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Sample records for agonist apomorphine apo

  1. Influence of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on apomorphine-induced licking behavior in rat.

    PubMed

    Farzin, D; Attarzadeh, M

    2000-09-15

    The effects of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on apomorphine-induced licking behavior in rats were investigated. Subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of various doses of apomorphine (0. 125-1.25 mg/kg) induced licking. The licking response was counted by direct observation and recorded for a 75-min period. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the histamine H(1) or H(2) receptor agonist, HTMT (6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl) heptanecarboxamide) (50 and 100 microg per rat), or dimaprit (10 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively, potentiated apomorphine-induced licking, while the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, imetit (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the licking response induced by apomorphine. Pretreatment with various histamine receptor antagonists, dexchlorpheniramine (30 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.), diphenhydramine (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.), famotidine (30 and 40 mg/kg, s.c.) and ranitidine (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg), reduced apomorphine-induced licking, while thioperamide (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the apomorphine effect. The effects of HTMT and dimaprit were blocked by dexchlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and famotidine (20 mg/kg, s.c.), respectively. The inhibitory effect elicited by imetit on apomorphine-induced licking behavior was also abolished in animals treated with thioperamide (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The results suggest that histaminergic mechanisms may be involved in the modulation of apomorphine-induced licking behavior.

  2. Effect of beta-adrenoceptor agonists on apomorphine-induced turning in rats.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, R; Meisburger, J G; Mogilnicka, E

    1985-01-01

    The beta-adrenoceptor agonists clenbuterol, salbutamol and formoterol were found to inhibit apomorphine-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions. The inhibitory effect of clenbuterol was antagonized by (-)-propranolol, but unaffected by practolol (which does not cross the blood-brain barrier), indicating a central localization of the beta-adrenoceptors mediating the inhibitory effect. A dopamine-releasing activity of clenbuterol did not seem to be responsible for the effect, because known dopamine-releasing agents (amphetamine, methylphenidate) did not antagonize apomorphine-induced turning behavior. Furthermore alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine pretreatment did not prevent the inhibitory effect of clenbuterol. Since L-5-hydroxytryptophan did not mimic the inhibitory effect of clenbuterol, it was concluded that the inhibition of turning behavior is not mediated by the interaction of clenbuterol with the serotonin system. The finding that clenbuterol depressed locomotor activity in the same dose range as it inhibited apomorphine-induced turning tentatively suggests that clenbuterol inhibits apomorphine-induced turning behavior by its central beta-adrenoceptor mediated sedative action.

  3. Effect of "enriched environment" during development on adult rat behavior and response to the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, L C; Schütte, S R M; Koch, M; Schwabe, K

    2009-02-18

    Enriched housing conditions (enriched environment, EE) during development has been shown to influence adult rat behavior and transmitter systems, especially dopamine function. We were interested in how different degrees of enrichment during development would affect adult rats' behavior and response to dopamine receptor challenge. Two groups of male Wistar rats (n=11-12) were raised under two different degrees of EE, i.e. "high enriched" and "low enriched" groups. A third group was kept under standard conditions and served as "non-enriched" control. As adults, rats were tested for anxiety (elevated plus-maze), for spatial learning (four-arm-baited eight-arm radial maze), and for motivation (breakpoint of the progressive ratio test). Finally, locomotor activity (activity box) and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR)) were tested with and without challenge with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. The time spent on the open or enclosed arms of the elevated plus-maze did not differ between groups, but the high enriched group showed higher rearing activity on the open arms. The breakpoint did not differ between groups. Learning and memory in the radial maze task only differed on the first few trials, but high enriched rats run faster compared with the other groups. In contrast, in the activity box enriched groups were less active, but apomorphine had the highest effect. Between groups, no difference in PPI and startle amplitude was found, but in the high and low EE group startle amplitude was enhanced after administration of apomorphine, while the PPI deficit induced by this drug was not different between groups. Altogether, we found no evidence that different amounts of environmental enrichment without differences in social EE affect rats' cognitive, emotional or motivational behavior. However, motor activity seems to be enhanced when rats are behaviorally or pharmacologically challenged by dopamine receptor

  4. The metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 counteracted ketamine-and apomorphine-induced performance deficits in the object recognition task, but not object location task, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Markou, Athina

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine and the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive deficits. Activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptors reduces the excessive glutamate release that is hypothesized to be associated with psychiatric disorders. Thus, mGlu2/3 receptor agonists may reverse deficits induced by excessive glutamate or DA release induced by administration of NMDA receptor antagonists and DA receptor agonists, respectively, and potentially those seen in schizophrenia. LY379268 is a selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist that has shown to be effective in several animal models of stroke, epilepsy, and drug abuse. The present study investigated whether LY379268 antagonizes non-spatial and spatial recognition memory deficits induced by ketamine and apomorphine administration in rats. To assess the effects of the compounds on non-spatial and spatial recognition memory, the object recognition task and object location task were used. Post-training administration of LY379268 (1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted ketamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) and apomorphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced performance deficits in the object recognition task. In contrast, LY379268 (1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) did not attenuate spatial recognition memory deficits produced by ketamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or apomorphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the object location task. The present data show that the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 reversed non-spatial, but not spatial, recognition memory deficits induced by NMDA receptor blockade or DA receptor agonism in rodents. Thus, such mGlu2/3 receptor agonists may be efficacious in reversing some memory deficits seen in schizophrenia patients.

  5. Effects of isomers of apomorphines on dopamine receptors in striatal and limbic tissue of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, N.S.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Bromley, S.; Neumeyer, J.L.

    1985-09-16

    The optical isomers of apomorphine (APO) and N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were interacted with three biochemical indices of dopamine (Da) receptors in extrapyramidal and limbic preparations of rat brain tissues. There were consistent isomeric preferences for the R(-) configuration of both DA analogs in stimulation adenylate cyclase (D-1 sites) and in competing for high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol (D-2 sites) and of /sup 3/H-ADTN (DA agonist binding sites) in striatal tissue, with lesser isomeric differences in the limbic tissue. The S(+) apomorphines did not inhibit stimulation of adenylate cyclase by DA. The tendency for greater activity of higher apparent affinity of R(-) apomorphines in striatum may reflect the evidently greater abundance of receptor sites in that region. There were only small regional differences in interactions of the apomorphine isomers with all three receptor sites, except for a strong preference of (-)NPA for striatal D-2 sites. These results do not parallel our recent observations indicating potent and selective antidopaminergic actions of S(+) apomorphines in the rat limbic system. They suggest caution in assuming close parallels between current biochemical functional, especially behavioral, methods of evaluating dopamine receptors of mammalian brain.

  6. Sublingual apomorphine as a neuroendocrine probe.

    PubMed

    Brunerova, Ludmila; Potockova, Jana; Horacek, Jiri; Koprivova, Helena; Rehula, Milan; Andel, Michal

    2012-07-30

    Subcutaneous apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, is used as a neuroendocrine probe for assessing central dopaminergic activity. The aim of our study was to test sublingual apomorphine for the same purpose. We administered sublingual apomorphine in a weight-dependent dose (0.033 mg/kg) to 42 healthy men. Prolactin and growth hormone levels were measured before and after the administration at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Subjects filled in Zung's self-assessment scores of anxiety (SAS) and depression (SDS) questionnaires before and after the test. Areas under the curve for prolactin and growth hormone levels were calculated using the trapezoidal rule. All subjects showed decreased prolactin, and 40/42 subjects showed increased growth hormone, in response to sublingual apomorphine. Average peak value for prolactin was -4.6±1.8 μg/l. Average peak value for growth hormone was 8.1±8.5 ng/ml for the whole group, and 9.6±8.1 ng/ml after exclusion of two negative growth hormone responders. Sublingual apomorphine produced no major side effects. Significant decreases in SAS (21.5±5.7 vs. 20.6±5.5) and SDS (9.7±7.8 vs. 7.8±6.8) scores were observed after the test. Sublingually administered apomorphine appears to be well tolerated and useful as a neuroendocrine marker of central dopaminergic activity.

  7. Apomorphine is a bimodal modulator of TRPA1 channels.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Anja; Oehler, Beatrice; Urban, Nicole; Schaefer, Michael; Hill, Kerstin

    2013-02-01

    Apomorphine is a non-narcotic derivative of morphine, which acts as a dopamine agonist and is clinically used to treat "off-states" in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Adverse effects of apomorphine treatment include severe emesis and nausea, and ulceration and pain at the injection site. We wanted to test whether sensory transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a molecular target for apomorphine. Here, we show that rTRPV1, rTRPV2, rTRPV3, and mTRPV4, as well as hTRPM8, and rTRPM3, which are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons, are insensitive toward apomorphine treatment. This also applied to the cellular redox sensor hTRPM2. On the contrary, human TRPA1 could be concentration-dependently modulated by apomorphine. Whereas the addition of apomorphine in the low micromolar range produced an irreversible activation of the channel, application of higher concentrations caused a reversible voltage-dependent inhibition of heterologously expressed TRPA1 channels, resulting from a reduction of single-channel open times. In addition, we provide evidence that apomorphine also acts on endogenous TRPA1 in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from rats and in the enterochromaffin model cell line QGP-1, from which serotonin is released upon activation of TRPA1. Our study shows that human TRPA1 is a target for apomorphine, suggesting that an activation of TRPA1 might contribute to adverse side effects such as nausea and painful injections, which can occur during treatment with apomorphine.

  8. Reinforcer Magnitude Attenuates Apomorphine's Effects on Operant Pecking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Lamb, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    When given to pigeons, the direct-acting dopamine agonist apomorphine elicits pecking. The response has been likened to foraging pecking because it bears remarkable similarity to foraging behavior, and it is enhanced by food deprivation. On the other hand, other data suggest the response is not related to foraging behavior and may even interfere…

  9. Apomorphine and the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: a dilemma?

    PubMed Central

    Dépatie, L; Lal, S

    2001-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates an enhancement of DA function in the pathophysiology of the disorder, at least in the genesis of positive symptoms. Accordingly, apomorphine, a directly acting DA receptor agonist, should display psychotomimetic properties. A review of the literature shows little or no evidence that apomorphine, in doses that stimulate postsynaptic DA receptors, induces psychosis in non-schizophrenic subjects or a relapse or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. After a detailed review of the literature reporting psychotogenic effects of apomorphine in patients with Parkinson's disease, an interpretation of these data is difficult, in part because of several confounding factors, such as the concomitant use of drugs known to induce psychosis and the advanced state of the progressive neurological disorder. In the context of the DA hypothesis of schizophrenia, the limited ability of apomorphine to induce psychosis, in contrast to indirectly acting DA agonists that increase synaptic DA, may be explained by the relatively weak affinity of apomorphine for the D3 receptor compared with DA. Alternatively, enhancement of DA function, though necessary, may be insufficient by itself to induce psychosis. PMID:11394190

  10. Apomorphine injection stimulates beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol release in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Jezova, D; Vigas, M

    1988-01-01

    The effect of single injections of a dopaminergic agonist, apomorphine, on pituitary-adrenocortical function was investigated in healthy adult men by the measurement of plasma ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol and GH immunoreactivities. Single, subcutaneous injection of a subemetic dose of apomorphine (0.75 mg) resulted in a pronounced increase in plasma concentrations of GH, as well as ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol, without induction of any serious adverse drug effects. These findings were confirmed in two separate experiments.

  11. Liver X receptor agonist downregulates hepatic apoM expression in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaoying; Zhu Zhaojin; Luo Guanghua; Zheng Lu; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Xu Ning

    2008-06-20

    It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (apoM), a recently discovered HDL apolipoprotein, has antiatherosclerotic properties, which may be mediated by the enhancement of reversed cholesterol transportation and/or hepatic cholesterol catabolism. The detailed mechanisms are unknown yet. Liver X receptor (LXR) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Activation of LXR in the cell cultures results in an enhancement of cholesterol efflux to apoAI. In the present study, we investigated effects of the LXR agonist, T0901317 on hepatic apoM expression in vivo and in vitro. Serum apoM levels in mice given T0901317 at 10 mg or 100 mg/kg for 7 days were reduced by 12-17% (P < 0.05). In HepG2 cell cultures, apoM mRNA levels were significantly lower in presence of 25 {mu}M T0901317 (37.1%) than in control cells (P < 0.001). A similar reduction was found by the addition of 9-cis retinoic acid (RA). Twenty-five micromolar T0901317 together with 100 nM RA decreased apoM mRNA expression by 65% (P < 0.001). Thus, the LXR agonist T0901317 significantly downregulates apoM mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro, which indicates that apoM is another novel target gene regulated by the LXR. The combination of RA and T0901317 showed additive effects, which suggests that apoM expression can be modulated by LXR/RXR pathway.

  12. Effects of apomorphine on locomotive activity and monoamine metabolism: a dose related study.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Huma; Ahmad, Shoaib; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2011-07-01

    We have monitored dose dependent effects of apomorphine on motor activity and monoamine metabolism. Behavioral sensitization and craving, which develop upon repeated treatment with dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine, are major limitations of the therapeutic use of apomorphine in Parkinson's patients. Effects of single (intraperitoneal) injection of apomorphine at different doses (i.e., 1.0, 2.0 & 4.0 mg/kg) on exploration in a novel environment (open field) and locomotion in a familiar environment (home cage) were investigated. Results show significantly enhanced activity in home cage (monitored 5min post injection) in a dose dependent manner. However, no significant influence of apomorphine on exploration of open field was observed in the present study (monitored 15 min and 40 min post injection). Animals were decapitated 1 hr post apomorphine injection and whole brains of animals were collected and stored at -70°C. Biogenic amines (i.e., 5-Hydroxytryptamine and dopamine) and metabolites (i.e., Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, Homovanillic acid & 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid) were estimated by reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detector (HPLC-EC). Effect of low (1.0mg/kg) dose of apomorphine was found to be non-significant on 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and dopamine (DA) levels. Moderate (2.0 mg/kg) dose of drug increased (p<0.05) levels of Homovanillic acid (HVA). Whereas, high (4.0 mg/kg) dose of apomorphine decreased Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels. Results could be helpful in elucidating the effect of apomorphine at different doses and its implication for extending therapeutics in Parkinson's and related disorders.

  13. Liver X receptor agonist treatment significantly affects phenotype and transcriptome of APOE3 and APOE4 Abca1 haplo-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Fitz, Nicholas F.; Mounier, Anais; Wolfe, Cody M.; Nam, Kyong Nyon; Reeves, Valerie L.; Kamboh, Hafsa; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2017-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) controls cholesterol and phospholipid efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein E (APOE) and is transcriptionally controlled by Liver X receptors (LXRs) and Retinoic X Receptors (RXRs). In APP transgenic mice, lack of Abca1 increased Aβ deposition and cognitive deficits. Abca1 haplo-deficiency in mice expressing human APOE isoforms, increased level of Aβ oligomers and worsened memory deficits, preferentially in APOE4 mice. In contrast upregulation of Abca1 by LXR/RXR agonists significantly ameliorated pathological phenotype of those mice. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 (T0) on the phenotype and brain transcriptome of APP/E3 and APP/E4 Abca1 haplo-deficient (APP/E3/Abca1+/- and APP/E4/Abca1+/-) mice. Our data demonstrate that activated LXRs/RXR ameliorated APOE4-driven pathological phenotype and significantly affected brain transcriptome. We show that in mice expressing either APOE isoform, T0 treatment increased mRNA level of genes known to affect brain APOE lipidation such as Abca1 and Abcg1. In both APP/E3/Abca1+/- and APP/E4/Abca1+/- mice, the application of LXR agonist significantly increased ABCA1 protein level accompanied by an increased APOE lipidation, and was associated with restoration of APOE4 cognitive deficits, reduced levels of Aβ oligomers, but unchanged amyloid load. Finally, using Gene set enrichment analysis we show a significant APOE isoform specific response to LXR agonist treatment: Gene Ontology categories “Microtubule Based Process” and “Synapse Organization” were differentially affected in T0-treated APP/E4/Abca1+/- mice. Altogether, the results are suggesting that treatment of APP/E4/Abca1+/- mice with LXR agonist T0 ameliorates APOE4-induced AD-like pathology and therefore targeting the LXR-ABCA1-APOE regulatory axis could be effective as a potential therapeutic approach in AD patients, carriers of APOEε4. PMID:28241068

  14. Apomorphine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance) who are taking other ... not use a cartridge containing a cloudy or green solution or a solution containing particles. If the ...

  15. PET Imaging of D2/3 agonist binding in healthy human subjects with the radiotracer [11C]-N-propyl-nor-apomorphine (NPA): preliminary evaluation and reproducibility studies

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, W. Gordon; Mason, N. Scott; Laymon, Charles M.; Lopresti, Brian J; Price, Julie C.; Kendro, Steve; Vora, Shivangi; Litschge, Maralee; Mountz, James M.; Mathis, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective (-)-N-[11C]-Propyl-norapomorphine (NPA) is a full dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist radiotracer suitable for imaging D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for agonists using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The aim of the present study was to define the optimal analytic method to derive accurate and reliable D2/3 receptor parameters with [11C]NPA. Methods Six healthy subjects (4 females/2 males) underwent two [11C]NPA scans in the same day. D2/3 receptor binding parameters were estimated using kinetic analysis (using 1- and 2- tissue compartment models) as well as simplified reference tissue method in the three functional subdivisions of the striatum (associative striatum, AST; limbic striatum LST and sensorimotor striatum SMST). The test-retest variability and intraclass correlation coefficient were assessed for distribution volume (VT), binding potential relative to plasma concentration (BPP), and binding potential relative to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND) Results A two-tissue compartment kinetic model adequately described the functional subdivisions of the striatum as well as cerebellum time-activity data. The reproducibility of VT was excellent (≤ 10%) in all regions, for this approach. The reproducibility of both BPP (≤ 12%) and BPND (≤ 10%) was also excellent. The intraclass correlation coefficient of BPP and BPND were acceptable as well (> 0.75) in the three functional subdivisions of the striatum. Although SRTM led to an underestimation of BPND values relative to that estimated by kinetic analysis by 8 to 13%, the values derived using both the methods were reasonably well correlated (r2 = 0.89, n = 84). Both methods were similarly effective at detecting the differences in [11C]NPA BPND between subjects. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that [11C]NPA can be used to measure D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for the agonists with high reliability and reproducibility in the functional subdivisions

  16. Panniculitis in association with apomorphine infusion.

    PubMed

    Acland, K M; Churchyard, A; Fletcher, C L; Turner, K; Lees, A; Dowd, P M

    1998-03-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the histopathology and aetiology of cutaneous nodules observed in Parkinson's patients treated with continuous subcutaneous apomorphine. Ten patients were recruited, answered questionnaires, and underwent skin biopsies and full blood count, and nine were patch tested to apomorphine and its preservative. Six had serum IgE levels measured. A florid panniculitis was seen in all biopsies; five were predominantly eosinophilic, three lymphocytic and two neutrophilic; in seven cases the panniculitis was mixed and in three it was septal. Patch testing was universally negative and the IgE levels were normal.

  17. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-07

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  18. Apomorphine can increase cutaneous inhibition of motor activity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Clouston, P D; Lim, C L; Sue, C; Morris, J G; Yiannikas, C

    1996-02-01

    We studied the effect of non-nociceptive ipsilateral digital stimulation on EMG recorded from a small hand muscle before and after the administration of subcutaneous apomorphine in 6 patients with Parkinson's disease. All were receiving the drug to control ¿on-off¿ fluctuations in motor performance. Averaged rectified EMG was recorded from tonically contracted abductor pollicis brevis (APB) following index finger stimulation using a brief stimulus train. In 5 patients motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were also recorded from APB during tonic contraction. A conditioning stimulus train was applied to the index finger at intervals between 15 and 65 msec prior to the transcranial magnetic stimulus. After apomorphine administration the patient group showed a significant increase in both EMG and MEP inhibition induced by digital stimulation. In patients with Parkinson's disease who have marked motor fluctuations, the inhibitory response of upper limb motor neurones to low level digital cutaneous stimulation can be altered by dopamine agonists.

  19. Lesions of the entopeduncular nucleus in rats prevent apomorphine-induced deficient sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Lütjens, Götz; Krauss, Joachim K; Schwabe, Kerstin

    2011-07-07

    Dopamine-induced hyperactivity and deficient sensorimotor gating, measured as prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR), are used as animal models for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and Tourette's syndrome. We here investigated whether excitotoxic lesions of the rat entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), the equivalent to the human globus pallidus internus (GPi), would improve apomorphine-induced PPI-deficits and hyperactivity. Additionally, we investigated the effect of EPN lesions on cognition, motivation and motor skills. In male Sprague Dawley rats bilateral EPN lesions were induced by stereotactic injection of ibotenate (4 μg in 0.4 μl phosphate buffered saline, PBS) or sham-lesions by injection of vehicle PBS. After one week, rats were tested for learning and memory (continuous and delayed alternation, T-maze), for motivation (progressive ratio test with breakpoint of 3 min inactivity, Skinner box), and for motor skills (rotating rod). Thereafter, rats were tested for PPI of ASR (startle response system) after subcutaneous injection of apomorphine (1.0mg/kg and vehicle) and for locomotor activity (0.5mg/kg and vehicle). Ibotenate-induced EPN lesions did not affect learning and memory, motivation or motor skills. Basal locomotor activity and PPI was also not affected, but EPN lesions ameliorated apomorphine-induced hyperlocomotion and deficient PPI. This work indicates an important role of the EPN for the modulation of dopamine agonist-induced deficient sensorimotor gating and hyperlocomotion, without affecting normal behavioral function.

  20. Nitric oxide modulates apomorphine-induced recognition memory deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, Ioannis; Kampouri, Nikoletta G; Koulouri, Vasiliki; Lempesis, Ioannis G; Prasinou, Maria D; Georgiadou, Georgia; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2012-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important intracellular messenger in the brain. The implication of NO in schizophrenia is well documented although it is not yet clear whether net over or underproduction of NO is typical of this disease. In line with this, either NO donors or NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors were found to abolish psychotomimetic effects, including cognition deficits, produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction. In addition, there is poor experimental evidence concerning the efficacy of NO to modulate memory deficits produced by dopamine (DA) dysfunction. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of NO modulators (NO donors and NOS inhibitors to reverse recognition memory impairments produced by the DA D(1)/D(2) mixed receptor agonist apomorphine in rats. For these studies, the novel object recognition test (NORT) was used as the memory test. Apomorphine (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg), dose-dependently, disrupted performance in this recognition memory procedure in rats. The NO donors molsidomine (2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg) and SNP (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), reversed the impairing effects of apomorphine (1.0 mg/kg) in the NORT. Administration of the NOS inhibitors L-NAME (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) or 7-NI (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) produced similar results. The present findings indicate a) that apomorphine dose-dependently impaired recognition memory and b) that a cognitive deficit produced by DA dysfunction is sensitive to NO.

  1. Stability of apomorphine in solutions containing selected antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Ang, Zen Yang; Boddy, Michael; Liu, Yandi; Sunderland, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Apomorphine in solution undergoes rapid autoxidation, producing greenish colored solutions, making it difficult to formulate as a stable pharmaceutical solution. To identify the optimum antioxidant agent/combination for apomorphine solution, a high performance liquid chromatography assay was used to study the stability of 50 μg/mL apomorphine HCI in 0.1% L-ascorbic acid (AA), 0.1% sodium metabisulfite (SMB), 0.1% EDTA, and in selected combinations at 25°C, 32°C, and 37°C over a period of 14 days. The stability of apomorphine HCl (10 mg/mL) in 0.1% AA solution and in 0.1% EDTA solution at 25°C and 37°C was also evaluated. Apomorphine HCI solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% AA plus 0.1% SMB solution retained 99.7% (at 25°C) and 95.9% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration, as 0.1% AA plus SMB solution minimized the reactive oxygen content in solution which, in turn, reduced the oxidation rate of apomorphine HCl, and there was no green coloration perceptible. Conversely, apomorphine HCl solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% SMB solution was unstable as only 0.53% (at 25°C) and 0.06% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration was retained after 14 days. All 10 mg/mL apomorphine HCl samples were stable in both studies. The initial concentration of apomorphine HCl solution markedly affected its rate of oxidation and discoloration. The addition of 0.1% AA to a current formulation of apomorphine HCl injection (Apomine(®)), which contains SMB as an antioxidant, was recommended as providing the most stable solution.

  2. Stability of apomorphine in solutions containing selected antioxidant agents

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Zen Yang; Boddy, Michael; Liu, Yandi; Sunderland, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Apomorphine in solution undergoes rapid autoxidation, producing greenish colored solutions, making it difficult to formulate as a stable pharmaceutical solution. To identify the optimum antioxidant agent/combination for apomorphine solution, a high performance liquid chromatography assay was used to study the stability of 50 μg/mL apomorphine HCI in 0.1% L-ascorbic acid (AA), 0.1% sodium metabisulfite (SMB), 0.1% EDTA, and in selected combinations at 25°C, 32°C, and 37°C over a period of 14 days. The stability of apomorphine HCl (10 mg/mL) in 0.1% AA solution and in 0.1% EDTA solution at 25°C and 37°C was also evaluated. Apomorphine HCI solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% AA plus 0.1% SMB solution retained 99.7% (at 25°C) and 95.9% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration, as 0.1% AA plus SMB solution minimized the reactive oxygen content in solution which, in turn, reduced the oxidation rate of apomorphine HCl, and there was no green coloration perceptible. Conversely, apomorphine HCl solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% SMB solution was unstable as only 0.53% (at 25°C) and 0.06% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration was retained after 14 days. All 10 mg/mL apomorphine HCl samples were stable in both studies. The initial concentration of apomorphine HCl solution markedly affected its rate of oxidation and discoloration. The addition of 0.1% AA to a current formulation of apomorphine HCl injection (Apomine®), which contains SMB as an antioxidant, was recommended as providing the most stable solution. PMID:27757015

  3. The effects of apomorphine and D-amphetamine on striatal c-Fos expression in Sprague-Dawley and Long Evans rats and their F1 progeny.

    PubMed

    Saint Marie, Richard L; Neary, Alaina C; Shoemaker, Jody M; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2006-11-13

    We previously reported that Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are significantly more sensitive than Long Evans (LE) rats to disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex by the dopamine agonists, apomorphine (APO) and D-amphetamine (AMPH). This susceptibility is inherited through F1 (SD x LE) and N2 backcross (F1 x SD) generations via an orderly pattern (SD>N2>F1>LE). Here we examined systemic APO (0.5 mg/kg) and AMPH (4.5 mg/kg) modulation of neural activity in four regions of the striatum suspected to be involved in the dopaminergic regulation of PPI - dorsolateral (dlCPu) and medial (mCPu) caudate/putamen and core (NACc) and medial shell (NACms) regions of nucleus accumbens - under conditions that mimicked those used to assess PPI. Immunohistochemical quantification of c-Fos protein expression was used as the surrogate measure of neural activity in SD and LE rats and their F1 crosses. Vehicle-treatment showed significant regional differences in Fos expression, particularly between the dlCPu and the other three areas, but no strain-related differences were observed. Three of four brain areas examined (dlCPu, mCPu and NACc) exhibited drug-induced changes in Fos expression--APO decreased and AMPH increased Fos expression in each region. The aggregate effect across these three regions revealed Fos expression to be significantly greater in LE compared to SD rats for both drugs, with F1 rats intermediate. This pattern of inheritance (LE>F1>SD) reveals an inverse relationship between striatal Fos expression and PPI sensitivity for these drugs; and a positive relationship with reported heritable differences in D2-linked G-protein binding in the CPu and NACc, and with locomotor activation/suppression by AMPH and APO.

  4. The effect of Yohimbine, an alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the growth hormone response to apomorphine in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, S; Thavundayil, J X; Krishnan, B; Nair, N P; Schwartz, G; Guyda, H

    1996-01-01

    Yohimbine HCl (16 mg po) administered 30 min before clonidine (CLON) (2 ug/kg infused over 10 min) (N = 5) or apomorphine HCl (Apo) (0.5 mg sc) (N = 10) antagonized the growth hormone (GH) response to CLON but had no effect on the GH response to Apo in normal men. This finding suggests that in humans, alpha2 adrenergic mechanisms do not modulate dopaminergic function, at least not in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and that the GH response to Apo is not mediated via an alpha2 adrenergic link. PMID:8820174

  5. Interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V.; Velagapudi, R.B.; McLean, A.M.; Wilcox, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins could influence the drug's disposition and pharmacological activities in mammals. Ultrafiltration, equilibrium dialysis, and ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods have been used to study the reversible binding of apomorphine to bovine, human, rat, and swine plasma proteins. The degree of binding was generally greater than 90%, but variations were noted in some instances on the basis of drug concentrations and pH over the range of 6.8-7.8. Incubation of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine with bovine serum albumin led to retention of radioactivity and a stoichiometrically controlled released of tritium which arose from the reaction of an electrophilic drug oxidation product and protein, producing drug-protein conjugates. In vitro experiments with mouse striatal brain preparations indicated parallel covalent binding reactions. In vivo experiments in mice indicated accumulation of radioactivity in brain regions and other tissues following daily injections of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine for 14 days. The physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with mammalian tissue proteins could be the cause of longer disposition half-lives in mammals than those previously reported. The covalent interactions, in particular, may be important in elucidating the mechanism of apomorphine-induced behavioral effects in mice.

  6. Apomorphine in idiopathic restless legs syndrome: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Tribl, G; Sycha, T; Kotzailias, N; Zeitlhofer, J; Auff, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs have been found to be effective in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Objectives: To test the effect of apomorphine—a combined opioidergic and dopaminergic agonist—and subsequent selective antagonism by naloxone and metoclopramide on subjective and objective symptoms in patients with idiopathic RLS. Methods: Nine patients with RLS were pretreated with oral domperidone for three days. A modified suggested immobilisation test (SIT) was carried out between 8 pm and 1 am under the following conditions of intravenous drug administration: baseline–apomorphine–apomorphine plus naloxone–apomorphine plus metoclopramide. Outcome variables were a visual analogue scale (VAS) of subjective RLS symptoms and EMG documented periodic leg movements while awake (PLMW). Results: Compared with baseline, apomorphine resulted in a rapid and significant improvement in subjective RLS symptoms as measured by VAS (54.5% improvement; p = 0.011), and an almost immediate cessation of PLMW, measured by PLMW index (98.0% improvement; p = 0.012). Neither additional naloxone nor metoclopramide blocked this effect significantly. While given apomorphine with metoclopramide, there was a trend to reappearance of PLMW. Conclusions: Apomorphine may be an effective treatment for idiopathic RLS. Its effectiveness may reflect both to its dopaminergic and its opioidergic activity, and is not diminished significantly by blocking only one of these pathways. The trend to a worsening of the PLMW index with metoclopramide hints at a primarily dopaminergic effect of apomorphine in idiopathic RLS. PMID:15654028

  7. Gender differences in the effects of presynaptic and postsynaptic dopamine agonists on latent inhibition in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chou; He, Bo-Han; Chen, Chih-Chung; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei; Yeh, Yu-Chi

    2012-04-04

    The present study investigated gender differences in the effects of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA agonists on latent inhibition in the passive avoidance paradigm. During the preexposure phase, 32 male and 32 female Wistar rats were exposed to a passive avoidance box (or a different context) and received drug injections in three trials: the control group received an injection of 10% ascorbic acid in a different context. The experimental groups received injections of 10% ascorbic acid (latent inhibition [LI] group), 1mg/kg of the postsynaptic DA D(1)/D(2) agonist apomorphine (APO group), and 1.5mg/kg of the presynaptic DA agonist methamphetamine (METH group) in a passive avoidance box. All experimental groups were placed in the light compartment of the passive avoidance box and were allowed to enter into the dark compartment to receive a footshock (1mA, 2s) in five trials over 5 days. The latency to enter into the dark compartment was recorded in these five trials. The latent inhibition occurred in the female LI group but not in the male LI group. Regardless of gender, the APO group exhibited an increase in latent inhibition. Male rats in the METH group exhibited a decrease in latent inhibition, but female rats in the METH group exhibited an increase in latent inhibition, indicating that the METH group exhibited sexual dimorphism. The gender factor interacted only with the METH group and not the LI or APO group. The present paper discusses whether gender, the postsynaptic DA D(1)/D(2) agonist APO, and presynaptic DA agonist METH may be related to schizophrenia.

  8. Effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine and acute exposure to fluphenazine-N-mustard on dopaminergic behavior and radioligand binding in supersensitive mice

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Mice with unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the corpus striatum were exposed to continuous infusion of apomorphine via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump. The turning response of these mice when challenged with an acute injection of apomorphine was significantly reduced at one day after chronic implantation and was totally absent at two and four days after implantation. This effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine was found to be concentration- and time-dependent as well as reversible when the implant was removed. Mice tolerant to apomorphine were cross-tolerant to the rotational effects of the D{sub 1} dopaminergic agonist SKF 38393 and the D{sub 2} dopaminergic agonist Ly 171555, but not to amphetamine. Continuous exposure to apomorphine resulted in a decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H)spiroperidol (D{sub 2} sites) by 44%, whereas the binding of ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 (D{sub 1} sites) was not affected. Fluphenazine-N-mustard (FNM) has been shown to bind irreversibly to dopaminergic sites. Experiments using varying doses of FNM demonstrated that FNM inhibited Ly 171555-induced rotational behavior at doses ten fold lower than those required to block rotations induced by SKF 38393. In vitro, FNM inhibited the specific binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol at concentrations ten fold lower than those required to inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)Sch23390. In vivo, FNM inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol measured ex vivo, but did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H) Sch 23390, even when given in doses as high as 100 mg/kg. These studies indicate that FNM was approximately ten times more potent at inhibiting D{sub 2} than D{sub 1} mediated behavior and at displacing D{sub 2} versus D{sub 1} ligands, suggesting that FNM may be useful for studying and differentiating D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} mediated events.

  9. S[+] Apomorphine is a CNS penetrating activator of the Nrf2-ARE pathway with activity in mouse and patient fibroblast models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mead, Richard J; Higginbottom, Adrian; Allen, Scott P; Kirby, Janine; Bennett, Ellen; Barber, Siân C; Heath, Paul R; Coluccia, Antonio; Patel, Neelam; Gardner, Iain; Brancale, Andrea; Grierson, Andrew J; Shaw, Pamela J

    2013-08-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to motor neuron injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but antioxidant therapies have not yet achieved therapeutic benefit in the clinic. The nuclear erythroid 2-related-factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor is a key regulator of an important neuroprotective response by driving the expression of multiple cytoprotective genes via its interaction with the antioxidant response element (ARE). Dysregulation of the Nrf2-ARE system has been identified in ALS models and human disease. Taking the Nrf2-ARE pathway as an attractive therapeutic target for neuroprotection in ALS, we aimed to identify CNS penetrating, small molecule activators of Nrf2-mediated transcription in a library of 2000 drugs and natural products. Compounds were screened extensively for Nrf2 activation, and antioxidant and neuroprotective properties in vitro. S[+]-Apomorphine, a receptor-inactive enantiomer of the clinically approved dopamine-receptor agonist (R[-]-apomorphine), was identified as a nontoxic Nrf2 activating molecule. In vivo S[+]-apomorphine demonstrated CNS penetrance, Nrf2 induction, and significant attenuation of motor dysfunction in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model of ALS. S[+]-apomorphine also reduced pathological oxidative stress and improved survival following an oxidative insult in fibroblasts from ALS patients. This molecule emerges as a promising candidate for evaluation as a potential neuroprotective agent in ALS patients in the clinic.

  10. (R)-(-)-10-methyl-11-hydroxyaporphine: a highly selective serotonergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Cannon, J G; Mohan, P; Bojarski, J; Long, J P; Bhatnagar, R K; Leonard, P A; Flynn, J R; Chatterjee, T K

    1988-02-01

    Prior work in these laboratories identified (+/-)-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-2- (di-n-propylamino)tetralin as a dopaminergic agonist prodrug. The ortho methyl hydroxy aromatic substitution pattern in this molecule has now been incorporated into the aporphine ring system to give a congener of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine in which the position 10 OH group has been replaced by methyl. Preparation of the target compound involved acid-catalyzed rearrangement of the 3-(1-phenyltetrazolyl) ether of morphine and subsequent molecular modification of the product, the 10-(1-phenyltetrazolyl) ether of (R)-(-)-apomorphine. Surprisingly, the target compound elicited no responses in any assays for effects at dopamine receptors, but rather it displayed pharmacological properties consistent with its being a serotonergic agonist with a high degree of selectivity for 5-HT1A receptors similar to the serotonergic agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin.

  11. Effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist treatment on elemental and biomolecular content and distribution in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, J.; Gajda, M.; Jawień, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Appel, K.; Dumas, P.

    2013-12-01

    Gene-targeted apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice display early and highly progressive vascular lesions containing lipid deposits and they became a reliable animal model to study atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist on the distribution of selected pro- and anti- inflammatory elements as well as biomolecules in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared (micro-FTIR) microspectroscopies were applied. Two-month-old apoE-KO mice were fed for following four months diet supplemented with AVE 0991 (0.58 μmol/kg b.w. per day). Histological sections of ascending aortas were analyzed spectroscopically. The distribution of P, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to correspond with histological structure of the lesion. Significantly lower contents of P, Ca, Zn and significantly higher content of Fe were observed in animals treated with AVE 0991. Biomolecular analysis showed lower lipids saturation level and lower lipid to protein ratio in AVE 0991 treated group. Protein secondary structure was studied according to the composition of amide I band (1660 cm-1) and it demonstrated higher proportion of β-sheet structure as compared to α-helix in both studied groups.

  12. Electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Lebon, France; Tommasini, Matteo

    2012-09-01

    Apomorphine is a chiral drug molecule; notwithstanding its extraordinary importance, little attention has been paid to the characterization of its chiroptical properties. Here we report on its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, recorded in methanol and water, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have allowed us to interpret the spectra and to evaluate the role of possible conformations, charge-states and interactions with counter ions.

  13. EuroInf: a multicenter comparative observational study of apomorphine and levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Reddy, Prashanth; Katzenschlager, Regina; Antonini, Angelo; Todorova, Antoniya; Odin, Per; Henriksen, Tove; Martin, Anne; Calandrella, Daniela; Rizos, Alexandra; Bryndum, Narissah; Glad, Arne; Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Timmermann, Lars; Ebersbach, Georg; Kramberger, Milica G; Samuel, Michael; Wenzel, Karoline; Tomantschger, Volker; Storch, Alexander; Reichmann, Heinz; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Trost, Maja; Svenningsson, Per; Palhagen, Sven; Volkmann, Jens; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2015-04-01

    Subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (Apo) and intrajejunal levodopa infusion (IJLI) are two treatment options for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and refractory motor complications, with varying cost of treatment. There are no multicenter studies comparing the effects of the two strategies. This open-label, prospective, observational, 6-month, multicenter study compared 43 patients on Apo (48.8% males, age 62.3 ± 10.6 years; disease duration: 14 ± 4.4 years; median H & Y stage 3; interquartile range [IQR]: 3-4) and 44 on IJLI (56.8% males, age 62.7 ± 9.1 years; disease duration: 16.1 ± 6.7 years; median H & Y stage 4; IQR, 3-4). Cohen's effect sizes (≥0.8 considered as large) were "large" with both therapies with respect to total motor, nonmotor, and quality-of-life scores. The Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) with Apo showed moderate improvement, whereas sleep/fatigue, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dimensions of the NMSS showed significantly higher improvement with IJLI. Seventy-five percent on IJLI improved in their quality-of-life and nonmotor symptoms (NMS), whereas in the Apo group, a similar proportion improved in quality of life, but 40% in NMS. Adverse effects included peritonitis with IJLI and skin nodules on Apo. Based on this open-label, nonrandomized, comparative study, we report that, in advanced Parkinson's patients, both IJLI and Apo infusion therapy appear to provide a robust improvement in motor symptoms, motor complications, quality-of-life, and some NMS. Controlled, randomized studies are required.

  14. Apomorphine and its esters: Differences in Caco-2 cell permeability and chylomicron affinity.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Nrupa; Chen, Zhizhong; Saaby, Lasse; Müllertz, Anette; Håkansson, Anders E; Schönbeck, Christian; Yang, Mingshi; Holm, René; Mu, Huiling

    2016-07-25

    Oral delivery of apomorphine via prodrug principle may be a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport and stability of apomorphine and its esters across Caco-2 cell monolayer and their affinity towards chylomicrons. Apomorphine, monolauroyl apomorphine (MLA) and dilauroyl apomorphine (DLA) were subjected to apical to basolateral (A-B) and basolateral to apical (B-A) transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer. The stability of these compounds was also assessed by incubation at intestinal pH and physiological pH with and without Caco-2 cells. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to understand the stability of the esters on a molecular level. The affinity of the compounds towards plasma derived chylomicrons was assessed. The A-B transport of intact DLA was about 150 times lower than the transport of apomorphine. In contrast, MLA was highly unstable in the aqueous media leading to apomorphine appearance basolaterally. MD simulations possibly explained the differences in hydrolysis susceptibilities of DLA and MLA. The affinity of apomorphine diesters towards plasma derived chylomicrons provided an understanding of their potential lymphatic transport. The intact DLA transport is not favorable; therefore, the conversion of DLA to MLA is an important step for intestinal apomorphine absorption.

  15. Kinetic characterization of ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine as glutaminase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ajit G.; Rojas, Camilo; Tanega, Cordelle; Shen, Min; Simeonov, Anton; Boxer, Matthew B.; Auld, Douglas S.; Ferraris, Dana V.; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine were identified as glutaminase inhibitors. •These had greater affinities and efficiency of inhibition than known prototypes. •Their previously reported biological activity could be due to glutaminase inhibition. -- Abstract: Glutaminase catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and plays a central role in the proliferation of neoplastic cells via glutaminolysis, as well as in the generation of excitotoxic glutamate in central nervous system disorders such as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and multiple sclerosis. Both glutaminase siRNA and glutaminase inhibition have been shown to be effective in in vitro models of cancer and HAD, suggesting a potential role for small molecule glutaminase inhibitors. However, there are no potent, selective inhibitors of glutaminase currently available. The two prototypical glutaminase inhibitors, BPTES and DON, are either insoluble or non-specific. In a search for more drug-like glutaminase inhibitors, we conducted a screen of 1280 in vivo active drugs (Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC{sup 1280})) and identified ebselen, chelerythrine and (R)-apomorphine. The newly identified inhibitors exhibited 10 to 1500-fold greater affinities than DON and BPTES and over 100-fold increased efficiency of inhibition. Although non-selective, it is noteworthy that the affinity of ebselen for glutaminase is more potent than any other activity yet described. It is possible that the previously reported biological activity seen with these compounds is due, in part, to glutaminase inhibition. Ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine complement the armamentarium of compounds to explore the role of glutaminase in disease.

  16. Crocins, the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., counteracted apomorphine-induced performance deficits in the novel object recognition task, but not novel object location task, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2017-02-17

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic (DAergic) system might be compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including disruption of memory abilities. Crocins are among the active components of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. plant) and their implication in cognition is well documented. The present study investigated whether crocins counteract non-spatial and spatial recognition memory deficits induced by apomorphine in rats. For this purpose, the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the novel object location task (NOLT) were used. The effects of compounds on mobility in a locomotor activity chamber were also investigated in rats. Post-training peripheral administration of crocins (15 and 30mg/kg) counteracted apomorphine (1mg/kg)-induced performance deficits in the NORT. Conversely, crocins did not attenuate spatial recognition memory deficits produced by apomorphine in the NOLT. The present data show that crocins reversed non-spatial recognition memory impairments produced by dysfunction of the DAergic system and modulate different aspects of memory components (storage and/or retrieval). The effects of compounds on recognition memory cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Further, our findings illustrate a functional interaction between crocins and the DAergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits. Therefore, the utilization of crocins as an adjunctive agent, for the treatment of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenic patients should be further investigated.

  17. The Role of Dopamine in Reinforcement: Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity Induced by D[subscript 1]-Type, D[subscript 2]-Type, and Nonselective Dopamine Receptor Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratcher, Natalie A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri; Dougan, James D.; Heidenreich, Byron A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Dose-dependent changes in sensitivity to reinforcement were found when rats were treated with low, moderate, and high doses of the partial dopamine D[subscript 1]-type receptor agonist SKF38393 and with the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine, but did not change when rats were treated with similar doses of the selective dopamine D[subscript…

  18. Growth hormone response to apomorphine in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Pitchot, W; Hansenne, M; Moreno, A G; Ansseau, M

    1996-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that dopamine plays a role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Indeed, some trials have shown the efficacy of neuroleptic addition in the treatment of OCD patients. In this study, we assessed the growth hormone (GH) response to 0.5 mg apomorphine(sc) in 8 drug-free inpatients (6 male, 2 female; mean age +/- SD = 34.7 +/- 12.6) meeting DSM-III-R criteria for OCD without major depression and compared their responses with those of 8 healthy male volunteers (mean age = 27.1 +/- 8.5). The groups did not differ in their mean GH peak response: 12.4 +/- 9.7 ng/mL in OCD patients versus 21.1 +/- 14.2 ng/mL in normal controls (F = 0.9, df1, 14, P = 0.37). These results do not support the hypothesis of dopaminergic overactivity in OCD. In fact, the completely blunted GH response to apomorphine in 2 OCD patients suggests the biological heterogeneity of OCD. Some dopaminergic disturbances could be observed in patients with comorbid diagnoses or patients unresponsive to serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but the results of this study require confirmation from a larger sample with a precise assessment of comorbidity. PMID:8973055

  19. Kinetic characterization of ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine as glutaminase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ajit G; Rojas, Camilo; Tanega, Cordelle; Shen, Min; Simeonov, Anton; Boxer, Matthew B; Auld, Douglas S; Ferraris, Dana V; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S

    2013-08-23

    Glutaminase catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and plays a central role in the proliferation of neoplastic cells via glutaminolysis, as well as in the generation of excitotoxic glutamate in central nervous system disorders such as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and multiple sclerosis. Both glutaminase siRNA and glutaminase inhibition have been shown to be effective in in vitro models of cancer and HAD, suggesting a potential role for small molecule glutaminase inhibitors. However, there are no potent, selective inhibitors of glutaminase currently available. The two prototypical glutaminase inhibitors, BPTES and DON, are either insoluble or non-specific. In a search for more drug-like glutaminase inhibitors, we conducted a screen of 1280 in vivo active drugs (Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC(1280))) and identified ebselen, chelerythrine and (R)-apomorphine. The newly identified inhibitors exhibited 10 to 1500-fold greater affinities than DON and BPTES and over 100-fold increased efficiency of inhibition. Although non-selective, it is noteworthy that the affinity of ebselen for glutaminase is more potent than any other activity yet described. It is possible that the previously reported biological activity seen with these compounds is due, in part, to glutaminase inhibition. Ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine complement the armamentarium of compounds to explore the role of glutaminase in disease.

  20. Clavulanic acid induces penile erection and yawning in male rats: comparison with apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Angioni, Laura; Argiolas, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning in a dose dependent manner when given intraperitoneally (IP, 0.05-5mg/kg), perorally (OS, 0.1-5mg/kg) and intracereboventricularly (ICV, 0.01-5 μg/rat) to male rats. The effect resembles that of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine given subcutaneously (SC) (0.02-0.25mg/kg), although the responses of the latter followed a U inverted dose-response curve, disappearing at doses higher than 0.1mg/kg. Clavulanic acid responses were reduced by about 55% by haloperidol, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg IP), and by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist (2 μg/rat ICV), both given 15 min before clavulanic acid. A higher reduction of clavulanic acid responses (more than 80%) was also found with morphine, an opioid receptor agonist (5mg/kg IP), and with mianserin, a serotonin 5HT(2c) receptor antagonist (0.2mg/kg SC). In contrast, no reduction was found with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist (1mg/kg IP). The ability of haloperidol, d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin and morphine to reduce clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning suggests that clavulanic acid induces these responses, at least in part, by increasing central dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine in turn activates oxytocinergic neurotransmission and centrally released oxytocin induces penile erection and yawning. However, since both penile erection and yawning episodes were reduced not only by the blockade of central dopamine and oxytocin receptors and by the stimulation of opioid receptors, which inhibits oxytocinergic neurotransmission, but also by mianserin, an increase of central serotonin neurotransmission is also likely to participate in these clavulanic acid responses.

  1. Effects of apomorphine on flexor reflex and periodic limb movement.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Guillermo; Khan, Farooq; Chen, Robert

    2002-05-01

    It has been suggested that periodic leg movements (PLM) and spinal flexor reflex (FR) share common mechanisms. Although dopaminergic agents improve PLM in humans and strongly influence spinal FR circuitry in animal studies, its effects on FR have not been documented in humans. We describe a 65-year-old man with PLM after overnight withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. The electromyographic pattern of spontaneous PLM closely resembled that of the FR elicited by medial plantar nerve stimulation. Thirty minutes after subcutaneous injection of apomorphine, both PLM and FR were completely abolished. These findings demonstrate that dopaminergic agents can suppress exaggerated FR in humans, and support the hypothesis of common mechanisms for PLM and FR.

  2. Neuroprotective effects mediated by dopamine receptor agonists against malonate-induced lesion in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Fancellu, R; Armentero, M-T; Nappi, G; Blandini, F

    2003-10-01

    In rats, intrastriatal injection of malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, induces a lesion similar to that observed following focal ischemia or in Huntington's disease. In this study we used the malonate model to explore the neuroprotective potential of dopamine agonists. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with increasing concentrations of D1, D2, or mixed D1/D2 dopamine agonists prior to intrastriatal injection of malonate. Administration of increasing doses of the D2-specific agonist quinpirole resulted in increased protection against malonate toxicity. Conversely, the D1-specific agonist SKF-38393, as well as the mixed D1/D2 agonist apomorphine, conferred higher neuroprotection at lower than at higher drug concentrations. Our data suggest that malonate- induced striatal toxicity can be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine agonists, with D1 and D2 agonists showing different profiles of efficacy.

  3. Quality of life in Parkinson's disease improved by apomorphine pump: the OPTIPUMP cohort study.

    PubMed

    Drapier, Sophie; Eusebio, Alexandre; Degos, Bertrand; Vérin, Marc; Durif, Franck; Azulay, Jean Philippe; Viallet, François; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Moreau, Caroline; Defebvre, Luc; Fraix, Valerie; Tranchant, Christine; Andre, Karine; Courbon, Christine Brefel; Roze, Emmanuel; Devos, David

    2016-06-01

    To report on OPTIPUMP, a cohort study, investigating the impact in real-life clinical settings of continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) on the quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with Parkinson's disease. OPTIPUMP was a prospective, open-label, observational cohort study involving 30 investigational sites in France. CSAI was proposed as part of routine clinical care to patients aged ≥18 years, in absence of dementia, with a PD diagnosis and based on the presence of motor fluctuations not controlled by oral treatments. The impact of APO-pump on quality of life was evaluated as the difference in PDQ-39 scores between the initiation treatment and the follow-up visit after 6 months' treatment. All adverse events were recorded. Hyper- and hypodopaminergic behavioral tolerance was assessed on the Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease. Between September 2011 and January 2013, we enrolled 142 patients: 42 patients were withdrawn due to pump removal (33), death (4), lost of follow-up (4), no available data (1). 100 completed the study. At 6 months, their HRQoL had significantly improved (p = 0.011), as had their total UPDRS score (p < 0.001). Regarding the safety profile, Ardouin scale scores indicated that their hyperdopaminergic behaviors had not increased. CSAI had a favorable impact on HRQoL, with benefits outweighing risks. The analysis of the withdrawn patients highlights the heterogeneity of the use of the pump having an impact on its efficacy and tolerability.

  4. The dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 effectively increases eye blinking count in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Manato; Kiyoshi, Akihiko; Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Ogi, Yuji; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2016-03-01

    Eye blinking is a spontaneous behavior observed in all mammals, and has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for dopamine production in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Tourette syndrome [1,2]. Pharmacological studies in humans and non-human primates have shown that dopamine agonists/antagonists increase/decrease eye blinking rate. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field due to their more developed prefrontal cortex than rodents, easy handling compare to other non-human primates, and requirement for small amounts of test drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dopamine D1-4 receptors agonists on eye blinking in common marmosets. Our results show that the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine significantly increased common marmosets eye blinking count, whereas the dopamine D2 agonist (+)-PHNO and the dopamine D3 receptor agonist (+)-PD-128907 produced somnolence in common marmosets resulting in a decrease in eye blinking count. The dopamine D4 receptor agonists PD-168077 and A-41297 had no effect on common marmosets' eye blinking count. Finally, the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 completely blocked apomorphine-induced increase in eye blinking count. These results indicate that eye blinking in common marmosets may be a useful tool for in vivo screening of novel dopamine D1 receptor agonists as antipsychotics.

  5. Effect of apomorphine on rat motor activity induced by fencamfamine and other indirect psychostimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Aizenstein, M L; da-Silva-Planeta, C; DeLucia, R; da-Silva, C S

    1995-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of low doses of apomorphine on the stimulant behavioral effects induced by amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg), fencamfamine (6.0 mg/kg) and cocaine (15.0 mg/kg). Rats received 0.02 mg/kg of apomorphine (sc) and 30 min later were injected with one of the stimulants. Motor activity including locomotion, rearing and sniffing was quantified in the animals home cages for 60 min at 15-min intervals. All stimulant drugs induced hyperactivity. When apomorphine was administered before cocaine, but not when administered before fencamfamine or amphetamine, distinctive changes occurred. The behavioral pattern resulting from high stimulation was replaced by that related to low stimulation, suggesting that apomorphine induces a transfer in the predominant behavior in cocaine-, and partially in fencamfamine-, but not in amphetamine-treated animals, by decreasing the intensity of the stereotyped effect. While no changes occurred when apomorphine was administered before amphetamine, the fencamfamine group showed intermediate alterations (nonsignificant changes in sniffing but a significant increase in rearing behavior). These results are discussed in terms of the different mechanisms of presynaptic action of the drugs studied.

  6. Binding Interactions of Dopamine and Apomorphine in D2High and D2Low States of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Using Computational and Experimental Techniques.

