoxia enhances EpoR expression. Exogenous Epo stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibited the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of Epo, EpoR, p16, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and bcl-2 in benign and dysplastic cervical squamous epithelia and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (ISCCs). EpoR expression in benign epithelia was confined to the basal cell layers, whereas in dysplasias it increasingly appeared in more superficial cell layers and showed a significant correlation with severity of dysplasia. Diffuse EpoR expression was found in all ISCCs. Expression of Epo and HIF-1α was increased in dysplasias compared to benign epithelia. Focal Epo and HIF-1α expression was seen near necrotic areas in ISCCs, and showed correlation in their spatial distribution. Significant correlation was found between expression of EpoR, and p16 and bcl-2 in benign and dysplastic squamous epithelia. Our results suggest that increased expression of Epo and EpoR may play a significant role in cervical carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Hypoxia-inducible Epo signaling may play a significant role in the aggressive behavior and treatment resistance of hypoxic cervical cancers. PMID:12759237

  18. Elevated concentrations of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with fracture and concomitant traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiguang; Wang, Zhiyong; Qin, Tao; Li, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    Background Compelling evidence indicate that traumatic brain injury is highly related to accelerated bone fracture repair, but the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. Fracture repair process relies greatly on the formation of new blood vessels in fracture site, and angiogenic factors have been confirmed to be essential for the initiation and maintenance of the fracture healing. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was demonstrated to be a critical regulator of angiogenic-osteogenic coupling during bone development and regeneration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the local and circulating concentrations of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with long-bone fractures and concomitant traumatic brain injury and to determine the potential role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in fracture healing. Methods Twenty-five patients with a long-bone fracture and concomitant traumatic brain injury (FT group) and 33 without a brain injury (Fr group) were enrolled in this study. Healthy subjects donated serum samples as control. Serum samples were collected over a period of six months, following a standardized time schedule. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations were measured in fracture haematoma and serum of patients in both groups using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Patients in FT group had a short time to union. Serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations elevated in the early healing period and reached the maximum level during intramembranous bone formation phase in both groups. Thereafter, it decreased continuously and approached to the minimum levels until the end of the observation period. Serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations in both groups were significantly higher compared with controls and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations in both serum and fracture haematoma were higher in FT group than that in Fr group. Fracture haematoma contained significantly higher hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations

  19. The arginine metabolite agmatine protects mitochondrial function and confers resistance to cellular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Mary Ann; Battaglia, Valentina; Parisi, Eva; Lortie, Mark J; Isome, Masato; Baskerville, Christopher; Pizzo, Donald P; Ientile, Riccardo; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Toninello, Antonio; Satriano, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of arginine, selectively suppresses growth in cells with high proliferative kinetics, such as transformed cells, through depletion of intracellular polyamine levels. In the present study, we depleted intracellular polyamine content with agmatine to determine if attrition by cell death contributes to the growth-suppressive effects. We did not observe an increase in necrosis, DNA fragmentation, or chromatin condensation in Ha-Ras-transformed NIH-3T3 cells administered agmatine. In response to Ca(2+)-induced oxidative stress in kidney mitochondrial preparations, agmatine demonstrated attributes of a free radical scavenger by protecting against the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups and decreasing hydrogen peroxide content. The functional outcome was a protective effect against Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. We also observed decreased expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and of execution caspase-3, implying antiapoptotic potential. Indeed, we found that apoptosis induced by camptothecin or 5-fluorourocil was attenuated in cells administered agmatine. Agmatine may offer an alternative to the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor difluoromethyl ornithine for depletion of intracellular polyamine content while avoiding the complications of increasing polyamine import and reducing the intracellular free radical scavenger capacity of polyamines. Depletion of intracellular polyamine content with agmatine suppressed cell growth, yet its antioxidant capacity afforded protection from mitochondrial insult and resistance to cellular apoptosis. These results could explain the beneficial outcomes observed with agmatine in models of injury and disease.

  20. Class II histone deacetylases are associated with VHL-independent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Qian, David Z; Kachhap, Sushant K; Collis, Spencer J; Verheul, Henk M W; Carducci, Michael A; Atadja, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a critical role in transcriptional gene activation involved in tumor angiogenesis. A novel class of agents, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and HIF-1 alpha protein expression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between HIF-1 alpha inhibition and HDAC inhibition. Treatment of the VHL-deficient human renal cell carcinoma cell line UMRC2 with the hydroxamic HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIF-1 alpha protein via a VHL-independent mechanism and reduction of HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity. HIF-1 alpha inhibition by LAQ824 was associated with HIF-1 alpha acetylation and polyubiquitination. HIF-1 alpha immunoprecipitates contained HDAC activity. Then, we tested different classes of HDAC inhibitors with diverse inhibitory activity of class I versus class II HDACs and assessed their capability of targeting HIF-1 alpha. Hydroxamic acid derivatives with known activity against both class I and class II HDACs were effective in inhibiting HIF-1 alpha at low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, valproic acid and trapoxin were able to inhibit HIF-1 alpha only at concentrations that are effective against class II HDACs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that class II HDAC4 and HDAC6 were associated with HIF-1 alpha protein. Inhibition by small interfering RNA of HDAC4 and HDAC6 reduced HIF-1 alpha protein expression and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that class II HDACs are associated with HIF-1 alpha stability and provide a rationale for targeting HIF-1 alpha with HDAC inhibitors against class II isozymes.

  1. Changes of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling and the effect of cilostazol in chronic cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han; Wei, Aixuan; He, Jinting; Yu, Ming; Mang, Jing; Xu, Zhongxin

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its specific target gene heme oxygenase-1, are involved in acute cerebral ischemia. However, very few studies have examined in detail the changes in the hypoxia-inducible factor-1/heme oxygenase-1 signaling pathway in chronic cerebral ischemia. In this study, a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia was established by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, and these rats were treated with intragastric cilostazol (30 mg/kg) for 9 weeks. Morris water maze results showed that cognitive impairment gradually worsened as the cerebral ischemia proceeded. Immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and heme oxygenase-1 expression levels increased after chronic cerebral ischemia, with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression peaking at 3 weeks and heme oxygenase-1 expression peaking at 6 weeks. These results suggest that the elevated levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α may upregulate heme oxygenase-1 expression following chronic cerebral ischemia and that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1/heme oxygenase-1 signaling pathway is involved in the development of cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral ischemia. Cilostazol treatment alleviated the cognitive impairment in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and heme oxygenase-1 expression levels, and reduced apoptosis in the frontal cortex. These findings demonstrate that cilostazol can protect against cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral ischemic injury through an anti-apoptotic mechanism. PMID:25206477

