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Sample records for agonist acetylcholine ach

  1. The regulation of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) after a protracted treatment with selective or nonselective nAChR agonists.

    PubMed

    Auta, J; Longone, P; Guidotti, A; Costa, E

    1999-01-01

    In rats, 1 mg/kg twice daily for 10 d of nicotine, a nonselective agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), fails to change alpha4 and beta2 nAChR subunit mRNA but significantly decreased alpha7 nAChR subunit mRNA and protein expression, which is associated with a 35-40% decrease in the number of 125I-alpha-Bgtx binding sites in hippocampus. In addition, this schedule of nicotine treatment produced a 40% increase in the number of high- (K(D) 1 nM), but decreased by 25% the number of low-affinity (K(D) 30 nM) binding sites for 3H-epibatidine in hippocampus. In contrast, repeated treatment with lobeline (2.7 mg/kg twice daily for 10 d), which selectively binds to high-affinity binding nAChRs, fails to change the expression of high- or low-affinity nAChRs. These data suggest that a simultaneous upregulation of high-affinity nAChRs and downregulation of low-affinity nAChRs is elicited by ligands that can bind to both low- and high-affinity nAChRs, but not by selective agonists of high-affinity nAChRs. One might infer that in hippocampus, high- and low-affinity nAChRs may be located in the same cells. When these two receptor types are stimulated simultaneously by nonselective ligands for high- and low-affinity nAChRs, they interact, bringing about an increase in binding site density of the high-affinity nAChRs.

  2. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol.

  3. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs)

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies. PMID:27304486

  4. Discovery of Highly Potent and Selective α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Partial Agonists Containing an Isoxazolylpyridine Ether Scaffold that Demonstrate Antidepressant-like Activity. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Fang; Eaton, J. Brek; Fedolak, Allison; Zhang, Han-Kun; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Lukas, Ronald J.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    In our continued efforts to develop α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists as novel antidepressants having a unique mechanism of action, structure activity relationship (SAR) exploration of certain isoxazolylpyridine ethers is presented. In particular, modifications to both the azetidine ring present in the starting structure 4 and its metabolically liable hydroxyl side chain substituent have been explored to improve compound druggability. The pharmacological characterization of all new compounds has been carried out using [3H]epibatidine binding studies together with functional assays based on 86Rb+ ion flux measurements. We found that the deletion of the metabolically liable hydroxyl group or its replacement by a fluoromethyl group not only maintained potency and selectivity, but also resulted in compounds showing antidepressant-like properties in the mouse forced swim test. These isoxazolylpyridine ethers appear to represent promising lead candidates in the design of innovative chemical tools containing reporter groups for imaging purposes and of possible therapeutics. PMID:23092294

  5. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly

  6. Kinetic evidence that desensitized nAChR may promote transitions of active nAChR to desensitized states during sustained exposure to agonists in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Manthey, Arthur A

    2006-06-01

    During prolonged exposure of postjunctional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) of skeletal muscle to acetylcholine (ACh), agonist-activated nAChR (nAChRa) gradually fall into a refractory "desensitized" state (nAChRd), which no longer supports the high-conductance channel openings characteristic of the initially active nAChRa. In the present study, the possibility was examined that nAChRd, rather than simply constituting a passive "trap" for nAChRa, may actively promote further conversions of nAChRa to nAChRd in a formally autocatalytic manner. Single-ion whole-cell voltage-clamp currents (Na+ and Li+ in separate trials) were measured using two KCl-filled capillary electrodes (5-10 MOmega) implanted at the postjunctional locus of single frog skeletal muscle fibers (Rana pipiens) equilibrated in 30 mM K+ bath media to eliminate mechanical responses. Various nAChR agonists (carbamylcholine, acetylcholine, suberyldicholine) at different concentrations were delivered focally by positive pressure microjet. It was found that the decline of postmaximal agonist-induced currents under these different conditions (driven by the growth of the subpool of nAChRd) consistently followed an autocatalytic logistic rule modified for population growth of fixed units in a planar array: [Formula: see text] (where y represents the remaining agonist-induced current at time t, A=initial maximum current, and n is a constant). Some further experimental features that might result from a self-promoting growth of nAChRd were also tested, namely, (1) the effect of increased nAChRa and (2) the effect of increased nAChRd. Increase in agonist concentration of the superfusate, by increasing the planar density of active nAChRa at the outset, should enhance the probability of autocatalytic interactions with emerging nAChRd, hence, the rate of decline of agonist-induced current, and this was a consistent finding under all conditions tested. Raising the initial level of desensitized nAChRd by

  7. Procaine rapidly inactivates acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo and competes with agonist for inhibition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.; Miller, K.W. )

    1989-02-21

    The relationship between the high-affinity procaine channel inhibition site and the agonist self-inhibition site on acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from Torpedo electroplaque was investigated by using rapid {sup 86}Rb{sup +} quenched-flux assays at 4 {degree}C in native AChR-rich vesicles on which 50-60% of ACh activation sites were blocked with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX). In the presence of channel-activating acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations alone, AChR undergoes one phase of inactivation in under a second. Addition of procaine produces two-phase inactivation similar to that seen with self-inhibiting ACh concentrations rapid inactivation complete in 30-75 ms is followed by fast desensitization at the same k{sub d} observed without procaine. The dependence of k{sub r} on (procaine) is consistent with a bimolecular association between procaine and its AChR site. Inhibition of AChR function by mixtures of procaine plus self-inhibiting concentrations of ACh or suberyldicholine was studied by reducing the level of {alpha}-BTX block in vesicles. The data support a mechanism where procaine binds preferentially to the open-channel AChR state, since no procaine-induced inactivation is observed without agonist and k{sub r}'s dependence on (ACh) in channel-activating range closely parallels that of {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux response to ACh.

  8. Benzodiazepine Site Agonists Differentially Alter Acetylcholine Release in Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Viviane S.; Mitchell, Melinda F.; Firn, Kelsie A.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background Agonist binding at the benzodiazepine site of γ-aminobutric acid type A receptors diminishes anxiety and insomnia by actions in the amygdala. The neurochemical effects of benzodiazepine-site agonists remain incompletely understood. Cholinergic neurotransmission modulates amygdala function, and in this study we tested the hypothesis that benzodiazepine-site agonists alter acetylcholine (ACh) release in the amygdala. Methods Microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography quantified ACh release in the amygdala of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=33). ACh was measured before and after IV administration (3 mg/kg) of midazolam or eszopiclone, with and without anesthesia. ACh in isoflurane-anesthetized rats during dialysis with Ringer’s solution(control) was compared to ACh release during dialysis with Ringer’s solution containing (100 μM) midazolam, diazepam, eszopiclone, or zolpidem. Results In unanesthetized rats, ACh in the amygdala was decreased by IV midazolam (−51.1%; P=0.0029; 95% CI= −73.0% to −29.2%) and eszopiclone (−39.6%; P=0.0222; 95% CI= −69.8% to −9.3%). In anesthetized rats, ACh in the amygdala was decreased by IV administration of midazolam (−46.2%; P=0.0041; 95% CI= −67.9% to −24.5%) and eszopiclone (−34.0%; P=0.0009; 95% CI= −44.7% to −23.3%), and increased by amygdala delivery of diazepam (43.2%; P=0.0434; 95% CI= 2.1% to 84.3%), and eszopiclone (222.2%; P=0.0159; 95% CI= 68.5% to 375.8%). Conclusions ACh release in the amygdala was decreased by IV delivery of midazolam and eszopiclone. Dialysis delivery directly into the amygdala caused either increased (eszopiclone and diazepam) or likely no significant change (midazolam and zolpidem) in ACh release. These contrasting effects of delivery route on ACh release support the interpretation that systemically administered midazolam and eszopiclone decrease ACh release in the amygdala by acting on neuronal systems outside of the amygdala. PMID:24842176

  9. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  10. Atomic interactions of neonicotinoid agonists with AChBP: Molecular recognition of the distinctive electronegative pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Talley, Todd T.; Harel, Michal; Hibbs, Ryan E.; Radi, Zoran; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E.; Taylor, Palmer

    2008-07-28

    Acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) from mollusks are suitable structural and functional surrogates of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when combined with transmembrane spans of the nicotinic receptor. These proteins assemble as a pentamer with identical ACh binding sites at the subunit interfaces and show ligand specificities resembling those of the nicotinic receptor for agonists and antagonists. A subset of ligands, termed the neonicotinoids, exhibit specificity for insect nicotinic receptors and selective toxicity as insecticides. AChBPs are of neither mammalian nor insect origin and exhibit a distinctive pattern of selectivity for the neonicotinoid ligands. We define here the binding orientation and determinants of differential molecular recognition for the neonicotinoids and classical nicotinoids by estimates of kinetic and equilibrium binding parameters and crystallographic analysis. Neonicotinoid complex formation is rapid and accompanied by quenching of the AChBP tryptophan fluorescence. Comparisons of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiacloprid in the binding site from Aplysia californica AChBP at 2.48 and 1.94 {angstrom} in resolution reveal a single conformation of the bound ligands with four of the five sites occupied in the pentameric crystal structure. The neonicotinoid electronegative pharmacophore is nestled in an inverted direction compared with the nicotinoid cationic functionality at the subunit interfacial binding pocket. Characteristic of several agonists, loop C largely envelops the ligand, positioning aromatic side chains to interact optimally with conjugated and hydrophobic regions of the neonicotinoid. This template defines the association of interacting amino acids and their energetic contributions to the distinctive interactions of neonicotinoids.

  11. Photolabeling a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) with an (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR-Selective Positive Allosteric Modulator.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Deba, Farah; Wang, Ze-Jun; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2016-05-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) have potential clinical applications in the treatment of nicotine dependence and many neuropsychiatric conditions associated with decreased brain cholinergic activity, and 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrazol-4-yl)isoxazole (CMPI) has been identified as a PAM selective for neuronal nAChRs containing theα4 subunit. In this report, we compare CMPI interactions with low-sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 and high-sensitivity (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs, and with muscle-type nAChRs. In addition, we use the intrinsic reactivity of [(3)H]CMPI upon photolysis at 312 nm to identify its binding sites inTorpedonAChRs. Recording fromXenopusoocytes, we found that CMPI potentiated maximally the responses of (α4)3(β2)2nAChR to 10μM ACh (EC10) by 400% and with anEC50of ∼1µM. CMPI produced a left shift of the ACh concentration-response curve without altering ACh efficacy. In contrast, CMPI inhibited (∼35% at 10µM) ACh responses of (α4)2(β2)3nAChRs and fully inhibited human muscle andTorpedonAChRs with IC50values of ∼0.5µM. Upon irradiation at 312 nm, [(3)H]CMPI photoincorporated into eachTorpedo[(α1)2β1γδ] nAChR subunit. Sequencing of peptide fragments isolated from [(3)H]CMPI-photolabeled nAChR subunits established photolabeling of amino acids contributing to the ACh binding sites (αTyr(190),αTyr(198),γTrp(55),γTyr(111),γTyr(117),δTrp(57)) that was fully inhibitable by agonist and lower-efficiency, state-dependent [(3)H]CMPI photolabeling within the ion channel. Our results establish that CMPI is a potent potentiator of nAChRs containing anα4:α4 subunit interface, and that its intrinsic photoreactivy makes it of potential use to identify its binding sites in the (α4)3(β2)2nAChR. PMID:26976945

  12. Muscarinic and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carrie K; Byun, Nellie; Bubser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) are emerging as important targets for the development of novel treatments for the symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Preclinical and early proof-of-concept clinical studies have provided strong evidence that activators of specific mAChR (M1 and M4) and nAChR (α7 and α2β4) subtypes are effective in animal models of antipsychotic-like activity and/or cognitive enhancement, and in the treatment of positive and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. While early attempts to develop selective mAChR and nAChR agonists provided important preliminary findings, these compounds have ultimately failed in clinical development due to a lack of true subtype selectivity and subsequent dose-limiting adverse effects. In recent years, there have been major advances in the discovery of highly selective activators for the different mAChR and nAChR subtypes with suitable properties for optimization as potential candidates for clinical trials. One novel strategy has been to identify ligands that activate a specific receptor subtype through actions at sites that are distinct from the highly conserved ACh-binding site, termed allosteric sites. These allosteric activators, both allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators, of mAChR and nAChR subtypes demonstrate unique mechanisms of action and high selectivity in vivo, and may provide innovative treatment strategies for schizophrenia. PMID:21956443

  13. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets.

  14. Selective activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7) inhibits muscular degeneration in mdx dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Paulo Emílio Correa; Gandía, Luís; de Pascual, Ricardo; Nanclares, Carmen; Colmena, Inés; Santos, Wilson C; Lagrota-Candido, Jussara; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2014-07-21

    Amount evidence indicates that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7) activation reduces production of inflammatory mediators. This work aimed to verify the influence of endogenous nAChRα7 activation on the regulation of full-blown muscular inflammation in mdx mouse with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We used mdx mice with 3 weeks-old at the height myonecrosis, and C57 nAChRα7(+/+) wild-type and nAChRα7(-/-) knockout mice with muscular injury induced with 60µL 0.5% bupivacaine (bp) in the gastrocnemius muscle. Pharmacological treatment included selective nAChRα7 agonist PNU282987 (0.3mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg) and the antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA at 1.0mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally for 7 days. Selective nAChRα7 activation of mdx mice with PNU282987 reduced circulating levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a marker of cell death by necrosis) and the area of perivascular inflammatory infiltrate, and production of inflammatory mediators TNFα and metalloprotease MMP-9 activity. Conversely, PNU282987 treatment increased MMP-2 activity, an indication of muscular tissue remodeling associated with regeneration, in both mdx mice and WTα7 mice with bp-induced muscular lesion. Treatment with PNU282987 had no effect on α7KO, and MLA abolished the nAChRα7 agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect in both mdx and WT. In conclusion, nAChRα7 activation inhibits muscular inflammation and activates tissue remodeling by increasing muscular regeneration. These effects were not accompanied with fibrosis and/or deposition of non-functional collagen. The nAChRα7 activation may be considered as a potential target for pharmacological strategies to reduce inflammation and activate mechanisms of muscular regeneration. PMID:24833065

  15. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for pain control.

    PubMed

    Decker, M W; Meyer, M D; Sullivan, J P

    2001-10-01

    Due to the limitations of currently available analgesics, a number of novel alternatives are currently under investigation, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists. During the 1990s, the discovery of the antinociceptive properties of the potent nAChR agonist epibatidine in rodents sparked interest in the analgesic potential of this class of compounds. Although epibatidine also has several mechanism-related toxicities, the identification of considerable nAChR diversity suggested that the toxicities and therapeutic actions of the compound might be mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. Consistent with this view, a number of novel nAChR agonists with antinociceptive activity and improved safety profiles in preclinical models have now been identified, including A-85380, ABT-594, DBO-83, SIB-1663 and RJR-2403. Of these, ABT-594 is the most advanced and is currently in Phase II clinical evaluation. Nicotinically-mediated antinociception has been demonstrated in a variety of rodent pain models and is likely mediated by the activation of descending inhibitory pathways originating in the brainstem with the predominant high-affinity nicotine site in brain, the alpha4beta2 subtype, playing a critical role. Thus, preclinical findings suggest that nAChR agonists have the potential to be highly efficacious treatments in a variety of pain states. However, clinical proof-of-principle studies will be required to determine if nAChR agonists are active in pathological pain.

  16. 86Rb+ Efflux Mediated by α4β2*-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors with High and Low Sensitivity to Stimulation by Acetylcholine Display Similar Agonist-Induced Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael J.; Meinerz, Natalie M.; Brown, Robert W. B.; Collins, Allan C.

    2010-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) assembled from α4 and β2 subunits are the most densely expressed subtype in the brain. Concentration-effect curves for agonist activation of α4β2*-nAChR are biphasic. This biphasic agonist sensitivity is ascribed to differences in subunit stoichiometry. The studies described here evaluated desensitization elicited by low concentrations of epibatidine, nicotine, cytisine or methylcarbachol of brain α4β2-nAChR function measured with acetylcholine stimulated 86Rb+ efflux from mouse thalamic synaptosomes. Each agonist elicited concentration-dependent desensitization. The agonists differed in potency. However, IC50 values for each agonist for desensitization of 86Rb+ efflux both with high (EC50≈3 μM) and low (EC50≈ 150 μM) acetylcholine sensitivity were not significantly different. Concentrations required to elicit desensitization were higher that their respective KD values for receptor binding. Even though the two components of α4β2*-nAChR mediated 86Rb+ efflux from mouse brain differ markedly in EC50 values for agonist activation, they are equally sensitive to desensitization by exposure to low agonist concentrations. Mice were also chronically treated with nicotine by continuous infusion of 0, 0.5 or 4.0 mg/kg/hr and desensitization induced by nicotine was evaluated. Consistent with previous results, chronic nicotine treatment increased the density of epibatidine binding sites. Acute exposure to nicotine also elicited concentration-dependent desensitization of both high sensitivity and low sensitivity acetylcholine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux from cortical and thalamic synaptosomes. Although chronic nicotine treatment reduced maximal 86Rb+ efflux from thalamus, IC50 values in both brain regions were unaffected by chronic nicotine treatment. PMID:20599770

  17. Effect of α₇ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Lima, Flavia G; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline.

  18. Molecular modeling of human pentameric alpha(7) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and its interaction with its agonist and competitive antagonist.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Marimuthu; Rajasekaran, Mohan Babu; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Shanmughavel, Piramanayagam

    2009-04-01

    The nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) is the major class of neurotransmitter receptors that is involved in many neurodegenerative conditions such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The N-terminal region or Ligand Binding Domain (LBD) of nAChR is located at pre- and post-synaptic nervous system, which mediates synaptic transmission. nAChR acts as the drug target for agonist and competitive antagonist molecules that modulate signal transmission at the nerve terminals. Based on Acetylcholine Binding Protein (AChBP) from Lymnea stagnalis as the structural template, the homology modeling approach was carried out to build three dimensional model of the N-terminal region of human alpha(7)nAChR. This theoretical model is an assembly of five alpha(7) subunits with 5 fold axis symmetry, constituting a channel, with the binding pocket present at the interface region of the subunits. alpha-neurotoxin is a potent nAChR competitive antagonist that readily blocks the channel resulting in paralysis. The molecular interaction of alpha-Bungarotoxin, a long chain alpha-neurotoxin from (Bungarus multicinctus) and human alpha(7)nAChR was studied. Agonists such as acetylcholine, nicotine, which are used in a diverse array of biological activities, such as enhancements of cognitive performances, were also docked with the theoretical model of human alpha(7)nAChR. These docked complexes were analyzed further for identifying the crucial residues involved in interaction. These results provide the details of interaction of agonists and competitive antagonists with three dimensional model of the N-terminal region of human alpha(7)nAChR and thereby point to the design of novel lead compounds.

  19. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation (Y151S) causes reduced agonist potency to a range of neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zewen; Williamson, Martin S; Lansdell, Stuart J; Han, Zhaojun; Denholm, Ian; Millar, Neil S

    2006-11-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are potent selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Since their introduction in 1991, resistance to neonicotinoids has been slow to develop, but it is now established in some insect field populations such as the planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a major rice pest in many parts of Asia. We have reported recently the identification of a target-site mutation (Y151S) within two nAChR subunits (Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha3) from a laboratory-selected field population of N. lugens. In the present study, we have examined the influence of this mutation upon the functional properties of recombinant nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes (as hybrid nAChRs, co-expressed with a rat beta2 subunit). The agonist potency of several nicotinic agonists has been examined, including all of the neonicotinoid insecticides that are currently licensed for either crop protection or animal health applications (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam). The Y151S mutation was found to have no significant effect on the maximal current (I(max)) observed with the endogenous agonist, acetylcholine. In contrast, a significant reduction in I(max) was observed for all neonicotinoids (the I(max) for mutant nAChRs ranged from 13 to 81% of that observed on wild-type receptors). In addition, nAChRs containing the Y151S mutation caused a significant rightward shift in agonist dose-response curves for all neonicotinoids, but of varying magnitude (shifts in EC(50) values ranged from 1.3 to 3.6-fold). The relationship between neonicotinoid structure and their potency on nAChRs containing the Y151S target-site mutation is discussed.

  20. Mapping of the acetylcholine binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: ( sup 3 H)nicotine as an agonist photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, R.E.; Cohen, J.B. )

    1991-07-16

    The agonist ({sup 3}H)nicotine was used as a photoaffinity label for the acetylcholine binding sties on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). ({sup 3}H)Nicotine binds at equilibrium with K{sub eq} = 0.6 {mu}M to the agonist binding sites. Irradiation with 254-nm light of AChR-rich membranes equilibrated with ({sup 3}H)nicotine resulted in covalent incorporation into the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits, which was inhibited by agonists and competitive antagonists but not by noncompetitive antagonists. Inhibition of labeling by d-tubocurarine demonstrated that the {alpha}-subunit was labeled via both agonist sites but the {gamma}-subunit was labeled only via the site that binds d-tubocurarine with high affinity. Chymotryptic digestion of the {alpha}-subunit confirmed that Try-198 was the principal amino acid labeled by ({sup 3}H)nicotine. This confirmation required a novel radiosequencing strategy employing o-phthalaldehyde ({sup 3}H)Nicotine, which is the first photoaffinity agonist used, labels primarily Tyr-198 in contrast to competitive antagonist affinity labels, which label primarily Tyr-190 and Cys-192/Cys-193.

  1. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on cognition in rhesus monkeys with a chronic cocaine self-administration history.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Garg, Pradeep K; Garg, Sudha; Nader, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine use is associated with impaired cognitive function, which may negatively impact treatment outcomes. One pharmacological strategy to improve cognition involves nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. However, the effects of chronic cocaine exposure on nAChR distribution and function have not been characterized. Thus, one goal of this study was to examine nAChR availability in rhesus monkeys with an extensive cocaine self-administration history (n = 4; ~6 years, mean intake, 1463 mg/kg) compared to age-matched cocaine-naive control monkeys (n = 5). Using [¹¹C]-nicotine and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, cocaine-experienced monkeys showed significantly higher receptor availability in the hippocampus compared to cocaine-naive monkeys. A second goal was to examine the effects of nAChR agonists on multiple domains of cognitive performance in these same monkeys. For these studies, working memory was assessed using a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task, associative learning and behavioral flexibility using stimulus discrimination and reversal learning tasks. When administered acutely, the nonselective high-efficacy agonist nicotine, the low-efficacy α4β2* subtype-selective agonist varenicline and the high-efficacy α7 subtype-selective agonist, PNU-282987 significantly improved DMS performance in both cocaine-naive and cocaine-experienced monkeys. Individual doses of nicotine and varenicline that engendered maximum cognitive enhancing effects on working memory did not affect discrimination or reversal learning, while PNU-282987 disrupted reversal learning in the cocaine-naive monkeys. These findings indicate that a cocaine self-administration history influenced nAChR distribution and the effects of nAChR agonists on cognitive performance, including a reduced sensitivity to the disrupting effects on reversal learning. The cognitive enhancing effects of nAChR agonists may be beneficial in combination with behavioral treatments for

  2. Activation of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR) reverses referred mechanical hyperalgesia induced by colonic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Robson; Motta, Emerson M; Manjavachi, Marianne N; Cola, Maíra; Calixto, João B

    2012-10-01

    In the current study, we investigated the effect of the activation of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR) on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and referred mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. Colitis was induced in CD1 male mice through the intake of 4% DSS in tap water for 7 days. Control mice received unadulterated water. Referred mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated for 7 days after the beginning of 4% DSS intake. Referred mechanical hyperalgesia started within 1 day after beginning DSS drinking, peaked at 3 days and persisted for 7 days. This time course profile perfectly matched with the appearance of signs of colitis. Both acute and chronic oral treatments with nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) were effective in inhibiting the established referred mechanical hyperalgesia. The antinociceptive effect of nicotine was completely abrogated by cotreatment with the selective α7 nAchR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) (1.0 mg/kg). Consistent with these results, i.p. treatment with the selective α7 nAchR agonist PNU 282987 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) reduced referred mechanical hyperalgesia at all periods of evaluation. Despite their antinociceptive effects, nicotinic agonists did not affect DSS-induced colonic damage or inflammation. Taken together, the data generated in the present study show the potential relevance of using α7 nAchR agonists to treat referred pain and discomfort associated with inflammatory bowel diseases.

  3. Functional Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Generated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Tommy S; Alvarez, Frances J D; Reinert, Nathan J; Liu, Chuang; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Kunhong; Zhang, Peijun; Tang, Pei

    2016-08-26

    Human Cys-loop receptors are important therapeutic targets. High-resolution structures are essential for rational drug design, but only a few are available due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of protein suitable for structural studies. Although expression of proteins in E. coli offers advantages of high yield, low cost, and fast turnover, this approach has not been thoroughly explored for full-length human Cys-loop receptors because of the conventional wisdom that E. coli lacks the specific chaperones and post-translational modifications potentially required for expression of human Cys-loop receptors. Here we report the successful production of full-length wild type human α7nAChR from E. coli Chemically induced chaperones promote high expression levels of well-folded proteins. The choice of detergents, lipids, and ligands during purification determines the final protein quality. The purified α7nAChR not only forms pentamers as imaged by negative-stain electron microscopy, but also retains pharmacological characteristics of native α7nAChR, including binding to bungarotoxin and positive allosteric modulators specific to α7nAChR. Moreover, the purified α7nAChR injected into Xenopus oocytes can be activated by acetylcholine, choline, and nicotine, inhibited by the channel blockers QX-222 and phencyclidine, and potentiated by the α7nAChR specific modulators PNU-120596 and TQS. The successful generation of functional human α7nAChR from E. coli opens a new avenue for producing mammalian Cys-loop receptors to facilitate structure-based rational drug design. PMID:27385587

  4. Effects of a7nAChR agonist on the tissue estrogen receptor expression of castrated rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Gong, Fan; Lv, Jinhan; Gao, Jun; Ma, Jingzu

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one common disease in postmenopausal women due to depressed estrogen level. It has been known that inflammatory factors are involved in osteoporosis pathogenesis. One regulator of inflammatory cascade reaction, a7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR), therefore, may exert certain role in osteoporosis. This study thus investigated this question on an osteoporosis rat model after castration. Rats were firstly castrated to induce osteoporosis, and then received a7nAChR agonist (PNU-282987), diethylstilbestrol or saline via intraperitoneal injection. After 6 or 12 weeks, bone samples were collected for counting osteoblast number, bone density and estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) expression, in addition to the serum laboratory of inflammatory factors. Bone density, osteoclast number, ERα and ERβ expression level were significantly depressed in model group, and were remarkable potentiated in the drug treatment group (P<0.05). The levels of BGP and PTH in drug treatment group were decreased compared to diethylstilbestrol group, while E2 and IGF-1 showed up-regulation. Agonist of a7nAChR can up-regulate estrogen receptor expression and may prevent the occurrence and development of osteoporosis. PMID:26722551

  5. Insight into the Binding Mode of Agonists of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor from Calculated Electron Densities

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Michael E; Gutbrod, Oliver; Matthiesen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are among the most prominent and most economically important insecticide targets. Thus, an understanding of the modes of binding of respective agonists is important for the design of specific compounds with favorable vertebrate profiles. In the case of nAChRs, the lack of available high-resolution X-ray structures leaves theoretical considerations as the only viable option. Starting from classical homology and docking approaches, binding mode hypotheses are created for five agonists of the nAChR, covering insecticides in the main group 4 of the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) mode of action (MoA) classification, namely, neonicotinoids, nicotine, sulfoxaflor, and butenolides. To better understand these binding modes, the topologies of calculated electron densities of small-model systems are analyzed in the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The theoretically obtained modes of binding are very much in line with the biology-driven IRAC MoA classification of the investigated ligands. PMID:26175091

  6. Phosphocholine – an agonist of metabotropic but not of ionotropic functions of α9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Richter, K.; Mathes, V.; Fronius, M.; Althaus, M.; Hecker, A.; Krasteva-Christ, G.; Padberg, W.; Hone, A. J.; McIntosh, J. M.; Zakrzewicz, A.; Grau, V.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that phosphocholine and phosphocholine-modified macromolecules efficiently inhibit ATP-dependent release of interleukin-1β from human and murine monocytes by a mechanism involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Interleukin-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity that plays pivotal roles in host defence. Control of interleukin-1β release is vital as excessively high systemic levels cause life threatening inflammatory diseases. In spite of its structural similarity to acetylcholine, there are no other reports on interactions of phosphocholine with nAChR. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphocholine inhibits ion-channel function of ATP receptor P2X7 in monocytic cells via nAChR containing α9 and α10 subunits. In stark contrast to choline, phosphocholine does not evoke ion current responses in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which heterologously express functional homomeric nAChR composed of α9 subunits or heteromeric receptors containing α9 and α10 subunits. Preincubation of these oocytes with phosphocholine, however, attenuated choline-induced ion current changes, suggesting that phosphocholine may act as a silent agonist. We conclude that phophocholine activates immuno-modulatory nAChR expressed by monocytes but does not stimulate canonical ionotropic receptor functions. PMID:27349288

  7. Phosphocholine - an agonist of metabotropic but not of ionotropic functions of α9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Richter, K; Mathes, V; Fronius, M; Althaus, M; Hecker, A; Krasteva-Christ, G; Padberg, W; Hone, A J; McIntosh, J M; Zakrzewicz, A; Grau, V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that phosphocholine and phosphocholine-modified macromolecules efficiently inhibit ATP-dependent release of interleukin-1β from human and murine monocytes by a mechanism involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Interleukin-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity that plays pivotal roles in host defence. Control of interleukin-1β release is vital as excessively high systemic levels cause life threatening inflammatory diseases. In spite of its structural similarity to acetylcholine, there are no other reports on interactions of phosphocholine with nAChR. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphocholine inhibits ion-channel function of ATP receptor P2X7 in monocytic cells via nAChR containing α9 and α10 subunits. In stark contrast to choline, phosphocholine does not evoke ion current responses in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which heterologously express functional homomeric nAChR composed of α9 subunits or heteromeric receptors containing α9 and α10 subunits. Preincubation of these oocytes with phosphocholine, however, attenuated choline-induced ion current changes, suggesting that phosphocholine may act as a silent agonist. We conclude that phophocholine activates immuno-modulatory nAChR expressed by monocytes but does not stimulate canonical ionotropic receptor functions. PMID:27349288

  8. Virtual screening studies of Chinese medicine Coptidis Rhizoma as alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li; Xu, Youdong; Zhang, Yan; Meng, Xianli; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. Extensive in vitro and in vivo experiments have proved that the decreased activity of the cholinergic neuron is responsible for the memory and cognition deterioration. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is proposed to a drug target of AD, and compounds which acting as α7-nAChR agonists are considered as candidates in AD treatment. Chinese medicine CoptidisRhizoma and its compounds are reported in various anti-AD effects. In this study, virtual screening, docking approaches and hydrogen bond analyses were applied to screen potential α7-nAChR agonists from CoptidisRhizome. The 3D structure of the protein was obtained from PDB database. 87 reported compounds were included in this research and their structures were accessed by NCBI Pubchem. Docking analysis of the compounds was performed using AutoDock 4.2 and AutoDock Vina. The images of the binding modes hydrogen bonds and the hydrophobic interaction were rendered with PyMOL1.5.0.4. and LigPlot+ respectively. Finally, N-tran-feruloyltyramine, isolariciresinol, flavanone, secoisolariciresinol, (+)-lariciresinol and dihydrochalcone, exhibited the lowest docking energy of protein-ligand complex. The results indicate these 6 compounds are potential α7 nAChR agonists, and expected to be effective in AD treatment.

  9. Effect of α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Kevin D.; Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R.

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  10. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and PAMs as adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Monica M; Björkholm, Carl; Malmerfelt, Anna; Möller, Annie; Påhlsson, Ninni; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Feltmann, Kristin; Jardemark, Kent; Schilström, Björn; Svensson, Torgny H

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine has been found to improve cognition and reduce negative symptoms in schizophrenia and a genetic and pathophysiological link between the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and schizophrenia has been demonstrated. Therefore, there has been a large interest in developing drugs affecting the α7 nAChRs for schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated, in rats, the effects of a selective α7 agonist (PNU282987) and a α7 positive allosteric modulator (PAM; NS1738) alone and in combination with the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone for their utility as adjunct treatment in schizophrenia. Moreover we also investigated their utility as adjunct treatment in depression in combination with the SSRI citalopram. We found that NS1738 and to some extent also PNU282987, potentiated a subeffective dose of risperidone in the conditioned avoidance response test. Both drugs also potentiated the effect of a sub-effective concentration of risperidone on NMDA-induced currents in pyramidal cells of the medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, NS1738 and PNU282987 enhanced recognition memory in the novel object recognition test, when given separately. Both drugs also potentiated accumbal but not prefrontal risperidone-induced dopamine release. Finally, PNU282987 reduced immobility in the forced swim test, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. Taken together, our data support the utility of drugs targeting the α7 nAChRs, perhaps especially α7 PAMs, to potentiate the effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Moreover, our data suggest that α7 agonists and PAMs can be used to ameliorate cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia and depression. PMID:27474687

  11. 6-Bromohypaphorine from Marine Nudibranch Mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an Agonist of Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shelukhina, Irina V.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Spirova, Ekaterina N.; Guzii, Alla G.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2015-01-01

    6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP) has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains) or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM), but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM). To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes. PMID:25775422

  12. Agonist actions of clothianidin on synaptic and extrasynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on cockroach sixth abdominal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Thany, Steeve H

    2009-11-01

    Clothianidin is new neonicotinoid insecticide acting selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Its effects on nAChRs expressed on cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses and DUM neurons have been studied using mannitol-gap and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Bath-application of clothianidin-induced dose-dependent depolarizations of cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses which were not reversed after wash-out suggesting a strong desensitization of postsynaptic interneurons at the 6th abdominal ganglion (A6). Clothinidin activity on the nerve preparation was characterized by an increased firing rate of action potentials which then ceased when the depolarization reached a peak. Clothianidin responses were insensitive to all muscarinic antagonists tested but were blocked by co-application of specific nicotinic antagonists methyllicaconitine, alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine. In a second round of experiment, clothianidin actions were tested on DUM neurons isolated from the A6. There was a strong desensitization of nAChRs which was not affected by muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine and atropine, but was reduced with nicotinic antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. In addition, clothianidin-induced currents were completely blocked by methyllicaconitine suggesting that (1) clothianidin acted as a specific agonist of nAChR subtypes and (2) a small proportion of receptors blocked by MLA was insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, because clothianidin currents were blocked by d-tubocurarine and mecamylamine, we provided that clothianidin was an agonist of both nAChRs: imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and -insensitive nAChR2 subtypes. PMID:19583978

  13. 6-bromohypaphorine from marine nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an agonist of human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kasheverov, Igor E; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Guzii, Alla G; Stonik, Valentin A; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2015-03-01

    6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP) has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains) or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM), but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM). To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes. PMID:25775422

  14. Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChR located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The...

  15. nAChR agonist-induced cognition enhancement: integration of cognitive and neuronal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Martin; Parikh, Vinay; Howe, William M

    2009-10-01

    The identification and characterization of drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders has been hampered by the absence of comprehensive hypotheses. Such hypotheses consist of (a) a precisely defined cognitive operation that fundamentally underlies a range of cognitive abilities and capacities and, if impaired, contributes to the manifestation of diverse cognitive symptoms; (b) defined neuronal mechanisms proposed to mediate the cognitive operation of interest; (c) evidence indicating that the putative cognition enhancer facilitates these neuronal mechanisms; (d) and evidence indicating that the cognition enhancer facilitates cognitive performance by modulating these underlying neuronal mechanisms. The evidence on the neuronal and attentional effects of nAChR agonists, specifically agonists selective for alpha4beta2* nAChRs, has begun to support such a hypothesis. nAChR agonists facilitate the detection of signals by augmenting the transient increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity that are necessary for a signal to gain control over behavior in attentional contexts. The prefrontal microcircuitry mediating these effects include alpha4beta2* nAChRs situated on the terminals of thalamic inputs and the glutamatergic stimulation of cholinergic terminals via ionotropic glutamate receptors. Collectively, this evidence forms the basis for hypothesis-guided development and characterization of cognition enhancers.

  16. Agonists with supraphysiological efficacy at the muscarinic M2 ACh receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schrage, R; Seemann, WK; Klöckner, J; Dallanoce, C; Racké, K; Kostenis, E; De Amici, M; Holzgrabe, U; Mohr, K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Artificial agonists may have higher efficacy for receptor activation than the physiological agonist. Until now, such ‘superagonism’ has rarely been reported for GPCRs. Iperoxo is an extremely potent muscarinic receptor agonist. We hypothesized that iperoxo is a ‘superagonist’. Experimental Approach Signalling of iperoxo and newly synthesized structural analogues was compared with that of ACh at label-free M2 muscarinic receptors applying whole cell dynamic mass redistribution, measurement of G-protein activation, evaluation of cell surface agonist binding and computation of operational efficacies. Key Results In CHO-hM2 cells, iperoxo significantly exceeds ACh in Gi/Gs signalling competence. In the orthosteric loss-of-function mutant M2-Y1043.33A, the maximum effect of iperoxo is hardly compromised in contrast to ACh. ‘Superagonism’ is preserved in the physiological cellular context of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts. Structure–signalling relationships including iperoxo derivatives with either modified positively charged head group or altered tail suggest that ‘superagonism’ of iperoxo is mechanistically based on parallel activation of the receptor protein via two orthosteric interaction points. Conclusion and Implications Supraphysiological agonist efficacy at muscarinic M2 ACh receptors is demonstrated for the first time. In addition, a possible underlying molecular mechanism of GPCR ‘superagonism’ is provided. We suggest that iperoxo-like orthosteric GPCR activation is a new avenue towards a novel class of receptor activators. Linked Article This article is commented on by Langmead and Christopoulos, pp. 353–356 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12142 PMID:23062057

  17. Quinuclidine compounds differently act as agonists of Kenyon cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induced distinct effect on insect ganglionic depolarizations.

    PubMed

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Swale, Daniel; Leray, Xavier; Benzidane, Yassine; Lebreton, Jacques; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a new quinuclidine benzamide compound named LMA10203 acted as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Its specific pharmacological profile on cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM) helped to identify alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2 receptors. In the present study, we tested its effect on cockroach Kenyon cells. We found that it induced an inward current demonstrating that it bounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on Kenyon cells. Interestingly, LMA10203-induced currents were completely blocked by the nicotinic antagonist α-bungarotoxin. We suggested that LMA10203 effect occurred through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors and did not involve α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2, previously identified in DUM neurons. In addition, we have synthesized two new compounds, LMA10210 and LMA10211, and compared their effects on Kenyon cells. These compounds were members of the 3-quinuclidinyl benzamide or benzoate families. Interestingly, 1 mM LMA10210 was not able to induce an inward current on Kenyon cells compared to LMA10211. Similarly, we did not find any significant effect of LMA10210 on cockroach ganglionic depolarization, whereas these three compounds were able to induce an effect on the central nervous system of the third instar M. domestica larvae. Our data suggested that these three compounds could bind to distinct cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:23884575

  18. Differential effects of subtype-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on early and late hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja S; Rast, Georg; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2011-12-01

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety. Currently, approaches selectively targeting the activation of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are in clinical development for treatment of memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease patients. These are α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which are believed to enhance cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In order to gain a better insight into the mechanistic role of these two nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in learning and memory, we investigated the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist TC-1827 and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular experimental model of memory formation. Generally, LTP is distinguished in an early and a late form, the former being protein-synthesis independent and the latter being protein-synthesis dependent. TC-1827 was found to increase early LTP in a bell-shaped dose dependent manner, but did not affect late LTP. In contrast, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 showed enhancing effects on both early and late LTP in a bell-shaped manner. Furthermore, SSR180711 not only increased early LTP, but also transformed it into late LTP, which was not observed with the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Therefore, based on these findings α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (partial) agonists appear to exhibit stronger efficacy on memory improvement than α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. PMID:21968142

  19. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: pharmacophores, evolutionary QSAR and 3D-QSAR models.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Orazio; Altomare, Cosimo; Pellegrini-Calace, Marialuisa; Carotti, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine ion channel receptors (nAChRs) exist as several subtypes and are involved in a variety of functions and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The lack of reliable information on the 3D structure of nAChRs prompted us to focus efforts on pharmacophore and structure-affinity relationships (SAFIRs). The use of DISCO (DIStance COmparison) and Catalyst/HipHop led to the formulation of a pharmacophore that is made of three geometrically unrelated features: (i) an ammonium head involved in coulombic and/or H-bond interactions, (ii) a lone pair of a pyridine nitrogen or a carbonyl oxygen, as H-bond acceptor site, and (iii) a hydrophobic molecular region generally constituted by aliphatic cycles. The quantitative SAFIR (QSAFIR) study was carried out on about three hundred nicotinoid agonists, and coherent results were obtained from classical Hansch-type approach, 3D QSAFIRs, based on Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA), and trade-off models generated by Multi-objective Genetic QSAR (MoQSAR), a novel evolutionary software that makes use of Genetic Programming (GP) and multi-objective optimization (MO). Within each congeneric series, Hansch-type equations revealed detrimental steric effects as the major factors modulating the receptor affinity, whereas CoMFA allowed us to merge progressively single-class models in a more global one, whose robustness was supported by crossvalidation, high prediction statistics and satisfactory predictions of the affinity data of a true external ligand set (r(2)(pred) = 0.796). Next, MoQSAR was used to analyze a data set of 58 highly active nicotinoids characterized by 56 descriptors, that are log P, MR and 54 low inter-correlated WHIM (Weighted Holistic Invariant Molecular) indices. Equivalent QSAFIR models, that represent different compromises between structural model complexity, fitting and internal model complexity, were found. Our attention was

  20. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: pharmacophores, evolutionary QSAR and 3D-QSAR models.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Orazio; Altomare, Cosimo; Pellegrini-Calace, Marialuisa; Carotti, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine ion channel receptors (nAChRs) exist as several subtypes and are involved in a variety of functions and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The lack of reliable information on the 3D structure of nAChRs prompted us to focus efforts on pharmacophore and structure-affinity relationships (SAFIRs). The use of DISCO (DIStance COmparison) and Catalyst/HipHop led to the formulation of a pharmacophore that is made of three geometrically unrelated features: (i) an ammonium head involved in coulombic and/or H-bond interactions, (ii) a lone pair of a pyridine nitrogen or a carbonyl oxygen, as H-bond acceptor site, and (iii) a hydrophobic molecular region generally constituted by aliphatic cycles. The quantitative SAFIR (QSAFIR) study was carried out on about three hundred nicotinoid agonists, and coherent results were obtained from classical Hansch-type approach, 3D QSAFIRs, based on Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA), and trade-off models generated by Multi-objective Genetic QSAR (MoQSAR), a novel evolutionary software that makes use of Genetic Programming (GP) and multi-objective optimization (MO). Within each congeneric series, Hansch-type equations revealed detrimental steric effects as the major factors modulating the receptor affinity, whereas CoMFA allowed us to merge progressively single-class models in a more global one, whose robustness was supported by crossvalidation, high prediction statistics and satisfactory predictions of the affinity data of a true external ligand set (r(2)(pred) = 0.796). Next, MoQSAR was used to analyze a data set of 58 highly active nicotinoids characterized by 56 descriptors, that are log P, MR and 54 low inter-correlated WHIM (Weighted Holistic Invariant Molecular) indices. Equivalent QSAFIR models, that represent different compromises between structural model complexity, fitting and internal model complexity, were found. Our attention was

  1. Cognitive improvements in a mouse model with substituted 1,2,3-triazole agonists for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Boonyarat, Chantana; Fokin, Valery V; Taylor, Palmer; Vajragupta, Opa

    2015-08-19

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a recognized drug target for dementias of aging and certain developmental disorders. Two selective and potent α7-nAChR agonists, winnowed from a list of 43 compounds characterized in a companion article (DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00058), 5-((quinuclid-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1H-indole (IND8) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) quinuclidine (QND8), were evaluated for cognitive improvement in both short- and long-term memory. Tacrine, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and PNU-282987, a congeneric α7 nAChR agonist, were employed as reference standards. Three behavioral tests, modified Y-maze, object recognition test (ORT), and water maze, were performed in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Intraperitoneal injection of these two compounds significantly improved the cognitive impairment in a modified Y-maze test (5 μmol/kg for IND8 and 10 μmol/kg for QND8), ORT (10 μmol/kg), and water maze test (25 μmol/kg). For delay induced memory deficit or natural memory loss in mice, IND8 and QND8 at 10 μmol/kg were able to enhance memory comparable to PNU-282987 when evaluated using ORT time delay model. Cognitive enhancement of IND8 and QND8 was mediated through α7-nAChRs as evidenced by its complete abolition after pretreatment with a selective α7-nAChR antagonist, methyllycaconitine. These data demonstrate that IND8 and QND8 and their congeners are potential candidates for treatment of cognitive disorders, and the substituted triazole series formed by cycloaddition of alkynes and azides warrant further preclinical optimization. PMID:25978789

  2. Cognitive improvements in a mouse model with substituted 1,2,3-triazole agonists for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Boonyarat, Chantana; Fokin, Valery V; Taylor, Palmer; Vajragupta, Opa

    2015-08-19

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a recognized drug target for dementias of aging and certain developmental disorders. Two selective and potent α7-nAChR agonists, winnowed from a list of 43 compounds characterized in a companion article (DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00058), 5-((quinuclid-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1H-indole (IND8) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) quinuclidine (QND8), were evaluated for cognitive improvement in both short- and long-term memory. Tacrine, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and PNU-282987, a congeneric α7 nAChR agonist, were employed as reference standards. Three behavioral tests, modified Y-maze, object recognition test (ORT), and water maze, were performed in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Intraperitoneal injection of these two compounds significantly improved the cognitive impairment in a modified Y-maze test (5 μmol/kg for IND8 and 10 μmol/kg for QND8), ORT (10 μmol/kg), and water maze test (25 μmol/kg). For delay induced memory deficit or natural memory loss in mice, IND8 and QND8 at 10 μmol/kg were able to enhance memory comparable to PNU-282987 when evaluated using ORT time delay model. Cognitive enhancement of IND8 and QND8 was mediated through α7-nAChRs as evidenced by its complete abolition after pretreatment with a selective α7-nAChR antagonist, methyllycaconitine. These data demonstrate that IND8 and QND8 and their congeners are potential candidates for treatment of cognitive disorders, and the substituted triazole series formed by cycloaddition of alkynes and azides warrant further preclinical optimization.

  3. α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists with low intrinsic efficacy have antidepressant-like properties

    PubMed Central

    Mineur, Yann S.; Einstein, Emily B.; Seymour, Patricia A.; Coe, Jotham W.; O’Neill, Brian T.; Rollema, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that treatment with antagonists or partial agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the β2 subunit (β2* nAChRs) results in antidepressant-like effects. In the current study we tested 3 novel compounds with different affinity and functional efficacy at α4β2* nAChRs, which were synthesized as part of nAChR discovery projects at Pfizer in the tail suspension, forced swim and novelty-suppressed feeding tests of antidepressant efficacy. All compounds tested reduced immobility in the forced swim test and one of the compounds also reduced immobility in the tail suspension test. All the compounds appeared to affect food intake on their own, with 2 compounds reducing feeding significantly in the home cage, precluding a clear interpretation of the results in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. None of the compounds altered locomotor activity at the doses and time points used here. Therefore, a subset of these compounds has pharmacological and behavioral properties that demonstrate the potential of nicotinic compounds as a treatment of mood disorders. Further development of nicotinic-based antidepressants should focus on increasing nAChR subtype selectivity to obtain consistent antidepressant properties with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:21566524

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a comparison of the nAChRs of Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Joyner, Michelle; O'Connor, Vincent; Walker, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a key role in the normal physiology of nematodes and provide an established target site for anthelmintics. The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, has a large number of nAChR subunit genes in its genome and so provides an experimental model for testing novel anthelmintics which act at these sites. However, many parasitic nematodes lack specific genes present in C. elegans, and so care is required in extrapolating from studies using C. elegans to the situation in other nematodes. In this review the properties of C. elegans nAChRs are reviewed and compared to those of parasitic nematodes. This forms the basis for a discussion of the possible subunit composition of nAChRs from different species of parasitic nematodes. Currently our knowledge on this is largely based on studies using heterologous expression and pharmacological analysis of receptor subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes. It is concluded that more information is required regarding the subunit composition and pharmacology of endogenous nAChRs in parasitic nematodes. PMID:23500392

  5. Subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists can improve cognitive flexibility in an attentional set shifting task.

    PubMed

    Wood, Christopher; Kohli, Shivali; Malcolm, Emma; Allison, Claire; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are considered to be viable targets to enhance cognition in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Activation of nAChRs with selective nicotinic receptor agonists may provide effective means to pharmacologically treat cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Cognitive flexibility is one aspect of cognition, which can be assessed in a rodent model of the attentional set-shifting task (ASST). The aim of the present study was two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the efficacy of a series of subtype selective nAChR agonists, such as those that target α7 and α4β2 nAChR subtypes in non-compromised rodents. Secondly, nicotine as a prototypic agonist was evaluated for its effects to restore attentional deficits produced by sub-chronic ketamine exposure in the ASST. Male hooded Lister rats underwent habituation, consisting of a simple odour and medium discrimination with subsequent assessment 24 h later. In experimentally naïve rats, α7 subtype selective agonists, compound-A and SSR180711 along with PNU-120596, an α7 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), were compared against the β2* selective agonist, 5IA-85380. All compounds except for PNU-120596 were observed to significantly improve extra-dimensional (ED) shift performance, nicotine, 5IA-85380 and SSR180711 further enhanced the final reversal (REV3) stage of the task. In another experiment, sub-chronic ketamine treatment produced robust deficits during the ED and the REV3 stages of the discriminations; rodents required significantly more trials to reach criterion during these discriminations. These deficits were attenuated in rodents treated acutely with nicotine (0.1 mg/kg SC) 10 min prior to the ED shift. These results highlight the potential utility of targeting nAChRs to enhance cognitive flexibility, particularly the α7 and β2* receptor subtypes. The improvement with nicotine was much greater in rodents that were impaired following the sub-chronic ketamine

  6. Procognitive and neuroprotective activity of a novel alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist for treatment of neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Renza; Scali, Carla; Comery, Thomas A; Grauer, Steven M; Aschmi, Suzan; Bothmann, Hendrick; Jow, Brian; Kowal, Dianne; Gianfriddo, Marco; Kelley, Cody; Zanelli, Ugo; Ghiron, Chiara; Haydar, Simon; Dunlop, John; Terstappen, Georg C

    2009-05-01

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising target for treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Here, we report the pharmacological properties of 5-morpholin-4-yl-pentanoic acid (4-pyridin-3-yl-phenyl)-amide [SEN12333 (WAY-317538)], a novel selective agonist of alpha7 nAChR. SEN12333 shows high affinity for the rat alpha7 receptor expressed in GH4C1 cells (K(i) = 260 nM) and acts as full agonist in functional Ca(2+) flux studies (EC(50) = 1.6 microM). In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, SEN12333 activated peak currents and maximal total charges similar to acetylcholine (EC(50) = 12 microM). The compound did not show agonist activity at other nicotinic receptors tested and acted as a weak antagonist at alpha3-containing receptors. SEN12333 treatment (3 mg/kg i.p.) improved episodic memory in a novel object recognition task in rats in conditions of spontaneous forgetting as well as cognitive disruptions induced via glutamatergic [5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine (dizocilpine maleate); MK-801] or cholinergic (scopolamine) mechanisms. This improvement was blocked by the alpha7-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine, indicating that it is mediated by alpha7 activation. SEN12333 also prevented a scopolamine-induced deficit in a passive avoidance task. In models targeting other cognitive domains, including attention and perceptual processing, SEN12333 normalized the apomorphine-induced deficit of prepulse inhibition. Neuroprotection of SEN12333 was demonstrated in quisqualate-lesioned animals in which treatment with SEN12333 (3 mg/kg/day i.p.) resulted in a significant protection of choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons in the lesioned hemisphere. Cumulatively, our results demonstrate that the novel alpha7 nAChR agonist SEN12333 has procognitive and neuroprotective properties, further demonstrating utility of alpha7 agonists for treatment of neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders.

  7. Selective α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists target epigenetic mechanisms in cortical GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Maloku, Ekrem; Kadriu, Bashkim; Zhubi, Adrian; Dong, Erbo; Pibiri, Fabio; Satta, Rosalba; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2011-06-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive performance and attention in both experimental animals and in human subjects, including patients affected by neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced behavioral changes remain unclear. We have recently shown in mice that repeated injections of nicotine, which achieve plasma concentrations comparable to those reported in high cigarette smokers, result in an epigenetically induced increase of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD(67)) expression. Here we explored the impact of synthetic α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChR agonists on GABAergic epigenetic parameters. Varenicline (VAR), a high-affinity partial agonist at α(4)β(2) and a lower affinity full agonist at α(7) neuronal nAChR, injected in doses of 1-5 mg/kg/s.c. twice daily for 5 days, elicited a 30-40% decrease of cortical DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 mRNA and an increased expression of GAD(67) mRNA and protein. This upregulation of GAD(67) was abolished by the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Furthermore, the level of MeCP(2) binding to GAD(67) promoters was significantly reduced following VAR administration. This effect was abolished when VAR was administered with mecamylamine. Similar effects on cortical DNMT1 and GAD(67) expression were obtained after administration of A-85380, an agonist that binds to α(4)β(2) but has negligible affinity for α(3)β(4) or α(7) subtypes containing nAChR. In contrast, PNU-282987, an agonist of the homomeric α(7) nAChR, failed to decrease cortical DNMT1 mRNA or to induce GAD(67) expression. The present study suggests that the α(4)β(2) nAChR agonists may be better suited to control the epigenetic alterations of GABAergic neurons in schizophrenia than the α(7) nAChR agonists.

  8. Agonist self-inhibition at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor a nonspecific action

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.; Firestone, L.L.; Miller, K.W.

    1987-05-19

    Agonist concentration-response relationships at nicotinic postsynaptic receptors were established by measuring /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from acetylcholine receptor rich native Torpedo membrane vesicles under three different conditions: (1) integrated net ion efflux (in 10 s) from untreated vesicles, (2) integrated net efflux from vesicles in which most acetylcholine sites were irreversibly blocked with ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, and (3) initial rates of efflux (5-100 ms) from vesicles that were partially blocked with ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin. Exposure to acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, suberyldicholine, phenyltrimethylammonium, or (-)-nicotine over 10/sup 8/-fold concentration ranges results in bell-shaped ion flux response curves due to stimulation of acetylcholine receptor channel opening at low concentrations and inhibition of channel function at 60-2000 times higher concentrations. Concentrations of agonists that inhibit their own maximum /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux by 50% (K/sub B/ values) are 110, 211, 3.0, 39, and 8.9 mM, respectively, for the agonists listed above. For acetylcholine and carbamylcholine, K/sub B/ values determined from both 10-s and 15-ms efflux measurements are the same, indicating that the rate of agonist-induced desensitization increases to maximum at concentrations lower than those causing self-inhibition. For all partial and full agonists studied, Hill coefficients for self-inhibition are close to 1.0. Concentrations of agonists up to 8 times K/sub B/ did not change the order parameter reported by a spin-labeled fatty acid incorporated in Torpedo membranes. The authors conclude that agonist self-inhibition cannot be attributed to a general nonspecific membrane perturbation. Instead, these results are consistent with a saturable site of action either at the lipid-protein interface or on the acetylcholine receptor protein itself.

  9. Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke and bone fracture

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhenying; Li, Li; Wang, Liang; Degos, Vincent; Maze, Mervyn; Su, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture at the acute stage of stroke exacerbates stroke injury by increasing neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α-7 nAchR) agonist attenuates neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and reduces brain injury in mice with bone fracture and stroke. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed in C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0.8 mg/kg PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR-specific agonist), 6 mg/kg Methyllycaconitine (MLA, α-7 nAchR antagonist), or saline 1 and 2 days after pMCAO. Behavior was tested 3 days after pMCAO. Neuronal injury, CD68+, M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) microglia/macrophages, phosphorylated p65 component of NF-kb in microglia/macrophages, oxidative and anti-oxidant gene expression were quantified. Compared to saline-treated mice, PHA-treated mice performed better in behavioral tests, had fewer apoptotic neurons (NeuN+TUNEL+), fewer CD68+ and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages. PHA increased anti-oxidant gene expression and decreased oxidative stress and phosphorylation of NF-κb p65. MLA had the opposite effects. Our data indicate that α-7 nAchR agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, which are associated with reduced brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke plus tibia fracture. PMID:25040630

  10. Pharmacological stress is required for the anti-alcohol effect of the α3β4* nAChR partial agonist AT-1001.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Brunori, Gloria; Gaiolini, Kelly A; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often taken together. The mechanisms underlying this frequent co-abuse are not well known. Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 and β4 subunits play a role in alcohol as well as nicotine addiction. AT-1001 is a high affinity α3β4 nAChR partial agonist recently found to block nicotine self-administration and relapse-like behavior in rats. Here, to study the involvement of α3β4 nAChRs in the mechanisms that regulate alcohol abuse we evaluated the effects of AT-1001 on alcohol taking and seeking in Sprague-Dawley rats. AT-1001 reduced operant alcohol self-administration at the highest dose examined (3.0 mg/kg), an effect also observed for food self-administration. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg AT-1001, which had no effect on alcohol or food self-administration, essentially eliminated reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by yohimbine (0.625 mg/kg) whereas, reinstatement induced by alcohol-associated cues was not altered, nor did AT-1001 induce reinstatement of extinguished self-administration on its own. Finally, AT-1001 showed an anxiolytic activity when measured in the presence or absence of yohimbine stress in the elevated plus maze paradigm. Together, these observations do not support a specific involvement of the α3β4 nAChR in mediating alcohol reward or cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking but rather indicate that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonism may constitute an attractive approach for treating alcohol use disorders exacerbated by elevated stress response.

  11. Conformational states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica induced by the binding of agonists, antagonists, and local anesthetics. Equilibrium measurements using tritium-hydrogen exchange

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.P.; Stroud, R.M.