    PubMed

    Durdagi, Serdar; Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Stein, Matthias; Yurtsever, Mine; Seeman, Philip

    2016-02-17

    We have recently reported G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) model structures for the active and inactive states of the human dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) using adrenergic crystal structures as templates. Since the therapeutic concentrations of dopamine agonists that suppress the release of prolactin are the same as those that act at the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor (D2High), D2High in the anterior pituitary gland is considered to be the functional state of the receptor. In addition, the therapeutic concentrations of anti-Parkinson drugs are also related to the dissociation constants in the D2High form of the receptor. The discrimination between the high- and low-affinity (D2Low) components of the D2R is not obvious and requires advanced computer-assisted structural biology investigations. Therefore, in this work, the derived D2High and D2Low receptor models (GPCR monomer and dimer three-dimensional structures) are used as drug-binding targets to investigate binding interactions of dopamine and apomorphine. The study reveals a match between the experimental dissociation constants of dopamine and apomorphine at their high- and low-affinity sites of the D2 receptor in monomer and dimer and their calculated dissociation constants. The allosteric receptor-receptor interaction for dopamine D2R dimer is associated with the accessibility of adjacent residues of transmembrane region 4. The measured negative cooperativity between agonist ligand at dopamine D2 receptor is also correctly predicted using the D2R homodimerization model.

  7. Low tryptophan diet decreases brain serotonin and alters response to apomorphine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahakian, B. J.; Wurtman, R. J.; Barr, J. K.; Millington, W. R.; Chiel, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of apomorphine-induced behavior, a behavior primarily controlled by dopaminergic neurotransmission, was investigated in rats fed on a low tryptophan diet since weaning. It was found that reductions in brain seritonin (5-HT) produced by diet result in decreased stereotypy after apomorphine administration. This indicates that although stereotyped behavior is primarily mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms, it can also be modulated by other neurotransmitter including 5-HT. It was also shown that changes in brain seritonin levels can affect psychomotor stimulant-induced hypothermia.

  8. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  9. Effect of chronic antidepressant treatment on responses to apomorphine in selectively bred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Pucilowski, O; Overstreet, D H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the dopamine-sensitizing behavioral effect of chronic antidepressant treatment in two selectively bred rat strains: the hypercholinergic Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). Two antidepressants, desipramine HCl (DMI) and sertraline HCl, were injected IP in separate groups of FSL and FRL rats in a dose of 16.5 mumol/kg twice daily for 16 days. Twenty-four hours after withdrawal, locomotor and hypothermic responses to 0.2 mg/kg of apomorphine, SC, were examined. Attenuation of the effect of apomorphine was observed in the open field: FRLs withdrawn from sertraline were significantly less mobile than control FRLs, and the same trend was found in FSL rats. Chronic DMI resulted in similar changes in the locomotor activity. Sertraline treatment decreased apomorphine-induced hypothermia by almost half in FSLs, whereas slight hyperthermia was induced in FRL rats instead. The present results suggest that in these selectively bred strains, a serotonergic antidepressant such as sertraline may have sensitized dopaminergic autoreceptors and/or desensitized postsynaptic receptors. Apomorphine-induced hypothermia could be mediated by serotonergic neuron function that may have been altered by chronic sertraline but not DMI treatment.

  10. Combined strategies of apomorphine diester prodrugs and nanostructured lipid carriers for efficient brain targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Wen, Chih-Jen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Sung, K. C.; Ku, Ming-Chuan; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-03-01

    Our aim is to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for loading the apomorphine diester prodrugs, diacetyl apomorphine (DAA) and diisobutyryl apomorphine (DIA), into the brain. NLCs were prepared using sesame oil/cetyl palmitate as the lipid matrices. Experiments were performed with the objective of evaluating the physicochemical characteristics, drug release, safety and brain-targeting efficacy of the NLCs. The size of regular NLCs (N-NLCs) was 214 nm. The addition of Forestall (FE) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the NLCs (P-NLCs) increased the particle diameter to 250 nm. The zeta potentials of N-NLCs and P-NLCs were respectively shown to be - 21 and 48 mV. Diester prodrugs were more lipophilic and more chemically stable than the parent apomorphine. The hydrolysis study indicated that the prodrugs underwent bioconversion in plasma and brain extract, with DAA exhibiting faster degradation than DIA. Sustained release was achieved through the synergistic effect of integrating strategies of prodrugs and NLCs, with the longer carbon chain showing the slower release (DIA < DAA). None of the NLCs tested here exhibited a toxicity problem according to the examination of neutrophil lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and hemolysis. Results of a bioimaging study in mice showed that P-NLCs largely accumulated in the brain. The distribution duration of the fluorescent dye in the brain region was also prolonged by the nanocarriers.

  11. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan O; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  12. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  13. Effects of single and repeated treatment with antidepressants on apomorphine-induced yawning in the rat: the implication of alpha-1 adrenergic mechanisms in the D-2 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Delini-Stula, A; Hunn, C

    1990-01-01

    Acute (10 or 20 mg/kg IP) and subchronic (2 x 5 or 10 mg/kg IP daily for 7 days) effects of desipramine, imipramine, maprotiline, (+)- and (-)-oxaprotiline enantiomers as well as selective 5-HT-uptake inhibitors citalopram and ifoxetine on yawning, induced by low doses of apomorphine, were investigated in the rat. In addition, the effects of alpha-1 receptor agonist adrafinil and antagonist prazosin were also tested. After acute treatment, desipramine, the stereoselective NA-uptake inhibiting (+)-enantiomer of oxaprotiline, and the alpha-1 agonist adrafinil, markedly and significantly suppressed yawning. Prazosin, in contrast, clearly potentiated it. This potentiating effect was abolished by the pretreatment with (+)-oxaprotiline and adrafinil. Other drugs were inactive. After subchronic administration, yawning was antagonized by NA-uptake-inhibiting antidepressants, including imipramine and maprotiline. By comparison to the acute treatment, the inhibitory effects of desipramine and (+)-oxaprotiline were considerably enhanced. Neither selective 5-HT-uptake inhibitors nor (-)-oxaprotiline (levoprotiline) were active. Antidepressants therefore modulate the functional activity of D-2 receptors, activated by low doses of apomorphine, predominantly by the virtue of their noradrenergic enhancing properties. This modulatory effect appears to be mediated by alpha-1 adrenergic receptors.

  14. Systematic review of acute levodopa and apomorphine challenge tests in the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, C; Davies, P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To perform a systematic review of studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of acute challenge tests with levodopa and/or apomorphine in parkinsonian syndromes to assess their value in the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
METHODS—A literature search including Medline and the Cochrane Library was performed for studies published in any language comparing acute levodopa and/or apomorphine response with chronic levodopa therapy in parkinsonian syndromes. Abstracted sensitivity and specificity data were summarised using variance weighting and conditional logistic regression for studies comparing two challenge tests.
RESULTS—Thirteen studies were located: four examining de novo patients and nine examining patients with well established idiopathic Parkinson's disease and non-parkinsonian conditions. Despite the significant heterogeneity in the methodologies employed, the comparable results suggest that this had little effect on the accuracy of the tests. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of established idiopathic Parkinson's disease was: apomorphine 0.86 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.78-0.94), acute levodopa 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.85), and chronic levodopa therapy 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.99). The specificity for the diagnosis of established idiopathic Parkinson's disease was: apomorphine 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.96), acute levodopa 0.87(95% CI 0.77-0.97), and chronic levodopa therapy 0.77 (95% CI 0.61-0.93). The number of patients positive for each test divided by the number with clinically diagnosed de novo disease was: apomorphine 0.63 (95% CI 0.56-0.70), acute levodopa 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.80), and chronic levodopa therapy 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.82).
CONCLUSIONS—The accuracy of the acute levodopa and apomorphine challenge tests is similar to, but not superior than, that of chronic levodopa therapy in the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. As most patients will be given chronic dopamimetic therapy, these tests add nothing while

  15. A Genetic Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease Shows Involuntary Movements and Increased Postsynaptic Sensitivity to Apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Brehm, N; Bez, F; Carlsson, T; Kern, B; Gispert, S; Auburger, G; Cenci, M A

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA) protein aggregation plays a causal role in Parkinson's disease (PD). The SNCA protein modulates neurotransmission via the SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex assembly and presynaptic vesicle trafficking. The striatal presynaptic dopamine deficit is alleviated by treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA), but postsynaptic plastic changes induced by this treatment lead to a development of involuntary movements (dyskinesia). While this process is currently modeled in rodents harboring neurotoxin-induced lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway, we have here explored the postsynaptic supersensitivity of dopamine receptor-mediated signaling in a genetic mouse model of early PD. To this end, we used mice with prion promoter-driven overexpression of A53T-SNCA in the nigrostriatal and corticostriatal projections. At a symptomatic age (18 months), mice were challenged with apomorphine (5 mg/kg s.c.) and examined using both behavioral and molecular assays. After the administration of apomorphine, A53T-transgenic mice showed more severe stereotypic and dystonic movements in comparison with wild-type controls. Molecular markers of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and Fos messenger RNA (mRNA), were examined in striatal tissue at 30 and 100 min after apomorphine injection. At 30 min, wild-type and transgenic mice showed a similar induction of phosphorylated ERK1/2, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA (two MAPK phosphatases). At the same time point, Fos mRNA was induced more strongly in mutant mice than in wild-type controls. At 100 min after apomorphine treatment, the induction of both Fos, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA was significantly larger in mutant mice than wild-type controls. At this time point, apomorphine caused a reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 levels specifically in the transgenic mice. Our results document for the first time a disturbance of ERK1/2 signaling regulation associated with apomorphine-induced involuntary movements

  16. The effect of butaclamol and of other neuroleptic agents on the apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Bronaugh, R L; Tabak, J; Ohashi, T; Goldstein, M

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the two enantiomers of butaclamol and of several neuroleptics on the apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity was investigated. The (+) but not the (-) enantiomer of butaclamol reverses the apomorphine-elicited enzyme inhibition. (+) Butaclamol is more potent than the other tested neuroleptics. All the tested neuroleptics reverse the apomorphine-elicited enzyme inhibition but their relative potency differs. Using two criteria, namely the concentrations of neuroleptics required to reverse enzyme inhibition maximally or by 25%, the order of decreasing potency is as follows: (+) butaclamol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, pimozide, chlorpromazine. The results suggest that the reversal of apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity is a valid test model for screening antipsychotic drugs.

  17. Apomorphine, deprenyl, and yohimbine fail to increase sexual behavior in rhesus males.

    PubMed

    Chambers, K C; Phoenix, C H

    1989-08-01

    Various doses of apomorphine, deprenyl, and yohimbine were administered to old (20-26 years) rhesus males that had been sexually active when younger and to younger (6-17 years) males that were characteristically sexually sluggish. These neuropharmacological agents have been reported to increase sexual behavior in male rats. In Experiment 1, 10 old intact rhesus males were tested after injection of vehicle and apomorphine, and 6 old testosterone-treated castrated males were tested after treatment with deprenyl and yohimbine and the vehicles for each drug. In experiment 2, the 5 younger males were tested after treatment with each of the drugs and with the vehicles for each drug. There were a few minor changes in behavior associated with certain doses of each of the drugs and as many depressive as facilitative effects on sexual behavior. This suggests that there are basic differences between rats and rhesus macaques in the systems mediating sexual behavior.

  18. Theranostic liposomes loaded with quantum dots and apomorphine for brain targeting and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Jen; Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and apomorphine were incorporated into liposomes to eliminate uptake by the liver and enhance brain targeting. We describe the preparation, physicochemical characterization, in vivo bioimaging, and brain endothelial cell uptake of the theranostic liposomes. QDs and the drug were mainly located in the bilayer membrane and inner core of the liposomes, respectively. Spherical vesicles with a mean diameter of ~140 nm were formed. QDs were completely encapsulated by the vesicles. Nearly 80% encapsulation percentage was achieved for apomorphine. A greater fluorescence intensity was observed in mouse brains treated with liposomes compared to free QDs. This result was further confirmed by ex vivo imaging of the organs. QD uptake by the heart and liver was reduced by liposomal incorporation. Apomorphine accumulation in the brain increased by 2.4-fold after this incorporation. According to a hyperspectral imaging analysis, multifunctional liposomes but not the aqueous solution carried QDs into the brain. Liposomes were observed to have been efficiently endocytosed into bEND3 cells. The mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake were clathrin- and caveola-mediated endocytosis, which were energy-dependent. To the best of our knowledge, our group is the first to develop liposomes with a QD-drug hybrid for the aim of imaging and treating brain disorders.

  19. Dopamine agonist-induced penile erection and yawning: a comparative study in outbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Corda, Maria Giuseppa; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Löber, Stefan; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Argiolas, Antonio; Giorgi, Osvaldo

    2013-08-01

    The effects on penile erection and yawning of subcutaneous (SC) injections of the mixed dopamine D1/D2-like agonist apomorphine (0.02-0.2 mg/kg) were studied in outbred Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) male rats, two lines selectively bred for their respectively rapid versus poor acquisition of the active avoidance response in the shuttle-box, and compared with the effects observed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Apomorphine dose-response curves were bell-shaped in all rat lines/strains. Notably, more penile erections and yawns were recorded mainly in the ascending part of these curves (e.g., apomorphine 0.02-0.08 mg/kg) in both RLA and RHA rats compared to SD rats, with RLA rats showing the higher response (especially for yawning) with respect to RHA rats. Similar results were found with PD-168,077 (0.02-0.2 mg/kg SC), a D4 receptor agonist, which induced penile erection but not yawning. In all rat lines/strains, apomorphine responses were markedly reduced by the D2 antagonist L-741,626, but not by the D3 antagonist, SB277011A, whereas the D4 antagonists L-745,870 and FAUC213 elicited a partial, yet statistically significant, inhibitory effect. In contrast, the pro-erectile effect of PD-168,077 was completely abolished by L-745,870 and FAUC213, as expected. The present study confirms and extends previously reported differences in dopamine transmission between RLA and RHA rats and between the SD strain and the Roman lines. Moreover, it confirms previous studies supporting the view that dopamine receptors of the D2 subtype play a predominant role in the pro-yawning and pro-erectile effect of apomorphine, and that the selective stimulation of D4 receptors induces penile erection.

  20. Post-trial induction of conditioned apomorphine stimulant and inhibitory response effects: evidence for potent trace conditioning of drug effects.

    PubMed

    Santos, Breno Garone; Carey, Robert J; Carrera, Marinete Pinheiro

    2015-02-01

    The Pavlovian conditioning of drug effects has frequently been demonstrated using protocols that are variants of Pavlovian delay conditioning. We undertook to determine if drug conditioning could be induced using a Pavlovian trace conditioning procedure. Rats were tested in a novel open-field environment for 5 min and in post-trial phase were injected either with vehicle, 2.0 mg/kg or 0.05 mg/kg apomorphine immediately or after a delay of 15 min. The procedure was repeated three times and subsequently a 30 min non-drug test was given. The vehicle and 15 min post-trial apomorphine groups did not differ and in the 30 min test their locomotion scores were equivalent to another vehicle group tested for the first time. The group that received 2.0 mg/kg apomorphine immediately post-trial had a progressive increase in activity over the three sessions and also initially in the 30 min test. The results for the 0.05 mg/kg immediate post-test group were a mirror image of the 2.0 mg/kg apomorphine group. Post-trial apomorphine treatments can induce potent conditioned effects indicative of the efficacy of trace conditioning of drug effects. These finding suggest that trace conditioning may be an important contributor to the potency of conditioned-drug effects in the development of drug addiction.

  1. Dopamine receptor agonists mediate neuroprotection in malonate-induced striatal lesion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Armentero, Marie-Thérèse; Fancellu, Roberto; Nappi, Giuseppe; Blandini, Fabio

    2002-12-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetic defects are involved in neurological disorders associated with neuronal damage in the striatum, such as Huntington's disease and cerebral ischemia. The striatal release of neurotransmitters, in particular dopamine, may contribute to the development of the neuronal damage. Recent studies have shown that dopamine agonists may exert neuroprotective effects via multiple mechanisms, including modulation of dopamine release from nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals. In rats, intrastriatal injection of malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, induces a lesion similar to that observed following focal ischemia or in Huntington's disease. In this study, we used the malonate model to explore the neuroprotective potential of dopamine agonists. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected systemically with increasing concentrations of D(1), D(2), or mixed D(1)/D(2) dopamine agonists prior to malonate intrastriatal insult. Administration of increasing doses of the D(2)-specific agonist quinpirole resulted in increased protection against malonate toxicity. Conversely, the D(1)-specific agonist SKF-38393, as well as the mixed D(1)/D(2) agonist apomorphine, conferred higher neuroprotection at lower than at higher concentrations. Our data suggest that malonate-induced striatal toxicity can be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine agonists, with D(1) and D(2) agonists showing different profiles of efficacy.

  2. Extensive study of the autooxidation products of apomorphine and its pharmacologically active derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udvardy, Antal; Gyulai, Zsuzsanna; Sipos, Attila

    2011-09-01

    The autooxidation phenomenon of apomorphine and the products of this procedure were analytically and pharmacologically studied, however we found that there have been some unclarified details of this filed. Therefore the synthesis and structure of the autooxidation products of three clinically and pharmacologically relevant aporphinoids (apomoprine, N-propyl-norapomorphine and 2-hydroxy- N-propyl-norapomorphine) were thoroughly investigated. The autooxidation of apomorphine achieved at physiological pH resulted two products; one of them is the known tetracyclic, tertiary amino ortho quinone and the hitherto unknown, fluorescent, derivatized phenanthrene-3,4-quinone. Under the same conditions N-propyl congeners resulted only the expected 1,2-dione products. The analytical structure elucidation involved the full 1H and 13C NMR assignment, UV and IR characterizations of the four isolated ortho quinone-type products exploiting the possibilities of DFT calculations for geometry optimization, NMR and IR simulations. The phenanthrene-3,4-quinone compound can be relevant in further pharmacological studies of aporphine-related oxidation products due to its potential toxicity and investigated fluorescent character.

  3. Amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in the treatment of disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Gosseries, Olivia; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Thonnard, Marie; Bodart, Olivier; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to improve arousal levels and recovery of consciousness. We here provide a systematic overview of the therapeutic effects of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in patients recovering from coma. Evidence from clinical trials using these commonly prescribed pharmacological agents suggests positive changes of the patients' neurological status, leading sometimes to dramatic improvements. These findings are discussed in the context of current hypotheses of these agents' therapeutic mechanisms on cerebral function. In order to improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these drugs, we suggest combining sensitive and specific behavioral tools with neuroimaging and electrophysiological measures in large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental designs. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem need further exploration to determine which treatment would provide a better neurological outcome regarding the patient's etiology, diagnosis, time since injury and overall condition.

  4. Physicochemical characterization and in vivo bioluminescence imaging of nanostructured lipid carriers for targeting the brain: apomorphine as a model drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Wen, Chih-Jen; Al-Suwayeh, S. A.; Chang, Hui-Wen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Jia-You

    2010-10-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared to investigate whether the duration of brain targeting and accumulation of drugs in the brain can be improved by intravenous delivery. NLCs were developed using cetyl palmitate as the lipid matrix, squalene as the cationic surfactant, and Pluronic F68, polysorbate 80 and polyethylene glycol as the interfacial additives. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and lipid emulsions (LEs) were also prepared for comparison. An anti-Parkinson's drug, apomorphine, was used as the model drug. Nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry showed possible interactions between the solid and liquid lipids in the inner core. The lipid nanoparticles with different compositions were characterized by mean size, zeta potential, apomorphine encapsulation and in vitro drug release. NLCs were 370-430 nm in size, which was between the sizes of the SLNs and LEs. A cationic surfactant was used to produce a positive surface charge of 42-50 mV. The base form of apomorphine was successfully entrapped by NLCs with an entrapment percentage of > 60%. The loading of apomorphine in nanoparticles resulted in a slower release behavior compared to the aqueous solution, with LEs showing the lowest release. In vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging of the rat brain revealed that NLCs could be targeted, through certain vessels, to selected brain regions. This effect was further confirmed by imaging the entire brain and brain slices. The results indicated that NLCs with moderate additives are a promising controlled-release and drug-targeting system.

  5. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  6. Dopamine agonist-induced penile erection and yawning: differential role of D₂-like receptor subtypes and correlation with nitric oxide production in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Succu, Salvatora; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Argiolas, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The dopamine D₃ preferring agonist pramipexole (50 ng) induced penile erection and yawning when injected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats, like the mixed D₁/D₂-like agonist apomorphine (50 ng), while the D₄ agonist PD 168,077 (100 ng), induced penile erection only. These responses lasted for 45-60 min and occurred with an increase of NO₂- and NO₃- concentrations in the dialysate obtained from the paraventricular nucleus by intracerebral microdialysis. Pramipexole and apomorphine responses were reduced by the D₂ preferring antagonist L-741,626 (5 μg), but not by the D₃ preferring antagonist SB-277011A (10 μg), or the D₄ preferring antagonist L-745,870 (5 μg), injected into the PVN before the dopamine agonist. In contrast, PD 168,077 responses were reduced by L-745,870, but not by L-741,626 or SB-277011A. Pramipexole, apomorphine and PD 168,077 effects were also reduced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (20 μg) and the N-type voltage-dependent Ca²⁺ channels blocker ω-conotoxin (5 ng), given into the paraventricular nucleus, and by the oxytocin antagonist d(CH₂)₅Tyr(Me)²-Orn⁸-vasotocin (2 μg), given intracerebroventricularly but not into the paraventricular nucleus before dopamine agonists. These results suggest that stimulation of D₂, but not D₃ or D₄ receptors, by pramipexole or apomorphine increases Ca²⁺ influx in cell bodies of oxytocinergic neurons. This increases the production of nitric oxide, which activates oxytocinergic neurotransmission in extra-hypothalamic brain areas and spinal cord, leading to penile erection and yawning. However, the stimulation of D₄ receptors by PD 168,077 also increases Ca²⁺ influx/nitric oxide production leading to penile erection, but not yawning.

  7. Microdialysis study of striatal dopamine in MPTP-hemilesioned rats challenged with apomorphine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Patricia Andreia; Carvalho, Milene Cristina; Miyoshi, Edmar; Correia, Diego; Bortolanza, Mariza; Dos Santos, Lucélia Mendes; Wietzikoski, Evellyn Claudia; Eckart, Moritz Thede; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Brandão, Marcus Lira; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2010-12-20

    Motor impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD) appear only after the loss of more than 70% of the DAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). An earlier phase of this disease can be modeled in rats that received a unilateral infusion of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine (MPTP) into the SNc. Though these animals do not present gross motor impairments, they rotate towards the lesioned side when challenged with DAergic drugs, like amphetamine and apomorphine. The present study aimed to test whether these effects occur because the drugs disrupt compensatory mechanisms that keep extracellular levels of dopamine in the striatum (DA(E)) unchanged. This hypothesis was tested by an in vivo microdialysis study in awake rats with two probes implanted in the right and left striatum. Undrugged rats did not present turning behaviour and their basal DA(E) did not differ between the lesioned and sham-lesioned sides. However, after apomorphine treatment, DA(E) decreased in both sides, but to a larger extent in the lesioned side at the time the animals started ipsiversive turning behaviour. After amphetamine challenge, DA(E) increased in both sides, becoming significantly higher in the non-lesioned side at the time the animals started ipsiversive turning behaviour. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that absence of gross motor impairments in this rat model of early phase PD depends on maintenance of extracellular DA by mechanisms that may be disrupted by events demanding its alteration to higher or lower levels.

  8. Behavioural profile of Wistar rats with unilateral striatal lesion by quinolinic acid (animal model of Huntington disease) post-injection of apomorphine and exposure to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Giorgetto, Carolina; Silva, Elaine Cristina Mazzei; Kitabatake, Takae Tamy; Bertolino, Guilherme; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We analysed the motor behaviour of Wistar rats after 7 days lesion in the left striatum, injected with apomorphine (APO) and stimulated by a continuous magnetic field of 3,200 Gauss. For the behaviour assessment, we utilised the activity cage test and the rotarod test. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, sham, sham magnetic, lesion, and stimulated South and North Poles. After the experiments, coronal sections of the striatum were taken and stained with Nissl for analysis of the lesion. In the activity cage test for distance (F = 3.19), time of activity (F = 5.46) and crossings (F = 3.31) in all groups, except for the North Pole-stimulated group, we observed a significant increase in these behaviours when compared to the control group. Considering the number of counterclockwise turns, we observed a significant increase in the lesion in the South and North Pole stimulation groups compared with the control group. Highlighting the minor number of counterclockwise turns observed in the North Pole-stimulated group in relation to the South Pole-stimulated and Lesion groups (F = 16.01). The rotarod test revealed a decrease in the time spent in this apparatus for the Lesion group when compared to all other groups (F = 5.46). The morphometric analysis showed a reduction in the number of neurons in the Lesion group in relation to all other groups (F = 5.13). Thus, the results suggest that the static magnetic field north and south promoted a distinct behavioural profile and morphological preservation after 7 days of lesion with quinolinic acid associated with APO.

  9. GABA receptor agonists: pharmacological spectrum and therapeutic actions.

    PubMed

    Bartholini, G

    1985-01-01

    apomorphine or L-DOPA suggesting that GABAergic stimulation results also in an antidopaminergic action which is exerted beyond the dopamine synapse. These effects of GABA receptor agonists may represent the basis of the antidyskinetic action of these compounds which, however, remains to be fully confirmed. GABA receptor agonists reduce striatal acetylcholine turnover, an effect which occurs at doses much lower than those which affect dopamine neurons. Since hyperactivity of cholinergic neurons plays a determinant role in the pathogenesis of some parkinsonian symptoms, it is conceivable that GABAergic stimulation is effective in ameliorating Parkinson's disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  10. Winter day lengths counteract stimulatory effects of apomorphine and yohimbine on sexual behavior of male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, David J; Jarjisian, Stephan G; Zucker, Irving

    2012-08-01

    Yohimbine and apomorphine selectively act on noradrenergic and dopaminergic neural substrates to augment male sexual behavior (MSB) in several rodent species. The present study assessed whether these drugs can overcome the suppressive effects of short winter-like day lengths on MSB. Yohimbine treatments that markedly increase copulatory behavior of male hamsters in long days were completely ineffective in facilitating MSB when injected after gonadal regression induced by 16 wks of short day lengths and after complete gonadal recrudescence after 32 wks of short days; apomorphine was similarly ineffective. The brain circuit that mediates MSB either may be less responsive to yohimbine and apomorphine in short than long days, or these drugs may not produce equivalent neurotransmitter changes in the two day lengths. After 32 wks of short-day treatment, all males had undergone testicular recrudescence and successfully ejaculated on initial tests with sexually receptive females after a hiatus of at least 4 mo during which they were denied mating opportunities. This suggests that overwintering males in the field are in a state of reproductive readiness at the outset of spring conditions favorable for survival of offspring.

  11. Differential Effects of apoE4 and Activation of ABCA1 on Brain and Plasma Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv; Levkovitz, Hana; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Michaelson, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the leading genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), is less lipidated compared to the most common and AD-benign allele, apoE3. We have recently shown that i.p. injections of the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) agonist peptide CS-6253 to apoE mice reverse the hypolipidation of apoE4 and the associated brain pathology and behavioral deficits. While in the brain apoE is the main cholesterol transporter, in the periphery apoE and apoA-I both serve as the major cholesterol transporters. We presently investigated the extent to which apoE genotype and CS-6253 treatment to apoE3 and apoE4-targeted replacement mice affects the plasma levels and lipid particle distribution of apoE, and those of plasma and brain apoA-I and apoJ. This revealed that plasma levels of apoE4 were lower and eluted faster following FPLC than plasma apoE3. Treatment with CS-6253 increased the levels of plasma apoE4 and rendered the elution profile of apoE4 similar to that of apoE3. Similarly, the levels of plasma apoA-I were lower in the apoE4 mice compared to apoE3 mice, and this effect was partially reversed by CS-6253. Conversely, the levels of apoA-I in the brain which were higher in the apoE4 mice, were unaffected by CS-6253. The plasma levels of apoJ were higher in apoE4 mice than apoE3 mice and this effect was abolished by CS-6253. Similar but less pronounced effects were obtained in the brain. In conclusion, these results suggest that apoE4 affects the levels of apoA-I and apoJ and that the anti-apoE4 beneficial effects of CS-6253 may be related to both central and peripheral mechanisms. PMID:27824936

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of antagonist and agonist interactions with dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Duarte, E P; Oliveira, C R; Carvalho, A P

    1988-03-01

    The binding of [3H]spiperone to dopamine D-2 receptors and its inhibition by antagonists and agonists were examined in microsomes derived from the sheep caudate nucleus, at temperatures between 37 and 1 degree C, and the thermodynamic parameters of the binding were evaluated. The affinity of the receptor for the antagonists, spiperone and (+)-butaclamol, decreased as the incubation temperature decreased; the affinity for haloperidol did not further decrease at temperatures below 15 degrees C. The binding of the antagonists was associated with very large increases in entropy, as expected for hydrophobic interactions. The enthalpy and entropy changes associated with haloperidol binding were dependent on temperature, in contrast to those associated with spiperone and (+)-butaclamol. The magnitude of the entropy increase associated with the specific binding of the antagonists did not correlate with the degree of lipophilicity of these drugs. The data suggest that, in addition to hydrophobic forces, other forces are also involved in the antagonist-dopamine receptor interactions, and that a conformational change of the receptor could occur when the antagonist binds. Agonist binding data are consistent with a two-state model of the receptor, a high-affinity state (RH) and a low-affinity state (RL). The affinity of dopamine binding to the RH decreased with decreasing temperatures below 20 degrees C, whereas the affinity for the RL increased at low temperatures. In contrast, the affinity of apomorphine for both states of receptor decreased as the temperature decreased from 30 to 8 degrees C. A clear distinction between the energetics of high-affinity and low-affinity agonist binding was observed. The formation of the high-affinity complex was associated with larger increases in enthalpy and entropy than the interaction with the low-affinity state was. The results suggest that the interaction of the receptor with the G-proteins, induced or stabilized by the binding of

  13. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These

  14. Rotigotine is a potent agonist at dopamine D1 receptors as well as at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Martyn; Dubois, Vanessa; Scheller, Dieter; Gillard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rotigotine acts as a dopamine receptor agonist with high affinity for the dopamine D2, D3, D4 and D5 receptors but with a low affinity for the dopamine D1 receptor. We have investigated this further in radioligand binding and functional studies and compared the profile of rotigotine with that of other drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental Approach The binding of rotigotine to human dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 receptors was determined in radioligand binding studies using [3H]rotigotine and compared with that of standard antagonist radioligands. Functional interactions of rotigotine with human dopamine receptors was also determined. Key Results [3H]rotigotine can be used as an agonist radioligand to label all dopamine receptor subtypes and this can be important to derive agonist affinity estimates. Rotigotine maintains this high affinity in functional studies at all dopamine receptors especially D1, D2 and D3 receptors and, to a lesser extent, D4 and D5 receptors. Rotigotine, like apomorphine but unlike ropinirole and pramipexole, was a potent agonist at all dopamine receptors. Conclusions and Implications Rotigotine is a high-potency agonist at human dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptors with a lower potency at D4 and D5 receptors. These studies differentiate rotigotine from conventional dopamine D2 agonists, used in the treatment of PD, such as ropinirole and pramipexole which lack activity at the D1 and D5 receptors, but resembles that of apomorphine which has greater efficacy in PD than other dopamine agonists but has suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:25339241

  15. 5-HT6 receptor antagonist reversal of emotional learning and prepulse inhibition deficits induced by apomorphine or scopolamine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ellen S; Neumaier, John F

    2008-01-01

    5-HT6 receptors have been implicated in consolidation of visuospatial and reward-based learning tasks. Since 5-HT6 receptors may be important in modulation of sensory gating which is often affected in schizophrenic patients, we tested whether Ro 4368554, a 5-HT6 selective antagonist at a dose of 10 mg/kg, could reverse the loss of prepulse inhibition from apomorphine or scopolamine. In addition, we also tested whether Ro 4368554 altered fear conditioning using fear potentiated startle, a model for emotional learning. Prepulse inhibition of startle was disrupted by apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg) when prepulse emissions were 5 dB above background but not above 15 dB, while scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) caused disruption at both prepulse levels. Scopolamine-mediated disruption was not reversed by Ro 4368854 but apomorphine-mediated disruption was significantly ameliorated by 5-HT6 inhibition. For fear potentiated startle, scopolamine and/or Ro 4368554 were administered before two daily fear conditioning sessions; rats were tested on the following day. Rats that received scopolamine displayed no fear potentiated startle but Ro 4368554 reversed this scopolamine deficit. Additionally, we mapped Fos induction in rats treated with scopolamine and/or Ro 4368554; scopolamine increased Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala and this was attenuated by Ro 4368554. In summary, we have demonstrated the efficacy of 5-HT6 antagonists in modulating sensory gating and fear conditioning, and thus may be of therapeutic use for schizophrenia-related disorders.

  16. Influence of morphine- or apomorphine-induced sensitization on histamine state-dependent learning in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Khalilzadeh, Azita; Malekmohammadi, Nazanin; Fazli-Tabaei, Soheila

    2006-07-15

    Effects of morphine- or apomorphine-induced sensitization on histamine state-dependent memory of passive avoidance task were examined in mice. Pre-training intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine (20 microg/mouse) decreased the learning of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-test administration of histamine (10 and 20 microg/mouse) reversed amnesia induced by pre-training of histamine, with maximum response at 20 microg/mouse. Pre-training histamine-induced amnesia was also reversed in morphine- or apomorphine-sensitized mice that had previously received once daily injections of morphine (20 and 30 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) for 3 days. The reversion of histamine-induced amnesia in morphine-sensitized mice was decreased by once daily administration of naloxone (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), SCH 23390 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or sulpiride (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) prior to injection of morphine (30 mg/kg/day, 3 days). Furthermore, once daily administration of sulpiride (50 and 100 mg/kg) but not SCH 23390 (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) prior to apomorphine (1 mg/kg, for 3 days) decreased the reversion of pre-training histamine-induced amnesia by apomorphine. The results suggest that apomorphine or morphine sensitization affects the impairment of memory induced by histamine and thus it is postulated that opioid and dopamine receptors may play an important role in this effect.

  17. 7-(3-(4-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)piperazinyl)propoxy)-2 (1H)-quinolinone (OPC-4392), a presynaptic dopamine autoreceptor agonist and postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Y.; Kikuchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Tsutsui, M.; Yamada, K.; Hiyama, T.

    1988-01-01

    The assertion that OPC-4392 acts as an agonist at presynaptic dopamine autoreceptors is supported by the following behavioral and biochemical observations: OPC-4392, 3-PPP and apomorphine inhibited the reserpine-induced increase in DOPA accumulation in the forebrain of mice and in the frontal cortex, limbic forebrain and striatum of rats. In addition, the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL)-induced increase in DOPA accumulation in the mouse forebrain was also inhibited by OPC-4392, 3-PPP and apomorphine. The inhibitory effect of OPC-4392 on GBL-induced DOPA accumulation lasted for at least 8 hours after oral administration to mice, while that of 3-PPP and apomorphine disappeared in 4 hours after subcutaneous injection. OPC-4392 failed to increase spontaneous motor activity in reserpinized mice, enhance spontaneous ipsilateral rotation in rats with unilateral striatal kainic acid (KA) lesions, induce contralateral rotation in rats with unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and inhibit /sup 14/C-acetylcholine (Ach) release stimulated by 20 mM KCl in rat striatal slices.

  18. [Determination of apomorphine, sildenafil and alprostadil in medicines for erectile dysfunction by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanjin; Xu, Guiping

    2005-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analytical method for illicit drugs, apomorphine, sildenafil and alprostadil, in medicines for erectile dysfunction has been developed. The samples were extracted with methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column using acetonitrile-0.5% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The three compounds were identified by retention time and m/z and quantified by peak area. The results demonstrated that the linear ranges were 50.0 - 5 000.0 microg/L, 10.0 - 1 000.0 microg/L, 40.0 - 4 000.0 microg/L, with detection limits of 20.0, 4.0, 10.0 microg/L for apomorphine, sildenafil and alprostadil, respectively. The average recoveries and the relative standard deviations were 89% - 95% and 9.5% - 11%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the simultaneous determination of these drugs in medicines for erectile dysfunction.

  19. Concurrent use of REM latency, dexamethasone suppression, clonidine, and apomorphine tests as biological markers of endogenous depression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ansseau, M; Scheyvaerts, M; Doumont, A; Poirrier, R; Legros, J J; Franck, G

    1984-07-01

    In a sample of 12 major depressive inpatients, endogenous subtype (8 primary and 4 secondary) defined by Research Diagnostic Criteria, we compared the sensitivity of four potential biological markers: latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (recorded during at least 4 consecutive nights), dexamethasone suppression, and the clonidine and apomorphine tests. Shortened REM latency (less than 50 minutes during at least 1 night) identified 67% of depressives (87% of primary and 25% of secondary); nonsuppression after dexamethasone identified 50% of depressives (62% of primary and 25% of secondary); blunted growth hormone (GH) response after clonidine identified 75% of depressives (100% of primary and 25% of secondary); and blunted GH response after apomorphine identified 42% of depressives (62% of primary and 0% of secondary). Ninety-two percent of patients were correctly identified by at least one biological marker (100% of primary and 75% of secondary depressives). Of 67% of patients positive on at least two biological markers, all were primary depressives (100%). These four biological markers do not necessarily identify the same population, suggesting that their concurrent use may yield the highest level of diagnostic sensitivity.

  20. Combination therapy for erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, cross-over study of the pharmacodynamics and safety of combined oral formulations of apomorphine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate and papaverine hydrochloride in men with moderate to severe erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P I; Rubio-Aurioles, E; Castell, R; Castaneda, J; Ponce de Leon, R; Hurley, D; Lipezker, M; Loehr, L A; Lowrey, F

    2002-02-01

    Oral therapy has become first line treatment for patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED). Studies have shown that sildenafil may not be effective in all patients, and has been associated with a variety of adverse effects and an adverse interaction with nitrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of three different oral combinations with the highest dose of sildenafil in men with moderate to severe ED. Randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, Phase II study was carried out at three sites in Mexico. After a 4-week placebo run-in period, patients received all four of the following treatments using a 4-way cross-over design: 40 mg phentolamine (PM) +6 mg apomorphine (Apo); 40 mg PM +150 mg papaverine (Pap); 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo +150 mg Pap (Tricombo); 100 mg sildenafil (SC). With the exception of sildenafil tablets, all study medication was blinded. Moderate to severe ED was defined as a less than 50% vaginal penetration success rate during the placebo run-in period. A total of 44 patients were enrolled, of whom 36 completed all four treatment periods. All treatments produced a significant effect in primary efficacy variable (Sexual Encounter Profile) compared to baseline, however, no statistically significant differences were found between treatments. A significant period effect was observed. Also, the four treatments were found not to differ significantly in five out of six secondary efficacy variables. The lowest incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AE) occurred in the 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo group (9.8%), followed by 100 mg SC (15%), and the other two combinations (16.7 and 17.5%, respectively). Nasocongestion and headache were the most frequently reported AE. An oral combination of vasoactive agents may provide an alternative approach to sildenafil. Based on these results a combination of phentolamine and apomorphine warrants further clinical investigation.

  1. Forelimb akinesia in the rat Parkinson model: differential effects of dopamine agonists and nigral transplants as assessed by a new stepping test.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Nikkhah, G; Bentlage, C; Björklund, A

    1995-05-01

    Methods for the assessment of akinesia in the unilateral rat Parkinson model have so far been lacking. The experiments reported here evaluate the usefulness of a new "stepping test" to monitor forelimb akinesia in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the mesencephalic dopamine (DA) system, and to assess the ability of DA-receptor agonists and fetal DA neuron transplants to reverse these deficits. The 6-OHDA lesion induced marked and long-lasting impairments in the initiation of stepping movements with the contralateral paw. Systemic injections of low doses (chosen to be subthreshold for induction of rotation) of the mixed D1 and D2 receptor agonist apomorphine, the D1-selective agonist SKF 38393, and to a lesser extent also the D2-selective agonist quinpirole were effective in reversing these deficits. Similar effects was seen after a subrotational dose of L-dopa, whereas amphetamine had no effect. Fetal nigral transplants, implanted as multiple deposits in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen and substantia nigra, restored initiation of stepping to a similar degree as the DA agonists. Nigral grafts placed in substantia nigra alone were also effective, although the improvement was less pronounced. Apomorphine, at a dose effective in the lesion-only animals, had no additive effect in the grafted rats, whereas amphetamine appeared to further improve stepping in the rats with intranigral transplants. Identical experiments were performed on skilled forelimb use in the so-called staircase test. Interestingly, neither the DA agonist drugs nor the nigral transplants had any effects on the lesion induced deficits in this more complex task. The results show that forelimb stepping is a highly useful test to monitor lesion-/and transplant-induced changes in forelimb akinesia, a behavioral parameter that may be analogous to limb akinesia and gait problems seen in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  2. The muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline has an antipsychotic-like profile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, K J; Mirza, N R; Bickerdike, M J; Bright, J L; Harrington, N R; Hesselink, M B; Kennett, G A; Lightowler, S; Sheardown, M J; Syed, R; Upton, R L; Wadsworth, G; Weiss, S M; Wyatt, A

    2001-11-01

    The muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline was examined and compared with the antipsychotics clozapine and/or haloperidol in the following in vivo rat models: apomorphine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI), amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, and the conditioned emotional response (CER) test. The effects of xanomeline were also assessed ex vivo on dopamine turnover in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Under conditions of varying dose and prepulse intensity, xanomeline, like haloperidol, had no effect on PPI. In contrast, the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine and the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine both induced significant dose-dependent deficits in PPI. Haloperidol and xanomeline, but not pilocarpine, dose dependently reversed apomorphine-induced disruption of PPI. Thus, xanomeline induced a clear antipsychotic-like effect in PPI, whereas pilocarpine appeared to induce a psychotomimetic-like effect. Xanomeline attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity at doses that had no effect on spontaneous activity, possibly indicating a separation between attenuation of limbic hyperdopaminergic function and the induction of hypolocomotion. Haloperidol and clozapine also reversed amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, but at similar doses to those that reduced spontaneous locomotion. Clozapine, but not haloperidol had an anxiolytic-like effect in the CER test. The effects of xanomeline in the CER test were similar to those of clozapine, although at the anxiolytic dose it tended to disrupt baseline levels of lever pressing. Finally, haloperidol, clozapine, pilocarpine, and xanomeline, all induced an increase in dopamine turnover in medial prefrontal cortex. The antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline in the animal models used here suggest that it may be a useful treatment for psychosis.

  3. Presynaptic inhibitory dopamine receptors on noradrenergic nerve terminals: analysis of biphasic actions of dopamine and apomorphine on the release of endogenous norepinephrine in rat hypothalamic slices

    SciTech Connect

    Misu, Y.; Goshima, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kubo, T.

    1985-12-01

    Electrical field stimulation (5 Hz)- or high K+ (20 mM)-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine from superfused rat hypothalamic slices in the presence of cocaine (20 microM) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector. Apomorphine (10-1000 nM) dose-dependently facilitated the electrically evoked release. Apomorphine (1 microM)-induced facilitation was abolished by pretreatment with yohimbine (100 nM), was converted to inhibition by yohimbine (1 microM), but was not antagonized by propranolol (300 nM). Epinephrine (100 nM) decreased the electrically evoked release and the decrease was antagonized by yohimbine (100 nM) and by apomorphine (100 nM), but not by S-sulpiride (100 nM). In the presence of yohimbine (1 microM), apomorphine (10-1000 nM) dose-dependently inhibited the electrically evoked release. Furthermore, in the presence of tetrodotoxin (300 nM), apomorphine (100 nM) also decreased the high K+-evoked release and this decrease was antagonized by S-sulpiride (100 nM). Dopamine produced biphasic actions on the electrically evoked release, a dose-dependent decrease at 30 and 100 nM and an increase at 300 and 1000 nM. Dopamine (300 nM)-induced increase was antagonized by propranolol (300 nM) but not by yohimbine (100 nM). The dopamine (100 nM)-induced decrease was antagonized by S-sulpiride (1 nM), but not by the R-isomer. S-sulpiride (10 to 100 nM) alone dose-dependently increased the electrically evoked release, whereas the R-isomer had no effect. Haloperidol (100 nM) also increased the electrically evoked release.

  4. [Melatonin receptor agonist].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland and is involved in the regulation of human sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. The melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the sleep-wake regulation. Based on the fact that MT1 receptors are involved in human sleep onset process, melatonin receptor agonists have been developed to treat insomnia. In this article, we first reviewed functions of melatonin receptors with special reference to MT1 and MT2, and properties and clinical application of melatonin receptor agonists as hypnotics.

  5. Antipsychotic-like effect of GLP-1 agonist liraglutide but not DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin in mouse model for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Tejashree S; Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Lucot, James B; Elased, Khalid M

    2013-04-10

    Recent studies indicate a high comorbidity between type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurological disorders. Many are associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission such as schizophrenia. Because most of the antipsychotic drugs aggravate pre-existing insulin resistance in type-2 diabetics, there is a need to search for alternative antipsychotics. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone primarily involved in glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 agonist (liraglutide) and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor (sitagliptin) are the US-FDA approved medications for the management of T2DM. However, little is known about their role in dopamine mediated neurological disorders like schizophrenia. To address this, we used apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior as a murine model for psychosis and examined for potential antipsychotic-like effect of liraglutide and sitagliptin. While acute liraglutide treatment (50 μg/kg; i.p.) significantly attenuated apomorphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) induced cage climbing, sitagliptin (50mg/kg; i.p.) failed to elicit such effect. This is the first preclinical evidence for antipsychotic-like effect of GLP-1 receptor agonist. These results open an opportunity to explore GLP-1 analogs for their potential to modulate spectrum of dopamine-mediated neurological disorders.

  6. Melatonin agonists and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sally A; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Dawson, Drew

    2010-02-01

    The ability of melatonin to shift biological rhythms is well known. As a result, melatonin has been used in the treatment of various circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced and delayed sleep phase disorders, jet lag and shiftwork disorder. The current evidence for melatonin being efficacious in the treatment of primary insomnia is less compelling. The development of agents that are selective for melatonin receptors provides opportunity to further elucidate the actions of melatonin and its receptors and to develop novel treatments for specific types of sleep disorders. The agonists reviewed here - ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine - all appear to be efficacious in the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and some types of insomnia. However, further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of action, particularly for insomnia. Clinical application of the agonists requires a good understanding of their phase-dependent properties. Long-term effects of melatonin should be evaluated in large-scale, independent randomized controlled trials.

  7. Beta-Adrenergic Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Baroffio, Michele; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptoms-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. In this article, we first review the basic mechanisms by which the β2-adrenergic system contributes to the control of airway smooth muscle tone. Then, we go on describing the structural characteristics of β2-AR and the molecular basis of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and mechanisms of its desensitization/ dysfunction. In particular, phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A and β-adrenergic receptor kinase are examined in detail. Finally, we discuss the pivotal role of inhaled β2-AR agonists in the treatment of asthma and the concerns about their safety that have been recently raised. PMID:27713285

  8. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Drug memory substitution during re-consolidation: a single inhibitory autoreceptor apomorphine treatment given during psychostimulant memory re-consolidation replaces psychostimulant conditioning with conditioned inhibition and reverses psychostimulant sensitization.

    PubMed

    de Mello Bastos, João Marcos; Dias, Flávia Regina Cruz; Alves, Victor Hugo Nicácio; Carey, Robert J; Carrera, Marinete Pinheiro

    2014-03-01

    Psychostimulant conditioning and sensitization effects have proven to be difficult to eliminate using behavioral methods. We used a low autoreceptor dose of apomorphine in counter-conditioning and memory re-consolidation protocols to modify conditioned and sensitized responses induced by a high dose of apomorphine. Rats received five daily treatments of apomorphine (2.0mg/kg) and were tested in an arena for 30 min to induce conditioning and sensitization. Conditioning was validated in a brief 5 min non-drug conditioning test and sensitization by a 2.0 apomorphine challenge test. Next, the counter-conditioning and memory re-consolidation protocols were initiated. In counter-conditioning, vehicle or 0.05 mg/kg apomorphine was given either 15 min or immediately before a 5 min arena test. In the memory re-consolidation protocol, the vehicle and 0.05 apomorphine treatments were administered post-trial either immediately after or 15 min after the 5 min arena test. Effects were assessed with a 5 min saline conditioning test and a second 2.0mg/kg apomorphine challenge test. The counter-conditioning protocol induced hypolocomotion and but did not induce a conditioned hypo-locomotion and did not alter the sensitized response. The 15 min post-trial treatment did not affect either the conditioned or the sensitized responses. The immediate post-trial treatment eliminated sensitization and induced a conditioned hypoactivity response. These results highlight the memory re-consolidation period as a critical target for drug memory substitution and suggest the potential utility of the pharmacological inhibition of dopamine activity given as a therapeutic drug memory replacement during addictive drug memory re-consolidation.

  10. Potent anorexic-like effects of RDS-127 (2-di-n-propylamino-4,7-dimethoxyindane) in the rat: a comparison with other dopamine-receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Arnerić, S P; Roetker, A; Long, J P

    1982-09-01

    Modification of food intake and motor activity was investigated following administration of amphetamine (AMP), apomorphine (APO) and three novel 2-aminoindanes (2-AI): 2-di-n-propylaminoindane (JPC-60-36), 2-di-n-propylamino-5,6-dimethoxyindane (JPC-211) and 2-di-n-propylamine-4,7-dimethoxyindane (RDS-127). These compounds demonstrated dose- and time-related inhibition of food intake in male rats which were habituated to eating 4 hr each day. The ranked potencies were as follows: RDS-127 greater than AMP = APO greater than JPC-60-36 and JPC-211 was inactive. 2-di-n-Propylamine-4,7-dimethoxyindane (RDS-127) did not increase motor activity in a dose range that Significantly inhibited food intake (66% of control intake with 0.08 mumol/kg). Food intake inhibition was blocked by pimozide, but not by propranolol or phentolamine. The anorectic-like actions of RDS-127 were long-lasting (greater than 4 hr) and RDS-127 was approximately 3-fold more potent than amphetamine or apomorphine in producing increased locomotor activity; the other 2-aminoindanes were less potent in producing hyperactivity. Hyperactivity responses were blocked by pimozide, but not by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. These results suggest that 2-aminoindanes may modify motor behaviors, at least in part, via direct stimulation of dopamine receptors. The structure-activity relationships of 2-aminoindanes on locomotor activity and inhibition of food intake are discussed.

  11. To kill a tumor cell: the potential of proapoptotic receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazi, Avi; Herbst, Roy S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in mechanisms that direct abnormal cells to undergo apoptosis frequently and critically contribute to tumorigenesis, yielding a logical target for potential therapeutic intervention. There is currently heightened interest in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, with several proapoptotic receptor agonists (PARAs) in development. The PARAs include the ligand recombinant human Apo2L/TRAIL and agonistic mAbs. Mechanistic and preclinical data with Apo2L/TRAIL indicate exciting opportunities for synergy with conventional therapies and for combining PARAs with other molecularly targeted agents. Novel molecular biomarkers may help identify those patients most likely to benefit from PARA therapy. PMID:18523647

  12. Identification and in Vivo Evaluation of Liver X Receptor β-Selective Agonists for the Potential Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Shawn J; Zerbinatti, Celina; Rudd, Michael T; Cosden, Mali; Suon, Sokreine; Nanda, Kausik K; Wessner, Keith; DiMuzio, Jillian; Maxwell, Jill; Wu, Zhenhua; Uslaner, Jason M; Michener, Maria S; Szczerba, Peter; Brnardic, Edward; Rada, Vanessa; Kim, Yuntae; Meissner, Robert; Wuelfing, Peter; Yuan, Yang; Ballard, Jeanine; Holahan, Marie; Klein, Daniel J; Lu, Jun; Fradera, Xavier; Parthasarathy, Gopal; Uebele, Victor N; Chen, Zhongguo; Li, Yingjie; Li, Jian; Cooke, Andrew J; Bennett, D Jonathan; Bilodeau, Mark T; Renger, John

    2016-04-14

    Herein, we describe the development of a functionally selective liver X receptor β (LXRβ) agonist series optimized for Emax selectivity, solubility, and physical properties to allow efficacy and safety studies in vivo. Compound 9 showed central pharmacodynamic effects in rodent models, evidenced by statistically significant increases in apolipoprotein E (apoE) and ATP-binding cassette transporter levels in the brain, along with a greatly improved peripheral lipid safety profile when compared to those of full dual agonists. These findings were replicated by subchronic dosing studies in non-human primates, where cerebrospinal fluid levels of apoE and amyloid-β peptides were increased concomitantly with an improved peripheral lipid profile relative to that of nonselective compounds. These results suggest that optimization of LXR agonists for Emax selectivity may have the potential to circumvent the adverse lipid-related effects of hepatic LXR activity.

  13. Neonatal co-lesion by DSP-4 and 5,7-DHT produces adulthood behavioral sensitization to dopamine D(2) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemysław; Nitka, Dariusz; Kwieciński, Adam; Jośko, Jadwiga; Drab, Jacek; Pojda-Wilczek, Dorota; Kasperski, Jacek; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    To assess the possible modulatory effects of noradrenergic and serotoninergic neurons on dopaminergic neuronal activity, the noradrenergic and serotoninergic neurotoxins DSP-4 N-(2-chlorethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (50.0 mg/kg, sc) and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) (37.5 microg icv, half in each lateral ventricle), respectively, were administered toWistar rats on the first and third days of postnatal ontogeny, and dopamine (DA) agonist-induced behaviors were assessed in adulthood. At eight weeks, using an HPLC/ED technique, DSP-4 treatment was associated with a reduction in NE content of the corpus striatum (> 60%), hippocampus (95%), and frontal cortex (> 85%), while 5,7-DHT was associated with an 80-90% serotonin reduction in the same brain regions. DA content was unaltered in the striatum and the cortex. In the group lesioned with both DSP-4 and 5,7-DHT, quinpirole-induced (DA D(2) agonist) yawning, 7-hydroxy-DPAT-induced (DA D(3) agonist) yawning, and apomorphine-induced (non-selective DA agonist) stereotypies were enhanced. However, SKF 38393-induced (DA D(1) agonist) oral activity was reduced in the DSP-4 + 5,7-DHT group. These findings demonstrate that DA D(2)- and D(3)-agonist-induced behaviors are enhanced while DA D(1)-agonist-induced behaviors are suppressed in adult rats in which brain noradrenergic and serotoninergic innervation of the brain has largely been destroyed. This study indicates that noradrenergic and serotoninergic neurons have a great impact on the development of DA receptor reactivity (sensitivity).