  2. Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Gabriel; DeGregorio-Rocasolano, Nuria; Regalado, M Paz; Gasull, Teresa; Boronat, M Assumpció; Trullas, Ramón; Villarroel, Alvaro; Lerma, Juan; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the potential neuroprotective effect of several imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine on glutamate-induced necrosis and on apoptosis induced by low extracellular K+ in cultured cerebellar granule cells.Exposure (30 min) of energy deprived cells to L-glutamate (1–100 μM) caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as determined 24 h later by a decrease in the ability of the cells to metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) into a reduced formazan product. L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (EC50=5 μM) was blocked by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine).Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully prevented neurotoxicity induced by 20 μM (EC100) L-glutamate with the rank order (EC50 in μM): antazoline (13)>cirazoline (44)>LSL 61122 [2-styryl-2-imidazoline] (54)>LSL 60101 [2-(2-benzofuranyl) imidazole] (75)>idazoxan (90)>LSL 60129 [2-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole] (101)>RX821002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (106)>agmatine (196). No neuroprotective effect of these drugs was observed in a model of apoptotic neuronal cell death (reduction of extracellular K+) which does not involve stimulation of NMDA receptors.Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully inhibited [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding to the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptors in rat brain. The profile of drug potency protecting against L-glutamate neurotoxicity correlated well (r=0.90) with the potency of the same compounds competing against [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding.In HEK-293 cells transfected to express the NR1-1a and NR2C subunits of the NMDA receptor, antazoline and agmatine produced a voltage- and concentration-dependent block of glutamate-induced currents. Analysis of the voltage dependence of the block was consistent with the presence of a binding site for antazoline located within the NMDA channel pore with an IC50 of 10–12 μM at 0 mV.It is concluded that imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine are

  3. In cultured astrocytes, p53 and MDM2 do not alter hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha function regardless of the presence of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Rempe, David A; Lelli, Katherine M; Vangeison, Grace; Johnson, Randall S; Federoff, Howard J

    2007-06-01

    A principal molecular mechanism by which cells respond to hypoxia is by activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Several studies describe a binding of p53 to HIF-1alpha in a protein complex, leading to attenuated function, half-life, and abundance of HIF-1alpha. However, these reports almost exclusively utilized transformed cell lines, and many employed transfection of p53 or HIF-1alpha plasmid constructs and/or p53 and HIF-1alpha reporter constructs as surrogates for endogenous protein activity and target expression, respectively. Thus, it remains an open and important question as to whether p53 inhibits HIF-1alpha-mediated transactivation of endogenous HIF-1alpha targets in nontransformed cells. After determining in primary astrocyte cultures the HIF-1alpha targets that were most dependent on HIF-1alpha function, we examined the effect of the loss of p53 function either alone or in combination with MDM2 on expression of these targets. Although p53 null astrocyte cultures resulted in markedly increased HIF-1alpha-dependent target expression compared with controls, this altered expression was determined to be the result of increased cell density of p53 null cultures and the accompanying acidosis, not loss of p53 protein. Although activation of p53 by DNA damage induced p53 target expression in astrocytes, it did not alter hypoxia-induced HIF-1alpha target expression. Finally, a combined loss of MDM2 and p53 did not alter HIF-1alpha target expression compared with loss of p53 alone. These data strongly suggest that p53 and MDM2 do not influence the hypoxia-induced transactivation of HIF-1alpha targets, regardless of p53 activation, in primary astrocytes.

  4. Long non-coding RNA HOTTIP promotes hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of malignant glioma by regulating the miR-101/ZEB1 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanyi; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Guoxin; Xie, Shule; Li, Qunxing; Li, Yingru; Lin, Zhaoyu

    2017-09-05

    Hypoxia is a universal characteristic of solid tumor and involving cancer metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate carcinogenesis and metastasis of various cancers. The aim of this study was to identify the function role of lncRNAs in the hypoxia-induced EMT of malignant glioma. We used U87 and U251 cell lines were treated under hypoxia to induce EMT, then lncRNA microarray analyse was performed between U87-hypoxia and parental cell line. The relative expression of lncRNA and HIF-1α were detected by qRT-PCR between glioma tissues without metastasis and that with metastasis. Hypoxia could induce EMT and increase HOTTIP expression in glioma cells. Among the different expressions of lncRNAs, HOTTIP was the most upregulated lncRNA in glioma cells treated by hypoxia. High levels of HOTTIP and HIF-1α were correlated with glioma metastasis and poor patient prognosis. Knockdown of HIF-1α and HOTTIP blocked hypoxia-induced EMT, and suppressed invasion and migration of glioma cells. Finally, HOTTIP sponged endogenous miR-101 and inhibited its activity, which resulted in increased ZEB1 expression and promoted process of EMT. HIF-1α/HOTTIP/miR-101/ZEB1 axis plays essential role in hypoxia-induced EMT and metastasis of glioma, and HOTTIP may serve as a therapeutic target to reverse EMT and prevent glioma progression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Fenofibrate enhances radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yangyang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Xi; Zhu, Hongcheng; Yang, Baixia; Zhao, Kuiling; Wu, Zhijun; Cheng, Guojian; Wang, Feng; Ni, Feng; Ge, Qin; Yang, Yanguang; Tai, Guomei; Sun, Xinchen; Cai, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Radiation therapy is widely used in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Promoting radiation sensitivity is important. Recent studies have shown that fenofibrate can inhibit the growth of several cancer lines and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in MCF-7 cells. However, few studies on the radiosensitive effect of fenofibrate on ESCCs under hypoxic condition have been conducted. In this study, we assessed the radiosensitive effects of fenofibrate on human ESCC cells. In vitro experiments showed the inhibition of cytotoxic effects after ionizing irradiation. We measured cell viability and clonogenic survival rate. Flow cytometry showed that fenofibrate pretreatment promoted apoptosis. The in vivo data also suggest that fenofibrate had radiosensitizing effects in ECA-109 cells xenografted into nude mice. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein content decreased by fenofibrate. Thus, the inhibition of HIF-1α and VEGF expression in ESCC cells contributed to the radiosensitive effect. These data suggest that fenofibrate may be a potential radiosensitive drug.

  6. Intracellular ascorbate enhances hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-hydroxylase activity and preferentially suppresses the HIF-1 transcriptional response.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Caroline; Dachs, Gabi U; Currie, Margaret J; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 drives the transcription of hundreds of genes to support cell survival under conditions of microenvironmental and metabolic stress. HIF-1 is downregulated by iron-containing 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes that require ascorbate as a cofactor. The HIF hydroxylases control both protein stability and the formation of an active transcription complex and, consequently, ascorbate could affect HIF-1α stabilization and/or gene expression, but the relative effect of ascorbate on these separate processes has not been well characterized. In this study we examined the effects of known intracellular ascorbate concentrations on both processes in response to various means of hydroxylase inhibition, including CoCl2, NiCl2, desferrioxamine, dimethyloxalylglycine, and hypoxia. Ascorbate inhibited HIF-1 activity most dramatically with all mechanisms of iron competition. In addition, HIF-1-dependent gene expression was effectively prevented by ascorbate and was inhibited even under conditions that allowed HIF-1α protein stabilization. This suggests that (1) ascorbate acts primarily to stabilize and reduce the iron atom in the hydroxylase active site and (2) the asparagine hydroxylase controlling HIF-1 transcriptional activity is particularly susceptible to fluctuations in intracellular ascorbate. These findings suggest that ascorbate plays a significant role in supporting HIF-hydroxylase function and that it could thereby modulate the cell survival response.

  7. Hypoxia-induced sensitisation of TRPA1 in painful dysesthesia evoked by transient hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion in mice.