    1989-01-10

    The tritium-hydrogen exchange kinetics of Torpedo californica AChR, in native membrane vesicles at pH 7.4 and 0 degrees C, have been analyzed in the presence of agonists, partial agonists, local anesthetics, and competitive antagonists. The agonists carbamylcholine (10 microM-1 mM) and suberyldicholine (10 microM) and the partial agonists decamethonium (25 microM and 1 mM) and hexamethonium (1 mM) have no effect on the exchange kinetics, although at lower concentration carbamylcholine may slightly accelerate exchange. Nondesensitizing local anesthetics do affect the exchange behavior, dependent on concentration. Procaine at 500 microM moderately retards exchange while procaine at 10 mM and tetracaine at 5 mM slightly accelerate exchange. The competitive antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin retards exchange significantly, as does d-tubocurarine although to a lesser extent. These results suggest that the resting and desensitized conformations of the AChR are very similar in overall solvent accessibility and that at lower concentrations noncompetitive blockers such as procaine may stabilize a less solvent-accessible state of the AChR. The competitive antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurare also stabilize a dynamically restricted, less solvent-accessible conformation of the acetylcholine receptor, demonstrating that a large conformational change accompanies binding of these toxins. Any change in conformation which may accompany desensitization is very different from these effects.

  12. Molecular blueprint of allosteric binding sites in a homologue of the agonist-binding domain of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Spurny, Radovan; Debaveye, Sarah; Farinha, Ana; Veys, Ken; Vos, Ann M.; Gossas, Thomas; Atack, John; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Danielson, U. Helena; Tresadern, Gary; Ulens, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) belongs to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and is involved in fast synaptic signaling. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified chimera of the extracellular domain of the native α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine binding protein, termed α7-AChBP. This chimeric receptor was used to conduct an innovative fragment-library screening in combination with X-ray crystallography to identify allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site is surface-exposed and is located near the N-terminal α-helix of the extracellular domain. Ligand binding at this site causes a conformational change of the α-helix as the fragment wedges between the α-helix and a loop homologous to the main immunogenic region of the muscle α1 subunit. A second site is located in the vestibule of the receptor, in a preexisting intrasubunit pocket opposite the agonist binding site and corresponds to a previously identified site involved in positive allosteric modulation of the bacterial homolog ELIC. A third site is located at a pocket right below the agonist binding site. Using electrophysiological recordings on the human α7 nAChR we demonstrate that the identified fragments, which bind at these sites, can modulate receptor activation. This work presents a structural framework for different allosteric binding sites in the α7 nAChR and paves the way for future development of novel allosteric modulators with therapeutic potential. PMID:25918415

  13. Molecular blueprint of allosteric binding sites in a homologue of the agonist-binding domain of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Spurny, Radovan; Debaveye, Sarah; Farinha, Ana; Veys, Ken; Vos, Ann M; Gossas, Thomas; Atack, John; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Danielson, U Helena; Tresadern, Gary; Ulens, Chris

    2015-05-12

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) belongs to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and is involved in fast synaptic signaling. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified chimera of the extracellular domain of the native α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine binding protein, termed α7-AChBP. This chimeric receptor was used to conduct an innovative fragment-library screening in combination with X-ray crystallography to identify allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site is surface-exposed and is located near the N-terminal α-helix of the extracellular domain. Ligand binding at this site causes a conformational change of the α-helix as the fragment wedges between the α-helix and a loop homologous to the main immunogenic region of the muscle α1 subunit. A second site is located in the vestibule of the receptor, in a preexisting intrasubunit pocket opposite the agonist binding site and corresponds to a previously identified site involved in positive allosteric modulation of the bacterial homolog ELIC. A third site is located at a pocket right below the agonist binding site. Using electrophysiological recordings on the human α7 nAChR we demonstrate that the identified fragments, which bind at these sites, can modulate receptor activation. This work presents a structural framework for different allosteric binding sites in the α7 nAChR and paves the way for future development of novel allosteric modulators with therapeutic potential. PMID:25918415

  14. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Kelen C; Carroll, F Ivy; Negus, S Stevens

    2015-11-01

    Agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) constitute one drug class being evaluated as candidate analgesics. Previous preclinical studies have implicated α4β2 and α7 nAChRs as potential mediators of the antinociceptive effects of (–)-nicotine hydrogen tartrate (nicotine) and other nAChR agonists; however, these studies have relied exclusively on measures of pain-stimulated behavior, which can be defined as behaviors that increase in frequency, rate, or intensity after presentation of a noxious stimulus. Pain is also associated with depression of many behaviors, and drug effects can differ in assays of pain-stimulated versus pain-depressed behavior. Accordingly, this study compared the effects of nicotine, the selective α4/6β2 agonist 5-(123I)iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine (5-I-A-85380), and the selective α7 agonist N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide in assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid served as an acute noxious stimulus to either stimulate a stretching response or depress the operant responding, which is maintained by electrical brain stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Nicotine produced a dose-dependent, time-dependent, and mecamylamine-reversible blockade of both acid-stimulated stretching and acid-induced depression of ICSS. 5-I-A-85380 also blocked both acid-stimulated stretching and acid-induced depression of ICSS, whereas N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide produced no effect in either procedure. Both nicotine and 5-I-A-85380 were ≥10-fold more potent in blocking the acid-induced depression of ICSS than in blocking the acid-induced stimulation of stretching. These results suggest that stimulation of α4β2 and/or α6β2 nAChRs may be especially effective to alleviate the signs of pain-related behavioral depression in rats; however, nonselective behavioral effects

  15. Targeting α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the enteric nervous system: a cholinergic agonist prevents gut barrier failure after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Todd W; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Cheadle, Gerald A; Putnam, James G; Hageny, Ann-Marie; Lopez, Nicole; Eliceiri, Brian P; Bansal, Vishal; Coimbra, Raul

    2012-08-01

    We have previously shown that vagal nerve stimulation prevents intestinal barrier loss in a model of severe burn injury in which injury was associated with decreased expression and altered localization of intestinal tight junction proteins. α-7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has been shown to be necessary for the vagus nerve to modulate the systemic inflammatory response, but the role of α-7 nAchR in mediating gut protection remained unknown. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR would be present in the gastrointestinal tract and that treatment with a pharmacological agonist of α-7 nAchR would protect against burn-induced gut barrier injury. The effects of a pharmacological cholinergic agonist on gut barrier integrity were studied using an intraperitoneal injection of nicotine 30 minutes after injury. Intestinal barrier integrity was examined by measuring permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and by examining changes in expression and localization of the intestinal tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. Nicotine injection after injury prevented burn-induced intestinal permeability and limited histological gut injury. Treatment with nicotine prevented decreased expression and altered localization of occludin and ZO-1, as seen in animals undergoing burn alone. Defining the interactions among the vagus nerve, the enteric nervous system, and the intestinal epithelium may lead to development of targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing gut barrier failure and intestinal inflammation after severe injury.

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at zebrafish red and white muscle show different properties during development.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kazi T; Ali, Declan W

    2016-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly expressed at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where they are required for muscle activation. Understanding the factors that underlie NMJ development is critical for a full understanding of muscle function. In this study we performed whole cell and outside-out patch clamp recordings, and single-cell RT-qPCR from zebrafish red and white muscle to examine the properties of nAChRs during the first 5 days of development. In red fibers miniature endplate currents (mEPCs) exhibit single exponential time courses at 1.5 days postfertilization (dpf) and double exponential time courses from 2 dpf onwards. In white fibers, mEPCs decay relatively slowly, with a single exponential component at 1.5 dpf. By 2 and 3 dpf, mEPC kinetics speed up, and decay with a double exponential component, and by 4 dpf the exponential decay reverts back to a single component. Single channel recordings confirm the presence of two main conductance classes of nAChRs (∼45 pS and ∼65 pS) in red fibers with multiple time courses. Two main conductance classes are also present in white fibers (∼55 pS and ∼73 pS), but they exhibit shorter mean open times by 5 dpf compared with red muscle. RT-qPCR of mRNA for nicotinic receptor subunits supports a switch from γ to ε subunits in white fibers but not in red. Our findings provide a developmental profile of mEPC properties from red and white fibers in embryonic and larval zebrafish, and reveal previously unknown differences between the NMJs of these muscle fibers.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 916-936, 2016.

  17. Methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at the α4β2 and α3* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and an agonist at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Talka, Reeta; Salminen, Outi; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine-methadone interactions have been studied in human beings and in various experimental settings regarding addiction, reward and pain. Most methadone maintenance treatment patients are smokers, and methadone administration has been shown to increase cigarette smoking. Previous in vitro studies have shown that methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at rat α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and an agonist at human α7 nAChRs. In this study, we used cell lines expressing human α4β2, α7 and α3* nAChRs to compare the interactions of methadone at the various human nAChRs under the same experimental conditions. A [(3) H]epibatidine displacement assay was used to determine whether methadone binds to the nicotinic receptors, and (86) Rb(+) efflux and changes in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+) ]i were used to assess changes in the functional activity of the receptors. Methadone displaced [(3) H]epibatidine from nicotinic agonist-binding sites in SH-EP1-hα7 and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in SH-EP1-hα4β2 cells. The Ki values for methadone were 6.3 μM in SH-EP1-hα7 cells and 19.4 μM and 1008 μM in SH-SY5Y cells. Methadone increased [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and in SH-EP1-hα7 cells, the effect was more pronounced than the effect of nicotine treatment. In SH-EP1-hα4β2 cells, the effect of methadone was negligible compared to that of nicotine. Methadone pre-treatment abolished the nicotine-induced response in [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines expressing nAChRs. In SH-EP1-hα4β2 and SH-SY5Y cells, methadone had no effect on the (86) Rb(+) efflux, but it antagonized the nicotine-induced (86) Rb(+) ion efflux in a non-competitive manner. These results suggest that methadone is an agonist at human α7 nAChRs and a non-competitive antagonist at human α4β2 and α3* nAChRs. This study adds further support to the previous findings that opioids interact with nAChRs, which may underlie their frequent co

  18. Association between Anti-Ganglionic Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (gAChR) Antibodies and HLA-DRB1 Alleles in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Osamu; Mukaino, Akihiro; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Komori, Atsumasa; Nakamura, Minoru; Hashimoto, Satoru; Nagaoka, Shinya; Abiru, Seigo; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hidenori; Kawakami, Atsushi; Yasunami, Michio; Nakane, Shunya

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Anti-ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies are observed in autoimmune diseases, as well as in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. However, the genetic background of anti-gAChR antibodies is unclear. Here, we investigated HLA alleles in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients with or without anti-gAChR antibodies. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic DNA from 260 patients with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) were genotyped for HLA-A, B, DRB1, and DQB1 loci. Anti-gAChR antibodies in the sera form AIH patients were measured using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system, and examined allelic association in patients with or without anti-gAChR antibodies. Methodology/ Methods We detected anti-α3 or -β4 gAChR antibodies in 11.5% (30/260) of patients with AIH. Among AIH patients there was no significant association between HLA-A, B DQB1 alleles and the positivity for anti-gAChR antibodies. Whereas the HLA-DRB1*0403 allele showed a significantly increased frequency in AIH patients with anti-gAChR antibodies compared with those without anti-gAChR antibodies. Conclusions/Significance The frequency of the HLA-DRB1*0403 allele differed among Japanese patients with AIH according to the presence or absence of anti-gAChR antibodies. Our findings suggest that particular HLA class II molecules might control the development of anti-gAChR antibodies in the autoimmune response to gAChR. PMID:26807576

  19. Role of mouse cerebellar nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α(4)β(2)- and α(7) subtypes in the behavioral cross-tolerance between nicotine and ethanol-induced ataxia.

    PubMed

    Taslim, Najla; Soderstrom, Ken; Dar, M Saeed

    2011-03-01

    We have demonstrated that nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced ataxia via nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor (nAChR) subtypes α(4)β(2) and α(7). In the present study, ethanol (2g/kg; i.p.)-induced ataxia was assessed by Rotorod performance following repeated intracerebellar infusion of α(4)β(2)- and α(7)-selective agonists. Localization of α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChRs was confirmed immunohistochemically. Cerebellar NO(x) (nitrite+nitrate) was determined flurometrically. Repeated intracerebellar microinfusion of the α(4)β(2)-selective agonist, RJR-2403 (for 1, 2, 3, 5 or 7 days) or the α(7)-selective agonist, PNU-282987 (1, 2, 3 or 5 days), dose-dependently attenuated ethanol-induced ataxia. These results suggest the development of cross-tolerance between ethanol-induced ataxia and α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChR agonists. With RJR-2403, the cross-tolerance was maximal after a 5-day treatment and lasted 48h. Cross-tolerance was maximal after a 1-day treatment with PNU-282987 and lasted 72h. Pretreatment with α(4)β(2)- and α(7)-selective antagonists, dihydro-β-erythroidine and methyllycaconitine, respectively, prevented the development of cross-tolerance confirming α(4)β(2) and α(7) involvement. Repeated agonist infusions elevated cerebellar NO(x) 16h after the last treatment while acute ethanol exposure decreased it. Pretreatment with repeated RJR-2403 or PNU-282987 reversed ethanol-induced decrease in NOx. The NO(x) data suggests the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signaling pathway in the cross-tolerance that develops between α(4)β(2)- and α(7)-selective agonists and ethanol ataxia. Both α(4)β(2) and α(7) subtypes exhibited high immunoreactivity in Purkinje but sparse expression in molecular and granular cell layers. Our results support a role for α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChR subtypes in the development of cross-tolerance between nicotine and ethanol with the NO signaling pathway as a potential mechanism.

  20. Encenicline, an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonist, Reduces Immune Cell Infiltration in the Colon and Improves Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Salaga, M; Blomster, L V; Piechota-Polańczyk, A; Zielińska, M; Jacenik, D; Cygankiewicz, A I; Krajewska, W M; Mikkelsen, J D; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The α7 pentamer nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a target in transduction of anti-inflammatory signals from the central nervous system to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of the novel α7 nAChR partial agonist encenicline and to determine the mechanism underlying its activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of encenicline was evaluated using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced models of colitis. Macroscopic score, ulcer score, colon length and thickness, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were recorded. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to measure the infiltration of immune cells in the colon. Furthermore, we employed flow cytometry to determine the effect of encenicline on frequencies of FoxP3(+) and interleukin (IL)-17A(+) T cells in the mouse colon. Encenicline attenuated TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis in mice via α7 nAChRs, as indicated by significantly reduced macroscopic parameters and MPO activity. Treatment with encenicline significantly reduced the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and B cells in the colon of TNBS-treated animals, as indicated by IHC. In the TNBS model encenicline reduced the frequency of FoxP3(+) IL-17A(+) T cells in the colon. In the DSS-model treatment encenicline increased the frequency of FoxP3(+) T cells and reduced IL-17A(+) T cells. Stimulation of α7 nAChR with partial agonist encenicline alleviates colitis via alteration of the number and/or activation status of the immune cells in the gut, emphasizing a potential role of α7 nAChRs as a target for anticolitic drugs. PMID:26462538

  1. Conotoxin Interactions with α9α10-nAChRs: Is the α9α10-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor an Important Therapeutic Target for Pain Management?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Sarasa A.; Christie, MacDonald J.

    2015-01-01

    The α9α10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in pain and has been proposed to be a novel target for analgesics. However, the evidence to support the involvement of the α9α10-nAChR in pain is conflicted. This receptor was first implicated in pain with the characterisation of conotoxin Vc1.1, which is highly selective for α9α10-nAChRs and is an efficacious analgesic in chronic pain models with restorative capacities and no reported side effects. Numerous other analgesic conotoxin and non-conotoxin molecules have been subsequently characterised that also inhibit α9α10-nAChRs. However, there is evidence that α9α10-nAChR inhibition is neither necessary nor sufficient for analgesia. α9α10-nAChR-inhibiting analogues of Vc1.1 have no analgesic effects. Genetically-modified α9-nAChR knockout mice have a phenotype that is markedly different from the analgesic profile of Vc1.1 and similar conotoxins, suggesting that the conotoxin effects are largely independent of α9α10-nAChRs. Furthermore, an alternative mechanism of analgesia by Vc1.1 and other similar conotoxins involving non-canonical coupling of GABAB receptors to voltage-gated calcium channels is known. Additional incongruities regarding α9α10-nAChRs in analgesia are discussed. A more comprehensive characterisation of the role of α9α10-nAChRs in pain is crucial for understanding the analgesic action of conotoxins and for improved drug design. PMID:26426047

  2. The 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold for subtype selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands. Part 1: the influence of different hydrogen bond acceptor systems on alkyl and (hetero)aryl substituents.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Munoz, Lenka; Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L; Gündisch, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    3,7-Diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane is a naturally occurring scaffold interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). When one nitrogen of the 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold was implemented in a carboxamide motif displaying a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) functionality, compounds with higher affinities and subtype selectivity for α4β2(∗) were obtained. The nature of the HBA system (carboxamide, sulfonamide, urea) had a strong impact on nAChR interaction. High affinity ligands for α4β2(∗) possessed small alkyl chains, small un-substituted hetero-aryl groups or para-substituted phenyl ring systems along with a carboxamide group. Electrophysiological responses of selected 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane derivatives to Xenopus oocytes expressing various nAChR subtypes showed diverse activation profiles. Compounds with strongest agonistic profiles were obtained with small alkyl groups whereas a shift to partial agonism/antagonism was observed for aryl substituents. PMID:24156938

  3. Identification and in vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel and selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, Br-IQ17B

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing-shu; Xie, Bing-xue; Bian, Xi-ling; Xue, Yu; Wei, Ning-ning; Zhou, Jing-heng; Hao, Yu-chen; Li, Gang; Zhang, Liang-ren; Wang, Ke-wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable ion channel implicated in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. Activation of α7 nAChR improves learning, memory, and sensory gating in animal models. To identify novel α7 nAChR agonists, we synthesized a series of small molecules and characterized a representative compound, Br-IQ17B, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yl]-5-bromoindolizine-2-carboxamide, which specifically activates α7 nAChR. Methods: Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) recordings were primarily used for screening in Xenopus oocytes expressing human α7 nAChR. Assays, including radioisotope ligand binding, Western blots, whole-cell recordings of hippocampal culture neurons, and spontaneous IPSC recordings of brain slices, were also utilized to evaluate and confirm the specific activation of α7 nAChR by Br-IQ17B. Results: Br-IQ17B potently activates α7 nAChR with an EC50 of 1.8±0.2 μmol/L. Br-IQ17B is selective over other subtypes such as α4β2 and α3β4, but it blocks 5-HT3A receptors. Br-IQ17B displaced binding of the α7 blocker [3H]-MLA to hippocampal crude membranes with a Ki of 14.9±3.2 nmol/L. In hippocampal neurons, Br-IQ17B evoked α7-like currents that were inhibited by MLA and enhanced in the presence of the α7 PAM PNU-120596. In brain slice recordings, Br-IQ17B enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission in CA1 neurons. Mechanistically, Br-IQ17B increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was MLA-sensitive. Conclusion: We identified the novel, potent, and selective α7 agonist Br-IQ17B, which enhances synaptic transmission. Br-IQ17B may be a helpful tool to understand new aspects of α7 nAChR function, and it also has potential for being developed as therapy for schizophrenia and cognitive deficits. PMID:25948478

  4. Neuroprotective effect of cellular prion protein (PrPC) is related with activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR)-mediated autophagy flux.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-09-22

    Activation of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) is regulated by prion protein (PrPC) expression and has a neuroprotective effect by modulating autophagic flux. In this study, we hypothesized that PrPC may regulate α7nAchR activation and that may prevent prion-related neurodegenerative diseases by regulating autophagic flux. PrP(106-126) treatment decreased α7nAchR expression and activation of autophagic flux. In addition, the α7nAchR activator PNU-282987 enhanced autophagic flux and protected neuron cells against PrP(106-126)-induced apoptosis. However, activation of autophagy and the protective effects of PNU-282987 were inhibited in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells. In addition, PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells showed decreased α7nAchR expression levels. Adenoviral overexpression of PrPC in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells resulted in activation of autophagic flux and inhibition of prion peptide-mediated cell death via α7nAchR activation. This is the first report demonstrating that activation of α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux is regulated by PrPC, and that activation of α7nAchR regulated by PrPC expression may play a pivotal role in protection of neuron cells against prion peptide-induced neuron cell death by autophagy. These results suggest that α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux may be involved in the pathogenesis of prion-related diseases and may be a therapeutic target for prion-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of cellular prion protein (PrPC) is related with activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR)-mediated autophagy flux.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-09-22

    Activation of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) is regulated by prion protein (PrPC) expression and has a neuroprotective effect by modulating autophagic flux. In this study, we hypothesized that PrPC may regulate α7nAchR activation and that may prevent prion-related neurodegenerative diseases by regulating autophagic flux. PrP(106-126) treatment decreased α7nAchR expression and activation of autophagic flux. In addition, the α7nAchR activator PNU-282987 enhanced autophagic flux and protected neuron cells against PrP(106-126)-induced apoptosis. However, activation of autophagy and the protective effects of PNU-282987 were inhibited in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells. In addition, PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells showed decreased α7nAchR expression levels. Adenoviral overexpression of PrPC in PrPC knockout hippocampal neuron cells resulted in activation of autophagic flux and inhibition of prion peptide-mediated cell death via α7nAchR activation. This is the first report demonstrating that activation of α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux is regulated by PrPC, and that activation of α7nAchR regulated by PrPC expression may play a pivotal role in protection of neuron cells against prion peptide-induced neuron cell death by autophagy. These results suggest that α7nAchR-mediated autophagic flux may be involved in the pathogenesis of prion-related diseases and may be a therapeutic target for prion-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26295309

  6. Measuring relative acetylcholine receptor agonist binding by selective proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Behling, R W; Yamane, T; Navon, G; Sammon, M J; Jelinski, L W

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented that uses selective proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements of nicotine in the presence of the acetylcholine receptor to obtain relative binding constants for acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and muscarine. For receptors from Torpedo californica the results show that (a) the binding constants are in the order acetylcholine greater than nicotine greater than carbamylcholine greater than muscarine; (b) selective NMR measurements provide a rapid and direct method for monitoring both the specific and nonspecific binding of agonists to these receptors and to the lipid; (c) alpha-bungarotoxin can be used to distinguish between specific and nonspecific binding to the receptor; (d) the receptor--substrate interaction causes a large change in the selective relaxation time of the agonists even at concentrations 100x greater than that of the receptor. This last observation means that these measurements provide a rapid method to monitor drug binding when only small amounts of receptor are available. Furthermore, the binding strategies presented here may be useful for the NMR determination of the conformation of the ligand in its bound state. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3395661

  7. A combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and monoamine reuptake inhibitor, NS9775, represents a novel profile with potential benefits in emotional and cognitive disturbances.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Olsen, Gunnar M; Peters, Dan

    2013-10-01

    As affective and cognitive disturbances frequently co-occur in psychiatric disorders, research into opportunities to simultaneously target both entities is warranted. These disorders are typically treated with monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MRIs), whereas ongoing research suggests that symptoms also improve by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation. Preclinical studies have corroborated this and also demonstrated a synergistic antidepressant-like action when nAChR agonists and MRIs are combined. Here, we present the in vitro and in vivo profile of NS9775, a combined full α7 nAChR agonist and triple MRI. NS9775 potently inhibited [(3)H]α-bungarotoxin binding in vitro (Ki: 1.8 nM), and ex vivo (ED₅₀: 3.6 mg/kg), showing negligible activity at α4β2-(Ki: 1720 nM) or α1-containing nAChRs (Ki: 12,200 nM). In α7-expressing oocytes, NS9775 displayed an EC₅₀ value of 280 nM, with a maximal response of 77% relative to a saturating acetylcholine concentration. Furthermore, NS9775 inhibited cortical [(3)H]5-HT, [(3)H]NA and [(3)H]DA uptake equipotently (14-43 nM), and inhibited striatal [(3)H]WIN35,428 binding (ED₅₀: 9.1 mg/kg). Behaviourally in mice, NS9775 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) reversed scopolamine-induced deficits in a modified Y-maze and MK-801-induced learning deficits in 5-trial inhibitory avoidance. Swim distance in the forced swim test was increased by 30 mg/kg NS9775, and 10 and 30 mg/kg NS9775 reduced digging behaviour in the marble burying paradigm and increased the number of punished crossings in the four plate test. This pro-cognitive, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effect of NS9775 suggests that combining α7 nAChR agonism and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition could be a step in the evolution of pharmacological treatments of affective and/or cognitive disturbances.

  8. Synthesis and Behavioral Studies of Chiral Cyclopropanes as Selective α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonists Exhibiting an Antidepressant Profile. Part III.

    PubMed

    Onajole, Oluseye K; Vallerini, Gian Paolo; Eaton, J Brek; Lukas, Ronald J; Brunner, Dani; Caldarone, Barbara J; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-06-15

    We report the synthesis and biological characterization of novel derivatives of 3-[(1-methyl-2(S)-pyrrolidinyl)methoxy]-5-cyclopropylpyridine (4a-f and 5) as potent and highly selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) full or partial agonists. A systematic structure-activity study was carried out on the previously described compound 3b, particularly concerning its (2-methoxyethyl)cyclopropyl side-chain, in an effort to improve its metabolic stability while maintaining receptor selectivity. Compound 4d exhibited very similar subnanomolar binding affinity for α4β2- and α4β2*-nAChRs compared to 3b, and it showed excellent potency in activating high-sensitivity (HS) α4β2-nAChRs with an EC50 value of 8.2 nM. Testing of 4d in the SmartCube assay revealed that the compound has a combined antidepressant plus antipsychotic signature. In the forced swim test at a dose of 30 mg/kg given intraperitoneally, 4d was found to be as efficacious as sertraline, thus providing evidence of the potential use of the compound as an antidepressant. Additional promise for use of 4d in humans comes from pharmacokinetic studies in mice indicating brain penetration, and additional assays show compound stability in the presence of human microsomes and hepatocytes. Thus, 4d has a very favorable preclinical drug profile. PMID:27035276

  9. Agonist mediated conformational changes of solubilized calf forebrain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, P; Andre, C; de Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G

    1984-10-01

    Muscarinic receptors in calf forebrain membranes can be identified by the specific binding of the radiolabelled antagonist [3H]dexetimide. These receptors (2.8 pM/mg protein) comprise two non-interconvertible subpopulations with respectively high and low agonist affinity but with the same antagonist affinity. For all the agonists tested the low affinity sites represent 85 +/- 5% of the total receptor population. 0.5% Digitonin solubilized extracts contain 0.8 pM muscarinic receptor/mg protein. In contrast with the membranes, these extracts contain only sites with low agonist affinity. The alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide causes an increase of the acetylcholine affinity for the low affinity sites in membranes as well as for the solubilized sites. This effect is time dependent until a maximal 3-fold increase in affinity is attained. The rate of N-ethylmaleimide action is enhanced by the concomitant presence of agonists. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide does not affect antagonist binding. This suggests that agonists mediate a conformational change of both the membrane bound low affinity muscarinic sites and of the solubilized sites, resulting in their increased susceptibility towards NEM alkylation. PMID:6487351

  10. Biochemical and functional properties of distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the superior cervical ganglion of mice with targeted deletions of nAChR subunit genes.

    PubMed

    David, Reinhard; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna; Simeone, Xenia; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Papke, Roger L; McIntosh, J M; Huck, Sigismund; Scholze, Petra

    2010-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system. Here, we determined the subunit composition of hetero-pentameric nAChRs in the mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG), the function of distinct receptors (obtained by deletions of nAChR subunit genes) and mechanisms at the level of nAChRs that might compensate for the loss of subunits. As shown by immunoprecipitation and Western blots, wild-type (WT) mice expressed: alpha 3 beta 4 (55%), alpha 3 beta 4 alpha 5 (24%) and alpha 3 beta 4 beta 2 (21%) nAChRs. nAChRs in beta 4 knockout (KO) mice were reduced to < 15% of controls and no longer contained the alpha 5 subunit. Compound action potentials, recorded from the postganglionic (internal carotid) nerve and induced by preganglionic nerve stimulation, did not differ between alpha 5 beta 4 KO and WT mice, suggesting that the reduced number of receptors in the KO mice did not impair transganglionic transmission. Deletions of alpha 5 or beta2 did not affect the overall number of receptors and we found no evidence that the two subunits substitute for each other. In addition, dual KOs allowed us to study the functional properties of distinct alpha 3 beta4 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors that have previously only been investigated in heterologous expression systems. The two receptors strikingly differed in the decay of macroscopic currents, the efficacy of cytisine, and their responses to the alpha-conotoxins AuIB and MII. Our data, based on biochemical and functional experiments and several mouse KO models, clarify and significantly extend previous observations on the function of nAChRs in heterologous systems and the SCG. PMID:20377613

  11. Selective ligand behaviors provide new insights into agonist activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Christopher B; Rreza, Iva; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2014-05-16

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a diverse set of ion channels that are essential to everyday brain function. Contemporary research studies selective activation of individual subtypes of receptors, with the hope of increasing our understanding of behavioral responses and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we aim to expand current binding models to help explain the specificity seen among three activators of α4β2 receptors: sazetidine-A, cytisine, and NS9283. Through mutational analysis, we can interchange the activation profiles of the stoichiometry-selective compounds sazetidine-A and cytisine. In addition, mutations render NS9283--currently identified as a positive allosteric modulator--into an agonist. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) occupation at each primary face of an α subunit is needed to activate the channel and (2) the complementary face of the adjacent subunit dictates the binding ability of the agonist.

  12. Conformational and stereoeletronic investigations of muscarinic agonists of acetylcholine by NMR and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Julio Cesar A.; Ducati, Lucas C.; Rittner, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    NMR solvent effects and theoretical calculations showed muscarinic agonists present a large stability for their near synclinal conformations, indicating the presence of significant stabilization factors. Analysis of the results clearly indicated that this stability is not determined by the dihedral around the substituted C-C ethane bond, as stated by some authors, but a consequence of the geometry adopted in order to maximize N+/O interactions in this type of molecules. It can be assumed that acetylcholine and its muscarinic agonists exhibit their biologic activity when the positively charged nitrogen and the oxygen atoms are in the same side of the molecule within an interatomic distance ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 Å.

  13. Modulatory effects of S 38232, a non alpha-7 containing nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonist on network activity in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lagostena, Laura; Danober, Laurence; Challal, Sylvie; Lestage, Pierre; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Trocmé-Thibierge, Caryn; Cherubini, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular field potentials (fEPSPs) and whole cell patch-clamp recordings were used to test the effect of S 38232, a newly developed potent non-alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) agonist, on synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices obtained from adult mice. S 38232 increased the amplitude of fEPSPs, evoked in stratum radiatum by Schaffer collateral stimulation. This effect was potentiated by picrotoxin, suggesting that S 38232 exerts at least in part its effect on GABAergic interneurons. The action of S 38232 was mediated by non-alpha7 containing nAChRs since it was prevented by DHbetaE (1muM) but not by alpha-BTX (100nM). A similar potentiating effect on fEPSPs was observed when nicotine (1muM) was applied to hippocampal slices obtained from alpha7 -/- mice in the presence of picrotoxin. The potentiating effect of S 38232 was probably presynaptic in origin since it was associated with a significant reduction in paired-pulse ratio. In addition, in patch clamp experiments, S 38232 enhanced the frequency (but not the amplitude) of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, sIPSCs) recorded from CA1 principal cells. Moreover, it enhanced the frequency of miniature IPSCs but not EPSCs, suggesting that it was acting on nAChRs located on presynaptic/pre-terminal regions of GABAergic interneurons. The effect of S 38232 on GABAergic signaling was concentration-dependent with an EC(50) of 43muM. In conclusions, we present evidence that the new nicotine ligand S 38232, by selectively activating non-alpha7 nAChRs located on principal cells and GABAergic interneurons, influences network activity and information processing in the hippocampus.

  14. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, R.; Ghazavi, E.; Hinton, T.; Waters, K.A.; Hennessy, A.

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  15. Investigation of Acetylcholine Receptor Diversity in a Nematode Parasite Leads to Characterization of Tribendimidine- and Derquantel-Sensitive nAChRs

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, Cedric; Cabaret, Jacques; Cortet, Jacques; Peineau, Nicolas; Abongwa, Melanie; Courtot, Elise; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of parasitic nematodes are required for body movement and are targets of important “classical” anthelmintics like levamisole and pyrantel, as well as “novel” anthelmintics like tribendimidine and derquantel. Four biophysical subtypes of nAChR have been observed electrophysiologically in body muscle of the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum, but their molecular basis was not understood. Additionally, loss of one of these subtypes (G 35 pS) was found to be associated with levamisole resistance. In the present study, we identified and expressed in Xenopus oocytes, four O. dentatum nAChR subunit genes, Ode-unc-38, Ode-unc-63, Ode-unc-29 and Ode-acr-8, to explore the origin of the receptor diversity. When different combinations of subunits were injected in Xenopus oocytes, we reconstituted and characterized four pharmacologically different types of nAChRs with different sensitivities to the cholinergic anthelmintics. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptor diversity may be affected by the stoichiometric arrangement of the subunits. We show, for the first time, different combinations of subunits from a parasitic nematode that make up receptors sensitive to tribendimidine and derquantel. In addition, we report that the recombinant levamisole-sensitive receptor made up of Ode-UNC-29, Ode-UNC-63, Ode-UNC-38 and Ode-ACR-8 subunits has the same single-channel conductance, 35 pS and 2.4 ms mean open-time properties, as the levamisole-AChR (G35) subtype previously identified in vivo. These data highlight the flexible arrangements of the receptor subunits and their effects on sensitivity and resistance to the cholinergic anthelmintics; pyrantel, tribendimidine and/or derquantel may still be effective on levamisole-resistant worms. PMID:24497826

  16. Relationships of agonist properties to the single channel kinetics of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Papke, R L; Millhauser, G; Lieberman, Z; Oswald, R E

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the systematic variations of the acetylcholine molecule on the microscopic kinetics of channel activation were studied using the patch clamp technique. The modifications consisted of adding either halogens or a methyl group to the acetyl carbon of acetylcholine, which results in a change in both the steric and ionic character of that portion of the molecule. The ionic character of the bond affected both the opening and closing rates of the channel. An increase in the ionicity decreased the opening rate and increased the closing rate of the channel, suggesting that the open state was destabilized. Increasing the size of the substituent decreased both the association and dissociation rates for agonist binding but had little effect on the equilibrium constant. This indicates that the energy barrier for binding and unbinding was increased without a major change in the energy of the bound and unbound states. These results suggest that it is possible to assign changes in the structural characteristics of the ligand to changes in individual steps in a reaction scheme, which can lead to specific predictions for the properties of related compounds. PMID:2449251

  17. Subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists enhance the responsiveness to citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Olsen, Gunnar M; Peters, Dan; Mirza, Naheed R; Redrobe, John P

    2011-10-01

    Nicotine increases serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. Accordingly, nicotine enhances antidepressant-like actions of reuptake inhibitors selective for serotonin or noradrenaline in the mouse forced swim test and the mouse tail suspension test. Both high-affinity α4β2 and low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are implicated in nicotine-mediated release of serotonin and noradrenaline. The present study therefore investigated whether selective agonism of α4β2 or α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors would affect the mouse forced swim test activity of two antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, namely the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. Subthreshold and threshold doses of citalopram (3 and 10 mg/kg) or reboxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) were tested alone and in combination with the novel α4β2-selective partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, NS3956 (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) or the α7-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, PNU-282987 (10 and 30 mg/kg). Alone, NS3956 and PNU-282987 were devoid of activity in the mouse forced swim test, but both 1.0 mg/kg NS3956 and 30 mg/kg PNU-282987 enhanced the effect of citalopram and also reboxetine. The data suggest that the activity of citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim test can be enhanced by agonists at either α4β2 or α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting that both nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes may be involved in the nicotine-enhanced action of antidepressants.

  18. Effect of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 1 (nAChRα1) peptides on rabies virus infection in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Saxena, Shikha; Bisht, Deepika; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Manjunatha Reddy, G B; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, R P; Kumar, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is neurotropic and causes acute progressive encephalitis. Herein, we report the interaction of nAChRα1-subunit peptides with RABV and the effect of these peptides on RABV infection in cultured neuronal cells. Peptide sequences derived from torpedo, bovine, human and rats were synthesized and studied for their interactions with RABV using virus capture ELISA and peptide immunofluorescence. The results showed specific binding of the nAChRα1-subunit peptides to the RABV. In the virus adsorption assay, these peptides were found to inhibit the attachment of the RABV to the neuronal cells. The nAChRα1-subunit peptides inhibited the RABV infection and reduced viral gene expression in the cultured neuroblastoma (N2A) cells. Torpedo peptide sequence (T-32) had highest antiviral effect (IC50=14±3.01μM) compared to the other peptides studied. The results of the study indicated that nAChRα1-subunit peptides may act as receptor decoy molecules and inhibit the binding of virus to the native host cell receptors and hence may reduce viral infection. PMID:26656837

  19. Ligand Binding at the α4-α4 Agonist-Binding Site of the α4β2 nAChR Triggers Receptor Activation through a Pre-Activated Conformational State

    PubMed Central

    Indurthi, Dinesh C.; Lewis, Trevor M.; Ahring, Philip K.; Balle, Thomas; Chebib, Mary; Absalom, Nathan L.

    2016-01-01

    The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant subtype in the brain and exists in two functional stoichiometries: (α4)3(β2)2 and (α4)2(β2)3. A distinct feature of the (α4)3(β2)2 receptor is the biphasic activation response to the endogenous agonist acetylcholine, where it is activated with high potency and low efficacy when two α4-β2 binding sites are occupied and with low potency/high efficacy when a third α4-α4 binding site is occupied. Further, exogenous ligands can bind to the third α4-α4 binding site and potentiate the activation of the receptor by ACh that is bound at the two α4-β2 sites. We propose that perturbations of the recently described pre-activation step when a third binding site is occupied are a key driver of these distinct activation properties. To investigate this, we used a combination of simple linear kinetic models and voltage clamp electrophysiology to determine whether transitions into the pre-activated state were increased when three binding sites were occupied. We separated the binding at the two different sites with ligands selective for the α4-β2 site (Sazetidine-A and TC-2559) and the α4-α4 site (NS9283) and identified that when a third binding site was occupied, changes in the concentration-response curves were best explained by an increase in transitions into a pre-activated state. We propose that perturbations of transitions into a pre-activated state are essential to explain the activation properties of the (α4)3(β2)2 receptor by acetylcholine and other ligands. Considering the widespread clinical use of benzodiazepines, this discovery of a conserved mechanism that benzodiazepines and ACh potentiate receptor activation via a third binding site can be exploited to develop therapeutics with similar properties at other cys-loop receptors. PMID:27552221

  20. (-)-Pentylsedinine, a New Alkaloid from the Leaves of Lobelia tupa with Agonist Activity at Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Becerra, Jose; Silva, Mario; Burgosa, Viviana; Heydenreich, Matthias; Schmidt, Bernd; Tran, Thu; Vetter, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Lobelia tupa, also called devil's tobacco, is a native plant from the center-south of Chile which has been used by the native people of Chile as a hallucinogenic and anesthetic plant. A new piperidine alkaloid, called pentylsedinine, which comprises five carbons in the side chain, was isolated from the aerial part of L. tupa, along with lobeline and lobelanidine. The structure was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. While lobeline is a neutral antagonist at α3β2/α3β4 nAChR and α7 nAChR, both lobelanidine and pentylsedinine act as partial agonists at nAChR.

  1. Morphine Increases Acetylcholine Release in the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhenghong; Bowman, Heather R.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The trigeminal nuclear complex (V) contains cholinergic neurons and includes the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (PSTN) which receives sensory input from the face and jaw, and the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV) which innervates the muscles of mastication. Pain associated with pathologies of V is often managed with opioids but no studies have characterized the effect of opioids on acetylcholine (ACh) release in PSTN and MoV. Opioids can increase or decrease ACh release in brainstem nuclei. Therefore, the present experiments tested the 2-tailed hypothesis that microdialysis delivery of opioids to the PSTN and MoV significantly alters ACh release. Design: Using a within-subjects design and isoflurane-anesthetized Wistar rats (n = 53), ACh release in PSTN during microdialysis with Ringer's solution (control) was compared to ACh release during dialysis delivery of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, muscarinic agonist bethanechol, opioid agonist morphine, mu opioid agonist DAMGO, antagonists for mu (naloxone) and kappa (nor-binaltorphimine; nor-BNI) opioid receptors, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Measurements and Results: Tetrodotoxin decreased ACh, confirming action potential-dependent ACh release. Bethanechol and morphine caused a concentration-dependent increase in PSTN ACh release. The morphine-induced increase in ACh release was blocked by nor-BNI but not by naloxone. Bicuculline delivered to the PSTN also increased ACh release. ACh release in the MoV was increased by morphine, and this increase was not blocked by naloxone or nor-BNI. Conclusions: These data comprise the first direct measures of ACh release in PSTN and MoV and suggest synaptic disinhibition as one possible mechanism by which morphine increases ACh release in the trigeminal nuclei. Citation: Zhu Z; Bowman HR; Baghdoyan HA; Lydic R. Morphine increases acetylcholine release in the trigeminal nuclear complex. SLEEP 2008;31(12):1629–1637. PMID:19090318

  2. Direct measurement of agonist binding to genetically engineered peptides of the acetylcholine receptor by selective T sub 1 NMR relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Fraenkel, Y.; Navon, G. ); Aronheim, A.; Gershoni, J.M. )

    1990-03-13

    Interactions of four ligands of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with genetically engineered peptides have been studied by NMR. A recombinant cholinergic binding site was prepared as a fusion protein between a truncated form of the bacterial protein trpE and a peptide corresponding to the sequence {alpha}184-200 from the Torpedo californica receptor. This construct binds {alpha}-bungarotoxin while the trpE protein alone does not, and thus serves as a negative control. In this study agonist binding to {alpha}184-200 is demonstrated by monitoring the T{sub 1} relaxation of the ligand's protons in the presence and absence of the recombinant binding site. This binding is specific as it can be competed with {alpha}-bungarotoxin. Quantitative analyses of such competitions yielded the concentration of binding sites, which corresponded to 3.3% and 16.5% of the total protein, for partially purified and affinity-purified {alpha}184-200 constructs, respectively. The K{sub D} values for the binding of acetylcholine, nicotine, d-tubocurarine, and gallamine to the affinity-purified construct were 1.4, 1.4, 0.20, and 0.21 mM, respectively, while K{sub D}'s with the nontoxin binding protein were all above 10 mM. Thus, this is a direct demonstration that the toxin binding domain {alpha}184-200 may comprise a major component of the cholinergic agonist site.

  3. Rodent habenulo-interpeduncular pathway expresses a large variety of uncommon nAChR subtypes, but only the α3β4* and α3β3β4* subtypes mediate acetylcholine release

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Sharon R.; Moretti, Milena; Zoli, Michele; Marks, Michael J.; Zanardi, Alessio; Pucci, Luca; Clementi, Francesco; Gotti, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) present in the habenulo-interpeduncular (Hb-IPn) system can modulate the reinforcing effect of addictive drugs and the anxiolytic effect of nicotine. Hb and IPn neurons express mRNAs for most nAChR subunits thus making it difficult to establish the subunit composition of functional receptors. We used immunoprecipitation and immunopurification studies performed in rat, and wildtype (+/+) and β2 knockout (−/−) mice to establish that the Hb and IPn contain significant β2* and β4* populations of nAChR receptors (each of which is heterogeneous). The β4* nAChR are more highly expressed in the IPn. We also identified novel native subtypes (α2β2*, α4β3β2*α3β3β4*, α6β3β4*). Our studies on IPn synaptosomes obtained from +/+ and α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, β3 and β4−/− mice, show that only the α3β4 and α3β3β4 subtypes facilitate acetylcholine (ACh) release. Ligand binding, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting studies in β3−/− mice showed that in the IPn of these mice there is a concomitant reduction of ACh release and α3β4* receptors, while the receptor number remains the same in the Hb. We suggest that in habenular cholinergic neurons the β3 subunit may be important for transporting the α3β4* subtype from the medial habenula (MHb) to the IPn. Overall, these studies highlight the presence of a wealth of uncommon nAChR subtypes in the Hb-IPn system and identify α3β4 and α3β3β4, transported from the Hb and highly enriched in the IPn, as the subtypes modulating ACh release in the IPn. PMID:19228980

  4. Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Clustering Is Regulated Both by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK3β)-dependent Phosphorylation and the Level of CLIP-associated Protein 2 (CLASP2) Mediating the Capture of Microtubule Plus-ends*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sreya; Sladecek, Stefan; Pemble, Hayley; Wittmann, Torsten; Slotman, Johan A.; van Cappellen, Wiggert; Brenner, Hans-Rudolf; Galjart, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The postsynaptic apparatus of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) traps and anchors acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at high density at the synapse. We have previously shown that microtubule (MT) capture by CLASP2, a MT plus-end-tracking protein (+TIP), increases the size and receptor density of AChR clusters at the NMJ through the delivery of AChRs and that this is regulated by a pathway involving neuronal agrin and several postsynaptic kinases, including GSK3. Phosphorylation by GSK3 has been shown to cause CLASP2 dissociation from MT ends, and nine potential phosphorylation sites for GSK3 have been mapped on CLASP2. How CLASP2 phosphorylation regulates MT capture at the NMJ and how this controls the size of AChR clusters are not yet understood. To examine this, we used myotubes cultured on agrin patches that induce AChR clustering in a two-dimensional manner. We show that expression of a CLASP2 mutant, in which the nine GSK3 target serines are mutated to alanine (CLASP2–9XS/9XA) and are resistant to GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation, promotes MT capture at clusters and increases AChR cluster size, compared with myotubes that express similar levels of wild type CLASP2 or that are noninfected. Conversely, myotubes expressing a phosphomimetic form of CLASP2 (CLASP2–8XS/D) show enrichment of immobile mutant CLASP2 in clusters, but MT capture and AChR cluster size are reduced. Taken together, our data suggest that both GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation and the level of CLASP2 play a role in the maintenance of AChR cluster size through the regulated capture and release of MT plus-ends. PMID:25231989

  5. Structural heterogeneity of the alpha subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in relation to agonist affinity alkylation and antagonist binding.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, M; Gullick, W; Spiess, J; Wan, K; Criado, M; Lindstrom, J

    1986-07-29

    The structural basis for the heterogeneity of the two agonist binding sites of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor with respect to antagonist binding and reactivity toward affinity alkylating reagents was investigated. There is one agonist binding site on each of the two alpha subunits in a receptor monomer. One of these sites is easily affinity labeled with bromoacetylcholine, while more extreme conditions are required to label the other. Evidence is presented that the site which is easily labeled with bromoacetylcholine is the site with higher affinity for the antagonist d-tubocurarine. Digestion of purified alpha subunits with staphylococcal V8 protease gave two limit fragments with apparent molecular weights of 17K and 19K. Both of these fragments began at residue 46 of the alpha sequence, and both reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for the sequence alpha 152-159 but not with antibodies specific for alpha 235-242. Their tryptic peptide maps and reactivity with a number of monoclonal antibodies were virtually identical. Only the 17-kilodalton (17-kDa) fragments stained heavily for sugars with Schiff's reagent. However, both fragments bound 125I-labeled concanavalin A. Complete removal of carbohydrate detectable with concanavalin A from V8 protease digests of alpha subunits resulted in two fragments of lower apparent molecular weights, indicating that these fragments differed not only in carbohydrate content but also in their C-termini or by another covalent modification. Covalent labeling of one of the two agonist sites of the intact receptor with bromo[3H]acetylcholine followed by digestion with V8 protease resulted in labeling of only the 19-kDa fragment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. AzoCholine Enables Optical Control of Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Damijonaitis, Arunas; Broichhagen, Johannes; Urushima, Tatsuya; Hüll, Katharina; Nagpal, Jatin; Laprell, Laura; Schönberger, Matthias; Woodmansee, David H; Rafiq, Amir; Sumser, Martin P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Gottschalk, Alexander; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-05-20

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are essential for cellular communication in higher organisms. Even though a vast pharmacological toolset to study cholinergic systems has been developed, control of endogenous neuronal nAChRs with high spatiotemporal precision has been lacking. To address this issue, we have generated photoswitchable nAChR agonists and re-evaluated the known photochromic ligand, BisQ. Using electrophysiology, we found that one of our new compounds, AzoCholine, is an excellent photoswitchable agonist for neuronal α7 nAChRs, whereas BisQ was confirmed to be an agonist for the muscle-type nAChR. AzoCholine could be used to modulate cholinergic activity in a brain slice and in dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we demonstrate light-dependent perturbation of behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:25741856

  7. [Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist.

  8. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns.

  9. Acetylcholine as a signaling system to environmental stimuli in plants. III. Asymmetric solute distribution controlled by ACh in gravistimulated maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Momonoki, Y S; Hineno, C; Noguchi, K

    1998-01-01

    Asymmetric distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has previously been demonstrated to occur in the lower side of the gravity-stimulated maize shoot. The localization of immunoreacted IAA-inositol synthase, AChE and safranin was detected in selected organs of gravistimulated dark grown maize seedlings using a light microscope. Immunoreacted IAA-inositol synthase was asymmetrically distributed in the lower side of the stele of coleoptile node and mesocotyl in maize seedlings placed horizontally. The positive AChE spots in the coleoptile node and mesocotyl were apparently localized in the lower half of the gravistimulated seedlings. Safranin was also asymmetrically distributed in the lower half of the endodermis and stele cells of coleoptile node and mesocotyl. Namely, transport of safranin in the upper half of the coleoptile node and mesocotyl was blocked by gravistimulation. Furthermore, the asymmetric distribution of immunoreacted IAA-inositol synthase was inhibited by neostigmine bromide, AChE inhibitor. These results show that an asymmetric environmental stimulus induces changes in AChE activity, affecting IAA-inositol synthase localization and safranin transport. PMID:12162322

  10. A selective molecularly imprinted polymer for immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE): an active enzyme targeted and efficient method.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Gökhan; Doğaç, Yasemin İspirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we immobilized acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme onto acetylcholine removed imprinted polymer and acetylcholine containing polymer. First, the polymers were produced with acetylcholine, substrate of AChE, by dispersion polymerization. Then, the enzyme was immobilized onto the polymers by using two different methods: In the first method (method A), acetylcholine was removed from the polymer, and then AChE was immobilized onto this polymer (acetylcholine removed imprinted polymer). In the second method (method B), AChE was immobilized onto acetylcholine containing polymer by affinity. In method A, enzyme-specific species (binding sites) occurred by removing acetylcholine from the polymer. The immobilized AChE reached 240% relative specific activity comparison with free AChE because the active enzyme molecules bounded onto the polymer. Transmission electron microscopy results were taken before and after immobilization of AChE for the assessment of morphological structure of polymer. Also, the experiments, which include optimum temperature (25-65 °C), optimum pH (3-10), thermal stability (4-70 °C), kinetic parameters, operational stability and reusability, were performed to determine the characteristic of the immobilized AChE.

  11. The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters induced by their agonists. Thus nAChRs mediated cell signaling plays an important role in stimulating the growth and angiogenic and neurogenic factors and mediating oncogenic signal transduction during cancer development in a cell type specific manner. In this review, we provide an integrated view of nAChRs signaling in cancer, heightening on the oncogenic properties of nAChRs that may be targeted for cancer treatment. PMID:26981122

  12. The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters induced by their agonists. Thus nAChRs mediated cell signaling plays an important role in stimulating the growth and angiogenic and neurogenic factors and mediating oncogenic signal transduction during cancer development in a cell type specific manner. In this review, we provide an integrated view of nAChRs signaling in cancer, heightening on the oncogenic properties of nAChRs that may be targeted for cancer treatment. PMID:26981122

  13. Monkey adrenal chromaffin cells express α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vivanco, Alicia; Hone, Arik J; Scadden, Mick L; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs.

  14. Monkey Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Express α6β4* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Scadden, Mick´l; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J. Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs. PMID:24727685

  15. Galantamine-induced amyloid-{beta} clearance mediated via stimulation of microglial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Saeki, Mana; Terada, Maki; Kagitani, Sachiko; Kitamura, Risa; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Maelicke, Alfred; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shimohama, Shun

    2010-12-17

    Reduction of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease (AD), and microglial Aβ phagocytosis is noted as an Aβ clearance system in brains. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for symptomatic treatment of AD. Galantamine also acts as an allosterically potentiating ligand (APL) for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). APL-binding site is located close to but distinct from that for acetylcholine on nAChRs, and FK1 antibody specifically binds to the APL-binding site without interfering with the acetylcholine-binding site. We found that in human AD brain, microglia accumulated on Aβ deposits and expressed α7 nAChRs including the APL-binding site recognized with FK1 antibody. Treatment of rat microglia with galantamine significantly enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis, and acetylcholine competitive antagonists as well as FK1 antibody inhibited the enhancement. Thus, the galantamine-enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis required the combined actions of an acetylcholine competitive agonist and the APL for nAChRs. Indeed, depletion of choline, an acetylcholine-competitive α7 nAChR agonist, from the culture medium impeded the enhancement. Similarly, Ca(2+) depletion or inhibition of the calmodulin-dependent pathways for the actin reorganization abolished the enhancement. These results suggest that galantamine sensitizes microglial α7 nAChRs to choline and induces Ca(2+) influx into microglia. The Ca(2+)-induced intracellular signaling cascades may then stimulate Aβ phagocytosis through the actin reorganization. We further demonstrated that galantamine treatment facilitated Aβ clearance in brains of rodent AD models. In conclusion, we propose a further advantage of galantamine in clinical AD treatment and microglial nAChRs as a new therapeutic target. PMID:20947502

  16. The analgesic-like properties of the alpha7 nAChR silent agonist NS6740 is associated with non-conducting conformations of the receptor

    PubMed Central

    Papke, Roger L.; Bagdas, Deniz; Kulkarni, Abhijit R.; Gould, Timothy; AlSharari, Shakir D.; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2014-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of neurological disorders including chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Since α7 can function as a ligand-gated ion channel, drug development initially focused on ligands that were selective activators of the α7 ion channel. However, the best α7 drugs for chronic pain and inflammation indications may not be ion channel activators but rather “silent agonists”, which bind to the receptor but preferentially induce non-conducting states that modulate signal transduction in non-neuronal cells. One such compound is NS6740. We show that NS6740 selectively induces prolonged desensitization of α7 nAChRs. There are two forms of α7 desensitization that can be distinguished by their sensitivity to the positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). At high concentrations, NS6740 preferentially induces PAM-insensitive desensitization, which over the course of several minutes reverts to the sensitive form. NS6740 was tested in several pain models after in vivo administration in the mouse. Although it had no effects in acute thermal pain, NS6740 induced significant dose- and time-dependent antinociceptive activity in formalin- and acetic acid-induced nociceptive behaviors as well as in the chronic constrictive nerve injury (CCI) model for neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive activity of NS6740 in these models was α7-dependent. In addition, NS6740 administration reversed pain-induced aversion, an important affective component of pain. The time and concentration dependence of the effects were consistent with NS6740 induction of PAM-insensitive non-conducting states, suggesting that signal transduction required for analgesia is accomplished by α7 receptors in that conformation. PMID:25497451

  17. Defining Nicotinic Agonist Binding Surfaces through Photoaffinity Labeling†

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Maltby, David; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Zhang, Nanjing; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Presley, Jack; Talley, Todd T.; Taylor, Palmer; Burlingame, Alma L.; Casida, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) agonists are potential therapeutic agents for neurological dysfunction. In the present study, the homopentameric mollusk ACh binding protein (AChBP), used as a surrogate for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the nAChR, was specifically derivatized by the highly potent agonist azidoepibatidine (AzEPI) prepared as a photoaffinity probe and radioligand. One EPI-nitrene photoactivated molecule was incorporated in each subunit interface binding site based on analysis of the intact derivatized protein. Tryptic fragments of the modified AChBP were analyzed by collision-induced dissociation and Edman sequencing of radiolabeled peptides. Each specific EPI-nitrene-modified site involved either Tyr195 of loop C on the principal or (+)-face or Met116 of loop E on the complementary or (−)-face. The two derivatization sites were observed in similar frequency, providing evidence of the reactivity of the azido/nitrene probe substituent and close proximity to both residues. [3H]AzEPI binds to the α4β2 nAChR at a single high-affinity site and photoaffinity-labels only the α4 subunit, presumably modifying Tyr225 spatially corresponding to Tyr195 of AChBP. Phe137 of the β2 nAChR subunit, equivalent to Met116 of AChBP, conceivably lacks sufficient reactivity with the nitrene generated from the probe. The present photoaffinity labeling in a physiologically relevant condition combined with the crystal structure of AChBP allows development of precise structural models for the AzEPI interactions with AChBP and α4β2 nAChR. These findings enabled us to use AChBP as a structural surrogate to define the nAChR agonist site. PMID:17614369

  18. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  19. Insect Nicotinic Receptor Agonists as Flea Adulticides in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Dai Tan; Hsu, Walter H.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Fleas are significant ectoparasites of small animals. They can be a severe irritant to animals and serve as a vector for a number of infectious diseases. In this article, we discuss the pharmacological characteristics of four insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists used as fleacides in dogs and cats, which include three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and dinotefuran) and spinosad. Insect nAChR agonists are one of the most important new classes of insecticides, which are used to control sucking insects both on plants and on companion animals. These new compounds provide a new approach for practitioners to safely and effectively eliminate fleas. PMID:20646191

  20. Physiological and biochemical studies of newly synthesized muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in embryonic chicken heart

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of either chicken embryos in ovo or cultured embryonic chicken cardiac cells in vitro to the muscarinic agonist carbachol results in a 70-90% decrease in the number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) expressed in cardiac cells. Block of agonist-receptor interactions in ovo with the antagonist atropine or removal of the agonist in vitro results in a gradual increase in mAChR number, reaching the control level in 14 hr. Measurements of physiological sensitivity of atria or cultured cells show that, even after the complete recovery of receptor number, the sensitivity to agonist is reduced. The sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is also decreased at this time. Newly synthesized mAChR which appear following affinity alkylation in cultured cells are also poorly coupled to the stimulation of /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux, indicating that decreased physiological sensitivity is not due to an unknown effect of long-term agonist exposure on general cellular function, but rather reflects an intrinsic property of newly synthesized mAChR. This increase in sensitivity is also not blocked by cycloheximide. The increase in sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated responses is due neither to a lack of expression of newly synthesized mAChR on the surface nor to reduced agonist affinity of the mAChR. The diminished sensitivity and subsequent maturation observed in cells containing newly synthesized receptors is due either to a small change in mAChR, or to a change in an as-yet-undefined component of the mAChR transduction system; this alteration represents a novel locus for modulation of cholinergic signals in the heart.

  1. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  2. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  3. Identification, characterization, and regulation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Synaptic input to bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and results in secretion of catecholamines. Three probes previously shown to recognize AChRs on neurons were used to identify the AChR on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture: monoclonal antibody mAb 35, a toxin that blocks receptor function, and the agonist nicotine. Competition for {sup 3}H-nicotine binding was used to measure the affinity of cholinergic ligands, and revealed the pharmacological profile expected for a neuronal-type AChR. At steady state the rate both of receptor insertion into and loss from the plasma membrane is about 3%/hour, resulting in a half-life in the surface of about 24 hours. Exposure to the anti-AChR antibody results in a loss of AChRs from the surface of the cells through a process that has the characteristics of antigenic modulation. The number of AChRs on the surface of the chromaffin cells can also be modulated by agonists and hormones, including glucocotricoids. Catecholamines, three peptides that may be secreted by chromaffin cells, and K{sup +}-induced secretion reduce agonist-induced catecholamine release by decreasing the number of AChRs, providing a mechanism for autoregulation.