  14. Changes in apomorphine-induced stereotypy as a result of subacute neuroleptic treatment correlates with increased D-2 receptors, but not with increases in D-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, S; Rupniak, N M; Hall, M D; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1983-10-01

    Administration of haloperidol (5 mg/kg i.p.), cis-flupenthixol (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) or sulpiride (2 X 100 mg/kg i.p.) daily for 21 days followed by a 3-day drug withdrawal period caused equivalent cerebral dopamine receptor supersensitivity as judged by enhanced apomorphine-induced stereotypy. These treatments also produced equivalent rises in the number of adenylate cyclase-independent dopamine receptors (D-2) in both striatal and mesolimbic tissue as assessed by specific [3H]spiperone and [3H]N,n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) binding. No change in the dissociation constant (KD) was apparent in response to neuroleptic treatment. However, only repeated administration of cis-flupenthixol caused an increase in the number of adenylate cyclase-linked dopamine receptors (D-1) in striatum as assessed by enhanced [3H]piflutixol binding and increased dopamine-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. The dissociation constant for [3H]piflutixol binding was unchanged by cis-flupenthixol administration. No change in D-1 receptor numbers or dopamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase occurred in mesolimbic tissue. Repeated treatment with sulpiride or haloperidol was without effect on either [3H]piflutixol binding to D-1 receptors or cyclic AMP formation. In conclusion, increased apomorphine-induced stereotypy following subacute neuroleptic treatment correlates with changes in D-2 receptor numbers, but not with changes in D-1 receptors.

  15. Agonist-activated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ion channels as an example of the pharmacologist's stock in trade, the action of an agonist on a receptor to produce a response. Looked at in this way, ion channels have been helpful because they are still the only system which is simple enough for quantitative investigation of transduction mechanisms. A short history is given of attempts to elucidate what happens between the time when agonist first binds, and the time when the channel opens. PMID:16402101

  16. A behavioural and biochemical study in rats of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists and antagonists, with observations on structure-activity requirements for the agonists

    PubMed Central

    Green, A.R.; Hall, J.E.; Rees, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    1 The effect of the putative 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists, methysergide, methergoline, mianserin, cyproheptadine, cinanserin (all at 10 mg/kg), methiothepin (5 mg/kg) and (-)-propranolol (20 mg/kg) on the behavioural responses to tranylcypromine (10 mg/kg) followed 30 min later by L-tryptophan (100 mg/kg) was examined. 2 Methysergide, methergoline, methiothepin and (-)-propranolol inhibited head weaving, forepaw treading and hind-limb abduction. Methysergide and methergoline increased reactivity. In contrast, cypropheptadine, cinanserin and mianserin had no effects on the behaviour. 3 Similar findings were obtained when the behaviours were elicited by administration of tranylcypromine (10 mg/kg) followed by the putative 5-HT receptor agonist, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) (2 mg/kg). 4 When the behaviours were elicited by the putative 5-HT receptor agonist, quipazine (50 mg/kg), all the drugs effectively inhibited head weaving and forepaw treading. 5 When the dose of cypropheptadine was doubled to 20 mg/kg an inhibition of the tranylcypromine/L-tryptophan induced behaviours was seen. 6 Methiothepin produced a marked inhibition of apomorphine-induced locomotor activity whilst all the others enhanced this response, suggesting that only methiothepin inhibits the 5-HT behaviours by dopamine antagonism and that the increased reactivity seen following tranylcypromine/L-tryptophan after pretreatment with methysergide or methergoline might be due to enhanced dopamine function. 7 Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in enhanced behavioural responses to both 5-MeODMT and quipazine. 8 Both methergoline and methiothepin decreased the rate of 5-HT synthesis in whole brain but not spinal cord and methergoline decreased spinal cord 5-HIAA concentration. None of the other drugs had any significant effects on the concentration of 5-HT, 5-HIAA or 5-HT synthesis rate in brain or spinal cord. 9 Experiments with compounds structurally related

  17. The central action of salbutamol, a beta-agonist with a potential antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Przegalinski, E; Baran, L; Kedrek, G

    1980-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of salbutamol, an agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors and a potential antidepressant drug, and its effect on the central serotonin system were studied. It was found that salbutamol either had no effect, or, at higher doses, inhibited the spontaneous activity of mice and rats; it did not influence significantly either the produced by amphetamine locomotor stimulation (in mice and rats) or amphetamine stereotype (in rats). Salbutamol while not affecting body temperature of normal mice reversed hypothermia but not ptosis induced by reserpine, and counteracted the hypothermic action of apomorphine in mice. It neither affected the spiperone-induced catalepsy nor was active in the behavioural despair test in rats. Salbutamol had no effect either, on the fenfluramine-induced hyperthermia in rabbits, on the 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head twitch reaction in mice, on the tryptamine-induced clonic convulsions of forepaw in rats on the flexor reflex in spinal rats, or on the quipazine- or fenfluramine-induced stimulation of this reflex. The above findings indicate that the pharmacological profile of salbutamol resembles that of classical imipramine-like antidepressant drugs to a very small extent and it does not affect the central serotonergic transmission.

  18. Dopamine agonist therapy in hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Webster, J

    1999-12-01

    Introduction of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine heralded a major advance in the management of hyperprolactinemic disorders. Although its side effects of nausea, dizziness and headache and its short elimination half-life are limiting factors, its efficacy established it as a reference compound against the activity of which several dopamine agonists, like pergolide, lysuride, metergoline, terguride and dihydroergocristine, fell by the wayside. More recently, two new agents, cabergoline and quinagolide, have been introduced and appear to offer considerable advantages over bromocriptine. Cabergoline, an ergoline D2 agonist, has a long plasma half-life that enables once- or twice-weekly administration. Quinagolide, in contrast, is a nonergot D2 agonist with an elimination half-life intermediate between those of bromocriptine and cabergoline, allowing the drug to be administered once daily. Comparative studies indicate that cabergoline is clearly superior to bromocriptine in efficacy (prolactin suppression, restoration of gonadal function) and in tolerability. In similar studies, quinagolide appeared to have similar efficacy and superior tolerability to that of bromocriptine. Results of a small crossover study indicate that cabergoline is better tolerated, with a trend toward activity superior to that of quinagolide. In hyperprolactinemic men and in women not seeking to become pregnant, cabergoline may be regarded as the treatment of choice.

  19. Facilitation of amphetamine-induced hypothermia in mice by GABA agonists and CCK-8.

    PubMed

    Boschi, G; Launay, N; Rips, R

    1991-04-01

    1. Amphetamine-induced hypothermia in mice is facilitated by dopaminergic stimulation and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic inhibition. The present study was designed to investigate: (a) the involvement of other neuronal systems, such as the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the opioid and the cholecystokinin (CCK-8) systems; (b) the possible contribution of hydroxylated metabolites of amphetamine to the hypothermia; (c) the capacity of dopamine itself to induce hypothermia and its mechanisms, in order to clarify the resistance of amphetamine-induced hypothermia to certain neuroleptics. 2. Pretreatment with the GABA antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, did not inhibit amphetamine-induced hypothermia. The GABAB agonist, baclofen (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) potentiated this hypothermia, whereas the GABAA agonist, muscimol, did not. gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) (40 mg kg-1, i.p.) and the neuropeptide CCK-8 (0.04 mg kg-1, i.p.) also induced potentiation. The opioid antagonist, naloxone, was without effect. 3. Dopamine itself (3, 9, 16 and 27 micrograms, i.c.v.) induced less hypothermia than the same doses of amphetamine. Sulpiride did not block dopamine-induced hypothermia, but pimozide (4 mg kg-1, i.p.), cis(z)flupentixol (0.25 mg kg-1, i.p.) and haloperidol (5 micrograms, i.c.v.) did. The direct dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, did not alter the hypothermia. Neither the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor blocker, cyproheptadine, nor the inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), modified dopamine-induced hypothermia. Fluoxetine, an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, had no effect, whereas quipazine (6 mg kg-1, i.p.), a 5-HT agonist, totally prevented the hypothermia. Hypothermia was unaffected by pretreatment with CCK-8. 4. These data indicate that the hypothermia induced by amphetamine involves not only dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic systems which are functionally antagonistic, but is also facilitated by direct or indirect GABA and CCK-8 receptor stimulation

  20. Rexinoids as Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease: Role of APOE.

    PubMed

    Koster, Kevin P; Smith, Conor; Valencia-Olvera, Ana C; Thatcher, Gregory R J; Tai, Leon M; LaDu, Mary Jo

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaques, composed of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of aberrantly phosphorylated tau. APOE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor for AD, increasing risk up to 12- fold with a double allele compared to APOE3. In contrast, APOE2 reduces AD risk ~2-fold per allele. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) plays a multifactorial role in AD pathogenesis, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Further data support roles for apoE4 as a toxic gain of function or loss of positive function in AD, a discrepancy that has significant implications for the future of apoE-directed therapeutics. However, recent evidence repurposing retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists, or rexinoids, for the treatment of AD demonstrates conflicting, though potentially beneficial effects in familial AD-transgenic (FAD-Tg) mouse models. Of particular note is bexarotene (Targretin®), a selective rexinoid previously utilized in cancer treatment emerging as a viable candidate for AD clinical trials. However, the mechanism of action of bexarotene and similar rexinoids remains controversial, particularly in the context of human APOE. In addition, rexinoids demonstrate distinct adverse event profiles in humans that may have greater detrimental effects in an elderly AD population. Therefore, this special issue review discusses the implications for rexinoiddirected therapeutic strategies in AD, the potential mechanistic targets, and future directions for the improvement of rexinoid-based therapies in AD.

  1. Novel diazabicycloalkane delta opioid agonists.

    PubMed

    Loriga, Giovanni; Lazzari, Paolo; Manca, Ilaria; Ruiu, Stefania; Falzoi, Matteo; Murineddu, Gabriele; Bottazzi, Mirko Emilio Heiner; Pinna, Giovanni; Pinna, Gérard Aimè

    2015-09-01

    Here we report the investigation of diazabicycloalkane cores as potential new scaffolds for the development of novel analogues of the previously reported diazatricyclodecane selective delta (δ) opioid agonists, as conformationally constrained homologues of the reference δ agonist (+)-4-[(αR)-α((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC80). In particular, we have simplified the diazatricyclodecane motif of δ opioid agonist prototype 1a with bridged bicyclic cores. 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane, and 3,10-diazabicyclo[4.3.1]decane were adopted as core motifs of the novel derivatives. The compounds were synthesized and biologically assayed as racemic (3-5) or diastereoisomeric (6,7) mixtures. All the novel compounds 3-7 showed δ agonism behaviour and remarkable affinity to δ receptors. Amongst the novel derivatives, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane based compound 4 evidenced improved δ affinity and selectivity relative to SNC80.

  2. Genetic variants of ApoE and ApoER2 differentially modulate endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Victoria; Konaniah, Eddy S; Herz, Joachim; Gerard, Robert D; Jung, Eunjeong; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Ahmed, Mohamed; Hui, David Y; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2014-09-16

    It is poorly understood why there is greater cardiovascular disease risk associated with the apolipoprotein E4 (apoE) allele vs. apoE3, and also greater risk with the LRP8/apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) variant ApoER2-R952Q. Little is known about the function of the apoE-ApoER2 tandem outside of the central nervous system. We now report that in endothelial cells apoE3 binding to ApoER2 stimulates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and endothelial cell migration, and it also attenuates monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. However, apoE4 does not stimulate eNOS or endothelial cell migration or dampen cell adhesion, and alternatively it selectively antagonizes apoE3/ApoER2 actions. The contrasting endothelial actions of apoE4 vs. apoE3 require the N-terminal to C-terminal interaction in apoE4 that distinguishes it structurally from apoE3. Reconstitution experiments further reveal that ApoER2-R952Q is a loss-of-function variant of the receptor in endothelium. Carotid artery reendothelialization is decreased in ApoER2(-/-) mice, and whereas adenoviral-driven apoE3 expression in wild-type mice has no effect, apoE4 impairs reendothelialization. Moreover, in a model of neointima formation invoked by carotid artery endothelial denudation, ApoER2(-/-) mice display exaggerated neointima development. Thus, the apoE3/ApoER2 tandem promotes endothelial NO production, endothelial repair, and endothelial anti-inflammatory properties, and it prevents neointima formation. In contrast, apoE4 and ApoER2-R952Q display dominant-negative action and loss of function, respectively. Thus, genetic variants of apoE and ApoER2 impact cardiovascular health by differentially modulating endothelial function.

  3. Regulation of membrane cholecystokinin-2 receptor by agonists enables classification of partial agonists as biased agonists.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Rémi; Masri, Bernard; Escrieut, Chantal; Foucaud, Magali; Cordelier, Pierre; Fourmy, Daniel

    2011-02-25

    Given the importance of G-protein-coupled receptors as pharmacological targets in medicine, efforts directed at understanding the molecular mechanism by which pharmacological compounds regulate their presence at the cell surface is of paramount importance. In this context, using confocal microscopy and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have investigated internalization and intracellular trafficking of the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) in response to both natural and synthetic ligands with different pharmacological features. We found that CCK and gastrin, which are full agonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate production, rapidly and abundantly stimulate internalization. Internalized CCK2R did not rapidly recycle to plasma membrane but instead was directed to late endosomes/lysosomes. CCK2R endocytosis involves clathrin-coated pits and dynamin and high affinity and prolonged binding of β-arrestin1 or -2. Partial agonists and antagonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation did not stimulate CCK2R internalization or β-arrestin recruitment to the CCK2R but blocked full agonist-induced internalization and β-arrestin recruitment. The extreme C-terminal region of the CCK2R (and more precisely phosphorylatable residues Ser(437)-Xaa(438)-Thr(439)-Thr(440)-Xaa(441)-Ser(442)-Thr(443)) were critical for β-arrestin recruitment. However, this region and β-arrestins were dispensable for CCK2R internalization. In conclusion, this study allowed us to classify the human CCK2R as a member of class B G-protein-coupled receptors with regard to its endocytosis features and identified biased agonists of the CCK2R. These new important insights will allow us to investigate the role of internalized CCK2R·β-arrestin complexes in cancers expressing this receptor and to develop new diagnosis and therapeutic strategies targeting this receptor.

  4. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  5. GABA receptor agonist promotes reformation of the striatonigral pathway by transplant derived from fetal striatal primordia in the lesioned striatum.

    PubMed

    Goto, S; Yamada, K; Yoshikawa, M; Okamura, A; Ushio, Y

    1997-10-01

    Striatal lesions are known to cause the anterograde transneuronal degeneration of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neurons in consequence to loss of GABAergic inhibitory striatonigral efferents. The present study was undertaken to examine whether long-term intraventricular administration of the GABA agonist muscimol could promote reformation of the striatonigral pathway arising from transplants by rescuing host SNr neurons from transneuronal death in rats with striatal ischemic lesions. Compared to nongrafted rats with striatal lesions, (i) a prominent axonal projection from the transplants to the ipsilateral substantia nigra, (ii) a significant increase in number of survived neurons in the ipsilateral SNr, and (iii) a significant reduction in number of apomorphine-induced turning behaviors were found in grafted animals with muscimol infusion, but not in those without muscimol administration. These findings suggest that preservation of the host target neurons for grafted cells may increase an efficacy of cerebral implants in establishment of the host-graft fiber connections, possibly, leading to functional restoration.

  6. Dopamine receptor agonists, partial agonists and psychostimulant addiction.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, L; Koob, G F

    1994-10-01

    Despite the epidemic growth of psychostimulant addiction over the past years, few pharmacological means of intervention are available to date for clinical treatment. This is of importance since the withdrawal syndrome that follows abstinence from drugs such as cocaine and the amphetamines is characterized, among other symptoms, by intense craving for the abused drug, and this is considered a critical factor leading into relapse of drug use. In this article, Luigi Pulvirenti and George Koob focus on the modulatory role shown by drugs acting at the dopamine receptor on the various phases of psychostimulant dependence in preclinical models and in human studies, and suggest that a class of compounds with partial agonist properties at the dopamine receptor may have therapeutic potential.

  7. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  8. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride.

  9. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  10. EMG activity and neuronal activity in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and their interaction are different between hemiballismus and apomorphine induced dyskinesias of Parkinson's disease (AID).

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Verhagen-Metman, L; Kim, J H; Liu, C C; Lenz, F A

    2015-04-07

    The nature of electromyogram (EMG) activity and its relationship to neuronal activity in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) have not previously been studied in hyperkinetic movement disorders. We now test the hypothesis that GPi spike trains are cross-correlated with EMG activity during apomorphine-induced dyskinesias of Parkinson's disease (AID), and Hemiballism. We have recorded these two signals during awake stereotactic pallidal surgeries and analyzed them by cross-correlation of the raw signals and of peaks of activity occurring in those signals. EMG signals in Hemiballism usually consist of 'sharp' activity characterized by peaks of activity with low levels of activity between peaks, and by co-contraction between antagonistic muscles. Less commonly, EMG in Hemiballism shows 'non-sharp' EMG activity with substantial EMG activity between peaks; 'non-sharp' EMG activity is more common in AID. Therefore, these hyperkinetic disorders show substantial differences in peripheral (EMG) activity, although both kinds of activity can occur in both disorders. Since GPi spike×EMG spectral and time domain functions demonstrated inconsistent cross-correlation in both disorders, we studied peaks of activity in GPi neuronal and in EMG signals. The peaks of GPi activity commonly show prolonged cross-correlation with peaks of EMG activity, which suggests that GPi peaks are related to the occurrence of EMG peaks, perhaps by transmission of GPi activity to the periphery. In Hemiballism, the presence of direct GPi peak×EMG peak cross-correlations at the site where lesions relieve these disorders is evidence that gradual changes in peak GPi neuronal activity are directly involved in Hemiballism.

  11. Site-specific dephosphorylation of tau of apolipoprotein E-deficient and control mice by M1 muscarinic agonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Genis, I; Fisher, A; Michaelson, D M

    1999-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice have memory deficits that are associated with synaptic loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections and with hyperphosphorylation of distinct epitopes of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Furthermore, treatment of apoE-deficient mice with the M1 selective agonist 1-methylpiperidine-4-spiro-(2'-methylthiazoline) [AF150(S)] abolishes their memory deficits and results in recovery of their brain cholinergic markers. In the present study, we used a panel of anti-tau monoclonal antibodies to further map the tau epitopes that are hyperphosphorylated in apoE-deficient mice and examined the effects of prolonged treatment with AF150(S). This revealed that tau of apoE-deficient mice contains a distinct, hyperphosphorylated "hot spot" domain which is localized N-terminally to the microtubule binding domain of tau, and that AF150(S) has an epitope-specific tau dephosphorylating effect whose magnitude is affected by apoE deficiency. Accordingly, epitopes which reside in the hyperphosphorylated "hot spot" are dephosphorylated by AF150(S) in apoE-deficient mice but are almost unaffected in the controls, whereas epitopes which flank this tau domain are dephosphorylated by AF150(S) in both mice groups. In contrast, epitopes located at the N and C terminals of tau are unaffected by AF150(S) in both groups of mice. These findings suggest that apoE deficiency results in hyperphosphorylation of a distinct tau domain whose excess phosphorylation can be reduced by muscarinic treatment.

  12. Investigation of the mechanism of agonist and inverse agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Lin, Hong; Strange, Philip G

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated, for the D2 dopamine receptor, the relation between the ability of agonists and inverse agonists to stabilise different states of the receptor and their relative efficacies. Ki values for agonists were determined in competition versus the binding of the antagonist [3H]spiperone. Competition data were fitted best by a two-binding site model (with the exception of bromocriptine, for which a one-binding site model provided the best fit) and agonist affinities for the higher (Kh) (G protein-coupled) and lower affinity (Kl) (G protein-uncoupled) sites determined. Ki values for agonists were also determined in competition versus the binding of the agonist [3H]N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) to provide a second estimate of Kh. Maximal agonist effects (Emax) and their potencies (EC50) were determined from concentration-response curves for agonist stimulation of guanosine-5'-O-(3-[32S]thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding. The ability of agonists to stabilise the G protein-coupled state of the receptor (Kl/Kh determined from ligand-binding assays) did not correlate with either of two measures of relative efficacy (relative Emax, Kl/EC50) of agonists determined in [35S]GTPgammaS-binding assays, when the data for all of the compounds tested were analysed. For a subset of compounds, however, there was a relation between Kl/Kh and Emax. Competition-binding data versus [3H]spiperone and [3H]NPA for a range of inverse agonists were fitted best by a one-binding site model. Ki values for the inverse agonists tested were slightly lower in competition versus [3H]NPA compared to [3H]spiperone. These data do not provide support for the idea that inverse agonists act by binding preferentially to the ground state of the receptor.

  13. Potentiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy by growth hormone-releasing hormone agonists

    PubMed Central

    Jaszberenyi, Miklos; Rick, Ferenc G.; Popovics, Petra; Block, Norman L.; Zarandi, Marta; Cai, Ren-Zhi; Vidaurre, Irving; Szalontay, Luca; Jayakumar, Arumugam R.; Schally, Andrew V.

    2014-01-01

    The dismal prognosis of malignant brain tumors drives the development of new treatment modalities. In view of the multiple activities of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), we hypothesized that pretreatment with a GHRH agonist, JI-34, might increase the susceptibility of U-87 MG glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells to subsequent treatment with the cytotoxic drug, doxorubicin (DOX). This concept was corroborated by our findings, in vivo, showing that the combination of the GHRH agonist, JI-34, and DOX inhibited the growth of GBM tumors, transplanted into nude mice, more than DOX alone. In vitro, the pretreatment of GBM cells with JI-34 potentiated inhibitory effects of DOX on cell proliferation, diminished cell size and viability, and promoted apoptotic processes, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide proliferation assay, ApoLive-Glo multiplex assay, and cell volumetric assay. Proteomic studies further revealed that the pretreatment with GHRH agonist evoked differentiation decreasing the expression of the neuroectodermal stem cell antigen, nestin, and up-regulating the glial maturation marker, GFAP. The GHRH agonist also reduced the release of humoral regulators of glial growth, such as FGF basic and TGFβ. Proteomic and gene-expression (RT-PCR) studies confirmed the strong proapoptotic activity (increase in p53, decrease in v-myc and Bcl-2) and anti-invasive potential (decrease in integrin α3) of the combination of GHRH agonist and DOX. These findings indicate that the GHRH agonists can potentiate the anticancer activity of the traditional chemotherapeutic drug, DOX, by multiple mechanisms including the induction of differentiation of cancer cells. PMID:24379381

  14. [Safety of beta-agonists in asthma].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa, Teodoro J

    2014-01-01

    Beta 2 agonist bronchodilators (β2A) are very important part in the pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma, a disease that progresses in the world in an epidemic way. The β2A are prescribed to millions of people around the world, therefore the safety aspects is of public interest. Short-Acting β2 Agonists (SABAs), such as albuterol inhaler, according to current evidence, confirming its safety when used as a quick-relief or rescue medication. The long-acting β2 agonists (LABAs) The long-acting bronchodilators β2A (Long acting β2 Agonists or LABAs) are used associated with inhaled corticosteroids as controller drugs for asthma exacerbationsaccess, for safety reasons LABAs are not recommended for use as monotherapy.

  15. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Anna C.; Thomas, Merlin C.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPARα agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPARγ agonists, and more recently dual PPARα/γ coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPARγ receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:18288280

  16. Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean P

    2002-02-26

    Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

  17. Comparison of the MK-801-induced increase in non-rewarded appetitive responding with dopamine agonists and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Davis-MacNevin, Parnell L; Dekraker, Jordan; LaDouceur, Liane; Holahan, Matthew R

    2013-09-01

    Systemic administration of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)- receptor antagonist, MK-801, has been proposed to model cognitive deficits similar to those seen in patients with schizophrenia. Evidence has shown that MK-801 increases the probability of operant responding during extinction, possibly modeling perseveration, as would be seen in patients with schizophrenia. This MK-801-induced behavioral perseveration is reversed by dopamine receptor antagonism. To further explore the role of dopamine in this behavioral change, the current study sought to determine if the MK-801-induced increase in non-rewarded operant responding could be mimicked by dopamine agonism and determine how it was related to locomotor activity. Male Long Evans rats were treated systemically with MK-801, cocaine, GBR12909 or apomorphine (APO) and given a single trial operant extinction session, followed by a separate assessment of locomotor activity. Both MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) and cocaine (10 mg/kg) significantly increased responding during the extinction session and both increased horizontal locomotor activity. No dose of GBR-12909 (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) was found to effect non-rewarded operant responding or locomotor activity. APO (0.05, 0.5, 2 or 5 mg/kg) treatment produced a dose-dependent decrease in both operant responding and locomotor activity. These results suggest the possibility that, rather than a primary influence of increased dopamine concentration on elevating bar-pressing responses during extinction, other neurotransmitter systems may be involved.

  18. Predicted Structures of Agonist and Antagonist Bound Complexes of Adenosine A3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Riley, Lindsay; Abrol, Ravinder; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Goddard, William A.

    2011-01-01

    We used the GEnSeMBLE Monte Carlo method to predict ensemble of the 20 best packings (helix rotations and tilts) based on the neutral total energy (E) from a vast number (10 trillion) of potential packings for each of the 4 subtypes of the adenosine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many cytoprotective functions. We then used the DarwinDock Monte Carlo methods to predict the binding pose for the human A3 adenosine receptor (hAA3R) for subtype selective agonists and antagonists. We find that all four A3 agonists stabilize the 15th lowest conformation of apo-hAA3R while also binding strongly to the 1st and 3rd. In contrast the four A3 antagonists stabilize the 2nd or 3rd lowest conformation. These results show that different ligands can stabilize different GPCR conformations, which will likely affect function, complicating the design of functionally unique ligands. Interestingly all agonists lead to a trans χ1 angle for W6.48 that experiments on other GPCRs associate with G-protein activation while all 20 apo-AA3R conformations have a W6.48 gauche+ χ1 angle associated experimentally with inactive GPCRs for other systems. Thus docking calculations have identified critical ligand-GPCR structures involved with activation. We find that the predicted binding site for selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA to the predicted structure of hAA3R shows favorable interactions to three subtype variable residues, I2536.58, V169EL2, and Q167EL2, while the predicted structure for hAA2AR shows weakened to the corresponding amino acids: T2566.58, E169EL2, and L167EL2, explaining the observed subtype selectivity. PMID:21488099

  19. Predicted structures of agonist and antagonist bound complexes of adenosine A3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Riley, Lindsay; Abrol, Ravinder; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Goddard, William A

    2011-06-01

    We used the GEnSeMBLE Monte Carlo method to predict ensemble of the 20 best packings (helix rotations and tilts) based on the neutral total energy (E) from a vast number (10 trillion) of potential packings for each of the four subtypes of the adenosine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many cytoprotective functions. We then used the DarwinDock Monte Carlo methods to predict the binding pose for the human A(3) adenosine receptor (hAA(3)R) for subtype selective agonists and antagonists. We found that all four A(3) agonists stabilize the 15th lowest conformation of apo-hAA(3)R while also binding strongly to the 1st and 3rd. In contrast the four A(3) antagonists stabilize the 2nd or 3rd lowest conformation. These results show that different ligands can stabilize different GPCR conformations, which will likely affect function, complicating the design of functionally unique ligands. Interestingly all agonists lead to a trans χ1 angle for W6.48 that experiments on other GPCRs associate with G-protein activation while all 20 apo-AA(3)R conformations have a W6.48 gauche+ χ1 angle associated experimentally with inactive GPCRs for other systems. Thus docking calculations have identified critical ligand-GPCR structures involved with activation. We found that the predicted binding site for selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA to the predicted structure of hAA(3)R shows favorable interactions to three subtype variable residues, I253(6.58), V169(EL2), and Q167(EL2), while the predicted structure for hAA(2A)R shows weakened to the corresponding amino acids: T256(6.58), E169(EL2), and L167(EL2), explaining the observed subtype selectivity.

  20. The structural basis for agonist and partial agonist action on a β(1)-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Warne, Tony; Moukhametzianov, Rouslan; Baker, Jillian G; Nehmé, Rony; Edwards, Patricia C; Leslie, Andrew G W; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Tate, Christopher G

    2011-01-13

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate intracellular G proteins upon binding catecholamine agonist ligands such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. Synthetic ligands have been developed that either activate or inhibit βARs for the treatment of asthma, hypertension or cardiac dysfunction. These ligands are classified as either full agonists, partial agonists or antagonists, depending on whether the cellular response is similar to that of the native ligand, reduced or inhibited, respectively. However, the structural basis for these different ligand efficacies is unknown. Here we present four crystal structures of the thermostabilized turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) β(1)-adrenergic receptor (β(1)AR-m23) bound to the full agonists carmoterol and isoprenaline and the partial agonists salbutamol and dobutamine. In each case, agonist binding induces a 1 Å contraction of the catecholamine-binding pocket relative to the antagonist bound receptor. Full agonists can form hydrogen bonds with two conserved serine residues in transmembrane helix 5 (Ser(5.42) and Ser(5.46)), but partial agonists only interact with Ser(5.42) (superscripts refer to Ballesteros-Weinstein numbering). The structures provide an understanding of the pharmacological differences between different ligand classes, illuminating how GPCRs function and providing a solid foundation for the structure-based design of novel ligands with predictable efficacies.

  1. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... high level of triglycerides in the blood, and atherosclerosis that develops at an early age. APOE genotyping ... and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis . People with these genotypes could be predisposed to ...

  2. Muscimol as an ionotropic GABA receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2014-10-01

    Muscimol, a psychoactive isoxazole from Amanita muscaria and related mushrooms, has proved to be a remarkably selective agonist at ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historic overview highlights the discovery and development of muscimol and related compounds as a GABA agonist by Danish and Australian neurochemists. Muscimol is widely used as a ligand to probe GABA receptors and was the lead compound in the development of a range of GABAergic agents including nipecotic acid, tiagabine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, (Gaboxadol(®)) and 4-PIOL.

  3. A novel TRPV4-specific agonist inhibits monocyte adhesion and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Suowen; Liu, Bin; Yin, Meimei; Koroleva, Marina; Mastrangelo, Michael; Ture, Sara; Morrell, Craig N.; Zhang, David X.; Fisher, Edward A.; Jin, Zheng Gen

    2016-01-01

    TRPV4 ion channel mediates vascular mechanosensitivity and vasodilation. Here, we sought to explore whether non-mechanical activation of TRPV4 could limit vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. We found that GSK1016790A, a potent and specific small-molecule agonist of TRPV4, induces the phosphorylation and activation of eNOS partially through the AMPK pathway. Moreover, GSK1016790A inhibited TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells. Mice given GSK1016790A showed increased phosphorylation of eNOS and AMPK in the aorta and decreased leukocyte adhesion to TNF-α-inflamed endothelium. Importantly, oral administration of GSK1016790A reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE deficient mice fed a Western-type diet. Together, the present study suggests that pharmacological activation of TRPV4 may serve as a potential therapeutic approach to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:27191895

  4. Characterization of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, in rat partial and full nigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Jelsing, Jacob; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, have been demonstrated to promote neuroprotection in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron loss. In this report, we characterized the effect of a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (500µg/kg/day, s.c.) in the context of a partial or advanced (full) 6-OHDA induced nigral lesion in the rat. Rats received a low (3µg, partial lesion) or high (13.5µg, full lesion) 6-OHDA dose stereotaxically injected into the right medial forebrain bundle (n=17-20 rats per experimental group). Six weeks after induction of a partial nigral dopaminergic lesion, vehicle or liraglutide was administered for four weeks. In the full lesion model, vehicle dosing or liraglutide treatment was applied for a total of six weeks starting three weeks pre-lesion, or administered for three weeks starting on the lesion day. Quantitative stereology was applied to assess the total number of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive dopaminergic neurons. As compared to vehicle controls, liraglutide had no effect on the rotational responsiveness to d-amphetamine or apomorphine, respectively. In correspondence, while numbers of TH-positive nigral neurons were significantly reduced in the lesion side (partial lesion ≈55%; full lesion ≈90%) liraglutide administration had no influence dopaminergic neuronal loss in either PD model setting. In conclusion, liraglutide showed no neuroprotective effects in the context of moderate or substantial midbrain dopaminergic neuronal loss and associated functional motor deficits in the rat 6-OHDA lesion model of PD.

  5. Analysis of Agonist and Antagonist Effects on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Conformation by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, A. C. M.; Saidemberg, D. M.; Souza, P. C. T.; Martínez, L.; Scanlan, T. S.; Baxter, J. D.; Skaf, M. S.; Palma, M. S.; Webb, P.; Polikarpov, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-gated transcription factors with critical roles in development and metabolism. Although x-ray structures of TR ligand-binding domains (LBDs) with agonists are available, comparable structures without ligand (apo-TR) or with antagonists are not. It remains important to understand apo-LBD conformation and the way that it rearranges with ligands to develop better TR pharmaceuticals. In this study, we conducted hydrogen/deuterium exchange on TR LBDs with or without agonist (T3) or antagonist (NH3). Both ligands reduce deuterium incorporation into LBD amide hydrogens, implying tighter overall folding of the domain. As predicted, mass spectroscopic analysis of individual proteolytic peptides after hydrogen/deuterium exchange reveals that ligand increases the degree of solvent protection of regions close to the buried ligand-binding pocket. However, there is also extensive ligand protection of other regions, including the dimer surface at H10–H11, providing evidence for allosteric communication between the ligand-binding pocket and distant interaction surfaces. Surprisingly, C-terminal activation helix H12, which is known to alter position with ligand, remains relatively protected from solvent in all conditions suggesting that it is packed against the LBD irrespective of the presence or type of ligand. T3, but not NH3, increases accessibility of the upper part of H3–H5 to solvent, and we propose that TR H12 interacts with this region in apo-TR and that this interaction is blocked by T3 but not NH3. We present data from site-directed mutagenesis experiments and molecular dynamics simulations that lend support to this structural model of apo-TR and its ligand-dependent conformational changes. PMID:21106879

  6. Corepressors of agonist-bound nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, Igor; Aneskievich, Brian J.

    2007-09-15

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) rely on coregulator proteins to modulate transcription of target genes. NR coregulators can be broadly subdivided into coactivators which potentiate transcription and corepressors which silence gene expression. The prevailing view of coregulator action holds that in the absence of agonist the receptor interacts with a corepressor via the corepressor nuclear receptor (CoRNR, 'corner') box motifs within the corepressor. Upon agonist binding, a conformational change in the receptor causes the shedding of corepressor and the binding of a coactivator which interacts with the receptor via NR boxes within the coregulator. This view was challenged with the discovery of RIP140 which acts as a NR corepressor in the presence of agonist and utilizes NR boxes. Since then a number of other corepressors of agonist-bound NRs have been discovered. Among them are LCoR, PRAME, REA, MTA1, NSD1, and COPR1 Although they exhibit a great diversity of structure, mechanism of repression and pathophysiological function, these corepressors frequently have one or more NR boxes and often recruit histone deacetylases to exert their repressive effects. This review highlights these more recently discovered corepressors and addresses their potential functions in transcription regulation, disease pharmacologic responses and xenobiotic metabolism.

  7. Multiple tyrosine metabolites are GPR35 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huayun; Hu, Haibei; Fang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Both kynurenic acid and 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid have been postulated to be the endogenous agonists of GPR35. However, controversy remains whether alternative endogenous agonists exist. The molecular targets accounted for many nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones are mostly unknown. Here we report the agonist activity of multiple tyrosine metabolites at the GPR35. Tyrosine metabolism intermediates that contain carboxylic acid and/or catechol functional groups were first selected. Whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays enabled by label-free optical biosensor were then used to characterize their agonist activity in native HT-29. Molecular assays including β-arrestin translocation, ERK phosphorylation and receptor internalization confirmed that GPR35 functions as a receptor for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, gentisate, rosmarinate, and 3-nitrotyrosine. These results suggest that multiple tyrosine metabolites are alternative endogenous ligands of GPR35, and GPR35 may represent a druggable target for treating certain diseases associated with abnormality of tyrosine metabolism. PMID:22523636

  8. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings — ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future. PMID:26343199

  9. Serotonergic agonists behave as partial agonists at the dopamine D2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Rinken, A; Ferré, S; Terasmaa, A; Owman, C; Fuxe, K

    1999-02-25

    RAT dopamine D2short receptors expressed in CHO cells were characterized by activation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. There were no significant differences between the maximal effects seen in activation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding caused by dopaminergic agonists, but the effects of 5-HT, 8OH-DPAT and 5-methoxytryptamine amounted to 47 +/- 7%, 43 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 7% of the dopamine effect, respectively. The dopaminergic antagonist (+)butaclamol inhibited activations of both types of ligands with equal potency (pA2 = 8.9 +/- 0.1), indicating that only one type of receptor is involved. In competition with [3H]raclopride binding, dopaminergic agonists showed 53 +/- 2% of the binding sites in the GTP-dependent high-affinity state, whereas 5-HT showed only 20 +/- 3%. Taken together, the results indicate that serotonergic agonists behave as typical partial agonists for D2 receptors with potential antiparkinsonian activity.

  10. ApoE and Quality of Life in Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Lapid, Maria I.; Rummans, Teresa A.; Cha, Ruth H.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Pankratz, Vernon (Shane) S.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives ApoE ε4 is associated with adverse health conditions that negatively impact the quality of life (QOL). The relationship between ApoE ε4 and QOL has not been explored in the oldest old. Our study aimed to examine ApoE in the oldest old, and explore its association with QOL. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting A medium sized community in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA. Participants 90–99 year old individuals living independently or in long term care environments. Measurements We collected demographic information and measured cognitive function (Short Test of Mental Status [STMS], Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE], Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [DRS]), QOL (Linear Analogue Self Assessment [LASA]) and ApoE distribution. Subjects were classified as cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia (DEM), or dementia with stroke and/or parkinsonism (DEMSP). Regression model was used to assess the predictors of QOL. Results 121 subjects (45 cognitively normal, 13 MCI, 34 DEM, 29 DEMSP) aged 90–99,106 (87.6 %) females, were included. Frequency of ApoE ε3 allele was highest [194 (80.2%): ε2/3 18, ε3/3 77, ε3/4 22] followed by ApoE ε4 [25 (10.3%): ε2/4 3, ε3/4 22] and ApoE ε2 [23 (9.5%; ε2/2 1, ε2/3 18, ε2/4 3]. None of the subjects carried ApoE ε4/4 genotype. QOL was similar between ApoE ε4 carrier and non-carriers. Physical well-being, emotional well-being, intellectual well-being, social connectedness and coping ability were positively associated with QOL, whereas male gender, DEMSP, pain frequency and pain severity were negatively associated. Conclusions The most common ApoE in the oldest old was ε3/3 genotype and ε3 allele. No association was found between ApoE ε4 and QOL. However, those with high physical, emotional and intellectual well being, social connectedness and coping ability had the highest overall QOL. PMID:22863665

  11. Agonistic and reproductive interactions in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, P M

    1984-12-01

    Reproductive and agonistic behaviors in Siamese fighting fish were investigated in eight experiments, and some consequences and determinants of these sequences were isolated. First, fights and the formation of dominance-subordinancy relations were studied. Second, it was determined that large body size as well as males' prior residency in a tank produced an agonistic advantage; the magnitude of this advantage was positively related to the duration of residency. Third, the prior-residency effect in Bettas was determined by males' familiarity with visual and/or tactile cues in their home tanks. Fourth, dominant males had greater access to living space and were more likely to display at a mirror, build nests, and approach females than were subordinates. Finally, it was discovered that chemical cues associated with presumedly inert plastic tank dividers influence Bettas' social behavior.

  12. Agonists block currents through acetylcholine receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Sine, S M; Steinbach, J H

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the effects of high concentrations of cholinergic agonists on currents through single acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channels on clonal BC3H1 cells. We find that raised concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh; above 300 microM) or carbamylcholine (Carb; above 1,000 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent reduction in the mean single-channel current. Raised concentrations of suberyldicholine (Sub; above 3 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent increase in the number of brief duration low-conductance interruptions of open-channel currents. These observations can be quantitatively described by a model in which agonist molecules enter and transiently occlude the ion-channel of the AChR. PMID:6478036

  13. Ropinirole, a non-ergoline dopamine agonist.

    PubMed

    Jost, Wolfgang H; Angersbach, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine agonists have become indispensable in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In every-day practice, however, the decision to select the best compound for an individual patient is rendered difficult because of the large number of substances available on the market. This review article provides a closer look at the experimental and clinical studies with ropinirole published so far. Ropinirole is a non-ergoline dopamine agonist which has been proven to be effective in both, monotherapy and combination therapy of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In addition to ameliorating bradykinesia, rigor, and tremor, ropinirole facilitates the daily life and improves depressive moods of patients with Parkinson's disease. The long-term complications of levodopa are avoided, and problems commonly associated with levodopa treatment are reduced. Ropinirole appears to have a neuroprotective effect. In addition to Parkinson's disease, ropinirole has also been used successfully in the treatment of restless legs syndrome.

  14. The identification of orally bioavailable thrombopoietin agonists.

    PubMed

    Munchhof, Michael J; Antipas, Amy S; Blumberg, Laura C; Brissette, William H; Brown, Matthew F; Casavant, Jeffrey M; Doty, Jonathan L; Driscoll, James; Harris, Thomas M; Wolf-Gouveia, Lilli A; Jones, Christopher S; Li, Qifang; Linde, Robert G; Lira, Paul D; Marfat, Anthony; McElroy, Eric; Mitton-Fry, Mark; McCurdy, Sandra P; Reiter, Lawrence A; Ripp, Sharon L; Shavnya, Andrei; Thomasco, Lisa M; Trevena, Kristen A

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we disclosed a series of potent pyrimidine benzamide-based thrombopoietin receptor agonists. Unfortunately, the structural features required for the desired activity conferred physicochemical properties that were not favorable for the development of an oral agent. The physical properties of the series were improved by replacing the aminopyrimidinyl group with a piperidine-4-carboxylic acid moiety. The resulting compounds possessed favorable in vivo pharmacokinetic properties, including good bioavailability.

  15. Signal Use by Octopuses in Agonistic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Scheel, David; Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Lawrence, Matthew

    2016-02-08

    Cephalopods show behavioral parallels to birds and mammals despite considerable evolutionary distance [1, 2]. Many cephalopods produce complex body patterns and visual signals, documented especially in cuttlefish and squid, where they are used both in camouflage and a range of interspecific interactions [1, 3-5]. Octopuses, in contrast, are usually seen as solitary and asocial [6, 7]; their body patterns and color changes have primarily been interpreted as camouflage and anti-predator tactics [8-12], though the familiar view of the solitary octopus faces a growing list of exceptions. Here, we show by field observation that in a shallow-water octopus, Octopus tetricus, a range of visible displays are produced during agonistic interactions, and these displays correlate with the outcome of those interactions. Interactions in which dark body color by an approaching octopus was matched by similar color in the reacting octopus were more likely to escalate to grappling. Darkness in an approaching octopus met by paler color in the reacting octopus accompanied retreat of the paler octopus. Octopuses also displayed on high ground and stood with spread web and elevated mantle, often producing these behaviors in combinations. This study is the first to document the systematic use of signals during agonistic interactions among octopuses. We show prima facie conformity of our results to an influential model of agonistic signaling [13]. These results suggest that interactions have a greater influence on octopus evolution than has been recognized and show the importance of convergent evolution in behavioral traits.

  16. Neuroprotective Sirtuin ratio reversed by ApoE4.

    PubMed

    Theendakara, Veena; Patent, Alexander; Peters Libeu, Clare A; Philpot, Brittany; Flores, Sonia; Descamps, Olivier; Poksay, Karen S; Zhang, Qiang; Cailing, Gabriellee; Hart, Matthew; John, Varghese; Rao, Rammohan V; Bredesen, Dale E

    2013-11-05

    The canonical pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease links the expression of apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE) to amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ peptide accumulation by a set of mechanisms that is incompletely defined. The development of a simple system that focuses not on a single variable but on multiple factors and pathways would be valuable both for dissecting the underlying mechanisms and for identifying candidate therapeutics. Here we show that, although both ApoE3 and ApoE4 associate with APP with nanomolar affinities, only ApoE4 significantly (i) reduces the ratio of soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha (sAPPα) to Aβ; (ii) reduces Sirtuin T1 (SirT1) expression, resulting in markedly differing ratios of neuroprotective SirT1 to neurotoxic SirT2; (iii) triggers Tau phosphorylation and APP phosphorylation; and (iv) induces programmed cell death. We describe a subset of drug candidates that interferes with the APP-ApoE interaction and returns the parameters noted above to normal. Our data support the hypothesis that neuronal connectivity, as reflected in the ratios of critical mediators such as sAPPα:Aβ, SirT1:SirT2, APP:phosphorylated (p)-APP, and Tau:p-Tau, is programmatically altered by ApoE4 and offer a simple system for the identification of program mediators and therapeutic candidates.

  17. Sterol-dependent nuclear import of ORP1S promotes LXR regulated trans-activation of apoE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sungsoo; Wang, Ping-Yuan; Jeong, Yangsik; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Anderson, Richard G.W.; Michaely, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Oxysterol binding protein related protein 1S (ORP1S) is a member of a family of sterol transport proteins. Here we present evidence that ORP1S translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to sterol binding. The sterols that best promote nuclear import of ORP1S also activate the liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factors and we show that ORP1S binds to LXRs, promotes binding of LXRs to LXR response elements (LXREs) and specifically enhances LXR-dependent transcription via the ME.1 and ME.2 enhancer elements of the apoE gene. We propose that ORP1S is a cytoplasmic sterol sensor, which transports sterols to the nucleus and promotes LXR-dependent gene transcription through select enhancer elements. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP1S translocates to the nucleus in response to sterol binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sterols that best promote nuclear import of ORP1S are LXR agonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP1S binds to LXRs, enhances binding of LXRs to LXREs and promotes LXR-dependent transcription of apoE.

  18. ApoE-directed therapeutics rapidly clear β-amyloid and reverse deficits in AD mouse models.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Paige E; Cirrito, John R; Wesson, Daniel W; Lee, C Y Daniel; Karlo, J Colleen; Zinn, Adriana E; Casali, Brad T; Restivo, Jessica L; Goebel, Whitney D; James, Michael J; Brunden, Kurt R; Wilson, Donald A; Landreth, Gary E

    2012-03-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain, a process normally facilitated by apolipoprotein E (apoE). ApoE expression is transcriptionally induced through the action of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and liver X receptors in coordination with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Oral administration of the RXR agonist bexarotene to a mouse model of AD resulted in enhanced clearance of soluble Aβ within hours in an apoE-dependent manner. Aβ plaque area was reduced more than 50% within just 72 hours. Furthermore, bexarotene stimulated the rapid reversal of cognitive, social, and olfactory deficits and improved neural circuit function. Thus, RXR activation stimulates physiological Aβ clearance mechanisms, resulting in the rapid reversal of a broad range of Aβ-induced deficits.

  19. A behavioural and biochemical study in mice and rats of putative selective agonists and antagonists for 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, G. M.; Green, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radioligand binding techniques have demonstrated the existence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding subtypes: 5-HT2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B. These techniques have also indicated that certain drugs appear to show sub-type specificity: 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin(8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A agonist; 5-methoxy-3(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)1-H indole (RU 24969), a 5-HT1B agonist; and ritanserin, a 5-HT2 antagonist. (-)-Propranolol is a 5-HT1 antagonist of uncertain sub-type specificity. An examination has been made in mice and rats of the behavioural and biochemical effects of these drugs to determine whether the binding sites have physiological functions and further characterise the behavioural models. Administration of carbidopa (25 mg kg-1) plus 5-hydroxytryptophan (100 mg kg-1) produced head-twitch behaviour in mice which was antagonized by ritanserin (ED50 = 65 micrograms kg-1) but not (-)-propranolol (20 mg kg-1). 8-OH-DPAT (1-10 mg kg-1 s.c.) and RU 24949 (5 mg kg-1 i.p.) did not produce head-twitch behaviour. 8-OH-DPAT decreased 5-HTP- but not 5-methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (5 mg kg-1)-induced head-twitch by a (-)-propranolol-insensitive mechanism. Locomotor activity produced in mice by RU 24969 (3 mg kg-1) was antagonized by (-)-propranolol (20 mg kg-1) but not the (+)-isomer. (-)-Propranolol did not antagonize the behaviour induced in rats. In mice, both 8-OH-DPAT and RU 24969 markedly inhibited whole brain 5-HT synthesis and this effect was not antagonized by (-)-propranolol. In rats, 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg kg-1 s.c.) produced all the behavioural changes seen after quipazine (25 mg kg-1). (-)-Propranolol inhibited the behaviour changes produced by both agonists, while ritanserin antagonized the behaviour produced by quipazine but not 8-OH-DPAT. It is concluded, therefore, that the 5-HT1A receptor exists between the 5-HT2 receptor and the behavioural effectors. 8-OH-DPAT (at 20 degrees C ambient temperature) rapidly decreased rat body temperature, an effect

  20. Extracellular Proteolysis of Apolipoprotein E (apoE) by Secreted Serine Neuronal Protease

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Irfan Y.; Heo, Dongeun; Rebeck, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal protease. We show that apoE is cleaved in neuronal conditioned media by a secreted serine protease. This apoE cleavage was inhibited by PMSF and α1-antichymotrypsin, but not neuroserpin-1 or inhibitors of thrombin and cathepsin G, supporting its identity as a chymotrypsin like protease. In addition, apoE incubation with purified chymotrypsin produced a similar pattern of apoE fragments. Analysis of apoE fragments by mass spectrometry showed cleavages occuring at the C-terminal side of apoE tryptophan residues, further supporting our identification of cleavage by chymotrypsin like protease. Hippocampal neurons were more efficient in mediating this apoE cleavage than cortical neurons. Proteolysis of apoE4 generated higher levels of low molecular weight fragments compared to apoE3. Primary glial cultures released an inhibitor of this proteolytic activity. Together, these studies reveal novel mechanism by which apoE can be regulated and therefore could be useful in designing apoE directed AD therapeutic approaches. PMID:24675880

  1. Discovery of G Protein-Biased EP2 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To identify G protein-biased and highly subtype-selective EP2 receptor agonists, a series of bicyclic prostaglandin analogues were designed and synthesized. Structural hybridization of EP2/4 dual agonist 5 and prostacyclin analogue 6, followed by simplification of the ω chain enabled us to discover novel EP2 agonists with a unique prostacyclin-like scaffold. Further optimization of the ω chain was performed to improve EP2 agonist activity and subtype selectivity. Phenoxy derivative 18a showed potent agonist activity and excellent subtype selectivity. Furthermore, a series of compounds were identified as G protein-biased EP2 receptor agonists. These are the first examples of biased ligands of prostanoid receptors. PMID:26985320

  2. Sports doping: emerging designer and therapeutic β2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, A G; Georgakopoulos, C; Sterk, S; Nielen, M W F

    2013-10-21

    Beta2-adrenergic agonists, or β2-agonists, are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptom-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. The use of β2-agonists is prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to claimed anabolic effects, and also, is prohibited as growth promoters in cattle fattening in the European Union. This paper reviews the last seven-year (2006-2012) literature concerning the development of novel β2-agonists molecules either by modifying the molecule of known β2-agonists or by introducing moieties producing indole-, adamantyl- or phenyl urea derivatives. New emerging β2-agonists molecules for future therapeutic use are also presented, intending to emphasize their potential use for doping purposes or as growth promoters in the near future.

  3. Agonist-receptor-arrestin, an alternative ternary complex with high agonist affinity.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Pals-Rylaarsdam, R; Benovic, J L; Hosey, M M; Onorato, J J

    1997-11-14

    The rapid decrease of a response to a persistent stimulus, often termed desensitization, is a widespread biological phenomenon. Signal transduction by numerous G protein-coupled receptors appears to be terminated by a strikingly uniform two-step mechanism, most extensively characterized for the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m2 mAChR), and rhodopsin. The model predicts that activated receptor is initially phosphorylated and then tightly binds an arrestin protein that effectively blocks further G protein interaction. Here we report that complexes of beta2AR-arrestin and m2 mAChR-arrestin have a higher affinity for agonists (but not antagonists) than do receptors not complexed with arrestin. The percentage of phosphorylated beta2AR in this high affinity state in the presence of full agonists varied with different arrestins and was enhanced by selective mutations in arrestins. The percentage of high affinity sites also was proportional to the intrinsic activity of an agonist, and the coefficient of proportionality varies for different arrestin proteins. Certain mutant arrestins can form these high affinity complexes with unphosphorylated receptors. Mutations that enhance formation of the agonist-receptor-arrestin complexes should provide useful tools for manipulating both the efficiency of signaling and rate and specificity of receptor internalization.

  4. Agonistic behavior in food animals: review of research and techniques.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J

    1986-04-01

    One type of social behavior--agonistic behavior--is commonly observed among food animals. Agonistic behaviors are those behaviors which cause, threaten to cause or seek to reduce physical damage. Agonistic behavior is comprised of threats, aggression and submission. While any one of these divisions of agonistic behavior may be observed alone, they usually are found, in sequence, from the start to the end of an interaction. Food animals may show interspecific or intraspecific agonistic behaviors. Interspecific agonistic behavior has not been extensively studied but it is agriculturally important because farm workers may become injured or killed by aggressive food animals. Types of intraspecific agonistic behavior are: when animals are brought together, intermale fighting, resource defense, inter-gender fighting and aberrant aggression. Common pitfalls in research on agonistic behavior among food animals include too few replicates to detect a biological difference, the assumptions of the analysis are not met, only aggression and not submission or other agonistic behavior components are measured, incomplete description of the behaviors are reported and a complete, quantitive ethogram did not form the basis for selecting behavioral measures.

  5. Computational modeling toward understanding agonist binding on dopamine 3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaxue; Lu, Xuefeng; Yang, Chao-Yie; Huang, Zhimin; Fu, Wei; Hou, Tingjun; Zhang, Jian

    2010-09-27

    The dopamine 3 (D3) receptor is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and current research interests primarily focus on the discovery/design of potent D3 agonists. Herein, a well-designed computational protocol, which combines pharmacophore identification, homology modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was employed to understand the agonist binding on D3 aiming to provide insights into the development of novel potent D3 agonists. We (1) identified the chemical features required in effective D3 agonists by pharmacophore modeling based upon 18 known diverse D3 agonists; (2) constructed the three-dimensional (3D) structure of D3 based on homology modeling and the pharmacophore hypothesis; (3) identified the binding modes of the agonists to D3 by the correlation between the predicted binding free energies and the experimental values; and (4) investigated the induced fit of D3 upon agonist binding through MD simulations. The pharmacophore models of the D3 agonists and the 3D structure of D3 can be used for either ligand- or receptor-based drug design. Furthermore, the MD simulations further give the insight that the long and flexible EL2 acts as a "door" for agonist binding, and the "ionic lock" at the bottom of TM3 and TM6 is essential to transduce the activation signal.