    PubMed

    So, Kanako; Tei, Yuna; Zhao, Meng; Miyake, Takahito; Hiyama, Haruka; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Imai, Satoshi; Mori, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Matsubara, Kazuo; Kaneko, Shuji

    2016-03-17

    Dysesthesia is an unpleasant abnormal sensation, which is often accompanied by peripheral neuropathy or vascular impairment. Here, we examined the roles of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in dysesthesia-like behaviours elicited by transient hindlimb ischemia (15-60 min) by tightly compressing the hindlimb, and reperfusion by releasing the ligature. The paw-withdrawal responses to tactile stimulation were reduced during ischemia and lasted for a while after reperfusion. Hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion elicited spontaneous licking of the ischemic hindpaw that peaked within 10 min. The licking was inhibited by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, a TRPA1 antagonist, or TRPA1 deficiency, but not by TRPV1 deficiency. In human TRPA1-expressing cells as well as cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, the H2O2-evoked TRPA1 response was significantly increased by pretreatment with hypoxia (80 mmHg) for 30 min. This hypoxia-induced TRPA1 sensitisation to H2O2 was inhibited by overexpressing a catalytically-inactive mutant of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 2 or in a TRPA1 proline mutant resistant to PHDs. Consistent with these results, a PHD inhibitor increased H2O2-evoked nocifensive behaviours through TRPA1 activation. Our results suggest that transient hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion-evoked spontaneous licking, i.e. painful dysesthesia, is caused by ROS-evoked activation of TRPA1 sensitised by hypoxia through inhibiting PHD-mediated hydroxylation of a proline residue in TRPA1.

  8. NECAB3 Promotes Activation of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 during Normoxia and Enhances Tumourigenicity of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Hiroki J.; Hara, Toshiro; Yoshino, Seiko; Kanamori, Akane; Matsui, Yusuke; Shimamura, Teppei; Sato, Hiroshi; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2016-01-01

    Unlike most cells, cancer cells activate hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) to use glycolysis even at normal oxygen levels, or normoxia. Therefore, HIF-1 is an attractive target in cancer therapy. However, the regulation of HIF-1 during normoxia is not well characterised, although Mint3 was recently found to activate HIF-1 in cancer cells and macrophages by suppressing the HIF-1 inhibitor, factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1). In this study, we analysed Mint3-binding proteins to investigate the mechanism by which Mint3 regulates HIF-1. Yeast two-hybrid screening using Mint3 as bait identified N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 3 (NECAB3) as a novel factor regulating HIF-1 activity via Mint3. NECAB3 bound to the phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Mint3, formed a ternary complex with Mint3 and FIH-1, and co-localised with Mint3 at the Golgi apparatus. Depletion of NECAB3 decreased the expression of HIF-1 target genes and reduced glycolysis in normoxic cancer cells. NECAB3 mutants that binds Mint3 but lacks an intact monooxygenase domain also inhibited HIF-1 activation. Inhibition of NECAB3 in cancer cells by either expressing shRNAs or generating a dominant negative mutant reduced tumourigenicity. Taken together, the data indicate that NECAB3 is a promising new target for cancer therapy. PMID:26948053

  9. Circulating factors are involved in hypoxia-induced hepcidin suppression.

    PubMed

    Ravasi, Giulia; Pelucchi, Sara; Greni, Federico; Mariani, Raffaella; Giuliano, Andrea; Parati, Gianfranco; Silvestri, Laura; Piperno, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Hepcidin transcription is strongly down-regulated under hypoxic conditions, however whether hypoxia inhibits hepcidin directly or indirectly is still unknown. We investigated the time course of hypoxia-mediated hepcidin down-regulation in vivo in healthy volunteers exposed to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude and, based on the hypothesis that circulating factors are implicated in hepcidin inhibition, we analyzed the effect of sera of these volunteers exposed to normoxia and hypoxia on hepcidin expression in Huh-7 cell lines. Hypoxia led to a significant hepcidin down-regulation in vivo that was almost complete within 72h of exposure and followed erythropoietin induction. This delay in hepcidin down-regulation suggests the existence of soluble factor/s regulating hepcidin production. We then stimulated HuH-7 cells with normoxic and hypoxic sera to analyze the effects of sera on hepcidin regulation. Hypoxic sera had a significant inhibitory effect on hepcidin promoter activity assessed by a luciferase assay, although the amount of such decrease was not as relevant as that observed in vivo. Cellular mRNA analysis showed that a number of volunteers' sera inhibited hepcidin expression, concurrently with ID1 inhibition, suggesting that inhibitory factor(s) may act through the SMAD-pathway.

  10. Preventive mechanisms of agmatine against ischemic acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Takahiro; Kobuchi, Shuhei; Tsutsui, Hidenobu; Takaoka, Masanori; Fujii, Toshihide; Hayashi, Kentaro; Matsumura, Yasuo

    2009-01-28

    The excitation of renal sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the development of ischemic acute kidney injury in rats. Recently, we found that agmatine, an adrenaline alpha(2)/imidazoline I(1)-receptor agonist, has preventive effects on ischemic acute kidney injury by suppressing the enhanced renal sympathetic nerve activity during renal ischemia and by decreasing the renal venous norepinephrine overflow after reperfusion. In the present study, we investigated preventive mechanisms of agmatine against ischemic acute kidney injury in rats. Ischemic acute kidney injury was induced by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 min followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after the contralateral nephrectomy. Pretreatment with efaroxan (30 mumol/kg, i.v.), an alpha(2)/I(1)-receptor antagonist, abolished the suppressive effects of agmatine on the enhanced renal sympathetic nerve activity during renal ischemia and on the elevated norepinephrine overflow after reperfusion, and eliminated the preventing effects of agmatine on the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction and histological damage. On the other hand, pretreatment with yohimbine (6 mumol/kg, i.v.), an alpha(2)-receptor antagonist, eliminated the preventing effects of agmatine on the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury and norepinephrine overflow, without affecting the lowering effect of agmatine on renal sympathetic nerve activity. These results indicate that agmatine prevents the ischemic renal injury by sympathoinhibitory effect probably via I(1) receptors in central nervous system and by suppressing the norepinephrine overflow through alpha(2) or I(1) receptors on sympathetic nerve endings.

  11. Discovery of an operon that participates in agmatine metabolism and regulates biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan J; Du, Rui-Hong; Calcutt, M Wade; Abdolrasulnia, Rasul; Christman, Brian W; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2010-04-01

    Agmatine is the decarboxylation product of arginine and a number of bacteria have devoted enzymatic pathways for its metabolism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbours the aguBA operon that metabolizes agmatine to putrescine, which can be subsequently converted into other polyamines or shunted into the TCA cycle for energy production. We discovered an alternate agmatine operon in the P. aeruginosa strain PA14 named agu2ABCA' that contains two genes for agmatine deiminases (agu2A and agu2A'). This operon was found to be present in 25% of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Agu2A' contains a twin-arginine translocation signal at its N-terminus and site-directed mutagenesis and cell fractionation experiments confirmed this protein is secreted to the periplasm. Analysis of the agu2ABCA' promoter demonstrates that agmatine induces expression of the operon during the stationary phase of growth and during biofilm growth and agu2ABCA' provides only weak complementation of aguBA, which is induced during log phase. Biofilm assays of mutants of all three agmatine deiminase genes in PA14 revealed that deletion of agu2ABCA', specifically its secreted product Agu2A', reduces biofilm production of PA14 following addition of exogenous agmatine. Together, these findings reveal a novel role for the agu2ABCA' operon in the biofilm development of P. aeruginosa.