  4. Functional analysis of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in multiple activation states by SSM-based electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Niessen, K V; Muschik, S; Langguth, F; Rappenglück, S; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2016-04-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPC), i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, are highly toxic due to their strong inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibited AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and thus the desensitisation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is provoked. Direct targeting of nAChR to reduce receptor desensitisation might be an alternative therapeutic approach. For drug discovery, functional properties of potent therapeutic candidates need to be investigated in addition to affinity properties. Solid supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is useful for functional characterisation of ligand-gated ion channels like nAChRs, as charge translocations via capacitive coupling of the supporting membrane can be measured. By varying the agonist (carbamoylcholine) concentration, different functional states of the nAChR were initiated. Using plasma membrane preparations obtained from Torpedo californica electric organ, functional properties of selected nAChR ligands and non-oxime bispyridinium compounds were investigated. Depending on overall-size, the bispyridinium compounds enhanced or inhibited cholinergic signals induced by 100 μM carbamoylcholine. Applying excessive concentrations of the agonist carbamoylcholine provoked desensitisation of the nAChRs, whereas addition of bispyridinium compounds bearing short alkyl linkers exhibited functional recovery of previously desensitised nAChRs. The results suggest that these non-oxime bispyridinium compounds possibly interacted with nAChR subtypes in a manner of a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). The described newly developed functional assay is a valuable tool for the assessment of functional properties of potential compounds such as nAChR modulating ligands, which might be a promising approach in the therapeutically treatment of OPC-poisonings. PMID:26851639

  5. Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists ABT-089 and ABT-107 attenuates the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alycia M; Arreola, Adrian C; Kimmey, Blake A; Schmidt, Heath D

    2014-11-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have modest efficacy, and most smokers relapse within the first few days after a quit attempt. Nicotine withdrawal-induced craving and cognitive impairments predict smoking relapse during abstinence and suggest that cognitive-enhancing drugs may prevent relapse. ABT-089 and ABT-107 are subtype-selective nAChR agonists that improve cognitive performance in laboratory animals. However, there are no studies examining the effects of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse in human smokers. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of the α4β2*/α6β2* nAChR agonist ABT-089 and the α7 nAChR agonist ABT-107 on nicotine taking and seeking in rats. The effects of acute ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement were tested in male Sprague Dawley rats. Parallel studies of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were tested in separate groups of rats to determine if the effects of these drug treatments generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Nicotine and sucrose self-administration behaviors were not altered following acute administration of ABT-089 (0, 0.12, 1.2 and 12.0mg/kg) or ABT-107 (0, 0.03 and 0.3mg/kg). In contrast, both ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated nicotine reinstatement. These effects were reinforcer-specific as no effects of ABT-089 or ABT-107 pretreatment on sucrose seeking were noted. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABT-089 and ABT-107 do not affect nicotine consumption, but may reduce the likelihood that a smoking lapse will lead to relapse.

  6. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R

    2016-07-04

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic.

  7. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benedict T.; Lee, Stephen T.; Welch, Kevin D.; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic. PMID:27384586

  8. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R

    2016-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic. PMID:27384586

  9. α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulated by galantamine on nigrostriatal terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated rotational behavior.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Ashihara, Eishi; Tooyama, Ikuo; Shimohama, Shun; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    Galantamine, an acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor used to treat dementia symptoms, also acts as an allosteric potentiating ligand (APL) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study was designed to evaluate the allosteric effect of galantamine on nAChR regulation of nigrostrial dopaminergic neuronal function in the hemiparkinsonian rat model established by unilateral nigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection. Methamphetamine, a dopamine releaser, induced ipsilateral rotation, whereas dopamine agonists apomorphine (a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist), SKF38393 (a selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist), and quinpirole (a selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist) induced contralateral rotation. When 6-OHDA-injected rats were co-treated with nomifensine, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, a more pronounced and a remarkable effect of nicotine and galantamine was observed. Under these conditions, the combination of nomifensine with nicotine or galantamine induced the ipsilateral rotation similar to the methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior, indicating that nicotine and galantamine also induce dopamine release from striatal terminals. Both nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotations were significantly blocked by flupenthixol (an antagonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors) and mecamylamine (an antagonist of nAChRs), suggesting that galantamine modulation of nAChRs on striatal dopaminergic terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated movement. Immunohistochemical staining showed that α4 nAChRs were highly expressed on striatal dopaminergic terminals, while no α7 nAChRs were detected. Pretreatment with the α4 nAChR antagonist dihydroxy-β-erythroidine significantly inhibited nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotational behaviors, whereas pretreatment with the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine was ineffective. Moreover, the α4 nAChR agonist ABT-418 induced ipsilateral rotation, while the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 had no

  10. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.; Yu Jun; Leung, W.K.; Cho, C.H.; Sung, J.J.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7 nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX, {alpha}7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol ({beta}-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE{sub 2} and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} induction can only be suppressed by propranolol, but not {alpha}-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis.

  11. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-lipid interactions: Mechanistic insight and biological function.

    PubMed

    Baenziger, John E; Hénault, Camille M; Therien, J P Daniel; Sun, Jiayin

    2015-09-01

    Membrane lipids are potent modulators of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo. Lipids influence nAChR function by both conformational selection and kinetic mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of activatable versus non-activatable conformations, as well as influencing the transitions between these conformational states. Of note, some membranes stabilize an electrically silent uncoupled conformation that binds agonist but does not undergo agonist-induced conformational transitions. The uncoupled nAChR, however, does transition to activatable conformations in relatively thick lipid bilayers, such as those found in lipid rafts. In this review, we discuss current understanding of lipid-nAChR interactions in the context of increasingly available high resolution structural and functional data. These data highlight different sites of lipid action, including the lipid-exposed M4 transmembrane α-helix. Current evidence suggests that lipids alter nAChR function by modulating interactions between M4 and the adjacent transmembrane α-helices, M1 and M3. These interactions have also been implicated in both the folding and trafficking of nAChRs to the cell surface. We review current mechanistic understanding of lipid-nAChR interactions, and highlight potential biological roles for lipid-nAChR interactions in modulating the synaptic response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25791350

  12. AChE inhibition: one dominant factor for swimming behavior changes of Daphnia magna under DDVP exposure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zongming; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xiaoguang; Qi, Pingping; Zhang, Biao; Zeng, Yang; Fu, Rongshu; Miao, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    As a key enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses of both vertebrates and invertebrates, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is strongly inhibited by organophosphates. AChE inhibition may induce the decrease of swimming ability. According to previous research, swimming behavior of different aquatic organisms could be affected by different chemicals, and there is a shortage of research on direct correlation analysis between swimming behavior and biochemical indicators. Therefore, swimming behavior and whole-body AChE activity of Daphnia magna under dichlorvos (DDVP) exposure were identified in order to clarify the relationship between behavioral responses and AChE inhibition in this study. In the beginning, AChE activity was similar in all treatments with the control. During all exposures, the tendency of AChE activity inhibition was the same as the behavioral responses of D. magna. The AChE activity of individuals without movement would decrease to about zero in several minutes. The correlation analysis between swimming behavior of D. magna and AChE activity showed that the stepwise behavioral response was mainly decided by AChE activity. All of these results suggested that the toxicity characteristics of DDVP as an inhibitor of AChE on the swimming behavior of organisms were the same, and the AChE activity inhibition could induce loss of the nerve conduction ability, causing hyperactivity, loss of coordination, convulsions, paralysis and other kinds of behavioral changes, which was illustrated by the stepwise behavioral responses under different environmental stresses.

  13. Dysfunctional Presynaptic M2 Receptors in the Presence of Chronically High Acetylcholine Levels: Data from the PRiMA Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Franziska; Krejci, Eric; Zimmermann, Martina; Klein, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The muscarinic M2 receptor (M2R) acts as a negative feedback regulator in central cholinergic systems. Activation of the M2 receptor limits acetylcholine (ACh) release, especially when ACh levels are increased because acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is acutely inhibited. Chronically high ACh levels in the extracellular space, however, were reported to down-regulate M2R to various degrees. In the present study, we used the PRiMA knockout mouse which develops severely reduced AChE activity postnatally to investigate ACh release, and we used microdialysis to investigate whether the function of M2R to reduce ACh release in vivo was impaired in adult PRiMA knockout mice. We first show that striatal and hippocampal ACh levels, while strongly increased, still respond to AChE inhibitors. Infusion or injection of oxotremorine, a muscarinic M2 agonist, reduced ACh levels in wild-type mice but did not significantly affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice or in wild-type mice in which ACh levels were artificially increased by infusion of neostigmine. Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, increased ACh levels in wild-type mice receiving neostigmine, but not in wild-type mice or in PRiMA knockout mice. These results demonstrate that M2R are dysfunctional and do not affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice, likely because of down-regulation and/or loss of receptor-effector coupling. Remarkably, this loss of function does not affect cognitive functions in PRiMA knockout mice. Our results are discussed in the context of AChE inhibitor therapy as used in dementia. PMID:26506622

  14. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Bychkov, M. L.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Kulbatskii, D. S.; Arvaniti, M.; Dolejsi, Eva; Schaer, T.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Thomsen, M. S.; Dolezal, V.; Bertrand, D.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a ‘three-finger’ fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the ‘classical’ orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs. PMID:27485575

  15. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Bychkov, M. L.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Kulbatskii, D. S.; Arvaniti, M.; Dolejsi, Eva; Schaer, T.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Thomsen, M. S.; Dolezal, V.; Bertrand, D.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2016-08-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a ‘three-finger’ fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the ‘classical’ orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs.

  16. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. PMID:25951893

  17. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) feeding increases muscarinic receptor (mAChR) density in esophagus without parallel change in dose response (D-R) to cholinergic agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Gordon, J.H.; Urban, G.; Fields, J.Z. VA Hospital, Hines, IL )

    1991-03-11

    The mAChR/effector pathway for signal transduction is important in the physiology of esophagus and mAChR alterations are involved in EtOH induced changes in several organs. To see if EtOH-induced increases in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) are due to upregulation of mAChR, the authors evaluated mAChR binding and D-R curves for bethanechol (IV) induced increases in LESP, and compared these values to changes in LESP after acute and chronic EtOH. EtOH was given to cats acutely or chronically. The number of mAChR sites (Bmax) in esophagus was lowered by acute EtOH, withdrawal from chronic EtOH raised Bmax. Acute injection of EtOH to cats in withdrawal reversed this increase in mAChR density. These changes correlated with the earlier data on EtOH-induced changes in LESP. In contrast, the D-R curve for bethanechol shifted to the right. Thus, the withdrawal-associated increase in Bmax is more likely to be a compensatory response to deficits distal to the receptor recognition site than to proximal deficits and doesn't cause LESP hyperactivity. Also, receptor binding changes do not necessarily translate into physiological changes.

  18. Roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunits in function of human α4-containing nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Yu, Kewei; Hu, Jun; Kuo, Yen-Ping; Segerberg, Marsha; St John, Paul A; Lukas, Ronald J

    2006-01-01

    Naturally expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) containing α4 subunits (α4*-nAChR) in combination with β2 subunits (α4β2-nAChR) are among the most abundant, high-affinity nicotine binding sites in the mammalian brain. β4 subunits are also richly expressed and colocalize with α4 subunits in several brain regions implicated in behavioural responses to nicotine and nicotine dependence. Thus, α4β4-nAChR also may exist and play important functional roles. In this study, properties were determined of human α4β2- and α4β4-nAChR heterologously expressed de novo in human SH-EP1 epithelial cells. Whole-cell currents mediated via human α4β4-nAChR have ∼4-fold higher amplitude than those mediated via human α4β2-nAChR and exhibit much slower acute desensitization and functional rundown. Nicotinic agonists induce peak whole-cell current responses typically with higher functional potency at α4β4-nAChR than at α4β2-nAChR. Cytisine and lobeline serve as full agonists at α4β4-nAChR but are only partial agonists at α4β2-nAChR. However, nicotinic antagonists, except hexamethonium, have comparable affinities for functional α4β2- and α4β4-nAChR. Whole-cell current responses show stronger inward rectification for α4β2-nAChR than for α4β4-nAChR at a positive holding potential. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that human nAChR β2 or β4 subunits can combine with α4 subunits to generate two forms of α4*-nAChR with distinctive physiological and pharmacological features. Diversity in α4*-nAChR is of potential relevance to nervous system function, disease, and nicotine dependence. PMID:16825297

  19. The potent and selective α4β2*/α6*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist 2-[5-[5-((S)Azetidin-2-ylmethoxy)-3-pyridinyl]-3-isoxazolyl]ethanol demonstrates antidepressive-like behavior in animal models and a favorable ADME-tox profile

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Fang; Brek Eaton, J; Zhang, Han-Kun; Sabath, Emily; Hanania, Taleen; Li, Guan-Nan; van Breemen, Richard B; Whiteaker, Paul; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Chang, Yong-Chang; Lukas, Ronald J; Brunner, Dani; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated that the inhibition of cholinergic supersensitivity through nicotinic antagonists and partial agonists can be used successfully to treat depressed patients, especially those who are poor responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In our effort to develop novel antidepressant drugs, LF-3-88 was identified as a potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist with subnanomolar to nanomolar affinities for β2-containing nAChRs (α2β2, α3β2, α4β2, and α4β2*) and superior selectivity away from α3β4 − (Ki > 104 nmol/L) and α7-nAChRs (Ki > 104 nmol/L) as well as 51 other central nervous system (CNS)-related neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Functional activities at different nAChR subtypes were characterized utilizing 86Rb+ ion efflux assays, two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) recording in oocytes, and whole-cell current recording measurements. In mouse models, administration of LF-3-88 resulted in antidepressive-like behavioral signatures 15 min post injection in the SmartCube® test (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.; about 45-min session), decreased immobility in the forced swim test (1–3 mg/kg, i.p.; 1–10 mg/kg, p.o.; 30 min pretreatment, 6-min trial), and decreased latency to approach food in the novelty-suppressed feeding test after 29 days chronic administration once daily (5 mg/kg but not 10 mg/kg, p.o.; 15-min trial). In addition, LF-3-88 exhibited a favorable profile in pharmacokinetic/ADME-Tox (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) assays. This compound was also shown to cause no mortality in wild-type Balb/CJ mice when tested at 300 mg/kg. These results further support the potential of potent and selective nicotinic partial agonists for use in the treatment of depression. PMID:25505580

  20. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  1. Natural compounds interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from low-molecular weight ones to peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  2. Enhanced meta-analysis of acetylcholine binding protein structures reveals conformational signatures of agonism in nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stober, Spencer T; Abrams, Cameron F

    2012-01-01

    The soluble acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) is the default structural proxy for pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). Unfortunately, it is difficult to recognize conformational signatures of LGIC agonism and antagonism within the large set of AChBP crystal structures in both apo and ligand-bound states, primarily because AChBP conformations in this set are nearly superimposable (root mean square deviation < 1.5 Å). We have undertaken a systematic, alignment-free approach to elucidate conformational differences displayed by AChBP that cleanly differentiate apo/antagonist-bound from agonist-bound states. Our approach uses statistical inference based on both crystallographic states and conformations sampled during long molecular dynamics simulations to select important inter-Cα distances and map their collective values onto functional states. We observe that binding of (nAChR) agonists to AChBP elicits clockwise rotation of the inner β-sheet with respect to the outer β-sheet, causing tilting of the cys-loop away from the five-fold axis, in a manner quite similar to that speculated for α-subunits of the heteromeric nAChR structure (Unwin, J Mol Biol 2005;346:967), making this motion potentially important in transmission of the gating signal to the transmembrane domain of a LGIC. The method is also successful at discriminating partial from full agonists and supports the hypothesis that a particularly controversial ligand, lobeline, is in fact an LGIC antagonist. PMID:22170867

  3. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Henry G. S.; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light—electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling. PMID:26648844

  4. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Martin, Henry G S; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light-electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling.

  5. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods.

    PubMed

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; de Valdivia, Ernesto Gonzalez; Li, Shizhong; Reisenberger, Julia; Carlsen, Eva M M; Khan, Zaid; Hansen, Niels O; Puhm, Florian; Søndergaard, Leif; Niemiec, Justyna; Heninger, Magdalena; Ren, Guilin R; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2013-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked by the antagonists. A- and B-type mAChRs were also cloned and functionally characterized from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Recently, Haga et al. (Nature 2012, 482: 547-551) published the crystal structure of the human m2 mAChR, revealing 14 amino acid residues forming the binding pocket for QNB. These residues are identical between the human m2 and the D. melanogaster and T. castaneum A-type mAChRs, while many of them are different between the human m2 and the B-type receptors. Using bioinformatics, one orthologue of the A-type and one of the B-type mAChRs could also be found in all other arthropods with a sequenced genome. Protostomes, such as arthropods, and deuterostomes, such as mammals and other vertebrates, belong to two evolutionarily distinct lineages of animal evolution that split about 700 million years ago. We found that animals that originated before this split, such as cnidarians (Hydra), had two A-type mAChRs. From these data we propose a model for the evolution of mAChRs.

  6. Functional properties of homomeric, human alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in the SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingke; Kuo, Yen-Ping; George, Andrew A; Peng, Jian-Hong; Purandare, Madhuri Singh; Schroeder, Katherine M; Lukas, Ronald J; Wu, Jie

    2003-06-01

    alpha 7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha 7-nAChRs) are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they play important roles in chemical and electrical signaling, and perhaps in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal death/survival. To help elucidate their normal and pathophysiological roles, we have heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in transfected SH-EP1 human epithelial cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate expression of human alpha 7 subunits as messenger RNA. Patch-clamp recordings exploiting a novel strategy to prevent functional rundown of whole-cell peak current responses to repeated acute challenges with nicotinic agonists show successful expression of functional alpha 7-nAChR that mediate inward currents characterized by rapid phases of activation and inactivation. Concentration-response curves show that nicotine, acetylcholine, and choline are efficacious agonists at human alpha 7-nAChRs. Current-voltage relationships show inward rectification for agonist-induced currents. Human alpha 7-nAChRs exhibit some sensitivity to alpha 7-nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin (Bgt) or methyllycaconitine (MLA) when applied coincidentally with agonist, but much higher affinity block occurs when cells and alpha 7-nAChRs are pre-exposed to antagonists for 2 min before challenge with agonist. Both Bgt and MLA are competitive inhibitors of alpha 7-nAChR function. Whole-cell current peak amplitudes and half-times for inactivation of alpha 7-nAChR functional responses to nicotine are dramatically reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggestive of high Ca2+ permeability of the alpha 7-nAChR channel. Thus, heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in mammalian cells have properties of native alpha 7-nAChR or of alpha 7-nAChR heterologously expressed in other systems and serve as excellent models for studies of molecular bases of alpha 7-nACh

  7. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin K; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L

    2011-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high-affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues.

  8. The impact of adenosine and an A2A adenosine receptor agonist on the ACh-induced increase in intracellular calcium of the glomus cells of the cat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Robert S; Shirahata, Machiko; Chang, Irene

    2009-12-01

    The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal chemosensor of arterial blood located next to the internal carotid artery. The basic chemosensing unit is composed of the neurotransmitter (NT)-containing glomus cells (GCs) and the sensory afferent fibers synapsing onto the GCs. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors have been found on both the sensory afferent fibers and on the GCs. Neural output from the CB (CBNO) increases when arterial blood perfusing it is hypoxic, hypoglycemic, hypercapnic, or acidic. The increased CBNO due to GC release of excitatory NTs must be preceded by an entrance of calcium into the GCs. With repeated release of ACh from the GCs, cholinergic receptors could become desensitized, particularly nicotinic receptors which function as calcium channels. The purpose of the present study was to see if adenosine (ADO), known to alter receptor sensitivities, could attenuate or eliminate any desensitization of the nicotinic receptors occurring during the repeated application of ACh. Cat CBs were harvested with techniques approved by the University's Animal Care/Use Committee. The GCs were cultured and prepared for detecting [Ca(++)](i) with standard techniques. Repeated application of ACh produced a progressively decreasing increase in [Ca(++)](i). With the use of ADO or an A2(A) ADO receptor agonist the decrease was avoided. Though ADO also increased GC [Ca(++)](i), the sum of ADO increase and ACh increase, when superfused separately, was less than the increase when they were both included in the same superfusion. This suggested the possible involvement of a new path in the action. Potential mechanisms to explain the phenomena are discussed. PMID:19761761

  9. Natural AChE Inhibitors from Plants and their Contribution to Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Ana Paula; Faraoni, María Belén; Castro, María Julia; Alza, Natalia Paola; Cavallaro, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    As acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are an important therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer’s disease, efforts are being made in search of new molecules with anti-AChE activity. The fact that naturally-occurring compounds from plants are considered to be a potential source of new inhibitors has led to the discovery of an important number of secondary metabolites and plant extracts with the ability of inhibiting the enzyme AChE, which, according to the cholinergic hypothesis, increases the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain, thus improving cholinergic functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and alleviating the symptoms of this neurological disorder. This review summarizes a total of 128 studies which correspond to the most relevant research work published during 2006-2012 (1st semester) on plant-derived compounds, plant extracts and essential oils found to elicit AChE inhibition. PMID:24381530

  10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes which selectively couple to phospholipase C: Pharmacological and biochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, M.A.; Fraser, C.M. )

    1990-12-14

    The pharmacological and biochemical properties of rat m1 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells were characterized with ligand binding, affinity labeling and biochemical assays. Both mAChR subtypes display saturable, high affinity binding of (3H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and a rank order of antagonist potency of QNB greater than atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Carbachol displacement of (3H)-QNB binding to the m3 mAChR revealed an approximate 17-fold higher affinity than observed with the m1 mAChR. (3H)-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM) labeling of mAChR revealed that m1 and m3 mAChR migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels with apparent molecular masses of 80,000 and 94,000 daltons, respectively, consistent with the known differences in their molecular sizes. Both m1 and m3 mAChR elicited dose-dependent increases in the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides; however, the maximal increase in total inositol phosphates elicited with the m1 mAChR was approximately 2-fold greater than that observed in cells expressing similar densities of m3 mAChR. Agonist activation of the m1 mAChR also elicited increases in basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP, whereas the m3 mAChR had no effect on intracellular cAMP levels. These data suggest that although m1 and m3 mAChR display a considerable degree of structural homology, they exhibit distinct pharmacological and biochemical properties.

  11. Alpha3* and alpha 7 nAChR-mediated Ca2+ transient generation in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ween, Hilde; Thorin-Hagene, Kirsten; Andersen, Elisabeth; Grønlien, Jens Halvard; Lee, Chih-Hung; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Malysz, John

    2010-10-01

    Alpha3-containing (alpha 3*) and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and implicated in Ca(2+) signaling. In this study, we investigated the intracellular Ca(2+) transient generation evoked by selective activation of alpha 3* (agonist potency rank order: epibatidine>varenicline>nicotine approximately cytisine) and alpha 7 (rank order in the presence of alpha 7 positive allosteric modulator or PAM: A-795723>NS6784 approximately PNU-282987) using, respectively, varenicline and NS6784 (+alpha 7 PAM) by Ca(2+) imaging. Effects of inhibitors of nAChRs (MLA and mecamylamine), ER Ca(2+) ATPase pump (CPA and thapsigargin), Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (ryanodine and dantrolene), Ca(2+) channels (nitrendipine, diltiazem, and Cd(2+)), and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) were examined. alpha 7 PAMs, when tested in the presence of NS6784, were more active when added first, followed by the agonist, than in the reverse order. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) - but not CPA, thapsigargin, ryanodine, dantrolene, nitrendipine, diltiazem, or Cd(2+) - diminished the alpha 7 agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients. In contrast, only diltiazem and nitrendipine and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) inhibited the alpha 3*-mediated Ca(2+) transients. The differential effect of diltiazem and nitrendipine versus Cd(2+) was due to direct inhibition of alpha 3* nAChRs as revealed by Ca(2+) imaging in HEK-293 cells expressing human alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs and patch clamp in IMR-32 cells. In summary, this study provides evidence that alpha 3* and alpha 7 nAChR agonist-evoked global Ca(2+) transient generation in IMR-32 cells does not primarily involve voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, intracellular Ca(2+) stores, or Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. These mechanisms may, however, be still involved in other forms of nAChR-mediated Ca(2+) signaling.

  12. Pretreatment of the cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses with nicotinoids and neonicotinoids differently affects acetylcholine and nicotine-induced ganglionic depolarizations.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Benzidane; Leray, Xavier; Falaise, Charlotte; Quinchard, Sophie; Ceron-Carrasco, José Pedro; Jacquemin, Denis; Graton, Jérôme; Le Questel, Jean-Yves; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that neonicotinoid insecticides were able to act as agonists of postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed at the synapse between the cercal nerve XI and the giant interneurons, in the sixth abdominal ganglion. In this work, we demonstrated that nicotinoids such as nornicotine acted as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed at cercal afferent/giant interneurons while cotinine was a poor agonist. Indeed, nornicotine induced a ganglionic depolarization which was blocked by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. In addition, we found that pretreatment of the sixth abdominal ganglion with 1 and 10 μM nornicotine and cotinine had no significant effect on acetylcholine and nicotine-induced depolarization. But pretreatment with 1 and 10 μM acetamiprid and imidacloprid had a strong effect. 1 and 10 μM acetamiprid completely blocked acetylcholine-induced depolarization, whereas imidacloprid had a partial effect. The present work therefore suggests, in agreement with previous studies, that nornicotine and cotinine bind to distinct cockroach postsynaptic nAChRs, whereas acetamiprid and imidacloprid have competitive effects with acetylcholine and nicotine on ganglionic depolarization.

  13. Acetylcholine and muscarinic receptor function in cerebral cortex of diabetic young and old male Wistar rats and the role of muscarinic receptors in calcium release from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Balakrishnan; Joseph, Binoy; Peeyush Kumar, T; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    We investigated acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine and muscarinic M1, M3 receptors kinetics in the cerebral cortex of young and old streptozotocin induced and insulin treated diabetic rats. The role of muscarinic receptors in intracellular calcium release from pancreatic islets was studied in vitro. Wistar rats of 7 and 90-weeks old were used. All studies were done in cerebral cortex. AChE assay was done by spectrophotometric method. Radioreceptor binding assays were done for Acetylcholine, Muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors using specific ligands. Calcium imaging was done using fluo4-AM in pancreatic cells. Ninety-weeks old control rats showed significantly decreased Vmax and increased Km for AChE compared to 7-weeks old control rats. An increased Vmax observed in both 7 and 90-weeks old diabetic groups with significant decrease in Km. Scatchard analysis using specific agonists showed significant decrease in the B (max) and K (d) of acetylcholine and muscarinic M1 receptors in 90-weeks old control rats compared to 7-weeks old control. Binding studies for M3 receptors showed no significant change compared to 7-weeks old control. Acetylcholine, muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor number significantly increased in 90-weeks old diabetic rat groups compared to their respective controls. Insulin treatment significantly reversed the binding parameters to near control compared to diabetic group. In vitro studies showed that acetylcholine through muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors' stimulated calcium release from the pancreatic islets. Thus our studies suggest that Insulin signaling play an important part in differentially regulating pancreatic cholinergic activity, and the diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions with age.

  14. Crystal structure of a human neuronal nAChR extracellular domain in pentameric assembly: Ligand-bound α2 homopentamer.

    PubMed

    Kouvatsos, Nikolaos; Giastas, Petros; Chroni-Tzartou, Dafni; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2016-08-23

    In this study we report the X-ray crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of the human neuronal α2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit in complex with the agonist epibatidine at 3.2 Å. Interestingly, α2 was crystallized as a pentamer, revealing the intersubunit interactions in a wild type neuronal nAChR ECD and the full ligand binding pocket conferred by two adjacent α subunits. The pentameric assembly presents the conserved structural scaffold observed in homologous proteins, as well as distinctive features, providing unique structural information of the binding site between principal and complementary faces. Structure-guided mutagenesis and electrophysiological data confirmed the presence of the α2(+)/α2(-) binding site on the heteromeric low sensitivity α2β2 nAChR and validated the functional importance of specific residues in α2 and β2 nAChR subunits. Given the pathological importance of the α2 nAChR subunit and the high sequence identity with α4 (78%) and other neuronal nAChR subunits, our findings offer valuable information for modeling several nAChRs and ultimately for structure-based design of subtype specific drugs against the nAChR associated diseases. PMID:27493220

  15. Reaction of (3H)meproadifen mustard with membrane-bound Torpedo acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, E.B.; Hasan, F.; Cohen, S.G.; Cohen, J.B.

    1986-10-15

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) contains a binding site for aromatic amine noncompetitive antagonists that is distinct from the binding site for agonists and competitive antagonists. To characterize the location and function of this allosteric antagonist site, an alkylating analog of meproadifen has been synthesized, 2-(chloroethylmethylamino)-ethyl-2, 2-diphenylpentanoate HCl (meproadifen mustard). Reaction of (/sup 3/H)meproadifen mustard with AChR-rich membrane suspensions resulted in specific incorporation of label predominantly into the AChR alpha-subunit with minor incorporation into the beta-subunit. Specific labeling required the presence of high concentration of agonist and was inhibited by reversible noncompetitive antagonists including proadifen, meproadifen, perhydrohistrionicotoxin (HTX), and tetracaine when present at concentrations consistent with the binding affinity of these compounds for the allosteric antagonist site. No specific alkylation of the AChR alpha-subunit was detected in the absence of agonist, or in the presence of the partial agonist phenyltrimethylammonium or the competitive antagonists, d-tubocurarine, gallamine triethiodide, or decamethonium. Reaction with 35 microM meproadifen mustard for 70 min in the presence of carbamylcholine produced no alteration in the concentration of (/sup 3/H)ACh-binding sites, but decreased by 38 +/- 4% the number of allosteric antagonist sites as measured by (/sup 3/H)HTX binding. This decrease was not observed when the alkylation reaction was blocked by the presence of HTX. These results lead us to conclude that meproadifen mustard alkylates the allosteric antagonist site in the Torpedo AChR and that part of that site is associated with the AChR alpha-subunit.

  16. Targeting of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and the Use of Auditory Sensory Gating as a Translational Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the α7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a key role in inflammatory processes, thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that the diminished suppression of P50 auditory evoked potentials in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with a decreased density of α7 nAChRs in the brain. This points to a role for auditory sensory gating (P50) as a translational biomarker. A number of agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for α7 nAChR promoted beneficial effects in animal models with sensory gating and cognitive deficits. Additionally, several clinical studies showed that α7 nAChR agonists could improve suppression in auditory P50 evoked potentials, as well as cognitive deficits, and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, α7 nAChR presents as an extremely attractive therapeutic target for schizophrenia. In this article, the author discusses recent findings on α7 nAChR agonists such as DMXB-A, RG3487, TC-5619, tropisetron, EVP-6124 (encenicline), ABT-126, AQW051 and α7 nAChR PAMs such as JNJ-39393406, PNU-120596 and AVL-3288 (also known as UCI-4083), and their potential as therapeutic drugs for neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. PMID:26044974

  17. Targeting of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and the Use of Auditory Sensory Gating as a Translational Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the α7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a key role in inflammatory processes, thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that the diminished suppression of P50 auditory evoked potentials in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with a decreased density of α7 nAChRs in the brain. This points to a role for auditory sensory gating (P50) as a translational biomarker. A number of agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for α7 nAChR promoted beneficial effects in animal models with sensory gating and cognitive deficits. Additionally, several clinical studies showed that α7 nAChR agonists could improve suppression in auditory P50 evoked potentials, as well as cognitive deficits, and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, α7 nAChR presents as an extremely attractive therapeutic target for schizophrenia. In this article, the author discusses recent findings on α7 nAChR agonists such as DMXB-A, RG3487, TC-5619, tropisetron, EVP-6124 (encenicline), ABT-126, AQW051 and α7 nAChR PAMs such as JNJ-39393406, PNU- 120596 and AVL-3288 (also known as UCI-4083), and their potential as therapeutic drugs for neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia.

  18. Structurally Similar Allosteric Modulators of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Exhibit Five Distinct Pharmacological Effects*

    PubMed Central

    Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Dhankher, Persis; D'Oyley, Jarryl M.; Sheppard, Tom D.; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is associated with the binding of agonists such as acetylcholine to an extracellular site that is located at the interface between two adjacent receptor subunits. More recently, there has been considerable interest in compounds, such as positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs), that are able to modulate nAChR function by binding to distinct allosteric sites. Here we examined a series of compounds differing only in methyl substitution of a single aromatic ring. This series of compounds includes a previously described α7-selective allosteric agonist, cis-cis-4-p-tolyl-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (4MP-TQS), together with all other possible combinations of methyl substitution at a phenyl ring (18 additional compounds). Studies conducted with this series of compounds have revealed five distinct pharmacological effects on α7 nAChRs. These five effects can be summarized as: 1) nondesensitizing activation (allosteric agonists), 2) potentiation associated with minimal effects on receptor desensitization (type I PAMs), 3) potentiation associated with reduced desensitization (type II PAMs), 4) noncompetitive antagonism (NAMs), and 5) compounds that have no effect on orthosteric agonist responses but block allosteric modulation (silent allosteric modulators (SAMs)). Several lines of experimental evidence are consistent with all of these compounds acting at a common, transmembrane allosteric site. Notably, all of these chemically similar compounds that have been classified as nondesensitizing allosteric agonists or as nondesensitizing (type II) PAMs are cis-cis-diastereoisomers, whereas all of the NAMs, SAMs, and type I PAMs are cis-trans-diastereoisomers. Our data illustrate the remarkable pharmacological diversity of allosteric modulators acting on nAChRs. PMID:25516597

  19. Deletion of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors increases amyloid pathology in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Albert A.; Fritz, Jason J.; Wess, Jürgen; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that causes dementia and poses a major public health crisis as the population ages. Aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is strongly implicated as a proximal event in AD pathophysiology, but the neurochemical signals that regulate APP processing in the brain are not completely understood. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) has been shown to affect APP processing and AD pathology, but less is known about the roles of specific mAChR subtypes. In this study, we used M1 mAChR knockout mice (M1KO) to isolate the effects of the M1 mAChR on APP processing in primary neurons and on the development of amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model of AD. We demonstrate that the loss of M1 mAChRs increases amyloidogenic APP processing in neurons, as evidenced by decreased agonist-regulated shedding of the neuroprotective APP ectodomain APPsα and increased production of toxic Aβ peptides. Expression of M1 mAChRs on the M1KO background rescued this phenotype, indicating that M1 mAChRs are sufficient to modulate non-amyloidogenic APP processing. In APPSwe/Ind transgenic mice, the loss of M1 mAChRs resulted in increased levels of brain Aβ1-40 and greater accumulation of amyloid plaque pathology. Analysis of APP metabolites in APPSwe/Ind brain tissue indicates that the loss of M1 mAChRs increases amyloidogenic APP processing. These results indicate that the M1 mAChR is an important regulator of amyloidogenesis in the brain and provide strong support for targeting the M1 mAChR as a therapeutic candidate in AD. PMID:20335454

  20. Spontaneous opening of the acetylcholine receptor channel in developing muscle cells from normal and dystrophic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Obregon, A.; Lansman, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Single-channel activity was recorded from cell-attached patches on skeletal muscle cells isolated from wild-type mice and from mice carrying the dy or mdx mutations. Spontaneous openings of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel (nAChR) were detected in virtually all recordings from either 4v/dy or dyl + myotubes. but only infrequently from wild-type or mdx myotubes. Spontaneous openings were also present in most recordings from undifferentiated myoblasts from all of the mouse strains studied. The biophysical properties of the spontaneous activity were similar to those of the embryonic form of the nAChR in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh). Examination of the single-channel currents evoked by low concentrations of ACh showed a reduced sensitivity to the agonist in the dystrophic dy and mdx myotubes. but not in wild- type myotubes. The results suggest that alterations in nAChR function are associated with the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy in the dy mouse.

  1. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P; Felder, Christian C; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  2. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P; Felder, Christian C; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  3. Antipsychotic-Like Effect of the Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist BuTAC in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P.; Felder, Christian C.; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  4. Rare human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit (CHRNA4) variants affect expression and function of high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    McClure-Begley, T D; Papke, R L; Stone, K L; Stokes, C; Levy, A D; Gelernter, J; Xie, P; Lindstrom, J; Picciotto, M R

    2014-03-01

    Nicotine, the primary psychoactive component in tobacco smoke, produces its behavioral effects through interactions with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). α4β2 nAChRs are the most abundant in mammalian brain, and converging evidence shows that this subtype mediates the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine. A number of rare variants in the CHRNA4 gene that encode the α4 nAChR subunit have been identified in human subjects and appear to be underrepresented in a cohort of smokers. We compared three of these variants (α4R336C, α4P451L, and α4R487Q) to the common variant to determine their effects on α4β2 nAChR pharmacology. We examined [(3)H]epibatidine binding, interacting proteins, and phosphorylation of the α4 nAChR subunit with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in HEK 293 cells and voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We observed significant effects of the α4 variants on nAChR expression, subcellular distribution, and sensitivity to nicotine-induced receptor upregulation. Proteomic analysis of immunopurified α4β2 nAChRs incorporating the rare variants identified considerable differences in the intracellular interactomes due to these single amino acid substitutions. Electrophysiological characterization in X. laevis oocytes revealed alterations in the functional parameters of activation by nAChR agonists conferred by these α4 rare variants, as well as shifts in receptor function after incubation with nicotine. Taken together, these experiments suggest that genetic variation at CHRNA4 alters the assembly and expression of human α4β2 nAChRs, resulting in receptors that are more sensitive to nicotine exposure than those assembled with the common α4 variant. The changes in nAChR pharmacology could contribute to differences in responses to smoked nicotine in individuals harboring these rare variants.

  5. α6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons are Poised to Govern Dopamine-Mediated Behaviors and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jennifer N.; Engle, Staci E.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Drenan, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine acts through nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in ventral midbrain and striatal areas to influence dopamine (DA) transmission. This cholinergic control of DA transmission is important for processes such as attention and motivated behavior, and is manipulated by nicotine in tobacco products. Identifying and characterizing the key ACh receptors involved in cholinergic control of DA transmission could lead to small molecule therapeutics for treating disorders involving attention, addiction, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. α6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly and specifically expressed in midbrain DA neurons, making them an attractive drug target. Here, we used genetic, pharmacological, behavioral, and biophysical approaches to study this nAChR subtype. For many experiments, we used mice expressing mutant α6 nAChRs (“α6L9S” mice) that increase the sensitivity of these receptors to agonists such as ACh and nicotine. Taking advantage of a simple behavioral phenotype exhibited by α6L9S mice, we compared the ability of full versus partial α6* nAChR agonists to activate α6* nAChRs in vivo. Using local infusions of both agonists and antagonists into brain, we demonstrate that neurons and nAChRs in the midbrain are sufficient to account for this behavioral response. To complement these behavioral studies, we studied the ability of in vivo α6* nAChR activation to support plasticity changes in midbrain DA neurons that are relevant to behavioral sensitization and addiction. By coupling local infusion of drugs and brain slice patch clamp electrophysiology, we show that activating α6* nAChRs in midbrain DA areas is sufficient to enhance glutamatergic transmission in VTA DA neurons. Together, these results from in vivo studies strongly suggest that α6* nAChRs expressed by VTA DA neurons are positioned to strongly influence both DA-mediated behaviors and the induction of synaptic plasticity by

  6. Discovery of 3-(5-chloro-2-furoyl)-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (TC-6683, AZD1446), a novel highly selective α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist for the treatment of cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mazurov, Anatoly A; Miao, Lan; Bhatti, Balwinder S; Strachan, Jon-Paul; Akireddy, Srinivasa; Murthy, Srinivasa; Kombo, David; Xiao, Yun-de; Hammond, Philip; Zhang, Jenny; Hauser, Terry A; Jordan, Kristen G; Miller, Craig H; Speake, Jason D; Gatto, Gregory J; Yohannes, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Diversification of essential nicotinic cholinergic pharmacophoric elements, i.e., cationic center and hydrogen bond acceptor, resulted in the discovery of novel potent α4β2 nAChR selective agonists comprising a series of N-acyldiazabicycles. Core characteristics of the series are an exocyclic carbonyl moiety as a hydrogen bond acceptor and endocyclic secondary amino group. These features are positioned at optimal distance and with optimal relative spatial orientation to provide near optimal interactions with the receptor. A novel potent and highly selective α4β2 nAChR agonist 3-(5-chloro-2-furoyl)-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (56, TC-6683, AZD1446) with favorable pharmaceutical properties and in vivo efficacy in animal models has been identified as a potential treatment for cognitive deficits associated with psychiatric or neurological conditions and is currently being progressed to phase 2 clinical trials as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Immunological studies on the structure and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mammalian muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of the antibodies in the serum of a patient with myasthenia gravis for a the {alpha}-bungarotoxin binding sites of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) was examined using AChRs in the C2 mouse muscle cell line as a model. The antibodies were shown to be specific for one of the two toxin-binding sites. The effect of the antibodies in this myasthenic serum on the functional response of the receptor to cholinergic agonists was also examined using carbamylcholine-induced {sup 22}Na uptake into C2 myotubes as a measured of the receptor function. Antibodies specific for the {gamma}, {delta}, and {epsilon} subunit, respectively, of mammalian muscle AChRs were developed using subunit-specific synthetic peptides as antigens. Using these antibodies and monoclonal antibodies for other subunits as probes, I have identified four ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta}) subunits of mammalian muscle AChRs on immunoblots. When AChRs from embryonic, neonatal, normal and denervated adult muscles were compared on immunoblots, the {alpha}, {beta}, and {delta} subunits were identical in all four receptor preparations, with or without endoglycosidase digestion. The spatial and temporal distribution of the {gamma}- and {epsilon}- AChRs in developing and in denervated muscles corresponds to the distribution of AChRs with slow and fast channels, respectively, and that the development changes in the channel properties of the receptor arise from a change in the subunit composition of the receptor, in which the {gamma} is replaced by {epsilon}.

  8. Effects of selected muscarinic cholinergic antagonists on [3H]acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Pohorecki, R; Head, R; Domino, E F

    1988-01-01

    A number of cholinergic muscarinic (M) agonists and antagonists were studied for their ability to enhance tritiated acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) release from electrically field-stimulated rat hippocampal slices. A Ca++-free medium and carbachol, but not nicotine, inhibited [3H]ACh release. Atropine, methylatropine and dexetimide produced concentration-dependent increases in [3H]ACh release to a maximum of about 50% above control. Aprophen and benactyzine produced a maximal response 25 to 35% above control. The selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine had the least effect on [3H]ACh release. Of the nonspecific M1-M2 antagonists studied, benactyzine produced the least amount of [3H]ACh release. The order of potency of the M antagonists in promoting a 15% increase in [3H]ACh release was aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than methylatropine greater than dexetimide greater than pirenzepine greater than atropine. However, the order of promoting maximal release of [3H]ACh was atropine greater than dexetimide greater than methylatropine greater than aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than pirenzepine. PMID:3335998

  9. A novel positive allosteric modulator of the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Raymond S; Hajós, Mihaly; Raggenbass, Mario; Wall, Theron M; Higdon, Nicole R; Lawson, Judy A; Rutherford-Root, Karen L; Berkenpas, Mitchell B; Hoffmann, W E; Piotrowski, David W; Groppi, Vincent E; Allaman, Geraldine; Ogier, Roch; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Arneric, Stephen P

    2005-04-27

    Several lines of evidence suggest a link between the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and brain disorders including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury. The present work describes a novel molecule, 1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(5-methyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-urea (PNU-120596), which acts as a powerful positive allosteric modulator of the alpha7 nAChR. Discovered in a high-throughput screen, PNU-120596 increased agonist-evoked calcium flux mediated by an engineered variant of the human alpha7 nAChR. Electrophysiology studies confirmed that PNU-120596 increased peak agonist-evoked currents mediated by wild-type receptors and also demonstrated a pronounced prolongation of the evoked response in the continued presence of agonist. In contrast, PNU-120596 produced no detectable change in currents mediated by alpha4beta2, alpha3beta4, and alpha9alpha10 nAChRs. PNU-120596 increased the channel mean open time of alpha7 nAChRs but had no effect on ion selectivity and relatively little, if any, effect on unitary conductance. When applied to acute hippocampal slices, PNU-120596 increased the frequency of ACh-evoked GABAergic postsynaptic currents measured in pyramidal neurons; this effect was suppressed by TTX, suggesting that PNU-120596 modulated the function of alpha7 nAChRs located on the somatodendritic membrane of hippocampal interneurons. Accordingly, PNU-120596 greatly enhanced the ACh-evoked inward currents in these interneurons. Systemic administration of PNU-120596 to rats improved the auditory gating deficit caused by amphetamine, a model proposed to reflect a circuit level disturbance associated with schizophrenia. Together, these results suggest that PNU-120596 represents a new class of molecule that enhances alpha7 nAChR function and thus has the potential to treat psychiatric and neurological disorders. PMID:15858066

  10. Improved resolution of single channel dwell times reveals mechanisms of binding, priming, and gating in muscle AChR.

    PubMed

    Mukhtasimova, Nuriya; daCosta, Corrie J B; Sine, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from vertebrate skeletal muscle initiates voluntary movement, and its kinetics of activation are crucial for maintaining the safety margin for neuromuscular transmission. Furthermore, the kinetic mechanism of the muscle AChR serves as an archetype for understanding activation mechanisms of related receptors from the Cys-loop superfamily. Here we record currents through single muscle AChR channels with improved temporal resolution approaching half an order of magnitude over our previous best. A range of concentrations of full and partial agonists are used to elicit currents from human wild-type and gain-of-function mutant AChRs. For each agonist-receptor combination, rate constants are estimated from maximum likelihood analysis using a kinetic scheme comprised of agonist binding, priming, and channel gating steps. The kinetic scheme and rate constants are tested by stochastic simulation, followed by incorporation of the experimental step response, sampling rate, background noise, and filter bandwidth. Analyses of the simulated data confirm all rate constants except those for channel gating, which are overestimated because of the established effect of noise on the briefest dwell times. Estimates of the gating rate constants were obtained through iterative simulation followed by kinetic fitting. The results reveal that the agonist association rate constants are independent of agonist occupancy but depend on receptor state, whereas those for agonist dissociation depend on occupancy but not on state. The priming rate and equilibrium constants increase with successive agonist occupancy, and for a full agonist, the forward rate constant increases more than the equilibrium constant; for a partial agonist, the forward rate and equilibrium constants increase equally. The gating rate and equilibrium constants also increase with successive agonist occupancy, but unlike priming, the equilibrium constants increase more than the forward rate

  11. The activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by the transmitter.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D B; Spivak, C E

    1985-02-01

    Experimental evidence has been published from isolated guinea pig muscle in vitro, and from direct ligand binding to receptors from T. californica, indicating that two agonist ions react with the nicotinic receptor by exchanging for one magnesium ion. It is the basis of the ion exchange receptor pair model, in which two acetylcholine ions exchange for one magnesium ion in contact with and between a pair of negatively charged receptor groups about 4 A apart. In the resting state the electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged receptor groups and the Mg2+ ion exerts a binding force. This binding force is opposed by the quantum mechanical repulsions of the electron clouds of the charged groups and ions in contact, together with the mutual repulsion of the pair of receptor oxyanions. When the Mg2+ ion is replaced by two acetylcholine ions the quaternary heads of the latter are positioned so that they form two mutually repelling ACh+ receptor group dipoles. As the Mg2+ ion leaves, its rehydration energy contributes to the sum of the electron cloud repulsions and the ACh+ receptor group dipole repulsions, causing the receptor groups to be forced apart activating the receptor macromolecule. The subsequent decrease in ACh+ concentration results in the reestablishment of the resting state. The coulombic electrostatic energy, the Born repulsion energy, the London attraction energy and the oxyanion ACh+ dipole repulsion energies have been calculated and shown to be consistent with the model. The displacement of the Mg2+ by two ACh+ ions makes several hundred kcals of energy available for receptor group separation and receptor activation.

  12. Selective activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by PHA-543613 improves Aβ25-35-mediated cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Sadigh-Eteghad, S; Talebi, M; Mahmoudi, J; Babri, S; Shanehbandi, D

    2015-07-01

    Agonists of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are currently being considered as therapeutic approaches for managing cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of α7 nAChR selective activation by PHA-543613 (PHA) on beta-amyloid (Aβ)25-35-mediated cognitive deficits in mice. For this purpose, PHA (1mg/kg, i.p.), a selective α7 nAChR agonist, and galantamine (Gal) (3mg/kg, s.c.), an acetylcholine-esterase inhibitor (AChEI) effects on α7 nAChR were tested in Aβ25-35-received (intracerebroventricular, 10 nmol) mice model of AD. Methyllycaconitine (MLA) (1mg/kg, i.p.), a α7 nAChR antagonist, was used for receptor blockage effects evaluation. Working and reference memory in animals was assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) task. The mRNA and protein levels of α7 subunit were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. PHA and Gal, ameliorate Aβ-impaired working and reference memory. However, Gal had less effect than PHA in this regard. Pretreatment with MLA reverses both Gal and PHA effects in MWM. PHA and Gal treatment prevent Aβ-induced α7 subunit protein reduction, but Gal has lesser effect than PHA. This effect blocked by pretreatment with MLA. In neither the pretreatment nor treatment group, the mRNA levels of nAChR α7 subunit were significantly changed. Therefore, α7 nAChR activation, reduces Aβ-induced cognitive deficits and increases the α7 protein level and subsequent neuron survival. However, blockage of receptor, increases Aβ toxicity and cognitive impairment and reduces the α7 nAChR protein level and flowing neuroprotection. PMID:25881725

  13. (R)-3'-(3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]octane-3,5'-oxazolidin]-2'-one, a novel and potent alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist displays cognitive enhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Ryo; Fujio, Masakazu; Takanashi, Shin-ichi; Numata, Atsushi; Katayama, Jiro; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Shiigi, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Jun-ichi; Kuriyama, Makoto; Horikawa, Takashi; Murozono, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2006-07-13

    Recent studies have suggested that the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play important roles in learning and memory. Herein, we describe our research of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) in a series of (S)-spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'-oxazolidin]-2'-ones bearing various bicyclic moieties to discover novel alpha7 receptor agonists. Through a number of SAR studies on the series, we have found out that inhibition of CYP 2D6 isozyme, which was a primary obstacle for the previously identified compound, was avoidable by the introduction of bicyclic moieties. Chemical optimization of the series led to the identification of a novel and potent alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist 23. This compound not only possessed high binding affinity (K(i) = 3 nmol/L) toward the alpha7 receptor but also showed agonistic activity even at a concentration of 0.1 micromol/L. In addition, compound 23 improved cognition in several rat models, which might suggest the potential of the alpha7 receptor partial agonist for the treatment of neurological disorders including cognitive dysfunction.

  14. Engineered α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as models for measuring agonist binding and effect at the orthosteric low-affinity α4-α4 interface.

    PubMed

    Ahring, Philip K; Olsen, Jeppe A; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan; Pedersen, Martin H F; Rohde, Line A; Kastrup, Jette S; Shahsavar, Azadeh; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Chebib, Mary; Gajhede, Michael; Balle, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4β2 is important for normal mammalian brain function and is known to express in two different stoichiometries, (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2. While these are similar in many aspects, the (α4)3(β2)2 stoichiometry differs by harboring a third orthosteric acetylcholine binding site located at the α4-α4 interface. Interestingly, the third binding site has, so far, only been documented using electrophysiological assays, actual binding affinities of nicotinic receptor ligands to this site are not known. The present study was therefore aimed at determining binding affinities of nicotinic ligands to the α4-α4 interface. Given that epibatidine shows large functional potency differences at α4-β2 vs. α4-α4 interfaces, biphasic binding properties would be expected at (α4)3(β2)2 receptors. However, standard saturation binding experiments with [(3)H]epibatidine did not reveal biphasic binding under the conditions utilized. Therefore, an engineered β2 construct (β2(HQT)), which converts the β(-) face to resemble that of an α4(-) face, was utilized to create (α4)3(β2(HQT))2 receptors harboring three α4-α4 interfaces. With this receptor, low affinity binding of epibatidine with a Kd of ∼5 nM was observed in sharp contrast to a Kd value of ∼10 pM observed for wild-type receptors. A strong correlation between binding affinities at the (α4)3(β2(HQT))2 receptor and functional potencies at the wild-type receptor of a range of nicotinic ligands highlighted the validity of using the mutational approach. Finally, large differences in activities at α4-β2 vs. α4-α4 interfaces were observed for structurally related agonists underscoring the need for establishing all binding parameters of compounds at α4β2 receptors.

  15. Effect of calcium on nicotine-induced current expressed by an atypical alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2.

    PubMed

    Thany, Steeve H; Courjaret, Raphael; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-06-27

    Two distinct native alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), named nAChR1 and nAChR2, were identified in the cockroach Periplaneta americana dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. They differed in their electrophysiological, pharmacological properties and intracellular regulation pathways. nAChR2 being an atypical nicotinic receptor closed upon agonist application and its current-voltage relationship resulted from a reduction in potassium conductance. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that calcium modulated nAChR2-mediated nicotine response. Under 0.5 microM alpha-Bgt and 20 mM d-tubocurarine, the nicotine-induced inward current amplitude was strongly reduced in the presence of intracellularly applied BAPTA or bath application of calcium-free solution. In addition, using cadmium chloride, we showed that nicotine response was modulated by extracellular calcium through plasma membrane calcium channels. Moreover, extracellular application of caffeine and thapsigargin reduced nAChR2-mediated response. Together these experiments revealed a complex calcium-dependent regulation of nAChR2. PMID:18485593

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and cancer

    PubMed Central

    DANG, NINGNING; MENG, XIANGUANG; SONG, HAIYAN

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine, the primary addictive constituent of cigarettes, is believed to contribute to cancer promotion and progression through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are membrane ligand-gated cation channels. nAChRs activation can be triggered by the neurotransmitter Ach, or certain other biological compounds, such as nicotine. In recent years, genome-wide association studies have indicated that allelic variation in the α5-α3-β4 nAChR cluster on chromosome 15q24-15q25.1 is associated with lung cancer risk. The role of nAChRs in other types of cancer has also been reported. The present review highlights the role of nAChRs in types of human cancer. PMID:27123240

  17. Acetylcholine secretion in the human cell strain LA-N-2

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, U.I.; Blusztajn, J.K.; Wurtman, R.J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have studied the synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh) in human neuroblastoma cells, LA-N-2. In cells cultured for 4 days in nutrient medium containing 7-700 ..mu..M choline, the cell content as well as the amounts of ACh spontaneously released into the medium increased with increasing substrate concentration. Half-maximal intracellular ACh levels were reached at 40 /sup +/M medium choline. Incubation of LA-N-2 cells for 1 hr with (/sup 3/H)choline and subsequent purification of the radioactive species by HPLC, showed incorporation of radioactive choline into ACh in a saturable manner with an apparent Km of 82 +/- 17 ..mu..M and a Vmax of 1.4 +/- 0.1 nmol/mg protein/hr. ACh secretion by LA-N-2 cells is stimulated by 1. elevated concentrations of extracellular K/sup +/ but not Cs/sup +/; 2. a sodium channel agonist, veratridine, an effect blocked by tetrodotoxin and 3. A cholinergic agonist, carbachol, an effect blocked by atropine. LA-N-2 cells thus have retained important features of differentiated neuronal cells and offer a model system for studies on the molecular mechanisms of cholinergic function.

  18. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a target in pharmacology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is an important part of the cholinergic nerve system in the brain. Moreover, it is associated with a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the termination of the parasympathetic nervous system. Antagonists of α7 nAChR are a wide group represented by conotoxin and bungarotoxin. Even Alzheimer's disease drug memantine acting as an antagonist in its side pathway belongs in this group. Agonists of α7 nAChR are suitable for treatment of multiple cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Inflammation or even sepsis can be ameliorated by the agonistic acting compounds. Preparations RG3487, SEN34625/WYE-103914, SEN12333, ABT-107, Clozapine, GTS-21, CNI-1493, and AR-R17779 are representative examples of the novel compounds with affinity toward the α7 nAChR. Pharmacological, toxicological, and medicinal significance of α7 nAChR are discussed throughout this paper.

  19. [Nicotine effects on mitochondria membrane potential: participation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors].

    PubMed

    Gergalova, G L; Skok, M V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nicotine on the mouse liver mitochondria was studied by fluorescent flow cytometry. Mice consumed nicotine during 65 days; alternatively, nicotine was added to isolated mitochondria. Mitochondria of nicotine-treated mice had significantly lower basic levels of membrane potential and granularity as compared to those of the control group. Pre-incubation of the isolated mitochondria with nicotine prevented from dissipation of their membrane potential stimulated with 0.8 microM CaCl2 depending on the dose, and this effect was strengthened by the antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptors (alpha7 nAChR) methyllicaconitine. Mitochondria of mice intravenously injected with the antibodies against alpha7 nAChR demonstrated lower levels of membrane potential. Introduction of nicotine, choline, acetylcholine or synthetic alpha7 nAChR agonist PNU 282987 into the incubation medium inhibited Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondria, although the doses of agonists were too low to activate the alpha7 nAChR ion channel. It is concluded that nicotine consumption worsens the functional state of mitochondria by affecting their membrane potential and granularity, and this effect, at least in part, is mediated by alpha7 nAChR desensitization.

  20. Endogenous inhibition of the trigeminally evoked neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D

    2010-10-01

    Stimulation of the nasal mucosa by airborne irritants or water evokes a pronounced bradycardia accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction and apnea. The dive response, which includes the trigeminocardiac reflex, is among the most powerful autonomic responses. These responses slow the heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. Although normally cardioprotective, exaggeration of this reflex can be detrimental and has been implicated in cardiorespiratory diseases, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An essential component of the diving response and trigeminocardiac reflex is activation of the parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus that control heart rate. This study examined the involvement of cholinergic receptors in trigeminally evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro preparation from rats. CVNs were identified using a retrograde tracer injected into the fat pads at the base of the heart. Application of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs on stimulation of trigeminal fibers. Whereas nicotine did not have any effect on the glutamatergic responses, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist bethanechol significantly decreased the excitatory neurotransmission. Atropine, an mAChR antagonist, facilitated these responses indicating this trigeminally evoked brain stem pathway in vitro is endogenously inhibited by mAChRs. Tropicamide, an m4 mAChR antagonist, prevented the inhibitory action of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol. These results indicate that the glutamatergic synaptic neurotransmission in the trigeminally evoked pathway to CVNs is endogenously inhibited in vitro by m4 mAChRs.