  6. ApoE and Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease: accidental encounters or partners?

    PubMed Central

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    Among the three human apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoforms, apoE4 increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While transporting cholesterol is a primary function, apoE also regulates amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism, aggregation and deposition. Although earlier work suggests that different affinities of apoE isoforms to Aβ might account for their effects on Aβ clearance, recent studies indicate that apoE also competes with Aβ for cellular uptake through apoE receptors. Thus, several factors likely determine the variable effects apoE has on Aβ. In this review, we examine biochemical, structural, and functional studies and propose testable models that address the complex mechanisms underlying apoE-Aβ interaction and how apoE4 may increase AD risk and also serve as a target pathway for therapy. PMID:24559670

  7. Rescuing effects of RXR agonist bexarotene on aging-related synapse loss depend on neuronal LRP1.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masaya; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Yamazaki, Yu; Liu, Chia-Chen; Rogers, Justin; Bu, Guojun; Kanekiyo, Takahisa

    2016-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a critical role in maintaining synaptic integrity by transporting cholesterol to neurons through the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1). Bexarotene, a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, has been reported to have potential beneficial effects on cognition by increasing brain apoE levels and lipidation. To investigate the effects of bexarotene on aging-related synapse loss and the contribution of neuronal LRP1 to the pathway, forebrain neuron-specific LRP1 knockout (nLrp1(-/-)) and littermate control mice were administered with bexarotene-formulated diet (100mg/kg/day) or control diet at the age of 20-24 months for 8 weeks. Upon bexarotene treatment, levels of brain apoE and ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1) were significantly increased in both mice. While levels of PSD95, glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit (NR1), which are key postsynaptic proteins that regulate synaptic plasticity, were decreased with aging, they were restored by bexarotene treatment in the brains of control but not nLrp1(-/-) mice. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of bexarotene on synaptic integrity depend on the presence of neuronal LRP1. However, we also found that bexarotene treatment led to the activation of glial cells, weight loss and hepatomegaly, which are likely due to hepatic failure. Taken together, our results demonstrate that apoE-targeted treatment through the RXR pathway has a potential beneficial effect on synapses during aging; however, the therapeutic application of bexarotene requires extreme caution due to its toxic side effects.

  8. D-Cycloserine: Agonist turned antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lanthorn, T H

    1994-10-01

    D-Cycloserine can enhance activation of the NMDA receptor complex and could enhance the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). In animals and humans, D-cycloserine can enhance performance in learning and memory tasks. This enhancing effect can disappear during repeated administration. The enhancing effects are also lost when higher doses are used, and replaced by behavioral and biochemical effects like those produced by NMDA antagonists. It has been reported that NMDA agonists, applied before or after tetanic stimulation, can block the induction of LTP. This may be the result of feedback inhibition of second messenger pathways stimulated by receptor activation. This may explain the antagonist-like effects of glycine partial agonists like D-cycloserine. In clinical trials of D-cycloserine in age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) and Alzheimer's disease, chronic treatment provided few positive effects on learning and memory. This may be due to inhibition of second messenger pathways following chronic stimulation of the receptor complex.

  9. Inverse agonist properties of atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Akam, Elizabeth; Strange, Philip G

    2004-06-01

    Mechanisms of action of several atypical antipsychotic drugs have been examined at the D(2) dopamine receptor expressed in CHO cells. The drugs tested were found to exhibit inverse agonist activity at the D(2) dopamine receptor based on their effects to potentiate forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation. Each of the antipsychotic drugs tested (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) increased cAMP accumulation to the same extent. The increase in cAMP was also similar to that seen with typical antipsychotic drugs. Inverse agonism at the D(2) dopamine receptor seems, therefore, to be a property common to all classes of antipsychotic drugs. The effect of sodium ions on the binding of the drugs to the receptor was also assessed. Each of the atypical antipsychotic drugs tested here bound with higher affinity in the absence of sodium ions. Previous studies have shown that some antipsychotic drugs are insensitive to sodium ions and some bind with higher affinity in the presence of sodium ions. Given that all of these antipsychotic drugs are inverse agonists, it may be concluded that this sodium ion sensitivity is unrelated to mechanisms of inverse agonism.

  10. An Anti-apoE4 Specific Monoclonal Antibody Counteracts the Pathological Effects of apoE4 In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Luz, Ishai; Liraz, Ori; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2016-06-02

    ApolipoproteinE4 (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as such is a promising therapeutic target. This study examined the extent to which the pathological effects of apoE4 can be counteracted in vivo utilizing an immunological approach in which anti-apoE4 antibodies are applied peripherally by i.p. injections into apoE4-targeted replacement mice. Prerequisites for the successful pursuit of this objective are the availability of antibodies that specifically bind brain apoE4 and not apoE3, and demonstrating that direct application of these antibodies into the brain can counteract the effects of apoE4. Accordingly, it was shown that the antiapoE4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9D11 binds specifically to brain apoE4 and not apoE3. Direct i.c.v. application of mAb 9D11 prevented the apoE4-driven accumulation of Aβ in hippocampal neurons following activation of the amyloid cascade by inhibiting the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. These findings provide a proof-of-concept that anti-apoE4 mAb 9D11, when introduced into the brain, can counteract the apoE4 effects in vivo. Subsequent experiments, utilizing repeated i.p. injections of mAb 9D11, resulted in the formation of apoE/IgG complexes specifically in apoE4 mice. This was associated with reversal of the cognitive impairments of apoE4 in the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition test as well as with reversal of key apoE4-driven pathologies including the hyperphosphorylated tau and the reduced levels of the apoER2 receptor. These results indicate that anti-apoE4 immunotherapy counteracts the cognitive and brain pathological effects of apoE4, and suggest that such an approach could also benefit human apoE4 carriers.

  11. Fates of endocytosed somatostatin sst2 receptors and associated agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, J A; Kaur, R; Dodgeon, I; Edwardson, J M; Humphrey, P P

    1998-01-01

    Somatostatin agonists are rapidly and efficiently internalized with the somatostatin sst2 receptor. The fate of internalized agonists and receptors is of critical importance because the rate of ligand recycling back to the cell surface can limit the amount of radioligand accumulated inside the cells, whereas receptor recycling might be of vital importance in providing the cell surface with dephosphorylated, resensitized receptors. Furthermore the accumulation of radioisotope-conjugated somatostatin agonists inside cancer cells resulting from receptor-mediated internalization has been used as a treatment for cancers that overexpress somatostatin receptors. In the present study, radio-iodinated agonists at the sst2 somatostatin receptor were employed to allow quantitative analysis of the fate of endocytosed agonist. After endocytosis, recycling back to the cell surface was the main pathway for both 125I-labelled somatostatin-14 (SRIF-14) and the more stable agonist 125I-labelled cyclo(N-Me-Ala-Tyr-d-Trp-Lys-Abu-Phe) (BIM-23027; Abu stands for aminobutyric acid), accounting for 75-85% of internalized ligand when re-endocytosis of radioligand was prevented. We have shown that there is a dynamic cycling of both somatostatin agonist ligands and receptors between the cell surface and internal compartments both during agonist treatment and after surface-bound agonist has been removed, unless steps are taken to prevent the re-activation of receptors by recycled agonist. Internalization leads to increased degradation of 125I-labelled SRIF-14 but not 125I-labelled BIM-23027. The concentration of recycled agonist accumulating in the extracellular medium was sufficient to re-activate the receptor, as measured both by the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase and the recovery of surface receptor number after internalization. PMID:9820803

  12. C/EBP-β Is Differentially Affected by PPARα Agonists Fenofibric Acid and GW7647, But Does Not Change Apolipoprotein A-I Production During ER-Stress and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    van der Krieken, Sophie E; Popeijus, Herman E; Konings, Maurice; Dullens, Stefan P J; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Increasing apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) production may be anti-atherogenic. Thus, there is a need to identify regulatory factors involved. Transcription of apoA-I involves peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha (PPARα) activation, but endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -stress and inflammation also influence apoA-I production. To unravel why PPARα agonist GW7647 increased apoA-I production compared to PPARα agonist fenofibric acid (FeAc) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cells, gene expression profiles were compared. Microarray analyses suggested CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-beta (C/EBP-β) involvement in the FeAc condition. Therefore, C/EBP-β silencing and isoform-specific overexpression experiments were performed under ER-stressed, inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. mRNA expression of C/EBP-β, ATF3, NF-IL3 and GDF15 were upregulated by FeAc compared to GW7647 in both cell lines, while DDIT3 and DDIT4 mRNA were only upregulated in HepG2 cells. This ER-stress related signature was associated with decreased apoA-I secretion. After ER-stress induction by thapsigargin or FeAc addition, intracellular apoA-I concentrations decreased, while ER-stress marker expression (CHOP, XBP1s, C/EBP-β) increased. Cytokine addition increased intracellular C/EBP-β levels and lowered apoA-I concentrations. Although a C/EBP binding place is present in the apoA-I promoter, C/EBP-β silencing or isoform-specific overexpression did not affect apoA-I production in inflammatory, non-inflammatory and ER-stressed conditions. Therefore, C/EBP-β is not a target to influence hepatic apoA-I production. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 754-763, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Estrogen receptor agonists for attenuation of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Haque, Azizul; Banik, Naren L.; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Ray, Swapan K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from laboratory investigations and clinical trials indicate important roles for estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from noxious consequences of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes in several CNS disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes, which drive the resident neuroinflammatory response. During neurodegenerative processes, activated microglia and astrocytes cause deleterious effects on surrounding neurons. The inhibitory activity of ER agonists on microglia activation might be a beneficial therapeutic option for delaying the onset or progression of neurodegenerative injuries and diseases. Recent studies suggest that ER agonists can provide neuroprotection by modulation of cell survival mechanisms, synaptic reorganization, regenerative responses to axonal injury, and neurogenesis process. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions of ER agonists are mediated mainly via two ERs known as ERα and ERβ. Although some studies have suggested that ER agonists may be deleterious to some neuronal populations, the potential clinical benefits of ER agonists for augmenting cognitive function may triumph over the associated side effects. Also, understanding the modulatory activities of ER agonists on inflammatory pathways will possibly lead to the development of selective anti-inflammatory molecules with neuroprotective roles in different CNS disorders such as SCI, MS, PD, and AD in humans. Future studies should be concentrated on finding the most plausible molecular pathways for enhancing protective functions of ER agonists in treating neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative injuries and diseases in the CNS. PMID:25245209

  14. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  15. Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researches suggest that two agonists can bind to the same binding site of an important transmembrane protein and elicit a biological response through strikingly different binding interactions. Evidence is provided which suggests two possible types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist binding like acetlycholine (cholinergic) or like nicotine…

  16. Deleuze&apos;s Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey-Moody, Anna Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Children, the image of the child, and the gendered figures of the girl and the boy are thematics that run through the work of Deleuze and feature prominently in his joint writing with Guattari. However, there are many different children in Deleuze&apos;s writings. Various child figures do distinct things in Deleuze&apos;s work. In this article, I…

  17. Neuroprotection by Alpha 2-Adrenergic Agonists in Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghua; Kimelberg, Harold K.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury is implicated in the pathophysiology of stroke and brain trauma, which are among the top killers worldwide, and intensive studies have been performed to reduce neural cell death after cerebral ischemia. Alpha 2-adrenergic agonists have been shown to improve the histomorphological and neurological outcome after cerebral ischemic injury when administered during ischemia, and recent studies have provided considerable evidence that alpha 2-adrenergic agonists can protect the brain from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, alpha 2-adrenergic agonists are promising potential drugs in preventing cerebral ischemic injury, but the mechanisms by which alpha 2-adrenergic agonists exert their neuroprotective effect are unclear. Activation of both the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor and imidazoline receptor may be involved. This mini review examines the recent progress in alpha 2-adrenergic agonists - induced neuroprotection and its proposed mechanisms in cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:18369397

  18. Quantifying agonist activity at G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Frederick J; Suga, Hinako; Griffin, Michael T

    2011-12-26

    When an agonist activates a population of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), it elicits a signaling pathway that culminates in the response of the cell or tissue. This process can be analyzed at the level of a single receptor, a population of receptors, or a downstream response. Here we describe how to analyze the downstream response to obtain an estimate of the agonist affinity constant for the active state of single receptors. Receptors behave as quantal switches that alternate between active and inactive states (Figure 1). The active state interacts with specific G proteins or other signaling partners. In the absence of ligands, the inactive state predominates. The binding of agonist increases the probability that the receptor will switch into the active state because its affinity constant for the active state (K(b)) is much greater than that for the inactive state (K(a)). The summation of the random outputs of all of the receptors in the population yields a constant level of receptor activation in time. The reciprocal of the concentration of agonist eliciting half-maximal receptor activation is equivalent to the observed affinity constant (K(obs)), and the fraction of agonist-receptor complexes in the active state is defined as efficacy (ε) (Figure 2). Methods for analyzing the downstream responses of GPCRs have been developed that enable the estimation of the K(obs) and relative efficacy of an agonist. In this report, we show how to modify this analysis to estimate the agonist K(b) value relative to that of another agonist. For assays that exhibit constitutive activity, we show how to estimate K(b) in absolute units of M(-1). Our method of analyzing agonist concentration-response curves consists of global nonlinear regression using the operational model. We describe a procedure using the software application, Prism (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA). The analysis yields an estimate of the product of K(obs) and a parameter proportional to efficacy (

  19. Agonistic behavior in males and females: effects of an estrogen receptor beta agonist in gonadectomized and gonadally intact mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Amy E. Clipperton; Cragg, Cheryl L.; Wood, Alexis J.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Summary Affiliative and agonistic social interactions are mediated by gonadal hormones. Research with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) or beta (ERβ) knockout (KO) mice show that long-term inactivation of ERα decreases, while inactivation of ERβ increases, male aggression. Opposite effects were found in female αERKO and βERKO mice. The role of acute activation of ERα or ERβ in the agonistic responses of adult non-KO mice is unknown. We report here the effects of the ERβ selective agonist WAY-200070 on agonistic and social behavior in gonadally intact and gonadectomized (gonadex) male and female CD-1 mice towards a gonadex, same-sex intruder. All 15 min resident-intruder tests were videotaped for comprehensive behavioral analysis. Separate analyses assessed: 1) effects of WAY-200070 on each sex and gonadal condition; 2) differences between sexes, and between gonadally intact and gonadex mice, in untreated animals. Results show that in gonadally intact male and female mice WAY-200070 increased agonistic behaviors such as pushing down and aggressive grooming, while leaving attacks unaffected. In untreated mice, males attacked more than females, and gonadex animals showed less agonistic behavior than same-sex, gonadally intact mice. Overall, our detailed behavioral analysis suggested that in gonadally intact male and female mice, ERβ mediates patterns of agonistic behavior that are not directly involved in attacks. This suggests that specific aspects of aggressive behavior are acutely mediated by ERβ in adult mice. Our results also showed that, in resident-intruder tests, female mice spend as much time in intrasexual agonistic interactions as males, but use agonistic behaviors that involve extremely low levels of direct attacks. This non-attack aggression in females is increased by acute activation of ERβ. Thus, acute activation of ERβ similarly mediates agonistic behavior in adult male and female CD-1 mice. PMID:20129736

  20. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation.

  1. Synthetic RORγ agonists regulate multiple pathways to enhance antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Liu, Xikui; Moisan, Jacques; Wang, Yahong; Lesch, Charles A.; Spooner, Chauncey; Morgan, Rodney W.; Zawidzka, Elizabeth M.; Mertz, David; Bousley, Dick; Majchrzak, Kinga; Kryczek, Ilona; Taylor, Clarke; Van Huis, Chad; Skalitzky, Don; Hurd, Alexander; Aicher, Thomas D.; Toogood, Peter L.; Glick, Gary D.; Paulos, Chrystal M.; Zou, Weiping; Carter, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RORγt is the key transcription factor controlling the development and function of CD4+ Th17 and CD8+ Tc17 cells. Across a range of human tumors, about 15% of the CD4+ T cell fraction in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are RORγ+ cells. To evaluate the role of RORγ in antitumor immunity, we have identified synthetic, small molecule agonists that selectively activate RORγ to a greater extent than the endogenous agonist desmosterol. These RORγ agonists enhance effector function of Type 17 cells by increasing the production of cytokines/chemokines such as IL-17A and GM-CSF, augmenting expression of co-stimulatory receptors like CD137, CD226, and improving survival and cytotoxic activity. RORγ agonists also attenuate immunosuppressive mechanisms by curtailing Treg formation, diminishing CD39 and CD73 expression, and decreasing levels of co-inhibitory receptors including PD-1 and TIGIT on tumor-reactive lymphocytes. The effects of RORγ agonists were not observed in RORγ−/− T cells, underscoring the selective on-target activity of the compounds. In vitro treatment of tumor-specific T cells with RORγ agonists, followed by adoptive transfer to tumor-bearing mice is highly effective at controlling tumor growth while improving T cell survival and maintaining enhanced IL-17A and reduced PD-1 in vivo. The in vitro effects of RORγ agonists translate into single agent, immune system-dependent, antitumor efficacy when compounds are administered orally in syngeneic tumor models. RORγ agonists integrate multiple antitumor mechanisms into a single therapeutic that both increases immune activation and decreases immune suppression resulting in robust inhibition of tumor growth. Thus, RORγ agonists represent a novel immunotherapy approach for cancer. PMID:28123897

  2. Effects of simulated heat waves on ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Zhang, Shuyu; Tian, Ying; Wang, Baojian; Shen, Shuanghe

    2014-01-28

    The effects of simulated heat waves on body weight, body temperature, and biomarkers of cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice were investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a meteorological environment simulation chamber according to data from a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen ApoE-/- mice were divided into control group, heat wave group, and heat wave BH4 group. Mice in the heat wave and BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. Mice in BH4 group were treated with gastric lavage with BH4 2 h prior to heat wave exposure. Results showed that the heat waves did not significantly affect body weight or ET-1 levels. However, mice in the heat wave group had significantly higher rectal temperature and NO level and lower SOD activity compared with mice in the control group (p < 0.01), indicating that heat wave had negative effects on cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice. Gastric lavage with BH4 prior to heat wave exposure significantly reduced heat wave-induced increases in rectal temperature and decreases in SOD activity. Additionally, pretreatment with BH4 further increased NO level in plasma. Collectively, these beneficial effects demonstrate that BH4 may potentially mitigate the risk of coronary heart disease in mice under heat wave exposure. These results may be useful when studying the effects of heat waves on humans.

  3. [Histrelin acetate--the first once yearly LHRH agonist].

    PubMed

    Altarac, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    Long-acting synthetic luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists have become the mainstay for androgen-deprivation therapy, because they avoid the physical and psychological discomfort associated with orchidectomy and lack the potential cardiotoxicity associated with estrogens such as diethylstilbestrol. Currently available luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist analogues include leuprolide, goserelin, triptorelin, degarelix and buserelin were administered as either intramuscular or subcutaneous depot injections on a 1, 2, 3 or 6 months basis. Histrelin acetate is the first long-acting luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist available as a once-yearly subcutaneous implant.

  4. Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors related to the Drosophila Toll protein. TLR activation alerts the immune system to microbial products and initiates innate and adaptive immune responses. The naturally powerful immunostimulatory property of TLR agonists can be exploited for active immunotherapy against cancer. Antitumor activity has been demonstrated in several cancers, and TLR agonists are now undergoing extensive clinical investigation. This review discusses recent advances in the field and highlights potential opportunities for the clinical development of TLR agonists as single agent immunomodulators, vaccine adjuvants and in combination with conventional cancer therapies. PMID:20563267

  5. Postprandial apoE Isoform and Conformational Changes Associated with VLDL Lipolysis Products Modulate Monocyte Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    den Hartigh, Laura J.; Altman, Robin; Hutchinson, Romobia; Petrlova, Jitka; Budamagunta, Madhu S.; Tetali, Sarada D.; Lagerstedt, Jens O.; Voss, John C.; Rutledge, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Postprandial hyperlipemia, characterized by increased circulating very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been proposed as a mechanism of vascular injury. Our goal was to examine the interactions between postprandial lipoproteins, LPS, and apoE3 and apoE4 on monocyte activation. Methods and Results We showed that apoE3 complexed to phospholipid vesicles attenuates LPS-induced THP-1 monocyte cytokine expression, while apoE4 increases expression. ELISA revealed that apoE3 binds to LPS with higher affinity than apoE4. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of site-directed spin labels placed on specific amino acids of apoE3 showed that LPS interferes with conformational changes normally associated with lipid binding. Specifically, compared to apoE4, apoE bearing the E3-like R112→Ser mutation displays increased self association when exposed to LPS, consistent with a stronger apoE3-LPS interaction. Additionally, lipolysis of fasting VLDL from normal human donors attenuated LPS-induced TNFα secretion from monocytes to a greater extent than postprandial VLDL, an effect partially reversed by blocking apoE. This effect was reproduced using fasting VLDL lipolysis products from e3/e3 donors, but not from e4/e4 subjects, suggesting that apoE3 on fasting VLDL prevents LPS-induced inflammation more readily than apoE4. Conclusion Postprandial apoE isoform and conformational changes associated with VLDL dramatically modulate vascular inflammation. PMID:23209766

  6. Characterization of a novel bivalent morphinan possessing kappa agonist and micro agonist/antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Jennifer L; Peng, Xuemei; Xiong, Wennan; Zhang, Ao; Negus, S Stevens; Neumeyer, John L; Bidlack, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    Previous research has shown that compounds with mixed kappa and mu activity may have utility for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. The present study characterizes the pharmacological profile of a bivalent morphinan that was shown to be a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor agonist/antagonist. MCL-145 [bis(N-cyclobutylmethylmorphinan) fumarate] is related to the morphinan cyclorphan and its N-cyclobutylmethyl derivative MCL-101 [3-hydroxy-N-cyclobutylmethyl morphinan S-(+)-mandelate]. MCL-145 consists of two morphinans connected by a spacer at the 3-hydroxy position. This compound had K(i) values of 0.078 and 0.20 nM for the kappa and mu opioid receptors, respectively, using radioligand binding assays as shown by Neumeyer et al. in 2003. In the guanosine 5'-O -(3-[(35) S]thiotriphosphate) binding assay, MCL-145 produced an E(max) value of 80% for the kappa opioid receptor and 42% for the mu opioid receptor. The EC(50) values obtained for this compound were 4.3 and 3.1 nM for the kappa and mu opioid receptors, respectively. In vivo MCL-145 produced a full dose-response curve in the 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test and was equipotent to morphine. The agonist properties of MCL-145 were antagonized by the mu-selective antagonist beta-funaltrexamine and the kappa-selective antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. MCL-145 also acted as a mu antagonist, as measured by the inhibition of morphine-induced antinociception.

  7. ApoA-I mimetics.

    PubMed

    Stoekenbroek, R M; Stroes, E S; Hovingh, G K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of evidence indicates that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Consequently, HDL-C has been considered a target for therapy in order to reduce the residual CVD burden that remains significant, even after application of current state-of-the-art medical interventions. In recent years, however, a number of clinical trials of therapeutic strategies that increase HDL-C levels failed to show the anticipated beneficial effect on CVD outcomes. As a result, attention has begun to shift toward strategies to improve HDL functionality, rather than levels of HDL-C per se. ApoA-I, the major protein component of HDL, is considered to play an important role in many of the antiatherogenic functions of HDL, most notably reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and several therapies have been developed to mimic apoA-I function, including administration of apoA-I, mutated variants of apoA-I, and apoA-I mimetic peptides. Based on the potential anti-inflammatory effects, apoA-I mimetics hold promise not only as anti-atherosclerotic therapy but also in other therapeutic areas.

  8. Octopaminergic agonists for the cockroach neuronal octopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2003-01-01

    The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor.

  9. Partial agonist therapy in schizophrenia: relevance to diminished criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Gavaudan, Gilles; Magalon, David; Cohen, Julien; Lançon, Christophe; Léonetti, Georges; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2010-11-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), classified in the DSM-IV among impulse control disorders, is defined as inappropriate, persistent gaming for money with serious personal, family, and social consequences. Offenses are frequently committed to obtain money for gambling. Pathological gambling, a planned and structured behavioral disorder, has often been described as a complication of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. It has never been described in patients with schizophrenia receiving dopamine agonists. We present two patients with schizophrenia, previously treated with antipsychotic drugs without any suggestion of PG, who a short time after starting aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, developed PG and criminal behavior, which totally resolved when aripiprazole was discontinued. Based on recent advances in research on PG and adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease, we postulate a link between aripiprazole and PG in both our patients with schizophrenia and raise the question of criminal responsibility.

  10. Agonist Replacement for Stimulant Dependence: A Review of Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulant use disorders are an unrelenting public health concern worldwide. Agonist replacement therapy is among the most effective strategies for managing substance use disorders including nicotine and opioid dependence. The present paper reviewed clinical data from human laboratory self-administration studies and clinical trials to determine whether agonist replacement therapy is a viable strategy for managing cocaine and/or amphetamine use disorders. The extant literature suggests that agonist replacement therapy may be effective for managing stimulant use disorders, however, the clinical selection of an agonist replacement medication likely needs to be based on the pharmacological mechanism of the medication and the stimulant abused by patients. Specifically, dopamine releasers appear most effective for reducing cocaine use whereas dopamine reuptake inhibitors appear most effective for reducing amphetamine use. PMID:23574440

  11. Selecting agonists from single cells infected with combinatorial antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkai; Yea, Kyungmoo; Xie, Jia; Ruiz, Diana; Wilson, Ian A; Lerner, Richard A

    2013-05-23

    We describe a system for direct selection of antibodies that are receptor agonists. Combinatorial antibody libraries in lentiviruses are used to infect eukaryotic cells that contain a fluorescent reporter system coupled to the receptor for which receptor agonist antibodies are sought. In this embodiment of the method, very large numbers of candidate antibodies expressing lentivirus and eukaryotic reporter cells are packaged together in a format where each is capable of replication, thereby forging a direct link between genotype and phenotype. Following infection, cells that fluoresce are sorted and the integrated genes encoding the agonist antibodies recovered. We validated the system by illustrating its ability to generate rapidly potent antibody agonists that are complete thrombopoietin phenocopies. The system should be generalizable to any pathway where its activation can be linked to production of a selectable phenotype.

  12. Agonist pharmacology of two Drosophila GABA receptor splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. The Drosophila melanogaster gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunits, RDLac and DRC 17-1-2, form functional homo-oligomeric receptors when heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The subunits differ in only 17 amino acids, principally in regions of the N-terminal domain which determine agonist pharmacology in vertebrate ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors. A range of conformationally restricted GABA analogues were tested on the two homo-oligomers and their agonists pharmacology compared with that of insect and vertebrate iontropic GABA receptors. 2. The actions of GABA, isoguvacine and isonipecotic acid on RDLac and DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers were compared, by use of two-electrode voltage-clamp. All three compounds were full agonists of both receptors, but were 4-6 fold less potent agonists of DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers than of RDLac. However, the relative potencies of these agonists on each receptor were very similar. 3. A more complete agonist profile was established for RDLac homo-oligomers. The most potent agonists of these receptors were GABA, muscimol and trans-aminocrotonic acid (TACA), which were approximately equipotent. RDLac homo-oligomers were fully activated by a range of GABA analogues, with the order of potency: GABA > ZAPA ((Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid) > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid > or = isonipecotic acid > or = cis-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) > beta-alanine. 3-Aminopropane sulphonic acid (3-APS), a partial agonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, was the weakest agonist tested and 100 fold less potent than GABA. 4. SR95531, an antagonist of vertebrate GABAA receptors, competitively inhibited the GABA responses of RDLac homo-oligomers, which have previously been found to insensitive to bicuculline. However, its potency (IC50 500 microM) was much reduced when compared to GABAA receptors. 5. The agonist pharmacology of Drosophila RDLac homo-oligomers exhibits aspects of the characteristic pharmacology of

  13. Beta2-agonists and exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sandra D; Caillaud, Corinne; Brannan, John D

    2006-01-01

    Beta2-agonists taken immediately before exercise provide significant protection against exercise- induced asthma (EIA) in most patients. However, when they are taken daily, there are some negative aspects regarding severity, control, and recovery from EIA. First, there is a significant minority (15-20%) of asthmatics whose EIA is not prevented by beta2-agonists, even when inhaled corticosteroids are used concomitantly. Second, with daily use, there is a decline in duration of the protective effect of long-acting beta2-agonists. Third, if breakthrough EIA occurs, recovery of lung function is slower in response to a beta2-agonist, and additional doses are often required to achieve pre-exercise values. If a person who takes a beta2-agonist daily experiences problems with exercise, then the physician should consider changing the treatment regimen to achieve better control of EIA. These problems likely result from desensitization of the beta2-receptor on the mast cell, which enhances mediator release, and on the bronchial smooth muscle, which enhances the bronchoconstrictor response and delays recovery from EIA. These effects are reversed within 72 h after cessation of a beta2-agonists. The important clinical question is: Are we actually compromising the beneficial effects of beta2-agonists on the prevention and recovery from EIA by prescribing them daily? Patients with EIA need to ensure that their doses of inhaled corticosteroid or other anti-inflammatory therapy are optimized so that, if necessary, a beta2-agonist can be used intermittently as prophylactic medication with greater confidence in the outcome.

  14. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  15. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  16. Identification of M-CSF agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan; Jancarik, Jarmila; Kim, Sung-Hou; Koths, Kirston; Halenbeck, Robert; Fear, Anna Lisa; Taylor, Eric; Yamamoto, Ralph; Bohm, Andrew

    2000-02-15

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  17. Opioid receptor agonists reduce brain edema in stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Hezhen; Shah, Kaushik; Karamyan, Vardan T; Abbruscato, Thomas J

    2011-04-06

    Cerebral edema is a leading cause of mortality in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to assess a non-selective opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, in decreasing reducing brain edema formation using both in vitro and in vivo models of stroke. For the in situ model of ischemia, hippocampal slices were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions and we observed that hippocampal water content was increased, compared to normoxia. Treatment with the mu agonist, Tyr-D-Ala', N-CH, -Phe4, Glyol-Enkephalin (DAMGO), delta opioid agonists, D-pen(2), D-phe(5) enkephalin (DPDPE), and kappa agonist, U50 488, all significantly decreased brain slice water gain. Interestingly, the non-selective agonist, biphalin, exhibited a statistically significant (P<0.01) greater effect in decreasing water content in OGD-exposed hippocampal slices, compared with mu, delta, and kappa selective opioid agonists. Moreover, biphalin exhibited anti-edematous effects in a dose responsive manner. The non-selective opioid antagonist, naloxone, returned the water content nearly back to original OGD values for all opioid agonist treatments, supporting that these effects were mediated by an opioid receptor pathway. Furthermore, biphalin significantly decreased edema (53%) and infarct (48%) ratios, and neuronal recovery from stroke, compared with the vehicle-treated groups in a 12h permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of focal ischemia. Biphalin also significantly decreased the cell volume increase in primary neuronal cells exposed to OGD condition. These data suggest that opioid receptor activation may provide neuroprotection during stroke and further investigations are needed in the development of novel opioid agonist as efficacious treatments for brain ischemia.

  18. Partial agonist properties of the antipsychotics SSR181507, aripiprazole and bifeprunox at dopamine D2 receptors: G protein activation and prolactin release.

    PubMed

    Cosi, Cristina; Carilla-Durand, Elisabeth; Assié, Marie Bernadette; Ormiere, Anne Marie; Maraval, Mireille; Leduc, Nathalie; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2006-03-27

    Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists induce hyperprolactinemia depending on the extent of D2 receptor blockade. We compared the effects of the new antipsychotic agents SSR181507 ((3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2 s)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine monohydrochloride), bifeprunox (DU127090: 1-(2-Oxo-benzoxazolin-7-yl)-4-(3-biphenyl)methylpiperazinemesylate) and SLV313 (1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine) with those of aripiprazole (7-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-butyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-2(1 H)-quinolinone), clozapine and haloperidol, on functional measures of dopamine D2 receptor activity in vitro and in vivo: [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membranes from Sf9 insect cells expressing human dopamine D2 Long (hD2 L) receptors, and serum prolactin levels in the rat. All compounds antagonized apomorphine-induced G protein activation at dopamine hD2 L receptors. Antagonist potencies of aripiprazole, bifeprunox and SLV313 were similar to haloperidol (pK(b) = 9.12), whereas SSR181507 (8.16) and clozapine (7.35) were less potent. Haloperidol, SLV313 and clozapine were silent antagonists but SSR181507, bifeprunox and aripiprazole stimulated [35S]-GTPgammaS binding by 17.5%, 26.3% and 25.6%, respectively, relative to 100 microM apomorphine (Emax = 100%). pEC50s were: SSR181507, 8.08; bifeprunox, 8.97; aripiprazole, 8.56. These effects were antagonized by raclopride. Following oral administration in vivo, the drugs increased prolactin release to different extents. SLV313 and haloperidol potently (ED50 0.12 and 0.22 mg/kg p.o., respectively) stimulated prolactin release up to 86 and 83 ng/ml. Aripiprazole potently (ED50 0.66 mg/kg p.o.) but partially (32 ng/ml) induced prolactin release. SSR181507 (ED50 4.9 mg/kg p.o.) also partially (23 ng/ml) enhanced prolactin release. Bifeprunox only weakly increased prolactin at high doses (13 ng/ml at 40 mg/kg) and clozapine only

  19. Behavioural effects of selective tachykinin agonists in midbrain dopamine regions.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A J; Szczutkowski, E; Glenn, B; Watson, I

    1991-11-29

    The effects of selective NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 tachykinin agonists in midbrain dopamine cell containing regions were investigated in the rat. The NK-3 agonist senktide induced locomotion, rearing and sniffing following infusion into the substantia nigra pars compacta, and to a lesser extent in the ventral tegmental area. These behavioural responses were not seen following infusion of the selective NK-1 agonist [Sar9,Met (O2)11]SP or the NK-2 agonist [N1e10]NKA4-10. In contrast, grooming was induced only by the NK-1 agonist administered into the substantia nigra. Yawning, chewing mouth movements and wet dog shakes were all seen following infusion of senktide into the ventral tegmental area. These findings suggest that (i) dopamine-mediated behavioural responses seen following tachykinin administration into the midbrain are dependent upon stimulation of NK-3 tachykinin receptors, (ii) tachykinin-induced grooming is mediated by stimulation of NK-1 receptors and (iii) some of the previously described 5-HT mediated behaviours seen following administration of NK-3 tachykinin agonists are probably generated by stimulation of 5-HT cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area.

  20. Histamine H3-receptor inverse agonists as novel antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Ito, Chihiro

    2009-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) that is resistant to treatment with dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists may involve changes other than those in the dopaminergic system. Recently, histamine (HA), which regulates arousal and cognitive functions, has been suggested to act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Four HA receptors-H1, H2, H3, and H4-have been identified. Our recent basic and clinical studies revealed that brain HA improved the symptoms of SZ. The H3 receptor is primarily localized in the central nervous system, and it acts not only as a presynaptic autoreceptor that modulates the HA release but also as a presynaptic heteroreceptor that regulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as monoamines and amino acids. H3-receptor inverse agonists have been considered to improve cognitive functions. Many atypical antipsychotics are H3-receptor antagonists. Imidazole-containing H3-receptor inverse agonists inhibit not only cytochrome P450 but also hERG potassium channels (encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene). Several imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists also have high affinity for H4 receptors, which are expressed at high levels in mast cells and leukocytes. Clozapine is an H4-receptor agonist; this agonist activity may be related to the serious side effect of agranulocytosis caused by clozapine. Therefore, selective non-imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists can be considered as novel antipsychotics that may improve refractory SZ.

  1. Identification of Determinants Required for Agonistic and Inverse Agonistic Ligand Properties at the ADP Receptor P2Y12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Philipp; Ritscher, Lars; Dong, Elizabeth N.; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Cöster, Maxi; Wittkopf, Doreen; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The ADP receptor P2Y12 belongs to the superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its activation triggers platelet aggregation. Therefore, potent antagonists, such as clopidogrel, are of high clinical relevance in prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events. P2Y12 displays an elevated basal activity in vitro, and as such, inverse agonists may be therapeutically beneficial compared with antagonists. Only a few inverse agonists of P2Y12 have been described. To expand this limited chemical space and improve understanding of structural determinants of inverse agonist-receptor interaction, this study screened a purine compound library for lead structures using wild-type (WT) human P2Y12 and 28 constitutively active mutants. Results showed that ATP and ATP derivatives are agonists at P2Y12. The potency at P2Y12 was 2-(methylthio)-ADP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP > ADP > ATP. Determinants required for agonistic ligand activity were identified. Molecular docking studies revealed a binding pocket for the ATP derivatives that is bordered by transmembrane helices 3, 5, 6, and 7 in human P2Y12, with Y105, E188, R256, Y259, and K280 playing a particularly important role in ligand interaction. N-Methyl-anthraniloyl modification at the 3′-OH of the 2′-deoxyribose leads to ligands (mant-deoxy-ATP [dATP], mant-deoxy-ADP) with inverse agonist activity. Inverse agonist activity of mant-dATP was found at the WT human P2Y12 and half of the constitutive active P2Y12 mutants. This study showed that, in addition to ADP and ATP, other ATP derivatives are not only ligands of P2Y12 but also agonists. Modification of the ribose within ATP can result in inverse activity of ATP-derived ligands. PMID:23093496

  2. Macrophage-Specific ApoE Gene Repair Reduces Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis in Hypomorphic Apoe Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gaudreault, Nathalie; Kumar, Nikit; Olivas, Victor R.; Eberlé, Delphine; Rapp, Joseph H.; Raffai, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein (apo) E is best known for its ability to lower plasma cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. Although the liver is the major source of plasma apoE, extra-hepatic sources of apoE, including from macrophages, account for up to 10% of plasma apoE levels. This study examined the contribution of macrophage-derived apoE expression levels in diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypomorphic apoE (Apoeh/h) mice expressing wildtype mouse apoE at ∼2–5% of physiological levels in all tissues were derived by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Cre-mediated gene repair of the Apoeh/h allele in Apoeh/hLysM-Cre mice raised apoE expression levels by 26 fold in freshly isolated peritoneal macrophages, restoring it to 37% of levels seen in wildtype mice. Chow-fed Apoeh/hLysM-Cre and Apoeh/h mice displayed similar plasma apoE and cholesterol levels (55.53±2.90 mg/dl versus 62.70±2.77 mg/dl, n = 12). When fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 16 weeks, Apoeh/hLysM-Cre mice displayed a 3-fold increase in plasma apoE and a concomitant 32% decrease in plasma cholesterol when compared to Apoeh/h mice (602.20±22.30 mg/dl versus 888.80±24.99 mg/dl, n = 7). On HCD, Apoeh/hLysM-Cre mice showed increased apoE immunoreactivity in lesional macrophages and liver-associated Kupffer cells but not hepatocytes. In addition, Apoeh/hLysM-Cre mice developed 35% less atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root than Apoeh/h mice (167×103±16×103 µm2 versus 259×103±56×103 µm2, n = 7). This difference in atherosclerosis lesions size was proportional to the observed reduction in plasma cholesterol. Conclusions/Significance Macrophage-derived apoE raises plasma apoE levels in response to diet-induced hyperlipidemia and by such reduces atherosclerosis proportionally to the extent to which it lowers plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:22606237

  3. The Effect of a High-Fat Diet on Brain Plasticity, Inflammation and Cognition in Female ApoE4-Knockin and ApoE-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Carola I. F.; Jansen, Diane; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; Dederen, Pieter J. W. C.; Geenen, Bram; Mulder, Monique T.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), one of three common isoforms of ApoE, is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ApoE-deficient mice, as well as mice expressing human ApoE4, display impaired learning and memory functions and signs of neurodegeneration. Moreover, ApoE protects against high-fat (HF) diet induced neurodegeneration by its role in the maintenance of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The influence of a HF diet on the progression of AD-like cognitive and neuropathological changes was assessed in wild-type (WT), human ApoE4 and ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to evaluate the modulatory role of ApoE in this process. From 12 months of age, female WT, ApoE4, and ApoE-/- mice were fed either a standard or a HF diet (19% butter, 0.5% cholate, 1.25% cholesterol) throughout life. At 15 months of age mice performed the Morris water maze, evaluating spatial learning and memory. ApoE-/- showed increased spatial learning compared to WT mice (p = 0.009). HF diet improved spatial learning in WT mice (p = 0.045), but did not affect ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus demonstrated increased neuroinflammation (CD68) in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region in ApoE4 (p = 0.001) and in ApoE-/- (p = 0.032) mice on standard diet. HF diet tended to increase CD68 in the CA1 in WT mice (p = 0.052), while it decreased in ApoE4 (p = 0.009), but ApoE-/- remained unaffected. A trend towards increased neurogenesis (DCX) was found in both ApoE4 (p = 0.052) and ApoE-/- mice (p = 0.068). In conclusion, these data suggest that HF intake induces different effects in WT mice compared to ApoE4 and ApoE-/- with respect to markers for cognition and neurodegeneration. We propose that HF intake inhibits the compensatory mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in aged female ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. PMID:27171180

  4. ApoE4-specific Misfolded Intermediate Identified by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Williams II, Benfeard; Convertino, Marino; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the APOE gene, which encodes for three variants of Apolipoprotein E, namely E2, E3, E4, differing only by two amino acids at positions 112 and 158. ApoE4 is known to be the strongest risk factor for AD onset, while ApoE3 and ApoE2 are considered to be the AD-neutral and AD-protective isoforms, respectively. It has been hypothesized that the ApoE isoforms may contribute to the development of AD by modifying the homeostasis of ApoE physiological partners and AD-related proteins in an isoform-specific fashion. Here we find that, despite the high sequence similarity among the three ApoE variants, only ApoE4 exhibits a misfolded intermediate state characterized by isoform-specific domain-domain interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. The existence of an ApoE4-specific intermediate state can contribute to the onset of AD by altering multiple cellular pathways involved in ApoE-dependent lipid transport efficiency or in AD-related protein aggregation and clearance. We present what we believe to be the first structural model of an ApoE4 misfolded intermediate state, which may serve to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ApoE4 in AD pathogenesis. The knowledge of the structure for the ApoE4 folding intermediate provides a new platform for the rational design of alternative therapeutic strategies to fight AD. PMID:26506597

  5. Dihydrocodeine/Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Albrecht; Müller, Markus; Frietsch, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients. Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC) to 102 heavily alcohol addicted patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks), Baclofen, and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DHC, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-steps scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details. Conclusion: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around 1/4 of the patients already. Many further

  6. Anti-nociception mediated by a κ opioid receptor agonist is blocked by a δ receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, A M W; Roberts, K W; Pradhan, A A; Akbari, H A; Walwyn, W; Lutfy, K; Carroll, F I; Cahill, C M; Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The opioid receptor family comprises four structurally homologous but functionally distinct sub-groups, the μ (MOP), δ (DOP), κ (KOP) and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. As most opioid agonists are selective but not specific, a broad spectrum of behaviours due to activation of different opioid receptors is expected. In this study, we examine whether other opioid receptor systems influenced KOP-mediated antinociception. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used a tail withdrawal assay in C57Bl/6 mice to assay the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered opioid agonists with varying selectivity at KOP receptors. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyse the interactions of the other opioid receptors in modulating KOP-mediated antinociception. KEY RESULTS Etorphine, a potent agonist at all four opioid receptors, was not anti-nociceptive in MOP knockout (KO) mice, although etorphine is an efficacious KOP receptor agonist and specific KOP receptor agonists remain analgesic in MOP KO mice. As KOP receptor agonists are aversive, we considered KOP-mediated antinociception might be a form of stress-induced analgesia that is blocked by the anxiolytic effects of DOP receptor agonists. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the DOP antagonist, naltrindole (10 mg·kg−1), unmasked etorphine (3 mg·kg−1) antinociception in MOP KO mice. Further, in wild-type mice, KOP-mediated antinociception by systemic U50,488H (10 mg·kg−1) was blocked by pretreatment with the DOP agonist SNC80 (5 mg·kg−1) and diazepam (1 mg·kg−1). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Systemic DOP receptor agonists blocked systemic KOP antinociception, and these results identify DOP receptor agonists as potential agents for reversing stress-driven addictive and depressive behaviours mediated through KOP receptor activation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles

  7. Identification of a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist, 2-methyl-2-(4-{3-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]propyl}phenoxy)propanoic acid (LY518674), that produces marked changes in serum lipids and apolipoprotein A-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jai Pal; Kauffman, Raymond; Bensch, William; Wang, Guoming; McClelland, Pam; Bean, James; Montrose, Chahrzad; Mantlo, Nathan; Wagle, Asavari

    2005-09-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) is an important risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Optimum therapy for raising HDL-c is still not available. Identification of novel HDL-raising agents would produce a major impact on CAD. In this study, we have identified a potent (IC50 approximately 24 nM) and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, 2-methyl-2-(4-{3-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]propyl}phenoxy)propanoic acid (LY518674). In human apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) transgenic mice, LY518674 produced a dose-dependent increase in serum HDL-c, resulting in 208 +/- 15% elevation at optimum dose. A new synthesis of apoA-1 contributed to the increase in HDL-c. LY518674 increased apoA-1 mRNA levels in liver. Moreover, liver slices from animals treated with LY518674 secreted 3- to 6-fold more apoA-1 than control liver slices. In cultured hepatocytes, LY518674 produced 50% higher apoA-1 secretion, which was associated with increase in radiolabeled methionine incorporation in apoA-1. Thus, LY518674 is a potent and selective PPARalpha agonist that produced a much greater increase in serum HDL-c than the known fibrate drugs. The increase in HDL-c was associated with de novo synthesis of apoA-1.

  8. Benzodiazepine agonist and inverse agonist actions on GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. II. Chronic effects of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, K.J.; Harris, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Mice were made tolerant to and dependent on ethanol by administration of a liquid diet. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-dependent uptake of 36Cl- by mouse cortical microsacs was used to study the actions of benzodiazepine (BZ) agonists and inverse agonists. Chronic exposure to ethanol attenuated the ability of a BZ agonist, flunitrazepam, to augment muscimol-stimulated uptake of 36Cl- and enhanced the actions of BZ inverse agonists, Ro15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,4)-benzodiazepine - 3-carboxylate) and DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate), to inhibit GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. Augmentation of chloride flux by pentobarbital was not reduced by chronic ethanol exposure. Attenuation of flunitrazepam efficacy was transient and returned to control levels within 6 to 24 hr after withdrawal from ethanol, but increased sensitivity to Ro15-4513 was observed as long as 8 days after withdrawal. Chronic exposure to ethanol did not alter (3H)SR 95531 (2-(3'-carbethoxy-2'propyl)-3-amino-6-p-methoxyphenylpyridazinium bromide) binding to low-affinity GABAA receptors or muscimol stimulation of chloride flux; and did not alter (3H)Ro15-4513 or (3H)flunitrazepam binding to central BZ receptors or allosteric modulation of this binding by muscimol (i.e., muscimol-shift). These results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol reduces coupling between BZ agonist sites and the chloride channel, and may be responsible for the development of cross-tolerance between ethanol and BZ agonists. In contrast, coupling between BZ inverse agonist sites and the chloride channel is increased.

  9. Intracerebroventricular administration of kappa-agonists induces convulsions in mice.

    PubMed

    Bansinath, M; Ramabadran, K; Turndorf, H; Shukla, V K

    1991-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of kappa-agonists (PD 117302, U-50488H and U-69593) induced convulsions in a dose-related manner in mice. The dose at which 50% of animals convulsed (CD50) was in nmol ranges for all opioids. Among the opioids used, PD 117302 was the most potent convulsant. ICV administration of either vehicle alone or U-53445E, a non-kappa-opioid (+) enantiomer of U-50488H did not induce convulsions. The convulsive response of kappa-agonists was differentially susceptible for antagonism by naloxone and/or MR 2266. Collectively, these findings support the view that convulsions induced by kappa-agonists in mice involve stereospecific opioid receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, the convulsant effect of kappa-agonists could not be modified by pretreatment with MK-801, ketamine, muscimol or baclofen. It is concluded that kappa-opioid but not NMDA or GABA receptor mechanisms are involved in convulsions induced by kappa-agonists. These results are the first experimental evidence implicating stereospecific kappa-receptor mechanisms in opioid-induced convulsions in mice.

  10. Modification of opiate agonist binding by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, M.E.; Lee, N.M.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    Opiate agonist binding is decreased by GTP, suggesting the possible involvement of GTP binding proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding. This possibility was addressed by asking whether pertussis toxin treatment, which results in ADP-ribosylation and modification of G proteins, would alter opiate agonist binding. The striatum was chosen for the initial brain area to be studied, since regulation of opiate action in this area had been shown to be modified by pertussis toxin. Treatment of striatal membranes with pertussis toxin results in up to a 55% decrease in /sup 3/(H)-DADLE binding as compared with membranes treated identically without toxin. This corresponds to a near complete ADP-ribosylation of both G proteins in the striatal membrane. The decrease in agonist binding appears to be due to an altered affinity of the receptor for agonist as opposed to a decrease in the number of sites. This effect of pertussis toxin on opiate agonist binding demonstrates the actual involvement of G proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding.

  11. Novel nonsecosteroidal VDR agonists with phenyl-pyrrolyl pentane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Xue, Jingwei; Zhao, Zekai; Zhang, Can

    2013-11-01

    In order to find the vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand whose VDR agonistic activity is separated from the calcemic activity sufficiently, novel nonsecosteroidal analogs with phenyl-pyrrolyl pentane skeleton were synthesized and evaluated for the VDR binding affinity, antiproliferative activity in vitro and serum calcium raising ability in vivo (tacalcitol used as control). Among them, several compounds showed varying degrees of VDR agonistic and growth inhibition activities of the tested cell lines. The most effective compound 2g (EC₅₀: 1.06 nM) exhibited stronger VDR agonistic activity than tacalcitol (EC₅₀: 7.05 nM), inhibited the proliferations of HaCaT and MCF-7 cells with IC₅₀ of 2.06 μM and 0.307 μM (tacalcitol: 2.07 μM and 0.057 μM) and showed no significant effect on serum calcium.

  12. Compulsive eating and weight gain related to dopamine agonist use.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J; Waters, Cheryl

    2006-04-01

    Dopamine agonists have been implicated in causing compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These have included gambling, hypersexuality, hobbyism, and other repetitive, purposeless behaviors ("punding"). In this report, we describe 7 patients in whom compulsive eating developed in the context of pramipexole use. All of the affected patients had significant, undesired weight gain; 4 had other comorbid compulsive behaviors. In the 5 patients who lowered the dose of pramipexole or discontinued dopamine agonist treatment, the behavior remitted and no further weight gain occurred. Physicians should be aware that compulsive eating resulting in significant weight gain may occur in PD as a side-effect of dopamine agonist medications such as pramipexole. Given the known risks of the associated weight gain and obesity, further investigation is warranted.

  13. Captive female gorilla agonistic relationships with clumped defendable food resources.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jennifer; Lockard, Joan S

    2006-07-01

    Minimal feeding competition among female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) has resulted in egalitarian social relationships with poorly defined agonistic dominance hierarchies. Thus, gorillas are generally viewed as non-competitive egalitarian folivores that have had little need to develop effective competitive strategies to access food resources. However, this generalization is inconsistent with more recent research indicating that most gorillas are frugivorous, feeding on patchily distributed food resources. The current study at Howletts Wild Animal Park, Kent, England, explores the effects of clumped and defendable foods on female gorilla agonistic relationships among three groups of western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla), conditions that are predicted to lead to well-differentiated agonistic dominance hierarchies among female primates. The Howletts gorillas foraged all day on low-energy/-nutrient, high-fiber foods widely distributed around their enclosure by the keepers. However, they also had periodic access to high-energy foods (e.g., nuts, raisins, strawberries, etc.) that the keepers would spread in a clumped and defendable patch. Frequencies of agonistic and submissive behaviors between females and proximity data were gathered. High-status females were found to monopolize the food patch and kept the low-status females at bay with cough-grunt threat vocalizations or by chasing them away. Agonistic interactions were initiated mostly by females of high status; these were directed towards females of low status and were generally not reciprocal. In addition, females of low status engaged in submissive behaviors the most often, which they directed primarily at females of high status, especially in response to aggression by the latter. Agonistic interactions between high- and low-status females had decided outcomes more often than not, with low-status females the losers. Competition over highly desirable foods distributed in defendable clumps at

  14. Switching cannabinoid response from CB(2) agonists to FAAH inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tourteau, Aurélien; Leleu-Chavain, Natascha; Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Andrzejak, Virginie; Barczyk, Amélie; Djouina, Madjid; Rigo, Benoit; Desreumaux, Pierre; Chavatte, Philippe; Millet, Régis

    2014-03-01

    A series of 3-carboxamido-5-aryl-isoxazoles designed as CB2 agonists were evaluated as FAAH inhibitors. The pharmacological results led to identify structure-activity relationships enabling to switch cannabinoid response from CB2 agonists to FAAH inhibitors. Two compounds were selected for their FAAH and/or CB2 activity, and evaluated in a colitis model for their anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that compounds 10 and 11 inhibit the development of DSS-induced acute colitis in mice and then, are interesting leads to explore new drug candidates for IBD.

  15. Partial agonistic action of endomorphins in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, H; Wu, H E; Narita, M

    2001-09-07

    The partial agonistic properties of endogenous mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 for G-protein activation were determined in the mouse spinal cord, monitoring the increases in guanosine-5'-o-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding. The G-protein activation induced by endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin in the spinal cord was significantly, but partially, attenuated by co-incubation with endomorphin-1 or endomorphin-2. The data indicates that endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 are endogenous partial agonists for mu-opioid receptor in the mouse spinal cord.

  16. Synthesis and activity of small molecule GPR40 agonists.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Dulce M; Corbett, David F; Dwornik, Kate A; Goetz, Aaron S; Littleton, Thomas R; McKeown, Steve C; Mills, Wendy Y; Smalley, Terrence L; Briscoe, Celia P; Peat, Andrew J

    2006-04-01

    The first report on the identification and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of GPR40 agonists based on a 3-(4-{[N-alkyl]amino}phenyl)propanoic acid template is described. Structural modifications to the original screening hit yielded compounds with a 100-fold increase in potency at the human GPR40 receptor and pEC(50)s in the low nanomolar range. The carboxylic acid moiety is not critical for activity but typically elicits an agonistic response higher than those observed with carboxamide replacements. These compounds may prove useful in unraveling the therapeutic potential of this receptor for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

  17. ApoE and the role of very low density lipoproteins in adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...

  18. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers&apos; Ability and Effort Explanations for Students&apos; Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students&apos; performance in math. Whereas boys&apos; successes in math are attributed to ability, girls&apos; successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys&apos; failures in math are attributed to a…

  19. Childrens&apos; Conceptions of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study of sixth grade children&apos;s conceptions of nature and the environment. In so doing, it asks that environmental educators pay more attention to children&apos;s preconceived notions of environment and nature. Should this occur the theory-practice gap in environmental education may be diminished. Learners&apos; concept…

  20. Jack Michael&apos;s Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael&apos;s contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner&apos;s (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael&apos;s term helped us change our focus on…

  1. Pyrrolo- and pyridomorphinans: non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Clark, M J; Traynor, J R; Lewis, J W; Husbands, S M

    2014-08-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse.