  12. Evidences for the agmatine involvement in antidepressant like effect of bupropion in mouse forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Tripathi, Sunil J; Aglawe, Manish M; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Taksande, Brijesh G

    2013-06-01

    Although bupropion has been widely used in the treatment of depression, the precise mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of agmatine in an antidepressant like effect of bupropion in mouse forced swim test. The antidepressant like effect of bupropion was potentiated by pretreatment with agmatine (10-20mg/kg, ip) and by the drugs known to increase endogenous agmatine levels in brain viz., l-arginine (40 μg/mouse, icv), an agmatine biosynthetic precursor, ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, dl-α-difluoromethyl ornithine hydrochloride, DFMO (12.5 μg/mouse, icv), diamine oxidase inhibitor, aminoguanidine (6.5 μg/mouse, icv) and agmatinase inhibitor, arcaine (50 μg/mouse, icv) as well as imidazoline I1 receptor agonists, moxonidine (0.25mg/kg, ip) and clonidine (0.015 mg/kg, ip) and imidazoline I2 receptor agonist, 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride, 2-BFI (5mg/kg, ip). Conversely, prior administration of I1 receptor antagonist, efaroxan (1mg/kg, ip) and I2 receptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.25mg/kg, ip) blocked the antidepressant like effect of bupropion and its synergistic combination with agmatine. These results demonstrate involvement of agmatine in the antidepressant like effect of bupropion and suggest agmatine and imidazoline receptors as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of depressive disorders.

  13. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha improves immunomodulation by dental mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Victor G; Ontoria-Oviedo, Imelda; Ricardo, Carolina P; Harding, Sian E; Sacedon, Rosa; Varas, Alberto; Zapata, Agustin; Sepulveda, Pilar; Vicente, Angeles

    2017-09-29

    Human dental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as highly accessible and attractive MSCs for use in regenerative medicine, yet some of their features are not as well characterized as other MSCs. Hypoxia-preconditioning and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha overexpression significantly improves MSC therapeutics, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we characterize immunomodulatory properties of dental MSCs and determine changes in their ability to modulate adaptive and innate immune populations after HIF-1 alpha overexpression. Human dental MSCs were stably transduced with green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSCs) or GFP-HIF-1 alpha lentivirus vectors (HIF-MSCs). A hypoxic-like metabolic profile was confirmed by mitochondrial and glycolysis stress test. Capacity of HIF-MSCs to modulate T-cell activation, dendritic cell differentiation, monocyte migration, and polarizations towards macrophages and natural killer (NK) cell lytic activity was assessed by a number of functional assays in co-cultures. The expression of relevant factors were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While HIF-1 alpha overexpression did not modify the inhibition of T-cell activation by MSCs, HIF-MSCs impaired dendritic cell differentiation more efficiently. In addition, HIF-MSCs showed a tendency to induce higher attraction of monocytes, which differentiate into suppressor macrophages, and exhibited enhanced resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis, which supports the improved therapeutic capacity of HIF-MSCs. HIF-MSCs also displayed a pro-angiogenic profile characterized by increased expression of CXCL12/SDF1 and CCL5/RANTES and complete loss of CXCL10/IP10 transcription. Immunomodulation and expression of trophic factors by dental MSCs make them perfect candidates for cell therapy. Overexpression of HIF-1 alpha enhances these features and increases their resistance to allogenic NK

  14. Hypoxia inducible BHLHB2 is a novel and independent prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weibin; Reiser-Erkan, Carolin; Michalski, Christoph W.; Raggi, Matthias C.; Quan, Liao; Yupei, Zhao; Friess, Helmut; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Joerg

    2010-10-22

    cells. Patients with weak/absent nuclear BHLHB2 staining had significantly worse median survival compared to those with strong staining (13 months vs. 27 months, p = 0.03). In a multivariable analysis, BHLHB2 staining was an independent prognostic factor (Hazard-Ratio = 2.348, 95% CI = 1.250-4.411, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Hypoxia-inducible BHLHB2 expression is a novel independent prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer patients and indicates increased chemosensitivity towards gemcitabine.

  15. Cardenolides from Calotropis gigantea as potent inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Parhira, Supawadee; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Chen, Ming; Bai, Li-Ping; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-12-24

    Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant native to southern China, India and Southeast Asia. It has been traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases including cancers in these countries. This study aimed to isolate bioactive cardenolides from C. gigantea, to screen their hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-) 1 inhibitory activity, and to analyze the structure-activity relationship (SAR). Isolation and purification of cardenolides from the latex and the fruits of C. gigantea were performed by using a series of separation techniques. Their structures were fully characterized by elucidating their NMR and HRMS data. The HIF-1 inhibitory activities of cardenolides were evaluated by using a T47D cell-based dual-luciferase reporter assay. The potent cardenolides were selected to further evaluate their dose-response manner. Cytotoxic effects of selected cardenolides were also examined against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) by MTT assay. Among twenty isolated cardenolides, compounds 1, 3, 4, 6-8, 14 and 17 exhibited stronger HIF-1 inhibitory activities than that of digoxin, a well-known HIF-1 inhibitor (P<0.001). These eight cardenolides inhibited HIF-1 transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values in nanomolar potency (21.8-64.9nM). An analysis of SAR revealed the great contributions of a β-configuration of the substituents at positions of C-2' and C-3', an aldehydic moiety on C-19, and the dioxane moiety between the aglycone and sugar parts of cardenolides to the HIF-1 inhibitory activity. In contrast, a hydroxyl group at any positions of C-15, C-16 and C-4' of cardenolides showed negative effects on suppressing HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, these eight cardenolides also exhibited potent cytotoxic effects against human breast cancer cell MCF-7 (IC50 values ranged from 30.5 to 68.8nM), but less toxic effects to human normal mammary epithelial cell MCF

  16. Identification of the putrescine biosynthetic genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterization of agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase of the arginine decarboxylase pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2003-03-01

    Putrescine can be synthesized either directly from ornithine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; the speC product) or indirectly from arginine via arginine decarboxylase (ADC; the speA product). The authors identified the speA and speC genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The activities of the two decarboxylases were similar and each enzyme alone appeared to direct sufficient formation of the polyamine for normal growth. A mutant defective in both speA and speC was a putrescine auxotroph. In this strain, agmatine deiminase (the aguA product) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (the aguB product), which were initially identified as the catabolic enzymes of agmatine, biosynthetically convert agmatine to putrescine in the ADC pathway: a double mutant of aguAB and speC was a putrescine auxotroph. AguA was purified as a homodimer of 43 kDa subunits and AguB as a homohexamer of 33 kDa subunits. AguA specifically deiminated agmatine with K(m) and K(cat) values of 0.6 mM and 4.2 s(-1), respectively. AguB was specific to N-carbamoylputrescine and the K(m) and K(cat) values of the enzyme for the substrate were 0.5 mM and 3.3 s(-1), respectively. Whereas AguA has no structural relationship to any known C-N hydrolases, AguB is a protein of the nitrilase family that performs thiol-assisted catalysis. Inhibition by SH reagents and the conserved cysteine residue in AguA and its homologues suggested that this enzyme is also involved in thiol-mediated catalysis.