  1. Action of nicotine and analogs on acetylcholine receptors having mutations of transmitter-binding site residue αG153.

    PubMed

    Jadey, Snehal; Purohit, Prasad; Auerbach, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A primary target for nicotine is the acetylcholine receptor channel (AChR). Some of the ability of nicotine to activate differentially AChR subtypes has been traced to a transmitter-binding site amino acid that is glycine in lower affinity and lysine in higher affinity AChRs. We studied the effects of mutations of this residue (αG153) in neuromuscular AChRs activated by nicotine and eight other agonists including nornicotine and anabasine. All of the mutations increased the unliganded gating equilibrium constant. The affinity of the resting receptor (K(d)) and the net binding energy from the agonist for gating (ΔG(B)) were estimated by cross-concentration fitting of single-channel currents. In all but one of the agonist/mutant combinations there was a moderate decrease in K(d) and essentially no change in ΔG(B). The exceptional case was nicotine plus lysine, which showed a large, >8,000-fold decrease in K(d) but no change in ΔG(B). The extraordinary specificity of this combination leads us to speculate that AChRs with a lysine at position αG153 may be exposed to a nicotine-like compound in vivo.

  2. In silico point mutation and evolutionary trace analysis applied to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in deciphering ligand-binding surfaces.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Marimuthu; Shanmughavel, Piramanayagam; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2010-10-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the Cys-loop superfamily and contain ligand gated ion channels (LGIC). These receptors are located mostly in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). nAChRs reside at pre-synaptic regions to mediate acetylcholine neurotransmission and in the post synaptic membrane to propagate nerve impulses through neurons via acetylcholine. Malfunction of this neurotransmitter receptor is believed to cause various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, and nAChRs are thus important drug targets. In the present work, starting from an earlier model of pentameric alpha7nAChR, a considerable effort has been taken to investigate interaction with ligands by performing docking studies with a diverse array of agonists and antagonists. Analysis of these docking complexes reveals identification of possible ligand-interacting residues. Some of these residues, e.g. Ser34, Gln55, Ser146, and Tyr166, which are evolutionarily conserved, were specifically subjected to virtual mutations based on their amino acid properties and found to be highly sensitive in the presence of antagonists by docking. Further, the study was extended using evolutionary trace analysis, revealing conserved and class-specific residues close to the putative ligand-binding site, further supporting the results of docking experiments.

  3. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle.

  4. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle. PMID:26049061

  5. α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in midbrain dopamine neurons are poised to govern dopamine-mediated behaviors and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Berry, J N; Engle, S E; McIntosh, J M; Drenan, R M

    2015-09-24

    Acetylcholine (ACh) acts through nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors in the ventral midbrain and striatal areas to influence dopamine (DA) transmission. This cholinergic control of DA transmission is important for processes such as attention and motivated behavior, and is manipulated by nicotine in tobacco products. Identifying and characterizing the key ACh receptors involved in cholinergic control of DA transmission could lead to small molecule therapeutics for treating disorders involving attention, addiction, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly and specifically expressed in midbrain DA neurons, making them an attractive drug target. Here, we used genetic, pharmacological, behavioral, and biophysical approaches to study this nAChR subtype. For many experiments, we used mice expressing mutant α6 nAChRs ("α6L9S" mice) that increase the sensitivity of these receptors to agonists such as ACh and nicotine. Taking advantage of a simple behavioral phenotype exhibited by α6L9S mice, we compared the ability of full versus partial α6(∗) nAChR agonists to activate α6(∗) nAChRs in vivo. Using local infusions of both agonists and antagonists into the brain, we demonstrate that neurons and nAChRs in the midbrain are sufficient to account for this behavioral response. To complement these behavioral studies, we studied the ability of in vivo α6(∗) nAChR activation to support plasticity changes in midbrain DA neurons that are relevant to behavioral sensitization and addiction. By coupling local infusion of drugs and brain slice patch-clamp electrophysiology, we show that activating α6(∗) nAChRs in midbrain DA areas is sufficient to enhance glutamatergic transmission in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Together, these results from in vivo studies strongly suggest that α6(∗) nAChRs expressed by VTA DA neurons are positioned to strongly influence both DA-mediated behaviors and the

  6. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Binding of nitroxide analogs of a local anesthetic and a photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Electron spin resonance was used to contrast the accessibility of tertiary and quaternary amine local anesthetics to their high affinity binding site in the desensitized Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AchR). Preincubation of AchR-rich membranes with agonist resulted in a substantial reduction in the initial association of the quaternary amine local anesthetic C6SLMEI with the receptor. The time-dependent reduction in association follows a biphasic exponential function having rate constants of 0.19 min{sup {minus}1} and 0.03 min{sup {minus}1}. In contrast, agonist preincubation did not produce a comparable decrease in the association of C6SL, a tertiary amine analog, with the AchR. The results are modeled in two ways: (1) A charge gate near the channel mouth in the desensitized receptor limits access of the permanently charged cationic local anesthetic (C6SLMEI), but not for the uncharged form of the tertiary amine anesthetic C6SL. (2) A hydrophobic pathway, possibly through a corridor in the annular lipid surrounding receptor subunits, allows the uncharged form of C6SL to reach the high affinity binding site in the AchR. A photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine {sup 125}I 4-azido salicylic acid-phosphatidylserine ({sup 125}I ASA-PS) was use to label both Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes and reconstituted AchR membranes. All four subunits of the AchR were found to incorporate label, with the {alpha} subunit incorporating approximately twice as much as each of the other subunits on a per mole basis. The regions of the AchR {alpha} subunit that incorporate {sup 125}I ASA-PS were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion. Eighty-one per cent of the incorporated label was localized to 11.7 and 10.1 kdal V8 cleavage fragments.

  7. Functional differences between neurotransmitter binding sites of muscle acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan K; Bruhova, Iva; Chakraborty, Srirupa; Gupta, Shaweta; Zheng, Wenjun; Auerbach, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    A muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has two neurotransmitter binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αε (adult) or αγ (fetal) subunit interfaces. We used single-channel electrophysiology to measure the effects of mutations of five conserved aromatic residues at each site with regard to their contribution to the difference in free energy of agonist binding to active versus resting receptors (ΔGB1). The two binding sites behave independently in both adult and fetal AChRs. For four different agonists, including ACh and choline, ΔGB1 is ∼-2 kcal/mol more favorable at αγ compared with at αε and αδ. Only three of the aromatics contribute significantly to ΔGB1 at the adult sites (αY190, αY198, and αW149), but all five do so at αγ (as well as αY93 and γW55). γW55 makes a particularly large contribution only at αγ that is coupled energetically to those contributions of some of the α-subunit aromatics. The hydroxyl and benzene groups of loop C residues αY190 and αY198 behave similarly with regard to ΔGB1 at all three kinds of site. ACh binding energies estimated from molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with experimental values from electrophysiology and suggest that the αγ site is more compact, better organized, and less dynamic than αε and αδ. We speculate that the different sensitivities of the fetal αγ site versus the adult αε and αδ sites to choline and ACh are important for the proper maturation and function of the neuromuscular synapse. PMID:25422413

  8. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulators Reduce Sugar Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Masroor; Quik, Maryka; Holgate, Joan; Morgan, Michael; Patkar, Omkar L; Tam, Vincent; Belmer, Arnauld; Bartlett, Selena E

    2016-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption has been shown to contribute directly to weight gain, thus contributing to the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Interestingly, increased sugar consumption has been shown to repeatedly elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain similar to many drugs of abuse. We report that varenicline, an FDA-approved nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist that modulates dopamine in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain, significantly reduces sucrose consumption, especially in a long-term consumption paradigm. Similar results were observed with other nAChR drugs, namely mecamylamine and cytisine. Furthermore, we show that long-term sucrose consumption increases α4β2 * and decreases α6β2* nAChRs in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region associated with reward. Taken together, our results suggest that nAChR drugs such as varenicline may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing sugar consumption. PMID:27028298

  9. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulators Reduce Sugar Intake

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Masroor; Quik, Maryka; Holgate, Joan; Morgan, Michael; Patkar, Omkar L.; Tam, Vincent; Belmer, Arnauld; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2016-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption has been shown to contribute directly to weight gain, thus contributing to the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Interestingly, increased sugar consumption has been shown to repeatedly elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain similar to many drugs of abuse. We report that varenicline, an FDA-approved nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist that modulates dopamine in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain, significantly reduces sucrose consumption, especially in a long-term consumption paradigm. Similar results were observed with other nAChR drugs, namely mecamylamine and cytisine. Furthermore, we show that long-term sucrose consumption increases α4β2 * and decreases α6β2* nAChRs in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region associated with reward. Taken together, our results suggest that nAChR drugs such as varenicline may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing sugar consumption. PMID:27028298

  10. Conformational Changes in Acetylcholine Binding Protein Investigated by Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Hosseini Naveh, Zeynab; Malliavin, Therese E.; Maragliano, Luca; Cottone, Grazia; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies available on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a complete account of the mechanistic aspects of their gating transition in response to ligand binding still remains elusive. As a first step toward dissecting the transition mechanism by accelerated sampling techniques, we study the ligand-induced conformational changes of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a widely accepted model for the full receptor extracellular domain. Using unbiased Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (TAMD) simulations we investigate the AChBP transition between the apo and the agonist-bound state. In long standard MD simulations, both conformations of the native protein are stable, while the agonist-bound structure evolves toward the apo one if the orientation of few key sidechains in the orthosteric cavity is modified. Conversely, TAMD simulations initiated from the native conformations are able to produce the spontaneous transition. With respect to the modified conformations, TAMD accelerates the transition by at least a factor 10. The analysis of some specific residue-residue interactions points out that the transition mechanism is based on the disruption/formation of few key hydrogen bonds. Finally, while early events of ligand dissociation are observed already in standard MD, TAMD accelerates the ligand detachment and, at the highest TAMD effective temperature, it is able to produce a complete dissociation path in one AChBP subunit. PMID:24551117

  11. Critical metabolic roles of β-cell M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Gautam, Dinesh; Jain, Shalini; Guettier, Jean-Marc; Wess, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs; M1–M5) regulate the activity of an extraordinarily large number of important physiological processes. We and others previously demonstrated that pancreatic β-cells are endowed with M3 mAChRs which are linked to G proteins of the Gq family. The activation of these receptors by ACh or other muscarinic agonists leads to the augmentation of glucose-induced insulin release via multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, in humans, ACh acting on human β-cell mAChRs is released from adjacent α-cells which express both choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT), indicative of the presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in human pancreatic islets. In order to shed light on the physiological roles of β-cell M3 receptors, we recently generated and analyzed various mutant mouse models. Specifically, we carried out studies with mice which overexpressed M3 receptors or mutant M3 receptors in pancreatic β-cells or which selectively lacked M3 receptors or M3-receptor-associated proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Our findings indicate that β-cell M3 receptors play a key role in maintaining proper insulin release and whole body glucose homeostasis and that strategies aimed at enhancing signaling through β-cell M3 receptors may prove useful to improve β-cell function for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:22525375

  12. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Containing the α7-Like Subunit Mediate Contractions of Muscles Responsible for Space Positioning of the Snail, Helix pomatia L. Tentacle

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Tibor; Krajcs, Nóra; Pirger, Zsolt; Hernádi, László

    2014-01-01

    Three recently discovered tentacle muscles are crucial to perform patterned movements of upper tentacles of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia. The muscles receive central and peripheral excitatory cholinergic innervation lacking inhibitory innervation. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of acetylcholine (ACh) responses in muscles to determine the properties of the ACh receptor (AChR), the functional availability of which was assessed using isotonic contraction measurement. Using broad spectrum of nicotinic and muscarinic ligands, we provide the evidence that contractions in the muscles are attributable to the activation of nAChRs that contain the α7-like subunit. Contractions could be evoked by nicotine, carbachol, succinylchloride, TMA, the selective α7-nAChR agonist choline chloride, 3-Bromocytisine and PNU-282987, and blocked by nAChR selective antagonists such as mytolon, hexamethonium, succinylchloride, d-tubocurarine, hemicholinium, DMDA (decamethonium), methyllycaconitine, α-Bungarotoxin (αBgTx) and α-Conotoxin IMI. The specific muscarinic agonist oxotremorine and arecoline failed to elicit contractions. Based on these pharmacological properties we conclude that the Na+ and Ca2+ permeable AChRs of the flexor muscle are nicotinic receptors that contain the α7-like subunit. Immunodetection experiments confirmed the presence of α7- or α7-like AChRs in muscle cells, and α4-AChRs in nerves innervating the muscle. These results support the conclusion that the slowly desensitizing αBgTx-sensitive responses obtained from flexor muscles are produced by activation of α7- like AChRs. This is the first demonstration of postsynaptic expression and an obligatory role for a functional α7-like nAChR in the molluscan periphery. PMID:25303328

  13. Binding of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine to cholinergic receptors in bovine cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimohama, S.; Tsukahara, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Fujiwara, M.

    1985-11-18

    Cholinergic receptor sites in bovine cerebral arteries were analyzed using radioligand binding techniques with the cholinergic agonist, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (ACh), as the ligand. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh to membrane preparations of bovine cerebral arteries was saturable, of two binding sites, with dissociation constant (K/sub D/) values of 0.32 and 23.7 nM, and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) values of 67 and 252 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh was displaced effectively by muscarinic cholinergic agents and less effectively by nicotinic cholinergic agents. IC/sub 50/ values of cholinergic drugs for /sup 3/H-ACh binding were as follows: atropine, 38.5 nM; ACh, 59.8 nM; oxotremorine, 293 nM; scopolamine 474 nM; carbamylcholine, 990 nM. IC/sub 50/ values of nicotinic cholinergic agents such as nicotine, cytisine and ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin exceeded 50 ..mu..M. Choline acetyltransferase activity was 1.09 nmol/mg protein/hour in the cerebral arteries. These findings suggest that the cholinergic nerves innervate the bovine cerebral arteries and that there are at least two classes of ACh binding sites of different affinities on muscarinic reporters in these arteries. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. A mutational analysis of the acetylcholine receptor channel transmitter binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Akk, G; Zhou, M; Auerbach, A

    1999-01-01

    Mutagenesis and single-channel kinetic analysis were used to investigate the roles of four acetylcholine receptor channel (AChR) residues that are candidates for interacting directly with the agonist. The EC50 of the ACh dose-response curve was increased following alpha-subunit mutations Y93F and Y198F and epsilon-subunit mutations D175N and E184Q. Single-channel kinetic modeling indicates that the increase was caused mainly by a reduced gating equilibrium constant (Theta) in alphaY198F and epsilonD175N, by an increase in the equilibrium dissociation constant for ACh (KD) and a reduction in Theta in alphaY93F, and only by a reduction in KD in epsilonE184Q. This mutation altered the affinity of only one of the two binding sites and was the only mutation that reduced competition by extracellular K+. Additional mutations of epsilonE184 showed that K+ competition was unaltered in epsilonE184D and was virtually eliminated in epsilonE184K, but that neither of these mutations altered the intrinsic affinity for ACh. Thus there is an apparent electrostatic interaction between the epsilonE184 side chain and K+ ( approximately 1.7kBT), but not ACh+. The results are discussed in terms of multisite and induced-fit models of ligand binding to the AChR. PMID:9876135

  15. Identification and Characterization of a G Protein-binding Cluster in α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    King, Justin R.; Nordman, Jacob C.; Bridges, Samuel P.; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kabbani, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in synaptic transmission and inflammation. In response to ligands, this receptor channel opens to conduct cations into the cell but desensitizes rapidly. In recent studies we show that α7 nAChRs bind signaling proteins such as heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins). Here, we demonstrate that direct coupling of α7 nAChRs to G proteins enables a downstream calcium signaling response that can persist beyond the expected time course of channel activation. This process depends on a G protein-binding cluster (GPBC) in the M3-M4 loop of the receptor. A mutation of the GPBC in the α7 nAChR (α7345–348A) abolishes interaction with Gαq as well as Gβγ while having no effect on receptor synthesis, cell-surface trafficking, or α-bungarotoxin binding. Expression of α7345–348A, however, did significantly attenuate the α7 nAChR-induced Gαq calcium signaling response as evidenced by a decrease in PLC-β activation and IP3R-mediated calcium store release in the presence of the α7 selective agonist choline. Taken together, the data provides new evidence for the existence of a GPBC in nAChRs serving to promote intracellular signaling. PMID:26088141

  16. Substance P and acetylcholine both suppress the same K+ current in dissociated smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sims, S M; Walsh, J V; Singer, J J

    1986-10-01

    The effect of substance P on freshly dissociated gastric smooth muscle cells was examined electrophysiologically. Substance P caused depolarization, associated with a membrane conductance decrease, which led to the generation of action potentials and contraction. When the membrane potential was held constant under voltage clamp, substance P induced a net inward current, also associated with a conductance decrease. The net inward current resulted from suppression of an outward K+ current, one which resembled the acetylcholine-sensitive M-current in these cells. When substance P maximally suppressed this outward K+ current, acetylcholine (ACh) had no additional effect. Conversely, when ACh fully suppressed the M-current, substance P was without additional effect. These results indicate that substance P suppresses the same outward K+ current affected by ACh. Suppression of M-current by substance P was observed in approximately half (44 of 85) of the cells studied in these experiments. In those cells that did not respond to substance P, ACh was nevertheless capable of suppressing the M-current. Thus both substance P and cholinergic agonists appear to exert their excitatory effects on smooth muscle cells by inhibiting a common K+ current.

  17. Real Time Ligand-Induced Motion Mappings of AChBP and nAChR Using X-ray Single Molecule Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuhito; Nishino, Yuri; Kobayashi, Suzuko; Shimoyama, Yoshiko; Cai, Weiyan; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Miyazawa, Atsuo; Kubo, Tai; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2014-01-01

    We observed the dynamic three-dimensional (3D) single molecule behaviour of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) using a single molecule tracking technique, diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) with atomic scale and 100 μs time resolution. We found that the combined tilting and twisting motions of the proteins were enhanced upon acetylcholine (ACh) binding. We present the internal motion maps of AChBP and nAChR in the presence of either ACh or α-bungarotoxin (αBtx), with views from two rotational axes. Our findings indicate that specific motion patterns represented as biaxial angular motion maps are associated with channel function in real time and on an atomic scale. PMID:25223459

  18. Positive allosteric modulators of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors reverse ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) have generated great interest as targets of new pharmacological treatments for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. One promising recent approach is based on the use of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7-nAChRs, which demonstrate several advantages over direct agonists. Nevertheless, the efficacy of these newly introduced α7-nAChR agents has not been extensively characterised in animal models of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of type I and II PAMs, N-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-N'-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)urea (PNU-120596) and N-(4-chlorophenyl)-[[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide (CCMI), respectively, and galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChE) that also allosterically modulates nAChRs, against ketamine-induced cognitive deficits and social withdrawal in rats. The orthosteric α7-nAChR agonist octahydro-2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-3-pyridazinyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) was used as a positive control. Additionally, the antipsychotic activities of the tested compounds were assessed using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test. PNU-120596, CCMI, galantamine and A-582941 reversed ketamine-induced cognitive inflexibility, as assessed in the attentional set-shifting task (ASST). The tested compounds were also effective against ketamine-induced impairment in the novel object recognition task (NORT). PNU-120596, CCMI, and A-582941 ameliorated ketamine-induced social interaction deficits, whereas galantamine was ineffective. Moreover, all tested compounds selectively suppressed the CAR. The positive allosteric modulation of α7-nAChRs demonstrates preclinical efficacy not only against schizophrenia-like cognition impairments but also positive and negative symptoms. Therefore, the use of α7-nAChR PAMs as a potential treatment strategy in schizophrenia is supported.

  19. Positive allosteric modulators of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors reverse ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) have generated great interest as targets of new pharmacological treatments for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. One promising recent approach is based on the use of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7-nAChRs, which demonstrate several advantages over direct agonists. Nevertheless, the efficacy of these newly introduced α7-nAChR agents has not been extensively characterised in animal models of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of type I and II PAMs, N-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-N'-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)urea (PNU-120596) and N-(4-chlorophenyl)-[[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide (CCMI), respectively, and galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChE) that also allosterically modulates nAChRs, against ketamine-induced cognitive deficits and social withdrawal in rats. The orthosteric α7-nAChR agonist octahydro-2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-3-pyridazinyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) was used as a positive control. Additionally, the antipsychotic activities of the tested compounds were assessed using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test. PNU-120596, CCMI, galantamine and A-582941 reversed ketamine-induced cognitive inflexibility, as assessed in the attentional set-shifting task (ASST). The tested compounds were also effective against ketamine-induced impairment in the novel object recognition task (NORT). PNU-120596, CCMI, and A-582941 ameliorated ketamine-induced social interaction deficits, whereas galantamine was ineffective. Moreover, all tested compounds selectively suppressed the CAR. The positive allosteric modulation of α7-nAChRs demonstrates preclinical efficacy not only against schizophrenia-like cognition impairments but also positive and negative symptoms. Therefore, the use of α7-nAChR PAMs as a potential treatment strategy in schizophrenia is supported. PMID:26232639

  20. The Novel α7β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype Is Expressed in Mouse and Human Basal Forebrain: Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Milena; Zoli, Michele; George, Andrew A.; Lukas, Ronald J.; Pistillo, Francesco; Maskos, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    We examined α7β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7β2-nAChR) expression in mammalian brain and compared pharmacological profiles of homomeric α7-nAChRs and α7β2-nAChRs. α-Bungarotoxin affinity purification or immunoprecipitation with anti-α7 subunit antibodies (Abs) was used to isolate nAChRs containing α7 subunits from mouse or human brain samples. α7β2-nAChRs were detected in forebrain, but not other tested regions, from both species, based on Western blot analysis of isolates using β2 subunit–specific Abs. Ab specificity was confirmed in control studies using subunit-null mutant mice or cell lines heterologously expressing specific human nAChR subtypes and subunits. Functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of concatenated pentameric (α7)5-, (α7)4(β2)1-, and (α7)3(β2)2-nAChRs was confirmed using two-electrode voltage clamp recording of responses to nicotinic ligands. Importantly, pharmacological profiles were indistinguishable for concatenated (α7)5-nAChRs or for homomeric α7-nAChRs constituted from unlinked α7 subunits. Pharmacological profiles were similar for (α7)5-, (α7)4(β2)1-, and (α7)3(β2)2-nAChRs except for diminished efficacy of nicotine (normalized to acetylcholine efficacy) at α7β2- versus α7-nAChRs. This study represents the first direct confirmation of α7β2-nAChR expression in human and mouse forebrain, supporting previous mouse studies that suggested relevance of α7β2-nAChRs in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. These data also indicate that α7β2-nAChR subunit isoforms with different α7/β2 subunit ratios have similar pharmacological profiles to each other and to α7 homopentameric nAChRs. This supports the hypothesis that α7β2-nAChR agonist activation predominantly or entirely reflects binding to α7/α7 subunit interface sites. PMID:25002271

  1. Residues Responsible for the Selectivity of α-Conotoxins for Ac-AChBP or nAChRs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo; Xiang, Shihua; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are targets for developing new drugs to treat severe pain, nicotine addiction, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, etc. α-Conotoxins are biologically and chemically diverse. With 12–19 residues and two disulfides, they can be specifically selected for different nAChRs. Acetylcholine-binding proteins from Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) are homologous to the ligand-binding domains of nAChRs and pharmacologically similar. X-ray structures of the α-conotoxin in complex with Ac-AChBP in addition to computer modeling have helped to determine the binding site of the important residues of α-conotoxin and its affinity for nAChR subtypes. Here, we present the various α-conotoxin residues that are selective for Ac-AChBP or nAChRs by comparing the structures of α-conotoxins in complex with Ac-AChBP and by modeling α-conotoxins in complex with nAChRs. The knowledge of these binding sites will assist in the discovery and design of more potent and selective α-conotoxins as drug leads. PMID:27727162

  2. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    HAGA, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which comprise five subtypes (M1-M5 receptors), are expressed in both the CNS and PNS (particularly the target organs of parasympathetic neurons). M1-M5 receptors are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane segments, bind with acetylcholine (ACh) in the extracellular phase, and thereafter interact with and activate GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in the intracellular phase: M1, M3, and M5 receptors interact with Gq-type G proteins, and M2 and M4 receptors with Gi/Go-type G proteins. Activated G proteins initiate a number of intracellular signal transduction systems. Agonist-bound muscarinic receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases, which initiate their desensitization through uncoupling from G proteins, receptor internalization, and receptor breakdown (down regulation). Recently the crystal structures of M2 and M3 receptors were determined and are expected to contribute to the development of drugs targeted to muscarinic receptors. This paper summarizes the molecular properties of muscarinic receptors with reference to the historical background and bias to studies performed in our laboratories. PMID:23759942

  3. AChE for DNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Osuna, María; Yuste, Victor J

    2015-06-01

    DNA hydrolysis is a biochemical process often associated with different forms of cell death, including apoptosis. In a recent paper published in Cell Discovery, Du et al. report that synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) shows an unexpected enzymatic activity as DNase switched on after cytotoxic insults. PMID:25930710

  4. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: A mediator of pathogenesis and therapeutic target in autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephen I; Burket, Jessica A; Urbano, Maria R; Benson, Andrew D

    2015-10-15

    Currently, there are no medications that target core deficits of social communication and restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Adults with Down syndrome (DS) display a progressive worsening of adaptive functioning, which is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like histopathological changes in brain. Similar to persons with ASDs, there are no effective medication strategies to prevent or retard the progressive worsening of adaptive functions in adults with DS. Data suggest that the α7-subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is implicated in the pathophysiology and serves as a promising therapeutic target of these disorders. In DS, production of the amyloidogenic Aβ1-42 peptide is increased and binds to the α7nAChR or the lipid milieu associated with this receptor, causing a cascade that results in cytotoxicity and deposition of amyloid plaques. Independently of their ability to inhibit the complexing of Aβ1-42 with the α7nAChR, α7nAChR agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) also possess procognitive and neuroprotective effects in relevant in vivo and in vitro models. The procognitive and neuroprotective effects of α7nAChR agonist interventions may be due, at least in part, to stimulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade, cross-talk with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade and both transcriptional and non-transcriptional effects of β-catenin, and effects of transiently increased intraneuronal concentrations of Ca(2+) on metabolism and the membrane potential. Importantly, α7nAChR PAMs are particularly attractive medication candidates because they lack intrinsic efficacy and act only when and where endogenous acetylcholine is released or choline is generated.

  5. Brain regional acetylcholinesterase activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rats after repeated administration of cholinesterase inhibitors and its withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Haruo . E-mail: hk1664@iwate-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Sakamoto, Maki; Hashimoto, Wataru; Kashiwada, Keiko; Sato, Itaru; Akahori, Fumiaki; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and specific binding of [{sup 3}H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), [{sup 3}H]pirenzepine (PZP) and [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384 to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) preparations in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of rats were determined 1, 6 and 11 days after the last treatment with an organophosphate DDVP, a carbamate propoxur or a muscarinic agonist oxotremorine as a reference for 7 and 14 days. AChE activity was markedly decreased in the three regions 1 day after the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days with a gradual recovery 6 to 11 days, and much less decreased 1, 6 and 11 days after the treatment with propoxur for 7 days but not for 14 days in the hippocampus and cortex. The binding of [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 in the three regions was generally decreased by the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days. Such down-regulations were generally restored 6 or 11 days after the treatment for 7 but not for 14 days. The down-regulation or up-regulation as measured by [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 was observed 1, 6 or 11 days after treatment with propoxur for 7 days and/or 14 days. Repeated treatment with oxotremorine produced similar effects except AChE activity to DDVP. These results suggest that repeated inhibition of AChE activity may usually cause down-regulation of mAChRs with some exception in the hippocampus when a reversible antiChE propoxur is injected.

  6. N-methyl-D-aspartate increases acetylcholine release from rat striatum and cortex: its effect is augmented by choline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulus, I. H.; Buyukuysal, R. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, and of glutamate itself, on acetylcholine (ACh) release from superfused rat striatal slices. In a Mg(++)-free medium, NMDA (32-1000 microM) as well as glutamate (1 mM) increased basal ACh release by 35 to 100% (all indicated differences, P less than .05), without altering tissue ACh or choline contents. This augmentation was blocked by Mg++ (1.2 mM) or by MK-801 (10 microM). Electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 75 mA) increased ACh release 9-fold (from 400 to 3660 pmol/mg of protein): this was enhanced (to 4850 pmol/mg of protein) by NMDA (100 microM). ACh levels in stimulated slices fell by 50 or 65% depending on the absence or presence of NMDA. The addition of choline (40 microM) increased ACh release both basally (570 pmol/mg of protein) and with electrical stimulation (6900 pmol/mg of protein). In stimulated slices choline acted synergistically with NMDA, raising ACh release to 10,520 pmol/mg of protein. The presence of choline also blocked the fall in tissue ACh. No treatment affected tissue phospholipid or protein levels. NMDA (32-320 microM) also augmented basal ACh release from cortical but not hippocampal slices. Choline efflux from striatal and cortical (but not hippocampal) slices decreased by 34 to 50% in Mg(++)-free medium. These data indicate that NMDA-like drugs may be useful, particularly in combination with choline, to enhance striatal and cortical cholinergic activity. ACh release from rat hippocampus apparently is not affected by NMDA receptors.

  7. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Elgueta, Claudio; Vielma, Alex H.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major retinal neurotransmitter that modulates visual processing through a large repertoire of cholinergic receptors expressed on different retinal cell types. ACh is released from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) under scotopic conditions, but its effects on cells of the rod pathway have not been investigated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in slices of rat retina, we found that ACh application triggers GABA release onto rod bipolar (RB) cells. GABA was released from A17 amacrine cells and activated postsynaptic GABAA and GABAC receptors in RB cells. The sensitivity of ACh-induced currents to nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) antagonists (TMPH ~ mecamylamine > erysodine > DhβE > MLA) together with the differential potency of specific agonists to mimic ACh responses (cytisine >> RJR2403 ~ choline), suggest that A17 cells express heteromeric nAChRs containing the β4 subunit. Activation of nAChRs induced GABA release after Ca2+ accumulation in A17 cell dendrites and varicosities mediated by L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and intracellular Ca2+ stores. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase depolarized A17 cells and increased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RB cells, indicating that endogenous ACh enhances GABAergic inhibition of RB cells. Moreover, injection of neostigmine or cytisine reduced the b-wave of the scotopic flash electroretinogram (ERG), suggesting that cholinergic modulation of GABA release controls RB cell activity in vivo. These results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of RB cell inhibition and complement our understanding of the neuromodulatory control of retinal signal processing. PMID:25709566

  8. The intrinsic energy of the gating isomerization of a neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor channel.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan K; Purohit, Prasad G; Auerbach, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channels at neuromuscular synapses rarely open in the absence of agonists, but many different mutations increase the unliganded gating equilibrium constant (E0) to generate AChRs that are active constitutively. We measured E0 for two different sets of mutant combinations and by extrapolation estimated E0 for wild-type AChRs. The estimates were 7.6 and 7.8×10(-7) in adult-type mouse AChRs (-100 mV at 23°C). The values are in excellent agreement with one obtained previously by using a completely different method (6.5×10(-7), from monoliganded gating). E0 decreases with depolarization to the same extent as does the diliganded gating equilibrium constant, e-fold with ∼60 mV. We estimate that at -100 mV the intrinsic energy of the unliganded gating isomerization is +8.4 kcal/mol (35 kJ/mol), and that in the absence of a membrane potential, the intrinsic chemical energy of this global conformational change is +9.4 kcal/mol (39 kJ/mol). Na+ and K+ in the extracellular solution have no measureable effect on E0, which suggests that unliganded gating occurs with only water occupying the transmitter binding sites. The results are discussed with regard to the energy changes in receptor activation and the competitive antagonism of ions in agonist binding.

  9. Assay of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function in cultured cardiac cells by stimulation of /sup 86/Rb+ efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.D.; Nathanson, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    An assay for the increase in potassium permeability mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in cultured cardiac cells is described, using the K+ ion substitute /sup 86/Rb+ as the tracer ion. Cardiac cells accumulate /sup 86/Rb+ from the extracellular medium in a Na+/K+ ATPase-dependent manner. Subsequent efflux of /sup 86/Rb+ in the absence and presence of muscarinic agonists follows kinetics similar to those previously reported for /sup 42/K+. The mAChR agonist carbamylcholine (carbachol) stimulated /sup 86/Rb+ efflux with an EC50 of 50 nM. The half-time for efflux is reduced by greater than 40% at maximally effective concentrations of agonist. Stimulation of /sup 86/Rb+ efflux by carbachol is blocked by the mAChR antagonist atropine with an IC50 of 15 nM. The stimulation of 86Rb+ efflux by carbachol is not affected by the presence of the Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor ouabain. This assay provides a method for quantitating the mAChR-mediated increase in K+ permeability in cardiac cells without the use of /sup 42/K+.

  10. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion. PMID:22570381

  11. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion.

  12. Functional properties of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors co-expressed with RIC-3 in a stable recombinant CHO-K1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Renza; Seredenina, Tamara; Jow, Brian; Jow, Flora; Papini, Silvia; Kramer, Angela; Bothmann, Hendrick; Dunlop, John; Terstappen, Georg C

    2008-04-01

    Heterologous functional expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is difficult to achieve in mammalian cell lines, and the reasons have been associated with a lack of expression of the putative chaperone factor RIC-3. Here, we describe the generation and functional and pharmacological characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line co-expressing the human alpha7 nAChR and RIC-3. Stable recombinant cells expressing alpha7 nAChR on the plasma membrane were selected by binding of fluorochrome-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The presence of functional alpha7 channels was demonstrated by whole cell patch clamp recordings. Nicotine and acetylcholine induced rapid desensitizing currents with 50% effective concentration values of 14 and 37 microM, respectively, with agonist-evoked currents detected in approximately 75% of the cell population. Surprisingly, when tested in a FLIPR (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) Ca(2+) assay, activation of alpha7 nAChRs was measured only when nicotinic agonists were applied either in the presence of the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596 or after pretreatment of cells with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. No Ca(2+) influx was measured upon addition of agonists alone or together with allosteric potentiators such as 5-hydroxyindole that predominantly increase the apparent peak amplitude without robustly affecting the current desensitization rate, as exemplified by PNU-120596. These results show that functional alpha7 nAChRs can stably be expressed in the non-neuronal CHO-K1 cell line. This recombinant cell system is useful for characterization of alpha7 nAChRs and to study the mechanism of action of chemical modulators, in particular the detection of PAMs capable of slowing receptor desensitization kinetics.

  13. Natural compounds endowed with cholinergic or anticholinergic activity. Enhancement of acetylcholine release by a quaternary derivative of L-hyoscyamine.

    PubMed

    Souccar, Caden; Salamanca, Ana Lucia V; Tanae, Mirtes M; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R; Lapa, Antonio José

    2010-01-01

    New compounds that target nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) have been sought to correct disorders affecting cholinergic transmission in central and peripheral synapses. A quaternary derivate of l-hyoscyamine, phenthonium (Phen), was shown by our group to enhance the spontaneous acetylcholine (ACh) release without altering the nerve-induced transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. The effect was unrelated to membrane depolarization, and was not induced by an increase of calcium influx into the nerve terminal. Phen also presented a competitive antimuscarinic activity and blocked noncompetitively the neuromuscular transmission. In this work we re-examined the mechanisms underlying the facilitatory actions of Phen on [(3)H]-ACh release in isolated ganglia of the guinea pig ileal myenteric plexus. Exposure of the preparations to Phen (10-50 microM) increased the release of [(3)H]-ACh by 81 to 68% over the basal. The effect was not affected by the ganglionic nAChR antagonist hexamethonium (1 nM) at a concentration that inhibited the increase of [(3)H]-ACh release induced by the nicotinic agonist dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 30 microM). Association of Phen (10 microM) with DMPP potentiated the facilitatory effect of Phen. [(3)H]-ACh release was not altered by the muscarinic antagonists atropine (1 nM) or pirenzepine (1 microM). However, both antagonists inhibited the release of [(3)H]-ACh induced by either the muscarinic M1 agonist McN-343 (10 microM) or Phen (20 microM). The facilitatory effect of Phen was not altered by CdCl(2) (50 mM), but it was potentiated in the presence of tetraethylammonium (40 mM). The results indicate that the facilitatory action of Phen appears to be mediated by an increase of the inwardly rectifying potassium channels conductance probably related to the compound antimuscarinic activity.

  14. Targeting brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease: rationale and current status.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Ana Sofía; Borroni, María Virginia; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Pathognomonic hallmarks of the disease include the development of amyloid senile plaques and deposits of neurofibrillary tangles. These changes occur in the brain long before the clinical manifestations of AD (cognitive impairment in particular) become apparent. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), particularly the α7 subtype, are highly expressed in brain regions relevant to cognitive and memory functions and involved in the processing of sensory information. There is strong evidence that implicates the participation of AChRs in AD. This review briefly introduces current strategies addressing the pathophysiologic findings (amyloid-β-peptide plaques, neurofibrillary tangles) and then focuses on more recent efforts of pharmacologic intervention in AD, specifically targeted to the α7 AChR. Whereas cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine, together with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine are at the forefront of present-day clinical intervention for AD, new insights into AChR molecular pharmacology are bringing other drugs, directed at AChRs, to center stage. Among these are the positive allosteric modulators that selectively target α7 AChRs and are aimed at unleashing the factors that hinder agonist-mediated, α7 AChR channel activation. This calls for more detailed knowledge of the distribution, functional properties, and involvement of AChRs in various signaling cascades-together with the corresponding abnormalities in all these properties-to be able to engineer strategies in drug design and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of new compounds targeting this class of neurotransmitter receptors. PMID:25248971

  15. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reconstitution in Au(111)-supported thiolipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pissinis, Diego E; Diaz, Carolina; Maza, Eliana; Bonini, Ida C; Barrantes, Francisco J; Salvarezza, Roberto C; Schilardi, Patricia L

    2015-10-14

    The insertion and function of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Au(111)-supported thiolipid self-assembled monolayers have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical techniques. It was possible for the first time to resolve the supramolecular arrangement of the protein spontaneously inserted in a thiolipid monolayer in an aqueous solution. Geometric supramolecular arrays of nAChRs were observed, most commonly in a triangular form compatible with three nAChR dimers of ∼20 nm each. Addition of the full agonist carbamoylcholine activated and opened the nAChR ion channel, as revealed by the increase in capacitance relative to that of the nAChR-thiolipid system under basal conditions. Thus, the self-assembled system appears to be a viable biomimetic model to measure ionic conductance mediated by ion-gated ion channels under different experimental conditions, with potential applications in biotechnology and pharmacology. PMID:26355753

  16. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reconstitution in Au(111)-supported thiolipid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissinis, Diego E.; Diaz, Carolina; Maza, Eliana; Bonini, Ida C.; Barrantes, Francisco J.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Schilardi, Patricia L.

    2015-09-01

    The insertion and function of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Au(111)-supported thiolipid self-assembled monolayers have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical techniques. It was possible for the first time to resolve the supramolecular arrangement of the protein spontaneously inserted in a thiolipid monolayer in an aqueous solution. Geometric supramolecular arrays of nAChRs were observed, most commonly in a triangular form compatible with three nAChR dimers of ~20 nm each. Addition of the full agonist carbamoylcholine activated and opened the nAChR ion channel, as revealed by the increase in capacitance relative to that of the nAChR-thiolipid system under basal conditions. Thus, the self-assembled system appears to be a viable biomimetic model to measure ionic conductance mediated by ion-gated ion channels under different experimental conditions, with potential applications in biotechnology and pharmacology.

  17. Hydrogen-bond interactions of nicotine and acetylcholine salts: a combined crystallographic, spectroscopic, thermodynamic and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Virginie; Berthelot, Michel; Evain, Michel; Graton, Jérôme; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    The hydrogen-bond (HB) interactions of the monocharged active forms of nicotine and acetylcholine (ACh) have been compared theoretically by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimentally on the basis of crystallographic observations and the measurement of equilibrium constants in solution. The 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (picrate) counterion was used to determine the experimental HB basicity of the cations despite its potential multisite HB acceptor properties. The preferred HB interaction site of the ammonium picrate salts was determined from a survey of crystallographic data found in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and is supported by theoretical calculations. Two distinct classes of ammonium groups were characterised depending on the absence (quaternary ammonium) or presence (tertiary, secondary and primary ammoniums) of an N(+)HO hydrogen bond linking the two ions. The crystal structure of nicotinium picrate was determined and compared with that of ACh. This analysis revealed the peculiar behaviour of the ammonium moiety of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands towards the picrate anion. Dedicated methods have been developed to separate the individual contributions of the anion and cation accepting sites to the overall HB basicity of the ion pairs measured in solution. The HB basicities of the picrate anions associated with the two different ammonium classes were determined in dichloromethane solution by using several model ion pairs with non-basic ammonium cations. The experimental and theoretical studies performed on the nicotine and ACh cations consistently show the significant HB ability of the acceptor site of nAChR agonists in their charged form. Both the greater HB basicity of the pyridinic nitrogen over the carbonyl oxygen and the greater HB acidity of the N(+)H unit relative to N(+)CH could contribute to the higher affinity for nAChRs of nicotine-like ligands relative to ACh-like ligands.

  18. A Novel α2/α4 Subtype-selective Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Acting from the C-tail of an α Subunit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Jin, Zhuang; Norleans, Jack; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-11-27

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are important therapeutic candidates as well as valuable research tools. We identified a novel type II PAM, (R)-7-bromo-N-(piperidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (Br-PBTC), which both increases activation and reactivates desensitized nAChRs. This compound increases acetylcholine-evoked responses of α2* and α4* nAChRs but is without effect on α3* or α6* nAChRs (* indicates the presence of other nAChR subunits). Br-BPTC acts from the C-terminal extracellular sequences of α4 subunits, which is also a PAM site for steroid hormone estrogens such as 17β-estradiol. Br-PBTC is much more potent than estrogens. Like 17β-estradiol, the non-steroid Br-PBTC only requires one α4 subunit to potentiate nAChR function, and its potentiation is stronger with more α4 subunits. This feature enables Br-BPTC to potentiate activation of (α4β2)(α6β2)β3 but not (α6β2)2β3 nAChRs. Therefore, this compound is potentially useful in vivo for determining functions of different α6* nAChR subtypes. Besides activation, Br-BPTC affects desensitization of nAChRs induced by sustained exposure to agonists. After minutes of exposure to agonists, Br-PBTC reactivated short term desensitized nAChRs that have at least two α4 subunits but not those with only one. Three α4 subunits were required for Br-BPTC to reactivate long term desensitized nAChRs. These data suggest that higher PAM occupancy promotes channel opening more efficiently and overcomes short and long term desensitization. This C-terminal extracellular domain could be a target for developing subtype or state-selective drugs for nAChRs.

  19. A Novel α2/α4 Subtype-selective Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Acting from the C-tail of an α Subunit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Jin, Zhuang; Norleans, Jack; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-11-27

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are important therapeutic candidates as well as valuable research tools. We identified a novel type II PAM, (R)-7-bromo-N-(piperidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (Br-PBTC), which both increases activation and reactivates desensitized nAChRs. This compound increases acetylcholine-evoked responses of α2* and α4* nAChRs but is without effect on α3* or α6* nAChRs (* indicates the presence of other nAChR subunits). Br-BPTC acts from the C-terminal extracellular sequences of α4 subunits, which is also a PAM site for steroid hormone estrogens such as 17β-estradiol. Br-PBTC is much more potent than estrogens. Like 17β-estradiol, the non-steroid Br-PBTC only requires one α4 subunit to potentiate nAChR function, and its potentiation is stronger with more α4 subunits. This feature enables Br-BPTC to potentiate activation of (α4β2)(α6β2)β3 but not (α6β2)2β3 nAChRs. Therefore, this compound is potentially useful in vivo for determining functions of different α6* nAChR subtypes. Besides activation, Br-BPTC affects desensitization of nAChRs induced by sustained exposure to agonists. After minutes of exposure to agonists, Br-PBTC reactivated short term desensitized nAChRs that have at least two α4 subunits but not those with only one. Three α4 subunits were required for Br-BPTC to reactivate long term desensitized nAChRs. These data suggest that higher PAM occupancy promotes channel opening more efficiently and overcomes short and long term desensitization. This C-terminal extracellular domain could be a target for developing subtype or state-selective drugs for nAChRs. PMID:26432642

  20. Donepezil, an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, and ABT-239, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, require the integrity of brain histamine system to exert biochemical and procognitive effects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Passani, M Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio

    2016-10-01

    Histaminergic H3 receptors (H3R) antagonists enhance cognition in preclinical models and modulate neurotransmission, in particular acetylcholine (ACh) release in the cortex and hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. The cognitive deficits seen in aging and Alzheimer's disease have been associated with brain cholinergic deficits. Donepezil is one of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor approved for use across the full spectrum of these cognitive disorders. We addressed the question if H3R antagonists and donepezil require an intact histamine neuronal system to exert their procognitive effects. The effect of the H3R antagonist ABT-239 and donepezil were evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT), and on the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) phosphorylation in normal and histamine-depleted mice. Systemic administration of ABT-239 or donepezil ameliorated the cognitive performance in the ORT. However, these compounds were ineffective in either genetically (histidine decarboxylase knock-out, HDC-KO) or pharmacologically, by means of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the HDC irreversible inhibitor a-fluoromethylhistidine (a-FMHis), histamine-deficient mice. Western blot analysis revealed that ABT-239 or donepezil systemic treatments increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in cortical and hippocampal homogenates of normal, but not of histamine-depleted mice. Furthermore, administration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 that blocks GSK-3β phosphorylation, prevented the procognitive effects of both drugs in normal mice. Our results indicate that both donepezil and ABT-239 require the integrity of the brain histaminergic system to exert their procognitive effects and strongly suggest that impairments of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β intracellular pathway activation is responsible for the inefficacy of both drugs in histamine-deficient animals. PMID:27291828

  1. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in angiogenesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Smitha; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2012-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is strongly correlated with many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease and macular degeneration. Nicotine, the main active and addictive component of tobacco smoke has recently been shown to enhance angiogenesis in many experimental systems and animal models. The pro-angiogenic activity of nicotine is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, particularly the alpha 7 subunit, that are expressed on a variety of non-neuronal cells including those in the vasculature such as endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The present review focuses on the role of α7nAChR in mediating the pro-angiogenic effects of nicotine and describes the molecular mechanisms involved in nicotine-induced angiogenesis as well as epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These observations on nicotine function highlight the therapeutic potential of α7nAChR agonists and antagonists for combating angiogenesis related diseases.

  2. Acetylcholine-induced current in perfused rat myoballs

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Spherical "myoballs" were grown under tissue culture conditions from striated muscle of neonatal rat thighs. The myoballs were examined electrophysiologically with a suction pipette which was used to pass current and perfuse internally. A microelectrode was used to record membrane potential. Experiments were performed with approximately symmetrical (intracellular and extracellular) sodium aspartate solutions. The resting potential, acetylcholine (ACh) reversal potential, and sodium channel reversal potential were all approximately 0 mV. ACh-induced currents were examined by use of both voltage jumps and voltage ramps in the presence of iontophoretically applied agonist. The voltage-jump relaxations had a single exponential time-course. The time constant, tau, was exponentially related to membrane potential, increasing e-fold for 81 mV hyperpolarization. The equilibrium current- voltage relationship was also approximately exponential, from -120 to +81 mV, increasing e-fold for 104 mV hyperpolarization. The data are consistent with a first-order gating process in which the channel opening rate constant is slightly voltage dependent. The instantaneous current-voltage relationship was sublinear in the hyperpolarizing direction. Several models are discussed which can account for the nonlinearity. Evidence is presented that the "selectivity filter" for the ACh channel is located near the intracellular membrane surface. PMID:7381423

  3. Reduced striatal acetylcholine efflux in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease: an examination of the role of altered inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Andrew M; Callahan, Joshua W; Abercrombie, Elizabeth D

    2011-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the progressive onset of cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms. In parallel, the neuropathology of HD is characterized by progressive loss of projection neurons in cortex and striatum; striatal cholinergic interneurons are relatively spared. Nonetheless, there is evidence that striatal acetylcholine (ACh) function is altered in HD. The present study is the first to examine striatal ACh function in awake, behaving animals, using the R6/2 mouse model of HD, which is transgenic for exon 1 of the mutant huntingtin gene. Physiological levels of extracellular striatal ACh were monitored in R6/2 mice and wild type controls using in vivo microdialysis. Results indicate that spontaneous ACh release is reduced in R6/2 mice relative to controls. Intrastriatal application of the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline methiodide (10.0 μM) significantly elevated ACh levels in both R6/2 mice and wild type controls, while overall ACh levels were reduced in the R6/2 mice compared to the wild type group. In contrast, systemic administration of the D(1) dopamine receptor partial agonist, SKF-38393 (10.0mg/kg, IP), elevated ACh levels in control animals, but not R6/2 mice. Taken together, the present results suggest that GABA-mediated inhibition of striatal ACh release is intact in R6/2 mice, further demonstrating that cholinergic interneurons are capable of increased ACh release, whereas D(1) receptor-dependent activation of excitatory inputs to striatal cholinergic interneurons is dysfunctional in R6/2 mice. Reduced levels of extracellular striatal ACh in HD may reflect abnormalities in the excitatory innervation of cholinergic interneurons, which may have implications ACh-dependent processes that are altered in HD, including corticostriatal plasticity.

  4. Nicotine increases GABAergic input on rat dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vázquez, F; Chavarría, K; Garduño, J; Hernández-López, S; Mihailescu, S P

    2014-12-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains large populations of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. This nucleus receives GABAergic inhibitory afferents from many brain areas and from DRN interneurons. Both GABAergic and 5-HT DRN neurons express functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotine increases 5-HT release and 5-HT DRN neuron discharge rate by stimulating postsynaptic nAChRs and by increasing glutamate and norepinephrine release inside DRN. However, the influence of nicotine on the GABAergic input to 5-HT DRN neurons was poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of nicotine on GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of 5-HT DRN neurons and the subtype of nAChR(s) involved in this response. Experiments were performed in coronal slices obtained from young Wistar rats. GABAergic sIPSCs were recorded from post hoc-identified 5-HT DRN neurons with the whole cell voltage patch-clamp technique. Administration of nicotine (1 μM) increased sIPSC frequency in 72% of identified 5-HT DRN neurons. This effect was not reproduced by the α4β2 nAChR agonist RJR-2403 and was not influenced by TTX (1 μM). It was mimicked by the selective agonist for α7 nAChR, PNU-282987, and exacerbated by the positive allosteric modulator of the same receptor, PNU-120596. The nicotine-induced increase in sIPSC frequency was independent on voltage-gated calcium channels and dependent on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). These results demonstrate that nicotine increases the GABAergic input to most 5-HT DRN neurons, by activating α7 nAChRs and producing CICR in DRN GABAergic terminals.

  5. Nicotine increases GABAergic input on rat dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vázquez, F; Chavarría, K; Garduño, J; Hernández-López, S; Mihailescu, S P

    2014-12-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains large populations of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. This nucleus receives GABAergic inhibitory afferents from many brain areas and from DRN interneurons. Both GABAergic and 5-HT DRN neurons express functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotine increases 5-HT release and 5-HT DRN neuron discharge rate by stimulating postsynaptic nAChRs and by increasing glutamate and norepinephrine release inside DRN. However, the influence of nicotine on the GABAergic input to 5-HT DRN neurons was poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of nicotine on GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of 5-HT DRN neurons and the subtype of nAChR(s) involved in this response. Experiments were performed in coronal slices obtained from young Wistar rats. GABAergic sIPSCs were recorded from post hoc-identified 5-HT DRN neurons with the whole cell voltage patch-clamp technique. Administration of nicotine (1 μM) increased sIPSC frequency in 72% of identified 5-HT DRN neurons. This effect was not reproduced by the α4β2 nAChR agonist RJR-2403 and was not influenced by TTX (1 μM). It was mimicked by the selective agonist for α7 nAChR, PNU-282987, and exacerbated by the positive allosteric modulator of the same receptor, PNU-120596. The nicotine-induced increase in sIPSC frequency was independent on voltage-gated calcium channels and dependent on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). These results demonstrate that nicotine increases the GABAergic input to most 5-HT DRN neurons, by activating α7 nAChRs and producing CICR in DRN GABAergic terminals. PMID:25231613

  6. Assessment of the functionality and stability of detergent purified nAChR from Torpedo using lipidic matrixes and macroscopic electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Morales, Luis F; Colón-Sáez, José O; González-Nieves, Joel E; Quesada-González, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study we examined the functionality and stability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-detergent complexes (nAChR-DCs) from affinity-purified Torpedo californica (Tc) using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in Lipidic Cubic Phase (LCP) and planar lipid bilayer (PLB) recordings for phospholipid and cholesterol like detergents. In the present study we enhanced the functional characterization of nAChR-DCs by recording macroscopic ion channel currents in Xenopus oocytes using the two electrode voltage clamp (TEVC). The use of TEVC allows for the recording of macroscopic currents elicited by agonist activation of nAChR-DCs that assemble in the oocyte plasma membrane. Furthermore, we examined the stability of nAChR-DCs, which is obligatory for the nAChR crystallization, using a 30 day FRAP assay in LCP for each detergent. The present results indicate a marked difference in the fractional fluorescence recovery (ΔFFR) within the same detergent family during the 30 day period assayed. Within the cholesterol analog family, sodium cholate and CHAPSO displayed a minimum ΔFFR and a mobile fraction (MF) over 80%. In contrast, CHAPS and BigCHAP showed a marked decay in both the mobile fraction and diffusion coefficient. nAChR-DCs containing phospholipid analog detergents with an alkylphosphocholine (FC) and lysofoscholine (LFC) of 16 carbon chains (FC-16, LFC-16) were more effective in maintaining a mobile fraction of over 80% compared to their counterparts with shorter acyl chain (C12, C14). The significant differences in macroscopic current amplitudes, activation and desensitization rates among the different nAChR-DCs evaluated in the present study allow to dissect which detergent preserves both, agonist activation and ion channel function. Functionality assays using TEVC demonstrated that LFC16, LFC14, and cholate were the most effective detergents in preserving macroscopic ion channel function, however, the nAChR-cholate complex

  7. Assessment of the functionality and stability of detergent purified nAChR from Torpedo using lipidic matrixes and macroscopic electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Morales, Luis F; Colón-Sáez, José O; González-Nieves, Joel E; Quesada-González, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study we examined the functionality and stability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-detergent complexes (nAChR-DCs) from affinity-purified Torpedo californica (Tc) using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in Lipidic Cubic Phase (LCP) and planar lipid bilayer (PLB) recordings for phospholipid and cholesterol like detergents. In the present study we enhanced the functional characterization of nAChR-DCs by recording macroscopic ion channel currents in Xenopus oocytes using the two electrode voltage clamp (TEVC). The use of TEVC allows for the recording of macroscopic currents elicited by agonist activation of nAChR-DCs that assemble in the oocyte plasma membrane. Furthermore, we examined the stability of nAChR-DCs, which is obligatory for the nAChR crystallization, using a 30 day FRAP assay in LCP for each detergent. The present results indicate a marked difference in the fractional fluorescence recovery (ΔFFR) within the same detergent family during the 30 day period assayed. Within the cholesterol analog family, sodium cholate and CHAPSO displayed a minimum ΔFFR and a mobile fraction (MF) over 80%. In contrast, CHAPS and BigCHAP showed a marked decay in both the mobile fraction and diffusion coefficient. nAChR-DCs containing phospholipid analog detergents with an alkylphosphocholine (FC) and lysofoscholine (LFC) of 16 carbon chains (FC-16, LFC-16) were more effective in maintaining a mobile fraction of over 80% compared to their counterparts with shorter acyl chain (C12, C14). The significant differences in macroscopic current amplitudes, activation and desensitization rates among the different nAChR-DCs evaluated in the present study allow to dissect which detergent preserves both, agonist activation and ion channel function. Functionality assays using TEVC demonstrated that LFC16, LFC14, and cholate were the most effective detergents in preserving macroscopic ion channel function, however, the nAChR-cholate complex

  8. Sesquiterpenes and a monoterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; He, Xuan-Hui; Yuan, Rong; Wei, Ben-Jun; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Jun-Xing; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor (AchEI) is the most extensive in all anti-dementia drugs. The extracts and isolated compounds from the Valeriana genus have shown anti-dementia bioactivity. Four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4) and a new monoterpenoid (5) were isolated from the root of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity of isolates was evaluated by modified Ellman method in vitro. Learning and memory ability of compound 4 on mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze. The contents of acetylcholine (Ach), acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) and AchE in mice brains were determined by colorimetry. The results showed IC50 of compound 4 was 0.161 μM in vitro. Compared with the normal group, the learning and memory ability of mice and the contents of Ach and ChAT decreased in model group mice (P<0.01), while the AchE increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Ach and ChAT in the positive control group, the high-dose group and the medium-dose group increased (P<0.01), while the AchE decreased (P<0.01). Compound 4 can improve the learning and memory abilities of APPswe/PSΔE9 double-transgenic mice, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of the relative enzyme in the cholinergic system. PMID:26976216

  9. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Sybren F; Mansvelder, Huibert D; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-10-15

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are found in most brain regions, many studies on addiction have focused on the mesolimbic system and its reported behavioral correlates such as reward processing and reinforcement learning. Profound modulatory cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmentum to dopaminergic midbrain nuclei as well as local cholinergic interneuron projections to dopamine neuron axons in the striatum may play a major role in the effects of nicotine. Moreover, an indirect mesocorticolimbic feedback loop involving the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in behavioral characteristics of nicotine addiction. Therefore, this review will highlight current understanding of the effects of nicotine on the function of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine projections in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. PMID:26208783

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for nociception

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emiliano; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Husson, Steven J.; Steuer-Costa, Wagner; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2014-01-01

    Polymodal nociceptors sense and integrate information on injurious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Chemical signals either activate nociceptors or modulate their responses to other stimuli. One chemical known to activate or modulate responses of nociceptors is acetylcholine (ACh). Across evolution nociceptors express subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, a family of ACh-gated ion channels. The roles of ACh and nAChRs in nociceptor function are, however, poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans polymodal nociceptors, PVD, express nAChR subunits on their sensory arbor. Here we show that mutations reducing ACh synthesis and mutations in nAChR subunits lead to defects in PVD function and morphology. A likely cause for these defects is a reduction in cytosolic calcium measured in ACh and nAChR mutants. Indeed, overexpression of a calcium pump in PVD mimics defects in PVD function and morphology found in nAChR mutants. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a central role for nAChRs and ACh in nociceptor function and suggest that calcium permeating via nAChRs facilitates activity of several signaling pathways within this neuron. PMID:24518198

  11. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin. PMID:26909550

  12. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanfei; Sun, Haiji; Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin. PMID:26909550

  13. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanfei; Sun, Haiji; Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin.