  2. Redox reactions of apo mammalian ferritin.

    PubMed

    Watt, R K; Frankel, R B; Watt, G D

    1992-10-13

    Apo horse spleen ferritin undergoes a 6.3 +/- 0.5 electron redox reaction at -310 mV at pH 6.0-8.5 and 25 degrees C to form reduced apoferritin (apoMFred). Reconstituted ferritin containing up to 50 ferric ions undergoes reduction at the same potential, taking up one electron per ferric ion and six additional electrons by the protein. We propose that apo mammalian ferritin (apoMF) contains six redox centers that can be fully oxidized forming oxidized apoferritin (apoMFox) or fully reduced forming apoMFred. ApoMFred can be prepared conveniently by dithionite or methyl viologen reduction. ApoMFred is slowly oxidized by molecular oxygen but more rapidly by Fe(CN)6(3-) to apoMFox. Fe(III)-cytochrome c readily oxidizes apoMFred to apoMFox with a stoichiometry of 6 Fe(III)-cytochrome c per apoMFred, demonstrating a rapid interprotein electron-transfer reaction. Both redox states of apoMF react with added Fe3+ and Fe2+. Addition of eight Fe2+ to apoMFox under anaerobic conditions produced apoMFred and Fe3+, as evidenced by the presence of a strong g = 4.3 EPR signal. Subsequent addition of bipyridyl produced at least six Fe(bipyd)3(2+) per MF, establishing the reversibility of this internal electron-transfer process between the redox centers of apoMF and bound iron. Incubation of apoMFred with the Fe(3+)-ATP complex under anaerobic conditions resulted in the formation and binding of two Fe2+ and four Fe3+ by the protein. The various redox states formed by the binding of Fe2+ and Fe3+ to apoMFox and apoMFred are proposed and discussed. The yellow color of apoMF appears to be an integral characteristic of the apoMF and is possibly associated with its redox activity.

  3. Dual agonist Surrobody™ simultaneously activates death receptors DR4 and DR5 to induce cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Snezana; Kashyap, Arun K.; Yanagi, Teruki; Wimer, Carina; Zhou, Sihong; O' Neil, Ryann; Kurtzman, Aaron L.; Faynboym, Alexsandr; Xu, Li; Hannum, Charles H.; Diaz, Paul W.; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Horowitz, Michael; Horowitz, Lawrence; Bhatt, Ramesh R.; Reed, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Death receptors of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) family are found on surface of most cancer cells and their activation typically kills cancer cells through the stimulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. The endogenous ligand for death receptors-4 and -5 (DR4 and DR5) is Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand, TRAIL (Apo2L). Since most untransformed cells are not susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, death receptor activators have emerged as promising cancer therapeutic agents. One strategy to stimulate death receptors in cancer patients is to use soluble human recombinant TRAIL protein, but this agent has limitations of a short half-life and decoy receptor sequestration. Another strategy that attempted to evade decoy receptor sequestration and to provide improved pharmacokinetic properties was to generate DR4 or DR5 agonist antibodies. The resulting monoclonal agonist antibodies overcame the limitations of short half-life and avoided decoy receptor sequestration, but are limited by activating only one of the two death receptors. Here, we describe a DR4 and DR5 dual agonist produced using Surrobody™ technology that activates both DR4 and DR5 to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and also avoids decoy receptor sequestration. This fully human anti-DR4/DR5 Surrobody displays superior potency to DR4- and DR5-specific antibodies, even when combined with TRAIL-sensitizing pro-apoptotic agents. Moreover, cancer cells were less likely to acquire resistance to Surrobody than either anti-DR4 or anti-DR5 mono-specific antibodies. Taken together, Surrobody shows promising preclinical pro-apoptotic activity against cancer cells, meriting further exploration of its potential as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:26516157

  4. Obesity and gastrointestinal hormones-dual effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade and a partial agonist of PPAR-γ.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Hironori; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, which is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is now clear that gut hormones play a role in the regulation of body weight and represent therapeutic targets for the future treatment of obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that dysregulation of adipocytokine functions seen in abdominal obesity may be involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Angiotensinogen, the precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, is produced primarily in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, where it is up-regulated during the development of obesity and involved in blood pressure regulation and adipose tissue growth. Importantly, blockade of the RAS attenuates weight gain and adiposity by enhanced energy expenditure. The favorable metabolic effects of telmisartan have been related to its Ang II receptor blockade and action as a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. PPARγ plays an important role in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and ligands for PPARγ can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce triglyceride levels. We designed a comparative study of telmisartan and losartan in ApoE-deficient mice. Treatment with telmisartan or losartan significantly reduced the development of lipid-rich plaque. However, treatment with telmisartan significantly improved endothelial dysfunction and inhibited lipid accumulation in the liver. These favorable characteristics of telmisartan might be due to its action as a partial agonist of PPAR-γ, beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, through Ang II blockade, which may be called "metabosartan".

  5. Modulation of autoimmune arthritis severity in mice by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, P; Genre, F; Iglesias, M; Augustin, J J; Tamayo, E; Escolà-Gil, J C; Lavín, B; Blanco-Vaca, F; Merino, R; Merino, J

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficiency promoted an exacerbation of autoimmune arthritis in mice by inducing proinflammatory immune responses. In this study we analysed the contribution of hypercholesterolaemia and/or the absence of ApoE anti-inflammatory properties, unrelated to its function in the control of cholesterol metabolism, towards the acceleration of arthritis in these mutant animals. The induction and severity of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) were compared for B10.RIII wild-type (WT), B10.RIII.ApoE(+/-) , B10.RIII.ApoE(-/-) and B10.RIII.low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR(-/-) ) mice with different concentrations of circulating ApoE and cholesterol. A 50-70% reduction in serum levels of ApoE was observed in heterozygous B10.RIII.ApoE(+/-) mice in comparison to B10.RIII.WT, although both strains of mice exhibited similar circulating lipid profiles. This ApoE reduction was associated with an increased CIA severity that remained lower than in homozygous B10.RIII.ApoE(-/-) mice. An important rise in circulating ApoE concentration was observed in hypercholesterolaemic B10.RIII.LDLR(-/-) mice fed with a normal chow diet, and both parameters increased further with an atherogenic hypercholesterolaemic diet. However, the severity of CIA in B10.RIII.LDLR(-/-) mice was similar to that of B10.RIII.WT controls. In conclusion, by comparing the evolution of CIA between several strains of mutant mice with different levels of serum ApoE and cholesterol, our results demonstrate that both hypercholesterolaemia and ApoE regulate the intensity of in-vivo systemic autoimmune responses.

  6. The Agonistic Approach: Reframing Resistance in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2008-01-01

    The agonistic approach--aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political--sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a…

  7. Once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-07-01

    The once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (QW GLP1RA) represent a major advancement in diabetes pharmaco-therapeutics. This review describes the basic, clinical, and comparative pharmacology of this novel class of drugs. It highlights the clinical placement and posology of these drugs.

  8. Use of ß-adrenergic agonists in hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) is a potent ß-adrenergic agonist that has been used in some species of fish to improve growth performance and dress out characteristics. While this metabolic modifier has been shown to have positive effects on growth of fish, little research has focused on the mechani...

  9. Dopamine agonists in prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Vrčić, Hrvoje; Stanić, Patrik; Ježek, Davor; Orešković, Slavko; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Pekez, Marijeta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the efficacy of different dopamine agonists in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Cabergoline, quinagolide and bromocriptine are the most common dopamine agonists used. There are wide clinical variations among the trials in the starting time (from the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to the day following oocyte retrieval); the duration of the treatment (4-21 days), the dose of cabergoline (0.5 mg or 0.25 mg orally) and in the regimens used. At present, the best known effective regimen is 0.5 mg of cabergoline for 8 days or rectal bromocriptine at a daily dose of 2.5 mg for 16 days. Dopamine agonists have shown significant evidences of their efficacy in the prevention of moderate and early-onset OHSS (9.41%), compared with a placebo (21.45%), which cannot be confirmed for the treatment of late OHSS. It would be advisable to start with the treatment on the day of hCG injection or preferably a few hours earlier. The use of dopamine agonists should be indicated in patients at high risk of OHSS, as well as in patients with a history of previous OHSS even without evident signs of the syndrome.

  10. [Alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists for the treatment of chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Kulka, P J

    1996-04-25

    The antinociceptive effect of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists is mediated by activation of descending inhibiting noradrenergic systems, which modulates 'wide-dynamic-range' neurones. Furthermore, they inhibit the liberation of substance P and endorphines and activate serotoninergic neurones. Despite this variety of antinociceptive actions, there is still little experience with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists as therapeutic agents for use in chronic pain syndromes. Studies in animals and patients have shown that the transdermal, epidural and intravenous administration of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine reduces pain intensity in neuropathic pain syndromes for periods varying from some hours up to 1 month. Patients suffering from lancinating or sharp pain respond best to this therapy. Topically applied clonidine (200-300 microg) relieves hyperalgesia in sympathetically maintained pain. Epidural administration of 300 microg clonidine dissolved in 5 ml NaCl 0.9 % has also been shown to be effective. In patients suffering from cancer pain tolerant to opioids, pain control has proved possible again with combinations of opioids and clonidine. In isolated cases clonidine has been administered epidurally at a dose of 1500 microg/day for almost 5 months without evidence for any histotoxic property of clonidine. Side effects often observed during administration of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists are dry mouth, sedation, hypotension and bradycardia. Therapeutic interventions are usually not required.

  11. Role of nicotine receptor partial agonists in tobacco cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Nivedita; Chand, Prabhat; Murthy, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    One in three adults in India uses tobacco, a highly addictive substance in one or other form. In addition to prevention of tobacco use, offering evidence-based cessation services to dependent tobacco users constitutes an important approach in addressing this serious public health problem. A combination of behavioral methods and pharmacotherapy has shown the most optimal results in tobacco dependence treatment. Among currently available pharmacological agents, drugs that preferentially act on the α4 β2-nicotinic acetyl choline receptor like varenicline and cytisine appear to have relatively better cessation outcomes. These drugs are in general well tolerated and have minimal drug interactions. The odds of quitting tobacco use are at the very least doubled with the use of partial agonists compared with placebo and the outcomes are also superior when compared to nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion. The poor availability of partial agonists and specifically the cost of varenicline, as well as the lack of safety data for cytisine has limited their use world over, particularly in developing countries. Evidence for the benefit of partial agonists is more robust for smoking rather than smokeless forms of tobacco. Although more studies are needed to demonstrate their effectiveness in different populations of tobacco users, present literature supports the use of partial agonists in addition to behavioral methods for optimal outcome in tobacco dependence. PMID:24574554

  12. Dopamine receptor agonists for protection and repair in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Bonini, Sara A; Cenini, Giovanna; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Uberti, Daniela; Memo, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine agonists have been usually used as adjunctive therapy for the cure of Parkinson's disease. It is generally believed that treatment with these drugs is symptomatic rather than curative and it does not stop or delay the progression of neuronal degeneration. However, several dopamine agonists of the D2-receptor family have recently been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in different in vitro and in vivo experimental Parkinson's disease models. Here we summarize some recent molecular evidences underlining the wide pharmacological spectrum of dopamine agonists currently used for treating Parkinson's disease patients. In particular, the mechanism of action of different dopamine agonists does not always appear to be restricted to the stimulation of selective dopamine receptor subtypes since at least some of these drugs are endowed with antioxidant, antiapoptotic or neurotrophic properties. These neuroprotective activities are molecule-specific and may contribute to the clinical efficacy of these drugs for the treatment of chronic and progressive neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative injury and/or protein misfolding and aggregation exert a primary role.

  13. Amylin and Amylin Agonists for Treating Psychiatric Diseases and Disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods and compositions for treating psychiatric diseases and disorders are disclosed. The methods provided generally involve the administration of an amylin or an amylin agonist to a subject in order to treat psychiatric diseases and disorders, and conditions associated with psychiatric diseases a...

  14. Functional map of arrestin binding to phosphorylated opsin, with and without agonist

    PubMed Central

    Peterhans, Christian; Lally, Ciara C. M.; Ostermaier, Martin K.; Sommer, Martha E.; Standfuss, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins desensitize G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and act as mediators of signalling. Here we investigated the interactions of arrestin-1 with two functionally distinct forms of the dim-light photoreceptor rhodopsin. Using unbiased scanning mutagenesis we probed the individual contribution of each arrestin residue to the interaction with the phosphorylated apo-receptor (Ops-P) and the agonist-bound form (Meta II-P). Disruption of the polar core or displacement of the C-tail strengthened binding to both receptor forms. In contrast, mutations of phosphate-binding residues (phosphosensors) suggest the phosphorylated receptor C-terminus binds arrestin differently for Meta II-P and Ops-P. Likewise, mutations within the inter-domain interface, variations in the receptor-binding loops and the C-edge of arrestin reveal different binding modes. In summary, our results indicate that arrestin-1 binding to Meta II-P and Ops-P is similarly dependent on arrestin activation, although the complexes formed with these two receptor forms are structurally distinct. PMID:27350090

  15. Phospholipid dysregulation contributes to ApoE4-associated cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Zhong, Minghao; Elder, Gregory A.; Sano, Mary; Holtzman, David M.; Gandy, Sam; Cardozo, Christopher; Haroutunian, Vahram; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Cai, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenic nature of ApoE4 are not well understood. In this study, we have found that ApoE proteins are critical determinants of brain phospholipid homeostasis and that the ApoE4 isoform is dysfunctional in this process. We have found that the levels of phosphoinositol biphosphate (PIP2) are reduced in postmortem human brain tissues of ApoE4 carriers, in the brains of ApoE4 knock-in (KI) mice, and in primary neurons expressing ApoE4 alleles compared with those levels in ApoE3 counterparts. These changes are secondary to increased expression of a PIP2-degrading enzyme, the phosphoinositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (synj1), in ApoE4 carriers. Genetic reduction of synj1 in ApoE4 KI mouse models restores PIP2 levels and, more important, rescues AD-related cognitive deficits in these mice. Further studies indicate that ApoE4 behaves similar to ApoE null conditions, which fails to degrade synj1 mRNA efficiently, unlike ApoE3 does. These data suggest a loss of function of ApoE4 genotype. Together, our data uncover a previously unidentified mechanism that links ApoE4-induced phospholipid changes to the pathogenic nature of ApoE4 in AD. PMID:26372964

  16. Interaction of ApoE3 and ApoE4 isoforms with an ITM2b/BRI2 mutation linked to the Alzheimer disease-like Danish dementia: Effects on learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Biundo, Fabrizio; Ishiwari, Keita; Del Prete, Dolores; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in Amyloid β Precursor Protein (APP) and in genes that regulate APP processing--such as PSEN1/2 and ITM2b/BRI2--cause familial dementia, such Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), Familial Danish (FDD) and British (FBD) dementias. The ApoE gene is the major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. Three major variants of ApoE exist in humans (ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4), with the ApoE4 allele being strongly associated with AD. ITM2b/BRI2 is also a candidate regulatory node genes predicted to mediate the common patterns of gene expression shared by healthy ApoE4 carriers and late-onset AD patients not carrying ApoE4. This evidence provides a direct link between ITM2b/BRI2 and ApoE4. To test whether ApoE4 and pathogenic ITM2b/BRI2 interact to modulate learning and memory, we crossed a mouse carrying the ITM2b/BRI2 mutations that causes FDD knocked-in the endogenous mouse Itm2b/Bri2 gene (FDDKI mice) with human ApoE3 and ApoE4 targeted replacement mice. The resultant ApoE3, FDDKI/ApoE3, ApoE4, FDDKI/ApoE4 male mice were assessed longitudinally for learning and memory at 4, 6, 12, and 16-17 months of age. The results showed that ApoE4-carrying mice displayed spatial working/short-term memory deficits relative to ApoE3-carrying mice starting in early middle age, while long-term spatial memory of ApoE4 mice was not adversely affected even at 16-17 months, and that the FDD mutation impaired working/short-term spatial memory in ApoE3-carrying mice and produced impaired long-term spatial memory in ApoE4-carrying mice in middle age. The present results suggest that the FDD mutation may differentially affect learning and memory in ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers.

  17. Melatonin receptor agonists: new options for insomnia and depression treatment.

    PubMed

    Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco

    2011-12-01

    The circadian nature of melatonin (MLT) secretion, coupled with the localization of MLT receptors to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has led to numerous studies of the role of MLT in modulation of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms in humans. Although much more needs to be understood about the various functions exerted by MLT and its mechanisms of action, three therapeutic agents (ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT, and agomelatine) are already in use, and MLT receptor agonists are now appearing as new promising treatment options for sleep and circadian-rhythm related disorders. In this review, emphasis has been placed on medicinal chemistry strategies leading to MLT receptor agonists, and on the evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of compounds undergoing clinical evaluation. A wide range of clinical trials demonstrated that ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT and tasimelteon have sleep-promoting effects, providing an important treatment option for insomnia and transient insomnia, even if the improvements of sleep maintenance appear moderate. Well-documented effects of agomelatine suggest that this MLT agonist offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of depression, combining efficacy with a favorable side effect profile. Despite a large number of high affinity nonselective MLT receptor agonists, only limited data on MT₁ or MT₂ subtype-selective compounds are available up to now. Administration of the MT₂-selective agonist IIK7 to rats has proved to decrease NREM sleep onset latency, suggesting that MT₂ receptor subtype is involved in the acute sleep-promoting action of MLT; rigorous clinical studies are needed to demonstrate this hypothesis. Further clinical candidates based on selective activation of MT₁ or MT₂ receptors are expected in coming years.

  18. Identification of raloxifene as a novel CB2 inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2013-05-24

    The purpose of the current study was to apply a high throughput assay to systematically screen a library of food and drug administration (FDA)-approved drugs as potential ligands for the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). A cell-based, homogenous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) method for measuring changes in intracellular cAMP levels was validated and found to be suitable for testing ligands that may act on CB2. Among the 640 FDA-approved drugs screened, raloxifene, a drug used to treat/prevent post-menopausal osteoporosis, was identified for the first time to be a novel CB2 inverse agonist. Our results demonstrated that by acting on CB2, raloxifene enhances forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in a concentration-dependant manner. Furthermore, our data showed that raloxifene competes concentration-dependently for specific [(3)H]CP-55,940 binding to CB2. In addition, raloxifene pretreatment caused a rightward shift of the concentration-response curves of the cannabinoid agonists CP-55,940, HU-210, and WIN55,212-2. Raloxifene antagonism is most likely competitive in nature, as these rightward shifts were parallel and were not associated with any changes in the efficacy of cannabinoid agonists on CB2. Our discovery that raloxfiene is an inverse agonist for CB2 suggests that it might be possible to repurpose this FDA-approved drug for novel therapeutic indications for which CB2 is a target. Furthermore, identifying raloxifene as a CB2 inverse agonist also provides important novel mechanisms of actions to explain the known therapeutic effects of raloxifene.

  19. Synthesis and SAR of potent LXR agonists containing an indole pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Campobasso, Nino; Smallwood, Angela; Parks, Derek J.; Webb, Christine L.; Frank, Kelly A.; Nord, Melanie; Duraiswami, Chaya; Evans, Christopher; Jaye, Michael; Thompson, Scott K.

    2009-03-27

    A novel series of 1H-indol-1-yl tertiary amine LXR agonists has been designed. Compounds from this series were potent agonists with good rat pharmacokinetic parameters. In addition, the crystal structure of an LXR agonist bound to LXR{alpha} will be disclosed.

  20. Hormonal modulators of glial ABCA1 and apoE levels[S

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianjia; Shimizu, Yoko; Chan, Jeniffer; Wilkinson, Anna; Ito, Ayaka; Tontonoz, Peter; Dullaghan, Edie; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Pfeifer, Tom; Wellington, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the major lipid carrier in the central nervous system. As apoE plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and also mediates repair pathways after several forms of acute brain injury, modulating the expression, secretion, or function of apoE may provide potential therapeutic approaches for several neurological disorders. Here we show that progesterone and a synthetic progestin, lynestrenol, significantly induce apoE secretion from human CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cells, whereas estrogens and the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone have negligible effects. Intriguingly, lynestrenol also increases expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 in CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cells, primary murine glia, and immortalized murine astrocytes that express human apoE3. The progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486 attenuates the effect of progestins on apoE expression in CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cells but has no effect on ABCA1 expression in all glial cell models tested, suggesting that the progesterone receptor (PR) may participate in apoE but does not affect ABCA1 regulation.These results suggest that selective reproductive steroid hormones have the potential to influence glial lipid homeostasis through liver X receptor-dependent and progesterone receptor-dependent pathways. PMID:23999864

  1. Effects of an intrathecally administered benzodiazepine receptor agonist, antagonist and inverse agonist on morphine-induced inhibition of a spinal nociceptive reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of an intrathecally administered benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonist (midazolam, up to 50 micrograms), antagonist (flumazenil, Ro 15-1788, 5 micrograms) and inverse agonist (Ro 19-4603, 15 micrograms) on nociception and on morphine-induced antinociception were studied in rats. 2. By themselves, none of these compounds significantly altered pain threshold. 3. The BZR agonist midazolam enhanced the morphine-induced antinociceptive effect whereas the antagonist flumazenil did not alter it. In contrast, the BZR inverse agonist Ro 19-4603 decreased the morphine-induced antinociceptive effect. 4. Naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.p.) completely reversed all these effects. 5. These results demonstrate that BZR agonists and inverse agonists are able to affect, by allosteric up- or down-modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA)-receptors, the transmission of nociceptive information at the spinal cord level, when this transmission is depressed by mu-opioid receptor activation. PMID:2898960

  2. Impact of a multi-nutrient diet on cognition, brain metabolism, hemodynamics, and plasticity in apoE4 carrier and apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Diane; Zerbi, Valerio; Janssen, Carola I F; van Rooij, Daan; Zinnhardt, Bastian; Dederen, Pieter J; Wright, Alan J; Broersen, Laus M; Lütjohann, Dieter; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-09-01

    Lipid metabolism and genetic background together strongly influence the development of both cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). A non-pharmacological way to prevent the genotype-induced occurrence of these pathologies is given by dietary behavior. In the present study, we tested the effects of long-term consumption of a specific multi-nutrient diet in two models for atherosclerosis and vascular risk factors in AD: the apolipoprotein ε4 (apoE4) and the apoE knockout (apoE ko) mice. This specific multi-nutrient diet was developed to support neuronal membrane synthesis and was expected to contribute to the maintenance of vascular health. At 12 months of age, both genotypes showed behavioral changes compared to control mice and we found increased neurogenesis in apoE ko mice. The specific multi-nutrient diet decreased anxiety-related behavior in the open field, influenced sterol composition in serum and brain tissue, and increased the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in the brain. Furthermore, we found that wild-type and apoE ko mice fed with this multi-nutrient diet showed locally increased cerebral blood volume and decreased hippocampal glutamate levels. Taken together, these data suggest that a specific dietary intervention has beneficial effects on early pathological consequences of hypercholesterolemia and vascular risk factors for AD.

  3. A Potent and Site-Selective Agonist of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Junichiro; Mio, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Otsuka, Shinya; Mori, Yasuo; Uesugi, Motonari

    2015-12-23

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family that is expressed primarily on sensory neurons. This chemosensor is activated through covalent modification of multiple cysteine residues with a wide range of reactive compounds including allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a spicy component of wasabi. The present study reports on potent and selective agonists of TRPA1, discovered through screening 1657 electrophilic molecules. In an effort to validate the mode of action of hit molecules, we noted a new TRPA1-selective agonist, JT010 (molecule 1), which opens the TRPA1 channel by covalently and site-selectively binding to Cys621 (EC50 = 0.65 nM). The results suggest that a single modification of Cys621 is sufficient to open the TRPA1 channel. The TRPA1-selective probe described herein might be useful for further mechanistic studies of TRPA1 activation.

  4. Agonist-antagonist combinations in opioid dependence: a translational approach

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The potential therapeutic benefits of co-administering opiate agonist and antagonist agents remain largely to be investigated. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of very low doses of naltrexone that help modulate the effects of methadone withdrawal and review pharmacological properties of the buprenorphine/naltrexone combination that support its clinical investigation. The bench-to-bedside development of the very low dose naltrexone treatment can serve as a translational paradigm to investigate and treat drug addiction. Further research on putative mechanisms elicited by the use of opioid agonist-antagonist combinations may lead to effective pharmacological alternatives to the gold standard methadone treatment, also useful for the management of the abuse of non opioid drugs and alcohol. PMID:22448305

  5. β2-Adrenoceptor agonists in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Yuri K; Cameron, Robert B; Wills, Lauren P; Trager, Richard E; Lindsey, Chris C; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2013-10-01

    The stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) via cell surface G-protein coupled receptors is a promising strategy for cell repair and regeneration. Here we report the specificity and chemical rationale of a panel of β2-adrenoceptor agonists with regards to MB. Using primary cultures of renal cells, a diverse panel of β2-adrenoceptor agonists elicited three distinct phenotypes: full MB, partial MB, and non-MB. Full MB compounds had efficacy in the low nanomolar range and represent two chemical scaffolds containing three distinct chemical clusters. Interestingly, the MB phenotype did not correlate with reported receptor affinity or chemical similarity. Chemical clusters were then subjected to pharmacophore modeling creating two models with unique and distinct features, consisting of five conserved amongst full MB compounds were identified. The two discrete pharmacophore models were coalesced into a consensus pharmacophore with four unique features elucidating the spatial and chemical characteristics required to stimulate MB.

  6. Integrating costimulatory agonists to optimize immune-based cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Pardee, Angela D; Wesa, Amy K; Storkus, Walter J

    2009-03-01

    While immunotherapy for cancer has become increasingly popular, clinical benefits for such approaches remain limited. This is likely due to tumor-associated immune suppression, particularly in the advanced-disease setting. Thus, a major goal of novel immunotherapeutic design has become the coordinate reversal of existing immune dysfunction and promotion of specific tumoricidal T-cell function. Costimulatory members of the TNF-receptor family are important regulators of T-cell-mediated immunity. Notably, agonist ligation of these receptors restores potent antitumor immunity in the tumor-bearing host. Current Phase I/II evaluation of TNF-receptor agonists as single-modality therapies will illuminate their safety, mechanism(s) of action, and best use in prospective combinational immunotherapy approaches capable of yielding superior benefits to cancer patients.

  7. Integrating costimulatory agonists to optimize immune-based cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Angela D; Wesa, Amy K

    2009-01-01

    While immunotherapy for cancer has become increasingly popular, clinical benefits for such approaches remain limited. This is likely due to tumor-associated immune suppression, particularly in the advanced-disease setting. Thus, a major goal of novel immunotherapeutic design has become the coordinate reversal of existing immune dysfunction and promotion of specific tumoricidal T-cell function. Costimulatory members of the TNF-receptor family are important regulators of T-cell-mediated immunity. Notably, agonist ligation of these receptors restores potent antitumor immunity in the tumor-bearing host. Current Phase I/II evaluation of TNF-receptor agonists as single-modality therapies will illuminate their safety, mechanism(s) of action, and best use in prospective combinational immunotherapy approaches capable of yielding superior benefits to cancer patients. PMID:20046961

  8. Dopamine agonists and the suppression of impulsive motor actions in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Scott A; Claassen, Daniel O; Huizenga, Hilde M; Schewel, Kerilyn D; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Bashore, Theodore R; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M

    2012-08-01

    The suppression of spontaneous motor impulses is an essential facet of cognitive control that is linked to frontal-BG circuitry. BG dysfunction caused by Parkinson disease (PD) disrupts the proficiency of action suppression, but how pharmacotherapy for PD impacts impulsive motor control is poorly understood. Dopamine agonists improve motor symptoms of PD but can also provoke impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICB). We investigated whether dopamine agonist medication has a beneficial or detrimental effect on impulsive action control in 38 PD patients, half of whom had current ICB. Participants performed the Simon conflict task, which measures susceptibility to acting on spontaneous action impulses as well as the proficiency of suppressing these impulses. Compared with an off-agonist state, patients on their agonists were no more susceptible to reacting impulsively but were less proficient at suppressing the interference from the activation of impulsive actions. Importantly, agonist effects depended on baseline performance in the off-agonist state; more proficient suppressors off agonist experienced a reduction in suppression on agonist, whereas less-proficient suppressors off agonist showed improved suppression on agonist. Patients with active ICB were actually less susceptible to making fast, impulsive response errors than patients without ICB, suggesting that behavioral problems in this subset of patients may be less related to impulsivity in motor control. Our findings provide further evidence that dopamine agonist medication impacts specific cognitive control processes and that the direction of its effects depends on individual differences in performance off medication.

  9. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K.

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  10. Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the ah receptor.

    PubMed

    Bohonowych, Jessica E S; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T; Denison, Michael S

    2008-04-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed.

  11. Newspapers and Newspaper Ink Contain Agonists for the Ah Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bohonowych, Jessica E. S.; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Denison, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  12. Antipsychotic Induced Symptomatic Hyperprolactinemia: Are Dopamine Agonists Safe?

    PubMed

    Lertxundi, Unax; Domingo-Echaburu, Saioa; Peral, Javier; García, Montserrat

    2011-09-15

    Published literature shows that dopamine agonists can reverse antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia without worsening psychotic symptoms in the majority of schizophrenic patients. However, psychiatrists have been reluctant to use drugs with dopaminergic properties for fear of exacerbating psychiatric symptoms. There are reported cases of psychosis worsening published for both cabergoline and bromocriptine. Cabergoline has proven to be more effective and safe when used to treat hyperprolactinemia, but whether cabergoline is also safer than bromocriptine in antipsychotic induced hyperprolactinemia remains unproven.

  13. Antipsychotic Induced Symptomatic Hyperprolactinemia: Are Dopamine Agonists Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Lertxundi, Unax; Domingo-Echaburu, Saioa; Peral, Javier; García, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Published literature shows that dopamine agonists can reverse antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia without worsening psychotic symptoms in the majority of schizophrenic patients. However, psychiatrists have been reluctant to use drugs with dopaminergic properties for fear of exacerbating psychiatric symptoms. There are reported cases of psychosis worsening published for both cabergoline and bromocriptine. Cabergoline has proven to be more effective and safe when used to treat hyperprolactinemia, but whether cabergoline is also safer than bromocriptine in antipsychotic induced hyperprolactinemia remains unproven. PMID:27738363

  14. Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibodies and hypertension: preeclampsia and beyond.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Kellems, Rodney E

    2013-06-21

    Hypertensive disorders are life-threatening diseases with high morbidity and mortality, affecting billions of individuals worldwide. A multitude of underlying conditions may contribute to hypertension, thus the need for a plethora of treatment options to identify the approach that best meets the needs of individual patients. A growing body of evidence indicates that (1) autoantibodies that bind to and activate the major angiotensin II type I (AT₁) receptor exist in the circulation of patients with hypertensive disorders, (2) these autoantibodies contribute to disease pathophysiology, (3) antibody titers correlate to the severity of the disease, and (4) efforts to block or remove these pathogenic autoantibodies have therapeutic potential. These autoantibodies, termed AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies have been extensively characterized in preeclampsia, a life-threatening hypertensive condition of pregnancy. As reviewed here, these autoantibodies cause symptoms of preeclampsia when injected into pregnant mice. Somewhat surprisingly, these auto antibodies also appear in 3 animal models of preeclampsia. However, the occurrence of AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies is not restricted to pregnancy. These autoantibodies are prevalent among kidney transplant recipients who develop severe transplant rejection and malignant hypertension during the first week after transplantation. AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies are also highly abundant among a group of patients with essential hypertension that are refractory to standard therapy. More recently these autoantibodies have been seen in patients with the autoimmune disease, systemic sclerosis. These 3 examples extend the clinical impact of AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies beyond pregnancy. Research reviewed here raises the intriguing possibility that preeclampsia and other hypertensive conditions are autoimmune diseases characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies that activate the major angiotensin receptor, AT₁. These

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists (GLP1 RA).

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-10-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists (GLP1RA) are a relatively new class of drugs, used for management of type 2 diabetes. This review studies the characteristics of these drugs, focusing upon their mechanism of action, intra-class differences, and utility in clinical practice. It compares them with other incretin based therapies, the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, and predicts future developments in the use of these molecules, while highlighting the robust indications for the use of these drugs.

  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced pituitary apoplexy

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Fergus; Navin, Patrick; Brett, Francesca; Dennedy, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary apoplexy represents an uncommon endocrine emergency with potentially life-threatening consequences. Drug-induced pituitary apoplexy is a rare but important consideration when evaluating patients with this presentation. We describe an unusual case of a patient with a known pituitary macroadenoma presenting with acute-onset third nerve palsy and headache secondary to tumour enlargement and apoplexy. This followed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) agonist therapy used to treat metastatic prostate carcinoma. Following acute management, the patient underwent transphenoidal debulking of his pituitary gland with resolution of his third nerve palsy. Subsequent retrospective data interpretation revealed that this had been a secretory gonadotropinoma and GNRH agonist therapy resulted in raised gonadotropins and testosterone. Hence, further management of his prostate carcinoma required GNRH antagonist therapy and external beam radiotherapy. This case demonstrates an uncommon complication of GNRH agonist therapy in the setting of a pituitary macroadenoma. It also highlights the importance of careful, serial data interpretation in patients with pituitary adenomas. Finally, this case presents a unique insight into the challenges of managing a hormonal-dependent prostate cancer in a patient with a secretory pituitary tumour. Learning points While non-functioning gonadotropinomas represent the most common form of pituitary macroadenoma, functioning gonadotropinomas are exceedingly rare. Acute tumour enlargement, with potential pituitary apoplexy, is a rare but important adverse effect arising from GNRH agonist therapy in the presence of both functioning and non-functioning pituitary gonadotropinomas. GNRH antagonist therapy represents an alternative treatment option for patients with hormonal therapy-requiring prostate cancer, who also have diagnosed with a pituitary gonadotropinoma. PMID:27284452

  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    or 9), although these compounds still showed anti-DHT effects (lanes 2 vs. 6, 8, or 10). Figure 4 . The effects of DHEA derivatives on PSA...2009 - 30 JUN 2010 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER with Marginal Agonist...words) We hypothesized that dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) metabolites or their synthetic derivatives are able to bind to the androgen receptor with

  18. Agonistic sounds signal male quality in the Lusitanian toadfish.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M Clara P; Conti, Carlotta; Modesto, Teresa; Gonçalves, Amparo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic communication during agonistic behaviour is widespread in fishes. Yet, compared to other taxa, little is known on the information content of fish agonistic calls and their effect on territorial defence. Lusitanian toadfish males (Halobatrachus didactylus) are highly territorial during the breeding season and use sounds (boatwhistles, BW) to defend nests from intruders. BW present most energy in either the fundamental frequency, set by the contraction rate of the sonic muscles attached to the swimbladder, or in the harmonics, which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. Here we investigated if temporal and spectral features of BW produced during territorial defence reflect aspects of male quality that may be important in resolving disputes. We found that higher mean pulse period (i.e. lower fundamental frequency) reflected higher levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), the main teleost androgen which, in turn, was significantly related with male condition (relative body mass and glycogen content). BW dominant harmonic mean and variability decreased with sonic muscle lipid content. We found no association between BW duration and male quality. Taken together, these results suggest that the spectral content of fish agonistic sounds may signal male features that are key in fight outcome.

  19. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-02-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors; or (v) 'multi-targeting'. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed.

  20. Contact- and agonist-regulated microvesiculation of human platelets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Li; Zaske, Ana-Maria; Zhou, Zhou; Fu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xi; Conyers, Jodie L; Li, Min; Dong, Jing-fei; Zhang, Jianning

    2013-08-01

    After exposure to an agonist, platelets are activated and become aggregated. They also shed membrane microparticles that participate in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, hyper-coagulation and inflammation. However, microvesiculation can potentially disrupt the integrity of platelet aggregation by shedding the membrane receptors and phosphatidylserine critical for forming and stabilising a platelet clot. We tested the hypothesis that adhesion and microvesiculation are functions of different subsets of platelets at the time of haemostasis by real-time monitoring of agonist-induced morphological changes and microvesiculation of human platelets.We identified two types of platelets that are adherent to fibrinogen: a high density bubble shape (HDBS) and low-density spread shape (LDSS). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) predominantly induced HDBS platelets to vesiculate, whereas LDSS platelets were highly resistant to such vesiculation. Thrombin-receptor activating peptide (TRAP) stabilised platelets against microvesiculation by promoting a rapid HDBS-to-LDSS morphological transition. These activities of ADP and TRAP were reversed for platelets in suspension, independent of an engagement integrin αIIbβ3. As the result of membrane contact, LDSS platelets inhibited the microvesiculation of HDBS platelets in response to ADP. Aspirin and clopidogrel inhibited ADP-induced microvesiculation through different mechanisms. These results suggest that platelet aggregation and microvesiculation occur in different subsets of platelets and are differently regulated by agonists, platelet-platelets and platelet-fibrinogen interactions.

  1. Pharmacophore-driven identification of PPARγ agonists from natural sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Rasmus K.; Christensen, Kathrine B.; Assimopoulou, Andreana N.; Fretté, Xavier; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2011-02-01

    In a search for more effective and safe anti-diabetic compounds, we developed a pharmacophore model based on partial agonists of PPARγ. The model was used for the virtual screening of the Chinese Natural Product Database (CNPD), a library of plant-derived natural products primarily used in folk medicine. From the resulting hits, we selected methyl oleanonate, a compound found, among others, in Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia oleoresin (Chios mastic gum). The acid of methyl oleanonate, oleanonic acid, was identified as a PPARγ agonist through bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionations of Chios mastic gum fractions, whereas some other sub-fractions exhibited also biological activity towards PPARγ. The results from the present work are two-fold: on the one hand we demonstrate that the pharmacophore model we developed is able to select novel ligand scaffolds that act as PPARγ agonists; while at the same time it manifests that natural products are highly relevant for use in virtual screening-based drug discovery.

  2. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-01-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet® (nabilone), Marinol® (dronabinol; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex® (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol® can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex® is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors; or (v) ‘multi-targeting’. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed. PMID:19226257

  3. LHRH Agonists for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert; Shore, Neal D

    2012-01-01

    The most recent guidelines on prostate cancer screening from the American Urological Association (2009), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011), and the European Association of Urology (2011), as well as treatment and advances in disease monitoring, have increased the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) population and the duration of ADT usage as the first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. According to the European Association of Urology, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists have become the leading therapeutic option for ADT because they avoid the physical and psychological discomforts associated with orchiectomy. However, GnRH agonists display several shortcomings, including testosterone (T) surge (“clinical flare”) and microsurges. T surge delays the intended serologic endpoint of T suppression and may exacerbate clinical symptoms. Furthermore, ADT manifests an adverse-event spectrum that can impact quality of life with its attendant well-documented morbidities. Strategies to improve ADT tolerability include a holistic management approach, improved diet and exercise, and more specific monitoring to detect and prevent T depletion toxicities. Intermittent ADT, which allows hormonal recovery between treatment periods, has become increasingly utilized as a methodology for improving quality of life while not diminishing chronic ADT efficacy, and may also provide healthcare cost savings. This review assesses the present and potential future role of GnRH agonists in prostate cancer and explores strategies to minimize the adverse-event profile for patients receiving ADT. PMID:23172994

  4. Covalent agonists for studying G protein-coupled receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Dietmar; Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Hiller, Christine; Zhang, Cheng; Hübner, Harald; Kobilka, Brian K.; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provide important insights into the architecture and function of these important drug targets. However, the crystallization of GPCRs in active states is particularly challenging, requiring the formation of stable and conformationally homogeneous ligand-receptor complexes. Native hormones, neurotransmitters, and synthetic agonists that bind with low affinity are ineffective at stabilizing an active state for crystallogenesis. To promote structural studies on the pharmacologically highly relevant class of aminergic GPCRs, we here present the development of covalently binding molecular tools activating Gs-, Gi-, and Gq-coupled receptors. The covalent agonists are derived from the monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine, and they were accessed using a general and versatile synthetic strategy. We demonstrate that the tool compounds presented herein display an efficient covalent binding mode and that the respective covalent ligand-receptor complexes activate G proteins comparable to the natural neurotransmitters. A crystal structure of the β2-adrenoreceptor in complex with a covalent noradrenaline analog and a conformationally selective antibody (nanobody) verified that these agonists can be used to facilitate crystallogenesis. PMID:25006259

  5. PPARgamma agonists as therapeutics for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Landreth, Gary; Jiang, Qingguang; Mandrekar, Shweta; Heneka, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of beta-amyloid within the brain parenchyma and is accompanied by the impairment of neuronal metabolism and function, leading to extensive neuronal loss. The disease involves the perturbation of synaptic function, energy, and lipid metabolism. The development of amyloid plaques results in the induction of a microglial-mediated inflammatory response. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor whose biological actions are to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism and suppress inflammatory gene expression. Thus, agonists of this receptor represent an attractive therapeutic target for AD. There is now an extensive body of evidence that has demonstrated the efficacy of PPARgamma agonists in ameliorating disease-related pathology and improved learning and memory in animal models of AD. Recent clinical trials of the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone have shown significant improvement in memory and cognition in AD patients. Thus, PPARgamma represents an important new therapeutic target in treating AD.

  6. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Daphnia magna has been used extensively to evaluate organism- and population-level responses to pollutants in acute toxicity and reproductive toxicity tests. We have previously reported that exposure to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists results in a reduction of reproductive function and production of male offspring in a cyclic parthenogenesis, D. magna. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided tools to understand better the responses to pollutants in aquatic organisms, including D. magna. DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal daphnids exposed to JH agonists: methoprene (125, 250 and 500 ppb), fenoxycarb (0.5, 1 and 2 ppb) and epofenonane (50, 100 and 200 ppb). Exposure to these JH analogs resulted in chemical-specific patterns of gene expression. The heat map analyses based on hierarchical clustering revealed a similar pattern between treatments with a high dose of methoprene and with epofenonane. In contrast, treatment with low to middle doses of methoprene resulted in similar profiles to fenoxycarb treatments. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered as JH-responsive genes. These data suggest that fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism compared with other JH analogs, agreeing with data of previously reported toxicity tests. In conclusion, D. magna DNA microarray is useful for the classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes.

  7. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.

  8. TLR agonists: our best frenemy in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaczanowska, Sabina; Joseph, Ann Mary; Davila, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Various TLR agonists are currently under investigation in clinical trials for their ability to orchestrate antitumor immunity. The antitumor responses are largely attributed to their aptitude to stimulate APCs such as DCs which in turn, activate tumor-specific T cell responses. However, there is a potential for TLR signaling to occur on cells other than professional APCs that could negate antitumor responses or even worse, promote tumor growth. The impetus for this review is twofold. First, there is accumulating data demonstrating that the engagement of TLRs on different T cell subsets and different cancer types could promote tumor growth or conversely, contribute to antitumor responses. Second, the efficacy of TLR agonists as monotherapies to treat cancer patients has been limited. In this review, we discuss how TLR signaling within different T cell subsets and cancer cells can potentially impact the generation of antitumor responses. Based on evidence from preclinical models and clinical trials, we draw attention to several criteria that we believe must be considered when selecting TLR agonists for developing effective immunotherapeutic strategies against cancer. PMID:23475577

  9. LHRH Agonists for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: 2012.

    PubMed

    Lepor, Herbert; Shore, Neal D

    2012-01-01

    The most recent guidelines on prostate cancer screening from the American Urological Association (2009), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011), and the European Association of Urology (2011), as well as treatment and advances in disease monitoring, have increased the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) population and the duration of ADT usage as the first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. According to the European Association of Urology, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists have become the leading therapeutic option for ADT because they avoid the physical and psychological discomforts associated with orchiectomy. However, GnRH agonists display several shortcomings, including testosterone (T) surge ("clinical flare") and microsurges. T surge delays the intended serologic endpoint of T suppression and may exacerbate clinical symptoms. Furthermore, ADT manifests an adverse-event spectrum that can impact quality of life with its attendant well-documented morbidities. Strategies to improve ADT tolerability include a holistic management approach, improved diet and exercise, and more specific monitoring to detect and prevent T depletion toxicities. Intermittent ADT, which allows hormonal recovery between treatment periods, has become increasingly utilized as a methodology for improving quality of life while not diminishing chronic ADT efficacy, and may also provide healthcare cost savings. This review assesses the present and potential future role of GnRH agonists in prostate cancer and explores strategies to minimize the adverse-event profile for patients receiving ADT.

  10. Pregnane X receptor agonists impair postprandial glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rysä, J; Buler, M; Savolainen, M J; Ruskoaho, H; Hakkola, J; Hukkanen, J

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a randomized, open, placebo-controlled crossover trial to investigate the effects of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonist rifampin on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 healthy volunteers. The subjects were administered 600 mg rifampin or placebo once daily for 7 days, and OGTT was performed on the eighth day. The mean incremental glucose and insulin areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC(incr)) increased by 192% (P = 0.008) and 45% (P = 0.031), respectively. The fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, were not affected. The glucose AUC(incr) during OGTT was significantly increased in rats after 4-day treatment with pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), an agonist of the rat PXR. The hepatic level of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) mRNA was downregulated by PCN. In conclusion, both human and rat PXR agonists elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, suggesting a detrimental role of PXR activation on glucose tolerance.

  11. Beta2-Agonist Doping Control and Optical Isomer Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Glenn A; Fawcett, J Paul

    2016-12-01

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) currently allows therapeutic use of the beta2-agonists salbutamol, formoterol and salmeterol when delivered via inhalation despite some evidence suggesting these anti-asthma drugs may be performance enhancing. Beta2-agonists are usually administered as 50:50 racemic mixtures of two enantiomers (non-superimposable mirror images), one of which demonstrates significant beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated bronchodilation while the other appears to have little or no pharmacological activity. For salbutamol and formoterol, urine thresholds have been adopted to limit supratherapeutic dosing and to discriminate between inhaled (permitted) and oral (prohibited) use. However, chiral switches have led to the availability of enantiopure (active enantiomer only) preparations of salbutamol and formoterol, which effectively doubles their urine thresholds and provides a means for athletes to take supratherapeutic doses for doping purposes. Given the availability of these enantiopure beta2-agonists, the analysis of these drugs using enantioselective assays should now become routine. For salmeterol, there is currently only a therapeutic dose threshold and adoption of a urinary threshold should be a high priority for doping control.

  12. ApoE production in human monocytes and its regulation by inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Paulie, Staffan; Smedman, Christian; Mia, Sohel; Kumagai-Braesch, Makiko

    2013-01-01

    The apoE production by tissue macrophages is crucial for the prevention of atherosclerosis and the aim of this study was to further elucidate how this apolipoprotein is regulated by cytokines present during inflammation. Here we studied apoE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and analysis was made with a newly developed apoE ELISpot assay. In PBMC, apoE secretion was restricted to monocytes with classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)) and intermediate (CD14(+)CD16(+)) monocytes being the main producers. As earlier described for macrophages, production was strongly upregulated by TGF-β and downregulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β. We could here show that a similar down-regulatory effect was also observed with the type I interferon, IFN-α, while IL-6, often regarded as one of the more prominent inflammatory cytokines, did not affect TGF-β-induced apoE production. The TNF-α inhibitor Enbrel could partly block the down-regulatory effect of IFN-γ, IFN-α and IL-1β, indicating that inhibition of apoE by these cytokines may be dependent on or synergize with TNF-α. Other cytokines tested, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A and IL-23, had no inhibitory effect on apoE production. In contrast to the effect on monocytes, apoE production by primary hepatocytes and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 was more or less unaffected by treatment with cytokines or LPS.

  13. Why Was Kelvin&apos;s Estimate of the Earth&apos;s Age Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry&apos;s work, of a graph of ln "y" versus "t" when "y" is an exponential function of "t". This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin&apos;s (William Thomson&apos;s) estimate of the Earth&apos;s age was…

  14. The dual PPARα/γ agonist aleglitazar increases the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells: implications for vascular function and atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Werner, C M; Schirmer, S H; Gensch, C; Pavlickova, V; Pöss, J; Wright, M B; Böhm, M; Laufs, U

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Aleglitazar is a dual PPARα/γ agonist but little is known about its effects on vascular function and atherogenesis. Hence, we characterized its effects on circulating angiogenic cells (CAC), neoangiogenesis, endothelial function, arteriogenesis and atherosclerosis in mice. Experimental Approach C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT, normal chow), endothelial NOS (eNOS)−/− (normal chow) and ApoE−/− (Western-type diet) mice were treated with aleglitazar (10 mg·kg−1·day−1, i.p.) or vehicle. Key Results Aleglitazar enhanced expression of PPARα and PPARγ target genes, normalized glucose tolerance and potently reduced hepatic fat in ApoE−/− mice. In WT mice, but not in eNOS−/−, aleglitazar up-regulated Sca-1/VEGFR2-positive CAC in the blood and bone marrow and up-regulated diLDL/lectin-positive CAC. Aleglitazar augmented CAC migration and enhanced neoangiogenesis. In ApoE−/− mice, aleglitazar up-regulated CAC number and function, reduced markers of vascular inflammation and potently improved perfusion restoration after hindlimb ischaemia and aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. This was associated with markedly reduced formation of atherosclerotic plaques. In human cultured CAC from healthy donors and patients with coronary artery disease with or without diabetes mellitus, aleglitazar increased migration and colony-forming units in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, oxidative stress-induced CAC apoptosis and expression of p53 were reduced, while telomerase activity and expression of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt were elevated. Comparative agonist and inhibitor experiments revealed that aleglitazar's effects on CAC migration and colony-forming units were mediated by both PPARα and PPARγ signalling and required Akt. Conclusions and Implications Aleglitazar augments the number, function and survival of CAC, which correlates with improved vascular function, enhanced arteriogenesis and prevention of atherosclerosis

  15. On the Relations between Parents&apos; Ideals and Children&apos;s Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents&apos; ideals can enhance children&apos;s autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children&apos;s autonomy. After describing the concept of "ideals" and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of autonomy, de Ruyter and…

  16. Calculus Students&apos; and Instructors&apos; Conceptualizations of Slope: A Comparison across Academic Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Viglietti, Janine; Martin, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    This study considers tertiary calculus students&apos; and instructors&apos; conceptualizations of slope. Qualitative techniques were employed to classify responses to 5 items using conceptualizations of slope identified across various research settings. Students&apos; responses suggest that they rely on procedurally based conceptualizations of…

  17. The Impact of Adolescents&apos; Dyslexia on Parents&apos; and Their Own Educational Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimkute, Laura; Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the role that adolescents&apos; dyslexia plays in their educational expectations, as well as their parents&apos; expectations concerning their offspring&apos;s future education. To investigate this, 170 adolescents were asked to report their educational expectations on two occasions while they were still attending…

  18. Critical Pedagogy&apos;s Problem with Changing Teachers&apos; Dispositions towards Critical Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Jacob W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing teachers&apos; dispositions towards critical teaching is a fundamental goal for critical pedagogy. Because critical educational change cannot occur without teachers&apos; "buy-in," developing teachers&apos; inclination to implement critical teaching into their classrooms is a prerequisite for any successful critical pedagogy…

  19. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  20. Teaching Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" in "Ways of Reading"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fike, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay describes a method of teaching a very challenging anthology piece: Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" (chapter 1 of her 2003 "Against Love: A Polemic"). The method, although designed for a critical thinking course, should also provide resources for those who teach Kipnis&apos;s work in writing courses. Using…

  1. James Baldwin&apos;s "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel": Educating Our Responses to Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish--and explore--James Baldwin&apos;s significance for educational theory. Through a close reading of "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel", I show that Baldwin&apos;s thinking is an important (if unrecognized) precursor to the work of Stanley Cavell and Cora Diamond, and is relevant to a number of…

  2. Individual Differences in Children&apos;s and Parents&apos; Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("&apos;Dogs&apos; bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children&apos;s learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  3. Gene-Environment Interaction of ApoE Genotype and Combat Exposure on PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Michael J.; Genderson, Margo; Grant, Michael D.; Logue, Mark; Zink, Tyler; McKenzie, Ruth; Franz, Carol E.; Panizzon, Matthew; Lohr, James B.; Jerskey, Beth; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Factors determining who develops PTSD following trauma are not well understood. The €4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is associated with dementia and unfavorable outcome following brain insult. PTSD is also associated with dementia. Given evidence that psychological trauma adversely affects the brain, we hypothesized that the apoE genotype moderates effects of psychological trauma on PTSD pathogenesis. To investigate the moderation of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and combat exposure, we used 172 participants with combat trauma sustained during the Vietnam War. PTSD symptoms were the dependent variable and number of combat experiences, apoE genotype, and the combat experiences × apoE genotype interaction were predictors. We also examined the outcome of a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 39) versus no PTSD diagnosis (n = 131). The combat × apoE genotype interaction was significant for both PTSD symptoms (P = .014) and PTSD diagnosis (P = .009). ApoE genotype moderates the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of PTSD is not well understood, the €4 allele is related to reduced resilience of the brain to insult. Our results are consistent with the €4 allele influencing the effects of psychological trauma on the brain, thereby affecting the risk of PTSD. PMID:24132908

  4. The β2-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wills, Lauren P; Trager, Richard E; Beeson, Gyda C; Lindsey, Christopher C; Peterson, Yuri K; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common mediator of disease and organ injury. Although recent studies show that inducing mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) stimulates cell repair and regeneration, only a limited number of chemicals are known to induce MB. To examine the impact of the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) signaling pathway on MB, primary renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) and adult feline cardiomyocytes were exposed for 24 h to multiple β-AR agonists: isoproterenol (nonselective β-AR agonist), (±)-(R*,R*)-[4-[2-[[2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]propyl]phenoxy] acetic acid sodium hydrate (BRL 37344) (selective β(3)-AR agonist), and formoterol (selective β(2)-AR agonist). The Seahorse Biosciences (North Billerica, MA) extracellular flux analyzer was used to quantify carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP)-uncoupled oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a marker of maximal electron transport chain activity. Isoproterenol and BRL 37244 did not alter mitochondrial respiration at any of the concentrations examined. Formoterol exposure resulted in increases in both FCCP-uncoupled OCR and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. The effect of formoterol on OCR in RPTC was inhibited by the β-AR antagonist propranolol and the β(2)-AR inverse agonist 3-(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol hydrochloride (ICI-118,551). Mice exposed to formoterol for 24 or 72 h exhibited increases in kidney and heart mtDNA copy number, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, and multiple genes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (F0 subunit 6 of transmembrane F-type ATP synthase, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1β subcomplex subunit 8). Cheminformatic modeling, virtual chemical library screening, and experimental validation identified nisoxetine from the Sigma Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and two compounds from the ChemBridge DIVERSet

  5. Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Unni; Stunes, Astrid K; Gustafsson, Björn I; Obrant, Karl J; Nordsletten, Lars; Berge, Rolf; Thommesen, Liv; Reseland, Janne E

    2009-01-01

    Background All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats. Methods Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied. Results The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Conclusion We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARα and γ agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARα activation. PMID:19331671

  6. Superagonist, Full Agonist, Partial Agonist, and Antagonist Actions of Arylguanidines at 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) Subunit A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Alix, Katie; Khatri, Shailesh; Mosier, Philip D; Casterlow, Samantha; Yan, Dong; Nyce, Heather L; White, Michael M; Schulte, Marvin K; Dukat, Małgorzata

    2016-11-16

    Introduction of minor variations to the substitution pattern of arylguanidine 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor ligands resulted in a broad spectrum of functionally-active ligands from antagonist to superagonist. For example, (i) introduction of an additional Cl-substituent(s) to our lead full agonist N-(3-chlorophenyl)guanidine (mCPG, 2; efficacy % = 106) yielded superagonists 7-9 (efficacy % = 186, 139, and 129, respectively), (ii) a positional isomer of 2, p-Cl analog 11, displayed partial agonist actions (efficacy % = 12), and (iii) replacing the halogen atom at the meta or para position with an electron donating OCH3 group or a stronger electron withdrawing (i.e., CF3) group resulted in antagonists 13-16. We posit based on combined mutagenesis, crystallographic, and computational analyses that for the 5-HT3 receptor, the arylguanidines that are better able to simultaneously engage the primary and complementary subunits, thus keeping them in close proximity, have greater agonist character while those that are deficient in this ability are antagonists.