  17. The hypoxia-inducible-factor hydroxylases bring fresh air into hypoxia signalling

    PubMed Central

    Berra, Edurne; Ginouvès, Amandine; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Metazoans rapidly respond to changes in oxygen availability by regulating gene expression. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF), which controls the expression of several genes, ‘senses' the oxygen concentration indirectly through the hydroxylation of two proline residues that earmarks the HIF-α subunits for proteasomal degradation. We review the expression, regulation and function of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases or prolyl hydroxylases domain proteins, which are genuine oxygen sensors. PMID:16391536

  18. Sildenafil and an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Binns-Loveman, Karen M; Kaplowitz, Mark R; Fike, Candice D

    2005-07-01

    Devising therapies that might prevent the onset or progression of pulmonary hypertension in newborns has received little attention. Our major objective was to determine whether sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prevents the development of an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. Another objective was to determine whether sildenafil causes pulmonary vasodilation without systemic vasodilation in piglets with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control, n = 5) or 10-11% O(2) (hypoxic, n = 17) for 3 days. Some piglets (n = 4) received oral sildenafil, 12 mg/kg/day, throughout exposure to hypoxia. All piglets were anesthetized and catheterized, and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary wedge pressure (Pw), aortic pressure (Ao), and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Then for some piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, a single oral sildenafil dose (3 mg/kg, n = 6) or placebo (n = 5) was given, and hemodynamic measurements were repeated. For piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, mean Ppa and calculated PVR were elevated above respective values in control piglets. Mean Ppa and PVR did not differ between piglets that received sildenafil throughout exposure to hypoxia and those that did not. For piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that received a single oral dose of sildenafil, mean Ppa and PVR decreased, while mean Pw, CO, mean Ao, and systemic vascular resistance remained the same. All hemodynamic measurements were unchanged after placebo. Oral sildenafil did not influence the early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. However, a single oral dose of sildenafil caused pulmonary vasodilation, without systemic vasodilation, in piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which may have therapeutic implications.

  19. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W Michael; Das, Mita

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases.

  20. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases. PMID:24500281

  1. Development of later life spontaneous seizures in a rodent model of hypoxia induced neonatal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rakhade, Sanjay N; Klein, Peter; Huynh, Thanthao; Hilario-Gomez, Cristina; Kosaras, Bela; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jensen, Frances E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose To study the development of epilepsy following hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures in Long Evans rats and to establish the presence of spontaneous seizures in this model of early life seizures. Methods Long-Evans rat pups were subjected to hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures at postnatal day 10 (P10). Epidural cortical electroencephalography (EEG) and hippocampal depth electrodes were used to detect the presence of seizures in later adulthood (>P60). In addition, subdermal wire electrode recordings were used to monitor age at onset and progression of seizures in the juvenile period, at intervals between P10–P60. Timm staining was performed to evaluate mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampi of P100 adult rats that had experienced neonatal seizures. Key Findings In recordings made from adult rats (P60–P180), the prevalence of epilepsy in cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings was 94.4% following early life hypoxic seizures. These spontaneous seizures were identified by characteristic spike and wave activity on EEG accompanied by behavioral arrest and facial automatisms (electroclinical seizures). Phenobarbital injection transiently abolished spontaneous seizures. EEG in the juvenile period (P10–60) showed that spontaneous seizures first occurred approximately 2 weeks after the initial episode of hypoxic seizures. Following this period, spontaneous seizure frequency and duration progressively increased with time. Furthermore, significantly increased sprouting of mossy fibers was observed in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus in adult animals following hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures. Notably, Fluoro-Jade B staining confirmed that hypoxic seizures at P10 did not induce acute neuronal death. Significance The rodent model of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures leads to the development of epilepsy in later life, accompanied by increased mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, this model appears to exhibit a seizure-free latent period

  2. L-arginine prevents hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction in dual-perfused human placental cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Bednov, Andrey; Espinoza, Jimmy; Betancourt, Ancizar; Vedernikov, Yuri; Belfort, Michael; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2015-11-01

    Chronic hypoxia in the uteroplacental unit is associated with increased resistance to blood flow in the fetal-placental circulation. These changes can lead to adverse cardiovascular events in adulthood. This study investigates whether L-arginine (substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or endothelin-A receptor antagonist BQ123 administration reverses hypoxia-induced changes in perfusion pressure in the fetal compartment in dual-perfused placental cotyledons. Human placental cotyledons (n = 15) from term deliveries (n = 15) were perfused with Krebs solution from maternal and fetal sides. Normal and reduced oxygen tension conditions were sequentially created in the perfused maternal compartment. Fetal perfusion pressure was continuously monitored. 1 mM L-arginine, D-arginine (an enantiomer of L-arginine and not a substrate for NOS), and BQ123 or normal saline were administered to the fetal compartment; L-arginine was also administered to the maternal compartment prior to maternal side hypoxia. Changes in perfusion pressure were compared between groups. Maternal hypoxia increased (19 ± 6%) perfusion pressure and this was blunted by L-arginine injection (3 ± 5%; p = 0.006) into the fetal compartment. L-arginine in the maternal compartment had no significant effect (22 ± 4% with L-arginine vs.14 ± 3% at control) on perfusion pressure. Similarly, D-arginine (23 ± 11% vs.19 ± 8% at control) or BQ123 (12 ± 3% vs.13 ± 3% at control) in the fetal compartment did not blunt the hypoxia-induced increase in perfusion pressure. Fetal vasoconstriction induced by maternal hypoxia is blunted by NO synthase substrate L-arginine, but not by D-arginine, in the fetal compartment, suggesting the involvement of NO synthesis in regulating the hypoxia-induced fetal vasoconstriction. Endothelin A receptor-related mechanisms does not appear to play a role in the maternal hypoxia-induced fetal vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitors from frankincense using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Lakka, Achillia; Mylonis, Ilias; Bonanou, Sophia; Simos, George; Tsakalof, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1), a transcriptional activator, is highly involved in the pathology of cancer. Inhibition of HIF-1 retards tumor growth and enhances treatment efficiency when used in combination with chemo- or radiation therapy. The recent validation of HIF-1 as an important drug target in cancer treatment has stimulated efforts to identify and isolate natural or synthetic HIF-1 inhibitors. In the present study, quercetin, a known inhibitor of HIF-1, was imprinted in a polymer matrix in order to prepare a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP), which was subsequently used for the selective isolation of new inhibitors from frankincense, a gum resin used as anticancer remedy in traditional medicine. The frankincense components isolated by Solid Phase Extraction on MIP (MIP-SPE), efficiently inhibited the transcriptional activity of HIF-1 and decreased the protein levels of HIF-1α, the regulated subunit of HIF-1. The selective retention of acetyl 11-ketoboswellic acid (AKBA, one of the main bioactive components of frankincense) by MIP led to the revealing of its inhibitory activity on the HIF-1 signaling pathway. AKBA was selectively retained by SPE on the quercetin imprinted polymer, with an imprinting effect of 8.1 ± 4.6. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of MIP application in the screening, recognition and isolation of new bioactive compounds that aim selected molecular targets, a potential that has been poorly appreciated until.