  14. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Al zheimer's Disease: The Role of Protein-Protein Interactions in Current and Future Treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Andreasen, Jesper Tobias; Arvaniti, Maria; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued for decades as potential molecular targets to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their positioning within regions of the brain critical in learning and memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and their demonstrated role in processes underlying cognition such as synaptic facilitation, and theta and gamma wave activity. Historically, activity at these receptors is facilitated in AD by use of drugs that increase the levels of their endogenous agonist acetylcholine, and more recently nAChR selective ligands have undergone clinical trials. Here we discuss recent findings suggesting that the expression and function of nAChRs in AD may be regulated by direct interactions with specific proteins, including Lynx proteins, NMDA-receptors and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, as well as β-amyloid. The ability of protein interactions to modify nAChR function adds a new level of complexity to cholinergic signaling in the brain that may be specifically altered in AD. It is currently not known to what degree current nAChR ligands affect these interactions, and it is possible that the difference in the clinical effect of nAChR ligands in AD is related to differences in their ability to modulate nAChR protein interactions, rather than their effects on ion flow through the receptors. Drugs designed to target these interactions may thus provide a new avenue for drug development to ameliorate cognitive symptoms in AD. Notably, the development of experimental drugs that specifically modulate these interactions may provide the opportunity to selectively affect those aspects of nAChR function that are affected in AD. PMID:26818866

  15. Evaluating the role of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2013-10-15

    The group of schizophrenia disorders affects approximately 1% of the population and has both genetic and environmental etiologies. Sufferers report various behavioral abnormalities including hallucinations and delusions (positive symptoms), reduced joy and amotivation (negative symptoms), plus inattention and poor learning (cognitive deficits). Despite the heterogeneous symptoms experienced, most patients smoke. The self-medication hypothesis posits that patients smoke to alleviate symptoms, consistent with evidence for nicotine-induced enhancement of cognition. While nicotine acts on multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the primary target of research is often the homomeric α7 nAChR. Given genetic linkages between schizophrenia and this receptor, its association with P50 sensory gating deficits, and its reduced expression in post-mortem brains, many have attempted to develop α7 nAChR ligands for treating schizophrenia. Recent evidence that ligands can be orthosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) has revitalized the hope for treatment discovery. Herein, we present evidence regarding: (1) pathophysiological alterations of α7 nAChRs that might occur in patients; (2) mechanistic evidence for the normal action of α7 nAChRs; (3) preclinical studies using α7 nAChR orthosteric agonists and type I/II PAMs; and (4) where successful translational testing has occurred for particular compounds, detailing what is still required. We report that the accumulating evidence is positive, but that greater work is required using positron emission tomography to understand current alterations in α7 nAChR expression and their relationship to symptoms. Finally, cross-species behavioral tasks should be used more regularly to determine the predictive efficacy of treatments.

  16. Chemistry and Pharmacology of a Series of Unichiral Analogues of 2-(2-Pyrrolidinyl)-1,4-benzodioxane, Prolinol Phenyl Ether, and Prolinol 3-Pyridyl Ether Designed as α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Bolchi, Cristiano; Valoti, Ermanno; Gotti, Cecilia; Fasoli, Francesca; Ruggeri, Paola; Fumagalli, Laura; Binda, Matteo; Mucchietto, Vanessa; Sciaccaluga, Miriam; Budriesi, Roberta; Fucile, Sergio; Pallavicini, Marco

    2015-08-27

    Some unichiral analogues of 2R,2'S-2-(1'-methyl-2'-pyrrolidinyl)-7-hydroxy-1,4-benzodioxane, a potent and selective α4β2-nAChR partial agonist, were designed by opening dioxane and replacing hydroxyl carbon with nitrogen. The resulting 3-pyridyl and m-hydroxyphenyl ethers have high α4β2 affinity and good subtype selectivity, which get lost if OH is removed from phenyl or the position of pyridine nitrogen is changed. High α4β2 affinity and selectivity are also attained by meta hydroxylating the 3-pyridyl and the phenyl ethers of (S)-N-methylprolinol and the phenyl ether of (S)-2-azetidinemethanol, known α4β2 agonists, although the interaction mode of the aryloxymethylene substructure cannot be assimilated to that of benzodioxane. Indeed, the α4β2 and α3β4 functional tests well differentiate behaviors that the binding tests homologize: both the 3-hydroxyphenyl and the 5-hydroxy-3-pyridyl ether of N-methylprolinol are α4β2 full agonists, but only the latter is highly α4β2/α3β4 selective, while potent and selective partial α4β2 agonism characterizes the hydroxybenzodioxane derivative and its two opened semirigid analogues. PMID:26225816

  17. Structural differences determine the relative selectivity of nicotinic compounds for native alpha 4 beta 2*-, alpha 6 beta 2*-, alpha 3 beta 4*- and alpha 7-nicotine acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Grady, Sharon R; Drenan, Ryan M; Breining, Scott R; Yohannes, Daniel; Wageman, Charles R; Fedorov, Nikolai B; McKinney, Sheri; Whiteaker, Paul; Bencherif, Merouane; Lester, Henry A; Marks, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    Mammalian brain expresses multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that differ in subunit composition, sites of expression and pharmacological and functional properties. Among known subtypes of receptors, alpha 4 beta 2* and alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChR have the highest affinity for nicotine (where * indicates possibility of other subunits). The alpha 4 beta 2*-nAChRs are widely distributed, while alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChR are restricted to a few regions. Both subtypes modulate release of dopamine from the dopaminergic neurons of the mesoaccumbens pathway thought to be essential for reward and addiction. alpha 4 beta 2*-nAChR also modulate GABA release in these areas. Identification of selective compounds would facilitate study of nAChR subtypes. An improved understanding of the role of nAChR subtypes may help in developing more effective smoking cessation aids with fewer side effects than current therapeutics. We have screened a series of nicotinic compounds that vary in the distance between the pyridine and the cationic center, in steric bulk, and in flexibility of the molecule. These compounds were screened using membrane binding and synaptosomal function assays, or recordings from GH4C1 cells expressing h alpha 7, to determine affinity, potency and efficacy at four subtypes of nAChRs found in brain, alpha 4 beta 2*, alpha 6 beta 2*, alpha 7 and alpha 3 beta 4*. In addition, physiological assays in gain-of-function mutant mice were used to assess in vivo activity at alpha 4 beta 2* and alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChRs. This approach has identified several compounds with agonist or partial agonist activity that display improved selectivity for alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChR.

  18. Structural differences determine the relative selectivity of nicotinic compounds for native α4β2*-, α6β2*-, α3β4*- and α7-nicotine acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Sharon R.; Drenan, Ryan M.; Breining, Scott R.; Yohannes, Daniel; Wageman, Charles R.; Fedorov, Nikolai B.; McKinney, Sheri; Whiteaker, Paul; Bencherif, Merouane; Lester, Henry A.; Marks, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian brain expresses multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that differ in subunit composition, sites of expression and pharmacological and functional properties. Among known subtypes of receptors, α4β2* and α6β2*-nAChR have the highest affinity for nicotine (where * indicates possibility of other subunits). The α4β2*-nAChRs are widely distributed, while α6β2*-nAChR are restricted to a few regions. Both subtypes modulate release of dopamine from the dopaminergic neurons of the meso-accumbens pathway thought to be essential for reward and addiction. α4β2*-nAChR also modulate GABA release in these areas. Identification of selective compounds would facilitate study of nAChR subtypes. An improved understanding of the role of nAChR subtypes may help in developing more effective smoking cessation aids with fewer side effects than current therapeutics. We have screened a series of nicotinic compounds that vary in the distance between the pyridine and the cationic center, in steric bulk, and in flexibility of the molecule. These compounds were screened using membrane binding and synaptosomal function assays, or recordings from GH4C1 cells expressing hα7, to determine affinity, potency and efficacy at four subtypes of nAChRs found in brain, α4β2*, α6β2*, α7 and α3β4*. In addition, physiological assays in gain-of-function mutant mice were used to assess in vivo activity at α4β2* and α6β2*-nAChRs. This approach has identified several compounds with agonist or partial agonist activity that display improved selectivity for α6β2*-nAChR. PMID:20114055

  19. Assessing the lipid requirements of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Sauls, Daniel; Machu, Tina K; Blanton, Michael P

    2006-04-01

    The lipid requirements of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) were assessed by reconstituting purified receptors into lipid vesicles of defined composition and by using photolabeling with 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([125I]TID) to determine functionality. Earlier studies demonstrated that nAChRs reconstituted into membranes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), the anionic lipid phosphatidic acid (PA), and cholesterol (CH) are particularly effective at stabilizing the nAChR in the resting (closed) state that is capable of undergoing agonist-induced conformational transitions (i.e., functionality). The present studies demonstrate that (1) there is no obligatory requirement for PC, (2) increasing the CH content serves to increase the degree to which nAChRs are stabilized in the resting state, and this effect saturates at approximately 35 mol % (molar lipid percentage), and (3) the effect of increasing levels of PA saturates at approximately 12 mol % and in the absence of PA nAChRs are stabilized in the desensitized state (i.e., nonfunctional). Native Torpedo membranes contain approximately 35 mol % CH but less than 1 mol % PA, suggesting that other anionic lipids may substitute for PA. We report that (1) phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), anionic lipids that are abundant in native Torpedo membranes, also stabilize the receptor in the resting state although with reduced efficacy (approximately 50-60%) compared to PA, and (2) for nAChRs reconstituted into PA/CH membranes at different lipid-protein molar ratios, receptor functionality decreases rapidly below approximately 65 lipids per receptor. Collectively, these results are consistent with a functional requirement of a single shell of lipids surrounding the nAChR and specific anionic lipid- and sterol (CH)-protein interactions.

  20. Specificity of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 6-mediated phosphorylation and regulation of single-cell m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Willets, Jonathon M; Mistry, Rajendra; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2003-11-01

    Previously we have shown that G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 6 plays a major role in the regulation of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 mAChR) in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. However, 30-fold overexpression of the catalytically inactive, dominant-negative K215RGRK6 produced only a 50% suppression of M3 mAChR phosphorylation and desensitization. Here, we have attempted to determine whether other endogenous kinases play a role in the regulation of M3 mAChR signaling. In contrast to the clear attenuating effect of K215RGRK6 expression on M3 mAChR regulation, dominant-negative forms of GRKs (K220RGRK2, K220RGRK3, K215RGRK5) and casein kinase 1alpha (K46RCK1alpha) were without effect. In addition, inhibition of a variety of second-messenger-regulated kinases and the tyrosine kinase Src also had no effect upon agonist-stimulated M3 mAChR regulation. To investigate further the desensitization process we have followed changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in single SHSY5Y cells using the pleckstrin homology domain of PLCdelta1 tagged with green fluorescent protein (eGFP-PHPLCdelta1). Stimulation of cells with approximate EC50 concentrations of agonist before and after a desensitizing period of agonist exposure resulted in a marked attenuation of the latter response. Altered GRK6 activity, through overexpression of wild-type GRK6 or K215RGRK6, enhanced or reduced the degree of M3 mAChR desensitization, respectively. Taken together, our data indicate that M3 mAChR desensitization is mediated by GRK6 in human SH-SY5Y cells, and we show that receptor desensitization of phospholipase C signaling can be monitored in 'real-time' in single, living cells. PMID:14573754

  1. Acetylcholine receptor in planar lipid bilayers. Characterization of the channel properties of the purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Labarca, P; Lindstrom, J; Montal, M

    1984-04-01

    The properties of the channel of the purified acetylcholine receptor (AChR) were investigated after reconstitution in planar lipid bilayers. The time course of the agonist-induced conductance exhibits a transient peak that relaxes to a steady state value. The macroscopic steady state membrane conductance increases with agonist concentration, reaching saturation at 10(-5) M for carbamylcholine (CCh). The agonist-induced membrane conductance was inhibited by d-tubocurarine (50% inhibition, IC50, at approximately 10(-6) M) and hexamethonium (IC50 approximately 10(-5) M). The single channel conductance, gamma, is ohmic and independent of the agonist. At 0.3 M monovalent salt concentrations, gamma = 28 pS for Na+, 30 pS for Rb+, 38 pS for Cs+, and 50 pS for NH+4. The distribution of channel open times was fit by a sum of two exponentials, reflecting the existence of two distinct open states. tau o1 and tau o2, the fast and slow components of the distribution of open times, are independent of the agonist concentration: for CCh this was verified in the range of 10(-6) M less than C less than 10(-3)M. tau 01 and tau o2 are approximately three times longer for suberyldicholine ( SubCh ) than for CCh. tau o1 and tau o2 are moderately voltage dependent, increasing as the applied voltage in the compartment containing agonist is made more positive with respect to the other. At desensitizing concentrations of agonist, the AChR channel openings occurred in a characteristic pattern of sudden paroxysms of channel activity followed by quiescent periods. A local anesthetic derivative of lidocaine ( QX -222) reduced both tau o1 and tau o2. This effect was dependent on both the concentration of QX -222 and the applied voltage. Thus, the AChR purified from Torpedo electric organ and reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers exhibits ion conduction and kinetic and pharmacological properties similar to AChR in intact muscle postsynaptic membranes.

  2. P2Y2 receptor activation regulates the expression of acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine receptor genes at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Tung, Edmund K K; Choi, Roy C Y; Siow, Nina L; Jiang, Joy X S; Ling, Karen K Y; Simon, Joseph; Barnard, Eric A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2004-10-01

    At the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (nmj), ATP is known to be coreleased with acetylcholine from the synaptic vesicles. We have previously shown that the P2Y1 receptor is localized at the nmj. Here, we extend the findings to show that another nucleotide receptor, P2Y2, is also localized there and with P2Y1 jointly mediates trophic responses to ATP. The P2Y2 receptor mRNA in rat muscle increased during development and peaked in adulthood. The P2Y2 receptor protein was shown to become restricted to the nmjs during embryonic development, in chick and in rat. In both rat and chick myotubes, P2Y1 and P2Y2 are expressed, increasing with differentiation, but P2Y4 is absent. The P2Y2 agonist UTP stimulated there inositol trisphosphate production and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, in a dose-dependent manner. These UTP-induced responses were insensitive to the P2Y1-specific antagonist MRS 2179 (2'-deoxy-N6-methyl adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate diammonium salt). In differentiated myotubes, P2Y2 activation induced expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein (but not control alpha-tubulin). This was shown to arise from AChE promoter activation, mediated by activation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Two Elk-1-responsive elements, located in intron-1 of the AChE promoter, were found by mutation to act in this gene activation initiated at the P2Y2 receptor and also in that initiated at the P2Y1 receptor. Furthermore, the promoters of different acetylcholine receptor subunits were also stimulated by application of UTP to myotubes. These results indicate that ATP regulates postsynaptic gene expressions via a common pathway triggered by the activation of P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors at the nmjs. PMID:15258260

  3. Identification of petrogenic produced water components as acetylcholine esterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Froment, Jean; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Bråte, Inger Lise N; Brooks, Steven J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-08-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was applied to identify acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors in produced water. Common produced water components from oil production activities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and naphthenic acids were tested for AChE inhibition using a simple mixture of PAHs and naphthenic acids. Produced water samples collected from two offshore platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea were extracted by solid phase extraction and fractionated by open-column liquid solid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before being tested using a high-throughput and automated AChE assay. The HPLC fractions causing the strongest AChE inhibition were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HR-ToF-MS). Butylated hydroxytoluene and 4-phenyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene were identified as two produced water components capable of inhibiting AChE at low concentrations. In order to assess the potential presence of such compounds discharged into aquatic ecosystems, AChE activity in fish tissues was measured. Saithe (Pollachius virens) caught near two offshore platforms showed lower enzymatic activity than those collected from a reference location. Target analysis of saithe did not detected the presence of these two putative AChE inhibitors and suggest that additional compounds such as PAHs, naphthenic acids and yet un-identified compounds may also contribute to the purported AChE inhibition observed in saithe. PMID:27176761

  4. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L; Beech, Robin N; Harmache, Abdallah; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent; Peineau, Nicolas; Woods, Debra J; Neveu, Cedric

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  5. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L.; Beech, Robin N.; Harmache, Abdallah; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O’Connor, Vincent; Peineau, Nicolas; Woods, Debra J.; Neveu, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand–gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR. PMID:26625142

  6. The role of cyclic AMP and its protein kinase in mediating acetylcholine release and the action of adenosine at frog motor nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, J. K.; Silinsky, E. M.; Solsona, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The importance of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and its protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) in promoting acetylcholine (ACh) release was studied at frog motor nerve endings. The effects of cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation on the action of adenosine receptor agonists were also investigated. 2. Cyclic AMP was delivered to a local region of the cytoplasm just beneath the plasma membrane of motor nerve endings using phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) as a vehicle. Cyclic AMP in liposomes produced a parallel reduction in the mean level of evoked ACh release (m) and spontaneous ACh release (miniature endplate potential frequency; m.e.p.p.f) in most experiments. These inhibitory effects of cyclic AMP on quantal ACh release resemble the action of adenosine. 3. The effects of global increases in cytoplasmic cyclic AMP concentrations using lipophilic cyclic AMP analogues were generally different from those observed with cyclic AMP. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio) cyclic AMP (CPT cyclic AMP) produced approximately two fold increases in m and m.e.p.p.f. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db cyclic AMP) also increased m and m.e.p.p.f, with the effect on m being smaller and more variable. 4. All three cyclic AMP analogues reduced the effects of adenosine receptor agonists on spontaneous and evoked ACh release. 5. The roles of protein phosphorylation in mediating ACh release and the inhibitory effects of adenosine were studied with the protein kinase inhibitor H7. H7 (30-100 microM) produced no consistent effect on evoked or spontaneous ACh release. At these concentrations, however, H7 exerted an unfortunate inhibitory action on the nicotinic ACh receptor/ion channel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2175231

  7. Nicotine prevents synaptic impairment induced by amyloid-β oligomers through α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Godoy, Juan A; Vargas, Jessica Y; Arrazola, Macarena S; Rios, Juvenal A; Carvajal, Francisco J; Serrano, Felipe G; Farias, Ginny G

    2013-09-01

    An emerging view on Alzheimer disease's (AD) pathogenesis considers amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers as a key factor in synaptic impairment and rodent spatial memory decline. Alterations in the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) have been implicated in AD pathology. Herein, we report that nicotine, an unselective α7-nAChR agonist, protects from morphological and synaptic impairments induced by Aβ oligomers. Interestingly, nicotine prevents both early postsynaptic impairment and late presynaptic damage induced by Aβ oligomers through the α7-nAChR/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. On the other hand, a cross-talk between α7-nAChR and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was revealed by the following facts: (1) nicotine stabilizes β-catenin, in a concentration-dependent manner; (2) nicotine prevents Aβ-induced loss of β-catenin through the α7-nAChR; and (3) activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces α7-nAChR expression. Analysis of the α7-nAChR promoter indicates that this receptor is a new Wnt target gene. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nicotine prevents memory deficits and synaptic impairment induced by Aβ oligomers. In addition, nicotine improves memory in young APP/PS1 transgenic mice before extensive amyloid deposition and senile plaque development, and also in old mice where senile plaques have already formed. Activation of the α7-nAChR/PI3K signaling pathway and its cross-talk with the Wnt signaling pathway might well be therapeutic targets for potential AD treatments.

  8. Crystallization scale purification of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from mammalian cells using a BacMam expression system

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hao; Fan, Chen; Zhang, Si-wei; Wu, Zhong-shan; Cui, Zhi-cheng; Melcher, Karsten; Zhang, Cheng-hai; Jiang, Yi; Cong, Yao; Xu, H Eric

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report our methods for expression and purification of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), a ligand-gated pentameric ion channel and an important drug target. Methods: α7-nAChRs of 10 different species were cloned into an inducible BacMam vector with an N-terminal tag of a tandem maltose-binding protein (MBP) and a TEV cleavage site. This α7-nAChR fusion receptor was expressed in mammalian HEK293F cells and detected by Western blot. The expression was scaled up to liters. The receptor was purified using amylose resin and size-exclusion chromatography. The quality of the purified receptor was assessed using SDS-PAGE gels, thermal stability analysis, and negative stain electron microscopy (EM). The expression construct was optimized through terminal truncations and site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Expression screening revealed that α7-nAChR from Taeniopygia guttata had the highest expression levels. The fusion receptor was expressed mostly on the cell surface, and it could be efficiently purified using one-step amylose affinity chromatography. One to two milligrams of the optimized α7-nAChR expression construct were purified from one liter of cell culture. The purified α7-nAChR samples displayed high thermal stability with a Tm of 60 °C, which was further enhanced by antagonist binding but decreased in the presence of agonist. EM analysis revealed ring-like structures with a central hydrophilic hole, which was consistent with the pentameric assembly of the α7-nAChR channel. Conclusion: We have established methods for crystallization scale expression and purification of α7-nAChR, which lays a foundation for high-resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography or single particle cryo-EM analysis. PMID:26073323

  9. The coumarin scopoletin potentiates acetylcholine release from synaptosomes, amplifies hippocampal long-term potentiation and ameliorates anticholinergic- and age-impaired memory

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, A.; Lieb, A.; Vo, N.P.; Rollinger, J.M.; Stuppner, H.; Prast, H.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study the simple, naturally derived coumarin scopoletin (SCT) was identified as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), using a pharmacophore-based virtual screening approach. In this study the potential of SCT as procholinergic and cognition-enhancing therapeutic was investigated in a more detailed way, using different experimental approaches like measuring newly synthesized acetylcholine (ACh) in synaptosomes, long-term potentiation (LTP) experiments in hippocampal slices, and behavior studies. SCT enhanced the K+-stimulated release of ACh from rat frontal cortex synaptosomes, showing a bell-shaped dose effect curve (Emax: 4 μM). This effect was blocked by the nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) antagonists mecamylamine (MEC) and dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHE). The nAChR agonist (and AChE inhibitor) galantamine induced a similar increase in ACh release (Emax: 1 μM). SCT potentiated LTP in hippocampal slices of rat brain. The high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dependent LTP of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at CA3-CA1 synapses was greatly enhanced by pre-HFS application of SCT (4 μM for 4 min). This effect was mimicked by nicotine (2 μM) and abolished by MEC, suggesting an effect on nAChRs. SCT did not restore the total inhibition of LTP by NMDA receptor antagonist d, l-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5). SCT (2 μg, i.c.v.) increased T-maze alternation and ameliorated novel object recognition of mice with scopolamine-induced cholinergic deficit. It also reduced age-associated deficits in object memory of 15–18-month-old mice (2 mg/kg sc). Our findings suggest that SCT possesses memory-improving properties, which are based on its direct nAChR agonistic activity. Therefore, SCT might be able to rescue impaired cholinergic functions by enhancing nAChR-mediated release of neurotransmitters and promoting neural plasticity in hippocampus. PMID:21945033

  10. Involvement of β3-adrenoceptors in the inhibitory control of cholinergic activity in human bladder: Direct evidence by [(3)H]-acetylcholine release experiments in the isolated detrusor.

    PubMed

    D' Agostino, Gianluigi; Maria Condino, Anna; Calvi, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Bladder overactivity (OAB) is a multifactorial bladder disorder that requires therapeutics superior to the current pharmacological treatment with muscarinic antagonists. β3-adrenoceptor (β3-ADR) agonists represent a novel promising approach that differently addresses the parasympathetic pathway, but the clinical efficacy of these drugs has not been fully elucidated to date. Therefore, we aimed to study the pharmacological mechanisms activated by β3-ADR agonists at muscular and neural sites in the isolated human bladder. Detrusor smooth muscle strips obtained from male patients undergoing total cystectomy were labelled with tritiated choline and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS). EFS produced smooth muscle contraction and simultaneous acetylcholine ([(3)H]-ACh) release, which mostly reflects the neural origin of acetylcholine. Isoprenaline (INA), BRL37344 and mirabegron inhibited the EFS-evoked contraction and [(3)H]-ACh release in a concentration-dependent manner, yielding concentration-response curves (CRCs) that were shifted to the right by the selective β3-ADR antagonists L-748,337 and SR59230A. Based on the agonist potency estimates (pEC50) and apparent affinities (pKb) of antagonists evaluated from the CRCs of agonists, our data confirm the occurrence of β3-ADRs at muscle sites. Moreover, our data are consistent with the presence of inhibitory β3-ADRs that are functionally expressed at the neural site. Taken together, these findings elucidate the mechanisms activated by β3-ADR agonists because neural β3-ADRs participate in the inhibition of detrusor motor drive by reducing the amount of acetylcholine involved in the cholinergic pathway. PMID:25861936

  11. Endogenous Inhibition of the Trigeminally Evoked Neurotransmission to Cardiac Vagal Neurons by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, C.; Philbin, K.; Bateman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Stimulation of the nasal mucosa by airborne irritants or water evokes a pronounced bradycardia accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction and apnea. The dive response, which includes the trigeminocardiac reflex, is among the most powerful autonomic responses. These responses slow the heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. Although normally cardioprotective, exaggeration of this reflex can be detrimental and has been implicated in cardiorespiratory diseases, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An essential component of the diving response and trigeminocardiac reflex is activation of the parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus that control heart rate. This study examined the involvement of cholinergic receptors in trigeminally evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro preparation from rats. CVNs were identified using a retrograde tracer injected into the fat pads at the base of the heart. Application of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs on stimulation of trigeminal fibers. Whereas nicotine did not have any effect on the glutamatergic responses, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist bethanechol significantly decreased the excitatory neurotransmission. Atropine, an mAChR antagonist, facilitated these responses indicating this trigeminally evoked brain stem pathway in vitro is endogenously inhibited by mAChRs. Tropicamide, an m4 mAChR antagonist, prevented the inhibitory action of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol. These results indicate that the glutamatergic synaptic neurotransmission in the trigeminally evoked pathway to CVNs is endogenously inhibited in vitro by m4 mAChRs. PMID:20719927

  12. Multiple binding sites in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: An opportunity for polypharmacolgy.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Bermudez, Isabel; Varas, Rodrigo; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    For decades, the development of selective compounds has been the main goal for chemists and biologists involved in drug discovery. However, diverse lines of evidence indicate that polypharmacological agents, i.e. those that act simultaneously at various protein targets, might show better profiles than selective ligands, regarding both efficacy and side effects. On the other hand, the availability of the crystal structure of different receptors allows a detailed analysis of the main interactions between drugs and receptors in a specific binding site. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) constitute a large and diverse family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that, as a product of its modulation, regulate neurotransmitter release, which in turns produce a global neuromodulation of the central nervous system. nAChRs are pentameric protein complexes in such a way that expression of compatible subunits can lead to various receptor assemblies or subtypes. The agonist binding site, located at the extracellular region, exhibits different properties depending on the subunits that conform the receptor. In the last years, it has been recognized that nAChRs could also contain one or more allosteric sites which could bind non-classical nicotinic ligands including several therapeutically useful drugs. The presence of multiple binding sites in nAChRs offers an interesting possibility for the development of novel polypharmacological agents with a wide spectrum of actions. PMID:26318763

  13. Modal affinities of endplate acetylcholine receptors caused by loop C mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vij, Ridhima; Purohit, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The time course of the endplate current is determined by the rate and equilibrium constants for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) activation. We measured these constants in single-channel currents from AChRs with mutations at the neurotransmitter-binding sites, in loop C. The main findings are: (a) Almost all perturbations of loop C generate heterogeneity in the channel open probability (“modes”). (b) Modes are generated by different affinities for ACh that can be either higher or lower than in the wild-type receptors. (c) The modes are stable, in so far as each receptor maintains its affinity for at least several minutes. (d) Different agonists show different degrees of modal activity. With the loop C mutation αP197A, there are four modes with ACh but only two with partial agonists. (e) The affinity variations arise exclusively from the αδ-binding site. (f) Substituting four γ-subunit residues into the δ subunit (three in loop E and one in the β5–β5′ linker) reduces modal activity. (g) At each neurotransmitter-binding site, affinity is determined by a core of five aromatic residues. Modes are eliminated by an alanine mutation at δW57 but not at the other aromatics. (h) Modes are eliminated by a phenylalanine substitution at all core aromatics except αY93. The results suggest that, at the αδ agonist site, loop C and the complementary subunit surface can each adopt alternative conformations and interact with each other to influence the position of δW57 with respect to the aromatic core and, hence, affinity. PMID:26503719

  14. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kaai; Ando, Midori; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP). Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism. PMID:25383314

  15. Inflammation decreases the level of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain mitochondria and makes them more susceptible to apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tzartos, Socrates; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2015-11-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) are involved in regulating inflammatory reactions, as well as the cell viability. They are expressed in both the plasma membrane and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Previously we found that neuroinflammation resulted in the decrease of α7 nAChR density in the brain of mice and was accompanied by accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and memory impairment. In the present paper, it is shown that inflammation induced by either regular bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections or immunizations with α7 nAChR extracellular domain (1-208) affected also the brain cell mitochondria. Using various modifications of sandwich ELISA, we observed the decrease of α7 nAChRs and accumulation of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) in mitochondria of immunized or LPS-treated mice compared to control ones. Mitochondria of treated mice responded with cytochrome c release to lower Ca(2+) concentrations than mitochondria of control mice and were less sensitive to its attenuation with α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987. It is concluded that inflammation decreases α7 nAChR expression in both mitochondria and cell plasma membrane and makes mitochondria more susceptible to apoptosis induction.

  16. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Nalini, K; Rao, M S; Srinivasan, K K

    2002-12-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg of Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (CTR), for 30 days in neonatal and young adult age groups of rat, significantly increased acetylcholine (ACh) content in their hippocampi as compared to age matched controls. Increase in ACh content in their hippocampus may be the neurochemical basis for their improved learning and memory. PMID:12490229

  17. A hydrosoluble triphenylene that preferentially binds acetylcholine, epibatidine, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Cécile; Buffeteau, Thierry; Arnaud-Neu, Françoise; Hubscher-Bruder, Véronique; Bibal, Brigitte

    2009-07-17

    Synthesis and binding properties of a new hydrosoluble triphenylene 1b are reported. Selective recognition of acetylcholine (ACh) against other aliphatic ammoniums is achieved by this flat receptor, which also forms complexes with epibatidine and nicotine. Ionic pairing and hydrophobic effects between host 1b and ACh are studied by infrared spectroscopy.

  18. Spatiotemporal calcium signaling in a Drosophila melanogaster cell line stably expressing a Drosophila muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, D; Delpech, V Raymond; Sattelle, D B; Rauh, J J

    2003-11-01

    A muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), DM1, expressed in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, has been stably expressed in a Drosophila S2 cell line (S2-DM1) and used to investigate spatiotemporal calcium changes following agonist activation. Carbamylcholine (CCh) and oxotremorine are potent agonists, whereas application of the vertebrate M1 mAChR agonist, McN-A-343, results in a weak response. Activation of S2-DM1 receptors using CCh resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) that was biphasic. Two distinct calcium sources were found to contribute to calcium signaling: (1) internal stores that are sensitive to both thapsigargin and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and (2) capacitative calcium entry. Spatiotemporal imaging of individual S2-DM1 cells showed that the CCh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient resulted from a homogeneous calcium increase throughout the cell, indicative of calcium release from internal stores. In contrast, ionomycin induced the formation of a "calcium ring" at the cell periphery, consistent with external calcium influx. PMID:12827518

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  20. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  1. The conformation of acetylcholine at its target site in the membrane-embedded nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, P. T. F.; Verhoeven, A.; Miller, K. W.; Meier, B. H.; Watts, A.

    2007-01-01

    The conformation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine bound to the fully functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor embedded in its native membrane environment has been characterized by using frequency-selective recoupling solid-state NMR. Six dipolar couplings among five resolved 13C-labeled atoms of acetylcholine were measured. Bound acetylcholine adopts a bent conformation characterized with a quaternary ammonium-to-carbonyl distance of 5.1 Å. In this conformation, and with its orientation constrained to that previously determined by us, the acetylcholine could be docked satisfactorily in the agonist pocket of the agonist-bound, but not the agonist-free, crystal structure of a soluble acetylcholine-binding protein from Lymnaea stagnali. The quaternary ammonium group of the acetylcholine was determined to be within 3.9 Å of five aromatic residues and its acetyl group close to residues C187/188 of the principle and residue L112 of the complementary subunit. The observed >CO chemical shift is consistent with H bonding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor residues γY116 and δT119 that are homologous to L112 in the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein. PMID:17989232

  2. Pharmacologically Distinct Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Drive Efferent-Mediated Excitation in Calyx-Bearing Vestibular Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Kewin, Kevin; Jordan, Paivi M.; Cameron, Peter; Klapczynski, Marcin; McIntosh, J. Michael; Crooks, Peter A.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Lysakowski, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons rapidly excites the resting discharge of calyx/dimorphic (CD) afferents. In turtle, this excitation arises when acetylcholine (ACh), released from efferent terminals, directly depolarizes calyceal endings by activating nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs). Although molecular biological data from the peripheral vestibular system implicate most of the known nAChR subunits, specific information about those contributing to efferent-mediated excitation of CD afferents is lacking. We sought to identify the nAChR subunits that underlie the rapid excitation of CD afferents and whether they differ from α9α10 nAChRs on type II hair cells that drive efferent-mediated inhibition in adjacent bouton afferents. We recorded from CD and bouton afferents innervating the turtle posterior crista during electrical stimulation of vestibular efferents while applying several subtype-selective nAChR agonists and antagonists. The α9α10 nAChR antagonists, α-bungarotoxin and α-conotoxin RgIA, blocked efferent-mediated inhibition in bouton afferents while leaving efferent-mediated excitation in CD units largely intact. Conversely, 5-iodo-A-85380, sazetidine-A, varenicline, α-conotoxin MII, and bPiDDB (N,N-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide) blocked efferent-mediated excitation in CD afferents without affecting efferent-mediated inhibition in bouton afferents. This pharmacological profile suggested that calyceal nAChRs contain α6 and β2, but not α9, nAChR subunits. Selective blockade of efferent-mediated excitation in CD afferents distinguished dimorphic from calyx afferents by revealing type II hair cell input. Dimorphic afferents differed in having higher mean discharge rates and a mean efferent-mediated excitation that was smaller in amplitude yet longer in duration. Molecular biological data demonstrated the expression of α9 in turtle hair cells and α4 and β2 in associated vestibular ganglia. PMID:25716861

  3. A signal peptide missense mutation associated with nicotine dependence alters α2*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function.

    PubMed

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Lukas, Ronald J; Li, Ming D

    2014-04-01

    A cytosine to thymidine (C → T) missense mutation in the signal peptide (SP) sequence (rs2472553) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α2 subunit produces a threonine-to-isoleucine substitution (T22I) often associated with nicotine dependence (ND). We assessed effects on function of α2*-nAChR ('*'indicates presence of additional subunits) of this mutation, which could alter SP cleavage, RNA/protein secondary structure, and/or efficiency of transcription, translation, subunit assembly, receptor trafficking or cell surface expression. Two-electrode voltage clamp analyses indicate peak current responses to ACh or nicotine are decreased 2.8-5.8-fold for putative low sensitivity (LS; 10:1 ratio of α:β subunit cRNAs injected) α2β2- or α2β4-nAChR and increased for putative high sensitivity (HS; 1:10 α:β subunit ratio) α2β2- (5.7-15-fold) or α2β4- (1.9-2.2-fold) nAChR as a result of the mutation. Agonist potencies are decreased 1.6-4-fold for putative LS or HS α2(T22I)β2-nAChR or for either α2*-nAChR subtype formed in the presence of equal amounts of subunit cRNA, slightly decreased for LS α2(T22I)β4-nAChR, but increased 1.4-2.4-fold for HS α2(T22I)β4-nAChR relative to receptors containing wild-type α2 subunits. These effects suggest that the α2 subunit SP mutation generally favors formation of LS receptor isoforms. We hypothesize that lower sensitivity of human α2*-nAChR to nicotine could contribute to increased susceptibility to ND. To our knowledge this is the first report of a SP mutation having a functional effect in a member of cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels.

  4. AGE-RELATED EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON ACETYLCHOLINE RELEASE IN RAT BRAIN. (R825811)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus insecticide that elicits toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Young animals are markedly more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of CPF. We evaluated acetylcholine (ACh) release and its muscarinic recept...

  5. Effects of cannabidiol on the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Mohamed; Keun-Hang, Susan Yang; Sydorenko, Vadym; Ashoor, Abrar; Kabbani, Nadine; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Christopher F; Isaev, Dmytro; Galadari, Sehamuddin; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-15

    The effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive ingredient of cannabis plant, on the function of the cloned α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes were tested using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. CBD reversibly inhibited ACh (100 μM)-induced currents with an IC50 value of 11.3 µM. Other phytocannabinoids such as cannabinol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol did not affect ACh-induced currents. CBD inhibition was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. In addition, CBD did not change GTP-γ-S binding to the membranes of oocytes injected with α7 nACh receptor cRNA. The effect of CBD was not dependent on the membrane potential. CBD (10 µM) did not affect the activity of endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since the extent of inhibition by CBD was unaltered by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing 2mM Ba(2+). Inhibition by CBD was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Furthermore, specific binding of [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin was not inhibited by CBD (10 µM) in oocytes membranes. Using whole cell patch clamp technique in CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons of rat hippocampal slices, currents induced by choline, a selective-agonist of α7-receptor induced currents were also recoded. Bath application of CBD (10 µM) for 10 min caused a significant inhibition of choline induced currents. Finally, in hippocampal slices, [(3)H] norepinephrine release evoked by nicotine (30 µM) was also inhibited by 10 µM CBD. Our results indicate that CBD inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor.

  6. Two Novel α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ligands: In Vitro Properties and Their Efficacy in Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Maanen, Marjolein A.; Papke, Roger L.; Koopman, Frieda A.; Koepke, Jessica; Bevaart, Lisette; Clark, Roger; Lamppu, Diana; Elbaum, Daniel; LaRosa, Gregory J.; Tak, Paul P.; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can downregulate inflammation via the release of acetylcholine (ACh) by the vagus nerve. This neurotransmitter binds to the α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR), expressed on macrophages and other immune cells. We tested the pharmacological and functional profile of two novel compounds, PMP-311 and PMP-072 and investigated their role in modulating collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Methods Both compounds were characterized with binding, electrophysiological, and pharmacokinetic studies. For in vivo efficacy studies in the CIA model the compounds were administered daily by oral gavage from day 20 till sacrifice at day 34. Disease progression was monitored by visual clinical scoring and measurement of paw swelling. Inflammation and joint destruction were examined by histology and radiology. Results Treatment with PMP-311 was effective in preventing disease onset, reducing clinical signs of arthritis, and reducing synovial inflammation and bone destruction. PMP-072 also showed a trend in arthritis reduction at all concentrations tested. The data showed that while both compounds bind to α7nAChR with high affinity, PMP-311 acts like a classical agonist of ion channel activity, and PMP-072 can actually act as an ion channel antagonist. Moreover, PMP-072 was clearly distinct from typical competitive antagonists, since it was able to act as a silent agonist. It synergizes with the allosteric modulator PNU-120596, and subsequently activates desensitized α7nAChR. However, PMP-072 was less efficacious than PMP-311 at both channel activation and desensitization, suggesting that both conducting and non-conducting states maybe of importance in driving an anti-inflammatory response. Finally, we found that the anti-arthritic effect can be observed despite limited penetration of the central nervous system. Conclusions These data provide direct evidence that the α7nAChR in immune cells does not

  7. Transmembrane potential polarization, calcium influx, and receptor conformational state modulate the sensitivity of the imidacloprid-insensitive neuronal insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Marques, Olivier; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Thany, Steeve H; Lapied, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent studies revealed that their efficiency was altered by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process and the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the regulation of nAChRs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology adapted for dissociated cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, we demonstrated that intracellular factors involved in the regulation of nAChR function modulated neonicotinoid sensitivity. DUM neurons were known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR subtypes: nAChR1 and nAChR2. Whereas nAChR1 was sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 was insensitive to this insecticide. Here, we demonstrated that, like nicotine, acetamiprid and clothianidin, other types of neonicotinoid insecticides, acted as agonists on the nAChR2 subtype. Using acetamiprid, we revealed that both steady-state depolarization and hyperpolarization affected nAChR2 sensitivity. The measurement of the input membrane resistance indicated that change in the acetamiprid-induced agonist activity was related to the receptor conformational state. Using cadmium chloride, ω-conotoxin GVIA, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-acetamide (LOE 908), we found that inhibition of calcium influx through high voltage-activated calcium channels and transient receptor potential γ (TRPγ) activated by both depolarization and hyperpolarization increased nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Finally, using N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7), forskolin, and cAMP, we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase sensitive to the calcium/calmodulin complex regulated internal cAMP concentration, which in turn modulated TRPγ function and nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Similar TRPγ-induced modulatory effects were also obtained when clothianidin was tested. These findings bring insights into the signaling pathway modulating

  8. Transmembrane potential polarization, calcium influx, and receptor conformational state modulate the sensitivity of the imidacloprid-insensitive neuronal insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Marques, Olivier; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Thany, Steeve H; Lapied, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent studies revealed that their efficiency was altered by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process and the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the regulation of nAChRs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology adapted for dissociated cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, we demonstrated that intracellular factors involved in the regulation of nAChR function modulated neonicotinoid sensitivity. DUM neurons were known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR subtypes: nAChR1 and nAChR2. Whereas nAChR1 was sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 was insensitive to this insecticide. Here, we demonstrated that, like nicotine, acetamiprid and clothianidin, other types of neonicotinoid insecticides, acted as agonists on the nAChR2 subtype. Using acetamiprid, we revealed that both steady-state depolarization and hyperpolarization affected nAChR2 sensitivity. The measurement of the input membrane resistance indicated that change in the acetamiprid-induced agonist activity was related to the receptor conformational state. Using cadmium chloride, ω-conotoxin GVIA, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-acetamide (LOE 908), we found that inhibition of calcium influx through high voltage-activated calcium channels and transient receptor potential γ (TRPγ) activated by both depolarization and hyperpolarization increased nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Finally, using N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7), forskolin, and cAMP, we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase sensitive to the calcium/calmodulin complex regulated internal cAMP concentration, which in turn modulated TRPγ function and nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Similar TRPγ-induced modulatory effects were also obtained when clothianidin was tested. These findings bring insights into the signaling pathway modulating

  9. An Antibody Biosensor Establishes the Activation of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor during Learning and Memory*♦

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Adrian J.; Bradley, Sophie J.; Prihandoko, Rudi; Brooke, Simon M.; Mogg, Adrian; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M.; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Challiss, R. A. John; Broad, Lisa M.; Felder, Christian C.; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the in vivo activation status of G protein-coupled receptors would not only indicate physiological roles of G protein-coupled receptors but would also aid drug discovery by establishing drug/receptor engagement. Here, we develop a phospho-specific antibody-based biosensor to detect activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) in vitro and in vivo. Mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics identified 14 sites of phosphorylation on the M1 mAChR. Phospho-specific antibodies to four of these sites established that serine at position 228 (Ser228) on the M1 mAChR showed extremely low levels of basal phosphorylation that were significantly up-regulated by orthosteric agonist stimulation. In addition, the M1 mAChR-positive allosteric modulator, 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, enhanced acetylcholine-mediated phosphorylation at Ser228. These data supported the hypothesis that phosphorylation at Ser228 was an indicator of M1 mAChR activation. This was further supported in vivo by the identification of phosphorylated Ser228 on the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus of mice following administration of the muscarinic ligands xanomeline and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Finally, Ser228 phosphorylation was seen to increase in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following memory acquisition, a response that correlated closely with up-regulation of CA1 neuronal activity. Thus, determining the phosphorylation status of the M1 mAChR at Ser228 not only provides a means of establishing receptor activation following drug treatment both in vitro and in vivo but also allows for the mapping of the activation status of the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus following memory acquisition thereby establishing a link between M1 mAChR activation and hippocampus-based memory and learning. PMID:26826123

  10. Fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-01-01

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be attributable to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR, which results in the complete inhibition of fetal movement. However, pharmacological evidence of coniine actions at fetal muscle-type nAChR is lacking. The present study compared (-)-coniine, (+)-coniine, and nicotine for the ability to inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model and in TE-671 cells that express fetal muscle-type nAChR. Furthermore, α-conotoxins (CTx) EI and GI were used to antagonize the actions of (+)- and (-)-coniine in TE-671 cells. (-)-Coniine was more effective at eliciting electrical changes in TE-671 cells and inhibiting fetal movement than was (+)-coniine, suggesting stereoselectivity by the receptor. The pyridine alkaloid nicotine did not inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model, suggesting agonist specificity for the inhibition of fetal movement. Low concentrations of both CTxs potentiated the TE-671 cell response and higher concentrations of CTx EI, and GI antagonized the actions of both coniine enantiomers demonstrating concentration-dependent coagonism and selective antagonism. These results provide pharmacological evidence that the piperidine alkaloid coniine is acting at fetal muscle-type nAChR in a concentration-dependent manner.

  11. Catch-and-Hold Activation of Muscle Acetylcholine Receptors Having Transmitter Binding Site Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Prasad; Bruhova, Iva; Gupta, Shaweta; Auerbach, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Agonists turn on receptors because their target sites have a higher affinity in the active versus resting conformation of the protein. We used single-channel electrophysiology to measure the lower-affinity (LA) and higher-affinity (HA) equilibrium dissociation constants for acetylcholine in adult-type muscle mouse nicotinic receptors (AChRs) having mutations of agonist binding site amino acids. For a series of agonists and for all mutations of αY93, αG147, αW149, αY190, αY198, εW55, and δW57, the change in LA binding energy was approximately half that in HA binding energy. The results were analyzed as a linear free energy relationship between LA and HA agonist binding, the slope of which (κ) gives the fraction of the overall binding chemical potential where the LA complex is established. The linear correlation between LA and HA binding energies suggests that the overall binding process is by an integrated mechanism (catch-and-hold). For the agonist and the above mutations, κ ∼ 0.5, but side-chain substitutions of two residues had a slope that was significantly higher (0.90; αG153) or lower (0.25; εP121). The results suggest that backbone rearrangements in loop B, loop C, and the non-α surface participate in both LA binding and the LA ↔ HA affinity switch. It appears that all of the intermediate steps in AChR activation comprise a single, energetically coupled process. PMID:24988344

  12. Kinetic properties and open probability of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Pesti, Krisztina; Szabo, Anett K; Mike, Arpad; Vizi, E Sylvester

    2014-06-01

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has some peculiar kinetic properties. From the literature of α7 nAChR-mediated currents we concluded that experimentally measured kinetic properties reflected properties of the solution exchange system, rather than genuine kinetic properties of the receptors. We also concluded that all experimentally measured EC50 values for agonists must inherently be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the undistorted kinetic properties of α7 nAChRs, and to construct an improved kinetic model, which can also serve as a basis of modeling the effect of the positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596, as it is described in the accompanying paper. Agonist-evoked currents were recorded from GH4C1 cells stably transfected with pCEP4/rat α7 nAChR using patch-clamp and fast solution exchange. We used two approaches to circumvent the problem of insufficient solution exchange rate: extrapolation and kinetic modeling. First, using different solution exchange rates we recorded evoked currents, and extrapolated their amplitude and kinetics to instantaneous solution exchange. Second, we constructed a kinetic model that reproduced concentration-dependence and solution exchange rate-dependence of receptors, and then we simulated receptor behavior at experimentally unattainably fast solution exchange. We also determined open probabilities during choline-evoked unmodulated and modulated currents using nonstationary fluctuation analysis. The peak open probability of 10 mM choline-evoked currents was 0.033 ± 0.006, while in the presence of choline (10 mM) and PNU-120596 (10 μM), it was increased to 0.599 ± 0.058. Our kinetic model could adequately reproduce low open probability, fast kinetics, fast recovery and solution exchange rate-dependent kinetics. PMID:24486379

  13. Crosslinking-induced endocytosis of acetylcholine receptors by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Wai; Zhang, Hailong; Geng, Lin; Peng, H Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  14. Crosslinking-Induced Endocytosis of Acetylcholine Receptors by Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lin; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  15. Activation of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Decreases On-site Mortality in Crush Syndrome through Insulin Signaling-Na/K-ATPase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bo-Shi; Zhang, En-Hui; Wu, Miao; Guo, Jin-Min; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia; Yu, Jian-Guang

    2016-01-01

    On-site mortality in crush syndrome remains high due to lack of effective drugs based on definite diagnosis. Anisodamine (Ani) is widely used in China for treatment of shock, and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) mediates such antishock effect. The present work was designed to test whether activation of α7nAChR with Ani decreased mortality in crush syndrome shortly after decompression. Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice with crush syndrome were injected with Ani (20 mg/kg and 28 mg/kg respectively, i.p.) 30 min before decompression. Survival time, serum potassium, insulin, and glucose levels were observed shortly after decompression. Involvement of α7nAChR was verified with methyllycaconitine (selective α7nAChR antagonist) and PNU282987 (selective α7nAChR agonist), or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Effect of Ani was also appraised in C2C12 myotubes. Ani reduced mortality and serum potassium and enhanced insulin sensitivity shortly after decompression in animals with crush syndrome, and PNU282987 exerted similar effects. Such effects were counteracted by methyllycaconitine or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Mortality and serum potassium in rats with hyperkalemia were also reduced by Ani. Phosphorylation of Na/K-ATPase was enhanced by Ani in C2C12 myotubes. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase on insulin receptor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and Na/K-ATPase counteracted the effect of Ani on extracellular potassium. These findings demonstrated that activation of α7nAChR could decrease on-site mortality in crush syndrome, at least in part based on the decline of serum potassium through insulin signaling-Na/K-ATPase pathway. PMID:27065867

  16. Involvement of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in gene expression of dopamine biosynthetic enzymes in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Serova, Lidia; Sabban, Esther L

    2002-12-01

    Brain dopaminergic systems are critical in mediating the physiological responses to nicotine. The effects of several concentrations of nicotine (0.08, 0.17, or 0.33 mg/kg body weight) and involvement of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in gene expression of key enzymes in dopamine biosynthesis were evaluated in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. Nicotine elicited a dose-dependent elevation of mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis in VTA and SN. The VTA was more sensitive to lower concentrations of nicotine with maximal response observed with the lowest dose of nicotine. Nicotine also elevated mRNA levels of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), rate limiting in biosynthesis of TH's essential cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin in both dopaminergic locations. The changes in TH and GTPCH mRNAs were correlated. Pretreatment with the alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine prevented the nicotine-induced rise in TH or GTPCH mRNA in VTA and SN. Administration of alpha7 nAChR agonist 3-[2,4-dimethoxybenzilidene]anabaseine at 1 to 10 mg/kg or (E,E-3-(cinnamylidene)anabaseine at 0.3 to 1 mg/kg increased TH mRNA in VTA and SN, but not in peripheral catecholaminergic cells. Thus, agonists of alpha7 nAChRs have therapeutic potential for increasing TH gene expression in dopaminergic regions without some of nicotine's disadvantages, such as its harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. The findings indicate that nicotine may regulate dopamine biosynthesis by alterations in gene expression of TH and its cofactor. The alpha7 nAChRs are involved in mediating these effects of nicotine.

  17. Ameliorating effects of tropisetron on dopaminergic disruption of prepulse inhibition via the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kohnomi, Shuntaro; Suemaru, Katsuya; Goda, Mitsunori; Choshi, Tominari; Hibino, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Araki, Hiroaki

    2010-09-24

    Nicotine has ameliorating effects on sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. We have shown that nicotine ameliorated disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) via the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Wistar rats. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist tropisetron was recently found to be an alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist. We initially investigated the effects of tropisetron on disruption of PPI induced by phencyclidine (PCP) (2mg/kg) or apomorphine (1mg/kg). Tropisetron had no effect on the disruption of PPI induced by PCP, but ameliorated the disruption by apomorphine. The ameliorating effect of tropisetron was antagonized by methyllycaconitine (2 or 5mg/kg), a partially selective alpha(7) nAChR antagonist. Next, to find the action site of tropisetron, we examined c-Fos protein expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLst) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Tropisetron alone did not change the number of c-Fos-positive cells, whereas apomorphine increased the number of positive cells in the NAc and DLst. Tropisetron administration followed by apomorphine administration decreased the number of positive cells in the VTA compared with the apomorphine-alone group. These results suggest that tropisetron has an ameliorating effect on the sensorimotor gating deficits via the alpha(7) nAChR, and that one possible site of its action is the VTA.

  18. Colorimetric microtiter plate receptor-binding assay for the detection of freshwater and marine neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Carpino, Justin; Faltin, Erin; Loftin, Keith A.; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    Anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a, produced by cyanobacteria, are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Pinnatoxins, spirolides, and gymnodimines, produced by dinoflagellates, are antagonists of nAChRs. In this study we describe the development and validation of a competitive colorimetric, high throughput functional assay based on the mechanism of action of freshwater and marine toxins against nAChRs. Torpedo electrocyte membranes (rich in muscle-type nAChR) were immobilized and stabilized on the surface of 96-well microtiter plates. Biotinylated α-bungarotoxin (the tracer) and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (the detector) enabled the detection and quantitation of anatoxin-a in surface waters and cyclic imine toxins in shellfish extracts that were obtained from different locations across the US. The method compares favorably to LC/MS/MS and provides accurate results for anatoxin-a and cyclic imine toxins monitoring. Study of common constituents at the concentrations normally found in drinking and environmental waters, as well as the tolerance to pH, salt, solvents, organic and inorganic compounds did not significantly affect toxin detection. The assay allowed the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 samples within 3.5 h and it is well suited for on-site or laboratory monitoring of low levels of toxins in drinking, surface, and ground water as well as in shellfish extracts.

  19. Discovery of potent positive allosteric modulators of the α3β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by a chemical space walk in ChEMBL.

    PubMed

    Bürgi, Justus J; Awale, Mahendra; Boss, Silvan D; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Viveros-Paredes, Juan M; Bertrand, Sonia; Gertsch, Jürg; Bertrand, Daniel; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2014-05-21

    While a plethora of ligands are known for the well studied α7 and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), only very few ligands address the related α3β2 nAChR expressed in the central nervous system and at the neuromuscular junction. Starting with the public database ChEMBL organized in the chemical space of Molecular Quantum Numbers (MQN, a series of 42 integer value descriptors of molecular structure), a visual survey of nearest neighbors of the α7 nAChR partial agonist N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide (PNU-282,987) pointed to N-(2-halobenzyl)-3-aminoquinuclidines as possible nAChR modulators. This simple "chemical space walk" was performed using a web-browser available at www.gdb.unibe.ch . Electrophysiological recordings revealed that these ligands represent a new and to date most potent class of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α3β2 nAChR, which also exert significant effects in vivo. The present discovery highlights the value of surveying chemical space neighbors of known drugs within public databases to uncover new pharmacology. PMID:24593915

  20. Discovery of Potent Positive Allosteric Modulators of the α3β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor by a Chemical Space Walk in ChEMBL

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While a plethora of ligands are known for the well studied α7 and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), only very few ligands address the related α3β2 nAChR expressed in the central nervous system and at the neuromuscular junction. Starting with the public database ChEMBL organized in the chemical space of Molecular Quantum Numbers (MQN, a series of 42 integer value descriptors of molecular structure), a visual survey of nearest neighbors of the α7 nAChR partial agonist N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide (PNU-282,987) pointed to N-(2-halobenzyl)-3-aminoquinuclidines as possible nAChR modulators. This simple “chemical space walk” was performed using a web-browser available at www.gdb.unibe.ch. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that these ligands represent a new and to date most potent class of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α3β2 nAChR, which also exert significant effects in vivo. The present discovery highlights the value of surveying chemical space neighbors of known drugs within public databases to uncover new pharmacology. PMID:24593915

  1. Otilonium: a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, L.; Villarroya, M.; Lara, B.; Olmos, V.; Gilabert, J. A.; López, M. G.; Martínez-Sierra, R.; Borges, R.; García, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Otilonium, a clinically useful spasmolytic, behaves as a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) as well as a mild wide-spectrum Ca2+ channel blocker in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. 45Ca2+ uptake into chromaffin cells stimulated with high K+ (70 mM, 1 min) was blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 7.6 microM. The drug inhibited the 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by the nicotinic AChR agonist, dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) with a 79 fold higher potency (IC50 = 0.096 microM). 3. Whole-cell Ba2+ currents (IBa) through Ca2+ channels of voltage-clamped chromaffin cells were blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 6.4 microM, very close to that of K(+)-evoked 45Ca2+ uptake. Blockade developed in 10-20 s, almost as a single step and was rapidly and almost fully reversible. 4. Whole-cell nicotinic AChR-mediated currents (250 ms pulses of 100 microM DMPP) applied at 30 s intervals were blocked by otilonium in a concentration-dependent manner, showing an IC50 of 0.36 microM. Blockade was induced in a step-wise manner. Wash out of otilonium allowed a slow recovery of the current, also in discrete steps. 5. In experiments with recordings in the same cells of whole-cell IDMPP, Na+ currents (INa) and Ca2+ currents (ICa), 1 microM otilonium blocked 87% IDMPP, 7% INa and 13% ICa. 6. Otilonium inhibited the K(+)-evoked catecholamine secretory response of superfused bovine chromaffin cells with an IC50 of 10 microM, very close to the IC50 for blockade of K(+)-induced 45Ca2+ uptake and IBa. 7. Otilonium inhibited the secretory responses induced by 10 s pulses of 50 microM DMPP with an IC50 of 7.4 nM. Hexamethonium blocked the DMPP-evoked responses with an IC50 of 29.8 microM, 4,000 fold higher than that of otilonium. 8. In conclusion, otilonium is a potent blocker of nicotinic AChR-mediated responses. The drugs also blocked various subtypes of neuronal voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels at a considerably lower potency. Na+ channels were unaffected by

  2. Pharmacological and molecular studies on the interaction of varenicline with different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. Potential mechanism underlying partial agonism at human α4β2 and α3β4 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Poso, Antti; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    To determine the structural components underlying differences in affinity, potency, and selectivity of varenicline for several human (h) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), functional and structural experiments were performed. The Ca2+ influx results established that: (a) varenicline activates (μM range) nAChR subtypes with the following rank sequence: hα7>hα4β4>hα4β2>hα3β4>hα1β1γδ; (b) varenicline binds to nAChR subtypes with the following affinity order (nM range): hα4β2~hα4β4>hα3β4>hα7>Torpedo α1β1γδ. The molecular docking results indicating that more hydrogen bond interactions are apparent for α4-containing nAChRs in comparison to other nAChRs may explain the observed higher affinity; and that (c) varenicline is a full agonist at hα7 (101%) and hα4β4 (93%), and a partial agonist at hα4β2 (20%) and hα3β4 (45%), relative to (±)-epibatidine. The allosteric sites found at the extracellular domain (EXD) of hα3β4 and hα4β2 nAChRs could explain the partial agonistic activity of varenicline on these nAChR subtypes. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the interaction of varenicline to each allosteric site decreases the capping of Loop C at the hα4β2 nAChR, suggesting that these allosteric interactions limit the initial step in the gating process. In conclusion, we propose that in addition to hα4β2 nAChRs, hα4β4 nAChRs can be considered as potential targets for the clinical activity of varenicline, and that the allosteric interactions at the hα3β4- and hα4β2-EXDs are alternative mechanisms underlying partial agonism at these nAChRs. PMID:25475645

  3. Characterization of the effects of cannabinoids on guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle tone: role in the modulation of acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves.