  7. Virtual screening of CB(2) receptor agonists from bayesian network and high-throughput docking: structural insights into agonist-modulated GPCR features.

    PubMed

    Renault, Nicolas; Laurent, Xavier; Farce, Amaury; El Bakali, Jamal; Mansouri, Roxane; Gervois, Philippe; Millet, Régis; Desreumaux, Pierre; Furman, Christophe; Chavatte, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The relevance of CB(2)-mediated therapeutics is well established in the treatment of pain, neurodegenerative and gastrointestinal tract disorders. Recent works such as the crystallization of class-A G-protein-coupled receptors in a range of active states and the identification of specific anchoring sites for CB(2) agonists challenged us to design a reliable agonist-bound homology model of CB(2) receptor. Docking-scoring enrichment tests of a high-throughput virtual screening of 140 compounds led to 13 hits within the micromolar affinity range. Most of these hits behaved as CB(2) agonists, among which two novel full agonists emerged. Although the main challenge was a high-throughput docking run targeting an agonist-bound state of a CB(2) model, a prior 2D ligand-based Bayesian network was computed to enrich the input commercial library for 3D screening. The exclusive discovery of agonists illustrates the reliability of this agonist-bound state model for the identification of polar and aromatic amino acids as new agonist-modulated CB(2) features to be integrated in the wide activation pathway of G-protein-coupled receptors.

  8. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism is related to differences in potential fertility in women: a case of antagonistic pleiotropy?

    PubMed

    Jasienska, Grazyna; Ellison, Peter T; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Jasienski, Michal; Kalemba-Drozdz, Malgorzata; Kapiszewska, Maria; Nenko, Ilona; Thune, Inger; Ziomkiewicz, Anna

    2015-03-22

    The alleles that are detrimental to health, especially in older age, are thought to persist in populations because they also confer some benefits for individuals (through antagonistic pleiotropy). The ApoE4 allele at the ApoE locus, encoding apolipoprotein E (ApoE), significantly increases risk of poor health, and yet it is present in many populations at relatively high frequencies. Why has it not been replaced by natural selection with the health-beneficial ApoE3 allele? ApoE is a major supplier of cholesterol precursor for the production of ovarian oestrogen and progesterone, thus ApoE has been suggested as the potential candidate gene that may cause variation in reproductive performance. Our results support this hypothesis showing that in 117 regularly menstruating women those with genotypes with at least one ApoE4 allele had significantly higher levels of mean luteal progesterone (144.21 pmol l(-1)) than women with genotypes without ApoE4 (120.49 pmol l(-1)), which indicates higher potential fertility. The hormonal profiles were based on daily data for entire menstrual cycles. We suggest that the finding of higher progesterone in women with ApoE4 allele could provide first strong evidence for an evolutionary mechanism of maintaining the ancestral and health-worsening ApoE4 allele in human populations.

  9. Teaching the Writer&apos;s Craft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny

    2014-01-01

    "Writing is a core skill for living, not just for school," writes high school English teacher Penny Kittle. Although it&apos;s important to teach students the conventions of grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure, teachers don&apos;t need to approach this task "like scolds, red pens in hand, stamping out sin, and punishing…

  10. Testing Bernoulli&apos;s Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan; Petrova, Hristina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present three different methods for testing Bernoulli&apos;s law that are different from the standard "tube with varying cross-section." They are all applicable to high-school level physics education, with varying levels of theoretical and experimental complexity, depending on students&apos; skills, and may even be…

  11. Exploring Students&apos; Patterns of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students&apos; reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students&apos; reasoning, we developed open-ended written…

  12. Influence of metformin on mitochondrial subproteome in the brain of apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suski, Maciej; Olszanecki, Rafał; Chmura, Łukasz; Stachowicz, Aneta; Madej, Józef; Okoń, Krzysztof; Adamek, Dariusz; Korbut, Ryszard

    2016-02-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are the set of progressive, age-related brain disorders, characterized by an excessive accumulation of mutant proteins in the certain regions of the brain. Such changes, collectively identified as causal factors of neurodegeneration, all impact mitochondria, imminently leading to their dysfunction. These observations predestine mitochondria as an attractive drug target for counteracting degenerative brain damage. The aim of this study was to use a differential proteomic approach to comprehensively assess the changes in mitochondrial protein expression in the brain of apoE-knockout mice (apoE(-/-)) and to investigate the influence of prolonged treatment with metformin - an indirect activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on the brain mitoproteome in apoE(-/-) mice. The quantitative assessment of the brain mitoproteome in apoE(-/-) revealed the changes in 10 proteins expression as compared to healthy C57BL/6J mice and 25 proteins expression in metformin-treated apoE(-/-) mice. Identified proteins mainly included apoptosis regulators, metabolic enzymes and structural proteins. In summary, our study provided proteomic characteristics suggesting the decrease of antioxidant defense and structural disturbances in the brain mitochondria of apoE(-/-) mice as compared to healthy controls. In this setting, the use of metformin changed the expression of several proteins primarily involved in metabolic processes, the regulation of apoptosis and the structural maintenance of mitochondria, what could potentially restore their native functionalities.

  13. The Influence of Teachers&apos; Conceptions on Their Students&apos; Learning: Children&apos;s Understanding of Sheet Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers&apos; and students&apos; conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers&apos; conceptions on their students&apos; learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  14. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Link of Friends&apos; and Nonfriends&apos; Behaviors with Children&apos;s Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends&apos; and nonfriends&apos; reticent and dominant behaviors on children&apos;s observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends&apos; and…

  15. Lack of association of apoE ε4 allele with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ragogna, Francesca; Lattuada, Guido; Ruotolo, Giacomo; Luzi, Livio; Perseghin, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    ApoE is a polymorphic protein involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins; the ε4 allele was shown to be associated with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in age-dependent fashion mediated by unknown mechanisms. This study was undertaken to assess whether the apoE isoforms in humans were associated with normal glucose tolerance and with metabolic and inflammatory risk factors of CVD. ApoE genotype was assessed in 365 individuals. Of those, 309 were studied in the postabsorptive conditions and 142 of them also underwent a 3h-OGTT; 56 additional subjects were studied by means of the insulin clamp in combination with [6,6-2H2] glucose infusion. ApoE genotype frequencies were similar to those previously reported and were not influenced by age and BMI. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, FFA, the lipid profile, surrogate markers (HOMA-IR, OGTT-derived index) as well as the clamp-derived parameters or insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were not different by apoE genotypes. Serum adipokines concentrations (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) and markers of inflammation (serum fasting hsCRP and MCP1/CCL2) were also not different by apoE genotypes. In the subgroup of young ε4 carriers which underwent the clamp procedure, a higher fasting endogenous glucose production was detected. ApoE genotype was not associated with insulin resistance or altered insulin secretion, and no abnormalities in the typical circulating endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory features of the insulin resistance syndrome were detected.

  16. Effect of chronic ethanol on hepatic apolipoprotein (Apo)E glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, P.; Okoh, C.; Chirtel, S.J.; Liu, Q.H.; Lakshman, M.R. George Washington Univ., Washington, DC )

    1991-03-15

    The authors have previously shown that chronic ethanol feeding significantly inhibits the secretion of ApoE in rats. Since many carbohydrate precursors are essential for the synthesis of mature ApoE before it is secreted, the authors have investigated the effects of chronic ethanol on the incorporation of these precursors into ApoE. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups and were pair-fed with Control and Ethanol liquid diets for a period of 8 weeks. At the end, hepatocytes were isolated from each group and {approximately}400 mg cells were incubated in 8 ml final volume of Krebs bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4 for 30 min. at 37C with the following labeled precursors individually: (2-{sup 3}H)mannose, (6-{sup 3}H)N-acetyl mannosamine, (4,5-{sup 3}H)galactose, (5,6-{sup 3}H)fucose, and (4,5-{sup 3}H)leucine. The incorporation of each precursor into immunoprecipitable ApoE was measured in cell homogenate, microsome and the Golgi fractions. The results showed that chronic ethanol treatment did not significantly inhibit the incorporation of leucine, fucose and galactose into ApoE at any of the subcellular levels. In contrast, chronic ethanol inhibited the incorporation of: (a) mannose into ApoE by 38% both at whole cell and at microsomal level and (b) N-acetyl mannosamine by 26% at the whole cell level and at the Golgi level. Based on these results, it is concluded that chronic ethanol feeding impairs the mannosylation and sialylation of ApoE in rat liver probably by altering the structure and functions of hepatic microsome and Golgi.

  17. PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone does not enhance performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinases (AMPKs) regulate the metabolic and contractile characteristics of myofibres. PPAR proteins are nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors and regulate the expression of multiple genes. AMPK has been described as a master metabolic regulator which also controls gene expression through the direct phosphorylation of some nuclear proteins. Since it was discovered that both PPARdelta agonists (GW1516) and AMPK activators (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside, known as AICAR) are very effective performance-enhancing substances in sedentary mice, the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) included AICAR and GW1516 in the prohibited list of substances as metabolic modulators in the class 'Hormone and metabolic modulators'. Thiazolidinediones are PPARgamma agonists that can induce similar biological effects to those of PPARdelta and PPARdelta-AMPK agonists. Thus in this study, the effects of pioglitazone on mitochondrial biogenesis and performance were evaluated. Blood glucose levels and the protein expression of the intermediates involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway and the citrate synthase activity were determined in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Maximal aerobic velocity (MAV), endurance capacity, and grip strength before and after the training period were also determined. The MAV endurance capacity and grip strength of trained animals significantly increased. We found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and the nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) protein content and citrate synthase activity significantly increased in the soleus muscle of trained animals. No effect of treatment was found. Therefore in our study, pioglitazone administration did not affect mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway.

  18. Comparative endpoint sensitivity of in vitro estrogen agonist assays.

    PubMed

    Dreier, David A; Connors, Kristin A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-07-01

    Environmental and human health implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly xenoestrogens, have received extensive study. In vitro assays are increasingly employed as diagnostic tools to comparatively evaluate chemicals, whole effluent toxicity and surface water quality, and to identify causative EDCs during toxicity identification evaluations. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated ToxCast under the Tox21 program to generate novel bioactivity data through high throughput screening. This information is useful for prioritizing chemicals requiring additional hazard information, including endocrine active chemicals. Though multiple in vitro and in vivo techniques have been developed to assess estrogen agonist activity, the relative endpoint sensitivity of these approaches and agreement of their conclusions remain unclear during environmental diagnostic applications. Probabilistic hazard assessment (PHA) approaches, including chemical toxicity distributions (CTD), are useful for understanding the relative sensitivity of endpoints associated with in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays by predicting the likelihood of chemicals eliciting undesirable outcomes at or above environmentally relevant concentrations. In the present study, PHAs were employed to examine the comparative endpoint sensitivity of 16 in vitro assays for estrogen agonist activity using a diverse group of compounds from the USEPA ToxCast dataset. Reporter gene assays were generally observed to possess greater endpoint sensitivity than other assay types, and the Tox21 ERa LUC BG1 Agonist assay was identified as the most sensitive in vitro endpoint for detecting an estrogenic response. When the sensitivity of this most sensitive ToxCast in vitro endpoint was compared to the human MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, a common in vitro model for biomedical and environmental monitoring applications, the ERa LUC BG1 assay was several orders of magnitude less

  19. Biased signaling by peptide agonists of protease activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Kok, W Mei; Lim, Junxian; Wu, Kai-Chen; Liu, Ligong; Hill, Timothy A; Suen, Jacky Y; Fairlie, David P

    2017-02-07

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is associated with metabolism, obesity, inflammatory, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, pain, cancer and other diseases. The extracellular N-terminus of PAR2 is a common target for multiple proteases, which cleave it at different sites to generate different N-termini that activate different PAR2-mediated intracellular signaling pathways. There are no synthetic PAR2 ligands that reproduce the same signaling profiles and potencies as proteases. Structure-activity relationships here for 26 compounds spanned a signaling bias over 3 log units, culminating in three small ligands as biased agonist tools for interrogating PAR2 functions. DF253 (2f-LAAAAI-NH2) triggered PAR2-mediated calcium release (EC50 2 μM) but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation (EC50 > 100 μM) in CHO cells transfected with hPAR2. AY77 (Isox-Cha-Chg-NH2) was a more potent calcium-biased agonist (EC50 40 nM, Ca2+; EC50 2 μM, ERK1/2), while its analogue AY254 (Isox-Cha-Chg-A-R-NH2) was an ERK-biased agonist (EC50 2 nM, ERK1/2; EC50 80 nM, Ca2+). Signaling bias led to different functional responses in human colorectal carcinoma cells (HT29). AY254, but not AY77 or DF253, attenuated cytokine-induced caspase 3/8 activation, promoted scratch-wound healing and induced IL-8 secretion, all via PAR2-ERK1/2 signaling. Different ligand components were responsible for different PAR2 signaling and functions, clues that can potentially lead to drugs that modulate different pathway-selective cellular and physiological responses.

  20. Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists as Adjunctive Treatments in Bipolar Disorders.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Etain, Bruno; Franchi, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud; Bellivier, Frank; Ritter, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorders (BD) present with abnormalities of circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis, even during phases of remission. These abnormalities are linked to the underlying neurobiology of genetic susceptibility to BD. Melatonin is a pineal gland secreted neurohormone that induces circadian-related and sleep-related responses. Exogenous melatonin has demonstrated efficacy in treating primary insomnia, delayed sleep phase disorder, improving sleep parameters and overall sleep quality, and some psychiatric disorders like autistic spectrum disorders. In order to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin among patients with BD, this comprehensive review emphasizes the abnormal melatonin function in BD, the rationale of melatonin action in BD, the available data about the exogenous administration of melatonin, and melatonin agonists (ramelteon and tasimelteon), and recommendations of use in patients with BD. There is a scientific rationale to propose melatonin-agonists as an adjunctive treatment of mood stabilizers in treating sleep disorders in BD and thus to possibly prevent relapses when administered during remission phases. We emphasized the need to treat insomnia, sleep delayed latencies and sleep abnormalities in BD that are prodromal markers of an emerging mood episode and possible targets to prevent future relapses. An additional interesting adjunctive therapeutic effect might be on preventing metabolic syndrome, particularly in patients treated with antipsychotics. Finally, melatonin is well tolerated and has little dependence potential in contrast to most available sleep medications. Further studies are expected to be able to produce stronger evidence-based therapeutic guidelines to confirm and delineate the routine use of melatonin-agonists in the treatment of BD.

  1. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 – 30 June 2013 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1- 4 Key Research...In addition, we previously found that androstenediol (Adiol), a physiological metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of

  3. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  4. Is there a justification for classifying GLP-1 receptor agonists as basal and prandial?

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; Pérez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Several GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently available for treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Based on their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile, these drugs are classified as short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide and lixisenatide) or long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide-LAR, liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide). In clinical practice, they are also classified as basal or prandial GLP-1 receptor agonists to differentiate between patients who would benefit more from one or another based on characteristics such as previous treatment and the predominance of fasting or postprandial hyperglycemia. In the present article we examine available data on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the various GLP-1 agonists and compare their effects with respect to the main parameters used to evaluate glycemic control. The article also analyzes whether the differences between the different GLP-1 agonists justify their classification as basal or prandial.

  5. Antidepressant-like Effects of δ Opioid Receptor Agonists in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Recently, δ opioid receptor agonists have been proposed to be attractive targets for the development of novel antidepressants. Several studies revealed that single treatment of δ opioid receptor agonists produce antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test, which is one of the most popular animal models for screening antidepressants. In addition, subchronic treatment with δ opioid receptor agonists has been shown to completely attenuate the hyperemotional responses found in olfactory bulbectomized rats. This animal model exhibits hyperemotional behavior that may mimic the anxiety, aggression, and irritability found in depressed patients, suggesting that δ opioid receptor agonists could be effective in the treatment of these symptoms in depression. On the other hand, prototype δ opioid receptor agonists produce convulsive effects, which limit their therapeutic potential and clinical development. In this review, we presented the current knowledge regarding the antidepressant-like effects of δ opioid receptor agonists, which include some recently developed drugs lacking convulsive effects. PMID:23449756

  6. Leoligin, the major lignan from Edelweiss, inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and reduces cholesterol levels in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Bernhard; Messner, Barbara; Türkcan, Adrian; Schuster, Daniela; Vuorinen, Anna; Pitterl, Florian; Heinz, Katharina; Arnhard, Kathrin; Laufer, Günther; Grimm, Michael; Stuppner, Hermann; Oberacher, Herbert; Eller, Philipp; Ritsch, Andreas; Bernhard, David

    2016-10-01

    The health benefit through the control of lipid levels in hyperlipidaemic individuals is evident from a large number of studies. The pharmacological options to achieve this goal shall be as specific and personalized as the reasons for and co-factors of hyperlipidaemia. It was the goal of this study to reveal the impact of leoligin on cholesterol levels and to define its mechanism of action. Oral application of leoligin in ApoE-/- mice led to significantly reduced total serum cholesterol levels and a reduction in postprandial blood glucose peak levels. In the absence of biochemical signs of toxicity, leoligin treatment resulted in reduced weight gain in mice. The effects of leoligin on serum cholesterol levels may be due to a direct inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) by a unique, non-statin-like binding mode. Postprandial serum glucose peaks may be reduced by a mild peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonistic activity of leoligin. No effect on atherosclerotic plaque size was observed. As a non-toxic, cholesterol-, peak glucose-, and weight gain-lowering compound, leoligin continues to fulfil characteristics of a potential agent for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The counterregulatory overexpression of hepatic HMGCR in leoligin treated animals possibly explains the missing permanent anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  7. An intrinsic agonist mechanism for activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor by its extracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yanting; Zhou, X Edward; Hou, Li; Zhao, Li-Hua; Liu, Bo; Wang, Gaihong; Jiang, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2016-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is a class B G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays key roles in glucose metabolism and is a major therapeutic target for diabetes. The classic two-domain model for class B GPCR activation proposes that the apo-state receptor is auto-inhibited by its extracellular domain, which physically interacts with the transmembrane domain. The binding of the C-terminus of the peptide hormone to the extracellular domain allows the N-terminus of the hormone to insert into the transmembrane domain to induce receptor activation. In contrast to this model, here we demonstrate that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor can be activated by N-terminally truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 or exendin-4 when fused to the receptor, raising the question regarding the role of N-terminal residues of peptide hormone in glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation. Mutations of cysteine 347 to lysine or arginine in intracellular loop 3 transform the receptor into a G protein-biased receptor and allow it to be activated by a nonspecific five-residue linker that is completely devoid of exendin-4 or glucagon-like peptide-1 sequence but still requires the presence of an intact extracellular domain. Moreover, the extracellular domain can activate the receptor in trans in the presence of an intact peptide hormone, and specific mutations in three extracellular loops abolished this extracellular domain trans-activation. Together, our data reveal a dominant role of the extracellular domain in glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation and support an intrinsic agonist model of the extracellular domain, in which peptide binding switches the receptor from the auto-inhibited state to the auto-activated state by releasing the intrinsic agonist activity of the extracellular domain. PMID:27917297

  8. An intrinsic agonist mechanism for activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor by its extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanting; Zhou, X Edward; Hou, Li; Zhao, Li-Hua; Liu, Bo; Wang, Gaihong; Jiang, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2016-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is a class B G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays key roles in glucose metabolism and is a major therapeutic target for diabetes. The classic two-domain model for class B GPCR activation proposes that the apo-state receptor is auto-inhibited by its extracellular domain, which physically interacts with the transmembrane domain. The binding of the C-terminus of the peptide hormone to the extracellular domain allows the N-terminus of the hormone to insert into the transmembrane domain to induce receptor activation. In contrast to this model, here we demonstrate that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor can be activated by N-terminally truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 or exendin-4 when fused to the receptor, raising the question regarding the role of N-terminal residues of peptide hormone in glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation. Mutations of cysteine 347 to lysine or arginine in intracellular loop 3 transform the receptor into a G protein-biased receptor and allow it to be activated by a nonspecific five-residue linker that is completely devoid of exendin-4 or glucagon-like peptide-1 sequence but still requires the presence of an intact extracellular domain. Moreover, the extracellular domain can activate the receptor in trans in the presence of an intact peptide hormone, and specific mutations in three extracellular loops abolished this extracellular domain trans-activation. Together, our data reveal a dominant role of the extracellular domain in glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation and support an intrinsic agonist model of the extracellular domain, in which peptide binding switches the receptor from the auto-inhibited state to the auto-activated state by releasing the intrinsic agonist activity of the extracellular domain.

  9. Contamination with retinoic acid receptor agonists in two rivers in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nakama, Koki; Sawada, Kazuko; Watanabe, Taro; Takagi, Mai; Sei, Kazunari; Yang, Min; Hirotsuji, Junji; Hu, Jianying; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the agonistic activity against human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha in the Lake Biwa-Yodo River and the Ina River in the Kinki region of Japan. To accomplish this, a yeast two-hybrid assay was used to elucidate the spatial and temporal variations and potential sources of RARalpha agonist contamination in the river basins. RARalpha agonistic activity was commonly detected in the surface water samples collected along two rivers at different periods, with maximum all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) equivalents of 47.6 ng-atRA/L and 23.5 ng-atRA/L being observed in Lake Biwa-Yodo River and Ina River, respectively. The results indicated that RARalpha agonists are always present and widespread in the rivers. Comparative investigation of RARalpha and estrogen receptor alpha agonistic activities at 20 stations along each river revealed that the spatial variation pattern of RARalpha agonist contamination was entirely different from that of the estrogenic compound contamination. This suggests that the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants, a primary source of estrogenic compounds, seemed not to be the cause of RARalpha agonist contamination in the rivers. Fractionation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directed by the bioassay found two bioactive fractions from river water samples, suggesting the presence of at least two RARalpha agonists in the rivers. Although a trial conducted to identify RARalpha agonists in the major bioactive fraction was not completed as part of this study, comparison of retention times in HPLC analysis and quantification with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major causative contaminants responsible for the RARalpha agonistic activity were not RAs (natural RAR ligands) and 4-oxo-RAs, while 4-oxo-RAs were identified as the major RAR agonists in sewage in Beijing, China. These findings suggest that there are unknown RARalpha agonists with high

  10. β‐Arrestin 2 dependence of δ opioid receptor agonists is correlated with alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, T; Sansuk, K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose δ Opioid receptor agonists are being developed as potential treatments for depression and alcohol use disorders. This is particularly interesting as depression is frequently co‐morbid with alcohol use disorders. Yet we have previously shown that δ receptor agonists range widely in their ability to modulate alcohol intake; certain δ receptor agonists actually increase alcohol consumption in mice. We propose that variations in β‐arrestin 2 recruitment contribute to the differential behavioural profile of δ receptor agonists. Experimental Approach We used three diarylmethylpiperazine‐based non‐peptidic δ receptor selective agonists (SNC80, SNC162 and ARM390) and three structurally diverse δ receptor agonists (TAN‐67, KNT127 and NIH11082). We tested these agonists in cAMP and β‐arrestin 2 recruitment assays and a behavioural assay of alcohol intake in male C57BL/6 mice. We used β‐arrestin 2 knockout mice and a model of depression‐like behaviour to further study the role of β‐arrestin 2 in δ receptor pharmacology. Key Results All six tested δ receptor agonists were full agonists in the cAMP assay but displayed distinct β‐arrestin 2 recruitment efficacy. The efficacy of δ receptor agonists to recruit β‐arrestin 2 positively correlated with their ability to increase alcohol intake (P < 0.01). The effects of the very efficacious recruiter SNC80 on alcohol intake, alcohol place preference and depression‐like behaviour were β‐arrestin 2‐dependent. Conclusions and Implications Our finding that δ receptor agonists that strongly recruit β‐arrestin 2 can increase alcohol intake carries important ramifications for drug development of δ receptor agonists for treatment of alcohol use disorders and depressive disorders. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26507558

  11. Electrophysiological perspectives on the therapeutic use of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Trocmé-Thibierge, Caryn; Guendisch, Daniela; Al Rubaiy, Shehd Abdullah Abbas; Bloom, Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    Partial agonist therapies rely variously on two hypotheses: the partial agonists have their effects through chronic low-level receptor activation or the partial agonists work by decreasing the effects of endogenous or exogenous full agonists. The relative significance of these activities probably depends on whether acute or chronic effects are considered. We studied nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to test a model for the acute interactions between acetylcholine (ACh) and weak partial agonists. Data were best-fit to a basic competition model that included an additional factor for noncompetitive inhibition. Partial agonist effects were compared with the nAChR antagonist bupropion in prolonged bath application experiments that were designed to mimic prolonged drug exposure typical of therapeutic drug delivery. A primary effect of prolonged application of nicotine was to decrease the response of all nAChR subtypes to acute applications of ACh. In addition, nicotine, cytisine, and varenicline produced detectable steady-state activation of α4β2* [(α4)(2)(β2)(3), (α4)(3)(β2)(2), and (α4)(2)(β2)(2)α5)] receptor subtypes that was not seen with other test compounds. Partial agonists produced no detectable steady-state activation of α7 nAChR, but seemed to show small potentiation of ACh-evoked responses; however, "run-up" of α7 ACh responses was also sometimes observed under control conditions. Potential off-target effects of the partial agonists therefore included the modulation of α7 responses by α4β2 partial agonists and decreases in α4β2* responses by α7-selective agonists. These data indicate the dual effects expected for α4β2* partial agonists and provide models and insights for utility of partial agonists in therapeutic development.

  12. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T; Abbruscato, Thomas J

    2015-06-03

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype.

  13. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T.; Abbruscato, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10 nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10 nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype. PMID:25801116

  14. Aβ immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease: effects on apoE and cerebral vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenji; Boche, Delphine; Carare, Roxana; Johnston, David; Holmes, Clive; Love, Seth; Nicoll, James A R

    2014-12-01

    Aβ immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in the removal of Aβ plaques and increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). In current clinical trials, amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIAs), putatively due to exacerbation of CAA, are concerning side effects. We aimed to assess the role of the Aβ transporter apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the exacerbation of CAA and development of CAA-associated vasculopathy after Aβ immunotherapy. 12 Aβ42-immunized AD (iAD; AN1792, Elan Pharmaceuticals) cases were compared with 28 unimmunized AD (cAD) cases. Immunohistochemistry was quantified for Aβ42, apoE, apoE E4 and smooth muscle actin, and CAA-associated vasculopathy was analyzed. Aβ immunotherapy was associated with redistribution of apoE from cortical plaques to cerebral vessel walls, mirroring the altered distribution of Aβ42. Concentric vessel wall splitting was increased threefold in leptomeningeal vessels after immunotherapy (cAD 6.3 vs iAD 20.6 %, P < 0.001), but smooth muscle cell abnormalities did not differ. The findings suggest that apoE is involved in the removal of plaques and transport of Aβ to the cerebral vasculature induced by Aβ immunotherapy. Immunotherapy was not associated with CAA-related vascular smooth muscle damage, but was accompanied by increased splitting of the vessel wall, perhaps reflecting enhanced deposition and subsequent removal of Aβ. ARIA occurring in some current trials of Aβ immunotherapy may reflect an extreme form of these vascular changes.

  15. Tau haplotypes and ApoE4 do not act in synergy on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Almos, Péter Z; Horváth, Szatmár; Czibula, Agnes; Raskó, István; Domján, Nóra; Juhász, Anna; Janka, Zoltán; Kálmán, János

    2011-04-30

    There are conflicting results regarding the role of tau (MAPT) haplotypes in neurodegenerative disorders. Recent reports suggest that ethnicity factors and gene-gene interactions may influence the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study investigates possible synergism between MAPT haplotype and ApoE state in Hungarian Caucasian AD cases (n=91) and control (n=83) population. The difference in MAPT H1 allele frequency did not reach significant level in AD (78%), and control individuals (73.5%), however ApoE4 carriers were significantly overrepresented in AD (34.1% vs. 20%) compared to the control population. Though a specific combination of ApoE4 and H1 alleles were found to be associated to AD (14.5% vs. 30.8%), synergistic genetic interaction could not be inferred. Our findings support the notion that while ApoE4 might be involved in AD pathology the MAPT H1 allele neither associates nor interacts through an epistasis with ApoE4 in the development of the disease.

  16. [ApoE polymorphisms and dopaminergic replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; González-Latapí, Paulina; Dávila-Ortiz de Montellano, David José; Yescas, Petra; Alonso-Vilatela, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: se ha propuesto que la expresión de los polimorfismos de la apolipoproteína E (apoE) es un factor predisponente para el desarrollo temprano de psicosis en los pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson. La relación entre el genotipo de la apoE y el desarrollo de complicaciones motoras es controvertida. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la relación entre los polimorfismos de la apoE y su frecuencia alélica y el desarrollo de complicaciones secundarias al reemplazo dopaminérgico. MÉTODOS: se evaluaron 231 pacientes con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Parkinson. La presencia de complicaciones fue determinada por un neurólogo y se realizó la genotipificación de los polimorfismos de la apoE. Se utilizó la chi cuadrada para determinar la relación entre la presencia o ausencia de las complicaciones estudiadas y el genotipo de la apoE.

  17. Benzodiazepine agonist and inverse agonist actions on GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. I. Acute effects of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, K.J.; Harris, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Acute exposure to ethanol was found to enhance the ability of a benzodiazepine (BZ) inverse agonist, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), to reduce muscimol-activated 36Cl- uptake by membranes isolated from mouse cerebral cortex. Pretreatment in vivo with a hypnotic dose of ethanol (but not a subhypnotic dose), or exposure to a corresponding concentration in vitro, was effective. This increase in sensitivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-operated chloride channels to the actions of DMCM was due to an increase in both the potency and efficacy of DMCM. Sensitization to DMCM was reversible and was not observed 24 hr after a single injection of ethanol. Pretreatment with ethanol (10, 50 and 100 mM) in vitro produced sensitization to DMCM in a concentration-dependent manner, similar to that produced by in vivo exposure; this increase in sensitivity did not develop if the membranes were pretreated with ethanol at 0 degrees C. Similarly, in vitro exposure to pentobarbital (200 microM) or flunitrazepam (1 microM) enhanced the actions of the inverse agonist Ro15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,5a)(1,4)BZ-3- carboxylate). Acute ethanol exposure did not alter low-affinity gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor binding or muscimol action, or the ability of a BZ agonist, flunitrazepam, to augment muscimol-activated chloride flux. Ethanol exposure did not alter (3H)flumazenil (Ro15-1788) binding to central BZ receptors, its displacement by DMCM or allosteric modulation of DMCM binding by muscimol (muscimol-shift).

  18. Trial Watch: Immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Kristina; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Špíšek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy.

  19. Analysis of agonist dissociation constants as assessed by functional antagonism in guinea pig left atria

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, P.; Malta, E.

    1986-04-01

    In electrically driven guinea pig left atria, positive inotropic responses to (-)-isoprenaline and the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist RO363 were obtained in the absence and in the presence of the functional antagonists adenosine, carbachol, gallopamil, nifedipine, and Ro 03-7894. Each of the functional antagonists reduced the maximum response to both agonists and produced nonparallel rightward shifts in the cumulative concentration effect curves. For both agonists, dissociation constants (KA) were calculated using the equation described by Furchgott (1966) for irreversible antagonism. For RO363, which is a partial agonist with high agonist activity, the equations outlined for functional interaction by Mackay (1981) were also employed to calculate KA values. The KA values obtained by each method were compared with the dissociation constants (KD) for the two agonists determined from their ability to displace the radioligand (-)-(/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol from beta 1-adrenoceptors in guinea pig left atrial membrane preparations. The estimates of KA varied substantially from KD values. The KD values were taken as more accurate estimates of the true values for the dissociation constants because a high degree of correlation exists between pKD and pD2 values for a number of other beta-adrenoceptor agonists that behave as partial agonists and between pKD and pKB values for a number of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Thus, it appears that there are serious limitations in the current theory for using functional antagonism as a means of obtaining agonist dissociation constants.

  20. The pharmacology of epanolol (ICI 141292)--a new beta 1-selective adrenoceptor partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Bilski, A J; Hadfield, S E; Wale, J L

    1988-08-01

    The clinical benefit of beta-adrenoceptor partial agonists is still debated. To clarify the situation, epanolol, ICI 141,292 [N-[-2-(3-o-cyanophenoxy-2-hydroxypropylamino)ethyl]-4- hydroxyphenylactamide], has been developed to assess the role of modest beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist activity in humans. Animal studies have shown that epanolol is a potent beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist with a greater affinity for beta 1- than beta 2-adrenoceptors. In vitro, the PA2 values obtained for espanolol at atrial and tracheal beta-adrenoceptors were 8.42 and 6.33, respectively (isoproterenol as agonist), giving a selectivity ratio of 123. The potency was studied in vivo in the dog, where it was also shown that as an antagonist at the cardiac beta 1-adrenoceptor, it was 18 and 40 times more potent than atenolol and practolol, respectively. Espanolol has less partial agonist activity in the rat than pindolol, but more than practolol. In this species, it is also a classical partial agonist, exhibiting agonist activity at all beta-adrenoceptor blocking doses. This is in contrast to pindolol, which caused predominantly beta-adrenoceptor blockade at low doses and partial agonist activity at higher doses. These differences were confirmed in haemodynamic studies in the dog. In contrast to many other partial agonists, the partition coefficient, log P, of epanolol in octanol and water is low (0.92).

  1. Trial Watch: Immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Kristina; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Špíšek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy. PMID:27141345

  2. Agonist signalling properties of radiotracers used for imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) agonist radiopharmaceuticals are considered superior to antagonists to detect dopamine release, e.g. induced by amphetamines. Agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of the dopamine D2R, which has been proposed as the reason why agonists are more sensitive to detect dopamine release than antagonist radiopharmaceuticals, but this theory has been challenged. Interestingly, not all agonists similarly activate the classic cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP) and the ?-arrestin-2 pathway, some stimulate preferentially one of these pathways; a phenomenon called biased agonism. Because these pathways can be affected separately by pathologies or drugs (including dopamine releasers), it is important to know how agonist radiotracers act on these pathways. Therefore, we characterized the intracellular signalling of the well-known D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals NPA and PHNO and of several novel D2/3R agonists. Methods cAMP accumulation and ?-arrestin-2 recruitment were measured on cells expressing human D2R. Results All tested agonists showed (almost) full agonism in both pathways. Conclusions The tested D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals did not exhibit biased agonism in vitro. Consequently, it is likely that drugs (including psychostimulants like amphetamines) and/or pathologies that influence the cAMP and/or the ?-arrestin-2 pathway may influence the binding of these radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:25977878

  3. Melatonin and melatonin agonist for delirium in the elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dwaipayan; Tampi, Deena J; Tampi, Rajesh R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the available data on the use of melatonin and melatonin agonist for the prevention and management of delirium in the elderly patients from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search of 5 major databases PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted. This search yielded a total of 2 RCTs for melatonin. One study compared melatonin to midazolam, clonidine, and control groups for the prevention and management of delirium in individuals who were pre- and posthip post-hip arthroplasty. The other study compared melatonin to placebo for the prevention of delirium in older adults admitted to an inpatient internal medicine service. Data from these 2 studies indicate that melatonin may have some benefit in the prevention and management of delirium in older adults. However, there is no evidence that melatonin reduces the severity of delirium or has any effect on behaviors or functions in these individuals. Melatonin was well tolerated in these 2 studies. The search for a melatonin agonist for delirium in the elderly patients yielded 1 study of ramelteon. In this study, ramelteon was found to be beneficial in preventing delirium in medically ill individuals when compared to placebo. Ramelteon was well tolerated in this study.

  4. GLP-1 receptor agonist-induced polyarthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria Luisa; Monami, Matteo; Sati, Lavinia; Marchionni, Niccolò; Di Bari, Mauro; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2014-08-01

    Occasional cases of bilateral, symmetrical, seronegative polyarthritis have been reported in patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (Crickx et al. in Rheumatol Int, 2013). We report here a similar case observed during treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist. A 42-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin 1,500 mg/day and liraglutide 1.8 mg/day. After 6 months from the beginning of treatment, the patient complained of bilateral arthralgia (hands, feet, ankles, knees, and hips). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes were increased. Rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody, antinuclear antibodies, anti-Borrelia, and burgdorferi antibodies were all negative, and myoglobin and calcitonin were normal. Liraglutide was withdrawn, and the symptoms completely disappeared within 1 week, with normalization of ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, and leukocytes. Previously described cases of polyarthritis associated with DPP4 inhibitors had been attributed to a direct effect of the drugs on inflammatory cells expressing the enzyme. The present case, occurred during treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonists, suggests a possibly different mechanism, mediated by GLP-1 receptor stimulation, which deserved further investigation.

  5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  6. Agonist-stimulated alveolar macrophages: apoptosis and phospholipid signaling.

    PubMed

    Lütjohann, J; Spiess, A N; Gercken, G

    1998-08-01

    Bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) were labeled with [3H]-choline or [3H]-ethanolamine and exposed to quartz dust, metal oxide-coated silica particles, Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (PMA). The activation of phospholipases A2, C and D (PLA2, PLC and PLD) acting on phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and liquid scintillation counting of water- and lipid-soluble phospholipid metabolites. Exposure of BAM to quartz dust, metal oxide-coated silica particles, and LPS led to a transient PLD activation while treatment with PMA caused a prolonged rise in PLD activity. LPS and quartz dust induced a short-term increase of PLC cleavage products. All agonists caused a transient activation of PLA2. To induce apoptosis, BAM were stimulated with C8-ceramide, calcium-ionophore 23187, or gliotoxin. Apoptosis was investigated by qualitative and quantitative methods like flow cytometry, propidium iodide/Hoechst 33258 double staining, Cell Death Detection ELISA, and electrophoretical detection of DNA fragmentation. All three agonists led to apoptosis of BAM in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. After stimulation with gliotoxin an increase in ceramide and a drastic decrease in sphingosine-1-phosphate levels were observed, suggesting an involvement of these sphingolipids in gliotoxin-mediated apoptosis.

  7. The evolution of histamine H₃ antagonists/inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Lebois, Evan P; Jones, Carrie K; Lindsley, Craig W

    2011-01-01

    This article describes our efforts along with recent advances in the development, biological evaluation and clinical proof of concept of small molecule histamine H₃ antagonists/inverse agonists. The H3 receptor is a presynaptic autoreceptor within the Class A GPCR family, but also functions as a heteroreceptor modulating levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate. Thus, H₃R has garnered a great deal of interest from the pharmaceutical industry for the possible treatment of obesity, epilepsy, sleep/wake, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain and ADHD. Within the two main classes of H₃ ligands, both imidazole and non-imidazole derived, have shown sufficient potency and specificity which culminated with efficacy in preclinical models for various CNS disorders. Importantly, conserved elements have been identified within the small molecule H₃ ligand scaffolds that resulted in a highly predictive pharmacophore model. Understanding of the pharmacophore model has allowed several groups to dial H₃R activity into scaffolds designed for other CNS targets, and engender directed polypharmacology. Moreover, Abbott, GSK, Pfizer and several others have reported positive Phase I and/or Phase II data with structurally diverse H₃R antagonists/inverse agonists.

  8. Trial Watch: Toll-like receptor agonists in oncological indications.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Cremer, Isabelle; Henrik Ter Meulen, Jan; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymatically inactive, single membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a wide panel of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Besides constituting a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens, TLRs appear to play a major role in anticancer immunosurveillance. In line with this notion, several natural and synthetic TLR ligands have been intensively investigated for their ability to boost tumor-targeting immune responses elicited by a variety of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Three of these agents are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or equivalent regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients: the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin, monophosphoryl lipid A, and imiquimod. However, the number of clinical trials testing the therapeutic potential of both FDA-approved and experimental TLR agonists in cancer patients is stably decreasing, suggesting that drug developers and oncologists are refocusing their interest on alternative immunostimulatory agents. Here, we summarize recent findings on the use of TLR agonists in cancer patients and discuss how the clinical evaluation of FDA-approved and experimental TLR ligands has evolved since the publication of our first Trial Watch dealing with this topic.

  9. Mood Disorders, Circadian Rhythms, Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Quera Salva, M.A.; Hartley, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of circadian rhythms have led to an interest in the treatment of major depressive disorder with chronobiotic agents. Many tissues have autonomous circadian rhythms, which are orchestrated by the master clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC). Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is secreted from the pineal gland during darkness. Melatonin acts mainly on MT1 and MT2 receptors, which are present in the SNC, regulating physiological and neuroendocrine functions, including circadian entrainment, referred to as the chronobiotic effet. Circadian rhythms has been shown to be either misaligned or phase shifted or decreased in amplitude in both acute episodes and relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Manipulation of circadian rhythms either using physical treatments (such as high intensity light) or behavioral therapy has shown promise in improving symptoms. Pharmacotherapy using melatonin and pure melatonin receptor agonists, while improving sleep, has not been shown to improve symptoms of depression. A novel antidepressant, agomelatine, combines 5HT2c antagonist and melatonin agonist action, and has shown promise in both acute treatment of MDD and in preventing relapse. PMID:23650464

  10. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  11. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6.

  12. Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists.

  13. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  14. The apo riboswitch as a molecular hydra.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Joseph E

    2010-07-14

    Riboswitches "sense" metabolites but knowledge is sparse for structures without bound ligand. Stoddard et al. (2010) determined an apo riboswitch structure "closed" to metabolite binding. Further SAXS, biochemical, and computational analyses support ensemble behavior with interconverting open and closed conformations.

  15. ApoE2 Exaggerates PTSD-Related Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neuroendocrine Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lance A; Zuloaga, Damian G; Bidiman, Erin; Marzulla, Tessa; Weber, Sydney; Wahbeh, Helane; Raber, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an essential component of lipoprotein particles in both the brain and periphery, and exists in three isoforms in the human population: E2, E3, and E4. ApoE has numerous, well-established roles in neurobiology. Most notably, E4 is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although possession of E2 is protective in the context of AD, E2 appears to confer an increased incidence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the biological processes underlying this link remain unclear. In this study, we began to elucidate these associations by examining the effects of apoE on PTSD severity in combat veterans, and on PTSD-like behavior in mice with human apoE. In a group of 92 veterans with PTSD, we observed significantly higher Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and PTSD Checklist scores in E2+ individuals, as well as alterations in salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, we measured behavioral and biological outcomes in mice expressing human apoE after a single stressful event as well as following a period of chronic variable stress, a model of combat-related trauma. Mice with E2 showed impairments in fear extinction, and behavioral, cognitive, and neuroendocrine alterations following trauma. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the first translational demonstration of PTSD severity in men and PTSD-like symptoms in mice with E2, and point to apoE as a novel biomarker of susceptibility, and potential therapeutic target, for PTSD. PMID:25857685

  16. Coupling between agonist and chloride ionophore sites of the GABA(A) receptor: agonist/antagonist efficacy of 4-PIOL.

    PubMed

    Rabe, H; Picard, R; Uusi-Oukari, M; Hevers, W; Lüddens, H; Korpi, E R

    2000-12-15

    Eight gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mimetics were tested on their ability to differentiate native GABA(A) receptor subtypes present in various rat brain regions. In rat brain cryostat sections, little regional variations by the agonistic actions of muscimol, thiomuscimol, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, piperidine-4-sulphonic acid, taurine and beta-alanine on [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding to GABA(A) receptor channels were found. They were very similar to those found for GABA itself and indicated no direct correlation with single subunit distributions for any of these compounds. Only the low-efficacy GABA mimetic 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL) acted like a weak partial agonist or antagonist depending on the brain area. As the cerebellar granule cell layer was relatively insensitive to both modes of action, we tested 4-PIOL in recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 (widespread major subtype) and alpha6beta2gamma2 (cerebellar granule cell restricted) receptors where it had different effects on GABA-modulated [35S]TBPS binding and on electrophysiological responses. 4-PIOL may thus serve as a potential lead for receptor subtype selective compounds.

  17. Neurometabolic Roles of ApoE and Ldl-R in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Wong, G. William; Wolfgang, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ApoE are highly correlated with the progression of neurodegenerative disease, in particular Alzheimer’s disease. Little is known, however, about the role of ApoE or cholesterol metabolism on brain neurochemistry in general. To better understand the role of lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism in the brain, we profiled 6-week and 12-week old Apoe KO and Ldlr KO mouse models via unbiased metabolomics to determine which metabolites were affected at an early age to identify those that may play a role in triggering pathology later in life. Steady-state metabolomics revealed only subtle differences among Apoe KO, Ldlr KO and WT mouse brains. Ldlr KO mice exhibited alterations in metabolites involved in neurotransmitter, amino acid and cholesterol metabolism. In contrast, Apoe KO mice only showed subtle changes in amino acid and neurotransmitter metabolism. These subtle changes in a broad range of metabolites indicate that ApoE and Ldl-R alone may not play a significant role in these mouse models at an early age, but instead require the cumulative effect from different pathways that lead to dysfunction at a much later stage of life. PMID:26686234

  18. Infants&apos; Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There&apos;s extensive research on infant&apos;s discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant&apos;s discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants&apos; perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  19. Discriminative stimulus properties of indorenate, a serotonin agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Martínez, D N; López Cabrera, M; Sánchez, H; Ramírez, J I; Hong, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether indorenate, a serotonin-receptor agonist, can exert discriminative control over operant responses, to establish the temporal course of discriminative control and to compare its stimulus properties to a (5-HT)IA receptor agonist. [3H]-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). DESIGN: Prospective animal study. ANIMALS: Ten male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Rats were trained to press either of 2 levers for sucrose solution according to a fixed ratio schedule, which was gradually increased. Rats were given injections of either indorenate or saline solution during discrimination training. Once they had achieved an 83% accuracy rate, rats underwent generalization tests after having received a different dose of indorenate, the training dose of indorenate at various intervals before the test, various doses of 8-OH-DPT, or NAN-190 administered before indorenate or 8-OH-DPAT. OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of responses between the 2 levers before the first reinforcer of the session, response rate for all the responses in the session, and a discrimination index that expressed the drug-appropriate responses as a proportion of the total responses. RESULTS: Indorenate administration resulted in discriminative control over operant responses, maintained at fixed ratio 10, at a dose of 10.0 mg/kg (but not 3.0 mg/kg). When the interval between the administration of indorenate and the start of the session was varied, the time course of its cue properties followed that of its described effects on 5-HT turnover. In generalization tests, the discrimination index was a function of the dose of indorenate employed; moreover, administration of 8-OH-DPAT (from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg) fully mimicked the stimulus properties of indorenate in a dose-dependent way. The (5-HT)IA antagonist NAN-190 prevented the stimulus generalization from indorenate to 8-OH-DPAT. Also, NAN-190 antagonized the stimulus control of indorenate when administered 45 minutes before

  20. New Small Molecule Agonists to the Thyrotropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M. Rejwan; Ma, Risheng; David, Martine; Morshed, Syed A.; Ohlmeyer, Michael; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; Lau, Zerlina; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Novel small molecular ligands (SMLs) to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) have potential as improved molecular probes and as therapeutic agents for the treatment of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer. Methods To identify novel SMLs to the TSHR, we developed a transcription-based luciferase-cAMP high-throughput screening system and we screened 48,224 compounds from a 100K library in duplicate. Results We obtained 62 hits using the cut-off criteria of the mean±three standard deviations above the baseline. Twenty molecules with the greatest activity were rescreened against the parent CHO-luciferase cell for nonspecific activation, and we selected two molecules (MS437 and MS438) with the highest potency for further study. These lead molecules demonstrated no detectible cross-reactivity with homologous receptors when tested against luteinizing hormone (LH)/human chorionic gonadotropin receptor and follicle stimulating hormone receptor–expressing cells. Molecule MS437 had a TSHR-stimulating potency with an EC50 of 13×10−8 M, and molecule MS438 had an EC50 of 5.3×10−8 M. The ability of these small molecule agonists to bind to the transmembrane domain of the receptor and initiate signal transduction was suggested by their activation of a chimeric receptor consisting of an LHR ectodomain and a TSHR transmembrane. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these molecules bound to residues S505 and E506 for MS438 and T501 for MS437 in the intrahelical region of transmembrane helix 3. We also examined the G protein activating ability of these molecules using CHO cells co-expressing TSHRs transfected with luciferase reporter vectors in order to measure Gsα, Gβγ, Gαq, and Gα12 activation quantitatively. The MS437 and MS438 molecules showed potent activation of Gsα, Gαq, and Gα12 similar to TSH, but neither the small molecule agonists nor TSH showed activation of the Gβγ pathway. The small molecules MS437 and MS438 also showed upregulation of

  1. Analysis of full and partial agonists binding to beta2-adrenergic receptor suggests a role of transmembrane helix V in agonist-specific conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Reynolds, Kimberly A; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A; Roth, Christopher B; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    The 2.4 A crystal structure of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) in complex with the high-affinity inverse agonist (-)-carazolol provides a detailed structural framework for the analysis of ligand recognition by adrenergic receptors. Insights into agonist binding and the corresponding conformational changes triggering G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation mechanism are of special interest. Here we show that while the carazolol pocket captured in the beta(2)AR crystal structure accommodates (-)-isoproterenol and other agonists without steric clashes, a finite movement of the flexible extracellular part of TM-V helix (TM-Ve) obtained by receptor optimization in the presence of docked ligand can further improve the calculated binding affinities for agonist compounds. Tilting of TM-Ve towards the receptor axis provides a more complete description of polar receptor-ligand interactions for full and partial agonists, by enabling optimal engagement of agonists with two experimentally identified anchor sites, formed by Asp113/Asn312 and Ser203/Ser204/Ser207 side chains. Further, receptor models incorporating a flexible TM-V backbone allow reliable prediction of binding affinities for a set of diverse ligands, suggesting potential utility of this approach to design of effective and subtype-specific agonists for adrenergic receptors. Systematic differences in capacity of partial, full and inverse agonists to induce TM-V helix tilt in the beta(2)AR model suggest potential role of TM-V as a conformational "rheostat" involved in the whole spectrum of beta(2)AR responses to small molecule signals.

  2. Impact of efficacy at the μ-opioid receptor on antinociceptive effects of combinations of μ-opioid receptor agonists and cannabinoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2014-11-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combining cannabinoids with opioids would improve pain treatment. Combinations with lower efficacy agonists might be preferred and could avoid adverse effects associated with large doses; however, it is unclear whether interactions between opioids and cannabinoids vary across drugs with different efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists alone and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys (n = 4) using a warm water tail withdrawal procedure. Etorphine, fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, Δ(9)-THC, and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol) each increased tail withdrawal latency. Pretreatment with doses of Δ(9)-THC (1.0 mg/kg) or CP 55,940 (0.032 mg/kg) that were ineffective alone shifted the fentanyl dose-effect curve leftward 20.6- and 52.9-fold, respectively, and the etorphine dose-effect curve leftward 12.4- and 19.6-fold, respectively. Δ(9)-THC and CP 55,940 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve leftward only 3.4- and 7.9-fold, respectively, and the buprenorphine curve only 5.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. Neither Δ(9)-THC nor CP 55,940 significantly altered the effects of nalbuphine. Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the antinociceptive potency of higher efficacy opioid receptor agonists more than lower efficacy agonists; however, because much smaller doses of each drug can be administered in combinations while achieving adequate pain relief and that other (e.g., abuse-related) effects of opioids do not appear to be enhanced by cannabinoids, these results provide additional support for combining opioids with cannabinoids to treat pain.