  4. Hypoxia negatively regulates antimetastatic PEDF in melanoma cells by a hypoxia inducible factor-independent, autophagy dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Barral, Asunción; Orgaz, José Luis; Gomez, Valentí; del Peso, Luis; Calzada, María José; Jiménez, Benilde

    2012-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) superfamily, displays a potent antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activity in a broad range of tumor types. Melanocytes and low aggressive melanoma cells secrete high levels of PEDF, while its expression is lost in highly aggressive melanomas. PEDF efficiently abrogates a number of functional properties critical for the acquisition of metastatic ability by melanoma cells, such as neovascularization, proliferation, migration, invasiveness and extravasation. In this study, we identify hypoxia as a relevant negative regulator of PEDF in melanocytes and low aggressive melanoma cells. PEDF was regulated at the protein level. Importantly, although downregulation of PEDF was induced by inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, it was independent of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a key mediator of the adaptation to hypoxia. Decreased PEDF protein was not mediated by inhibition of translation through untranslated regions (UTRs) in melanoma cells. Degradation by metalloproteinases, implicated on PEDF degradation in retinal pigment epithelial cells, or by the proteasome, was also excluded as regulatory mechanism in melanoma cells. Instead, we found that degradation by autophagy was critical for PEDF downregulation under hypoxia in human melanoma cells. Our findings show that hypoxic conditions encountered during primary melanoma growth downregulate antiangiogenic and antimetastasic PEDF by a posttranslational mechanism involving degradation by autophagy and could therefore contribute to the acquisition of highly metastatic potential characteristic of aggressive melanoma cells.

  5. n-Propyl gallate activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 by modulating intracellular oxygen-sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Motohide; Takabuchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Murata, Miyahiko; Nishi, Kenichiro; Oda, Seiko; Oda, Tomoyuki; Kanai, Michiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Adachi, Takehiko; Takabayashi, Arimichi; Semenza, Gregg L; Hirota, Kiichi

    2008-04-01

    HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1) is a master regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia. The expression and transcriptional activity of the HIF-1alpha subunit is stringently controlled by intracellular oxygen tension through the action of prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases. In the present study we demonstrate that PG (n-propyl gallate) activates HIF-1 and expression of its downstream target genes under normoxic conditions in cultured cells and in mice. The stability and transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha are increased by PG. PG treatment inhibits the interaction between HIF-1alpha and VHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein) and promotes the interaction between HIF-1alpha and p300, indicating that PG inhibits the activity of both prolyl and asparaginyl HIF-1alpha hydroxylases. We conclude that PG activates HIF-1 and enhances the resultant gene expression by directly affecting the intracellular oxygen sensing system in vitro and in vivo and that PG represents a lead compound for the development of a non-toxic activator of HIF-1.

  6. Hunterian Lecture. Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) by nitric oxide in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, P. A.; Quintero, M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia is a common feature of many cancers, contributing to tumour progression as well as potentially compromising radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is an essential component in changing the transcriptional response of tumours under hypoxia and it targets the transcription of many genes involved in cancer biology. Over-expression of HIF-1 has been associated with increased patient mortality in several cancer types. Regulation of HIF-1 by the signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO) is becoming increasingly recognised. METHOD: Three oral cancer cell lines were used to investigate the effects of NO synthase enzymes (NOS) on HIF-1alpha expression under both normal oxygen and hypoxic conditions. The effect of NOS inhibition was evaluated with the drug L-NMMA. Protein expression was determined with Western blotting. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: HIF-1alpha expression occurred following exposure of cells to 3% oxygen for 8 h in all three cell lines, and its expression was found to be dependent on NOS activity, being reduced or inhibited by L-NMMA. Although the mechanism remains to be established, NO appears to play a role in the expression of HIF-1alpha in oral cancer. The possible clinical implications of targeting HIF-1 in cancer are discussed. PMID:15901372

  7. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M. Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1], [2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1], [3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1], [3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17) as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under Accession no. GSE74808. PMID:26981381

  8. Sex-related effects of agmatine on caffeine-induced locomotor activity in Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Kose, Akin; Kayir, Hakan; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Celik, Turgay

    2010-03-25

    In mammalian brain, agmatine is an endogenous amine that is synthesized through the decarboxylation of l-arginine by arginine decarboxylase. It has been proposed as a new neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. It was shown that agmatine had some beneficial effects in animal models of opioid and alcohol addiction. Locomotor stimulant properties of drugs such as ethanol, caffeine, nicotine and amphetamine have been linked to their addictive properties. The present study investigates the effects of agmatine on caffeine-induced locomotor activity both in male and female mice. Adult Swiss Webster mice were used in the study. Locomotor activity was measured for 30min immediately following caffeine (2.5, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.p.) or saline treatments. Agmatine (5, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.p.) were injected 20min before caffeine (2.5 and 5mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In both sexes, agmatine (5-20mg/kg) were also tested for ability to depress or stimulate locomotor activity in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine (5mg/kg) induced a significant increase in locomotor activity of both male and female mice. There was no significant difference in the locomotor-activating effects of caffeine between male and female mice. Agmatine blocked the caffeine (5mg/kg)-induced locomotor stimulation dose dependently in male but not female mice. Agmatine had not any effect on the lower dose (2.5mg/kg) of caffeine in both sexes. These results suggest that agmatine has sex-related inhibitory effects on caffeine-induced locomotor activity in Swiss Webster mice, and male mice are more sensitive than the females to the effect of agmatine.

  9. Mitochondrial outer-membrane protein FUNDC1 mediates hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Feng, Du; Chen, Guo; Chen, Ming; Zheng, Qiaoxia; Song, Pingping; Ma, Qi; Zhu, Chongzhuo; Wang, Rui; Qi, Wanjun; Huang, Lei; Xue, Peng; Li, Baowei; Wang, Xiaohui; Jin, Haijing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhu, Yushan; Sui, Senfang; Chen, Quan

    2012-01-22

    Accumulating evidence has shown that dysfunctional mitochondria can be selectively removed by mitophagy. Dysregulation of mitophagy is implicated in the development of neurodegenerative disease and metabolic disorders. How individual mitochondria are recognized for removal and how this process is regulated remain poorly understood. Here we report that FUNDC1, an integral mitochondrial outer-membrane protein, is a receptor for hypoxia-induced mitophagy. FUNDC1 interacted with LC3 through its typical LC3-binding motif Y(18)xxL(21), and mutation of the LC3-interaction region impaired its interaction with LC3 and the subsequent induction of mitophagy. Knockdown of endogenous FUNDC1 significantly prevented hypoxia-induced mitophagy, which could be reversed by the expression of wild-type FUNDC1, but not LC3-interaction-deficient FUNDC1 mutants. Mechanistic studies further revealed that hypoxia induced dephosphorylation of FUNDC1 and enhanced its interaction with LC3 for selective mitophagy. Our findings thus offer insights into mitochondrial quality control in mammalian cells.

  10. Selective induction of integrin beta1 by hypoxia-inducible factor: implications for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Keely, Simon; Glover, Louise E; MacManus, Christopher F; Campbell, Eric L; Scully, Melanie M; Furuta, Glenn T; Colgan, Sean P

    2009-05-01

    Because of localized vascular damage and increased tissue oxygen demand, wound healing occurs in a relatively hypoxic microenvironment. These features are particularly relevant to wound healing and fibrosis in chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In these studies, we sought to identify the contribution of hypoxia to mechanisms of wound repair in a model of the intestinal submucosa. Initial studies revealed that hypoxia promotes wound healing, as modeled by an increase in intestinal fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. Guided by results from transcriptional profiling, we identified the selective induction of fibroblast integrin beta1 (ITGB1) by hypoxia. Further analysis revealed that hypoxia, as well as pharmacological activators of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), induce fibroblast beta1 integrin mRNA, protein, and function by as much as 4-fold. Cloning and analysis of the beta1 integrin gene promoter revealed a 10 +/- 0.8-fold increase in promoter activity in response to hypoxia, and subsequent studies identified a functional DNA binding region for HIF in the ITGB1 gene promoter. Mutational analysis of the HIF binding site within the ITGB1 promoter resulted in a significant loss of ITGB1 hypoxia-inducibility. As proof of principle, studies in a murine model of colitis revealed a correlation between colitic disease severity and tissue ITGB1 expression (R(2)=0.80). Taken together, these results demonstrate that hypoxia induces fibroblast ITGB1 expression and function by transcriptional mechanisms dependent on HIF.