    PubMed

    Spicuzza, L; Haddad, E B; Birrell, M; Ling, A; Clarke, D; Venkatesan, P; Barnes, P J; Belvisi, M G

    2000-08-01

    We investigated the ability of the cannabinoid agonists CP55,940 (CB(1)/CB(2)) and anandamide (endogenous cannabinoid) to modulate electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced acetylcholine (ACh) release from parasympathetic nerve terminals innervating guinea-pig trachea. We assessed whether modulation of transmitter release translated to an impact on functional responses by investigating the effect of these agents on contractile responses evoked by EFS and ACh. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of these compounds to elicit bronchodilation in pre-contracted guinea-pig tracheal strips. CP55,940 and anandamide significantly inhibited EFS-evoked ACh release (maximal inhibition of 35.1+/-2.9% and 33.4+/-6.4% at 1 microM, P<0.05, respectively). The CB(1) receptor antagonist SR 141716A (1 microM), had no effect on ACh release and failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of CP55,940 (1 microM). Paradoxically, CP55,940 had no significant effect on EFS-evoked cholinergic contractile responses. Furthermore, CP55,940 did not relax pre-contracted tracheal strips or affect contractile responses to exogenous ACh. This lack of activity on smooth muscle tone is consistent with the fact that no detectable specific binding of [(3)H] CP55,940 was found in tracheal homogenates. These data suggest that cannabinoid agonists inhibit ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals via activation of CB(2) receptors but that this inhibitory action does not impact on functional responses such as cholinergic contraction.

  4. The Frequency of Calcium Oscillations Induced by 5-HT, ACH, and KCl Determine the Contraction of Smooth Muscle Cells of Intrapulmonary Bronchioles

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jose F.; Sanderson, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased resistance of airways or blood vessels within the lung is associated with asthma or pulmonary hypertension and results from contraction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To study the mechanisms regulating these contractions, we developed a mouse lung slice preparation containing bronchioles and arterioles and used phase-contrast and confocal microscopy to correlate the contractile responses with changes in [Ca2+]i of the SMCs. The airways are the focus of this study. The agonists, 5-hydroxytrypamine (5-HT) and acetylcholine (ACH) induced a concentration-dependent contraction of the airways. High concentrations of KCl induced twitching of the airway SMCs but had little effect on airway size. 5-HT and ACH induced asynchronous oscillations in [Ca2+]i that propagated as Ca2+ waves within the airway SMCs. The frequency of the Ca2+ oscillations was dependent on the agonist concentration and correlated with the extent of sustained airway contraction. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of Ni2+, the frequency of the Ca2+ oscillations declined and the airway relaxed. By contrast, KCl induced low frequency Ca2+ oscillations that were associated with SMC twitching. Each KCl-induced Ca2+ oscillation consisted of a large Ca2+ wave that was preceded by multiple localized Ca2+ transients. KCl-induced responses were resistant to neurotransmitter blockers but were abolished by Ni2+ or nifedipine and the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Caffeine abolished the contractile effects of 5-HT, ACH, and KCl. These results indicate that (a) 5-HT and ACH induce airway SMC contraction by initiating Ca2+ oscillations, (b) KCl induces Ca2+ transients and twitching by overloading and releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores, (c) a sustained, Ni2+-sensitive, influx of Ca2+ mediates the refilling of stores to maintain Ca2+ oscillations and, in turn, SMC contraction, and (d) the magnitude of sustained airway SMC contraction is regulated by the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations

  5. The Role of Acetylcholine in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark J; Adinoff, Bryon

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system cholinergic neurons arise from several discrete sources, project to multiple brain regions, and exert specific effects on reward, learning, and memory. These processes are critical for the development and persistence of addictive disorders. Although other neurotransmitters, including dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin, have been the primary focus of drug research to date, a growing preclinical literature reveals a critical role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the experience and progression of drug use. This review will present and integrate the findings regarding the role of ACh in drug dependence, with a primary focus on cocaine and the muscarinic ACh system. Mesostriatal ACh appears to mediate reinforcement through its effect on reward, satiation, and aversion, and chronic cocaine administration produces neuroadaptive changes in the striatum. ACh is further involved in the acquisition of conditional associations that underlie cocaine self-administration and context-dependent sensitization, the acquisition of associations in conditioned learning, and drug procurement through its effects on arousal and attention. Long-term cocaine use may induce neuronal alterations in the brain that affect the ACh system and impair executive function, possibly contributing to the disruptions in decision making that characterize this population. These primarily preclinical studies suggest that ACh exerts a myriad of effects on the addictive process and that persistent changes to the ACh system following chronic drug use may exacerbate the risk of relapse during recovery. Ultimately, ACh modulation may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment interventions in cocaine-addicted subjects. However, the complicated neurocircuitry of the cholinergic system, the multiple ACh receptor subtypes, the confluence of excitatory and inhibitory ACh inputs, and the unique properties of the striatal cholinergic interneurons suggest that a precise target of cholinergic

  6. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M.; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Sheppard, Tom D.; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9′ position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22′ position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. PMID:25998276

  7. Cytisine, a Partial Agonist of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Reduced Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Shui-Bing; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-05-01

    Cytisine (CYT), a partial agonist of α4β2-nicotinic receptors, has been used for antidepressant efficacy in several tests. Nicotinic receptors have been shown to be closely associated with depression. However, little is known about the effects of CYT on the depression. In the present study, a mouse model of depression, the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), was used to evaluate the activities of CYT. UCMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, as shown by the decrease of total distances in open field test, and the prolonged duration of immobility in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. Treatment with CYT for two weeks notably relieved the depression-like behaviors in the UCMS mice. Next, proteins related to depressive disorder in the brain region of hippocampus and amygdala were analyzed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of CYT. CYT significantly reversed the decreases of 5-HT1A, BDNF, and mTOR levels in the hippocampus and amygdala. These results imply that CYT may act as a potential anti-depressant in the animals under chronic stress. PMID:27098858

  8. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, (/sup 3/H)nicotine, and (/sup 125/I)-alpha-bungarotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, P.B.; Schwartz, R.D.; Paul, S.M.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.

    1985-05-01

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine ((/sup 3/H)ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, (/sup 125/I)-alpha-bungarotoxin((/sup 125/I)BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)ACh differ from that of (/sup 125/I)BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of (/sup 3/H)nicotine, (/sup 3/H)ACh, and (/sup 125/I)BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of (/sup 125/I)BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. (/sup 125/I)BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors.

  9. A Novel Selective Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 1 Antagonist Reduces Seizures without Impairing Hippocampus-Dependent LearningS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sheffler, Douglas J.; Williams, Richard; Bridges, Thomas M.; Xiang, Zixiu; Kane, Alexander S.; Byun, Nellie E.; Jadhav, Satyawan; Mock, Mathew M.; Zheng, Fang; Lewis, L. Michelle; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Weaver, Charles D.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that selective antagonists of specific subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) may provide a novel approach for the treatment of certain central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including epileptic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Unfortunately, previously reported antagonists are not highly selective for specific mAChR subtypes, making it difficult to definitively establish the functional roles and therapeutic potential for individual subtypes of this receptor subfamily. The M1 mAChR is of particular interest as a potential target for treatment of CNS disorders. We now report the discovery of a novel selective antagonist of M1 mAChRs, termed VU0255035 [N-(3-oxo-3-(4-(pyridine-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-4 sulfonamide]. Equilibrium radioligand binding and functional studies demonstrate a greater than 75-fold selectivity of VU0255035 for M1 mAChRs relative to M2-M5. Molecular pharmacology and mutagenesis studies indicate that VU0255035 is a competitive orthosteric antagonist of M1 mAChRs, a surprising finding given the high level of M1 mAChR selectivity relative to other orthosteric antagonists. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that VU0255035 inhibits potentiation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor currents by the muscarinic agonist carbachol in hippocampal pyramidal cells. VU0255035 has excellent brain penetration in vivo and is efficacious in reducing pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. We were surprised to find that doses of VU0255035 that reduce pilocarpine-induced seizures do not induce deficits in contextual freezing, a measure of hippocampus-dependent learning that is disrupted by nonselective mAChR antagonists. Taken together, these data suggest that selective antagonists of M1 mAChRs do not induce the severe cognitive deficits seen with nonselective mAChR antagonists and could provide a novel approach for the treatment certain of CNS disorders. PMID:19407080

  10. alpha 7-type acetylcholine receptor localization and its modulation by nicotine and cholesterol in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peña, Victoria B Ayala; Bonini, Ida C; Antollini, Silvia S; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2011-11-01

    The neuronal-type α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7AChR) is also found in various non-neural tissues, including vascular endothelium, where its peculiar ionotropic properties (high Ca(2+) permeability) and its supervening Ca(2+) -mediated intracellular cascades may play important roles in physiology (angiogenesis) and pathology (inflammation and atherogenesis). Changes in molecular (up-regulation, affinity, and conformational states) and cellular (distribution, association with membranes) properties of the α7AChR related to angiogenesis (wound-repair cell migration) and atherogenesis (alterations in cholesterol content) were studied in living endothelial cells, with the aim of determining whether such changes constitute early markers of inflammatory response. The combination of pharmacological, biochemical, and fluorescence microscopy tools showed that α7AChRs in rat arterial endothelial (RAEC) and human venous endothelial (HUVEC) cells occur at extremely low expression levels (∼50 fmol/mg protein) but undergo agonist-induced up-regulation at relatively high nicotine concentrations (∼300-fold with 50 µM ligand), increasing their cell-surface exposure. When analyzed in terms of cold Triton X-100 solubility and subcellular distribution, α7AChRs occur in the "non-raft" subcellular membrane fractions. Acute cholesterol depletion reduced not only cholesterol levels but also the number of cell-surface α7AChRs. Nicotine exposure markedly stimulated cell migration and accelerated wound repair, which drastically diminished in cells deprived of the sterol. The angiogenic effect of nicotine appears to be synergistic with cholesterol content. Finally, the apparent K(D) of α7AChRs for the open-channel blocker crystal violet was found to be ∼600-fold lower in receptor-enriched membranes obtained from up-regulated HUVEC.

  11. Effect of KC399, a newly synthesized K+ channel opener, on acetylcholine-induced electrical and mechanical activities in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kamei, K; Nabata, H; Kuriyama, H; Watanabe, Y; Itoh, T

    1995-08-01

    1. Effects of KC399, an opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels were investigated on membrane potential, isometric force and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) mobilization induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in smooth muscle from the rabbit trachea. 2. In these smooth muscle cells, ACh (0.1 and 1 microM) depolarized the membrane in a concentration-dependent manner, KC399 (1-100 nM) hyperpolarized the membrane whether in the presence or absence of ACh. When the concentration of ACh was increased, the absolute values of the membrane potential induced by the maximum concentration of KC399 were less negative. 3. ACh (0.1 to 10 microM) concentration-dependently produced a phasic, followed by a tonic increase in both [Ca2+]i and force. KC399 (above 3 nM) lowered the resting [Ca2+]i and attenuated the ACh-induced phasic and tonic increases in [Ca2+]i and force, in a concentration-dependent manner. The magnitude of the inhibition was greater for the ACh-induced tonic responses than for the phasic ones. Nicardipine (0.3 microM), a blocker of the L-type Ca2+ channel, attenuated the ACh-induced tonic, but not phasic, increases in [Ca2+]i and force. KC399 further attenuated the ACh-induced tonic responses in the presence of nicardipine. 4. In beta-escin-skinned strips, Ca2+ (0.3-10 microM) produced a contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. KC399 (0.1 microM) had no effect on the Ca(2+)-force relationship in the presence or absence of ATP with GTP. However, at a very high concentration (1 microM), this agent slightly shifted the relationship to the right and attenuated the maximum Ca(2+)-induced contraction. 5. We conclude that, in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle, the membrane hyperpolarization induced byKC399 attenuates the ACh-induced tonic increase in [Ca2+], through an inhibition of nicardipinesensitive and -insensitive Ca2+-influxes, thus causing an inhibition of the ACh-induced tonic contraction. The ACh-induced phasic increase in [Ca2+]i and force are also inhibited, but less

  12. Expression of cloned α6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are ACh-gated ion channels formed from five homologous subunits in subtypes defined by their subunit composition and stoichiometry. Some subtypes readily produce functional AChRs in Xenopus oocytes and transfected cell lines. α6β2β3* AChRs (subtypes formed from these subunits and perhaps others) are not easily expressed. This may be because the types of neurons in which they are expressed (typically dopaminergic neurons) have unique chaperones for assembling α6β2β3* AChRs, especially in the presence of the other AChR subtypes. Because these relatively minor brain AChR subtypes are of major importance in addiction to nicotine, it is important for drug development as well as investigation of their functional properties to be able to efficiently express human α6β2β3* AChRs. We review the issues and progress in expressing α6* AChRs. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'.

  13. Potential Use of Nicotinic Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Deficits.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Rex M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past several decades, research in both humans and animals has established the existence of persistent cognitive deficits resulting from exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, there has been very little research addressing the treatment of chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits and there is currently no approved treatment for this condition, often referred to as 'chemo-brain.' Several drugs that enhance cholinergic function and/or increase nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity have been demonstrated to improve cognitive performance and/or reverse cognitive deficits in animals, findings that have led to the use of these compounds to treat the cognitive deficits present in a variety of disorders including attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Although nAChR agonists have not been assessed for their efficacy in treating chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits, these drugs have been shown to produce measureable increases in performance on several behavioral tasks known to be disrupted by exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. While the processes underlying chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits may differ from those underlying other disorders, there appears to be a broad spectrum of application for the use of nAChR agonists to improve cognitive function. Therefore, studies examining the use of these drugs in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits should be conducted as they may be of benefit for the treatment of 'chemo-brain.' PMID:25652578

  14. Effects of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists on anti-IgE-induced contraction and smooth muscle reactivity in human airways.

    PubMed Central

    Gorenne, I; Labat, C; Norel, X; De Montpreville, V; Guillet, M C; Cavero, I; Brink, C

    1995-01-01

    1. The beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, salbutamol, salmeterol and RP 58802 relaxed basal tone of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. Salmeterol- and RP 58802-induced relaxations persisted for more than 4 h when the medium was constantly renewed after treatment. 2. Salbutamol, salmeterol and RP 58802 reversed histamine-induced contractions in human airways (pD2 values: 6.15 +/- 0.21, 6.00 +/- 0.19 and 6.56 +/- 0.12, respectively). 3. Anti-IgE-induced contractions were significantly inhibited immediately after pretreatment of preparations with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists (10 microM). However, when tissues were treated with beta 2-agonists and then washed for a period of 4 h, salmeterol was the only agonist which significantly inhibited the anti-IgE response. 4. Histamine response curves were shifted to the right immediately after pretreatment of tissues with the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists (10 microM; 20 min), but maximal contractions were not affected. After a 4 h washing period, the histamine curves were not significantly different from controls. Concentration-effect curves to acetylcholine (ACh) or leukotriene C4 (LTC4) were not significantly modified after beta 2-agonist pretreatment. 5. These results suggest that beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists may prevent anti-IgE-induced contraction by inhibition of mediator release rather than alterations of those mechanisms involved in airway smooth muscle contraction. PMID:7780648

  15. Acetylcholinesterase liquid crystal biosensor based on modulated growth of gold nanoparticles for amplified detection of acetylcholine and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shuzhen; Qiao, Yanan; Han, Wenting; Xie, Zhaoxia; Wu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2012-01-01

    A novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor based on enzymatic growth of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has been developed for amplified detection of acetylcholine (ACh) and AChE inhibitor. In this method, AChE mediates the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCl) to form thiocholine, and the latter further reduces AuCl(4)(-) to Au NPs without Au nanoseeds. This process, termed biometallization, leads to a great enhancement in the optical signal of the LC biosensor due to the large size of Au NPs, which can greatly disrupt the orientational arrangement of LCs. On the other hand, the hydrolysis of ATCl is inhibited in the presence of ACh or organophosphate pesticides (OPs, a AChE inhibitor), which will decrease the catalytic growth of Au NPs and, as a result, reduce the orientational response of LCs. On the basis of such an inhibition mechanism, the AChE LC biosensor can be used as an effective way to realize the detection of ACh and AChE inhibitors. The results showed that the AChE LC biosensor was highly sensitive to ACh with a detection limit of 15 μmol/L and OPs with a detection limit of 0.3 nmol/L. This study provides a simple and sensitive AChE LC biosensing approach and offers effective signal enhanced strategies for the development of enzyme LC biosensors. PMID:22148672

  16. Autoantibodies enhance agonist action and binding to cardiac muscarinic receptors in chronic Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ciria C; Nascimento, Jose H; Chaves, Elen A; Costa, Patricia C; Masuda, Masako O; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Campos DE Carvalho, Antonio C; Gimenez, Luis E

    2008-01-01

    Chronic Chagasic patient immunoglobulins (CChP-IgGs) recognize an acidic amino acid cluster at the second extracellular loop (el2) of cardiac M(2)-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M(2)AChRs). These residues correspond to a common binding site for various allosteric agents. We characterized the nature of the M(2)AChR/CChP-IgG interaction in functional and radioligand binding experiments applying the same mainstream strategies previously used for the characterization of other allosteric agents. Dose-response curves of acetylcholine effect on heart rate were constructed with data from isolated heart experiments in the presence of CChP or normal blood donor (NBD) sera. In these experiments, CChP sera but not NBD sera increased the efficacy of agonist action by augmenting the onset of bradyarrhythmias and inducing a Hill slope of 2.5. This effect was blocked by gallamine, an M(2)AChR allosteric antagonist. Correspondingly, CChP-IgGs increased acetylcholine affinity twofold and showed negative cooperativity for [(3)H]-N-methyl scopolamine ([(3)H]-NMS) in allosterism binding assays. A peptide corresponding to the M(2)AChR-el2 blocked this effect. Furthermore, dissociation assays showed that the effect of gallamine on the [(3)H]-NMS off-rate was reverted by CChP-IgGs. Finally, concentration-effect curves for the allosteric delay of W84 on [(3)H]-NMS dissociation right shifted from an IC(50) of 33 nmol/L to 78 nmol/L, 992 nmol/L, and 1670 nmol/L in the presence of 6.7 x 10(- 8), 1.33 x 10(- 7), and 2.0 x 10(- 7) mol/L of anti-el2 affinity-purified CChP-IgGs. Taken together, these findings confirmed a competitive interplay of these ligands at the common allosteric site and revealed the novel allosteric nature of the interaction of CChP-IgGs at the M(2)AChRs as a positive cooperativity effect on acetylcholine action. PMID:18702010

  17. Autoantibodies Enhance Agonist Action and Binding to Cardiac Muscarinic Receptors in Chronic Chagas’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Ciria C.; Nascimento, José H.; Chaves, Elen A.; Costa, Patrícia C.; Masuda, Masako O.; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Campos de Carvalho, Antônio C.; Giménez, Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic Chagasic patient immunoglobulins (CChP-IgGs) recognize an acidic amino acid cluster at the second extracellular loop (el2) of cardiac M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M2AChRs). These residues correspond to a common binding site for various allosteric agents. We characterized the nature of the M2AChR/CChP-IgG interaction in functional and radioligand binding experiments applying the same mainstream strategies previously used for the characterization of other allosteric agents. Dose-response curves of acetylcholine effect on heart rate were constructed with data from isolated heart experiments in the presence of CChP or normal blood donor (NBD) sera. In these experiments, CChP sera but not NBD sera increased the efficacy of agonist action by augmenting the onset of bradyarrhythmias and inducing a Hill slope of 2.5. This effect was blocked by gallamine, an M2AChR allosteric antagonist. Correspondingly, CChP-IgGs increased acetylcholine affinity twofold and showed negative cooperativity for [3H]-N-methyl scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in allosterism binding assays. A peptide corresponding to the M2AChR-el2 blocked this effect. Furthermore, dissociation assays showed that the effect of gallamine on the [3H]-NMS off-rate was reverted by CChP-IgGs. Finally, concentration-effect curves for the allosteric delay of W84 on [3H]-NMS dissociation right shifted from an IC50 of 33 nmol/L to 78 nmol/L, 992 nmol/L, and 1670 nmol/L in the presence of 6.7 × 10−8, 1.33 × 10−7, and 2.0 × 10−7 mol/L of anti-el2 affinity-purified CChP-IgGs. Taken together, these findings confirmed a competitive interplay of these ligands at the common allosteric site and revealed the novel allosteric nature of the interaction of CChP-IgGs at the M2AChRs as a positive cooperativity effect on acetylcholine action. PMID:18702010

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist AZD1446 (TC-6683) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Öhd, John; Potter, Alexandra S.; Jaeger, Judith; Karlsson, Pär; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Boström, Emma; Newhouse, Paul A.; Paulsson, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic systems has been shown to alleviate ADHD symptoms and to improve cognitive performance. AZD1446 is a selective α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist with potential effect on the symptoms of ADHD. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of AZD1446 in adults with ADHD treated for 2 weeks. Method This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were 79 adults with ADHD, grouped according to their use of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine non-users received placebo and two of three AZD1446 treatment regimens (80 mg tid, 80 mg qd, 10 mg tid). Nicotine users received placebo, AZD1446 80 mg tid and 80 mg qd. Efficacy measures included the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and cognitive measures of immediate and delayed verbal episodic memory, learning, attention, working memory, executive functioning, and spatial problem solving (CogState computerized test battery). Results There was no significant effect of AZD1446 on any of the clinical scores irrespective of dose, schedule, or concomitant use of nicotine products. A statistically significant improvement was seen on the Groton Maze Learning Task, a measure of executive functioning, in nicotine non-users after treatment with AZD1446 80 mg qd. Conclusions AZD1446 was well tolerated, but did not significantly improve ADHD symptoms after 2 weeks of treatment compared to placebo. While the present study does not support the therapeutic utility of AZD1446 in ADHD, its potential pro-cognitive effects remain to be explored in other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23640072

  19. Photolabeling of membrane-bound Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with the hydrophobic probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.J.; Cohen, J.B.

    1988-11-29

    The hydrophobic, photoactivatable probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine ((/sup 125/I)TID) was used to label acetylcholine receptor rich membranes purified from Torpedo californica electric organ. All four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) were found to incorporate label, with the ..gamma..-subunit incorporating approximately 4 times as much as each of the other subunits. Carbamylcholine, an agonist, and histrionicotoxin, a noncompetitive antagonist, both strongly inhibited labeling of all AChR subunits in a specific and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the competitive antagonist ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive antagonist phencyclidine had only modest effect on (/sup 125/I)TID labeling of the AChR. The regions of the AChR ..cap alpha..-subunit that incorporate (/sup 125/)TID were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protest digestion. The carbamylcholine-sensitive site of labeling was localized to a 20-kDa V8 cleavage fragment that begins at Ser-173 and is of sufficient length to contain the three hydrophobic regions M1, M2, and M3. A 10-kDa fragment beginning at Asn-339 and containing the hydrophobic region M4 also incorporated (/sup 125/I)TID but in a carbamylcholine-insensitive manner. Two further cleavage fragments, which together span about one-third of the ..cap alpha..-subunit amino terminus, incorporated no detectable (/sup 125/I)TID. The mapping results place constraints on suggested models of AChR subunit topology.

  20. NEURONAL NICOTINIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: FOCUS ON COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Decker, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents, and in about half of these patients, significant symptomology continues into adulthood. Although impulsivity and hyperactivity are the most salient features of ADHD, cognitive deficits, particularly impairments in attention and executive function, are an important component, particularly in adolescents and adults, with over 90% of adults seeking treatment for ADHD manifesting cognitive dysfunction. Currently available medications treat the core ADHD symptoms but typically do not adequately address cognitive aspects of ADHD, underscoring the need for new therapeutics. Dopamine and norepinephrine are hypothesized to be particularly important in ADHD, but there is emerging evidence that cholinergic neurotransmission, particularly involving neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), may play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Nicotine has demonstrated procognitive effects in both humans and experimental animals and has produced signals of efficacy in small proof-of-concept adult ADHD trials. Although adverse effects associated with nicotine preclude its development as a therapeutic, a number of novel nAChR agonists with improved safety/tolerability profiles have been discovered. Of these, ABT-418 and ABT-089 have both demonstrated signals of efficacy in adults with ADHD. Notably, tolerability issues that might be expected of a nAChR agonist, such as nausea and emesis, were not observed at efficacious doses of ABT-089. Further understanding of the effects of novel neuronal nAChR agonists on specific aspects of cognitive functioning in ADHD is required to assess the full potential of this approach. PMID:17689498

  1. Augmentation of cognitive function by NS9283, a stoichiometry-dependent positive allosteric modulator of α2- and α4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Timmermann, DB; Sandager-Nielsen, K; Dyhring, T; Smith, M; Jacobsen, A-M; Nielsen, EØ; Grunnet, M; Christensen, JK; Peters, D; Kohlhaas, K; Olsen, GM; Ahring, PK

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors could add a new dimension to the pharmacology and therapeutic approach to these receptors. The novel modulator NS9283 was therefore tested extensively. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of NS9283 were evaluated in vitro using fluorescence-based Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological voltage clamp experiments in Xenopus oocytes, mammalian cells and thalamocortical neurons. In vivo the compound was tested in models covering a range of cognitive domains in mice and rats. KEY RESULTS NS9283 was shown to increase agonist-evoked response amplitude of (α4)3(β2)2 nACh receptors in electrophysiology paradigms. (α2)3(β2)2, (α2)3(β4)2 and (α4)3(β4)2 were modulated to comparable extents, but no effects were detected at α3-containing or any 2α : 3β stoichiometry nACh receptors. Native nACh receptors in thalamocortical neurons similarly displayed DHβE-sensitive currents that were receptive to modulation. NS9283 had favourable effects on sensory information processing, as shown by reversal of PCP-disrupted pre-pulse inhibition. NS9283 further improved performance in a rat model of episodic memory (social recognition), a rat model of sustained attention (five-choice serial reaction time task) and a rat model of reference memory (Morris water maze). Importantly, the effects in the Morris water maze could be fully reversed with mecamylamine, a blocker of nACh receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide compelling evidence that positive allosteric modulators acting at the (α4)3(β2)2 nACh receptors can augment activity across a broad range of cognitive domains, and that α4β2 nACh receptor allosteric modulation therefore constitutes a promising therapeutic approach to symptomatic treatment of cognitive impairment. PMID:22506660

  2. Vascular Dysfunction in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Effects of CB1R and CB2R Cannabinoid Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Dorado, Jorge; Villalba, Nuria; Prieto, Dolores; Brera, Begoña; Martín-Moreno, Ana M.; Tejerina, Teresa; de Ceballos, María L.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence of altered vascular function, including cerebrovascular, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and transgenic models of the disease. Indeed vasoconstrictor responses are increased, while vasodilation is reduced in both conditions. β-Amyloid (Aβ) appears to be responsible, at least in part, of alterations in vascular function. Cannabinoids, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents, induce vasodilation both in vivo and in vitro. We have demonstrated a beneficial effect of cannabinoids in models of AD by preventing glial activation. In this work we have studied the effects of these compounds on vessel density in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, line 2576, and on altered vascular responses in aortae isolated ring. First we showed increased collagen IV positive vessels in AD brain compared to control subjects, with a similar increase in TgAPP mice, which was normalized by prolonged oral treatment with the CB1/CB2 mixed agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) and the CB2 selective agonist JWH-133 (JWH). In Tg APP mice the vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine and the thromboxane agonist U46619 was significantly increased, and no change in the vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was observed. Tg APP displayed decreased vasodilation to both cannabinoid agonists, which were able to prevent decreased ACh relaxation in the presence of Aβ. In summary, we have confirmed and extended the existence of altered vascular responses in Tg APP mice. Moreover, our results suggest that treatment with cannabinoids may ameliorate the vascular responses in AD-type pathology.

  3. Vascular Dysfunction in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Effects of CB1R and CB2R Cannabinoid Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Dorado, Jorge; Villalba, Nuria; Prieto, Dolores; Brera, Begoña; Martín-Moreno, Ana M.; Tejerina, Teresa; de Ceballos, María L.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence of altered vascular function, including cerebrovascular, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and transgenic models of the disease. Indeed vasoconstrictor responses are increased, while vasodilation is reduced in both conditions. β-Amyloid (Aβ) appears to be responsible, at least in part, of alterations in vascular function. Cannabinoids, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents, induce vasodilation both in vivo and in vitro. We have demonstrated a beneficial effect of cannabinoids in models of AD by preventing glial activation. In this work we have studied the effects of these compounds on vessel density in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, line 2576, and on altered vascular responses in aortae isolated ring. First we showed increased collagen IV positive vessels in AD brain compared to control subjects, with a similar increase in TgAPP mice, which was normalized by prolonged oral treatment with the CB1/CB2 mixed agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) and the CB2 selective agonist JWH-133 (JWH). In Tg APP mice the vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine and the thromboxane agonist U46619 was significantly increased, and no change in the vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was observed. Tg APP displayed decreased vasodilation to both cannabinoid agonists, which were able to prevent decreased ACh relaxation in the presence of Aβ. In summary, we have confirmed and extended the existence of altered vascular responses in Tg APP mice. Moreover, our results suggest that treatment with cannabinoids may ameliorate the vascular responses in AD-type pathology. PMID:27695396

  4. Effect of oxotremorine, physostigmine, and scopolamine on brain acetylcholine synthesis: a study using HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, N.; Beley, A. )

    1990-11-01

    The synthesis rate of brain acetylcholine (ACh) was estimated in mice following i.v. administration of ({sup 3}H)choline (Ch). The measurements were performed 1 min after the tracer injection, using the ({sup 3}H)ACh/({sup 3}H)Ch specific radioactivity ratio as an index of ACh synthesis rate. Endogenous and labeled Ch and ACh were quantified using HPLC methodology. Oxotremorine and physostigmine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the steady state concentration of brain ACh by + 130% and 84%, respectively and of Ch by + 60% (oxotremorine); they decreased ACh synthesis by 62 and 55%, respectively. By contrast, scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the cerebral content of Ch by - 26% and of ACh by - 23% without enhancing the synthesis of ACh. The results show the utility of HPLC methodology in the investigation of ACh turnover.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Bitopic Ligand Engagement with the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Keov, Peter; López, Laura; Devine, Shane M.; Valant, Celine; Lane, J. Robert; Scammells, Peter J.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    TBPB and 77-LH-28-1 are selective agonists of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) that may gain their selectivity through a bitopic mechanism, interacting concomitantly with the orthosteric site and part of an allosteric site. The current study combined site-directed mutagenesis, analytical pharmacology,and molecular modeling to gain further insights into the structural basis underlying binding and signaling by these agonists. Mutations within the orthosteric binding site caused similar reductions in affinity and signaling efficacy for both selective and prototypical orthosteric ligands. In contrast, the mutation of residues within transmembrane helix (TM) 2 and the second extracellular loop (ECL2) discriminated between the different classes of ligand. In particular, ECL2 appears to be involved in the selective binding of bitopic ligands and in coordinating biased agonism between intracellular calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Molecular modeling of the interaction between TBPB and the M1 mAChR revealed a binding pose predicted to extend from the orthosteric site up toward a putative allosteric site bordered by TM2, TM3, and TM7, thus consistent with a bitopic mode of binding. Overall, these findings provide valuable structural and mechanistic insights into bitopic ligand actions and receptor activation and support a role for ECL2 in dictating the active states that can be adopted by a G protein-coupled receptor. This may enable greater selective ligand design and development for mAChRs and facilitate improved identification of bitopic ligands. PMID:25006252

  6. Activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current by acetylcholine and histamine in a human gastric epithelial cell line

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effects of acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine (His) on the membrane potential and current were examined in JR-1 cells, a mucin-producing epithelial cell line derived from human gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. The tight-seal, whole cell clamp technique was used. The resting membrane potential, the input resistance, and the capacitance of the cells were approximately -12 mV, 1.4 G ohms, and 50 pF, respectively. Under the voltage-clamp condition, no voltage-dependent currents were evoked. ACh or His added to the bathing solution hyperpolarized the membrane by activating a time- and voltage- independent K+ current. The ACh-induced hyperpolarization and K+ current persisted, while the His response desensitized quickly (< 1 min). These effects of ACh and His were mediated predominantly by m3- muscarinic and H1-His receptors, respectively. The K+ current induced by ACh and His was inhibited by charybdotoxin, suggesting that it is a Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel current (IK.Ca). The measurement of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) using Indo-1 revealed that both agents increased [Ca2+]i with similar time courses as they increased IK.Ca. When EGTA in the pipette solution was increased from 0.15 to 10 mM, the induction of IK.Ca by ACh and His was abolished. Thus, both ACh and His activate IK.Ca by increasing [Ca2+]i in JR-1 cells. In the Ca(2+)-free bathing solution (0.15 mM EGTA in the pipette), ACh evoked IK.Ca transiently. Addition of Ca2+ (1.8 mM) to the bath immediately restored the sustained IK.Ca. These results suggest that the ACh response is due to at least two different mechanisms; i.e., the Ca2+ release-related initial transient activation and the Ca2+ influx-related sustained activation of IK.Ca. Probably because of desensitization, the Ca2+ influx-related component of the His response could not be identified. Intracellularly applied inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), with and without inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4), mimicked the ACh response. IP4 alone

  7. Effects of narcotic analgesics and antagonists on the in vivo release of acetylcholine from the cerebral cortex of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Jhamandas, K.; Phillis, J. W.; Pinsky, C.

    1971-01-01

    1. In cats under light allobarbitone anaesthesia, the effects of intravenous injections of narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics, of a general depressant, and of narcotic antagonists were investigated on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the surface of the sensorimotor cortex. 2. The narcotic analgesics morphine (0·1, 1·0 and 5 mg/kg), meperidine (1·0 and 2·0 mg/kg), methadone (1·0 mg/kg) and codeine (5·0 and 10·0 mg/kg) greatly reduced ACh release. 3. The non-narcotic analgesics pentazocine (1·0 and 2·0 mg/kg) and propoxyphene (5·0 and 10·0 mg/kg) as well as the depressant chlorpromazine (0·25, 0·5 and 1·0 mg/kg) also greatly reduced ACh release. 4. Two of the three narcotic antagonists examined, levallorphan (0·1, 1·0 and 5 mg/kg) and nalorphine (1·0 mg/kg) had the property of reducing ACh release. They were thus partial agonists. With levallorphan the greatest reduction occurred with the smallest dose injected and the effect was regularly obtained, whereas with nalorphine a reduction was obtained in some experiments only. The third, naloxone, was a specific narcotic antagonist and did not reduce the ACh release in any dose (0·01, 0·1, 0·5 and 1·0 mg/kg) examined. In a dose of 1·0 mg/kg it actually produced a small increase in Ach release. 5. Naloxone (0·1-1·0 mg/kg) restored the reduction in ACh release produced by the narcotic analgesics and by the partial agonist levallorphan. It partially restored the reduction produced by the non-narcotic analgesics and by nalorphine, but had no effect on the reduction produced by chlorpromazine. 6. The relevance of these results with regard to analgesia and to the narcotic abstinence syndrome is discussed. PMID:5136464

  8. Delayed procedural learning in α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, J. W.; Meves, J. M.; Tarantino, I. S.; Caldwell, S.; Geyer, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has long been a procognitive therapeutic target to treat schizophrenia. Evidence on the role of this receptor in cognition has been lacking, however, in part due to the limited availability of suitable ligands. The behavior of α7-nAChR knockout (KO) mice has been examined previously, but cognitive assessments using tests with cross-species translatability have been limited to date. Here, we assessed the cognitive performance of α7-nAChR KO and wild-type (WT) littermate mice in the attentional set-shifting task of executive functioning, the radial arm maze test of spatial working memory span capacity and the novel object recognition test of short-term memory. The reward motivation of these mutants was assessed using the progressive ratio breakpoint test. In addition, we assessed the exploratory behavior and sensorimotor gating using the behavioral pattern monitor and prepulse inhibition, respectively. α7-nAChR KO mice exhibited normal set-shifting, but impaired procedural learning (rule acquisition) in multiple paradigms. Spatial span capacity, short-term memory, motivation for food, exploration and sensorimotor gating were all comparable to WT littermates. The data presented here support the notion that this receptor is important for such procedural learning, when patterns in the environment become clear and a rule is learned. In combination with the impaired attention observed previously in these mice, this finding suggests that agonist treatments should be examined in clinical studies of attention and procedural learning, perhaps in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:21679297

  9. Partial blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia in recurrently hypoglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    LaGamma, Edmund F; Kirtok, Necla; Chan, Owen; Nankova, Bistra B

    2014-10-01

    Recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia can impair the normal counterregulatory hormonal responses that guard against hypoglycemia, leading to hypoglycemia unawareness. This pathological condition known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is the main adverse consequence that prevents individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus from attaining the long-term health benefits of tight glycemic control. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the progressive loss of the epinephrine response to subsequent bouts of hypoglycemia, a hallmark sign of HAAF, are largely unknown. Normally, hypoglycemia triggers both the release and biosynthesis of epinephrine through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on the adrenal glands. We hypothesize that excessive cholinergic stimulation may contribute to impaired counterregulation. Here, we tested whether administration of the nAChR partial agonist cytisine to reduce postganglionic synaptic activity can preserve the counterregulatory hormone responses in an animal model of HAAF. Compared with nicotine, cytisine has limited efficacy to activate nAChRs and stimulate epinephrine release and synthesis. We evaluated adrenal catecholamine production and secretion in nondiabetic rats subjected to two daily episodes of hypoglycemia for 3 days, followed by a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp on day 4. Recurrent hypoglycemia decreased epinephrine responses, and this was associated with suppressed TH mRNA induction (a measure of adrenal catecholamine synthetic capacity). Treatment with cytisine improved glucagon responses as well as epinephrine release and production in recurrently hypoglycemic animals. These data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of ganglionic nAChRs may be promising as a translational adjunctive therapy to avoid HAAF in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Activation of α-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Reduces Ischemic Stroke Injury through Reduction of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhenying; Shen, Fanxia; He, Yue; Degos, Vincent; Camus, Marine; Maze, Mervyn; Young, William L.; Su, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and oxidative stress. C57BL/6 mice were treated with PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR agonist), methyllycaconitine (MLA, nAchR antagonist), or saline immediately and 24 hours after permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (pMCAO). Behavior test, lesion volume, CD68+, M1 (CD11b+/Iba1+) and M2 (CD206/Iba1+) microglia/macrophages, and phosphorylated p65 component of NF-kB in microglia/macrophages were quantified using histological stained sections. The expression of M1 and M2 marker genes, anti-oxidant genes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Compared to the saline-treated mice, PHA mice had fewer behavior deficits 3 and 7 days after pMCAO, and smaller lesion volume, fewer CD68+ and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages 3 and 14 days after pMCAO, whereas MLA's effects were mostly the opposite in several analyses. PHA increased anti-oxidant genes and NADPH oxidase expression associated with decreased phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 in microglia/macrophages. Thus, reduction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress play roles in α-7 nAchR neuro-protective effect. PMID:25157794

  11. Blocking α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors inhibits the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by drug priming in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Xing, Jiang-hao; Jia, Dong; Liu, Shui-bing; Guo, Hong-ju; Li, Xiao-qiang; He, Xiao-sheng; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2011-06-20

    Investigating the interaction between nicotinic and opioid receptors is of great interest for both basic mechanistic and clinical reasons. Morphine and nicotine, two common drugs of abuse, share several behavioral and rewarding properties. However, little is known about the subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). In this study, we found that a non-specific nAChR agonist, nicotine (0.5mg/kg), had no effects on the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP. However, we found that pretreatment with specific α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChR subtype antagonists, dihydroxy-β-erithroidine (DHβE, 5mg/kg) and methyllycaconitine (MLA, 4 mg/kg), 20 min prior to administration of morphine, inhibited the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by drug priming in mice. Furthermore, depression of the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by a single DHβE or MLA treatment lasted at least three days later when the reinstatement was induced by morphine priming. The data suggest that specific nAChR subtypes, i.e., α(4)β(2) and α(7), may contribute to the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by drug priming in mice.

  12. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  13. Nicotinic ACh receptors as therapeutic targets in CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Dineley, Kelly T; Pandya, Anshul A; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2015-02-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) channels. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however, the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer's disease, AD), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain.

  14. {alpha}7-nAChR-mediated suppression of hyperexcitability of colonic dorsal root ganglia neurons in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Abdrakhmanova, Galya R; AlSharari, Shakir; Kang, Minho; Damaj, M Imad; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2010-09-01

    Controlled clinical trials of nicotine transdermal patch for treatment of ulcerative colitis have been shown to improve histological and global clinical scores of colitis. Here we report that nicotine (1 microM) suppresses in vitro hyperexcitability of colonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) (L(1)-L(2)) neurons in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model of acute colonic inflammation. Nicotine gradually reduced regenerative multiple-spike action potentials in colitis mice to a single action potential. Nicotine's effect on hyperexcitability of inflamed neurons was blocked in the presence of an alpha(7)-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, methyllicaconitine, while choline, the alpha(7)-nAChR agonist, induced a similar effect to that of nicotine. Consistent with these findings, nicotine failed to suppress hyperexcitability in colonic DRG neurons from DSS-treated alpha(7) knockout mice. Furthermore, colonic DRG neurons from DSS-treated alpha(7) knockout mice were characterized by lower rheobase (10 +/- 5 vs. 77 +/- 13 pA, respectively) and current threshold (28 +/- 4 vs. 103 +/- 8 pA, respectively) levels than DSS-treated C57BL/J6 mice. An interesting observation of this study is that 8 of 12 colonic DRG (L(1)-L(2)) neurons from control alpha(7) knockout mice exhibited multiple-spike action potential firing while no wild-type neurons did. Overall, our findings suggest that nicotine at low 1 microM concentration suppresses in vitro hyperexcitability of inflamed colonic DRG neurons in a mouse model of acute colonic inflammation via activation of alpha(7)-nAChRs.

  15. Nicotinic pharmacophore: the pyridine N of nicotine and carbonyl of acetylcholine hydrogen bond across a subunit interface to a backbone NH.

    PubMed

    Blum, Angela P; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2010-07-27

    Pharmacophore models for nicotinic agonists have been proposed for four decades. Central to these models is the presence of a cationic nitrogen and a hydrogen bond acceptor. It is now well-established that the cationic center makes an important cation-pi interaction to a conserved tryptophan, but the donor to the proposed hydrogen bond acceptor has been more challenging to identify. A structure of nicotine bound to the acetylcholine binding protein predicted that the binding partner of the pharmacophore's second component was a water molecule, which also hydrogen bonds to the backbone of the complementary subunit of the receptors. Here we use unnatural amino acid mutagenesis coupled with agonist analogs to examine whether such a hydrogen bond is functionally significant in the alpha4beta2 neuronal nAChR, the receptor most associated with nicotine addiction. We find evidence for the hydrogen bond with the agonists nicotine, acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and epibatidine. These data represent a completed nicotinic pharmacophore and offer insight into the design of new therapeutic agents that selectively target these receptors.

  16. From crystal structure of α-conotoxin GIC in complex with Ac-AChBP to molecular determinants of its high selectivity for α3β2 nAChR

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo; Xu, Manyu; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yong; Liu, Xi; Zhangsun, Dongting; Hu, Yuanyan; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Wang, Xinquan; Luo, Sulan

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) are unique spatial homologs of the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and they reproduce some pharmacological properties of nAChRs. X-ray crystal structures of AСhBP in complex with α-conotoxins provide important insights into the interactions of α-conotoxins with distinct nAChR subtypes. Although considerable efforts have been made to understand why α-conotoxin GIC is strongly selective for α3β2 nAChR, this question has not yet been solved. Here we present the structure of α-conotoxin GIC in complex with Aplysia californica AChBP (Ac-AChBP) at a resolution of 2.1 Å. Based on this co-crystal structure complemented with molecular docking data, we suggest the key residues of GIC in determining its high affinity and selectivity for human α3β2 vs α3β4 nAChRs. These suggestions were checked by radioligand and electrophysiology experiments, which confirmed the functional role of detected contacts for GIC interactions with Ac-AChBP and α3β2 nAChR subtypes. While GIC elements responsible for its high affinity binding with Ac-AChBP and α3β2 nAChR were identified, our study also showed the limitations of computer modelling in extending the data from the X-ray structures of the AChBP complexes to all nAChR subtypes. PMID:26925840

  17. Septohippocampal Acetylcholine: Involved in but Not Necessary for Learning and Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) has been accorded an important role in supporting learning and memory processes in the hippocampus. Cholinergic activity in the hippocampus is correlated with memory, and restoration of ACh in the hippocampus after disruption of the septohippocampal pathway is sufficient to rescue memory. However, selective…

  18. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation conferring target-site resistance to imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zewen; Williamson, Martin S; Lansdell, Stuart J; Denholm, Ian; Han, Zhaojun; Millar, Neil S

    2005-06-14

    Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with potent insecticidal activity. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, imidacloprid has become one of the most extensively used insecticides for both crop protection and animal health applications. As with other classes of insecticides, resistance to neonicotinoids is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a major rice pest in many parts of Asia. In this study, radioligand binding experiments have been conducted with whole-body membranes prepared from imidacloprid-susceptible and imidacloprid-resistant strains of N. lugens. The results reveal a much higher level of [3H]imidacloprid-specific binding to the susceptible strain than to the resistant strain (16.7 +/- 1.0 and 0.34 +/- 0.21 fmol/mg of protein, respectively). With the aim of understanding the molecular basis of imidacloprid resistance, five nAChR subunits (Nlalpha1-Nlalpha4 and Nlbeta1) have been cloned from N. lugens.A comparison of nAChR subunit genes from imidacloprid-sensitive and imidacloprid-resistant populations has identified a single point mutation at a conserved position (Y151S) in two nAChR subunits, Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha3. A strong correlation between the frequency of the Y151S point mutation and the level of resistance to imidacloprid has been demonstrated by allele-specific PCR. By expression of hybrid nAChRs containing N. lugens alpha and rat beta2 subunits, evidence was obtained that demonstrates that mutation Y151S is responsible for a substantial reduction in specific [3H]imidacloprid binding. This study provides direct evidence for the occurrence of target-site resistance to a neonicotinoid insecticide. PMID:15937112

  19. An unusual beta-spectrin associated with clustered acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is an early event in the formation of the neuromuscular junction. The mechanism of clustering is still unknown, but is generally believed to be mediated by the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. We have identified an unusual isoform of beta-spectrin which colocalizes with AChR in AChR clusters isolated from rat myotubes in vitro. A related antigen is present postsynaptically at the neuromuscular junction of the rat. Immunoprecipitation, peptide mapping and immunofluorescence show that the beta-spectrin in AChR clusters resembles but is distinct from the beta-spectrin of human erythrocytes. alpha-Spectrin appears to be absent from AChR clusters. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence techniques indicate that there are from two to seven beta-spectrin molecules present for every clustered AChR, the higher values being obtained from rapidly prepared clusters, the lower values from clusters that require several minutes or more for isolation. Upon incubation of isolated AChR clusters for 1 h at room temperature, beta-spectrin is slowly depleted and the AChR redistribute into microaggregates. The beta-spectrin that remains associated with the myotube membrane is concentrated at these microaggregates. beta- Spectrin is quantitatively lost from clusters upon digestion with chymotrypsin, which causes AChR to redistribute in the plane of the membrane. These results suggest that AChR in clusters is closely linked to an unusual isoform of beta-spectrin. PMID:2645300

  20. Acetylcholine receptor and behavioral deficits in mice lacking apolipoprotein E

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jessica A; Benice, Theodore S; Van Meer, Peter; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in the risk to develop sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since impaired central acetylcholine (ACh) function is a hallmark of AD, apoE may influence ACh function by modulating muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). To test this hypothesis, mAChR binding was measured in mice lacking apoE and wild type C57BL/6J mice. Mice were also tested on the pre-pulse inhibition, delay eyeblink classical conditioning, and 5-choice serial reaction time tasks, which are all modulated by ACh transmission. Mice were also given scopolamine to challenge central mAChR function. Compared to wild type mice, mice lacking apoE had reduced number of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs. Scopolamine had a small effect on delay eyeblink classical conditioning in wild type mice but a large effect in mice lacking apoE. Mice lacking apoE were also unable to acquire performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. These results support a role for apoE in ACh function and suggest that modulation of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs might contribute to genotype differences in scopolamine sensitivity and task acquisition. Impaired apoE functioning may result in cholinergic deficits that contribute to the cognitive impairments seen in AD. PMID:19178986

  1. Turnover of acetylcholine receptors: Mechanisms of regulation. Final report, 1 August 1985-30 November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Drachman, D.B.

    1990-12-31

    The synthesis, insertion and degradation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) of skeletal muscle cells as closely regulated both by the muscle cells and by the motor nerves that supply them. The goal of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation of the AChRs, both at the neuromuscular junctional and at extrajunctional regions. The results of our studies on junctional AChRs have shown that: Both stable and rapidly turned over (RTO) AChRs are present at normally innervated neuromuscular junctions` Synthesis and insertion of AChRs at neuromuscular junctions occurs rapidly, at a rate consistent with the rapid rate of turnover of RTOs. RTOs serve as precursors of stable AChRs. Acetylcholine receptors, RA5 Neuromuscular junctions, Motor nerves.

  2. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllcaconitine and anabasine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adverse effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Research has indicated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice with more a7 nAChR requi...

  3. Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) agonist, GW405833 reduces agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zebing; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jingke; Zhao, Mengqin; Sun, Nana; Sun, Fangfang; Shen, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiying; Xia, Kunkun; Chen, Dejie; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P; Liu, Qingrong; Xi, Zhengxiong; Fan, Xuegong; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca(2+) signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca(2+) overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca(2+) signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis. PMID:27432473

  4. Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) agonist, GW405833 reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebing; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jingke; Zhao, Mengqin; Sun, Nana; Sun, Fangfang; Shen, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiying; Xia, Kunkun; Chen, Dejie; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P.; Liu, Qingrong; Xi, Zhengxiong; Fan, Xuegong; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca2+ signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca2+ overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca2+ oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis. PMID:27432473

  5. Characterization of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain from rat, monkey, and human.

    PubMed

    Tanibuchi, Yuko; Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun; Fujita, Yuko; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-08-12

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Currently, there are no suitable small molecule radioligands for alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, although [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin has been widely used as a radioligand for alpha7 nAChRs. In the present study, we characterized a new radioligand, 4-[(3)H]methylphenyl 2,5-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylate ([(3)H]CHIBA-1001), a derivative of the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist SSR180711, in brain membranes from rat, monkey, and human. Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 193.4nM in rat brain membranes at 4 degrees C, and the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) was 346.2fmol/mg protein. The order of drugs for the inhibition of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to rat brain membranes is SSR180711>A-844606>MG624>epibatidine>DMAB>A-582941, suggesting a similarity of alpha7 nAChR pharmacological profiles. In contrast, alpha-bungarotoxin, MLA, and nicotine were found to be very weak. The distribution of [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding to crude membranes from dissected regions of rat, monkey, and human brain was different from that of [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding, suggesting that [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 binding sites may not be identical to [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding in the brain. In summary, [(3)H]CHIBA-1001 would be a useful radioligand for alpha7 nAChRs in the brains of rodents, non-human primates, and humans. PMID:20537987

  6. Prediction of drug-induced catalepsy based on dopamine D1, D2, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancies.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, K; Ito, K; Kotaki, H; Sawada, Y; Iga, T

    1997-06-01

    It is known that catalepsy serves as an experimental animal model of parkinsonism. In this study, the relationship between in vivo dopamine D1 and D2 receptor occupancies and catalepsy was investigated to predict the intensity of catalepsy induced by drugs that bind to D1 and D2 receptors nonselectively. 3H-SCH23390 and 3H-raclopride were used for the labeling of D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. The ternary complex model consisting of agonist or antagonist, receptor, and transducer was developed, and the dynamic parameters were determined. After coadministration of SCH23390 and nemonapride, catalepsy was stronger than sum of the values predicted by single administration of each drug, and it was intensified synergistically. This finding suggested the existence of interaction between D1 and D2 receptors, and the necessity for constructing the model including this interaction. To examine the validity of this model, catalepsy and in vivo dopamine receptor occupancy were measured after administration of drugs that induce or have a possibility to induce parkinsonism (haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, oxatomide, hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcycilzine). All of the tested drugs blocked both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Intensity of catalepsy was predicted with this dynamic model and was compared with the observed values. In contrast with haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, and oxatomide (which induced catalepsy), hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcyclizine failed to induce catalepsy. Intensities of catalepsy predicted with this dynamic model considering the interaction between D1 and D2 receptors overestimated the observed values, suggesting that these drugs have catalepsy-reducing properties as well. Because muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists inhibit the induction of catalepsy, the anticholinergic activities of the drugs were investigated. After SCH23390, nemonapride and scopolamine were administered simultaneously; catalepsy and in

  7. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock down-mice are more susceptible to inflammation, c-Fos expression and sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira-Lima, Onésia Cristina de; Pereira, Luciana de Melo; Oliveira, Vinícius Elias de Moura; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antônio Máximo; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the well-known functions as a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh) can modulate of the immune system. Nonetheless, how endogenous ACh release inflammatory responses is still not clear. To address this question, we took advantage of an animal model with a decreased ACh release due a reduction (knockdown) in vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression (VAChT-KD(HOM)). These animals were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Afterwards, we evaluated sickness behavior and quantified systemic and cerebral inflammation as well as neuronal activation in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). VAChT-KD(HOM) mice that were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) showed increased mortality rate as compared to control mice. In line with this result, a low dose of LPS (0.1mg/kg) increased the levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the spleen and brain of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice in comparison with controls. Similarly, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were increased in VAChT-KD(HOM) mice. This excessive cytokine production was completely prevented by administration of a nicotinic receptor agonist (0.4mg/kg) prior to the LPS injection. Three hours after the LPS injection, c-Fos expression increased in the DVC region of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice compared to controls. In addition, VAChT-KD(HOM) mice showed behavioral changes such as lowered locomotor and exploratory activity and reduced social interaction after the LPS challenge, when compared to control mice. Taken together, our results show that the decreased ability to release ACh exacerbates systemic and cerebral inflammation and promotes neural activation and behavioral changes induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that activity of cholinergic pathways, which can be modulated by VAChT expression, controls inflammatory and neural responses to LPS challenge.

  8. α7nAchR/NMDAR coupling affects NMDAR function and object recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shupeng; Nai, Qiang; Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C; Liu, Fang

    2013-12-20

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) are both ligand-gated ion channels permeable to Ca2+ and Na+. Previous studies have demonstrated functional modulation of NMDARs by nAchRs, although the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We have previously reported that α7nAchR forms a protein complex with the NMDAR through a protein-protein interaction. We also developed an interfering peptide that is able to disrupt the α7nAchR-NMDAR complex and blocks cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in rat models of relapse. In the present study, we investigated whether the α7nAchR-NMDAR interaction is responsible for the functional modulation of NMDAR by α7nAchR using both electrophysiological and behavioral tests. We have found that activation of α7nAchR upregulates NMDAR-mediated whole cell currents and LTP of mEPSC in cultured hippocampal neurons, which can be abolished by the interfering peptide that disrupts the α7nAchR-NMDAR interaction. Moreover, administration of the interfering peptide in mice impairs novel object recognition but not Morris water maze performance. Our results suggest that α7nAchR/NMDAR coupling may selectively affect some aspects of learning and memory.

  9. Clinical application of clustered-AChR for the detection of SNMG

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiutian; Guan, Yangtai; Jiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoantibody-mediated disease of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, accumulating evidence has indicated that MG patients whose serum anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies are not detectable (serumnegative MG; SNMG) in routine assays share similar clinical features with anti-AChR antibody-positive MG patients. We hypothesized that SNMG patients would have low-affinity antibodies to AChRs that would not be detectable using traditional methods but that might be detected by binding to AChR on the cell membrane, particularly if they were clustered at the high density observed at the NMJ. We expressed AChR subunits with the clustering protein rapsyn (an AChR-associated protein at the synapse) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, and we tested the binding of the antibodies using immunofluorescence. With this approach, AChR antibodies to rapsyn-clustered AChR could be detected in the sera from 45.83% (11/24) of SNMG patients, as confirmed with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). This was the first application in China of cell-based AChR antibody detection. More importantly, this sensitive (and specific) approach could significantly increase the diagnosis rate of SNMG. PMID:26068604

  10. Caffeine potentiates the enhancement by choline of striatal acetylcholine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; Ulus, I. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of peripherally administered caffeine (50 mg/kg), choline (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg) or combinations of both drugs on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the corpus striatum of anesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine alone or choline in the 30 or 60 mg/kg dose failed to increase ACh in microdialysis samples; the 120 mg/kg choline dose significantly enhanced ACh during the 80 min following drug administration. Coadministration of caffeine with choline significantly increased ACh release after each of the choline doses tested. Peak microdialysate levels with the 120 mg/kg dose were increased 112% when caffeine was additionally administered, as compared with 54% without caffeine. These results indicate that choline administration can enhance spontaneous ACh release from neurons, and that caffeine, a drug known to block adenosine receptors on these neurons, can amplify the choline effect.