  3. Sensitivity of GBM cells to cAMP agonist-mediated apoptosis correlates with CD44 expression and agonist resistance with MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Paul M; Filiz, Gulay; Mantamadiotis, Theo

    2016-01-01

    In some cell types, activation of the second messenger cAMP leads to increased expression of proapoptotic Bim and subsequent cell death. We demonstrate that suppression of the cAMP pathway is a common event across many cancers and that pharmacological activation of cAMP in glioblastoma (GBM) cells leads to enhanced BIM expression and apoptosis in specific GBM cell types. We identified the MAPK signaling axis as the determinant of cAMP agonist sensitivity in GBM cells, with high MAPK activity corresponding to cAMP resistance and low activity corresponding to sensitization to cAMP-induced apoptosis. Sensitive cells were efficiently killed by cAMP agonists alone, while targeting both the cAMP and MAPK pathways in resistant GBM cells resulted in efficient apoptosis. We also show that CD44 is differentially expressed in cAMP agonist-sensitive and -resistant cells. We thus propose that CD44 may be a useful biomarker for distinguishing tumors that may be sensitive to cAMP agonists alone or cAMP agonists in combination with other pathway inhibitors. This suggests that using existing chemotherapeutic compounds in combination with existing FDA-approved cAMP agonists may fast track trials toward improved therapies for difficult-to-treat cancers, such as GBM. PMID:27906173

  4. Modulation of [3H]diazepam binding in rat cortical membranes by GABAA agonists.

    PubMed

    Wong, E H; Iversen, L L

    1985-04-01

    GABAA receptor agonists modulate [3H]diazepam binding in rat cortical membranes with different efficacies. At 23 degrees C, the relative potencies for enhancement of [3H]diazepam binding by agonists parallel their potencies in inhibiting [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid [( 3H]GABA) binding. The agonist concentrations needed for enhancement of [3H]diazepam binding are up to 35 times higher than for [3H]GABA binding and correspond closely to the concentrations required for displacement of [3H]bicuculline methochloride (BMC) binding. The maximum enhancement of [3H]diazepam varied among agonists: muscimol = GABA greater than isoguvacine greater than 3-aminopropane sulphonic acid (3APS) = imidazoleacetic acid (IAA) greater than 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (4,5,6)-pyridin-3-ol (THIP) = taurine greater than piperidine 4-sulphonic acid (P4S). At 37 degrees C, the potencies of agonists remained unchanged, but isoguvacine, 3 APS, and THIP acquired efficacies similar to GABA, whereas IAA, taurine, and P4S maintained their partial agonist profiles. At both temperatures the agonist-induced enhancement of [3H]diazepam binding was reversible by bicuculline methobromide and by the steroid GABA antagonist RU 5135. These results stress the importance of studying receptor-receptor interaction under near-physiological conditions and offer an in vitro assay that may predict the agonist status of putative GABA receptor ligands.

  5. Use-dependent inhibition of P2X3 receptors by nanomolar agonist.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Emily B; Brink, Thaddeus S; Bergson, Pamela; Voigt, Mark M; Cook, Sean P

    2005-08-10

    P2X3 receptors desensitize within 100 ms of channel activation, yet recovery from desensitization requires several minutes. The molecular basis for this slow rate of recovery is unknown. We designed experiments to test the hypothesis that this slow recovery is attributable to the high affinity (< 1 nM) of desensitized P2X3 receptors for agonist. We found that agonist binding to the desensitized state provided a mechanism for potent inhibition of P2X3 current. Sustained applications of 0.5 nM ATP inhibited > 50% of current to repetitive applications of P2X3 agonist. Inhibition occurred at 1000-fold lower agonist concentrations than required for channel activation and showed strong use dependence. No inhibition occurred without previous activation and desensitization. Our data are consistent with a model whereby inhibition of P2X3 by nanomolar [agonist] occurs by the rebinding of agonist to desensitized channels before recovery from desensitization. For several ATP analogs, the concentration required to inhibit P2X3 current inversely correlated with the rate of recovery from desensitization. This indicates that the affinity of the desensitized state and recovery rate primarily depend on the rate of agonist unbinding. Consistent with this hypothesis, unbinding of [32P]ATP from desensitized P2X3 receptors mirrored the rate of recovery from desensitization. As expected, disruption of agonist binding by site-directed mutagenesis increased the IC50 for inhibition and increased the rate of recovery.

  6. Yawning and locomotor behavior induced by dopamine receptor agonists in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Min; Collins, Gregory T; Paul, Noel M; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy H; Xu, Ming; Grandy, David K; Woods, James H; Katz, Jonathan L

    2010-05-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) agonist-induced yawning in rats seems to be mediated by DA D3 receptors, and low doses of several DA agonists decrease locomotor activity, an effect attributed to presynaptic D2 receptors. Effects of several DA agonists on yawning and locomotor activity were examined in rats and mice. Yawning was reliably produced in rats, and by the cholinergic agonist, physostigmine, in both the species. However, DA agonists were ineffective in producing yawning in Swiss-Webster or DA D2R and DA D3R knockout or wild-type mice. The drugs significantly decreased locomotor activity in rats at one or two low doses, with activity returning to control levels at higher doses. In mice, the drugs decreased locomotion across a 1000-10 000-fold range of doses, with activity at control levels (U-91356A) or above control levels [(+/-)-7-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin HBr, quinpirole] at the highest doses. Low doses of agonists decreased locomotion in all mice except the DA D2R knockout mice, but were not antagonized by DA D2R or D3R antagonists (L-741 626, BP 897, or PG01037). Yawning does not provide a selective in-vivo indicator of DA D3R agonist activity in mice. Decreases in mouse locomotor activity by the DA agonists seem to be mediated by D2 DA receptors.

  7. Prolonging Survival of Corneal Transplantation by Selective Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Min; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yang; Han, Gencheng; Jia, Liang; Wang, Liqiang; Lei, Tian; Huang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most used therapy for eye disorders. Although the cornea is somewhat an immune privileged organ, immune rejection is still the major problem that reduces the success rate. Therefore, effective chemical drugs that regulate immunoreactions are needed to improve the outcome of corneal transplantations. Here, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) selective agonist was systematically evaluated in mouse allogeneic corneal transplantation and compared with the commonly used immunosuppressive agents. Compared with CsA and the non-selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist FTY720, the S1P1 selective agonist can prolong the survival corneal transplantation for more than 30 days with a low immune response. More importantly, the optimal dose of the S1P1 selective agonist was much less than non-selective S1P receptor agonist FTY720, which would reduce the dose-dependent toxicity in drug application. Then we analyzed the mechanisms of the selected S1P1 selective agonist on the immunosuppression. The results shown that the S1P1 selective agonist could regulate the distribution of the immune cells with less CD4+ T cells and enhanced Treg cells in the allograft, moreover the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-10 unregulated which can reduce the immunoreactions. These findings suggest that S1P1 selective agonist may be a more appropriate immunosuppressive compound to effectively prolong mouse allogeneic corneal grafts survival. PMID:25216235

  8. Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pawan; Yi, Roslyn; Nayak, Ajay P.; Wang, Nadan; Tang, Francesca; Knight, Morgan J.; Pan, Shi; Oliver, Brian; Deshpande, Deepak A.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma. Asthma was induced in mice using intranasal house dust mite or aerosol ova-albumin challenge, and chloroquine or quinine were tested in both prophylactic and treatment models. Allergen challenge resulted in airway inflammation as evidenced by increased immune cells infiltration and release of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs, which were significantly attenuated in TAS2R agonists treated mice. TAS2R agonists attenuated features of airway remodeling including smooth muscle mass, extracellular matrix deposition and pro-fibrotic signaling, and also prevented mucus accumulation and development of AHR in mice. Mechanistic studies using human neutrophils demonstrated that inhibition of immune cell chemotaxis is a key mechanism by which TAS2R agonists blocked allergic airway inflammation and exerted anti-asthma effects. Our comprehensive studies establish the effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in mitigating multiple features of allergic asthma.

  9. Marketed New Drug Delivery Systems for Opioid Agonists/Antagonists Administration: A Rapid Overview

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Hoda; Pardakhty, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of “new drug delivery systems” is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today. PMID:27882209

  10. Identification of diarylsulfonamides as agonists of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120).

    PubMed

    Sparks, Steven M; Chen, Grace; Collins, Jon L; Danger, Dana; Dock, Steven T; Jayawickreme, Channa; Jenkinson, Stephen; Laudeman, Christopher; Leesnitzer, M Anthony; Liang, Xi; Maloney, Patrick; McCoy, David C; Moncol, David; Rash, Vincent; Rimele, Thomas; Vulimiri, Padmaja; Way, James M; Ross, Sean

    2014-07-15

    The exploration of a diarylsulfonamide series of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120) agonists is described. This work led to the identification of selective FFA4 agonist 8 (GSK137647A) and selective FFA4 antagonist 39. The in vitro profile of compounds 8 and 39 is presented herein.

  11. Marketed New Drug Delivery Systems for Opioid Agonists/Antagonists Administration: A Rapid Overview.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Hoda; Pardakhty, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of "new drug delivery systems" is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today.

  12. The GLP-1 agonist, liraglutide, as a pharmacotherapy for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Crane, James; McGowan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    There is a global obesity epidemic that will continue to be a financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Tackling obesity through diet and exercise should always be the first intervention, but this has not proved to be effective for a large number of patients. Pharmacotherapeutic options have been limited and many previously available drugs have been withdrawn due to safety concerns. Currently, only bariatric surgery has the capability to induce both substantial and durable weight loss. This article briefly reviews the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity before focusing on the clinical trial evidence for the use of the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide as a weight loss agent and comparing its efficacy with other emerging drug therapies for obesity. PMID:26977279

  13. TSH and Thyrotropic Agonists: Key Actors in Thyroid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Landgrafe, Gabi; Fotiadou, Elisavet H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the reader with an overview of our current knowledge of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback from a cybernetic standpoint. Over the past decades we have gained a plethora of information from biochemical, clinical, and epidemiological investigation, especially on the role of TSH and other thyrotropic agonists as critical components of this complex relationship. Integrating these data into a systems perspective delivers new insights into static and dynamic behaviour of thyroid homeostasis. Explicit usage of this information with mathematical methods promises to deliver a better understanding of thyrotropic feedback control and new options for personalised diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and targeted therapy, also by permitting a new perspective on the conundrum of the TSH reference range. PMID:23365787

  14. [Safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists].

    PubMed

    Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1ra) are a new group of drugs with a glucose-lowering action due to their incretin effect. The GLP-1 receptor is expressed in various human tissues, which could be related to the pleiotropic effects of human GLP-1, as well as to the adverse effects described in patients treated with GLP-1ra. The risk of hypoglycaemia is low, which is one of the main considerations in the safety of this family of compounds and is also important to patients with diabetes. The most frequent adverse effect is nausea, which usually occurs at the start of treatment and is transient in 20-60% of affected patients. This article also reviews the information available on antibody formation, the potential effect on the thyroid gland, and the controversial association between this group of drugs with pancreatitis and cancer.

  15. [Safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists].

    PubMed

    Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1ra) are a new group of drugs with a glucose-lowering action due to their incretin effect. The GLP-1 receptor is expressed in various human tissues, which could be related to the pleiotropic effects of human GLP-1, as well as to the adverse effects described in patients treated with GLP-1ra. The risk of hypoglycaemia is low, which is one of the main considerations in the safety of this family of compounds and is also important to patients with diabetes. The most frequent adverse effect is nausea, which usually occurs at the start of treatment and is transient in 20-60% of affected patients. This article also reviews the information available on antibody formation, the potential effect on the thyroid gland, and the controversial association between this group of drugs with pancreatitis and cancer.

  16. Locomotion induced by ventral tegmental microinjections of a nicotinic agonist.

    PubMed

    Museo, E; Wise, R A

    1990-03-01

    Bilateral microinjections of the nicotinic agonist cytisine (0.1, 1 or 10 nanomoles per side) into the ventral tegmental area increased locomotor activity. This increase in locomotion was antagonized by mecamylamine (2 mg/kg, IP), a nicotinic antagonist that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and by pimozide (0.3 mg/kg, IP), a central dopaminergic antagonist. Hexamethonium (2 mg/kg, IP), a nicotinic antagonist that, unlike mecamylamine, does not cross the blood-brain barrier, had no effect; this suggests that mecamylamine's attenuation of cytisine-induced locomotor activity resulted from a blockade of central and not peripheral nicotinic receptors. The data support the notion that nicotinic and dopaminergic substrates interact at the level of the VTA to produce increases in locomotor activity.

  17. Basal Insulin Use With GLP-1 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah L; Trujillo, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF The combination of basal insulin and a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is becoming increasingly common and offers several potential benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have demonstrated improved glycemic control and low risks of hypoglycemia and weight gain with the combination, which provides a safe and effective alternative to basal-bolus insulin with less treatment burden. Fixed-ratio combination products that administer both agents in a single injection are in the pipeline and will offer additional options for clinicians and patients. This review focuses on the rationale for, clinical evidence on, and implications of using this combination of therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  18. ApoE genotype, past adult lead exposure, and neurobehavioral function.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Walter F; Schwartz, Brian S; Simon, David; Kelsey, Karl; Todd, Andrew C

    2002-05-01

    Our objective in this study was to determine if the known relation between tibia bone lead levels and neurobehavioral test scores are influenced by the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. We collected data on 20 neurobehavioral tests in 529 former organolead workers who had an average of 16 years since last occupational exposure to lead. We used linear regression to model the relations between each of 20 neurobehavioral test scores and tibia lead, a binary variable for ApoE genotype (i.e., at least one Epsilon4 allele vs. none), and an interaction term between tibia lead and the binary term for ApoE genotype. At the time of testing, former lead workers were an average of 57.6 years of age; 82% were younger than 65 years. In regression analysis, we observed one statistically significant and one borderline significant coefficient for ApoE genotype alone. Coefficients for the ApoE and tibia lead interaction term were negative in 19 of the 20 regression models. This indicates that the slope for the relation between tibia lead and each neurobehavioral test was more negative for individuals with at least one Epsilon4 allele than for those who did not have an Epsilon4 allele. Four of 19 negative coefficients for the interaction term were statistically significant (digit symbol, Purdue pegboard assembly, Purdue pegboard-dominant hand, complex reaction time); another three of the remaining 16 coefficients (symbol digit, trail-making A, Stroop) were borderline significant (i.e., p < 0.10). This study suggests that individuals may vary in susceptibility to the long-term effects of lead on the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, the persistent CNS effect of lead may be more toxic in individuals who have at least one ApoE-Epsilon4 allele.

  19. Family history and apoE genotype interaction in Alzheimer`s disease (AD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvik, G.P.; Kukull, W.A.; Goddards, K.

    1994-09-01

    The apoE {epsilon}4 allele is associated with increased risk and decreased age of onset of AD. The {epsilon}4 allele may have opposing effects. We determined that family history of a parent or sib with memory problems (famhx+) modified the effect of apoE genotype in a population-based, case (n=165, 72 famhx+)-control (n=233, 73 famhx+) sample. Logistic regression analyses detected a significant apoE genotype (E) by family history (F) by age (A) interaction (ExFxA, p=0.003) and ExF interaction (p=0.0001) in the prediction of AD. ExFxA remained significant when only {epsilon}4+ genotypes were included (p<0.01). ExFxSex (p=0.04) and ExF (p<0.0001) were significant when only {epsilon}4- genotypes were included. Similary, multiple regression detected significant ExF interaction in the prediction of age of AD onset for {epsilon}4+ genotypes (p=0.04) or {epsilon}4- genotypes (p=0.04). Sex did not interact in the prediction of age of onset. Famhx+ increased risk of AD differentially and reduced age of onset except in {epsilon}2+ genotypes. Family history modifies the apoE genotype influence on risk and onset age of AD, suggesting that non-apoE genetic effects interact with apoE in AD. It is most predictive of risk in those with the {epsilon}2{epsilon}3 genotype. Variation in risk and onset among both {epsilon}4+ and {epsilon}4- genotypes demonstrate that {epsilon}2 and {epsilon}3 mediate {epsilon}4 allele effects in AD.

  20. The Problem of Character Education and Kohlberg&apos;s Moral Education: Critique from Dewey&apos;s Moral Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Dewey&apos;s moral deliberation. Liu argues that Dewey&apos;s work will enrich both character education and Kohlberg&apos;s moral education. Liu focuses on character education and on Kohlberg&apos;s moral education because these are the two dominant approaches. Character education seeks to cultivate good…

  1. Applications of Dweck&apos;s Model of Implicit Theories to Teachers&apos; Self-Efficacy and Emotional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alexis Ymon

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored Dweck&apos;s (1999; Dweck & Leggett, 1988) model of implicit theories in the context of teaching in order to establish its usefulness for describing teachers&apos; beliefs about students&apos; ability and social behavior. Further it sought to explain the connections between teachers&apos; implicit beliefs and their…

  2. Determinants of ApoB, ApoA1, and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio in healthy schoolgirls, prospectively studied from mean ages 10 to 19 years: the Cincinnati National Growth and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Horn, Paul S; Wang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    The objectives were to prospectively assess determinants of apolipoproteins B (ApoB), A1 (ApoA1), and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio in 797 healthy black and white schoolgirls from mean ages 10 to 19. There was prospective 9-year follow-up, with measures of ApoB at mean ages 10, 12, 14, 16 and 19, ApoA1 at mean ages 12, 14, 16, and 19, and assessment of annual reports of delayed menstrual cyclicity (≥42 days) from ages 14 to 19. Studies of 402 black and 395 white healthy schoolgirls were done in public and private schools, in urban and suburban Cincinnati. Black girls had lower ApoB, higher ApoA1, and lower ApoB/ApoA1. SHBG at age 14 in white and black girls was inversely correlated with the ApoB/ApoA1. At age 19, ≥3 annual reports of menstrual delay ≥42 days and metabolic syndrome were associated with higher ApoB and a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. From ages 14 to 19, BMI and TG were independently positively associated with ApoB. Menstrual cyclicity ≥42 days, metabolic syndrome, BMI, and TG were independently positively associated with ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while black race was negatively associated. The atherogenic ApoB/ApoA1 ratio from ages 14 to 19 is lower in black girls, and positively associated with hyperandrogenism, menstrual cyclicity ≥42 days, BMI, TG, and the metabolic syndrome, facilitating an adolescent approach to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Could dopamine agonists aid in drug development for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways.

  4. Interaction of a radiolabeled agonist with cardiac muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Harden, T.K.; Meeker, R.B.; Martin, M.W.

    1983-12-01

    The interaction of a radiolabeled muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, (methyl-/sup 3/H)oxotremorine acetate ((/sup 3/H)OXO), with a washed membrane preparation derived from rat heart, has been studied. In binding assays at 4 degrees C, the rate constants for association and dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO were 2 X 10(7) M-1 min-1 and 5 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively, Saturation binding isotherms indicated that binding was to a single population of sites with a Kd of approximately 300 pM. The density of (/sup 3/H)OXO binding sites (90-100 fmol/mg of protein) was approximately 75% of that determined for the radiolabeled receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate. Both muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO with high affinity and Hill slopes of approximately one. Guanine nucleotides completely inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO. This effect was on the maximum binding (Bmax) of (/sup 3/H)OXO with no change occurring in the Kd; the order of potency for five nucleotides was guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio-triphosphate) greater than 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate greater than GTP greater than or equal to guanosine/diphosphate greater than GMP. The (/sup 3/H)OXO-induced interaction of muscarinic receptors with a guanine nucleotide binding protein was stable to solubilization. That is, membrane receptors that were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)OXO could be solubilized with digitonin, and the addition of guanine nucleotides to the soluble, (/sup 3/H)OXO-labeled complex resulted in dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO from the receptor. Pretreatment of membranes with relatively low concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide inhibited (/sup 3/H)OXO binding by 85% with no change in the Kd of (/sup 3/H)OXO, and with no effect on (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding.

  5. Differential opioid agonist regulation of the mouse mu opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Blake, A D; Bot, G; Freeman, J C; Reisine, T

    1997-01-10

    Mu opioid receptors mediate the analgesia induced by morphine. Prolonged use of morphine causes tolerance development and dependence. To investigate the molecular basis of tolerance and dependence, the cloned mouse mu opioid receptor with an amino-terminal epitope tag was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and the effects of prolonged opioid agonist treatment on receptor regulation were examined. In HEK 293 cells the expressed mu receptor showed high affinity, specific, saturable binding of radioligands and a pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Pretreatment (1 h, 3 h, or overnight) of cells with 1 microM morphine or [D-Ala2MePhe4,Gly(ol)5]enkephalin (DAMGO) resulted in no apparent receptor desensitization, as assessed by opioid inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels. In contrast, the morphine and DAMGO pretreatments (3 h) resulted in a 3-4-fold compensatory increase in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. The opioid agonists methadone and buprenorphine are used in the treatment of addiction because of a markedly lower abuse potential. Pretreatment of mu receptor-expressing HEK 293 cells with methadone or buprenorphine abolished the ability of opioids to inhibit adenylyl cyclase. No compensatory increase in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation was found with methadone or buprenorphine; these opioids blocked the compensatory effects observed with morphine and DAMGO. Taken together, these results indicate that methadone and buprenorphine interact differently with the mouse mu receptor than either morphine or DAMGO. The ability of methadone and buprenorphine to desensitize the mu receptor and block the compensatory rise in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation may be an underlying mechanism by which these agents are effective in the treatment of morphine addiction.

  6. Kappa Agonists as a Novel Therapy for Menopausal Hot Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Amy E.; Steiner, Robert A.; Chavkin, Charles; Clifton, Donald K.; Ferrara, Laura K.; Reed, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Postmenopausal hot flash etiology is poorly understood, making it difficult to develop and target ideal therapies. A network of hypothalamic estrogen-sensitive neurons producing Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, and Dynorphin (KNDy neurons), located adjacent to the thermoregulatory center, regulate pulsatile secretion of GnRH and LH. Dynorphin may inhibit this system by binding kappa opioid receptors within the vicinity of KNDy neurons. We hypothesize that hot flashes are reduced by KNDy neuron manipulation. Methods A double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluated the effect of a kappa agonist (KA).Hot flash frequency was the primary outcome. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women with moderate-severe hot flashes, ages 48-60 years, were randomized. Eight women with sufficient baseline hot flashes for statistical analysis completed all 3 interventions: placebo, standard Pentazocine/Naloxone (50/0.5 mg) or low-dose Pentazocine/Naloxone (25/0.25 mg). In an inpatient research setting, each participant received the 3 interventions, in randomized order, on 3 separate days. On each day, an intravenous catheter was inserted for luteinizing hormone (LH) blood sampling, and skin conductance and Holter monitors were placed. Subjective hot flash frequency and severity were recorded. Results Mean hot flash frequency 2-7 hours following therapy initiation was lower than that for placebo (KA standard-dose: 4.75 ± 0.67; KA low-dose: 4.50 ± 0.57; and placebo: 5.94 ± 0.78 hot flashes/5 hours; p =0.025). Hot flash intensity did not vary between interventions. LH pulsatility mirrored objective hot flashes in some, but not all women. Conclusions This pilot suggests that kappa agonists may affect menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25988798

  7. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    PubMed

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Mol, Loes A M; The, Susan A M; Bovee, Toine F H; Luijendijk, Teus J C; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-07-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions, which were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for activity in yeast estrogen bioassays. One third of the fractions displayed estrogenic activity towards either one or both estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ). Glabrene-rich fractions displayed an estrogenic response, predominantly to the ERα. Surprisingly, glabridin did not exert agonistic activity to both ER subtypes. Several fractions displayed higher responses than the maximum response obtained with the reference compound, the natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E(2)). The estrogenic activities of all fractions, including this so-called superinduction, were clearly ER-mediated, as the estrogenic response was inhibited by 20-60% by known ER antagonists, and no activity was found in yeast cells that did not express the ERα or ERβ subtype. Prolonged exposure of the yeast to the estrogenic fractions that showed superinduction did, contrary to E(2), not result in a decrease of the fluorescent response. Therefore, the superinduction was most likely the result of stabilization of the ER, yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein, or a combination of both. Most fractions displaying superinduction were rich in flavonoids with single prenylation. Glabridin displayed ERα-selective antagonism, similar to the ERα-selective antagonist RU 58668. Whereas glabridin was able to reduce the estrogenic response of E(2) by approximately 80% at 6 × 10(-6) M, glabrene-rich fractions only exhibited agonistic responses, preferentially on ERα.

  8. Recent advances in the development of farnesoid X receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Elizabeth J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in high amounts in body tissues that participate in bilirubin metabolism including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. Bile acids (BAs) are the natural ligands of the FXRs. FXRs regulate the expression of the gene encoding for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis. In addition, FXRs play a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin sensitivity. FXRs also modulate live growth and regeneration during liver injury. Preclinical studies have shown that FXR activation protects against cholestasis-induced liver injury. Moreover, FXR activation protects against fatty liver injury in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and improved hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a 6α-ethyl derivative of the natural human BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the first-in-class selective FXR agonist that is ~100-fold more potent than CDCA. Preliminary human clinical trials have shown that OCA is safe and effective. In a phase II clinical trial, administration of OCA was well-tolerated, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In two clinical trials of OCA in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive cholestatic liver disease, OCA significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, an important disease marker that correlates well with clinical outcomes of patients with PBC. Together, these studies suggest that FXR agonists could potentially be used as therapeutic tools in patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty and cholestatic liver diseases. Larger and Longer-term studies are currently ongoing. PMID:25705637

  9. Cardiovascular selectivity of adenosine receptor agonists in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Gerencer, R. Z.; Finegan, B. A.; Clanachan, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    1. In order to determine the relevance of adenosine (Ado) receptor classification obtained from in vitro methods to the cardiovascular actions of Ado agonists in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA, 400 fold A1-selective), 5'-N-ethyl-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA, A1 approximately A2) and 2-phenylaminoadenosine (PAA, 5 fold A2-selective) were compared in open-chest, fentanyl-pentobarbitone anaesthetized dogs. 2. Graded doses of CHA (10 to 1000 micrograms kg-1), NECA (0.5 to 100 micrograms kg-1) or PAA (0.1 to 20 micrograms kg-1) were administered intravenously and changes in haemodynamics and myocardial contractility were assessed 10 min following each dose. The effects of graded infusions of AMP (200 to 1000 micrograms kg-1 min-1) were also evaluated. 3. AMP and each of the Ado analogues (NECA > PAA > CHA) increased the systemic vascular conductance index (SVCI) in a dose-dependent manner and reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP). At doses causing similar increases in SVCI, these agonists caused (i) similar reflex increases in heart rate (HR) and cardiac index (CI) and decreases in AV conduction interval (AVi) and (ii) similar increases in coronary vascular conductance (CVC). 4. After cardiac autonomic blockade with atropine (0.2 mg kg-1) and propranolol (1 mg kg-1), AMP, CHA and PAA still increased SVCI and CVC and decreased MAP. CHA and PAA had no marked effects on HR, CI or AVi. As in the absence of cardiac autonomic blockade, equieffective vasodilator doses of CHA and PAA had identical effects on CVC, CI and AVi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467827

  10. GITR agonist enhances vaccination responses in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li X; Davoodi, Michael; Srivastava, Minu K; Kachroo, Puja; Lee, Jay M; St John, Maie; Harris-White, Marni; Huang, Min; Strieter, Robert M; Dubinett, Steven; Sharma, Sherven

    2015-04-01

    An immune tolerant tumor microenvironment promotes immune evasion of lung cancer. Agents that antagonize immune tolerance will thus aid the fight against this devastating disease. Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family modulate the magnitude, duration and phenotype of immune responsiveness to antigens. Among these, GITR expressed on immune cells functions as a key regulator in inflammatory and immune responses. Here, we evaluate the GITR agonistic antibody (DTA-1) as a mono-therapy and in combination with therapeutic vaccination in murine lung cancer models. We found that DTA-1 treatment of tumor-bearing mice increased: (i) the frequency and activation of intratumoral natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, (ii) the antigen presenting cell (APC) activity in the tumor, and (iii) systemic T-cell specific tumor cell cytolysis. DTA-1 treatment enhanced tumor cell apoptosis as quantified by cleaved caspase-3 staining in the tumors. DTA-1 treatment increased expression of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-12 but reduced IL-10 levels in tumors. Furthermore, increased anti-angiogenic chemokines corresponding with decreased pro-angiogenic chemokine levels correlated with reduced expression of the endothelial cell marker Meca 32 in the tumors of DTA-1 treated mice. In accordance, there was reduced tumor growth (8-fold by weight) in the DTA-1 treatment group. NK cell depletion markedly inhibited the antitumor response elicited by DTA-1. DTA-1 combined with therapeutic vaccination caused tumor rejection in 38% of mice and a 20-fold reduction in tumor burden in the remaining mice relative to control. Mice that rejected tumors following therapy developed immunological memory against subsequent re-challenge. Our data demonstrates GITR agonist antibody activated NK cell and T lymphocyte activity, and enhanced therapeutic vaccination responses against lung cancer.

  11. Influence of beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on baclofen-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, M R; Haidari, H; Jafari, M R; Djahanguiri, B

    2004-07-01

    Post-training administration of different doses of baclofen (a GABAB agonist) has been shown to impair memory retention, in a step-down passive avoidance test in mice. We have studied the effects of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists on baclofen-induced memory impairment in mice. Dobutamine (a beta 1-agonist) or salbutamol (a beta 2-agonist) reversed the memory impairment induced by baclofen without exhibiting intrinsic actions on memory when administered alone. The administration of atenolol (a beta 1-antagonist) or propranolol (a beta-antagonist) produced a memory impairment. When co-administered with baclofen, both atenolol and propranolol exacerbated the memory impairment induced by the GABAB agonist. It is concluded that beta-adrenergic mechanisms may be involved in the modulation of memory via GABAB receptors.

  12. Rate constants of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors in rat brain medulla. Evaluation by competition kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, G.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1985-07-25

    The method of competition kinetics, which measures the binding kinetics of an unlabeled ligand through its effect on the binding kinetics of a labeled ligand, was employed to investigate the kinetics of muscarinic agonist binding to rat brain medulla pons homogenates. The agonists studied were acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and oxotremorine, with N-methyl-4-(TH)piperidyl benzilate employed as the radiolabeled ligand. Our results suggested that the binding of muscarinic agonists to the high affinity sites is characterized by dissociation rate constants higher by 2 orders of magnitude than those of antagonists, with rather similar association rate constants. Our findings also suggest that isomerization of the muscarinic receptors following ligand binding is significant in the case of antagonists, but not of agonists. Moreover, it is demonstrated that in the medulla pons preparation, agonist-induced interconversion between high and low affinity bindings sites does not occur to an appreciable extent.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of novel [alpha]-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPAR[alpha/gamma] dual agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Bigge, Christopher F.; Davis, Jo Ann; Padalino, Teresa; Pulaski, James; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; McConnell, Patrick; Kane, Christopher D.; Royer, Lori J.; Stevens, Kimberly A.; Auerbach, Bruce; Collard, Wendy; McGregor, Christine; Song, Kun; Pfizer

    2010-09-27

    The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the {alpha}-position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{l_brace}4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual agonist (EC{sub 50} = 0.013 and 0.061 {micro}M, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat and dog. 17j was shown to decrease insulin levels, plasma glucose, and triglycerides in the ZDF female rat model. In the human apolipoprotein A-1/CETP transgenic mouse model 17j produced increases in hApoA1 and HDL-C and decreases in plasma triglycerides. The increased potency for binding and activation of both PPAR subtypes observed with 17j when compared to previous analogs in this series was explained based on results derived from crystallographic and modeling studies.

  14. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  15. Let&apos;s Burn Them All: A Librarian&apos;s View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Roye

    2014-01-01

    In this rejoinder to "Let&apos;s Burn Them All," a librarian supports the author&apos;s case for eliminating textbooks in the teaching of management and organizational behavior. A move away from textbooks would free libraries from worrying about whether and to what extent to provide expensive textbook access to students, a long-standing…

  16. Extension&apos;s Role in Developing a Farmers&apos; Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civittolo, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers&apos; markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers&apos; markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

  17. Oxidative Stress Impairs Learning and Memory in apoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Evola, Marianne; Hall, Allyson; Wall, Trevor; Young, Alice; Grammas, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as oxidative stress and elevated lipids, are linked to the development of cognitive impairment. A mediator common to both stressors is the apolipoprotein E (apoE). The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of apoE deficiency and diet-induced systemic oxidative stress in mice on vascular expression of inflammatory proteins and on cognitive function. Mice are placed on a diet enriched in homocysteine for fifteen weeks and then assessed for spatial learning using an eight-arm radial maze and for inflammatory protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that diet-induced oxidative stress does not affect cognitive function in normal mice. In contrast, apoE−/− mice on the homocysteine diet show significantly impaired (p < 0. 001) maze performance. ApoE−/− mice also have high cholesterol levels. There is no expression of inflammatory proteins IL-6 and IL-8 in the vasculature of control mice on normal or homocysteine diet and little in apoE−/− mice on normal diet. In contrast, apoE−/− mice on homocysteine diet show pronounced vascular reactivity to IL-6 and IL-8 antibodies. These data show that systemic oxidative stress correlates with expression of inflammatory proteins in the cerebral vasculature and impaired cognitive function. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that an oxidative-inflammatory cycle in the cerebral vasculature could have deleterious consequences for cognition. PMID:20457176

  18. Mapping of ApoE4 related white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Hwang, Darryl H.; Kriger, Stephen; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Weiner, Michael; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    ApoliopoproteinE Ɛ4 (ApoE-Ɛ4) polymorphism is the most well known genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimers Disease. The exact mechanism through which ApoE 4 increases AD risk is not fully known, but may be related to decreased clearance and increased oligomerization of Aβ. By making measurements of white matter integrity via diffusion MR and correlating the metrics in a voxel-based statistical analysis with ApoE-Ɛ4 genotype (whilst controlling for vascular risk factor, gender, cognitive status and age) we are able to identify changes in white matter associated with carrying an ApoE Ɛ4 allele. We found potentially significant regions (Puncorrected < 0:05) near the hippocampus and the posterior cingulum that were independent of voxels that correlated with age or clinical dementia rating (CDR) status suggesting that ApoE may affect cognitive decline via a pathway in dependent of normal aging and acute insults that can be measured by CDR and Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS).

  19. Relations among Teachers&apos; Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers&apos; Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers&apos; self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers&apos; emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

  20. Examining the Relationship between Teachers&apos; Instructional Practices and Students&apos; Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmender, Janine M.; Gavin, M. Katherine; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether relationships existed between teachers&apos; implementation of two specific discourse-related instructional practices and students&apos; mathematics achievement in geometry and measurement as part of a research study on the effectiveness of an advanced mathematics curriculum for kindergarten and…

  1. ApoE Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome: Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashner, V. P.; Chowdhury, T. A.; Rowe, B. R.; Bain, S. C.

    1997-01-01

    ApoE gene polymorphism was examined in 100 adults with Down syndrome with and without dementia (Alzheimer's disease) and 346 control subjects. Additionally, a meta analysis of studies (total N=480 subjects) was performed. Results indicated a similar incidence of the gene across groups but subjects with the allele tended to an earlier onset of…

  2. Parallels in Preschoolers&apos; and Adults&apos; Judgments about Ownership Rights and Bodily Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ownership rights is necessary for socially appropriate behavior. We provide evidence that preschoolers&apos; and adults&apos; judgments of ownership rights are related to their judgments of bodily rights. Four-year-olds (n = 70) and adults (n = 89) evaluated the acceptability of harmless actions targeting owned property and body…

  3. ApoA-I enhances generation of HDL-like lipoproteins through interaction between ABCA1 and phospholipase Cγ in rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Jin-ichi; Nagayasu, Yuko; Kheirollah, Alireza; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2011-12-01

    In the previous paper, we reported that apolipoprotein (apo) A-I enhances generation of HDL-like lipoproteins in rat astrocytes to be accompanied with both increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ (PL-Cγ) and PL-Cγ translocation to cytosolic lipid-protein particles (CLPP) fraction. In this paper, we studied the interaction between apoA-I and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) to relate with PL-Cγ function for generation of HDL-like lipoproteins in the apoA-I-stimulated astrocytes. ABCA1 co-migrated with exogenous apoA-I with apparent molecular weight over 260kDa on SDS-PAGE when rat astrocytes were treated with apoA-I and then with a cross-linker, BS3. The solubilized ABCA1 of rat astrocytes was associated with the apoA-I-immobilized Affi-Gel 15. An LXR agonist, To901317, increased the cellular level of ABCA1, association of apoA-I with ABCA1 and apoA-I-mediated lipid release in rat astrocytoma GA-1/Mock cells where ABCA1 expression at baseline is very low. PL-Cγ was co-isolated by apoA-I-immobilized Affi-Gel 15 and co-immunoprecipitated by anti-ABCA1 antibody along with ABCA1 from the solubilized membrane fraction of rat astrocytes. The SiRNA of ABCA1 suppressed not only the PL-Cγ binding to ABCA1 but also the tyrosine phosphorylation of PL-Cγ. A PL-C inhibitor, U73122, prevented generation of apoA-I-mediated HDL-like lipoproteins in rat astrocytes. To901317 increased the association of PL-Cγ with ABCA1 in GA-1/Mock cells dependently on the increase of cellular level of ABCA1 without changing that of PL-Cγ. These findings suggest that the exogenous apoA-I augments the interaction between PL-Cγ and ABCA1 to stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PL-Cγ for generation of HDL-like lipoproteins in astrocytes.

  4. ApoE and S-100 expression and its significance in the brain tissue of rats with focal contusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z L; Chai, R F; Yang, W S; Liu, Y; Qin, H; Wu, H; Zhu, X F; Wang, Y X; Dangmurenjiafu, G

    2015-12-29

    This study explored the effect of focal cerebral contusion on the expression of ApoE and S-100, and its significance in determining the time of brain injury. Based on a rat model of cerebral contusion, immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expressions of S-100 and ApoE at different time points after injury. Thirty minutes following cerebral contusion, ApoE protein expression was significantly increased in cortex neurons (P < 0.01), and S-100 protein expression was significantly (P < 0.001) elevated 2 h after cerebral contusion. Over time, the number of ApoE and S-100 positively expressing cells gradually increased. Three days after injury, ApoE was widely distributed throughout the tissue and the number of ApoE-positive cells and staining intensity reached a peak. ApoE expression decreased after this time point. Five days after cerebral contusion, the number of S-100-positive cells reached a peak level of expression higher than that in the control group. Our data demonstrate that the expression of ApoE and S-100 correlated with the progression of focal cerebral contusion. This suggests that both proteins may serve as effective biomarkers of focal cerebral contusions.

  5. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Zerbi, Valerio; Jansen, Diane; Haast, Roy; Lütjohann, Dieter; Broersen, Laus M.; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional connectivity (FC), gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10–12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT) mice. However, 16–18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging. PMID:27034849

  6. Hepatic caveolin-1 is enhanced in Cyp27a1/ApoE double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zurkinden, Line; Mansour, Yosef T; Rohrbach, Beatrice; Vogt, Bruno; Mistry, Hiten D; Escher, Geneviève

    2016-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) is involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homoeostasis. Cyp27a1((-/-))/Apolipoprotein E((-/-)) double knockout mice (DKO) fed a western diet failed to develop atherosclerosis. Caveolin-1 (CAV-1), the main component of caveolae, is associated with lipid homoeostasis and has regulatory roles in vascular diseases. We hypothesized that liver CAV-1 would contribute to the athero-protective mechanism in DKO mice. Cyp27a1((+/+))/ApoE((-/-)) (ApoE KO), Cyp27a1((+/-))/ApoE((-/-)) (het), and DKO mice were fed a western diet for 2 months. Atherosclerotic plaque and CAV-1 protein were quantified in aortas. Hepatic Cav-1 mRNA was assessed using qPCR, CAV-1 protein by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Total hepatic and plasma cholesterol was measured using chemiluminescence. Cholesterol efflux was performed in RAW264.7 cells, using mice plasma as acceptor. CAV-1 protein expression in aortas was increased in endothelial cells of DKO mice and negatively correlated with plaque surface (P < 0.05). In the liver, both CAV-1 protein and mRNA expression doubled in DKO, compared to ApoE KO and het mice (P < 0.001 for both) and was negatively correlated with total hepatic cholesterol (P < 0.05). Plasma from DKO, ApoE KO and het mice had the same efflux capacity. In the absence of CYP27A1, CAV-1 overexpression might have an additional athero-protective role by partly overcoming the defect in CYP27A1-mediated cholesterol efflux.

  7. Dominant expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Pathophysiological insights derived from the structural and kinetic characteristics of ApoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu).

    PubMed Central

    Mann, W A; Lohse, P; Gregg, R E; Ronan, R; Hoeg, J M; Zech, L A; Brewer, H B

    1995-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is characterized by delayed chylomicron and VLDL remnant catabolism and is associated with homozygosity for the apoE-2 allele. We have identified a kindred in which heterozygosity for an apoE mutant, apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu), is dominantly associated with the expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia. DNA sequence analysis of the mutant apoE gene revealed a single-point mutation that resulted in the substitution of glutamic acid (GAG) for lysine (AAG) at residue 146 in the proposed receptor-binding domain of apoE. The pathophysiological effect of this mutation was investigated in vivo by kinetic studies in the patient and six normal subjects, and in vitro by binding studies of apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) to LDL receptors on human fibroblasts and to heparin. The kinetic studies revealed that apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) was catabolized significantly slower than apoE-3 in normals (P < 0.005). In the proband, the plasma residence times of both apoEs were substantially longer and the production rate of total apoE was about two times higher than in the control subjects. ApoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) was defective in interacting with LDL receptors, and its ability to displace LDL in an in vitro assay was reduced to 7.7% compared with apoE-3. The affinity of apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) to heparin was also markedly reduced compared with both apoE-2 (Arg158-->Cys) and apoE-3. These abnormal in vitro binding characteristics and the altered in vivo metabolism of apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) are proposed to result in the functional dominance of this mutation in the affected kindred. Images PMID:7635945

  8. Fathers&apos; and Mothers&apos; Home Literacy Involvement and Children&apos;s Cognitive and Social Emotional Development: Implications for Family Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The relations between fathers&apos; and mothers&apos; home literacy involvement at 24 months and children&apos;s cognitive and social emotional development in preschool were examined using a large sample of African American and Caucasian families ("N" = 5190) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Hierarchical…

  9. Living with Letters: An Exploration of Parents&apos;/Caregivers&apos; Perceptions of Shared Learning Activities, Socially Constructed Meaning, and Preschoolers&apos; Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janaszak, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    The researcher&apos;s purpose in this descriptive case study, drawn from a suburban school population of pre-kindergarten children and their parents/caregivers was: (a) to explore parents&apos;/caregivers&apos; perceptions of the concept of emergent literacy and how their children develop the ability to read and write; (b) to document the ways in…

  10. Longitudinal Links between Fathers&apos; and Mothers&apos; Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents&apos; Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents&apos; conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers&apos; and fathers&apos;…

  11. Nrf2-dependent gene expression is affected by the proatherogenic apoE4 genotype-studies in targeted gene replacement mice.

    PubMed

    Graeser, Anne-Christin; Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine; Lippmann, Jana; Wagner, Anika E; Huebbe, Patricia; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Wiswedel, Ingrid; Gardemann, Andreas; Minihane, Anne M; Döring, Frank; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    An apoE4 genotype is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. The higher cardiovascular disease risk of apoE4 carriers as compared to the apoE3 genotype has been mainly attributed to the differences in blood lipids between the two genotype subgroups. Recently, a potential protective role of the transcription factor Nrf2 in cardiovascular disease prevention has been suggested. In this study, we show that Nrf2-dependent gene expression is affected by the apoE genotype. ApoE4 vs. apoE3 mice exhibited lower hepatic Nrf2 nuclear protein levels. Furthermore, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 target genes including glutathione-S-transferase, heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 were significantly lower in apoE4 as compared to apoE3 mice. Lower hepatic mRNA levels of phase II enzymes, as observed in apoE4 vs. apoE3 mice, were accompanied by higher mRNA levels of phase I enzymes including Cyp26a1 and Cyp3a16. Furthermore, miRNA-144, miRNA-125b, and miRNA-29a involved in Nrf2 signaling, inflammation, and regulation of phase I enzyme gene expression were affected by the apoE genotype. We provide first evidence that Nrf2 is differentially regulated in response to the apoE genotype.

  12. APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Monastiriotis, Christodoulos; Papanas, Nikolaos; Veletza, Stavroula; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-09-08

    Genetic factors may influence the natural course of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and explain some of its variability. The aim of this review was to examine the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Four relevant studies were identified. The two earlier works provided evidence that the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for this complication, while the two more recent studies were negative. Important differences in the methodology used and in the populations included are obvious, rendering difficult the comparison between studies. In conclusion, the association between APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy is still unclear. Available evidence is rather limited and results have so far been contradictory. Future studies should employ more robust methodology, adjusting for potential confounders and for the prevalence of neuropathy in the general population with diabetes.

  13. Withdrawal of GnRH agonist decreases oestradiol and VEGF concentrations in high responders.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Jun; Wang, Bin; Shen, Xiao-Yue; Yan, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Ning-Yuan; Hu, Ya-Li; Sun, Hai-Xiang

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated whether the withdrawal of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist before triggering ovulation reduces the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in high-risk infertility patients who were treated with gonadotrophins. GnRH agonist was withdrawn for 2 or 3 days when dominant follicles were ≥14 mm in diameter, according to the GnRH agonist long protocol. Non-withdrawal of GnRH agonist was used as control. The serum concentration of oestradiol on the ovulation trigger day was significantly decreased in the GnRH agonist withdrawal group compared with the control group (5750.78 ± 2344.77 pg/ml versus 8076.43 ± 1981.67 pg/ml); however, the number of retrieved oocytes and the fertilization rate were similar between the groups. In addition, the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in plasma on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration and follicular fluid on the oocyte retrieval day were decreased following GnRH agonist withdrawal. In fresh embryo transfer cycles, rates of clinical pregnancy, implantation and OHSS were not different between the groups. When GnRH agonist withdrawal was followed by total embryos cryopreserved, the rate of OHSS was decreased compared with the control group (0% versus 8.70%). Clinical pregnancy rates in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were comparable between the two groups.

  14. The glycine transport inhibitor sarcosine is an NMDA receptor co-agonist that differs from glycine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Sarcosine is an amino acid involved in one-carbon metabolism and a promising therapy for schizophrenia because it enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function by inhibiting glycine uptake. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine led us to hypothesize that sarcosine is also an agonist like glycine. We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that sarcosine is an NMDAR co-agonist at the glycine binding site. However, sarcosine differed from glycine because less NMDAR desensitization occurred with sarcosine than with glycine as the co-agonist. This finding led us to examine whether the physiological effects of NMDAR activation with these two co-agonists are the same. The difference in desensitization probably accounts for rises in intracellular Ca2+, as assessed by the fluorescent indicator fura-FF, being larger when NMDAR activation occurred with sarcosine than with glycine. In addition, Ca2+-activated K+ currents following NMDAR activation were larger with sarcosine than with glycine. Compared to glycine, NMDAR-mediated autaptic currents decayed faster with sarcosine suggesting that NMDAR deactivation also differs with these two co-agonists. Despite these differences, NMDAR-dependent neuronal death as assessed by propidium iodide was similar with both co-agonists. The same was true for neuronal bursting. Thus, sarcosine may enhance NMDAR function by more than one mechanism and may have different effects from other NMDAR co-agonists. PMID:19433577

  15. Biased agonists of the kappa opioid receptor suppress pain and itch without causing sedation or dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Tarsis F.; Morgenweck, Jenny; Kim, Susy A.; Rose, Jamie H.; Locke, Jason L.; Schmid, Cullen L.; Zhou, Lei; Stahl, Edward L.; Cameron, Michael D.; Scarry, Sarah M.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Jones, Sara R.; Martin, Thomas J.; Bohn, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Agonists targeting the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) have been promising therapeutic candidates because of their efficacy for treating intractable itch and relieving pain. Unlike typical opioid narcotics, KOR agonists do not produce euphoria or lead to respiratory suppression or overdose. However, they do produce dysphoria and sedation, side effects that have precluded their clinical development as therapeutics. KOR signaling can be fine-tuned to preferentially activate certain pathways over others, such that agonists can bias signaling so that the receptor signals through G proteins rather than other effectors such as βarrestin2. We evaluated a newly developed G protein signaling–biased KOR agonist in preclinical models of pain, pruritis, sedation, dopamine regulation, and dysphoria. We found that triazole 1.1 retained the antinociceptive and antipruritic efficacies of a conventional KOR agonist, yet it did not induce sedation or reductions in dopamine release in mice, nor did it produce dysphoria as determined by intracranial self-stimulation in rats. These data demonstrated that biased agonists may be used to segregate physiological responses downstream of the receptor. Moreover, the findings suggest that biased KOR agonists may present a means to treat pain and intractable itch without the side effects of dysphoria and sedation and with reduced abuse potential. PMID:27899527

  16. Cannabinoid discrimination and antagonism by CB(1) neutral and inverse agonist antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Delatte, Marcus S; Vemuri, V Kiran; Thakur, Ganesh A; Nikas, Spyridon P; Subramanian, Kumara V; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) inverse agonists (e.g., rimonabant) have been reported to produce adverse effects including nausea, emesis, and anhedonia that limit their clinical applications. Recent laboratory studies suggest that the effects of CB(1) neutral antagonists differ from those of such inverse agonists, raising the possibility of improved clinical utility. However, little is known regarding the antagonist properties of neutral antagonists. In the present studies, the CB(1) inverse agonist SR141716A (rimonabant) and the CB(1) neutral antagonist AM4113 were compared for their ability to modify CB(1) receptor-mediated discriminative stimulus effects in nonhuman primates trained to discriminate the novel CB(1) full agonist AM4054. Results indicate that AM4054 serves as an effective CB(1) discriminative stimulus, with an onset and time course of action comparable with that of the CB(1) agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and that the inverse agonist rimonabant and the neutral antagonist AM4113 produce dose-related rightward shifts in the AM4054 dose-effect curve, indicating that both drugs surmountably antagonize the discriminative stimulus effects of AM4054. Schild analyses further show that rimonabant and AM4113 produce highly similar antagonist effects, as evident in comparable pA(2) values (6.9). Taken together with previous studies, the present data suggest that the improved safety profile suggested for CB(1) neutral antagonists over inverse agonists is not accompanied by a loss of antagonist action at CB(1) receptors.

  17. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists on human lung macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharonjit K; Marriott, Helen M; Suvarna, S Kim; Peachell, Peter T

    2016-12-15

    The principal mechanism by which bronchodilator β-adrenoceptor agonists act is to relax airways smooth muscle although they may also be anti-inflammatory. However, the extent of anti-inflammatory activity and the cell types affected by these agonists are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether β-adrenoceptor agonists prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine generation from activated human lung macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and purified from human lung. The cells were pre-treated with both short-acting (isoprenaline, salbutamol, terbutaline) and long-acting (formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol) β-agonists before activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce cytokine (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) generation. The experiments showed that short-acting β-agonists were poor inhibitors of cytokine generation. Of the long-acting β-agonists studied, formoterol was also a weak inhibitor of cytokine generation whereas only indacaterol and salmeterol showed moderate inhibitory activity. Further experiments using the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 suggested that the effects of indacaterol were likely to be mediated by β2-adrenoceptors whereas those of salmeterol were not. These findings were corroborated by functional desensitization studies in which the inhibitory effects of indacaterol appeared to be receptor-mediated whereas those of salmeterol were not. Taken together, the data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists on human lung macrophages are modest.

  18. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  19. Potency and characterization of estrogen-receptor agonists in United Kingdom estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Balaam, Jan; Hurst, Mark; Nedyalkova, Zoya; Mekenyan, Ovanes

    2004-02-01

    The activity of estrogen-receptor (ER) agonists in sediments collected from the United Kingdom (UK) estuaries was assessed using the in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES assay). The YES assay was successfully used to determine the in vitro ER agonist potency of pore waters and solvent extracts of sediments collected from UK estuaries. Estrogen-receptor agonists were detected in 66% of the pore water samples and in 91% of the sediment solvent extracts tested. The pore waters tested had ER agonist potencies from less than 2 to 68 ng 17beta-estradiol (E2) L(-1), whereas sediment extracts had potencies from less than 0.2 to 13 microg E2 kg(-1). A toxicity identification evaluation approach using bioassay-directed fractionation was used in an attempt to identify the ER agonists in extracts of sediments collected from the Tyne and Tees estuaries (UK). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to provide lists of compounds in the fractions obtained that were evaluated for known ER agonist activity using published data and an ER quantitative structure-activity relationship model. Toxicity identification evaluation characterization failed to identify any ER agonists in pore water extracts; however, three compounds in sediment solvent extracts were identified as ER agonists. Nonylphenol, cinnarizine, and cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one were identified in the sample collected from the Tyne estuary. Important ER agonist substances that contaminate marine sediments remain unidentified. The present study as well as previous work on effluents point toward the involvement of natural products in the estrogenic burdens of marine sediments. Further work is required to establish the relative contribution of natural products and anthropogenic chemicals to current environmental impacts in the context of the Oslo and Paris Commission strategy to eliminate hazardous substances by 2020.

  20. CB(1) receptor allosteric modulators display both agonist and signaling pathway specificity.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Gemma L; Horswill, James G; Anavi-Goffer, Sharon; Reggio, Patricia H; Bolognini, Daniele; Abood, Mary E; McAllister, Sean; Strange, Phillip G; Stephens, Gary J; Pertwee, Roger G; Ross, Ruth A

    2013-02-01

    We have previously identified allosteric modulators of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor (Org 27569, PSNCBAM-1) that display a contradictory pharmacological profile: increasing the specific binding of the CB(1) receptor agonist [(3)H]CP55940 but producing a decrease in CB(1) receptor agonist efficacy. Here we investigated the effect one or both compounds in a broad range of signaling endpoints linked to CB(1) receptor activation. We assessed the effect of these compounds on CB(1) receptor agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding, inhibition, and stimulation of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and β-arrestin recruitment. We also investigated the effect of these allosteric modulators on CB(1) agonist binding kinetics. Both compounds display ligand dependence, being significantly more potent as modulators of CP55940 signaling as compared with WIN55212 and having little effect on [(3)H]WIN55212 binding. Org 27569 displays biased antagonism whereby it inhibits: agonist-induced guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) binding, simulation (Gα(s)-mediated), and inhibition (Gα(i)-mediated) of cAMP production and β-arrestin recruitment. In contrast, it acts as an enhancer of agonist-induced ERK phosphorylation. Alone, the compound can act also as an allosteric agonist, increasing cAMP production and ERK phosphorylation. We find that in both saturation and kinetic-binding experiments, the Org 27569 and PSNCBAM-1 appeared to influence only orthosteric ligand maximum occupancy rather than affinity. The data indicate that the allosteric modulators share a common mechanism whereby they increase available high-affinity CB(1) agonist binding sites. The receptor conformation stabilized by the allosterics appears to induce signaling and also selectively traffics orthosteric agonist signaling via the ERK phosphorylation pathway.