  11. HIF-1 and NDRG2 contribute to hypoxia-induced radioresistance of cervical cancer Hela cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Junye; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiaowu; Li, Yan; Chen, Yongbin; Li, Kangchu; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Libo; Guo, Guozhen

    2010-07-15

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), the key mediator of hypoxia signaling pathways, has been shown involved in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride could increase the radioresistance of human cervical cancer Hela cells. Meanwhile, ectopic expression of HIF-1 could enhance the resistance of Hela cells to radiation, whereas knocking-down of HIF-1 could increase the sensitivity of Hela cells to radiation in the presence of hypoxia. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a new HIF-1 target gene identified in our lab, was found to be upregulated by hypoxia and radiation in a HIF-1-dependent manner. Overexpression of NDRG2 resulted in decreased sensitivity of Hela cells to radiation while silencing NDRG2 led to radiosensitization. Moreover, NDRG2 was proved to protect Hela cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and abolish radiation-induced upregulation of Bax. Taken together, these data suggest that both HIF-1 and NDRG2 contribute to hypoxia-induced tumor radioresistance and that NDRG2 acts downstream of HIF-1 to promote radioresistance through suppressing radiation-induced Bax expression. It would be meaningful to further explore the clinical application potential of HIF-1 and NDRG2 blockade as radiosensitizer for tumor therapy.

  12. Twist1 Enhances Hypoxia Induced Radioresistance in Cervical Cancer Cells by Promoting Nuclear EGFR Localization

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hua; Nie, Xin; Zou, Yanmei; Gong, Chen; Li, Yang; Wu, Hua; Qiu, Hong; Yang, Lin; Zhuang, Liang; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yihua; Xiong, Huihua

    2017-01-01

    Twist1 is a crucial transcription factor that regulates epithelial mesenchymal transition and involves in metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that Twist1 plays important role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we investigated the change of Twist1 expression in human cervical squamous cancer cell line SiHa after hypoxia treatment. We also explored the role of Twist1 in radioresistance by manipulating the expression level of Twist1. We observed that hypoxia treatment elevated the expression of Twist1 in SiHa cells. Knockdown of Twist1 with siRNA increased the radiosensitivity of SiHa cells under hypoxia condition, accompanied by reduced levels of nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Conversely, overexpression of Twist1 led to increased radioresistance of SiHa cells, which in turn increased nuclear EGFR localization and expression levels of nuclear DNA-PK. Moreover, concomitant high expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and Twist1 in primary tumors of cervical cancer patients correlated with the worse prognosis after irradiation treatment. Taken together, these data provide new insights into molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced radioresistance in cervical cancer cells, and suggest that Twist1 is a promising molecular target to improve the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. PMID:28261334

  13. PKA activity exacerbates hypoxia-induced ROS formation and hypoxic injury in PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Gozal, Evelyne; Metz, Cynthia J; Dematteis, Maurice; Sachleben, Leroy R; Schurr, Avital; Rane, Madhavi J

    2017-09-05

    Hypoxia is a primary factor in many pathological conditions. Hypoxic cell death is commonly attributed to metabolic failure and oxidative injury. cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is activated in hypoxia and regulates multiple enzymes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, thus may be implicated in cellular energy depletion and hypoxia-induced cell death. Wild type (WT) PC-12 cells and PKA activity-deficient 123.7 PC-12 cells were exposed to 3, 6, 12 and 24h hypoxia (0.1% or 5% O2). Hypoxia, at 24h 0.1% O2, induced cell death and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in WT PC-12 cells. Despite lower ATP levels in normoxic 123.7 cells than in WT cells, hypoxia only decreased ATP levels in WT cells. However, menadione-induced oxidative stress similarly affected both cell types. While mitochondrial COX IV expression remained consistently higher in 123.7 cells, hypoxia decreased COX IV expression in both cell types. N-acetyl cysteine antioxidant treatment blocked hypoxia-induced WT cell death without preventing ATP depletion. Transient PKA catα expression in 123.7 cells partially restored hypoxia-induced ROS but did not alter ATP levels or COX IV expression. We conclude that PKA signaling contributes to hypoxic injury, by regulating oxidative stress rather than by depleting ATP levels. Therapeutic strategies targeting PKA signaling may improve cellular adaptation and recovery in hypoxic pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypobaric-hypoxia-induced pulmonary damage in rats ameliorated by antioxidant erdosteine.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ozge; Balbay, Oner; Comunoğlu, Nil Ustündağ; Yavuz, Ozlem; Nihat Annakkaya, Ali; Güler, Selver; Silan, Coşkun; Erbaş, Mete; Arbak, Peri

    2006-01-01

    Free radical-mediated injury to lung and pulmonary vasculature is an important mechanism in hypoxia-induced lung damage. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of erdosteine as an antioxidant agent on hypobaric hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Adult male rats were assigned randomly to three groups. The first group of rats was exposed to hypobaric-hypoxia and the second group was treated with erdosteine (20mg/kg, daily) for 2 weeks, during which time they were in a hypoxic chamber. These groups were compared with normoxic controls. All rats were sacrificed after 2 weeks. The hypoxia-induced increase in right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum weight ratio (from 0.20+/-0.01 to 0.26+/-0.01) was reduced significantly in the erdosteine-treated group (0.23+/-0.01). Malondialdehyde levels were elevated (from 0.33+/-0.11 to 0.59+/-0.02) and total antioxidant status was not changed significantly (from 1.77+/-0.42 to 2.61+/-0.23) by hypoxia. In contrast to the hypoxia-exposed group, malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the erdosteine-treated group (0.37+/-0.02). Total antioxidant status (4.03+/-0.22) was significantly higher in erdosteine-treated rats when compared to non-treated rats. Histopathological examination demonstrated that erdosteine prevented inflammation and protected lung parenchyma and pulmonary endothelium of hypoxia-exposed rats.

  15. Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase (G6PI) Mediates Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Yu, Shan-Shan; Zong, Ming; Fan, Sha-Sha; Lu, Tian-Bao; Gong, Ru-Han; Sun, Li-Shan; Fan, Lie-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The higher level of Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) has been found in both synovial tissue and synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, while the function of G6PI in RA remains unclear. Herein we found the enrichment of G6PI in microvascular endothelial cells of synovial tissue in RA patients, where a 3% O2 hypoxia environment has been identified. In order to determine the correlation between the high G6PI level and the low oxygen concentration in RA, a hypoxia condition (~3% O2) in vitro was applied to mimic the RA environment in vivo. Hypoxia promoted cellular proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs), and induced cell migration and angiogenic tube formation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), which were accompanied with the increased expression of G6PI and HIF-1α. Through application of G6PI loss-of-function assays, we confirmed the requirement of G6PI expression for those hypoxia-induced phenotype in RA. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time that G6PI plays key roles in regulating VEGF secretion from RASFs to regulate the hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in RA. Taken together, we demonstrated a novel pathway regulating hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in RA mediated by G6PI. PMID:28067317

  16. Structure and stability of complexes of agmatine with some functional receptor residues of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Remková, Anna; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2017-04-01

    The paper reports the results of a theoretical study of the conformational behavior and basicity of biogenic amine agmatine. The complexes modelling of agmatine - protein interaction are also under scrutiny of our investigation using the Becke3LYP and B97D levels of the density functional theory. The relative stabilities (Gibbs energies) of individual complexes are by both DFT methods described equally. Hydration has a dramatic effect on the hydrogen bonded complexes studied. The pairing acidic carboxylate group with different agmatine species resulted in charged hydrogen bond complexes containing negatively charged acetate species acting as proton acceptors.