  11. Changes in Acetylcholine Extracellular Levels during Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepeu, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the changes in neurotransmitter extracellular levels in discrete brain areas is considered a tool for identifying the neuronal systems involved in specific behavioral responses or cognitive processes. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the first neurotransmitter whose diffusion from the central nervous system was investigated and whose extracellular…

  12. Spatial and intracellular relationships between the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the prefrontal cortex of rat and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Aine M.; Zhou, Ping; Milner, Teresa A.; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2009-01-01

    The alpha-7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is expressed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region where these receptors are implicated in cognitive function and in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Activation of this receptor is dependent on release of acetylcholine (ACh) from axon terminals that contain the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Since rat and mouse models are widely used for studies of specific abnormalities in schizophrenia, we sought to determine the subcellular location of the α7nAChR with respect to VAChT storage vesicles in axon terminals in the PFC in both species. For this, we used dual electron microscopic immunogold and immunoperoxidase labeling of antisera raised against the α7nAChR and VAChT. In both species, the α7nAChR-immunoreactivity (-ir) was principally identified within dendrites and dendritic spines, receptive to axon terminals forming asymmetric excitatory-type synapses, but lacking detectable α7nAChR or VAChT-ir. Quantitative analysis of the rat PFC revealed that of α7nAChR labeled neuronal profiles, 65% (299/463) were postsynaptic structures (dendrites and dendritic spine) and only 22% (104/463) were axon terminals or small unmyelinated axons. In contrast, VAChT was principally localized to varicose vesicle-filled axonal profiles, without recognized synaptic specializations (n = 240). Of the α7nAChR-labeled axons, 47% (37/79) also contained VAChT, suggesting that ACh release is autoregulated through the presynaptic α7nAChR. The VAChT-labeled terminals rarely formed synapses, but frequently apposed α7nAChR-containing neuronal profiles. These results suggest that in rodent PFC, the α7nAChR plays a major role in modulation of the postsynaptic excitation in spiny dendrites in contact with VAChT containing axons. PMID:19374941

  13. A statistical analysis of acetylcholine receptor activation in Xenopus myocytes: stepwise versus concerted models of gating.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The kinetic properties of single channel currents from fetal-type acetylcholine receptors in embryonic Xenopus myocytes (60 h old) have been analysed by a maximum-likelihood method. 2. At very high acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations (up to 5 mM) the effective opening rate appears to saturate at approximately 30,000 s-1. 3. The kinetics were analysed according to the standard concerted scheme that postulates a single channel-opening conformational change after two agonists are bound, and a rarely invoked stepwise scheme that postulates semi-independent conformational changes in two distinct gating domains. Both models assume that agonist cannot escape from a channel (or domain) that is in its activated conformation. 4. With either activation scheme the kinetic analyses indicate that ACh binds at a rate of approximately 2 x 10(8) s-1 M-1 and dissociates from doubly liganded receptors at a rate of approximately 28,000 s-1, and that the activation process is asymmetric, i.e. the binding (concerted model) or gating (stepwise model) transitions are not equal and independent. 5. In eighteen of twenty-seven file-by-file comparisons, the likelihood of the stepwise model was greater than that of the concerted model. In seven such comparisons, the likelihood of the concerted model was greater than that of the stepwise model, and in two there was no difference. Log likelihood ratio distributions were obtained from three files (those with the most events) by multiple cycles of resampling and fitting. The means of these distributions were significantly greater than zero, indicating that the stepwise scheme was as good as, or better than, the concerted scheme in describing receptor activation. 6. According to the stepwise view, two binding sites must be occupied and two 'gates' activated for conduction to occur. Although equivalent binding is not an essential aspect of stepwise activation, the binding sites can be identical and have a low affinity for ACh (Kd approximately 130

  14. Intracoronary Acetylcholine Provocation Testing for Assessment of Coronary Vasomotor Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Intracoronary acetylcholine provocation testing (ACH-test) is an established method for assessment of epicardial coronary artery spasm in the catheterization laboratory which was introduced more than 30 years ago. Due to the short half-life of acetylcholine it can only be applied directly into the coronary arteries. Several studies have demonstrated the safety and clinical usefulness of this test. However, acetylcholine testing is only rarely applied in the U.S. or Europe. Nevertheless, it has been shown that 62% of Caucasian patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries on coronary angiography suffer from coronary vasomotor disorders that can be diagnosed with acetylcholine testing. In recent years it has been appreciated that the ACH-test not only assesses the presence of epicardial spasm but that it can also be useful for the detection of coronary microvascular spam. In such cases no epicardial spasm is seen after injection of acetylcholine but ischemic ECG shifts are present together with a reproduction of the patient's symptoms during the test. This article describes the experience with the ACH-test and its implementation in daily clinical routine. PMID:27583694

  15. Maintenance of constant blood acetylcholine content before and after feeding in young chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Mori, Y; Tominaga, T; Hayasaka, I; Kawashima, K

    1997-05-01

    We have shown that acetylcholine (ACh) is present in the blood of various species of mammals using a specific, sensitive radioimmunoassay. In the present study, the effect on blood and plasma ACh levels of feeding after overnight fasting was studied in one male and five female 4- to 7-year-old chimpanzees. The mean basal ACh concentrations of the blood and plasma were 3143 +/- 380 and 184 +/- 10 pg/ml (+/-SEM, n = 6), respectively. Feeding each chimpanzee 500 g boiled sweet potatoes as breakfast at 1000 h and tap water given ad libitum did not affect the ACh content of the blood and plasma, and constant values of the blood and plasma ACh contents were observed for 4 h after the feeding. Hematocrit and plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also insensitive to feeding. No correlation was observed between plasma AChE activity and either blood or plasma ACh content. The results of the present study indicate that the blood ACh of chimpanzees is distributed mainly in the blood cell fraction, and that the blood ACh content is not regulated directly by cholinergic nerve activity or by plasma AChE activity.

  16. A first principle study on the interaction between acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine, and also rivastigmine in alzheimer's disease case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirunisa, V.; Rusydi, F.; Kasai, H.; Gandaryus, A. G.; Dipojono, H. K.

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) relates to the symptom progress in Alzheimer's disease. Interaction of AChE with rivastigmine (from the medicine) can reduce its catalytic activity toward acetylcholine to decelerate the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This research attempts to study the interaction between AChE and rivastigmine, and also acetylcholine (without the presence of rivastigmine) using density functional theory by simplifying the reaction occurs in the active site, which is assumed to be C2H5OH, C3N2H3(Ch3), and CH3COO-. The results suggest that AChE interacts easier with acetylcholine than with rivastigmine, which implies that the medicine does not effectively reduce the catalytic activity of AChE. At this stage, no experimental data is available to be compared with the calculation results. Nonetheless, this study has shown a good prospect to understand the AChE-substrate interaction using a first-principles calculation.

  17. Electrophysiology-Based Assays to Detect Subtype-Selective Modulation of Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Glenn E.; Fedorov, Nikolai B.; Kuryshev, Yuri A.; Liu, Zhiqi; Orr, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-31) gave the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the responsibility for regulating tobacco products. Nicotine is the primary addictive component of tobacco and its effects can be modulated by additional ingredients in manufactured products. Nicotine acts by mimicking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which function as ion channels in cholinergic modulation of neurotransmission. Subtypes within the family of neuronal nAChRs are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The subtype-selective profiles of tobacco constituents are largely unknown, but could be essential for understanding the physiological effects of tobacco products. In this report, we report the development and validation of electrophysiology-based high-throughput screens (e-HTS) for human nicotinic subtypes, α3β4, α3β4α5, α4β2, and α7 stably expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Assessment of agonist sensitivity and acute desensitization gave results comparable to those obtained by conventional manual patch clamp electrophysiology assays. The potency of reference antagonists for inhibition of the receptor channels and selectivity of positive allosteric modulators also were very similar between e-HTS and conventional manual patch voltage clamp data. Further validation was obtained in pilot screening of a library of FDA-approved drugs that identified α7 subtype-selective positive allosteric modulation by novel compounds. These assays provide new tools for profiling of nicotinic receptor selectivity. PMID:27505073

  18. Electrophysiology-Based Assays to Detect Subtype-Selective Modulation of Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Glenn E; Fedorov, Nikolai B; Kuryshev, Yuri A; Liu, Zhiqi; Armstrong, Lucas C; Orr, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-31) gave the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the responsibility for regulating tobacco products. Nicotine is the primary addictive component of tobacco and its effects can be modulated by additional ingredients in manufactured products. Nicotine acts by mimicking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which function as ion channels in cholinergic modulation of neurotransmission. Subtypes within the family of neuronal nAChRs are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The subtype-selective profiles of tobacco constituents are largely unknown, but could be essential for understanding the physiological effects of tobacco products. In this report, we report the development and validation of electrophysiology-based high-throughput screens (e-HTS) for human nicotinic subtypes, α3β4, α3β4α5, α4β2, and α7 stably expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Assessment of agonist sensitivity and acute desensitization gave results comparable to those obtained by conventional manual patch clamp electrophysiology assays. The potency of reference antagonists for inhibition of the receptor channels and selectivity of positive allosteric modulators also were very similar between e-HTS and conventional manual patch voltage clamp data. Further validation was obtained in pilot screening of a library of FDA-approved drugs that identified α7 subtype-selective positive allosteric modulation by novel compounds. These assays provide new tools for profiling of nicotinic receptor selectivity. PMID:27505073

  19. Topographical studies of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. [Torpedo californica

    SciTech Connect

    Middlemas, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    All four subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica have been labeled with the photoactivated hydrophobic probe, (/sup 3/H)adamantanediazirine, which selectively labels regions of integral membrane proteins in contact with the hydrocarbon core of the lipid bilayer. All four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica have been labeled with (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl diazoacetate. As this probe incorporates into lipid bilayers analogously to cholesterol, this result indicates that acetylcholine receptor interacts with cholesterol. Since the photogenerated carbene is situated near the lipid-water interface, this probe has potential as a topographic tool for mapping membrane protein structure. The labeling studies with both (/sup 3/H)adamantanediazirine and (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl diazoacetate support the concept that the acetylcholine receptor is a pseudosymmetric complex of homologous subunits, all of which interact with and span the membrane. The synthesis of the fluorine-containing agonists for the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, fluoroacetylcholine bromide and p-fluorophenyltrimethylammonium iodide, are described. It is demonstrated that both are agonists using a cation flux assay with acetylcholine receptor enriched membrane vesicles. The affinity cleavage reagent, p-thiocyanophenyltrimethylammonium iodide, specifically cleaves a peptide bond of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica. It is demonstrated that this reagent is an agonist using a cation flux assay. The cleavage is blocked by stoichiometric quantities of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin.

  20. AChR-specific immunosuppressive therapy of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-10-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by muscle fatigability. In most cases, it is mediated by autoantibodies targeting muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is an animal model for MG, which is usually induced by immunization with AChR purified from fish electric organ. Pathological autoantibodies to AChRs are directed at the extracellular surface, especially the main immunogenic region (MIR). Current treatments for MG can help many but not all patients. Antigen-specific immunosuppressive therapy for MG that specifically suppresses the autoimmune response without affecting the entire immune system and avoids side effects of general immunosuppression is currently unavailable. Early attempts at antigen-specific immunosuppression for EAMG using AChR extracellular domain sequences that form epitopes for pathological autoantibodies risked provoking autoimmunity rather than suppressing it. We discovered a novel approach to specific immunosuppression of EAMG with a therapeutic vaccine consisting of bacterially-expressed human AChR cytoplasmic domains, which has the potential to specifically suppress MG without danger of causing exacerbation. This approach prevents development of chronic EAMG when initiated immediately after the acute phase of EAMG, and rapidly reverses established chronic EAMG when started during the chronic phase of EAMG. Successfully treated rats exhibited long-term resistance to re-induction of EAMG. In this review we also discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms by which the therapy works. Vaccination with AChR cytoplasmic domains in adjuvant is promising as a safe, antigen-specific, potent, effective, rapidly acting, and long lasting approach to therapy of MG.

  1. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease pathology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sylvia; Maskos, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major form of senile dementia, characterized by neuronal loss, extracellular deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles. It is accompanied by a loss of cholinergic tone, and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD. Current medication is restricted to enhancing cholinergic signalling for symptomatic treatment of AD patients. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family (nAChR) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family (mAChR) are the target of ACh in the brain. Both families of receptors are affected in AD. It was demonstrated that amyloid beta (Aβ) interacts with nAChRs. Here we discuss how Aβ activates or inhibits nAChRs, and how this interaction contributes to AD pathology. We will discuss the potential role of nAChRs as therapeutic targets. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25514383

  2. Altered isotope charge distribution of acetylcholine neurotransmitter and Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Bayri, A; Unal, S; Altin, S; Bulut, F; Dayanc, B E

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a central neurotransmitter that is used for signal transmission among neurons. For signal transmission in neurons, a neurotransmitter must bind to its receptor in order to produce an action potential. It is known that in Myasthenia Gravis (MG) cases, autoantibodies could block this binding. In the future, the treatment of MG could be achieved via modulation of molecular interaction between ACh and acetylcholine receptor (AChR). This study suggests that if an atom on a ligand (i.e. a neurotransmitter) is replaced with its isotope, it may cause charge redistribution such as that the binding between ligand and its receptor may be improved. Hence suggesting that with replacement of atoms with their isotopes in any biologically important ligand could alter its affinity towards its corresponding receptor, which would have a wide array of applications in medicine.

  3. The action of cholinergic agonists on the squid stellate ganglion giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Stanley, E F

    1984-07-01

    Although the giant synapse in the squid stellate ganglion has served as a model in the understanding of the ionic and electrical changes that occur during the release of transmitter from nerve terminals, little is known about the pharmacology of this synapse or the identity of its neurotransmitter. In the present study, the suggestion that acetylcholine (ACh) is the excitatory transmitter at this synapse was tested by exploring the actions of cholinergic agents on the pre- and postsynaptic giant axons and on the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). A novel arterial perfusion technique that circumvents the diffusion barrier from the bathing medium to the synapse has been used to demonstrate a depolarizing action of ACh and its agonist carbachol on the post- but not the presynaptic axon. The cholinergic receptors are distinct from receptors activated by amino acids, such as glutamate, have a reversal potential of about -48 mV, are anion-permeable, and desensitize without blocking the EPSP. It is concluded that these receptors are involved in an inhibitory input onto the postsynaptic giant axon and, therefore, that ACh is most probably not the transmitter at the squid giant synapse.

  4. Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists: a multi-approach development of the pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, O; Pellegrini-Calace, M; Carrieri, A; Altomare, C; Centeno, N B; Sanz, F; Carotti, A

    2001-09-01

    Based on the results obtained with different automated computational approaches as applied to the study of eleven high-affinity agonists of the neuronal nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), belonging to different chemical classes, new relevant features were detected which complement the existing pharmacophores. Convergent results from DISCO (Distance Comparison), QXP (Quick Explore), Catalyst/HipHop, and MIPSIM (Molecular Interaction Potential Similarity) allowed us to identify and locate, in a well defined spatial arrangement, three geometrically independent key structural features: (i) a positively charged nitrogen atom for ionic or hydrogen bond interactions, (ii) a lone pair of the pyridine nitrogen or a specific lone pair of a carbonyl oxygen, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and (iii) a centre of a hydrophobic area generally occupied by aliphatic cycles. The pharmacophore presented herein, along with predictive 2D and 3D QSAR models recently developed in our group, could represent valuable computational tools for the design of new nAChR agonists having therapeutical potential. PMID:11776295

  5. Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists: a multi-approach development of the pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, O; Pellegrini-Calace, M; Carrieri, A; Altomare, C; Centeno, N B; Sanz, F; Carotti, A

    2001-09-01

    Based on the results obtained with different automated computational approaches as applied to the study of eleven high-affinity agonists of the neuronal nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), belonging to different chemical classes, new relevant features were detected which complement the existing pharmacophores. Convergent results from DISCO (Distance Comparison), QXP (Quick Explore), Catalyst/HipHop, and MIPSIM (Molecular Interaction Potential Similarity) allowed us to identify and locate, in a well defined spatial arrangement, three geometrically independent key structural features: (i) a positively charged nitrogen atom for ionic or hydrogen bond interactions, (ii) a lone pair of the pyridine nitrogen or a specific lone pair of a carbonyl oxygen, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and (iii) a centre of a hydrophobic area generally occupied by aliphatic cycles. The pharmacophore presented herein, along with predictive 2D and 3D QSAR models recently developed in our group, could represent valuable computational tools for the design of new nAChR agonists having therapeutical potential.

  6. Acetylcholine: future research and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Van der Zee, E A; Platt, B; Riedel, G

    2011-08-10

    Ever since the initial description of chemical transmission in the early part of the 20th century and the identification of acetylcholine (ACh) as the first such transmitter, interests grew to define the multiple facets of its functions. This multitude is only partially covered here, but even in the areas preselected for this special issue, research on the cholinergic system is still thriving. Notwithstanding an impressive amount of knowledge that has been accumulated, partly triggered by the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD [1]), the different reviews in this issue not only summarise our current state of the art, they also highlight that this field has still large potential for future development. Taken from these reviews, we here pinpoint several topics fit for future attention.

  7. Vascular effects of acetylcholine in the perfused rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, P.D.; Gillis, C.N.

    1986-03-05

    Acetylcholine (ACh) relaxes large, isolated arteries by releasing an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). The authors decided to determine if ACh releases EDRF in rabbit lungs (RL) perfused in situ and if chemical injury with tetradecanoyl phorbol myristate acetate (TPA) could modify EDRF release in RL and in rabbit pulmonary arteries (RPA) in vitro. RL were perfused at 15 ml/min with Krebs-dextran solution. 1 ..mu..M ACh infusion raised perfusion pressure (P) in RL that was blocked by 30 ..mu..M indomethacin (IND) in the perfusate. However, when IND-treated RL were perfused with the stable endoperoxide analog, U46619 (2-6nM) to increase P, ACh infusion (0.01-1.0 ..mu..M) consistently decreased elevated P. The vasodilator response to infusion of 1 ..mu..M ACh was acutely antagonized by infusion of either 20 ..mu..M quinacrine (Q) or 10 ..mu..M Fe/sup + +/-hemoglobin (Hb). ACh did not decrease P in IND-treated RL pre-equilibrated with Q or Hb. TPA (10 nM) antagonized ACh-reduction of P and the ACh-induced relaxation of isolated RPA. The TPA antagonism of ACh-relaxation of RPA was prevented by catalase (300 U/ml). From these results they conclude that: 1) ACh-induced vasoconstriction in RL depends on cyclooxygenase product(s). 2) IND unmasks ACh-induced vasodilatation in RL that is inhibited by Q and by Hb suggesting that the effect is mediated by EDRF. 3) TPA inhibits ACh-induced vasodilatation and relaxation of RPA via the release of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or a related oxidant that injures the endothelium.

  8. Paradoxical facilitation of acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves innervating guinea-pig trachea by isoprenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Belvisi, M. G.; Patel, H. J.; Takahashi, T.; Barnes, P. J.; Giembycz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Previous studies have provided evidence that activation of beta-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerve terminals can inhibit neurotransmission in the airways. However, in most cases, this conclusion has been based on indirect evidence obtained from mechanical experiments where changes in airways smooth muscle tone were measured. 2. We have assessed whether modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission by beta-adrenoceptor agonists is due to a pre- or post-junctional action by investigating the effect of isoprenaline on contractile responses evoked by exogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 4 Hz, 40 V, 0.5 ms pulse width every 15 s), and on EFS-induced ACh release from cholinergic nerves innervating guinea-pig and human trachea. Furthermore, the subtype of beta-adrenoceptor which modulates neurotransmission and the potential role of cyclic AMP in this response were evaluated. 3. In guinea-pig trachea, isoprenaline (1 nM-1 microM) inhibited the contractile response evoked by exogenous ACh (1 microM) to a similar extent to that evoked by EFS (EC50 = 19.9 and 23 nM, respectively). 4. In epithelium-denuded guinea-pig strips treated with indomethacin (10 microM), isoprenaline significantly enhanced EFS-induced ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals (by 36% at 0.3 microM). This effect was blocked by propranolol and ICI 118, 551 (each 0.1 microM). In contrast, isoprenaline failed to affect EFS-induced ACh release from parasympathetic nerves innervating human trachea. 5. To evaluate the role of cyclic AMP in the beta-adrenoceptor-induced facilitation of cholinergic neurotransmission, the effects of various cyclic AMP elevating drugs on ACh release were studied. Forskolin (10 microM) significantly augmented (by 17%) EFS-induced ACh release, an effect which was not reproduced by 1,9-dideoxyforskolin (10 microM) which does not activate adenylyl cyclase. Similarly, the cyclic AMP analogue, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (1 mM) and cholera toxin (1 microgram

  9. Positive allosteric modulation of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors enhances recognition memory and cognitive flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2015-08-01

    A wide body of preclinical and clinical data suggests that alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) may represent useful targets for cognitive improvement in schizophrenia and Alzheimer׳s disease. A promising recent approach is based on the use of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7-nAChRs due to their several advantages over the direct agonists. Nevertheless, the behavioural effects of this class of compounds, particularly with regard to higher-order cognitive functions, have not been broadly characterised. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the procognitive efficacies of type I and type II α7-nAChRs PAMs, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-[[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide (CCMI) and N-(5-Chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-N'-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)urea (PNU-120596) in the novel object recognition task (NORT), attentional set-shifting task (ASST) and five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats. Additionally, the effects of galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that also allosterically modulates nAChRs, were assessed. We report that CCMI (0.3-3mg/kg), PNU-120596 (0.3-3mg/kg) and galantamine (1-3mg/kg) attenuated the delay-induced impairment in NORT performance and facilitated cognitive flexibility in the ASST. Methyllycaconitine (3mg/kg) blocked the actions of CCMI, PNU-120596 and galantamine in the NORT and ASST, suggesting that the procognitive effects of these compounds are α7-nAChRs-dependent. However, none of the compounds tested affected the rats' attentional performance in the 5-CSRTT. The present findings confirm and extend the observations indicating that the positive allosteric modulation of α7-nAChRs enhances recognition memory and cognitive flexibility in preclinical tasks. Therefore, the present study supports the utility of α7-nAChRs PAMs as a potential cognitive enhancing therapy. PMID:26003081

  10. Regulation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase by G-protein-linked muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, P G; Challiss, R A; Blank, J L

    1999-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs, or stress-activated protein kinases) are activated by diverse extracellular signals and mediate a variety of cellular responses, including mitogenesis, differentiation, hypertrophy, inflammatory reactions and apoptosis. We have examined the involvement of Ca2+ and protein kinase C (PKC) in ERK and JNK activation by the human G-protein-coupled m2 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We show that the Ca2+-mobilizing m3 AChR is efficiently coupled to JNK and ERK activation, whereas the m2 AChR activates ERK but not JNK. Activation of JNK in CHO-m3 cells by the agonist methacholine (MCh) was delayed in onset and more sustained relative to that of ERK in either CHO-m2 or CHO-m3 cells. The EC50 values for MCh-induced ERK activation in both cell types were essentially identical and similar to that for JNK activation in CHO-m3 cells, suggesting little amplification of the response. Agonist-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation in CHO-m3 cells was insensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), consistent with a Gq/phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta mediated pathway, whereas a significant component of ERK and JNK activation in CHO-m3 cells was PTX-sensitive, indicating Gi/o involvement. Using manipulations that prevent receptor-mediated extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+-store release, we also show that ERK activation by m2 and m3 receptors is Ca2+-independent. In contrast, a significant component (>50%) of JNK activation mediated by the m3 AChR was dependent on Ca2+, mainly derived from extracellular influx. PKC inhibition and down-regulation studies suggested that JNK activation was negatively regulated by PKC. Conversely, ERK activation by both m2 and m3 AChRs required PKC, suggesting a novel mechanism for PKC activation by PTX-sensitive m2 AChRs. In summary, mAChRs activate JNK and ERK via divergent mechanisms

  11. Chronic exposure to nicotine enhances insulin sensitivity through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tian-Ying; Guo, Ling-Ling; Wang, Pei; Song, Jie; Le, Ying-Ying; Viollet, Benoit; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on insulin sensitivity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks reduced 43% body weight gain and 65% blood insulin level, but had no effect on blood glucose level. Both insulin tolerance test and glucose tolerance test demonstrated that nicotine treatment enhanced insulin sensitivity. Pretreatment of rats with hexamethonium (20 mg/kg/day) to antagonize peripheral nicotinic receptors except for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) had no effect on the insulin sensitizing effect of nicotine. However, the insulin sensitizing effect but not the bodyweight reducing effect of nicotine was abrogated in α7-nAChR knockout mice. Further, chronic treatment with PNU-282987 (0.53 mg/kg/day), a selective α7-nAChR agonist, significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity without apparently modifying bodyweight not only in normal mice but also in AMP-activated kinase-α2 knockout mice, an animal model of insulin resistance with no sign of inflammation. Moreover, PNU-282987 treatment enhanced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver in normal mice. PNU-282987 treatment also increased glucose uptake by 25% in C2C12 myotubes and this effect was total abrogated by STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201. All together, these findings demonstrated that nicotine enhanced insulin sensitivity in animals with or without insulin resistance, at least in part via stimulating α7-nAChR-STAT3 pathway independent of inflammation. Our results contribute not only to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of nicotine, but also to the identifying of new therapeutic targets against insulin resistance.

  12. Extracts and constituents of Leontopodium alpinum enhance cholinergic transmission: Brain ACh increasing and memory improving properties

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, Ariane; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Vo, Nguyen Phung; Prast, Helmut; Stuppner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Leontopodium alpinum (‘Edelweiss’) was phytochemically investigated for constituents that might enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. The potency to increase synaptic availability of acetylcholine (ACh) in rat brain served as key property for the bioguided isolation of cholinergically active compounds using different chromatographic techniques. The dichlormethane (DCM) extract of the root, fractions and isolated constituents were injected i.c.v. and the effect on brain ACh was detected via the push–pull technique. The DCM extract enhanced extracellular ACh concentration in rat brain and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. The extracellular level of brain ACh was significantly increased by the isolated sesquiterpenes, isocomene and 14-acetoxyisocomene, while silphiperfolene acetate and silphinene caused a small increasing tendency. Only silphiperfolene acetate showed in vitro AChE inhibitory activity, thus suggesting the other sesquiterpenes to stimulate cholinergic transmission by an alternative mechanism of action. Isocomene was further investigated with behavioural tasks in mice. It restored object recognition in scopolamine-impaired mice and showed nootropic effects in the T-maze alternation task in normal and scopolamine-treated mice. Additionally, this sesquiterpene reduced locomotor activity of untreated mice in the open field task, while the activity induced by scopolamine was abolished. The enhancement of synaptic availability of ACh, the promotion of alternation, and the amelioration of scopolamine-induced deficit are in accordance with a substance that amplifies cholinergic transmission. Whether the mechanism of action is inhibition of AChE or another pro-cholinergic property remains to be elucidated. Taken together, isocomene and related constituents of L. alpinum deserve further interest as potential antidementia agents in brain diseases associated with cholinergic deficits. PMID:18541221

  13. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Nichols, Weston A; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng; Lester, Henry A

    2016-03-01

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway.

  14. Remarkably increased resistin levels in anti-AChR antibody-positive myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Li, Xin; Qi, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Li

    2015-06-15

    Resistin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To investigate serum resistin levels in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and determine if there are associations between resistin levels and disease severity, we measured serum resistin levels in 102 patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive MG (AChR-MG). We further analyzed associations between serum resistin levels and clinical variables in patients with MG. Our findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are elevated in patients with AChR-generalized MG and AChR-MG with thymoma and are correlated with disease severity. Resistin has potential as a useful serum biomarker for inflammation in AChR-MG.

  15. Effects of two oxadiazolidinones on cholinesterases and acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, N.; Lockyer, S.; Sherby, S.; Eldefrawi, A.; Eldefrawi, M.

    1986-03-05

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) by 3-(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-benzofuran-'7-yl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(/sup 3/H)-one (DBOX) and 3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(/sup 3/H)-one (MPOX) was measured by the Ellmann spectrophotometric method. Inhibition was quasi first order and irreversible. DBOX was 2-3 orders of magnitude more potent than MPOX. Housefly brain AChE and horse serum BuChE were more sensitive than AChEs of red blood cells or eel and Torpedo electric organs. It is suggested that the nonesteratic oxadiazolidinones are activated to carbanillates on the surface of the enzyme and produce a carbanillated enzyme which ages rapidly. Carbamate anticholinesterases protected AChE against carbanillation as they did against phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, the two oxadiazolidinones also affected binding of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha.. bungarotoxin and (/sup 3/H)perhydrohistrionicotoxin to Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but did not affect binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate to rat brain muscarinic receptors.

  16. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a therapeutic target in the structure era.

    PubMed

    Taly, Antoine; Charon, Sebastien

    2012-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated ion channels involved in cognitive processes and are associated with brain disorders which makes them interesting drug targets. This article presents a general overview of the receptor to introduce the α7 nAChR as a drug target. The advances in understanding of the structure/function properties of the nAChR produced during the last decade are detailed as they are crucial for rational drug design. The allosteric properties of the nAChR will also be described because they also have important consequences for drug design.

  17. Central loop of non-conventional toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia is important for interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Kasheverov, Igor E; Chugunov, Anton O; Kulbatskii, Dmitrii S; Myshkin, Mikhail Yu; Utkin, Yuri N; Efremov, Roman G; Tsetlin, Victor I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Dolgikh, Dmitry A

    2016-09-01

    'Three-finger' toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia interacts with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs). Mutagenesis and competition experiments with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin revealed that Arg31 and Arg32 residues from the WTX loop II are important for binding to Torpedo californica and human α7 nAChRs. Computer modeling suggested that loop II occupies the orthosteric binding site at α7 nAChR. The similar toxin interface was previously described as a major determinant of allosteric interactions with mAChRs. PMID:27343701

  18. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adverse physiological effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to its competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research demonstrated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice...

  19. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J.; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S.; Wu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. PMID:26855198

  20. A threshold model for opposing actions of acetylcholine on reward behavior: Molecular mechanisms and implications for treatment of substance abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The cholinergic system plays important roles in both learning and addiction. Medications that modify cholinergic tone can have pronounced effects on behaviors reinforced by natural and drug reinforcers. Importantly, enhancing the action of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system can either augment or diminish these behaviors. A threshold model is presented that can explain these seemingly contradictory results. Relatively low levels of ACh rise above a lower threshold, facilitating behaviors supported by drugs or natural reinforcers. Further increases in cholinergic tone that rise above a second upper threshold oppose the same behaviors. Accordingly, cholinesterase inhibitors, or agonists for nicotinic or muscarinic receptors, each have the potential to produce biphasic effects on reward behaviors. Pretreatment with either nicotinic or muscarinic antagonists can block drug- or food- reinforced behavior by maintaining cholinergic tone below its lower threshold. Potential threshold mediators include desensitization of nicotinic receptors and biphasic effects of ACh on the firing of medium spiny neurons. Nicotinic receptors with high- and low- affinity appear to play greater roles in reward enhancement and inhibition, respectively. Cholinergic inhibition of natural and drug rewards may serve as mediators of previously described opponent processes. Future studies should evaluate cholinergic agents across a broader range of doses, and include a variety of reinforced behaviors. PMID:27316344

  1. P2Y13 receptors mediate presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release induced by adenine nucleotides at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, Juan F; Cinalli, Alejandro R; Fernández, Verónica; Roquel, Liliana I; Losavio, Adriana S

    2016-06-21

    It is known that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released along with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) from motor nerve terminals. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), we have previously demonstrated that ATP is able to decrease ACh secretion by activation of P2Y receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o protein. In this group, the receptor subtypes activated by adenine nucleotides are P2Y12 and P2Y13. Here, we investigated, by means of pharmacological and immunohistochemical assays, the P2Y receptor subtype that mediates the modulation of spontaneous and evoked ACh release in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. First, we confirmed that the preferential agonist for P2Y12-13 receptors, 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate trisodium salt hydrate (2-MeSADP), reduced MEPP frequency without affecting MEPP amplitude as well as the amplitude and quantal content of end-plate potentials (EPPs). The effect on spontaneous secretion disappeared after the application of the selective P2Y12-13 antagonists AR-C69931MX or 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt hydrate (2-MeSAMP). 2-MeSADP was more potent than ADP and ATP in reducing MEPP frequency. Then we demonstrated that the selective P2Y13 antagonist MRS-2211 completely prevented the inhibitory effect of 2-MeSADP on MEPP frequency and EPP amplitude, whereas the P2Y12 antagonist MRS-2395 failed to do this. The preferential agonist for P2Y13 receptors inosine 5'-diphosphate sodium salt (IDP) reduced spontaneous and evoked ACh secretion and MRS-2211 abolished IDP-mediated modulation. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the presence of P2Y13 but not P2Y12 receptors at the end-plate region. Disappearance of P2Y13 receptors after denervation suggests the presynaptic localization of the receptors. We conclude that, at motor nerve terminals, the Gi/o protein-coupled P2Y receptors implicated in presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous and evoked ACh release are of the subtype P2Y

  2. P2Y13 receptors mediate presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release induced by adenine nucleotides at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, Juan F; Cinalli, Alejandro R; Fernández, Verónica; Roquel, Liliana I; Losavio, Adriana S

    2016-06-21

    It is known that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released along with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) from motor nerve terminals. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), we have previously demonstrated that ATP is able to decrease ACh secretion by activation of P2Y receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o protein. In this group, the receptor subtypes activated by adenine nucleotides are P2Y12 and P2Y13. Here, we investigated, by means of pharmacological and immunohistochemical assays, the P2Y receptor subtype that mediates the modulation of spontaneous and evoked ACh release in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. First, we confirmed that the preferential agonist for P2Y12-13 receptors, 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate trisodium salt hydrate (2-MeSADP), reduced MEPP frequency without affecting MEPP amplitude as well as the amplitude and quantal content of end-plate potentials (EPPs). The effect on spontaneous secretion disappeared after the application of the selective P2Y12-13 antagonists AR-C69931MX or 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt hydrate (2-MeSAMP). 2-MeSADP was more potent than ADP and ATP in reducing MEPP frequency. Then we demonstrated that the selective P2Y13 antagonist MRS-2211 completely prevented the inhibitory effect of 2-MeSADP on MEPP frequency and EPP amplitude, whereas the P2Y12 antagonist MRS-2395 failed to do this. The preferential agonist for P2Y13 receptors inosine 5'-diphosphate sodium salt (IDP) reduced spontaneous and evoked ACh secretion and MRS-2211 abolished IDP-mediated modulation. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the presence of P2Y13 but not P2Y12 receptors at the end-plate region. Disappearance of P2Y13 receptors after denervation suggests the presynaptic localization of the receptors. We conclude that, at motor nerve terminals, the Gi/o protein-coupled P2Y receptors implicated in presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous and evoked ACh release are of the subtype P2Y

  3. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in human airway correlates with lung function.

    PubMed

    Lam, David Chi-Leung; Luo, Susan Yang; Fu, Kin-Hang; Lui, Macy Mei-Sze; Chan, Koon-Ho; Wistuba, Ignacio Ivans; Gao, Boning; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Ip, Mary Sau-Man; Minna, John Dorrance

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine and its derivatives, by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on bronchial epithelial cells, can regulate cellular signaling and inflammatory processes. Delineation of nAChR subtypes and their responses to nicotine stimulation in bronchial epithelium may provide information for therapeutic targeting in smoking-related inflammation in the airway. Expression of nAChR subunit genes in 60 bronchial epithelial biopsies and immunohistochemical staining for the subcellular locations of nAChR subunit expression were evaluated. Seven human bronchial epithelial cell lines (HBECs) were exposed to nicotine in vitro for their response in nAChR subunit gene expression to nicotine exposure and removal. The relative normalized amount of expression of nAChR α4, α5, and α7 and immunohistochemical staining intensity of nAChR α4, α5, and β3 expression showed significant correlation with lung function parameters. Nicotine stimulation in HBECs resulted in transient increase in the levels of nAChR α5 and α6 but more sustained increase in nAChR α7 expression. nAChR expression in bronchial epithelium was found to correlate with lung function. Nicotine exposure in HBECs resulted in both short and longer term responses in nAChR subunit gene expression. These results gave insight into the potential of targeting nAChRs for therapy in smoking-related inflammation in the airway. PMID:26608528

  4. Acetylcholine receptors in the human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, J.B.; Hollyfield, J.G.

    1985-11-01

    Evidence for a population of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in the human retina is presented. The authors have used the irreversible ligand TH-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (TH-PrBCM) to label muscarinic receptors. TH- or SVI-alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTx) was used to label putative nicotinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors are apparently present in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Autoradiographic grain densities are reduced in the presence of saturating concentrations of atropine, quinuclidinyl benzilate or scopolamine; this indicates that TH-PrBCM binding is specific for a population of muscarinic receptors in the human retina. Binding sites for radiolabeled alpha-BTx are found predominantly in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Grain densities are reduced in the presence of d-tubocurarine, indicating that alpha-BTx may bind to a pharmacologically relevant nicotinic ACh receptor. This study provides evidence for cholinergic neurotransmission in the human retina.

  5. Conotoxins Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Lebbe, Eline K. M.; Peigneur, Steve; Wijesekara, Isuru; Tytgat, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Marine snails of the genus Conus are a large family of predatory gastropods with an unparalleled molecular diversity of pharmacologically active compounds in their venom. Cone snail venom comprises of a rich and diverse cocktail of peptide toxins which act on a wide variety of ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium- (NaV), potassium- (KV), and calcium- (CaV) channels as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which are classified as ligand-gated ion channels. The mode of action of several conotoxins has been the subject of investigation, while for many others this remains unknown. This review aims to give an overview of the knowledge we have today on the molecular pharmacology of conotoxins specifically interacting with nAChRs along with the structure–function relationship data. PMID:24857959

  6. Serotoninergic dorsal raphe neurons possess functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Charles, Luis; Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Bargas, José; Garduño, Julieta; Frías-Dominguez, Carmen; Drucker-Colin, René; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Very few neurons in the telencephalon have been shown to express functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), among them, the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons. However, there is no evidence for postsynaptic nAChRs on serotonergic neurons. In this study, we asked if functional nAChRs are present in serotonergic (5-HT) and nonserotonergic (non-5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In rat midbrain slices, field stimulation at the tegmental pedunculopontine (PPT) nucleus evoked postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) with different components in DRN neurons. After blocking the glutamatergic and GABAergic components, the remaining eEPSCs were blocked by mecamylamine and reduced by either the selective alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) or the selective alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-eritroidine (DHbetaE). Simultaneous addition of MLA and DHbetaE blocked all eEPSCs. Integrity of the PPT-DRN pathway was assessed by both anterograde biocytin tracing and antidromic stimulation from the DRN. Inward currents evoked by the direct application of acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of atropine and tetrodotoxin, consisted of two kinetically different currents: one was blocked by MLA and the other by DHbetaE; in both 5-HT and non-5-HT DR neurons. Analysis of spontaneous (sEPSCs) and evoked (eEPSCs) synaptic events led to the conclusion that nAChRs were located at the postsynaptic membrane. The possible implications of these newly described nAChRs in various physiological processes and behavioral events, such as the wake-sleep cycle, are discussed. PMID:18512214

  7. Extrasynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Neuronal Cell Bodies Regulate Presynaptic Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason P.; Staab, Trisha A.; Wang, Han; Mazzasette, Chiara; Butte, Zara

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a potent neuromodulator in the brain, and its effects on cognition and memory formation are largely performed through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). mAChRs are often preferentially distributed on specialized membrane regions in neurons, but the significance of mAChR localization in modulating neuronal function is not known. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the M1/M3/M5 family of mAChRs, gar-3, is expressed in cholinergic motor neurons, and GAR-3-GFP fusion proteins localize to cell bodies where they are enriched at extrasynaptic regions that are in contact with the basal lamina. The GAR-3 N-terminal extracellular domain is necessary and sufficient for this asymmetric distribution, and mutation of a predicted N-linked glycosylation site within the N-terminus disrupts GAR-3-GFP localization. In transgenic animals expressing GAR-3 variants that are no longer asymmetrically localized, synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions is impaired and there is a reduction in the abundance of the presynaptic protein sphingosine kinase at release sites. Finally, GAR-3 can be activated by endogenously produced ACh released from neurons that do not directly contact cholinergic motor neurons. Together, our results suggest that humoral activation of asymmetrically localized mAChRs by ACh is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which ACh modulates neuronal function. PMID:23986249

  8. Pharmacological properties of AC-3933, a novel benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T; Kiyoshi, T; Kohayakawa, H; Iwamura, Y; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    We investigated in this study the pharmacological properties of AC-3933 (5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one), a novel benzodiazepine receptor (BzR) partial inverse agonist. AC-3933 potently inhibited [3H]-flumazenil binding to rat whole brain membrane with a Ki value of 5.15 ± 0.39 nM and a GABA ratio of 0.84 ± 0.03. AC-3933 exhibited almost no affinity for the other receptors, transporters and ion channels used in this study. In addition, AC-3933, in the presence of GABA (1 μM), gradually but significantly increased [³⁵S] tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding to rat cortical membrane to 117.1% of the control (maximum increase ratio) at 3000 nM. However, this increase reached a plateau at 30 nM with hardly any change at a concentration range of 100-3000 nM (from 115.2% to 117.1%). AC-3933 (0.1-10 μM) significantly enhanced KCl-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat hippocampal slices in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo brain microdialysis showed that intragastric administration of AC-3933 at the dose of 10 mg/kg significantly increased extracellular ACh levels in the hippocampus of freely moving rats (area under the curve (AUC₀₋₂ h) of ACh level; 288.3% of baseline). These results indicate that AC-3933, a potent and selective BzR inverse agonist with low intrinsic activity, might be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders associated with degeneration of the cholinergic system.

  9. 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid stimulates GABA release from interneurons projecting to CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampus via pre-synaptic alpha7 acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2005-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, such as alpha7, alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 receptors in the hippocampus, are suggested to modulate neurotransmitter release. 8-[2-(2-Pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) (100 nM), a linoleic acid derivative, potentiated responses of alpha7, alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 ACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes that are blocked by 3-(1-[dimethylaminopropyl] indol-3-yl)-4-[indol-3-yl] maleimide (GF109203X), a selective inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), except for alpha3beta4 ACh receptors. DCP-LA enhanced the nicotine-triggered release of GABA from rat hippocampal slices in the presence of tetrodotoxin in a bell-shaped dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM, although DCP-LA by itself had no effect on GABA release. The DCP-LA action was inhibited by GF109203X or alpha-bungarotoxin, an inhibitor of alpha7 ACh receptors, but not by mecamylamine or dihydro-beta-erithroidine, an inhibitor of alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 ACh receptors. A similar effect on GABA release was obtained with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a PKC activator. DCP-LA (100 nM) also enhanced GABA release triggered by choline, an agonist of alpha7 ACh receptors, but not 3-[2(s)-azetidinylmethoxy] pyridine, an agonist of alpha4beta2 ACh receptors. In addition, DCP-LA (100 nM) increased the rate of nicotine-triggered GABA(A) receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents, monitored from CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices, and the effect was also inhibited by GF109203X or alpha-bungarotoxin but not by mecamylamine. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA stimulates GABA release by enhancing activity of pre-synaptic alpha7 ACh receptors present on the GABAergic terminals of interneurons that transmit to CA1 pyramidal neurons via a PKC pathway. PMID:16248884

  10. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gazyakan, E; Hennegriff, M; Haaf, A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Feuerstein, T J; Jackisch, R

    2000-07-01

    Presynaptic opioid receptors of the delta- and mu-types have been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, but it is unknown whether opioid receptors modulate the release of ACh also in the region of origin of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, the septum. To answer this question, slices (350 microm) of the medial septal area and of the diagonal band of Broca, as well as (for comparison) of the hippocampus, were prepared from adult male Wistar rats. The slices were incubated with [3H]choline, superfused in the presence of hemicholinium-3 (10 microM) and stimulated twice (S1, S2) by electrical fields (360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 60 mA); opioid receptor agonists were present during S2. The preferential mu-agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited the evoked ACh release by maximally about 40% in hippocampal slices and acted even more strongly in the medial septal area, or the diagonal band of Broca (about 60% or 75% maximal inhibition, respectively). These effects were reduced or abolished by the preferential mu-antagonist naloxone, which showed no effects when given alone. Using naloxone in the presence of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, no evidence for an endogenous tone of opioid peptides was found in the medial septal area, diagonal band of Broca or the hippocampus. Using the preferential delta-agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and the delta-antagonist naltrindole, a delta-opioid receptor inhibiting evoked ACh release was clearly detectable both in the medial septal area and the diagonal band of Broca, but not in the hippocampus, whereas the preferential kappa-agonist trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclo-hexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) had only weak or no effects. In addition to the functional experiments, double in-situ hybridization studies were performed, in which cells containing mRNA for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were labeled by an

  11. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors controlling attention: behavior, circuits and sensitivity to disruption by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Poorthuis, Rogier B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2013-10-15

    Attention is a central cognitive function that enables long-term engagement in a task and suppression of irrelevant information to obtain future goals. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the main link in integrating emotional and motivational state of an animal to regulate top-down attentional processes. Acetylcholine modulates PFC neuronal networks by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to support attention. However, how neuronal activity changes in the PFC during attention and which nAChR subtypes mediate this is only rudimentarily understood, but progress is being made. Recently, exciting new insights were obtained in the dynamics of cholinergic signaling in the PFC and modes of acetylcholine transmission via nAChRs in the cortex. In addition, mechanisms are uncovered on how the PFC circuitry is regulated by nAChRs. Novel studies show that endogenous activation of nAChRs in the PFC plays a central role in controlling attention. Here, we review current insights into how different subtypes of nAChRs expressed by distinct types of neurons in the PFC circuitry shape attention. In addition we discuss the impact of nicotine on the cholinergic system and prefrontal cortical circuits. Low concentrations of nicotine, as experienced by smokers, interfere with cholinergic signaling. In the long-term exposure to nicotine during adolescence leads to maladaptive adaptations of the PFC circuitry, which ultimately leads to a decrement in attention performance, again emphasizing the importance of nAChRs in attention.

  12. Phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) during synaptic activation results from the release of a stimulatory and in inhibitory agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    PI has been implicated in the process of synaptic transmission and is increased by agonists. It has been suggested that PI is involved in cellular Ca/sup + +/ mobilization and the process represents a series of hydrolytic reactions with inositol as the final product. Hence, the rate of release of /sup 3/H-inositol (/sup 3/H-Ins) from prelabelled inositol phospholipids can be used as an index of PI. In the /sup 3/H-inositol prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglia, they studied the effect of synaptic activity on PI. PI did not change during orthodromic stimulation (20 Hz, 5 min). However, upon cessation of the stimulation, PI increased rapidly and remained elevated for at least 30 min. This increase in PI was reduced by suffusing the ganglia with either acetylcholine or adenosine. In the presence of atropine (5 ..mu..M), orthodromic stimulation increased PI. They hypothesized that synaptic activation releases a long-lasting stimulatory agonist and a short-lived inhibitory (Ach/adenosine) agonist(s) affecting PI. To test this idea, 2 sympathetic ganglia were used. One was prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and the other was not. The two ganglia were placed together in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringers solution containing atropine. Orthodromic stimuli were applied to the non-labelled ganglion and elicited release of /sup 3/H-Ins from the non-stimulated ganglion.

  13. Impact of acetylcholine and nicotine on human osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ternes, Sebastian; Trinkaus, Katja; Bergen, Ivonne; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Kilian, Olaf; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies showed that the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) is taking part in bone metabolism. Most studies investigated its role in osteoblasts, but up to now, the involvement of the NNCS in human osteoclastogenesis remains relatively unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to determine whether the application of acetylcholine (ACh, 10(−4) M), nicotine (10(−6) M), mineralized collagen membranes or brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 40 ng/mL) influences the mRNA regulation of molecular components of the NNCS and the neurotrophin family during osteoclastogenesis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the blood of young healthy donors (n = 8) and incubated with bone fragments and osteoclast differentiation media for 21 days. All the results are based on the measurement of RNA. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a down-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit α2 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) M3by osteoclastogenesis while BDNF mRNA expression was not regulated. Application of ACh, nicotine, BDNF or collagen membranes did not affect osteoclastic differentiation.No regulation was detected for nAChR subunit α7, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), and cholineacetyl transferase (ChAT). Taken together, we assume that the transcriptional level of osteoclastogenesis of healthy young humans is not regulated by BDNF, ACh, and nicotine. Thus, these drugs do not seem to worsen bone degradation and might therefore be suitable as modulators of bone substitution materials if having a positive effect on bone formation.

  14. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel Acetylcholine-binding Protein from the Marine Annelid Capitella teleta

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, T.; Petrovich,; Mercier, K; DeRose, E; Cuneo, M; Williams, J; Johnson, K; Lamb, P; London, R; Yakel, J

    2010-01-01

    We identified a homologue of the molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) in the marine polychaete Capitella teleta, from the annelid phylum. The amino acid sequence of C. teleta AChBP (ct-AChBP) is 21-30% identical with those of known molluscan AChBPs. Sequence alignments indicate that ct-AChBP has a shortened Cys loop compared to other Cys loop receptors, and a variation on a conserved Cys loop triad, which is associated with ligand binding in other AChBPs and nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) {alpha} subunits. Within the D loop of ct-AChBP, a conserved aromatic residue (Tyr or Trp) in nAChRs and molluscan AChBPs, which has been implicated directly in ligand binding, is substituted with an isoleucine. Mass spectrometry results indicate that Asn122 and Asn216 of ct-AChBP are glycosylated when expressed using HEK293 cells. Small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest that the overall shape of ct-AChBP in the apo or unliganded state is similar to that of homologues with known pentameric crystal structures. NMR experiments show that acetylcholine, nicotine, and {alpha}-bungarotoxin bind to ct-AChBP with high affinity, with KD values of 28.7 {micro}M, 209 nM, and 110 nM, respectively. Choline bound with a lower affinity (K{sub D} = 163 {micro}M). Our finding of a functional AChBP in a marine annelid demonstrates that AChBPs may exhibit variations in hallmark motifs such as ligand-binding residues and Cys loop length and shows conclusively that this neurotransmitter binding protein is not limited to the phylum Mollusca.

  15. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Wall, Teagan R.; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Nichols, Weston A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Menthol, the most popular flavorant for tobacco products, has been considered simply a benign flavor additive. However, as we show here

  16. Broad-spectrum efficacy across cognitive domains by alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism correlates with activation of ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Bitner, Robert S; Bunnelle, William H; Anderson, David J; Briggs, Clark A; Buccafusco, Jerry; Curzon, Peter; Decker, Michael W; Frost, Jennifer M; Gronlien, Jens Halvard; Gubbins, Earl; Li, Jinhe; Malysz, John; Markosyan, Stella; Marsh, Kennan; Meyer, Michael D; Nikkel, Arthur L; Radek, Richard J; Robb, Holly M; Timmermann, Daniel; Sullivan, James P; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2007-09-26

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays an important role in cognitive processes and may represent a drug target for treating cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we used a novel alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) to interrogate cognitive efficacy, as well as examine potential cellular mechanisms of cognition. Exhibiting high affinity to native rat (Ki = 10.8 nM) and human (Ki = 16.7 nM) alpha7 nAChRs, A-582941 enhanced cognitive performance in behavioral assays including the monkey delayed matching-to-sample, rat social recognition, and mouse inhibitory avoidance models that capture domains of working memory, short-term recognition memory, and long-term memory consolidation, respectively. In addition, A-582941 normalized sensory gating deficits induced by the alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine in rats, and in DBA/2 mice that exhibit a natural sensory gating deficit. Examination of signaling pathways known to be involved in cognitive function revealed that alpha7 nAChR agonism increased extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Furthermore, increases in ERK1/2 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were observed in mouse cingulate cortex and/or hippocampus after acute A-582941 administration producing plasma concentrations in the range of alpha7 binding affinities and behavioral efficacious doses. The MEK inhibitor SL327 completely blocked alpha7 agonist-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that alpha7 nAChR agonism can lead to broad-spectrum efficacy in animal models at doses that enhance ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation/activation and may represent a mechanism that offers potential to improve cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:17898229

  17. Broad-spectrum efficacy across cognitive domains by alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism correlates with activation of ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Bitner, Robert S; Bunnelle, William H; Anderson, David J; Briggs, Clark A; Buccafusco, Jerry; Curzon, Peter; Decker, Michael W; Frost, Jennifer M; Gronlien, Jens Halvard; Gubbins, Earl; Li, Jinhe; Malysz, John; Markosyan, Stella; Marsh, Kennan; Meyer, Michael D; Nikkel, Arthur L; Radek, Richard J; Robb, Holly M; Timmermann, Daniel; Sullivan, James P; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2007-09-26

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays an important role in cognitive processes and may represent a drug target for treating cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we used a novel alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) to interrogate cognitive efficacy, as well as examine potential cellular mechanisms of cognition. Exhibiting high affinity to native rat (Ki = 10.8 nM) and human (Ki = 16.7 nM) alpha7 nAChRs, A-582941 enhanced cognitive performance in behavioral assays including the monkey delayed matching-to-sample, rat social recognition, and mouse inhibitory avoidance models that capture domains of working memory, short-term recognition memory, and long-term memory consolidation, respectively. In addition, A-582941 normalized sensory gating deficits induced by the alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine in rats, and in DBA/2 mice that exhibit a natural sensory gating deficit. Examination of signaling pathways known to be involved in cognitive function revealed that alpha7 nAChR agonism increased extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Furthermore, increases in ERK1/2 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were observed in mouse cingulate cortex and/or hippocampus after acute A-582941 administration producing plasma concentrations in the range of alpha7 binding affinities and behavioral efficacious doses. The MEK inhibitor SL327 completely blocked alpha7 agonist-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that alpha7 nAChR agonism can lead to broad-spectrum efficacy in animal models at doses that enhance ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation/activation and may represent a mechanism that offers potential to improve cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.

  18. An essential role of acetylcholine-glutamate synergy at habenular synapses in nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Frahm, Silke; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Görlich, Andreas; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of interest has been focused recently on the habenula and its critical role in aversion, negative-reward and drug dependence. Using a conditional mouse model of the ACh-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (Chat), we report that local elimination of acetylcholine (ACh) in medial habenula (MHb) neurons alters glutamate corelease and presynaptic facilitation. Electron microscopy and immuno-isolation analyses revealed colocalization of ACh and glutamate vesicular transporters in synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the central IPN. Glutamate reuptake in SVs prepared from the IPN was increased by ACh, indicating vesicular synergy. Mice lacking CHAT in habenular neurons were insensitive to nicotine-conditioned reward and withdrawal. These data demonstrate that ACh controls the quantal size and release frequency of glutamate at habenular synapses, and suggest that the synergistic functions of ACh and glutamate may be generally important for modulation of cholinergic circuit function and behavior.

  19. Ionophoretically applied acetylcholine and vagal stimulation in the arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed Central

    Bramich, N J; Brock, J A; Edwards, F R; Hirst, G D

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of acetylcholine (ACh), applied by ionophoresis, on the isolated arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus, were examined. 2. At each position where ACh was applied across the surface of sinus venosus preparations, a hyperpolarization was produced. These responses were abolished by hyoscine, indicating that muscarinic cholinoceptors are widely distributed over the surface of these muscle cells. 3. Vagal stimulation produced hyperpolarizations which were mimicked, to some extent, by ionophoretically applied ACh. 4. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were abolished by adding barium ions to the perfusion fluid, whereas responses to vagal stimulation persisted. 5. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were consistently slower than those to vagal stimulation. It is argued that the pathways activated by neural and applied ACh have different kinetics of activation. PMID:7965847

  20. A correlative review of acetylcholine synthesis in relation to histopathology of the human syncytiotrophoblast.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, M

    1986-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is localized in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the human placental villous tissue. An attempt was made to correlate the ACh synthesis in different pathological placentas with the histopathology of the syncytiotrophoblast available in the literature. The ACh synthesis was estimated by 'in vitro' incubation of the placental tissue. Full-term (36-38 weeks) vaginally delivered pathological placentas and hydatid moles (28 weeks) were compared with normal placentas of the same age. The results suggested that: ACh synthesis is normal in states with normal syncytiotrophoblast (e.g., healthy greater than 42 week placenta, placenta praevia, twins, and hydramnios); high ACh synthesis is correlated with hormonal and immunological changes (e.g., diabetes mellitus and Rh-incompatibility); low levels of ACh synthesis occur in states with moderate syncytial degeneration (e.g., nephrotic syndrome and essential hypertension); very poor ACh synthesis occurs when syncytial degeneration is advanced (e.g., preeclampsia, eclampsia, intra-uterine death of fetus, vesicles of hydatid mole and placental tissue infarcts); and ACh synthesis is nil in material that is completely devoid of syncytiotrophoblast (e.g., placental tissue-like material, which rarely appears in between the vesicles of hydatid moles). In essence, the degree of reduction in ACh synthesis seems to correlate with the state of the syncytiotrophoblast in various pathological conditions; and ACh synthesis is greatly reduced during syncytial degeneration. It is concluded that the capacity of the placenta to synthesize ACh reflects the state of the syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:3799152

  1. Study of the Peripheral Nerve Fibers Myelin Structure Changes during Activation of Schwann Cell Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Verdiyan, Ekaterina E.; Allakhverdiev, Elvin S.; Maksimov, Georgy V.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a new type of mechanism by which neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the properties of peripheral nerve fibers myelin. Our data show the importance of the relationship between the changes in the number of Schwann cell (SC) acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and the axon excitation (different intervals between action potentials (APs)). Using Raman spectroscopy, an effect of activation of SC AChRs on the myelin membrane fluidity was investigated. It was found, that ACh stimulates an increase in lipid ordering degree of the myelin lipids, thus providing evidence for specific role of the “axon-SC” interactions at the axon excitation. It was proposed, that during the axon excitation, the SC membrane K+- depolarization and the Ca2+—influx led to phospholipase activation or exocytosis of intracellular membrane vesicles and myelin structure reorganization. PMID:27455410

  2. (/sup 14/C)chloroacetylcholine as an advantageous affinity label of the acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, D.M.; Sin-Ren, A.C.; Waser, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The alkylating agent (/sup 14/C)chloroacetylcholine perchlorate ((/sup 14/C) ClACh) was synthesized and used for affinity labelling of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata. Solubilized and affinity-purified receptor proteins were reduced and alkylated according to the bromoacetylcholine-method. Covalent binding of (/sup 14/C) ClACh to the cholinergic receptor proved to be specific and saturable, and occurred exclusively to the alpha-subunit. Halogen substitution of acetylcholine by chlorine and insertion of a /sup 14/C-isotope instead of the widely used /sup 3/H resulted in favorable properties of the affinity label.

  3. mAChRs activation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition on lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression of airway diseases and cancer. Here, we explored the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and the pathway involved in the process of EMT, as well as the effects of mAChRs antagonist. Methods Human lung epithelial cells were stimulated with carbachol, an analogue of ACh, and epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins were evaluated using western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Results Decreased E-cadherin expression and increased vimentin and α-SMA expression induced by TGF-β1 in alveolar epithelial cell (A549) were significantly abrogated by the non-selective mAChR antagonist atropine and enhanced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. An EMT event also occurred in response to physostigmine alone. Furthermore, ChAT express and ACh release by A549 cells were enhanced by TGF-β1. Interestingly, ACh analogue carbachol also induced EMT in A549 cells as well as in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, the induction of carbachol was abrogated by selective antagonist of M1 (pirenzepine) and M3 (4-DAMP) mAChRs, but not by M2 (methoctramine) antagonist. Moreover, carbachol induced TGF-β1 production from A549 cells concomitantly with the EMT process. Carbachol-induced EMT occurred through phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK, which was inhibited by pirenzepine and 4-DAMP. Conclusions Our findings for the first time indicated that mAChR activation, perhaps via M1 and M3 mAChR, induced lung epithelial cells to undergo EMT and provided insights into novel therapeutic strategies for airway diseases in which lung remodeling occurs. PMID:24678619

  4. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets.