  17. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Kishimoto, Koshi N.; Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Kazuo; Itoi, Eiji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  18. Upstream stimulatory factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) cooperatively activate HIF2 target genes during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pawlus, Matthew R; Wang, Liyi; Ware, Katie; Hu, Cheng-Jun

    2012-11-01

    While the functions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and HIF2α/ARNT (HIF2) proteins in activating hypoxia-inducible genes are well established, the role of other transcription factors in the hypoxic transcriptional response is less clear. We report here for the first time that the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zip transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) is required for the hypoxic transcriptional response, specifically, for hypoxic activation of HIF2 target genes. We show that inhibiting USF2 activity greatly reduces hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes in cell lines that have USF2 activity, while inducing USF2 activity in cells lacking USF2 activity restores hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes. Mechanistically, USF2 activates HIF2 target genes by binding to HIF2 target gene promoters, interacting with HIF2α protein, and recruiting coactivators CBP and p300 to form enhanceosome complexes that contain HIF2α, USF2, CBP, p300, and RNA polymerase II on HIF2 target gene promoters. Functionally, the effect of USF2 knockdown on proliferation, motility, and clonogenic survival of HIF2-dependent tumor cells in vitro is phenocopied by HIF2α knockdown, indicating that USF2 works with HIF2 to activate HIF2 target genes and to drive HIF2-depedent tumorigenesis.

  19. A novel hypoxia-induced miR-147a regulates cell proliferation through a positive feedback loop of stabilizing HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Haoxiang; Xu, Naihan; Huang, Nunu; Tian, Caiming; Ye, Anlin; Hu, Guangnan; He, Jie; Zhang, Yaou

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypoxia is a general event in solid tumor growth. Therefore, induced cellular responses by hypoxia are important for tumorigenesis and tumor growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators of hypoxia induced cellular responses. Here we report that miR-147a is a novel and crucial hypoxia induced miRNA. HIF-1α up-regulates the expression of miR-147a, and miR-147a in turn stabilizes and accumulates HIF-1α protein via directly targeting HIF-3α, a dominant negative regulator of HIF-1α. Subsequent studies in xenograft mouse model reveal that miR-147a is capable of inhibiting tumor growth. Collectively, these data demonstrate a positive feedback loop between HIF-1α, miR-147a and HIF-3α, which provide a new insight into the mechanism of miR-147a induced cell proliferation arrest under hypoxia. PMID:27260617

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,2-dithiol-3-thiones and pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines as novel hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Yong Sup

    2016-06-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor which is strongly associated with tumor survival, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Accordingly, it has been suggested that the inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway can suppress tumor, and it has become an important therapeutic target. In present study, oltipraz, its metabolite M2, and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as HIF-1α inhibitors. Among the synthesized, benzyl-substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine 2g most potently inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation (81% at 10μM) and VEGF, GLUT-1 transcription (77% and 92% at 10μM, respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-talk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor signaling pathways. Demonstration of competition and compensation.

    PubMed

    Chan, W K; Yao, G; Gu, Y Z; Bradfield, C A

    1999-04-23

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the alpha-class hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1alpha, HIF2alpha, and HIF3alpha) are basic helix-loop-helix PAS (bHLH-PAS) proteins that heterodimerize with ARNT. In response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the AHR. ARNT complex binds to "dioxin responsive enhancers" (DREs) and activates genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, e.g. cytochrome P4501A1 (Cyp1a1). The HIF1alpha.ARNT complex binds to "hypoxia responsive enhancers" and activates the transcription of genes that regulate adaptation to low oxygen, e.g. erythropoietin (Epo). We postulated that activation of one pathway would inhibit the other due to competition for ARNT or other limiting cellular factors. Using pathway specific reporters in transient transfection assays, we observed that DRE driven transcription was markedly inhibited by hypoxia and that hypoxia responsive enhancer driven transcription was inhibited by AHR agonists. When we attempted to support this cross-talk model using endogenous loci, we observed that activation of the hypoxia pathway inhibited Cyp1a1 up-regulation, but that activation of the AHR actually enhanced the induction of Epo by hypoxia. To explain this unexpected additivity, we examined the Epo gene and found that its promoter harbors DREs immediately upstream of its transcriptional start site. These experiments outline conditions where inhibitory and additive cross-talk occur between the hypoxia and dioxin signal transduction pathways and identify Epo as an AHR-regulated gene.

  2. Agmatine improves locomotor function and reduces tissue damage following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, C G; Marcillo, A E; Fairbanks, C A; Wilcox, G L; Yezierski, R P

    2000-09-28

    Clinically effective drug treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) remain unavailable. Agmatine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is an endogenous neuromodulator found in the brain and spinal cord. Evidence is presented that agmatine significantly improves locomotor function and reduces tissue damage following traumatic SCI in rats. The results suggest the importance of future therapeutic strategies encompassing the use of single drugs with multiple targets for the treatment of acute SCI. The therapeutic targets of agmatine (NMDA receptor and NOS) have been shown to be critically linked to the pathophysiological sequelae of CNS injury and this, combined with the non-toxic profile, lends support to agmatine being considered as a potential candidate for future clinical applications.

  3. Potential regulation of glioma through the induction of apoptosis signaling via Egl-9 family hypoxia-inducible factor 3

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ke; You, Chao; Lei, Ding; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Glioma is an aggressive form of brain cancer that occurs following the abnormal proliferation of glial cells. Although glioma cannot spread to other organs, the morbidity and mortality rates of the disease are high, even following surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The function of Egl-9 family hypoxia-inducible factor 3 (Egln3) in cancer is controversial, and it is debated as to whether Egln3 positively or negatively regulates tumors. In the present study, a mouse model of low-grade glioma was successfully established. Through the use of immunohistochemical and western blot analyses, it was demonstrated that Egln3 expression in glioma tissue performed an important role in regulation by amplifying the signals for apoptosis, as determined by an increase in DNA fragments. Furthermore, Egln3 expression was inhibited by the administration of dimethyloxalylglycine, and the downregulated expression of Egln3 had marked effects on the regulation of glioma through apoptosis. The present study therefore provides evidence of an association between Egln3 expression and apoptosis in low-grade glioma. PMID:28356975

  4. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-{alpha} in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-06-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBP{beta}. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1{alpha} siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1{alpha} activation, and suggest HIF-1{alpha} for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance.

  5. Induction of WNT11 by hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Yao, Yao; Learman, Brian S.; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Ishida, Joji; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Overmyer, Katherine A.; Xue, Xiang; Cawthorn, William P.; Reid, Michael A.; Taylor, Matthew; Ning, Xiaomin; Shah, Yatrik M.; MacDougald, Ormond A