  5. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets. PMID:27129924

  6. Label-Free Acetylcholine Image Sensor Based on Charge Transfer Technology for Biological Phenomenon Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaga, Shoko; Tamai, Yui; Okumura, Koichi; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2012-02-01

    A 32 ×32 charge-transfer enzyme-type acetylcholine (ACh) image sensor array was produced for label-free tracking of images of ACh distribution and its performance in repeatable measurements without enzyme deactivation was examined. The proposed sensor was based on a charge-transfer-type pH image sensor, which was modified using an enzyme membrane (acetylcholine esterase, AChE) for each pixel. The ACh image sensor detected hydrogen ions generated by the ACh-AChE reaction. A polyion complex membrane composed of poly(L-lysine) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) was used to immobilize the enzyme on the sensor. The improved uniformity and adhesion of the polyion complex membrane were evaluated in this study. As a result, temporal and spatial fluctuations of the ACh image sensor were successfully minimized using this approach. The sensitivity of the sensor was 4.2 mV/mM, and its detection limit was 20 µM. In five repeated measurements, the repeatability was 8.8%.

  7. Molecular recognition of thiaclopride by Aplysia californica AChBP: new insights from a computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Alamiddine, Zakaria; Selvam, Balaji; Cerón-Carrasco, José P; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Thany, Steeve H; Laurent, Adèle D; Graton, Jérôme; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-12-01

    The binding of thiaclopride (THI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, with Aplysia californica acetylcholine binding protein (Ac-AChBP), the surrogate of the extracellular domain of insects nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, has been studied with a QM/QM' hybrid methodology using the ONIOM approach (M06-2X/6-311G(d):PM6). The contributions of Ac-AChBP key residues for THI binding are accurately quantified from a structural and energetic point of view. The importance of water mediated hydrogen-bond (H-bond) interactions involving two water molecules and Tyr55 and Ser189 residues in the vicinity of the THI nitrile group, is specially highlighted. A larger stabilization energy is obtained with the THI-Ac-AChBP complex compared to imidacloprid (IMI), the forerunner of neonicotinoid insecticides. Pairwise interaction energy calculations rationalize this result with, in particular, a significantly more important contribution of the pivotal aromatic residues Trp147 and Tyr188 with THI through CH···π/CH···O and π-π stacking interactions, respectively. These trends are confirmed through a complementary non-covalent interaction (NCI) analysis of selected THI-Ac-AChBP amino acid pairs. PMID:26589615

  8. Histamine H3 receptors regulate acetylcholine release from the guinea pig ileum myenteric plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, E.; Coruzzi, G.; Bertaccini, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The effect of selective histamine H3-receptor agonists and antagonists on the acetylcholine release from peripheral nerves was evaluated in the guinea pig longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations, preloaded with ({sup 3}H)choline. In the presence of H1 and H2 blockade, histamine and (R)-{alpha}-methylhistamine inhibited the electrically-evoked acetylcholine release, being (R)-{alpha}-methylhistamine more active than histamine, but behaving as a partial agonist. The effect of histamine was completely reversed by selective H3-blocking drugs, thioperamide and impromidine, while only submaximal doses of (R)-{alpha}-methylhistamine were antagonized. Furthermore, thioperamide and impromidine enhanced the electrically-evoked acetylcholine release. On the contrary, the new H3-blocker, HST-7, was found substantially ineffective, both as histamine antagonist and as acetylcholine overflow enhancer. These data suggest that histamine exerts an inhibitory control on the acetylcholine release from intestinal cholinergic nerves through the activation of H3 receptors.

  9. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation.

  10. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  11. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  12. Acetylcholine is an autocrine or paracrine hormone synthesized and secreted by airway bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Proskocil, Becky J; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Jia, Yibing; Savchenko, Valentina; Blakely, Randy D; Lindstrom, Jon; Spindel, Eliot R

    2004-05-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) as a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system is well established. However, the role of ACh may be broader because ACh may also function as an autocrine or paracrine signaling molecule in a variety of nonneuronal tissues. To begin to establish ACh of nonneuronal origin as a paracrine hormone in lung, we have examined neonatal and adult monkey bronchial epithelium for the components involved in nicotinic cholinergic signaling. Using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated in lung bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) expression of choline acetyltransferase, the vesicular ACh transporter, the choline high-affinity transporter, alpha7, alpha4, and beta2 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subunits, and the nAChR accessory protein lynx1. Confocal microscopy demonstrates that these factors are expressed in epithelial cells and are clearly distinct from neighboring nerve fibers. Confirmation of RNA identity has been confirmed by partial sequence analysis of PCR products and by cDNA cloning. Primary culture of BECs confirms the synthesis and secretion of ACh and the activity of cholinesterases. Thus, ACh meets all the criteria for an autocrine/paracrine hormone in lung bronchial epithelium. The nonneuronal cholinergic signaling pathway in lung provides a potentially important target for cholinergic drugs. This pathway may also explain some of the effects of nicotine on fetal development and also provides additional mechanisms by which smoking affects lung cancer growth and development. PMID:14764638

  13. Acetylcholine receptors enable the transport of rapsyn from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee-Young; Ikeda, Hiromi; Ikenaga, Takanori; Ono, Fumihito

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at nerve terminals is critical for signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction, and rapsyn is essential for this process. Previous studies suggest that AChRs might direct rapsyn self-clusters to the synapse. In vivo experiments with fluorescently tagged AChR or rapsyn in zebrafish larvae revealed that rapsyn self-clusters separate from AChRs did not exist before synapse formation. Examination of rapsyn in the AChR-less mutant sofa potato revealed that rapsyn in the absence of AChR was localized in the Golgi complex. Expression of muscle-type AChR in sofa potato restored synaptic clustering of rapsyn, while neuronal type AChR had no effect. To determine if this requirement of protein interaction is reciprocal, we examined the mutant twitch once, which has a missense mutation in rapsyn. While the AChRs distributed non-synaptically on the plasma membrane in twitch once, mutant rapsyn was retained in the Golgi complex. We conclude that AChRs enable the transport of rapsyn from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane through a molecule-specific interaction. PMID:22623681

  14. Recycling of Acetylcholine Receptors at Ectopic Postsynaptic Clusters Induced by Exogenous Agrin in Living Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Hans Rudolf; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the neuromuscular junction, motor axons induce the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and increase their metabolic stability in the muscle membrane. Here, we asked whether the synaptic organizer agrin might regulate the metabolic stability and density of AChRs by promoting the recycling of internalized AChRs, which would otherwise be destined for degradation, into synaptic sites. We show that at nerve-free AChR clusters induced by agrin in extrasynaptic membrane, internalized AChRs are driven back into the ectopic synaptic clusters where they intermingle with pre-existing and new receptors. The extent of AChR recycling depended on the strength of the agrin stimulus, but not on the development of junctional folds, another hallmark of mature postsynaptic membranes. In chronically denervated muscles, in which both AChR stability and recycling are significantly decreased by muscle inactivity, agrin maintained the amount of recycled AChRs at agrin-induced clusters at a level similar to that at denervated original endplates. In contrast, AChRs did not recycle at agrin-induced clusters in C2C12 or primary myotubes. Thus, in muscles in vivo, but not in cultured myotubes, neural agrin promotes the recycling of AChRs and thereby increases their metabolic stability. PMID:25093969

  15. Cocaine inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influences dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Zhang, Lifen; Zhou, Fuwen; Gong, Suzhen; Gu, Howard; De Biasi, Mariella; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Dani, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors. PMID:25237305

  16. Cocaine inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influences dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Zhang, Lifen; Zhou, Fuwen; Gong, Suzhen; Gu, Howard; De Biasi, Mariella; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Dani, John A

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors. PMID:25237305

  17. Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researches suggest that two agonists can bind to the same binding site of an important transmembrane protein and elicit a biological response through strikingly different binding interactions. Evidence is provided which suggests two possible types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist binding like acetlycholine (cholinergic) or like nicotine…

  18. Basal responses of the L-type Ca2+ and hyperpolarization-activated currents to autonomic agonists in the rabbit sino-atrial node.

    PubMed Central

    Zaza, A; Robinson, R B; DiFrancesco, D

    1996-01-01

    1. The dose dependence of the cholinergic agonist acetylcholine (ACh) and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (Iso) were determined for the hyperpolarization-activated current (If) and the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) in single cells isolated from the rabbit sino-atrial (SA) node. 2. ACh inhibited If by a negative shift of its activation curve with a maximal effect of -9.9 mV; half-maximal effect was produced by 0.019 microM ACh. High ACh concentrations were required to inhibit ICa,L only partially (31% inhibition at 300 microM). 3. In contrast, If and ICa,L responded to Iso over a similar dose range, with concentrations for half-maximal enhancement of 0.0136 and 0.0070 microM, respectively. 4. The effects on spontaneous activity of ACh (range 0.001-0.03 microM) and Iso (range 0.001-1 microM) were investigated. ACh decreased the slope of diastolic depolarization at concentrations similar to those inhibiting If (> 50% at 0.03 microM). Iso enhanced diastolic depolarization at concentrations similar to those affecting both If and ICa,L (half-maximal effect at 0.027 microM). 5. In a ramp-clamp protocol simulating diastolic depolarization, the threshold for activation of inward nifedipine-sensitive current was -41.22 +/- 0.68 mV. Although enhancing ICa,L, Iso did not affect this threshold. 6. Half-maximal ACh concentrations for inhibition of automaticity and If are similar and are lower than the threshold concentrations for modulation of ICa,L; this argues against a role of ICa,L in direct muscarinic modulation of pacemaking. In contrast, modulation of If, ICa,L and automaticity occur at similar Iso concentrations. The difference between maximum diastolic potential (-61.95 +/- 0.93 mV) and the threshold for Iso-stimulated ICa,L (-39.54 +/- 1.03 mV) suggests that this current plays a role only at later stages of diastolic depolarization. PMID:8866859

  19. Activation of nicotinic ACh receptors with α4 subunits induces adenosine release at the rat carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Sílvia V; Monteiro, Emília C

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ACh on the release of adenosine was studied in rat whole carotid bodies, and the nicotinic ACh receptors involved in the stimulation of this release were characterized. ACh and nicotinic ACh receptor agonists, cytisine, DMPP and nicotine, caused a concentration-dependent increase in adenosine production during normoxia, with nicotine being more potent and efficient in stimulating adenosine release from rat CB than cytisine and DMPP. D-Tubocurarine, mecamylamine, DHβE and α-bungarotoxin, nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists, caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the release of adenosine evoked by hypoxia. The rank order of potency for nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists that inhibit adenosine release was DHβE>mecamylamine>D-tubocurarine>α-bungarotoxin. The effect of the endogenous agonist, ACh, which was mimicked by nicotine, was antagonized by DHβE, a selective nicotinic receptor antagonist. The ecto-5′-nucleotidase inhibitor AOPCP produces a 72% inhibition in the release of adenosine from CB evoked by nicotine. Taken together, these data indicate that ACh induced the production of adenosine, mainly from extracellular ATP catabolism at the CB through a mechanism that involves the activation of nicotinic receptors with α4 and β2 receptor subunits. PMID:16444287

  20. [Mechanisms of contractile action of acetylcholine on hepatic veins].

    PubMed

    Ianchuk, P I; Prykhod'ko, T P; Pasichnichenko, O M; Tieriekhov, A A; Tsybenko, V O

    2011-01-01

    In acute experiments on anesthetized rats, acetylcholine (Ach) constricts hepatic venous vessels, causing blood mobilization from the liver, and dilates the sphincters of hepatic veins at the exit from this organ, contributing to the intensification of the outflow of blood deposited in the liver. Vasoconstrictor reactions of capacitive vessels of the liver to Ach are realized through M-cholinoreceptors on endotheliocytes with further involvement of messenger, possibly noradrenaline, which activates alpha-adrenoreceptors on smooth muscle cells (SMC) of capasitive vessels. Dilation of Hv sphincters is carried out due to Ach-induced release of messenger in the vessel wall, probably adrenaline, which in turn activates beta-adrenoreceptors on SMC of the Hv. It is possible, that in such reaction partially involved NO.

  1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands; a patent review (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Gündisch, Daniela; Eibl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric ligand-gated cation channels, are potential targets for the development of therapeutics for a variety of disease states. Areas covered This article is reviewing recent advances in the development of small molecule ligands for diverse nAChR subtypes and is a continuation of an earlier review in this journal. Expert opinion The development of nAChR ligands with preference for α4β2 or α7 subtypes for the treatment of CNS disorders are in the most advanced developmental stage. In addition, there is a fast growing interest to generate so-called PAMs, positive allosteric modulators, to influence the channels’ functionalities. PMID:22098319

  2. Phasic acetylcholine release and the volume transmission hypothesis: time to move on

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Martin; Parikh, Vinay; Howe, W. Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Traditional descriptions of the cortical cholinergic input system focused on the diffuse organization of cholinergic projections and the hypothesis that slowly changing levels of extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) mediate different arousal states. The ability of ACh to reach the extrasynaptic space (volume neurotransmission), as opposed to remaining confined to the synaptic cleft (wired neurotransmission), has been considered an integral component of this conceptualization. Recent studies demonstrated that phasic release of ACh, at the scale of seconds, mediates precisely defined cognitive operations. This characteristic of cholinergic neurotransmission is proposed to be of primary importance for understanding cholinergic function and developing treatments for cognitive disorders that result from abnormal cholinergic neurotransmission. PMID:19377503

  3. Highly Selective and Sensitive Detection of Acetylcholine Using Receptor-Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shihong; Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter in a human central nervous system and is related to various neural functions such as memory, learning and muscle contractions. Dysfunctional ACh regulations in a brain can induce several neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and myasthenia gravis. In researching such diseases, it is important to measure the concentration of ACh in the extracellular fluid of the brain. Herein, we developed a highly sensitive and selective ACh sensor based on single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (swCNT-FETs). In our work, M1 mAChR protein, an ACh receptor, was expressed in E.coli and coated on swCNT-FETs with lipid membranes. Here, the binding of ACh onto the receptors could be detected by monitoring the change of electrical currents in the underlying swCNT-FETs, allowing the real-time detection of ACh at a 100 pM concentration. Furthermore, our sensor could selectively detect ACh from other neurotransmitters. This is the first report of the real-time sensing of ACh utilizing specific binding between the ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs in various biomedical applications such as drug screening and disease diagnosis.

  4. Muscarinic M(3) facilitation of acetylcholine release from rat myenteric neurons depends on adenosine outflow leading to activation of excitatory A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Vieira, C; Duarte-Araújo, M; Adães, S; Magalhães-Cardoso, T; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2009-10-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the myenteric plexus, and it regulates its own release acting via muscarinic autoreceptors. Adenosine released from stimulated myenteric neurons modulates ACh release preferentially via facilitatory A(2A) receptors. In this study, we investigated how muscarinic and adenosine receptors interplay to regulate ACh from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Blockade of the muscarinic M(2) receptor with 11-[[2-1[(diethylamino) methyl-1-piperidinyl]- acetyl

  5. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  6. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-01

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  7. α-Blockers, 5-α-Reductase Inhibitors, Acetylcholine, β3 Agonists, and Phosphodiesterase-5s in Medical Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: How Much Do the Different Formulations Actually Matter in the Classes?

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Thomas, Dominique; Kaplan, Steven

    2016-08-01

    Many monotherapies are currently available to clinically treat and alleviate symptoms of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: α-blockers, 5ARIs, PDE5Is, β-3-andrenoceptor agonists, and anticholinergic agents. Current studies have evaluated the effective of these treatments in comparison to other groups or in combination therapies. The current review evaluates the effectiveness of class formulations. Based on the findings, α-blockers, specifically doxazosin and terazosin, were most effective in reducing IPSS scores and peak urinary flow rate, while being most cost-effective. However, further clinical investigations are required to evaluate the clinical implications of different formulations. PMID:27476127

  8. Autocrine activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors contributes to Ca2+ spikes in mouse myotubes during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Elena; Bernareggi, Annalisa; Grandolfo, Micaela; Mozzetta, Chiara; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Ruzzier, Fabio; Lorenzon, Paola

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel activity controls myoblast fusion into myotubes during myogenesis. In this study we explored the possible role of nAChR channels after cell fusion in a murine cell model. Using videoimaging techniques we showed that embryonic muscle nAChR channel openings contribute to the spontaneous transients of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and to twitches characteristic of developing myotubes before innervation. Moreover, we observed a choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the myotubes and we detected an acetylcholine-like compound in the extracellular solution. Therefore, we suggest that the autocrine activation of nAChR channels gives rise to [Ca2+]i spikes and contractions. Spontaneous openings of the nAChR channels may be an alternative, although less efficient, mechanism. We report also that blocking the nAChRs causes a significant reduction in cell survival, detectable as a decreased number of myotubes in culture. This led us to hypothesize a possible functional role for the autocrine activation of the nAChRs. By triggering mechanical activity, such activation could represent a strategy to ensure the trophism of myotubes in the absence of nerves. PMID:16037088

  9. A motif present in the main cytoplasmic loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and catalases.

    PubMed

    Morgado-Valle, C; García-Colunga, J; Miledi, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    2001-05-01

    A motif containing five conserved amino acids (RXPXTH(X)14P) was detected in 111 proteins, including 82 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and 20 catalases. To explore possible functional roles of this motif in nAChRs two approaches were used: first, the motif sequences in nAChR subunits and catalases were analysed and compared; and, second, deletions in the rat alpha2 and beta4 nAChR subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes were analysed. Compared to the three-dimensional structure of bovine hepatic catalase, structural coincidences were found in the motif of catalases and nAChRs. On the other hand, partial deletions of the motif in the alpha2 or beta4 subunits and injection of the mutants into oocytes was followed by a very weak expression of functional nAChRs; oocytes injected with alpha2 and beta4 subunits in which the entire motif had been deleted failed to elicit any acetylcholine currents. The results suggest that the motif may play a role in the activation of nAChRs. PMID:11370971

  10. Allosteric modifiers of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: new methods, new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Moaddel, Ruin; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Wainer, Irving W

    2007-09-01

    Allosteric, non-competitive inhibitors (NCIs) of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to produce a wide variety of clinically relevant responses. Many of the observed effects are desired as the nAChR is the therapeutic target, while others are undesired consequences due to off-target binding at the nAChR. Thus, the determination of whether or not a lead drug candidate is an NCI should play an important role in drug discovery programs. However, the current experimental techniques used to identify NCIs are challenging, expensive, and time consuming. This review focuses on an alternative approach to the investigation of interactions between test compounds and nAChRs based upon liquid chromatographic stationary phases containing cellular fragments from cell lines expressing nAChRs. The development and validation of these phases as well as their use in drug discovery and pharmacophore modeling are discussed. PMID:17238157

  11. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Huang, Y Anthony; Berggren, Per-Olof; Roper, Stephen D; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-05-03

    Neurons, sensory cells and endocrine cells secrete neurotransmitters and hormones to communicate with other cells and to coordinate organ and system function. Validation that a substance is used as an extracellular signaling molecule by a given cell requires a direct demonstration of its secretion. In this protocol we describe the use of biosensor cells to detect neurotransmitter release from endocrine cells in real-time. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor M3 were used as ACh biosensors to record ACh release from human pancreatic islets. We show how ACh biosensors loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2 and pressed against isolated human pancreatic islets allow the detection of ACh release. The biosensor approach is simple; the Ca(2+) signal generated in the biosensor cell reflects the presence (release) of a neurotransmitter. The technique is versatile because biosensor cells expressing a variety of receptors can be used in many applications. The protocol takes ∼3 h.

  12. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Huang, Y Anthony; Berggren, Per-Olof; Roper, Stephen D; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons, sensory cells and endocrine cells secrete neurotransmitters and hormones to communicate with other cells and to coordinate organ and system function. Validation that a substance is used as an extracellular signaling molecule by a given cell requires a direct demonstration of its secretion. In this protocol we describe the use of biosensor cells to detect neurotransmitter release from endocrine cells in real-time. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor M3 were used as ACh biosensors to record ACh release from human pancreatic islets. We show how ACh biosensors loaded with the Ca2+ indicator Fura-2 and pressed against isolated human pancreatic islets allow the detection of ACh release. The biosensor approach is simple; the Ca2+ signal generated in the biosensor cell reflects the presence (release) of a neurotransmitter. The technique is versatile because biosensor cells expressing a variety of receptors can be used in many applications. The protocol takes ~3 h. PMID:22555241

  13. Rapid synthesis of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Pestronk, A

    1988-10-11

    The rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) degradation in mature, innervated mammalian neuromuscular junctions has recently been shown to be biphasic; up to 20% are rapidly turned over (RTOs; half life less than 1 day) whereas the remainder are lost more slowly ('stable' AChRs; half life 10-12 days). In order to maintain normal junctional receptor density, synthesis and insertion of AChRs should presumably be sufficiently rapid to replace both the RTOs and the stable receptors. We have tested this prediction by blocking pre-existing AChRs in the mouse sternomastoid muscle with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BuTx), and monitoring the subsequent appearance of 'new' junctional AChRs at intervals of 3 h to 20 days by labeling them with 125I-alpha-BuTx. The results show that new receptors were initially inserted rapidly (16% at 24 h and 28% at 48 h). The rate of increase of 'new' 125I-alpha-BuTx binding sites gradually slowed down during the remainder of the time period studied. Control observations excluded possible artifacts of the experimental procedure including incomplete blockade of AChRs, dissociation of toxin-receptor complexes, or experimentally induced alteration of receptor synthesis. The present demonstration of rapid synthesis and incorporation of AChRs at innervated neuromuscular junctions provides support for the concept of a subpopulation of rapidly turned over AChRs. The RTOs may serve as precursors for the larger population of stable receptors and have an important role in the metabolism of the neuromuscular synapse.

  14. Anterior Thalamic Lesions Alter Both Hippocampal-Dependent Behavior and Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Lisa M.; Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are important for learning and memory as damage to this region produces a persistent amnestic syndrome. Dense connections between the ATN and the hippocampus exist, and importantly, damage to the ATN can impair hippocampal functioning. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmitter in the hippocampus, and in vivo…

  15. Concomitant alpha7 and beta2 nicotinic AChR subunit deficiency leads to impaired energy homeostasis and increased physical activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Somm, Emmanuel; Guérardel, Audrey; Maouche, Kamel; Toulotte, Audrey; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Maskos, Uwe; Hüppi, Petra S; Schwitzgebel, Valérie M

    2014-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated cation channels well characterized in neuronal signal transmission. Moreover, recent studies have revealed nAChR expression in nonneuronal cell types throughout the body, including tissues involved in metabolism. In the present study, we screen gene expression of nAChR subunits in pancreatic islets and adipose tissues. Mice pancreatic islets present predominant expression of α7 and β2 nAChR subunits but at a lower level than in central structures. Characterization of glucose and energy homeostasis in α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice revealed no major defect in insulin secretion and sensitivity but decreased glycemia apparently unrelated to gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis. α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice presented an increase in lean and bone body mass and a decrease in fat storage with normal body weight. These observations were associated with elevated spontaneous physical activity in α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice, mainly due to elevation in fine vertical (rearing) activity while their horizontal (ambulatory) activity remained unchanged. In contrast to α7nAChR(-/-) mice presenting glucose intolerance and insulin resistance associated to excessive inflammation of adipose tissue, the present metabolic phenotyping of α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice revealed a metabolic improvement possibly linked to the increase in spontaneous physical activity related to central β2nAChR deficiency.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding, a new radioligand for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, to rat brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Fujita, Yuko; Zhang, Jichun; Chen, Hongxian; Matsuo, Masaaki; Wang, Rong Fu; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-11-11

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. However, there are currently no suitable small molecule radioligands for imaging α7 nAChRs in the brain. In this study, we synthesized the novel radioligand [(125)I]4-iodophenyl 1,4-diazaicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-4-carboxylate ([(125)I]CHIBA-1006), a iodine-derivative of the selective α7 nAChR agonist SSR180711, and studied the characterization of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding to rat brain membranes. The assays of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding to rat brain membranes were performed at 4°C. The presence of a single saturable high-affinity binding component for [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 in the rat brain was shown. Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of 88.2±21.4nM and a maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) of 65.4±6.8fmol/mg protein (mean±SEM, n=4). The specific binding of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 was inhibited by a number of α7 nAChR-selective ligands (e.g., unlabeled CHIBA-1006, SSR180711, CHIBA-1001, MG624 and A844606), suggesting a similarity among α7 nAChR pharmacological profiles. In contrast, α-bungarotoxin, MLA, and nicotine showed very weak affinity for [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding. The regional distribution of [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding to crude membranes from dissected regions of the rat brain was different from that of [(125)I]α-bungarotoxin binding, suggesting that [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 binding sites may not be identical to [(125)I]α-bungarotoxin binding sites in the rat brain. The present findings suggest that [(125)I]CHIBA-1006 would be a useful new small molecule radioligand for α7 nAChRs in the brain. PMID:20816767

  17. Effects of dichlorobenzene on acetylcholine receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ren-Ming; Chiung, Yin-Mei; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jenn-Hwa; Liu, Pei-Shan

    2008-11-20

    para-Dichlorobenzene (DCB), a deodorant and an industrial chemical, is a highly volatile compound and is known to be an indoor air contaminant. Because of its widespread use and volatility, the toxicity of DCB presents a concern to industrial workers and public. Some toxic aspects of DCB have already been focused but its effects on neuronal signal transduction have been hitherto unknown. The effects of DCB on the cytosolic calcium homeostasis are investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in this study. DCB, above 200 microM, was found to induce a rise in cytosolic calcium concentration that could not be counteracted by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists but was partially inhibited by thapsigargin. To understand the actions of DCB on the acetylcholine receptors, we investigated its effects on the changes of cytosolic calcium concentration following nicotinic AChR stimulation with epibatidine and muscarinic AChR stimulation with methacholine in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. DCB inhibited the cytosolic calcium concentration rise induced by epibatidine and methacholine with respective IC(50)s of 34 and 294 microM. The inhibitions of DCB were not the same as thapsigargin's inhibition. In the electrophysiological observations, DCB blocked the influx currents induced by epibatidine. Our findings suggest that DCB interferes with the functional activities of AChR, including its coupling influx currents and cytosolic calcium elevations.

  18. Regulation of acetylcholine release by intracellular acidification of developing motoneurons in Xenopus cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Hwa; Wu, Mei-Lin; Fu, Wen-Mei

    1998-01-01

    The effects of intracellular pH changes on the acetylcholine (ACh) release and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration at developing neuromuscular synapses were studied in Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures. Spontaneous and evoked ACh release of motoneurons was monitored by using whole-cell voltage-clamped myocytes. Intracellular alkalinization with 15 mm NH4Cl slightly reduced the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs). However, cytosolic acidification following withdrawal of extracellular NH4Cl caused a marked and transient increase in spontaneous ACh release. Another method of cytosolic acidification was used in which NaCl in Ringer solution was replaced with weak organic acids. The increase in spontaneous ACh release paralleled the level of intracellular acidification resulting from addition of these organic acids. Acetate and propionate but not isethionate, methylsulphate and glucuronate, caused an increase in intracellular pH and a marked increase in spontaneous ACh release. Impulse-evoked ACh release was slightly augmented by intracellular alkalinization and inhibited by cytosolic acidification. Cytosolic acidification was accompanied by an elevation in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), resulting from both external Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. In contrast, the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by high K+ was inhibited by cytosolic acidification. We conclude that cytosolic acidification regulates spontaneous and evoked ACh release differentially in Xenopus motoneurons, increasing spontaneous ACh release but inhibiting evoked ACh release. PMID:9490814

  19. Mathematical model of dependence of heart rate on tissue concentration of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Dexter, F; Saidel, G M; Levy, M N; Rudy, Y

    1989-02-01

    The change in sinus period elicited by vagal stimulation depends on the rate of acetylcholine (ACh) release from the nerve endings, the rate of ACh degradation in the nodal tissue, and the responsiveness of the sinus node to ACh. Vagal stimulation in anesthetized dogs prolonged sinus period. After cessation of vagal stimulation, the sinus period returned to the prestimulation period. We developed a mathematical model to analyze the dynamics of ACh degradation in the neuroeffector junction and the dependence of sinus period on the concentration of ACh. From the in vitro reaction kinetics of acetylcholinesterase, we derived an analytical expression for the rate of ACh degradation in the intact animal. Our model represents the electrical behavior of the sinus node by the electrical activity of one pacemaker cell with six membrane ionic currents. This model predicts the decline in sinus period of the intact anesthetized dog as acetylcholinesterase degrades ACh in the neuroeffector junction. The half-life of ACh after cessation of vagal stimulation was estimated to be 2.7 s. We conclude that following termination of vagal stimulation, the sinus node of the intact animal responds to ACh as if the sinus node were one oscillator.

  20. α5-nAChR modulates nicotine-induced cell migration and invasion in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiji; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor in the development of human lung cancer. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, not only contributes to carcinogenesis but also promotes tumor metastasis. By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether nicotine promotes the migration and invasion through activation of α5-nAChR in lung cancer. In the present study, A549 cell was exposed to 1μN nicotine for 8, 24 or 48h. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to evaluate the capability of A549 cell migration and cell invasion, respectively. Silencing of α5-nAChR was done by siRNA. Western blotting and PCR were used to detect α5-nAChR expression. Nicotine can induce activation of α5-nAChR in association with increased migration and invasion of human lung cancer A549 cell. Treatment of cells with α5-nAChR specific siRNA blocks nicotine-stimulated activation of α5-nAChR and suppresses A549 cell migration and invasion. Reduction of α5-nAChR resulted in upregulation of E-cadherin, consistent with E-cadherin being inhibitive of cancer cell invasion. These findings suggest that nicotine-induced migration and invasion may occur in a mechanism through activation of α5-nAChR, which can contribute to metastasis or development of human lung cancer.

  1. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Blohberger, Jan; Tiszavari, Michelle; Mayerhofer, Artur; Lara, Hernan E.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats. Saline was used in the control group. Local delivery of HupA for 4 weeks increased ovarian ACh content. Estrus cyclicity was not changed indicating a locally restricted range of HupA action. The number of primordial and primary follicles was unaffected, but small secondary follicles significantly increased in the HupA group. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of corpora lutea suggested increased ovulatory events. In support, as shown upon mating, HupA-treated females had significantly increased implantation sites and more pups. Thus the data are in support of a trophic role of ACh in follicular development and ovulation and point to an important role of ACh in female fertility. PMID:27440195

  2. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Frank R.; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  3. Menthol Binding and Inhibition of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C.; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C.; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing Ba2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner. PMID:23935840

  4. Looking below the surface of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Clare; Treinin, Millet; Papke, Roger L

    2015-08-01

    The amino acid sequences of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) from diverse species can be compared across extracellular, transmembrane, and intracellular domains. The intracellular domains are most divergent among subtypes, yet relatively consistent among species. The diversity indicates that each nAChR subtype has a unique language for communication with its host cell. The conservation across species also suggests that the intracellular domains have defining functional roles for each subtype. Secondary structure prediction indicates two relatively conserved alpha helices within the intracellular domains of all nAChRs. Among all subtypes, the intracellular domain of α7 nAChR is one of the most well conserved, and α7 nAChRs have effects in non-neuronal cells independent of generating ion currents, making it likely that the α7 intracellular domain directly mediates signal transduction. There are potential phosphorylation and protein-binding sites in the α7 intracellular domain, which are conserved and may be the basis for α7-mediated signal transduction.

  5. Expression of human AChR extracellular domain mutants with improved characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Giastas, Petros; Bitzopoulou, Kalliopi; Evangelakou, Panagiota; Sideri, Anastasia; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2014-02-01

    The muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has a central role in neuromuscular transmission, and is the major target in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis (MG). We created mutants of the extracellular domains (ECDs) of the human α1, β1, δ and ε AChR subunits, whereby their Cys-loop was exchanged for that of the acetylcholine binding protein. The mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and had improved solubility resulting in 2- to 43-fold higher expression yields compared to the wild type. An additional mutant was created for the α1 ECD restoring its glycosylation site within the Cys-loop and its α-bungarotoxin binding ability. Furthermore, we constructed dimeric and pentameric concatamers of the mutant ECDs. All concatamers were successfully expressed as soluble secreted proteins, although the pentamers had about 10-fold lower expression than the dimers and were more susceptible to fragmentation. Initial crystallizations with the mutant ECDs were promising, and we reproducibly obtained crystals of the β1 ECD, diffracting at ~12 Å. Further optimization is underway to obtain crystals suitable for high resolution crystallography. The proteins described herein are useful tools in structural studies of the human muscle AChR and can be used in applications requiring high yields such as therapeutic adsorbents for MG autoantibodies. PMID:24246999

  6. Effect of pharmaceuticals exposure on acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and on the expression of AchE gene in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Park, Heum Gi; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. However, they are emerging as a significant contaminant in aquatic environments through wastewater. Due to the persistent and accumulated properties of pharmaceuticals via the food web, their potential harmful effects on aquatic animals are a great concern. In this study, we investigated the effects of six pharmaceuticals: acetaminophen, ATP; atenolol, ATN; carbamazepine, CBZ; oxytetracycline, OTC; sulfamethoxazole, SMX; and trimethoprim, TMP on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) activity and its transcript expression with chlorpyrifos (as a positive control) in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus. ATP, CBZ, and TMP exposure also remarkably inhibited Bk-AChE activity at 100 μg/L (24 h) and 1000 μg/L (12 h and 24 h). ATP, CBZ, and TMP exposure showed a significant decrease in the Bk-AChE mRNA level in a concentration-dependent manner. However, in the case of OTC and SMX, a slight decrease in Bk-AChE mRNA expression was found but only at the highest concentration. The time-course experiments showed that ATP positively induced Bk-AChE mRNA 12 h after exposure at both 100 and 1000 μg/L, while the Bk-AChE mRNA expression was significantly downregulated over 6 to 24 h after exposure to 1000 μg/L of CBZ, OTC, SMX, and TMP. Our findings suggest that Bk-AChE would be a useful biomarker for risk assessment of pharmaceutical compounds as an early signal of their toxicity in aquatic environments. Particularly, ATP, CBZ, and TMP may have a toxic cholinergic effect on rotifer B. koreanus by inhibiting AChE activity. PMID:24028855

  7. Circannual rhythms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the freshwater fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Helman, Renata J; Ferreyroa, Gisele V; dos Santos Afonso, Maria; Salibián, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as a tool to assess responses of organisms exposed to pollutants in toxicity bioassays, as well as in aquatic environmental risk assessment protocols, requires the understanding of the natural fluctuation of the particular biomarker. The aim of this study was to characterize the intrinsic variations of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in tissues of a native freshwater teleost fish to be used as biomarker in toxicity tests, taking into account both seasonal influence and fish size. Specific AChE activity was measured by the method of Ellman et al. (1961) in homogenates of fish anterior section finding a seasonal variability. The highest activity was observed in summer, decreasing significantly below 40% in winter. The annual AChE activity cycle in the anterior section was fitted to a sinusoidal function with a period of 11.2 months. Moreover, an inverse relationship between enzymatic activity and the animal size was established. The results showed that both the fish length and seasonal variability affect AChE activity. AChE activity in fish posterior section showed a similar trend to that in the anterior section, while seasonal variations of the activity in midsection were observed but differences were not statistically significant. In addition, no relationship between AChE and total tissue protein was established in the anterior and posterior sections suggesting that the circannual rhythms observed are AChE-specific responses. Results highlight the importance of considering both the fish size and season variations to reach valid conclusions when AChE activity is employed as neurotoxicity biomarker.

  8. Cholinesterases in development: AChE as a firewall to inhibit cell proliferation and support differentiation.

    PubMed

    Layer, Paul G; Klaczinski, Janine; Salfelder, Anika; Sperling, Laura E; Thangaraj, Gopenath; Tuschl, Corina; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid

    2013-03-25

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a most remarkable protein, not only because it is one of the fastest enzymes in nature, but also since it appears in many molecular forms and is regulated by elaborate genetic networks. AChE is expressed in many tissues during development and in mature organisms, as well as in healthy and diseased states. In search for alternative, "non-classical" functions of cholinesterases (ChEs), AChE could either work within the frame of classic cholinergic systems, but in non-neural tissues ("non-synaptic function"), or act non-enzymatically. Here, we review briefly some of the major ideas and advances of this field, and report on some recent progress from our own experimental work, e.g. that (i) non-neural ChEs have pronounced, predominantly enzymatic effects on early embryonic (limb) development in chick and mouse, that (ii) retinal R28 cells of the rat overexpressing synaptic AChE present a significantly decreased cell proliferation, and that (iii) in developing chick retina ACh-synthesizing and ACh-degrading cells originate from the same postmitotic precursor cells, which later form two locally opposing cell populations. We suggest that such distinct distributions of ChAT(+) vs. AChE(+) cells in the inner half retina provide graded distributions of ACh, which can direct cell differentiation and network formation. Thus, as corroborated by works from many labs, AChE can be considered a highly co-opting protein, which can combine enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions within one molecule. PMID:23047026

  9. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the two toxin-binding sites of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, A.J.; Hall, Z.W.

    1987-10-06

    The authors have isolated and characterized 12 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the binding of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin (..cap alpha..-BuTx) to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of Torpedo californica. Two of the mAbs block ..cap alpha..-BuTx binding completely; the other 10 inhibit only about 50% of the binding. The mAbs that partially inhibit ..cap alpha..-BuTx binding can be divided into two groups by examination of the additive effect of pairs of mAbs on toxin binding, and by analysis of competition between mAbs for binding to the AChR. These two groups of mAbs, which we have termed A and B, appear to recognize different toxin-binding sites on the same receptor. A and B mAbs were used to determine the kinetic and pharmacological properties of the two sites. The site recognized by A mAbs binds ..cap alpha..-BuTx with a forward rate constant of 0.98 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, d-tubocurarine (dTC) with a K/sub D/ of (6.8 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -8/ M, and pancuronium with a K/sub D/ of (1.9 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -9/ M. The site recognized by B mAbs binds ..cap alpha..-BuTx with a forward rate constant of 9.3 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, dTC with a K/sub D/ of (4.6 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -6/ M, and pancurionium with a K/sub D/ of (9.3 +/- 0.8) x 10/sup -6/ M. Binding of A and B mAbs to the AChR was variably inhibited by nicotinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists, and by ..cap alpha..-conotoxin. The observed pattern of inhibition is consistent with the relative affinity of the two sites for antagonists as given above but also indicates that the mAbs recognize a diversity of epitopes within each site.

  10. The dual-acting H3 receptor antagonist and AChE inhibitor UW-MD-71 dose-dependently enhances memory retrieval and reverses dizocilpine-induced memory impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia; Saad, Ali; Nurulain, Syed M; Darras, Fouad H; Decker, Michael; Sadek, Bassem

    2016-01-15

    Both the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) are involved in the regulation of release and metabolism of acetylcholine and several other central neurotransmitters. Therefore, dual-active H3R antagonists and AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) have shown in several studies to hold promise to treat cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The novel dual-acting H3R antagonist and AChEI 7-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline (UW-MD-71) with excellent selectivity profiles over both the three other HRs as well as the AChE's isoenzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) shows high and balanced in vitro affinities at both H3R and AChE with IC50 of 33.9nM and hH3R antagonism with Ki of 76.2nM, respectively. In the present study, the effects of UW-MD-71 (1.25-5mg/kg, i.p.) on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval in a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task in male rats were investigated applying donepezil (DOZ) and pitolisant (PIT) as reference drugs. Furthermore, the effects of UW-MD-71 on memory deficits induced by the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (DIZ) were tested. Our results indicate that administration of UW-MD-71 before the test session dose-dependently increased performance and enhanced procognitive effect on retrieval. However neither pre- nor post-training acute systemic administration of UW-MD-71 facilitated acquisition or consolidation. More importantly, UW-MD-71 (2.5mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorated the DIZ-induced amnesic effects. Furthermore, the procognitive activity of UW-MD-71 in retrieval was completely reversed and partly abrogated in DIZ-induced amnesia when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR). These results demonstrate the procognitive effects of UW-MD-71 in two in vivo memory models, and are to our knowledge the first demonstration in vivo that a potent dual

  11. Increases in cholinergic neurotransmission measured by using choline-sensitive microelectrodes: enhanced detection by hydrolysis of acetylcholine on recording sites?

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Chiara; Parikh, Vinay; Ward, Josh.R.; Chiamulera, Christian; Sarter, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated that second-based transient increases in choline concentrations measured by electrodes coated with choline oxidase (ChOx) and the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide validly indicate the depolarization-dependent release of acetylcholine (ACh) and its hydrolysis by endogenous acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Therefore, choline-sensitive microelectrodes have become valuable tools in neuropharmacological and behavioral research. The present experiments were designed to test the possibility that co-immobilization of ChOx plus AChE on recording sites increases the level of detection for evoked ACh release in the brain. If newly released ACh is not completely hydrolyzed by endogenous AChE and capable of reaching the extracellular space, currents recorded via sites equipped with both enzymes should be greater when compared with sites coated with ChOx only. Pairs of Platinum-recordings sites were coated either with AChE plus ChOx or ChOx alone. Potassium or nicotine-evoked currents were recorded throughout the entire dorsal-ventral extent of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The amplitudes of evoked cholinergic signals did not differ significantly between AChE+ChOx and ChOx-only coated recording sites. Additional experiments controlling for several potential confounds suggested that, in vivo, ACh levels ≥150 fmol were detected by recordings sites featuring dual enzyme coating. Collectively, these results indicate that co-coating of microelectrodes with AChE does not enhance the detection of cholinergic activity in the cortex compared with measurements via recording sites coated only with ChOx. PMID:18346819

  12. Electrocatalytic Microelectrode Detectors for Choline and Acetylcholine following Separation by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Kirchhoff, Jon R.

    2009-01-01

    Two electrocatalytic enzyme modified microelectrode systems were employed as end-column amperometric detectors of choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (ACh) following separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Horseradish peroxidase crosslinked in an Os based redox polymer hydrogel (HRP-Os) was physically adsorbed on Au microelectrodes followed by chemical crosslinking of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO). An alternative approach utilized the deposition of the transition metal catalyst, Prussian Blue (PB), on Pt microelectrodes as the electrocatalyst. Utilizing butyrylcholine (BuCh) as an internal standard, the HRP-Os/AChE-ChO and PB/AChE-ChO electrodes exhibited excellent linear responses from 2–2000 μM and 10–2000 μM, respectively, for both Ch and ACh. Detection limits of 0.1 μM or 38 amol were determined for the HRP-Os/AChE-ChO electrode. The limit of detection for ACh and Ch at the PB/AChE-ChO electrode was 5 μM or 9.5 fmol. The electrodes were operated at potentials of +0.10 and −0.10 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3M NaCl), respectively, and thus minimized the potential response from oxidizable interferences. In addition, both electrocatalytic electrodes showed good operational stability for more than 70 hours. The enhanced detection capability of the HRP-Os/AChE-ChO and PB/AChE-ChO electrodes in combination with efficient CE separation of Ch and ACh provides a new sensitive and selective strategy for monitoring and quantifying these cholinergic biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:20337384

  13. Steric environment around acetylcholine head groups of bolaamphiphilic nanovesicles influences the release rate of encapsulated compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Avital; Guidotti, Matteo; Shaubi, Eleonora; Popov, Mary; Linder, Charles; Heldman, Eliahu; Grinberg, Sarina

    2014-01-01

    Two bolaamphiphilic compounds with identical acetylcholine (ACh) head groups, but with different lengths of an alkyl chain pendant adjacent to the head group, as well as differences between their hydrophobic skeleton, were investigated for their ability to self-assemble into vesicles that release their encapsulated content upon hydrolysis of their head groups by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). One of these bolaamphiphiles, synthesized from vernolic acid, has an alkyl chain pendant of five methylene groups, while the other, synthesized from oleic acid, has an alkyl chain pendant of eight methylene groups. Both bolaamphiphiles formed stable spherical vesicles with a diameter of about 130 nm. The ACh head groups of both bolaamphiphiles were hydrolyzed by AChE, but the hydrolysis rate was significantly faster for the bolaamphiphile with the shorter aliphatic chain pendant. Likewise, upon exposure to AChE, vesicles made from the bolaamphiphile with the shorter alkyl chain pendant released their encapsulated content faster than vesicles made from the bolaamphiphile with the longer alkyl chain pendant. Our results suggest that the steric environment around the ACh head group of bolaamphiphiles is a major factor affecting the hydrolysis rate of the head groups by AChE. Attaching an alkyl chain to the bolaamphiphile near the ACh head group allows self-assembled vesicles to form with a controlled release rate of the encapsulated materials, whereas shorter alkyl chains enable a faster head group hydrolysis, and consequently faster release, than longer alkyl chains. This principle may be implemented in the design of bolaamphiphiles for the formation of vesicles for drug delivery with desired controlled release rates. PMID:24531296

  14. Actin at receptor-rich domains of isolated acetylcholine receptor clusters.

    PubMed

    Bloch, R J

    1986-04-01

    Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters of cultured rat myotubes, isolated by extraction with saponin (Bloch, R. J., 1984, J. Cell Biol. 99:984-993), contain a polypeptide that co-electrophoreses with purified muscle actins. A monoclonal antibody against actin reacts in immunoblots with this polypeptide and with purified actins. In indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody stains isolated AChR clusters only at AChR domains, strips of membrane within clusters that are rich in receptor. It also stains the postsynaptic region of the neuromuscular junction of adult rat skeletal muscle. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence analyses show that labeling by antiactin of isolated analyses show that labeling by antiactin of isolated AChR clusters is specific and saturable and that it varies linearly with the amount of AChR in the cluster. Filaments of purified gizzard myosin also bind preferentially at AChR-rich regions, and this binding is inhibited by MgATP. These experiments suggest that actin is associated with AChR-rich regions of receptor clusters. Depletion of actin by extraction of isolated clusters at low ionic strength selectively releases the actin-like polypeptide from the preparation. Simultaneously, AChRs redistribute within the plane of the membrane of the isolated clusters. Similarly, brief digestion with chymotrypsin reduces immunofluorescence staining and causes AChR redistribution. Treatments that deplete AChR from clusters in intact cells also reduce immunofluorescent staining for actin in isolated muscle membrane fragments. Upon reversal of these treatments, cluster reformation occurs in regions of the membrane that also stain for actin. I conclude that actin is associated with AChR domains and that changes in this association are accompanied by changes in the organization of isolated AChR clusters.

  15. Evidence for the exclusive expression of functional homomeric α7 nAChRs in hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Tischkau, Shelley; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Uteshev, Victor V

    2014-03-20

    Hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary (TM) neurons in rats express high densities of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) whose Ca(2+) permeability, kinetic and pharmacological properties are similar to those of heterologous homomeric α7 nAChRs. However, native α7 nAChR subunits can co-assemble with β or α5 nAChR subunits to form functional heteromeric α7-containing α7β or α7α5 nAChRs with kinetics and pharmacology similar to those of α7 homomers. Therefore, although TM nAChRs have been used as an ex vivo model of functional α7 homomers, the molecular makeup of TM nAChRs has not been determined and the expression of functional α7-containing heteromers in TM neurons has not been excluded. To determine the profile of TM nAChR subunit transcripts, we have conducted single-cell qRT-PCR experiments using acutely dissociated TM neurons in rats. TM neurons were found to express transcripts of only principal α3, α6 and α7 nAChR subunits. Transcripts of other known mammalian neuronal subunits (α2, α4-5, α9-10, β2-4) were not detected. In the absence of β and α5 subunits, the expression of functional α7-containing heteromers in TM neurons is highly unlikely because principal α3, α6 and α7 nAChR subunits alone are not known to form functional heteromeric nAChRs. These results support the exclusive expression of native functional α7 homomers in rat TM neurons and introduce these neurons as a unique reliable source of native functional homomeric α7 nAChRs suitable for ex vivo and in vitro pharmacological assays in developing selective α7 nAChR agents.

  16. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj; Wang, Hong; Klein, Anders B; Thiriet, Nathalie; Pinborg, Lars H; Muldoon, Pretal P; Wienecke, Jacob; Imad Damaj, M; Kohlmeier, Kristi A; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Thomsen, Morten S

    2016-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with nAChRs in human brain extracts, identifying Lypd6 as a novel regulator of nAChR function. Using protein cross-linking and affinity purification from human temporal cortical extracts, we demonstrate that Lypd6 is a synaptically enriched membrane-bound protein that binds to multiple nAChR subtypes in the human brain. Additionally, soluble recombinant Lypd6 protein attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents in rat brain slices and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells, suggesting that binding of Lypd6 is sufficient to inhibit nAChR-mediated intracellular signaling. We further show that perinatal nicotine exposure in rats (4 mg/kg/day through minipumps to dams from embryonic day 7 to post-natal day 21) significantly increases Lypd6 protein levels in the hippocampus in adulthood, which did not occur after exposure to nicotine in adulthood only. Our findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain, and that Lypd6 is dysregulated by nicotine exposure during early development. Regulatory proteins of the Lynx family modulate the function of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). We report for the first time that the Lynx protein Lypd6 binds to nAChRs in human brain extracts, and that recombinant Lypd6 decreases nicotine-induced ERK phosphorylation and attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents. Our findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain. PMID:27344019

  17. Circulating antibodies against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in chagasic patients

    PubMed Central

    GOIN, J C; VENERA, G; BONINO, M BISCOGLIO DE JIMÉNEZ; STERIN-BORDA, L

    1997-01-01

    Human and experimental Chagas' disease causes peripheral nervous system damage involving neuromuscular transmission alterations at the neuromuscular junction. Additionally, autoantibodies directed to peripheral nerves and sarcolemmal proteins of skeletal muscle have been described. In this work, we analyse the ability of serum immunoglobulin factors associated with human chagasic infection to bind the affinity-purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from electric organs of Discopyge tschudii and to identify the receptor subunits involved in the interaction. The frequency of serum anti-nAChR reactivity assayed by dot-blot was higher in seropositive chagasic patients than in uninfected subjects. Purified IgG obtained from chagasic patients immunoprecipitated a significantly higher fraction of the solubilized nAChR than normal IgG. Furthermore, immunoblotting assays indicated that α and β are the main subunits involved in the interaction. Chagasic IgG was able to inhibit the binding of α-bungarotoxin to the receptor in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming the contribution of the α-subunit in the autoantibody-receptor interaction. The presence of anti-nAChR antibodies was detected in 73% of chagasic patients with impairment of neuromuscular transmission in conventional electromyographical studies, indicating a strong association between seropositive reactivity against nAChR and electromyographical abnormalities in chagasic patients. The chronic binding of these autoantibodies to the nAChR could induce a decrease in the population of functional nAChRs at the neuromuscular junction and consequently contribute to the electrophysiological neuromuscular alterations described in the course of chronic Chagas' disease. PMID:9367405

  18. Activity of nAChRs Containing α9 Subunits Modulates Synapse Stabilization via Bidirectional Signaling Programs

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Vidya; Taranda, Julián; Elgoyhen, A. Belén; Vetter, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the synaptogenic program for cholinergic synapses of the neuromuscular junction is well known, little is known of the identity or dynamic expression patterns of proteins involved in non-neuromuscular nicotinic synapse development. We have previously demonstrated abnormal presynaptic terminal morphology following loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α9 subunit expression in adult cochleae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes have remained obscure. To better understand synapse formation and the role of cholinergic activity in the synaptogenesis of the inner ear, we exploit the nAChR α9 subunit null mouse. In this mouse, functional acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission to the hair cells is completely silenced. Results demonstrate a premature, effusive innervation to the synaptic pole of the outer hair cells in α9 null mice coinciding with delayed expression of cell adhesion proteins during the period of effusive contact. Collapse of the ectopic innervation coincides with an age-related hyperexpression pattern in the null mice. In addition, we document changes in expression of presynaptic vesicle recycling/trafficking machinery in the α9 null mice that suggests a bidirectional information flow between the target of the neural innervation (the hair cells) and the presynaptic terminal that is modified by hair cell nAChR activity. Loss of nAChR activity may alter transcriptional activity, as CREB binding protein expression is decreased coincident with the increased expression of N-Cadherin in the adult α9 null mice. Finally, by using mice expressing the nondesensitizing α9 L9′T point mutant nAChR subunit, we show that increased nAChR activity drives synaptic hyperinnervation. PMID:19790106

  19. Luminescent silica nanoparticles for sensing acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Mukhametshina, Alsu R; Fedorenko, Svetlana V; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Masson, Patrick; Nizameev, Irek R; Mustafina, Asiya R; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2016-03-15

    This work highlights the H-function of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of acetic acid as a route to sense acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). The H-function results from H(+)-induced quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to protonation of Tb(III) complexes located close to silica/water interface. The H-function can be turned on/switched off by the concentration of complexes within core or nanoparticle shell zones, by the silica surface decoration and adsorption of both organic and inorganic cations on silica surface. Results indicate the optimal synthetic procedure for making nanoparticles capable of sensing acetic acid produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The H-function of nanoparticles was determined at various concentrations of ACh and AChE. The measurements show experimental conditions for fitting the H-function to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results confirm that reliable fluorescent monitoring AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ACh is possible through the H-function properties of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles.

  20. Role of acetylcholine receptors in proliferation and differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Resende, R.R.; Alves, A.S.; Britto, L.R.G; Ulrich, H.

    2008-04-15

    Coordinated proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells is the base for production of appropriate numbers of neurons and glia during neuronal development in order to establish normal brain functions. We have used murine embryonal carcinoma P19 cells as an in vitro model for early differentiation to study participation of nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mAChR) receptors in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and their differentiation to neurons. We have previously shown that functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) already expressed in embryonic cells mediate elevations in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) via calcium influx through nAChR channels whereas intracellular stores contribute to nAChR- and mAChR-mediated calcium fluxes in differentiated cells [Resende et al., Cell Calcium 43 (2008) 107-121]. In the present study, we have demonstrated that nicotine provoked inhibition of proliferation in embryonic cells as determined by BrdU labeling. However, in neural progenitor cells nicotine stimulated proliferation which was reversed in the presence of inhibitors of calcium mobilization from intracellular stores, indicating that liberation of intracellular calcium contributed to this proliferation induction. Muscarine induced proliferation stimulation in progenitor cells by activation of G{alpha}{sub q/11}-coupled M{sub 1}, M{sub 3} and M{sub 5} receptors and intracellular calcium stores, whereas G{alpha}{sub i/o}-protein coupled M{sub 2} receptor activity mediated neuronal differentiation.

  1. Luminescent silica nanoparticles for sensing acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Mukhametshina, Alsu R; Fedorenko, Svetlana V; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Masson, Patrick; Nizameev, Irek R; Mustafina, Asiya R; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2016-03-15

    This work highlights the H-function of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of acetic acid as a route to sense acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). The H-function results from H(+)-induced quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to protonation of Tb(III) complexes located close to silica/water interface. The H-function can be turned on/switched off by the concentration of complexes within core or nanoparticle shell zones, by the silica surface decoration and adsorption of both organic and inorganic cations on silica surface. Results indicate the optimal synthetic procedure for making nanoparticles capable of sensing acetic acid produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The H-function of nanoparticles was determined at various concentrations of ACh and AChE. The measurements show experimental conditions for fitting the H-function to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results confirm that reliable fluorescent monitoring AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ACh is possible through the H-function properties of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles. PMID:26516688

  2. Mode of action of triflumezopyrim: A novel mesoionic insecticide which inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Daniel; Benner, Eric A; Schroeder, Mark E; Holyoke, Caleb W; Zhang, Wenming; Pahutski, Thomas F; Leighty, Robert M; Vincent, Daniel R; Hamm, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    Triflumezopyrim, a newly commercialized molecule from DuPont Crop Protection, belongs to the novel class of mesoionic insecticides. This study characterizes the biochemical and physiological action of this novel insecticide. Using membranes from the aphid, Myzus persicae, triflumezopyrim was found to displace (3)H-imidacloprid with a Ki value of 43 nM with competitive binding results indicating that triflumezopyrim binds to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In voltage clamp studies using dissociated Periplaneta americana neurons, triflumezopyrim inhibits nAChR currents with an IC50 of 0.6 nM. Activation of nAChR currents was minimal and required concentrations ≥100 μM. Xenopus oocytes expressing chimeric nAChRs (Drosophila α2/chick β2) showed similar inhibitory effects from triflumezopyrim. In P. americana neurons, co-application experiments with acetylcholine reveal the inhibitory action of triflumezopyrim to be rapid and prolonged in nature. Such physiological action is distinct from other insecticides in IRAC Group 4 in which the toxicological mode of action is attributed to nAChR agonism. Mesoionic insecticides act via inhibition of the orthosteric binding site of the nAChR despite previous beliefs that such action would translate to poor insect control. Triflumezopyrim is the first commercialized insecticide from this class and provides outstanding control of hoppers, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, which is already displaying strong resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid.

  3. END-PLATE ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR: STRUCTURE, MECHANISM, PHARMACOLOGY, AND DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The synapse is a localized neurohumoral contact between a neuron and an effector cell and may be considered the quantum of fast intercellular communication. Analogously, the postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor may be considered the quantum of fast chemical to electrical transduction. Our understanding of postsynaptic receptors began to develop about a hundred years ago with the demonstration that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve released acetylcholine and slowed the heart beat. During the past 50 years, advances in understanding postsynaptic receptors increased at a rapid pace, owing largely to studies of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the motor endplate. The endplate AChR belongs to a large superfamily of neurotransmitter receptors, called Cys-loop receptors, and has served as an exemplar receptor for probing fundamental structures and mechanisms that underlie fast synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent studies provide an increasingly detailed picture of the structure of the AChR and the symphony of molecular motions that underpin its remarkably fast and efficient chemoelectrical transduction. PMID:22811427

  4. Natural genetic variability of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in mice: Consequences and confounds.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Jennifer A; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-09-01

    Recent human genetic studies have identified genetic variants in multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes that are associated with risk for nicotine dependence and other smoking-related measures. Genetic variability also exists in the nAChR subunit genes in mice. Most studies on mouse nAChR subunit gene variability to date have focused on Chrna4, the gene that encodes the α4 nAChR subunit and Chrna7, the gene that encodes the α7 nAChR subunit. However, genetic variability exists for all nAChR genes in mice. In this review, we will describe what is known about nAChR subunit gene polymorphisms in mice and how it relates to variability in nAChR ex