  1. The most effective influence of 17-(3-ethoxypropyl) substituent on the binding affinity and the agonistic activity in KNT-127 derivatives, δ opioid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Toru; Ida, Yoshihiro; Iihara, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ryo; Hirayama, Shigeto; Iwai, Takashi; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the structure-activity relationship of KNT-127 (opioid δ agonist) derivatives with various 17-substituents which are different in length and size. The 17-substituent in KNT-127 derivatives exerted a great influence on the affinity and agonistic activity for the δ receptor. While the compounds with electron-donating 17-substituents showed higher affinities for the δ receptor than those with electron-withdrawing groups, KNT-127 derivatives with 17-fluoroalkyl groups (the high electron-withdrawing groups) showed high selectivities for the δ receptor among evaluated compounds. In addition, the basicity of nitrogen as well as the structure of the 17-N substituent such as the length and configuration at an asymmetric carbon atom contributed to agonist properties for the δ receptor. Thus, the analog with a 17-(3-ethoxypropyl) group showed the best selectively and potent agonistic activity for the δ receptor among KNT-127 derivatives. These findings should be useful for designing novel δ selective agonists.

  2. Cathepsin K Deficiency Prevents the Aggravated Vascular Remodeling Response to Flow Cessation in ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lutgens, Suzanne P. M.; Wijnands, Erwin; Johnson, Jason; Schurgers, Leon J.; Liu, Cong-Lin; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Cleutjens, Kitty B. J. M.; Shi, Guo-Ping; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsin K (catK) is a potent lysosomal cysteine protease involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and inflammatory remodeling responses. Here we have investigated the contribution of catK deficiency on carotid arterial remodeling in response to flow cessation in apoE-/- and wild type (wt) background. Ligation-induced hyperplasia is considerably aggravated in apoE-/- versus wt mice. CatK protein expression was significantly increased in neointimal lesions of apoE-/- compared with wt mice, suggesting a role for catK in intimal hyperplasia under hyperlipidemic conditions. Surprisingly, CatK deficiency completely blunted the augmented hyperplastic response to flow cessation in apoE-/-, whereas vascular remodeling in wt mice was unaffected. As catK deficiency did neither alter lesion collagen content and elastic laminae fragmentation in vivo, we focused on effects of catK on (systemic) inflammatory responses. CatK deficiency significantly reduced circulating CD3 T-cell numbers, but increased the regulatory T cell subset in apoE-/- but not wt mice. Moreover, catK deficiency changed CD11b+Ly6G-Ly6C high monocyte distribution in apoE-/- but not wt mice and tended to favour macrophage M2a polarization. In conclusion, catK deficiency almost completely blunted the increased vascular remodeling response of apoE-/- mice to flow cessation, possibly by correcting hyperlipidemia-associated pro-inflammatory effects on the peripheral immune response. PMID:27636705

  3. "It&apos;s All Shiny and There&apos;s No Pollution": "Barbapapa&apos;s Ark," Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The environmental picture book "Barbapapa&apos;s Ark" was published in 1974. I was keeping a parent-observer record of my two children at the time. The book had a strong influence on them from ages three to six, moving them to query pollution and hunting, in book and environment, and as adults, becoming committed activists for the…

  4. Differential behavioral effect of the TRPM8/TRPA1 channel agonist icilin (AG-3-5).

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Gomez, Teresa; Ding, Zhe; Raffa, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    Molecular identification of two new transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPM8 and TRPA1, has prompted an intense interest in their functional roles. We report that an acute exposure to the TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist icilin (0.01-100 microM), but not TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (10 microM), causes an atypical dose-related increase in planarian motility. This is the first demonstration of a TRPM8/TRPA1 channel subtype agonist-induced differential pharmacological effect in invertebrates and provides a novel sensitive, quantifiable end-point for studying TRP channel pharmacology.

  5. GABAB receptor agonist baclofen improves methamphetamine-induced cognitive deficit in mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, Sawako; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Ibi, Daisuke; Nagai, Taku; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-05

    In this study, we investigated the effects of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor agonists on the methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in mice. Repeated treatment with methamphetamine at a dose of 1 mg/kg for 7 days induced an impairment of recognition memory. Baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, ameliorated the repeated methamphetamine-induced cognitive impairment, although gaboxadol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, had no significant effect. GABA(B) receptors may constitute a putative new target in treating cognitive deficits in patients suffering from schizophrenia, as well as methamphetamine psychosis.

  6. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Smith, Monique L.; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor–Ca2+ channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560

  7. Agonist actions of neonicotinoids on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by cockroach neurons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianguo; Galligan, James J; Hollingworth, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    The agonist actions of seven commercial neonicotinoid insecticides and nicotine were studied on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by neurons isolated from the three thoracic ganglia of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Single electrode voltage clamp recording was used to measure agonist-induced inward currents. Acetylcholine, nicotine and all neonicotinoids tested, except thiamethoxam, caused inward currents which were blocked reversibly by methyllycaconitine, a nAChR antagonist. Based on maximum inward currents, neonicotinoids could be divided into two subgroups: (1) those with a heterocyclic ring in their electronegative pharmacophore moiety (i.e. nicotine, imidacloprid and thiacloprid) were relatively weak partial agonists causing only 20-25% of the maximum ACh current and (2) open chain compounds (i.e. acetamiprid, dinotefuran, nitenpyram, and clothiandin) which were much more effective agonists producing 60-100% of the maximum ACh current. These compounds also elicited different symptoms of poisoning in American cockroaches with excitatory responses evident for the low efficacy agonists but depressive and paralytic responses predominating for the most efficacious agonists. No correlation was observed between agonist affinity and efficacy on these nAChRs. Thiamethoxam, even at 100 microM, failed to cause an inward current and showed no competitive interaction with other neonicotinoids on nAChRs, indicating that it is not a direct-acting agonist or antagonist. Despite the probable presence of multiple subtypes of nAChRs on cockroach neurons, competition studies between neonicotinoids did not reveal evidence that separate binding sites exist for the tested compounds. The size of inward currents induced by co-application of neonicotinoid pairs at equal concentration (100 microM) were predominantly determined by the one with higher binding affinity as indicated by EC(50) values, rather than by the one with higher binding efficacy as

  8. Hyperglycemia and advanced glycosylation end products suppress adipocyte apoE expression: implications for adipocyte triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Doris Joy; Huang, Zhi Hua; Zhao, Yong; Mazzone, Theodore

    2010-10-01

    Endogenous adipocyte apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in adipocyte lipoprotein metabolism and lipid flux. A potential role for hyperglycemia in regulating adipocyte apoE expression and triglyceride metabolism was examined. Exposure of adipocytes to high glucose or advanced glycosylation end product-BSA significantly suppressed apoE mRNA and protein levels. This suppression was significantly attenuated by antioxidants or inhibitors of the NF-κB transcription pathway. Hyperglycemia in vivo led to adipose tissue oxidant stress and significant reduction in adipose tissue and adipocyte apoE mRNA level. Incubation with antioxidant in organ culture completely reversed this suppression. Hyperglycemia also reduced adipocyte triglyceride synthesis, and this could be completely reversed by adenoviral-mediated increases in apoE. To more specifically evaluate an in vivo role for adipocyte apoE expression on organismal triglyceride distribution in vivo, WT or apoE knockout (EKO) adipose tissue was transplanted in EKO recipient mice. After 12 wk, WT adipocytes transplanted in EKO mice accumulated more triglyceride compared with transplanted EKO adipocytes. In addition, EKO recipients of WT adipose tissue had reduced hepatic triglyceride content compared with EKO recipients transplanted with EKO adipose tissue. Our results demonstrate that hyperglycemia and advanced glycosylation end products suppress the expression of adipocyte apoE in vitro and in vivo and thereby reduce adipocyte triglyceride synthesis. In vivo results using adipose tissue transplantation suggest that reduction of adipocyte apoE, and subsequent reduction of adipocyte triglyceride accumulation, could influence lipid accumulation in nonadipose tissue.

  9. Lung inflammation and genotoxicity following pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Vogel, Ulla; Ladefoged, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Wallin, Håkan

    2009-01-01

    Background The toxic and inflammatory potential of 5 different types of nanoparticles were studied in a sensitive model for pulmonary effects in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE-/-). We studied the effects instillation or inhalation Printex 90 of carbon black (CB) and compared CB instillation in ApoE-/- and C57 mice. Three and 24 h after pulmonary exposure, inflammation was assessed by mRNA levels of cytokines in lung tissue, cell composition, genotoxicity, protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Results Firstly, we found that intratracheal instillation of CB caused far more pulmonary toxicity in ApoE-/- mice than in C57 mice. Secondly, we showed that instillation of CB was more toxic than inhalation of a presumed similar dose with respect to inflammation in the lungs of ApoE-/- mice. Thirdly, we compared effects of instillation in ApoE-/- mice of three carbonaceous particles; CB, fullerenes C60 (C60) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as gold particles and quantum dots (QDs). Characterization of the instillation media revealed that all particles were delivered as agglomerates and aggregates. Significant increases in Il-6, Mip-2 and Mcp-1 mRNA were detected in lung tissue, 3 h and 24 h following instillation of SWCNT, CB and QDs. DNA damage in BAL cells, the fraction of neutrophils in BAL cells and protein in BAL fluid increased statistically significantly. Gold and C60 particles caused much weaker inflammatory responses. Conclusion Our data suggest that ApoE-/- model is sensitive for evaluating particle induced inflammation. Overall QDs had greatest effects followed by CB and SWCNT with C60 and gold being least inflammatory and DNA-damaging. However the gold was used at a much lower mass dose than the other particles. The strong effects of QDs were likely due to Cd release. The surface area of the instilled dose correlated well the inflammatory response for low toxicity particles. PMID:19138394

  10. Effect of plasma lipids and APOE genotype on cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Fumihiko; Asada, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    A central tenet of brain aging is that "what is good for the heart is good for the brain." We examined the combined effect of plasma lipids and APOE genotype on cognitive function in elderly individuals. Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E (apoE) were evaluated in 622 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older. We investigated the associations between plasma lipids and cognitive function in APOE4 carrier (E4+) and APOE4 noncarrier (E4-) groups using 3-year longitudinal data. At baseline and 3 years later, cognitive scores were correlated with plasma apoE levels in both E4- and E4+, and HDL level in E4-. Our findings suggest that an interaction between apoE and HDL is facilitated by APOE4, and is possibly linked with an enhancement of neuroplasticity and with resultant protective effects on cognitive function in later life. Preservation of higher plasma apoE and HDL from early life is proposed as a possible strategy for maintaining cognitive function in later life, especially for APOE4-positive individuals.

  11. PPAR Agonists for the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal of all malignancies worldwide. Furthermore, with more than half of all lung cancer patients presenting with distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, the overall prognosis for the disease is poor. There is thus a desperate need for new prevention and treatment strategies. Recently, a family of nuclear hormone receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has attracted significant attention for its role in various malignancies including lung cancer. Three PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, display distinct biological activities and varied influences on lung cancer biology. PPARα activation generally inhibits tumorigenesis through its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Activated PPARγ is also antitumorigenic and antimetastatic, regulating several functions of cancer cells and controlling the tumor microenvironment. Unlike PPARα and PPARγ, whether PPARβ/δ activation is anti- or protumorigenic or even inconsequential currently remains an open question that requires additional investigation. This review of current literature emphasizes the multifaceted effects of PPAR agonists in lung cancer and discusses how they may be applied as novel therapeutic strategies for the disease. PMID:28316613

  12. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists.

    PubMed

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z

    2017-01-03

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca(2+) entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca(2+) influx. Extracellular Mg(2+) at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca(2+) influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI.

  13. Basic understanding of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist triggering.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    A single bolus of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at midcycle has been the gold standard for triggering final oocyte maturation and ovulation in assisted reproductive technology cycles. More recently, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist (GnRH-a) triggering has been introduced. The GnRH-a trigger may allow a more physiologic surge of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone, although whether the combined surge will result in improved oocyte and embryo quality remains to be seen. However, the short duration of the LH surge with the GnRH-a trigger (approximately 34 hours) has been shown to be beneficial for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in GnRH antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles when compared with the prolonged elevation of hCG (≥6 days) after exposure to an hCG bolus. This review discusses the physiologic basis for the use of a GnRH-a trigger in IVF cycles.

  14. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists

    PubMed Central

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K.; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z.

    2017-01-01

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca2+ influx. Extracellular Mg2+ at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca2+ influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI. PMID:28045032

  15. Can the sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine prevent schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    In the past decade there has been increasing interest in the potential benefit of early pharmacological intervention in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show nonpsychotic and nonspecific prodromal symptoms (e.g., depression and cognitive deficits) for several years preceding the onset of frank psychosis. Several studies have demonstrated that medication with atypical antipsychotic drugs in people with prodromal symptoms may reduce the risk of subsequent transition to schizophrenia. Furthermore, a naturalistic treatment study in young people with prodromal symptoms demonstrated that medication with antidepressants could prevent the development of psychosis. Although the sample in this study was small, the results were striking. Some antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), had high to moderate affinities at the endoplasmic reticulum protein sigma-1 receptors, which are implicated in neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity. Among all antidepressants, fluvoxamine was the most potent sigma-1 receptor agonist. Since the effects of fluroxaming were antagonized by the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. Based on the role of sigma-1 receptors in the pathophysiology of cognition and depression, the author would like to propose a hypothesis that SSRIs (e.g., fluvoxamine) with sigma-1 receptor agonism may reduce the risk of subsequent transition to schizophrenia.

  16. Thromboxane agonist (U46619) potentiates norepinephrine efflux from adrenergic nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Trachte, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of the synthetic thromboxane/prostaglandin (PG) H2 agonist U46619 on the electrically stimulated rabbit isolated vas deferens was examined to test for thromboxane influences on adrenergic nerves. U46619 effects on force generation, (/sup 3/H) norepinephrine release and norepinephrine-induced contractions were assessed to determine the mechanism of action. U46619 maximally enhanced adrenergic force generation 135 +/- 24% at a concentration of 100 nM. U46619 potentiated maximal contractile effects of exogenously administered norepinephrine 16 +/- 4% and augmented (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine release from electrically stimulated preparations 142 +/- 44%. A competitive thromboxane/PGH2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, significantly shifted the concentration-response curve for U46619 to the right in a concentration-dependent manner and blocked U46619-induced tritium release. Thus, U46619 appears to potentiate neurotransmitter release by interacting with thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. Because SQ29548 did not prevent the potentiation of norepinephrine contractions by U46619, the postjunctional effect may be independent of thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. We interpret these results to be indicative of both pre- and postjunctional sites of action of U46619. The physiological importance of these thromboxane effects is unknown currently.

  17. [Treatment of hyperprolactinemic anovulation with the dopamin-agonist quinagolide].

    PubMed

    Koloszár, S; Keresztúri, A; Kovács, L

    2000-07-16

    Quinagolide has a strong dopaminerg activity, suppresses prolactin secretion and restores gonadal function in women with hyperprolactinemic anovulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of quinagolide in the treatment of 16 hyperprolactinemic patients. The clinical diagnosis was functional hyperprolactinemia in 13 patients, microprolactinoma in 2 and empty sella syndrome in 1. The drug was administered orally and initially daily dose was 0.025 mg for the first three days, 0.050 mg for the next three days and 0.075 mg for the following 6 months. The serum prolactin level was measured monthly before pregnancy, three monthly during the pregnancy and six weeks after delivery. Serum prolactin levels decreased in most of the patients during the first month and only in one case remained in the pathological range after six months quinagolide++ treatment. Prolactin secretion changed (mean and range) from 3120 (780-5790) mU/l to 370 (84-1076) mU/l. Out of 16 hyperprolactinemic patients nine women were infertile. During quinagolide treatment 5 pregnancies occurred. In conclusion, our results show that quinagolide has a good efficacy on regulation of prolactin secretion and it is a well tolerated dopamin-agonist drug.

  18. Object-horning in goitered gazelle: agonistic or marking behaviour?

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-03-01

    We studied object-horning behaviour in goitered gazelles in the natural, arid environment of Kazakhstan over a 6-year period. We found that object-horning was used by adult males mostly as a threat display during territorial conflicts. Therefore object-horning was observed most frequently in territorial single males during the rut in November-December. Object-horning, though, also had a marking effect, with the males' use of this behaviour leaving visible traces that advertized the location of preorbital and urination-defecation scent marks. Therefore, this pattern also was observed linked with preorbital marking and urination-defecation marking behaviours, especially during the rut. Goitered gazelle males chose the most abundant and eatable shrubs for object horning. In contrast to other gazelle species, object-horning in goitered gazelle was observed much more frequently and at the same rate as preorbital and urination-defecation scent markings. This, then, proved a more vigorous and aggressive level of rutting behaviour of the goitered gazelle compared to tropical gazelles, and most likely connected to the short rutting period in the studied species. We concluded, therefore, that object-horning was a manifold phenomenon that played a very important role in goitered gazelle agonistic displays, but without loosing the marking intention of this behaviour.

  19. Neurotensin agonist attenuates nicotine potentiation to cocaine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Paul; Boules, Mona; Stennett, Bethany; Richelson, Elliott

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a "gateway drug". Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13) analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction) to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control) followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  20. Publicity and reports of behavioral addictions associated with dopamine agonists

    PubMed Central

    Gendreau, Katherine E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of behavioral addictions (BAs) in association with dopamine agonists (DAs, commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease) has been reported. A recent report presented data that these associations are evident in the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), a database containing information on adverse drug event and medication error reports submitted to the FDA. However, given that vulnerability to publicity-stimulated reporting is a potential limitation of spontaneous reporting systems like the FAERS, the potential impact of publicity on reporting in this case remains unclear. Method and aims To investigate the potential impact of publicity on FAERS reporting of BAs in association with DAs (BAs w/DAs) as presented by Moore, Glenmullen, and Mattison (2014), news stories covering a BA/DA association were identified and compared with BA w/DA and other reporting data in the FAERS. Results Fluctuations in the growth of BA w/DA reporting to the FAERS between 2003 and 2012 appear to coincide with multiple periods of intensive media coverage of a BA/DA association, a pattern that is not evident in other reporting data in the FAERS. Discussion/Conclusions Publicity may stimulate reporting of adverse events and premature dismissal of the potential influence of publicity on reporting may lead to mistaking an increased risk of an adverse event being reported for an increased risk of an adverse event occurring. PMID:26690325

  1. Juvenile hormone agonists affect the occurrence of male Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Oda, Shigeto; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2003-12-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna reproduces primarily by cyclic parthenogenesis. Environmental stimuli that signal a change to adverse conditions induce the organisms to switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. During the gamogenetic period, they produce male daphnids and dormant resting eggs, which can survive prolonged periods of environmental adversity. However, little is known about the mechanisms associated with the switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. We investigated the effects of several juvenoids on sex determination in Daphnia. Females less than 24 h old were exposed to various concentrations of the test substance and were observed for 21 days. It was found that they can trigger the appearance of male daphnids: the percentage of males in the population increases to a level greater than what occurs under ordinary environmental conditions. We found that methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, methoprene, and the phenoxyphenoxy derivatives pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb (both insecticides) reduced the production of offspring and produced sex ratios dominated by male daphnids. Pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb showed striking effects at low concentrations. Exposure to either of these chemicals at a concentration of 330 ngl(-1) caused adult females to produce almost all male neonates. Methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, and methoprene showed an effect in inducing male production at higher concentrations (3.7 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(5), and 1.3 x 10(5) ngl(-1), respectively). Our findings suggest that juvenile hormone agonists, including some insecticides, affect the chemical signaling responsible for inducing the production of male offspring.

  2. Intracellular calcium strongly potentiates agonist-activated TRPC5 channels

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Nathaniel T.; Kaczmarek, J. Stefan

    2009-01-01

    TRPC5 is a calcium (Ca2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, cerebellum, and amygdala. Although TRPC5 is activated by receptors coupled to phospholipase C, the precise signaling pathway and modulatory signals remain poorly defined. We find that during continuous agonist activation, heterologously expressed TRPC5 currents are potentiated in a voltage-dependent manner (∼5-fold at positive potentials and ∼25-fold at negative potentials). The reversal potential, doubly rectifying current–voltage relation, and permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-d-glucamine remain unchanged during this potentiation. The TRPC5 current potentiation depends on extracellular Ca2+: replacement by Ba2+ or Mg2+ abolishes it, whereas the addition of 10 mM Ca2+ accelerates it. The site of action for Ca2+ is intracellular, as simultaneous fura-2 imaging and patch clamp recordings indicate that potentiation is triggered at ∼1 µM [Ca2+]. This potentiation is prevented when intracellular Ca2+ is tightly buffered, but it is promoted when recording with internal solutions containing elevated [Ca2+]. In cell-attached and excised inside-out single-channel recordings, increases in internal [Ca2+] led to an ∼10–20-fold increase in channel open probability, whereas single-channel conductance was unchanged. Ca2+-dependent potentiation should result in TRPC5 channel activation preferentially during periods of repetitive firing or coincident neurotransmitter receptor activation. PMID:19398778

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    July 2011 - 30 June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity 5a...Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Key Research Accomplishments………………………………………….…….. 4 ...Reportable Outcomes……………………………………………………………… 4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 8 References……………………………………………………………………………. 9

  4. Agonist photoaffinity label for the. beta. -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Resek, J.F.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1987-05-01

    An iodinated photosensitive derivative of norepinephrine, N-(p-azido-m-iodophenethylamidoisobutyryl)norepinephrine (NAIN), has been synthesized and characterized. Carrier-free radioiodinated NAIN ((/sup 125/I)-NAIN) was used at 1-2 x 10/sup -9/ M to photoaffinity label the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in guinea pig lung membranes. SDS-PAGE analysis of (-)-alprenolol (10/sup -5/M) protectable (/sup 125/I)-NAIN labeling showed the same molecular weight polypeptide (65 kDa) that was specifically derivatized with the antagonist photolabel, (/sup 125/I)-IABP. Specific labeling of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor with (/sup 125/I)-NAIN was dependent on the presence of MgCl/sub 2/ and the absence of guanyl nucleotide. GTP..gamma..S (10/sup -4/ M) abolished specific receptor labeling by (/sup 125/I)-NAIN. N-ethylmaleimide (2 mm) in the presence of (/sup 125/I)-NAIN protected against the guanyl nucleotide effect. These data are consistent with photolabeling by (/sup 125/I)-NAIN while the agonist, receptor, and GTP binding protein are in a high affinity complex.

  5. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

  6. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting Expression of Tau Pathology in ApoE-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yang; Nie, Shuke; Zhu, Wende; Liu, Fang; Guo, Hailong; Chu, Jiewen; Cao, Xue B.; Jiang, Xingjun; Zhang, Yunjian; Li, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a tyrosine kinase B agonist that mimics the neuroprotective properties of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which can not efficiently deliver into the brain, has been reported to be useful in ameliorating cognitive impairment in many diseases. Researches have indicated that apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mouse was associated with cognitive alteration via various mechanisms. Our present study investigated the possible mechanisms of cognitive impairment of ApoE-KO mouse fed with western type diet and the protective effects of 7,8-DHF in improving spatial learning and memory in ApoE-KO mouse. Five-weeks-old ApoE-KO mice and C57BL/6 mice were chronically treated with 7,8-DHF (with a dosage of 5 mg/kg) or vehicles orally for 25 weeks, and then subjected to Morris water maze at the age of 30 weeks to evaluate the cognitive performances. Afterward, histology analysis and western blotting were performed. Spatial learning and memory deficits were observed in ApoE-KO mice, which were consistent with higher expression of active-asparaginyl endopeptidase (active-AEP) as well as AEP-derived truncated tau N368 compared with normal group. In addition to that, long-term treatment of 7,8-DHF dramatically ameliorated cognitive decline in ApoE-KO mice, accompanied by the activation in phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) pathway and down-regulated expression of tau S396 and PHF-tau (phosphorylated tau at ser396 and ser404 epitope). These findings suggested that cognitive impairment of ApoE-KO mouse might associate with tau pathology and 7,8-DHF could activate AKT and then phosphorylate its downstream molecule to inhibit expression of abnormal tau, meanwhile, 7,8-DHF could reduce the expression of active-AEP and then inhibit production of truncated tau N368. PMID:27965573

  7. My Brother&apos;s Keeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Barack

    2014-01-01

    In a White House address, the president announced an initiative to reclaim young boys and men of color. The "My Brother&apos;s Keeper" initiative partners with businesses, foundations, and nonprofits to address disparities in education, justice, and employment. President Obama was introduced by Christian, one of a group of students from…

  8. Dewey or Don&apos;t We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergrass, Devona J.

    2013-01-01

    "Dewey or don&apos;t we?" is the question that hundreds, if not thousands, of school librarians across the country are currently asking themselves. Do they throw out what is old but trusted for new organizational systems, or do they continue using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system and make changes and adjustments to the…

  9. Exploring Teachers&apos; Practices of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since the introduction of the Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (NCTM, 1991) describing effective mathematics instruction, researchers have found U.S. teachers still lack the ability to foster productive mathematical discourse. Three instructional practices are key to teachers&apos; ability to support rich…

  10. Students&apos; Ratings of Teacher Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, T.; Harris, G.; Liu, X.; Aguirre-Munoz, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a novel approach for assessing the impact of a professional development programme on classroom practice of in-service middle school mathematics teachers. The particular focus of this study is the assessment of the impact on teachers&apos; employment of strategies used in the classroom to foster the mathematical habits of…

  11. Gutenberg&apos;s Effects on Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the effects on universities of Gutenberg&apos;s invention of printing. It considers four major effects: the gradual displacement of Latin as the language of scholarship with vernacular languages, the expansion and eventual opening of libraries, major changes to curriculum, and major changes to pedagogy including lectures.…

  12. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers&apos; Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers&apos; thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  13. What&apos;s in a Symbol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" explores the new adaptation of Newton&apos;s Second Law of Motion, "F = ma." In older physics and applied mathematics textbooks this expression appears as "P = mf." The author examines why "f" is now favored over "a" and why practitioners write "P = mf" rather than…

  14. "Math for America" Isn&apos;t

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfmeyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of the Math for America organization&apos;s actions, aims and affiliations are analyzed for their effects on urban schools and society at large. These aspects are argued as evidence to consider MfA as an agent working against democratic practice and in favor of furthering profit and its resultant inequitable resource distribution. The…

  15. Inquiry on Teachers&apos; Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, like other caring professions, is emotional. These emotions tend to emerge as teachers&apos; goals, standards, and beliefs transact with other classroom stakeholders during everyday school activities. As such, for teachers, the classroom context involves both the extreme happiness and joy from a lesson that goes as planned to the intense…

  16. Students&apos; Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students&apos; estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  17. America&apos;s Descent into Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America&apos;s descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  18. Quirks of Stirling&apos;s Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Roderick M.; Allgeier, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Stirling&apos;s approximation to ln "n"! is typically introduced to physical chemistry students as a step in the derivation of the statistical expression for the entropy. However, naive application of this approximation leads to incorrect conclusions. In this article, the problem is first illustrated using a familiar "toy…

  19. Students&apos; Images of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee; Gourley-Delaney, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Students&apos; judgments about "what counts" as mathematics in and out of school have important consequences for problem solving and transfer, yet our understanding of the source and nature of these judgments remains incomplete. Thirty-five sixth grade students participated in a study focused on what activities students judge as…

  20. Decoding of lipoprotein – receptor interactions; Properties of ligand binding modules governing interactions with ApoE

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Miklos; Prieto, J. Helena; Croy, Johnny E.; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Clusters of complement-type ligand binding repeats in the LDL receptor family are thought to mediate the interactions between these receptors and their various ligands. Apolipoprotein E, a key ligand for cholesterol homeostasis, has been shown to interact with LDLR, LRP and VLDLR, through these clusters. LDLR and VLDLR each contain a single ligand-binding repeat cluster, whereas LRP contains three large clusters of ligand binding repeats, each with ligand binding functions. We show that within sLRP3, the three-repeat subcluster CR16-18 recapitulated ligand binding to the isolated receptor binding portion of ApoE (residues 130-149). Binding experiments with LA3-5 of LDLR and CR16-18 showed that a conserved W25/D30 pair appears critical for high affinity binding to ApoE(130-149). The triple repeat LA3-5 showed the expected interaction with ApoE(1-191)•DMPC, but surprisingly CR16-18 did not interact with this form of ApoE. To understand these differences in ApoE binding affinity, we introduced mutations of conserved residues from LA5 into CR18, and produced a CR16-18 variant capable of binding ApoE(1-191)•DMPC. This change cannot fully be accounted for by the interaction with the proposed ApoE receptor binding region, therefore we speculate that LA5 is recognizing a distinct epitope on ApoE that may only exists in the lipid bound form. The combination of avidity effects with this distinct recognition process likely governs the ApoE-LDL receptor interaction. PMID:20030366

  1. Effects of ApoE4 and maternal history of dementia on hippocampal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Andrawis, John P.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Green, Amity E.; Kotlerman, Jenny; Elashoff, David; Morra, Jonathan H.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Apostolova, Liana G.

    2010-01-01

    We applied an automated hippocampal segmentation technique based on adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) to the 1.5T MRI baseline and 1-year follow-up data of 243 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 96 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 145 normal controls (NC) scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). MCI subjects with positive maternal history of dementia had smaller hippocampal volumes at baseline and at follow-up, and greater 12-month atrophy rates than subjects with negative maternal history. 3D maps and volumetric multiple regression analyses demonstrated a significant effect of positive maternal history of dementia on hippocampal atrophy in MCI and AD after controlling for age, ApoE4 genotype and paternal history of dementia, resp. ApoE4 showed an independent effect on hippocampal atrophy in MCI and AD and in the pooled sample. PMID:20833446

  2. Ingestion of TRP channel agonists attenuates exercise-induced muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Shank, Sean W; Gottschall, Jinger S; Passe, Dennis H; Murray, Bob; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-13

    Exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a poorly understood problem that is neuromuscular in origin. Ingestion of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists has been efficacious in attenuating electrically-induced muscle cramps.

  3. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists potentiate responses mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the cat nictitating membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Shepperson, N. B.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha 1 but not alpha 2-adrenoceptors mediate contractions of the cat nictitating membrane. The contractions of this tissue evoked by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists, but not those evoked by angiotensin II, are potentiated by pre-dosing with alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. This potentiation is reversed by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, WY 26392. Pressor responses evoked by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists or angiotensin II were not affected by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. Contractions of the nictitating membrane evoked by noradrenaline were reduced by pretreatment with WY 26392. These results suggest that in some tissues the role of alpha 2-adrenoceptors may be to modulate responses to alpha 1-adrenoceptors, rather than to evoke a discrete response themselves. PMID:6148985

  4. Discovery of novel acetanilide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tatsuya; Onda, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Matsui, Tetsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2009-06-01

    In the search for potent and selective human beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of obesity and noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, a novel series of acetanilide-based analogues were prepared and their biological activities were evaluated at the human beta3-, beta2-, and beta1-ARs. Among these compounds, 2-pyridylacetanilide (2f), pyrimidin-2-ylacetanilide (2u), and pyrazin-2-ylacetanilide (2v) derivatives exhibited potent agonistic activity at the beta3-AR with functional selectivity over the beta1- and beta2-ARs. In particular, compound 2u was found to be the most potent and selective beta3-AR agonist with an EC(50) value of 0.11 microM and no agonistic activity for either the beta1- or beta2-AR. In addition, 2f, 2u, and 2v showed significant hypoglycemic activity in a rodent diabetic model.

  5. Dopaminergic agonists: possible neurorescue drugs endowed with independent and synergistic multisites of action.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Daniela; Bianchi, Irene; Olivari, Luca; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Bonini, Sara A; Memo, Maurizio

    2007-10-01

    Dopaminergic agonists have been usually used as adjunctive therapy for the cure of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is generally believed that treatment with these drugs is symptomatic rather then curative and does not stop or delay the progression of neuronal degeneration. However, several DA agonists of the DA D2-receptor family (including D2, D3 and D4-subtypes) have recently been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in different in vitro and in vivo experimental PD models. Here we summarize some recent data from our and other groups underlining the wide pharmacological spectrum of DA agonists currently used for treating PD patients. In particular, the mechanism of action of different DA agonists does not appear to be restricted to the stimulation of selective DA receptor subtypes being these drugs endowed with intrinsic, independent, and peculiar antioxidant effects. This activity may represent an additional pharmacological property contributing to their clinical efficacy in PD.

  6. Novel selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists (SEGRAs) with a covalent warhead for long-lasting inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ryabtsova, Oksana; Joossens, Jurgen; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Augustyns, Koen; De Winter, Hans

    2016-10-15

    The synthesis and in vitro properties of six analogues of the selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist GSK866, bearing a warhead for covalent linkage to the glucocorticoid receptor, is described.

  7. Discovery and Characterization of Biased Allosteric Agonists of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR3.

    PubMed

    Milanos, Lampros; Brox, Regine; Frank, Theresa; Poklukar, Gašper; Palmisano, Ralf; Waibel, Reiner; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Dürr, Maximilian; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Larsen, Olav; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Tschammer, Nuska

    2016-03-10

    In this work we report a design, synthesis, and detailed functional characterization of unique strongly biased allosteric agonists of CXCR3 that contain tetrahydroisoquinoline carboxamide cores. Compound 11 (FAUC1036) is the first strongly biased allosteric agonist of CXCR3 that selectively induces weak chemotaxis and leads to receptor internalization and the β-arrestin 2 recruitment with potency comparable to that of the chemokine CXCL11 without any activation of G proteins. A subtle structural change (addition of a methoxy group, 14 (FAUC1104)) led to a contrasting biased allosteric partial agonist that activated solely G proteins, induced chemotaxis, but failed to induce receptor internalization or β-arrestin 2 recruitment. Concomitant structure-activity relationship studies indicated very steep structure-activity relationships, which steer the ligand bias between the β-arrestin 2 and G protein pathway. Overall, the information presented provides a powerful platform for further development and rational design of strongly biased allosteric agonists of CXCR3.

  8. Potent achiral agonists of the ghrelin (growth hormone secretagogue) receptor. Part I: Lead identification.

    PubMed

    Heightman, Tom D; Scott, Jackie S; Longley, Mark; Bordas, Vincent; Dean, David K; Elliott, Richard; Hutley, Gail; Witherington, Jason; Abberley, Lee; Passingham, Barry; Berlanga, Manuela; de Los Frailes, Maite; Wise, Alan; Powney, Ben; Muir, Alison; McKay, Fiona; Butler, Sharon; Winborn, Kim; Gardner, Christopher; Darton, Jill; Campbell, Colin; Sanger, Gareth

    2007-12-01

    High throughput screening combined with efficient datamining and parallel synthesis led to the discovery of a novel series of indolines showing potent in vitro ghrelin receptor agonist activity and acceleration of gastric emptying in rats.

  9. Selection of multiple agonist antibodies from intracellular combinatorial libraries reveals that cellular receptors are functionally pleiotropic.

    PubMed

    Yea, Kyungmoo; Xie, Jia; Zhang, Hongkai; Zhang, Wei; Lerner, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this perspective is to build on the unexpected outcomes of previous laboratory experiments using antibody agonists to raise questions concerning how activation of a given receptor can be involved in inducing differentiation of cells along different pathways some of which may even derive from different lineages. While not yet answered, the question illustrates how the advent of agonists not present in nature may give a different dimension to the important problem of signal transduction. Thus, if one studies a natural agonist-receptor system one can learn details about its signal transduction pathway. However, if one has a set of orthogonal agonists, one may learn about the yet undiscovered potential of the system that, in the end, may necessitate refinements to the currently used models. Thus, we wonder why receptors conventionally linked to a given pathway induce a different pattern of differentiation when agonized in another way.

  10. Changing Patterns of Alpha Agonist Medication Use in Children and Adolescents 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Stephanie L.; Song, Lihai; Steffes, Jennifer; Liu, Weiwei; McCarn, Banita; Margolis, Benyamin; Grimes, Alan; Gotlieb, Edward; Localio, Russell; Ross, Michelle E.; Grundmeier, Robert W.; Wasserman, Richard; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe rates and patterns of long- and short-acting alpha agonist use for behavioral problems in a primary care population following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the long-acting alpha agonists guanfacine and clonidine. Methods: Children and adolescents 4–18 years of age, who received an alpha agonist prescription between 2009 and 2011, were identified from a sample of 45 United States primary care practices in two electronic health record-based research networks. Alpha agonist receipt was identified using National Drug Codes and medication names. The proportion of subjects receiving long- and short-acting prescriptions in each year was calculated and examined with respect to reported mental health diagnoses, and whether indications for use were on-label, had evidence from clinical trials, or had no trial evidence. Results: In a cohort of 282,875 subjects, 27,671 (10%) received any psychotropic medication and only 4,227 subjects (1.5%) received at least one prescription for an alpha agonist, most commonly a short-acting formulation (83%). Only 20% of alpha agonist use was on-label (use of long-acting formulations for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]). Most subjects (68%) received alpha agonists for indications with evidence of efficacy from clinical trials but no FDA approval, primarily short-acting formulations for ADHD and autism; 12% received alpha agonists for diagnoses lacking randomized clinical trial evidence in children, including sleep disorders and anxiety, or for which there was no documented mental health diagnosis. Rates of long-acting alpha agonist use increased more than 20-fold from 0.2% to 4%, whereas rates of short-acting alpha agonist use grew only slightly between 2009 and 2011 from 10.6% to 11.3%. Conclusions: Alpha agonist use was uncommon in this population, and most subjects received short-acting forms for conditions that were off-label, but with

  11. Leucine supplementation via drinking water reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE null mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Dai, Xiao-yan; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Ge-xin; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Recent evidence suggests that the essential amino acid leucine may be involved in systemic cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of leucine supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Methods: ApoE null mice were fed with chow supplemented with leucine (1.5% w/v) in drinking water for 8 week. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were examined using Oil Red O staining. Plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were measured with fast protein liquid chromatography. Hepatic gene expression was detected using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: Leucine supplementation resulted in 57.6% reduction of aortic atherosclerotic lesion area in apoE null mice, accompanied by 41.2% decrease of serum LDL-C levels and 40.2% increase of serum HDL-C levels. The body weight, food intake and blood glucose level were not affected by leucine supplementation. Furthermore, leucine supplementation increased the expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 (that were involved in hepatic cholesterol efflux) by 1.28- and 0.86-fold, respectively, and significantly increased their protein levels. Leucine supplementation also increased the expression of Srebf1, Scd1 and Pgc1b (that were involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism) by 3.73-, 1.35- and 1.71-fold, respectively. Consequently, leucine supplementation resulted in 51.77% reduction of liver cholesterol content and 2.2-fold increase of liver triglyceride content. Additionally, leucine supplementation did not affect the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12, but markedly decreased the serum level of MCP-1. Conclusion: Leucine supplementation effectively attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE null mice by improving the plasma lipid profile and reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26687933

  12. Caspase-3 Deletion Promotes Necrosis in Atherosclerotic Plaques of ApoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Dorien M.; Hermans, Marthe; Van Hoof, Viviane O.; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in advanced atherosclerotic plaques contributes to plaque progression and instability. Caspase-3, a key executioner protease in the apoptotic pathway, has been identified in human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques but its role in atherogenesis is not fully explored. We therefore investigated the impact of caspase-3 deletion on atherosclerosis by crossbreeding caspase-3 knockout (Casp3−/−) mice with apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages and VSMCs isolated from Casp3−/−ApoE−/− mice were resistant to apoptosis but showed increased susceptibility to necrosis. However, caspase-3 deficiency did not sensitize cells to undergo RIP1-dependent necroptosis. To study the effect on atherosclerotic plaque development, Casp3+/+ApoE−/− and Casp3−/−ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet for 16 weeks. Though total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels were not altered, both the plaque size and percentage necrosis were significantly increased in the aortic root of Casp3−/−ApoE−/− mice as compared to Casp3+/+ApoE−/− mice. Macrophage content was significantly decreased in plaques of Casp3−/−ApoE−/− mice as compared to controls, while collagen content and VSMC content were not changed. To conclude, deletion of caspase-3 promotes plaque growth and plaque necrosis in ApoE−/− mice, indicating that this antiapoptotic strategy is unfavorable to improve atherosclerotic plaque stability. PMID:27847551

  13. SAR of psilocybin analogs: discovery of a selective 5-HT 2C agonist.

    PubMed

    Sard, Howard; Kumaran, Govindaraj; Morency, Cynthia; Roth, Bryan L; Toth, Beth Ann; He, Ping; Shuster, Louis

    2005-10-15

    An SAR study of psilocybin and psilocin derivatives reveals that 1-methylpsilocin is a selective agonist at the h5-HT(2C) receptor. The corresponding phosphate derivative, 1-methylpsilocybin, shows efficacy in an animal model for obsessive-compulsive disorder, as does 4-fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. These results suggest a new area for development of novel 5-HT(2C) agonists with applications for drug discovery.

  14. Differential agonist sensitivity of glycine receptor alpha2 subunit splice variants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul S; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2004-09-01

    1. The glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha2A and alpha2B splice variants differ by a dual, adjacent amino acid substitution from alpha2A(V58,T59) to alpha2B(I58,A59) in the N-terminal extracellular domain. 2. Comparing the effects of the GlyR agonists, glycine, beta-alanine and taurine, on the GlyR alpha2 isoforms, revealed a significant increase in potency for all three agonists at the alpha2B variant. 3. The sensitivities of the splice variants to the competitive antagonist, strychnine, and to the biphasic modulator Zn(2+), were comparable. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor picrotoxin was more potent on GlyR alpha2A compared to GlyR alpha2B receptors. 4. Coexpression of alpha2A or alpha2B subunits with the GlyR beta subunit revealed that the higher agonist potencies observed with the alpha2B homomer were retained for the alpha2Bbeta heteromer. 5. The identical sensitivity to strychnine combined with a reduction in the maximum current induced by the partial agonist taurine at the GlyR alpha2A homomer, suggested that the changed sensitivity to agonists is in accordance with a modulation of agonist efficacy rather than agonist affinity. 6. An effect on agonist efficacy was also supported by using a structural model of the GlyR, localising the region of splice variation to the proposed docking region between GlyR loop 2 and the TM2-3 loop, an area associated with channel activation. 7. The existence of a spasmodic mouse phenotype linked to a GlyR alpha1(A52S) mutation, the equivalent position to the source of the alpha2 splice variation, raises the possibility that the GlyR alpha2 splice variants may be responsible for distinct roles in neuronal function.

  15. Discovery of a novel series of potent S1P1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, Stefano; Bombrun, Agnes; Covini, David; Maio, Maurizio; Marin, Delphine; Quattropani, Anna; Swinnen, Dominique; Simpson, Don; Sauer, Wolfgang; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Cambet, Yves; Nichols, Anthony; Martinou, Isabelle; Burgat-Charvillon, Fabienne; Rivron, Delphine; Donini, Cristina; Schott, Olivier; Eligert, Valerie; Novo-Perez, Laurence; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of a novel series of S1P1 agonists is described. Starting from a micromolar HTS positive, iterative optimization gave rise to several single-digit nanomolar S1P1 agonists. The compounds were able to induce internalization of the S1P1 receptor, and a selected compound was shown to be able to induce lymphopenia in mice after oral dosing.

  16. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The nonselective 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Aim To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Methods Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) and ATI-7505 (naronapride) were identified through a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Toxfile. Abstracts from UEGW 2006–2008 and DDW 2008–2010 were searched for these drug names, and pharmaceutical companies approached to provide unpublished data. Results Retrieved articles on pharmacokinetics, human pharmacodynamics and clinical data with these 5-HT4 agonists, are reviewed and summarised nonsystematically. Articles relating to cardiac safety and tolerability of these agents, including any relevant case reports, are reported systematically. Two nonselective 5-HT4 agonists had reports of cardiovascular AEs: cisapride (QT prolongation) and tegaserod (ischaemia). Interactions with, respectively, the hERG cardiac potassium channel and 5-HT1 receptor subtypes have been suggested to account for these effects. No cardiovascular safety concerns were reported for the newer, selective 5-HT4 agonists prucalopride, velusetrag, naronapride, or for nonselective 5-HT4 agonists with no hERG or 5-HT1 affinity (renzapride, clebopride, mosapride). Conclusions 5-HT4 agonists for GI disorders differ in chemical structure and selectivity for 5-HT4 receptors. Selectivity for 5-HT4 over non-5-HT4 receptors may influence the agent's safety and overall risk–benefit profile. Based on available evidence, highly selective 5-HT4 agonists may offer improved safety to treat patients with impaired GI motility. PMID:22356640

  17. The discovery of biaryl carboxamides as novel small molecule agonists of the motilin receptor.

    PubMed

    Westaway, Susan M; Brown, Samantha L; Conway, Elizabeth; Heightman, Tom D; Johnson, Christopher N; Lapsley, Kate; Macdonald, Gregor J; MacPherson, David T; Mitchell, Darren J; Myatt, James W; Seal, Jon T; Stanway, Steven J; Stemp, Geoffrey; Thompson, Mervyn; Celestini, Paolo; Colombo, Andrea; Consonni, Alessandra; Gagliardi, Stefania; Riccaboni, Mauro; Ronzoni, Silvano; Briggs, Michael A; Matthews, Kim L; Stevens, Alexander J; Bolton, Victoria J; Boyfield, Izzy; Jarvie, Emma M; Stratton, Sharon C; Sanger, Gareth J

    2008-12-15

    Optimisation of urea (5), identified from high throughput screening and subsequent array chemistry, has resulted in the identification of pyridine carboxamide (33) which is a potent motilin receptor agonist possessing favourable physicochemical and ADME profiles. Compound (33) has demonstrated prokinetic-like activity both in vitro and in vivo in the rabbit and therefore represents a promising novel small molecule motilin receptor agonist for further evaluation as a gastroprokinetic agent.

  18. [Dopamin agonist treatment and fibrotic heart valve disease in hyperprolactinaemia patients].

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Charlotte; Mægbæk, Merete Lund; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Kistorp, Caroline; Nørrelund, Helene; Dal, Jakob; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2014-01-06

    Treatment with dopamin agonists, particularly cabergoline, is the primary and preferred therapy for prolactinomas and symptomatic hyperprolactinaemia due to its effectiveness and tolerability. However, an association has been demonstrated between fibrotic heart valve disease and high-dose dopamin agonist use in patients with Parkinson's disease in several echocardiographic studies. Such observations have prompted a number of studies of valvular function in cabergoline-treated hyperprolactinaemia patients. These studies have failed to show an increased prevalence of clinically significant valvular regurgitation.

  19. Retinoic Acid Receptor β2 Agonists Restore Glycemic Control In Diabetes and Reduce Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Trasino, Steven E.; Tang, Xiao-Han; Jessurun, Jose; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Retinoids (vitamin A (retinol), and structurally related molecules) possess metabolic modulating properties, prompting new interest in their role in the treatment of diabetes and fatty liver disease, but little is known about the effects of specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists in these diseases. Materials and Methods Synthetic agonists for retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 were administered to wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D). Results We demonstrate that administration of synthetic agonists for the retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 to either wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) or to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D) reduces hyperglycemia, peripheral insulin resistance, and body weight. Furthermore, RARβ2 agonists dramatically reduce steatosis, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys of obese, diabetic mice. RARβ2 agonists also lower levels of mRNAs involved in lipogenesis, such as SREBP1 and FASN (fatty acid synthase), and increase mRNAs that mediate mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, such as CPT1α, in these organs. RARβ2 agonists lower triglyceride levels in these organs, and in muscle. Conclusions Collectively, our data show that orally active, rapidly acting, high affinity pharmacological agonists for RARβ2 improve the diabetic phenotype while reducing lipid levels in key insulin target tissues. We suggest that RARβ2 agonists should be useful drugs for T2D therapy and for treatment of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26462866

  20. Rapid kinetics of 2-adrenergic agonist binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, W.; Neubig, R.R.

    1987-05-01

    Activation of 2-adrenergic receptors in human platelets results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase (AC). To elucidate the relation between agonist binding and response, the authors have used a novel rapid-mix quench method to compare the kinetics of binding and response. At functionally effective concentrations, the time course of binding of the full 2-agonist, (TH)UK14,304 (UK), to purified platelet membranes was faster than could be measured manually. Using the rapid-mix quench method, agonist binding was quantitated for times for 0.3 to 60 seconds. UK binding exhibited biexponential kinetics. The rate constant of the fast binding component increases linearly with agonist concentration from 1 to 100 nM with a second order rate constant and 7 x 10WM s (at 25C). The slow rate constant was nearly independent of agonist concentration. The half times of the fast and slow components of binding for 100 nM UK are 1.5 seconds and approximately 2 minutes respectively. The rate and magnitude of the fast binding was unaffected by 10 M GTP whereas the magnitude of the slow phase was markedly reduced. Inhibition of forskolin stimulated AC by 100 M epinephrine occurs with a lag of 5-10 seconds in the presence of 10 M GTP. At lower GTP concentrations, this lag is prolonged. The observation that the fast component of agonist binding precedes inhibition even at agonist concentrations 20-fold lower than the EC40 for responses indicates that the rate limiting step in inhibition of AC is distal to the binding of agonist.

  1. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  2. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor full agonists in rats trained to discriminate SKF 38393.

    PubMed

    Gleason, S D; Witkin, J M

    2004-02-01

    Although the dopaminergic pharmacology of the D1 receptor full agonists, dinapsoline, dihydrexidine and the prodrug ABT-431 have been studied, no information is available on the ability of these agonists to substitute for the D1 agonist SKF 38393 in rats trained to discriminate this compound from vehicle. The present study was designed to characterize the potential D1 discriminative stimulus effects of these compounds. The selective dopamine D1-receptor agonists dihydrexidine [(+/-)-trans-10,11-dihydroxy-5,6,6a,7,8,12b-hexahydrobenzo[a] phenanthridine hydrochloride], ABT-431 [(-)-trans-9,10-diacetyloxy-2-propyl-4,5,5a,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-thia-5-azacyclopent-1-ena[c]phenanthrene hydrochloride], the diacetyl prodrug derivative of A-86929, and dinapsoline [9-dihydroxy-2,3,7,11b-tetrahydro-1H-naph[1,2,3-de]isoquinoline] were studied in rats trained to discriminate racemic SKF 38393 [(+/-)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol], a selective D1 receptor partial agonist from vehicle. All of the agonists substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of SKF 38393. The rank order of potency for substitution was ABT-431 > dinapsoline > dihydrexidine > SKF 38393. The D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, blocked the discriminative stimulus effects of SKF 38393. The D3/D2-receptor agonist PD 128,907 [S(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]-benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol] did not substitute up to doses that produced profound rate-suppressant effects. Thus, consistent with their D1 receptor pharmacology, the full D1-receptor agonists substituted completely for the discriminative stimulus of SKF 38393.

  3. Discovery and dimeric approach of novel Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPR-A) agonists.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Takehiko; Oyama, Yoshiaki; Tomoo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Taisaku; Okamura, Yoshihiko; Sugiyama, Masako; Yamaki, Akira; Furuya, Mayumi

    2017-03-15

    Novel agonists of the Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPR-A) were obtained through random screening and subsequent structural modification of triazine derivatives. The key structural feature to improve in vitro activity was the dimerization of triazine monomer derivatives. The non peptide derivative 7c and 13a showed highly potent NPR-A agonistic activity in vitro and diuretic activity in vivo. These results implied that non-peptidic small molecules open the possibility of new therapy for congestive heart failure.

  4. Hyperlipidemia-Associated Renal Damage Decreases Klotho Expression in Kidneys from ApoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Cristina; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Buendía, Irene; Gómez-Guerrero, Carmen; Blanco, Julia; Mas, Sebastian; Egido, Jesús; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Ortiz, Alberto; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background Klotho is a renal protein with anti-aging properties that is downregulated in conditions related to kidney injury. Hyperlipidemia accelerates the progression of renal damage, but the mechanisms of the deleterious effects of hyperlipidemia remain unclear. Methods We evaluated whether hyperlipidemia modulates Klotho expression in kidneys from C57BL/6 and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice fed with a normal chow diet (ND) or a Western-type high cholesterol-fat diet (HC) for 5 to 10 weeks, respectively. Results In ApoE KO mice, the HC diet increased serum and renal cholesterol levels, kidney injury severity, kidney macrophage infiltration and inflammatory chemokine expression. A significant reduction in Klotho mRNA and protein expression was observed in kidneys from hypercholesteromic ApoE KO mice fed a HC diet as compared with controls, both at 5 and 10 weeks. In order to study the mechanism involved in Klotho down-regulation, murine tubular epithelial cells were treated with ox-LDL. Oxidized-LDL were effectively uptaken by tubular cells and decreased both Klotho mRNA and protein expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in these cells. Finally, NF-κB and ERK inhibitors prevented ox-LDL-induced Klotho downregulation. Conclusion Our results suggest that hyperlipidemia-associated kidney injury decreases renal expression of Klotho. Therefore, Klotho could be a key element explaining the relationship between hyperlipidemia and aging with renal disease. PMID:24386260

  5. Revitalizing Ernst Mach&apos;s Popular Scientific Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Compared to Ernst Mach&apos;s influence on the conceptual development of physics, his efforts to popularize science and his reflections on science literacy are known to a much lesser degree. The approach and the impact of Mach&apos;s popular scientific lectures are discussed in view of today&apos;s problems of understanding science. The key issues…

  6. Mencius&apos; Educational Philosophy and Its Contemporary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chun-chieh

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that Mencius&apos; education is "holistic education" that aims at igniting the "silent revolution" from within one&apos;s inner mind-heart to be unfolded in society, state, and the world. Mencius&apos; educational philosophy is based on his theory of human nature and his theory of self-cultivation. Mencius…

  7. The Not-so-Random Drunkard&apos;s Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, George

    2013-01-01

    This dataset contains the results of a quasi-experiment, testing Karl Pearson&apos;s "drunkard&apos;s walk" analogy for an abstract random walk. Inspired by the alternate hypothesis that drunkards stumble to the side of their dominant hand, it includes data on intoxicated test subjects walking a 10&apos; line. Variables include: the…

  8. Using Computational Simulations to Confront Students&apos; Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, R.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show an example of how to use a computational simulation to obtain visual feedback for students&apos; mental models, and compare their predictions with the simulated system&apos;s behaviour. Additionally, we use the computational simulation to incrementally modify the students&apos; mental models in order to accommodate new data,…

  9. Asperger&apos;s in the Holmes Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    I show that Mycroft Holmes (Sherlock Holmes&apos; brother) is a formally described case of Asperger&apos;s syndrome a half century before Asperger&apos;s description of the syndrome. Further, given the genetic similarity and links between the brothers stated by Sherlock, this also cinches the same diagnosis for Sherlock.

  10. Towards a Sociocultural Understanding of Children&apos;s Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybin, Janet

    2013-01-01

    While "voice" is frequently invoked in discussions of pupils&apos; agency and empowerment, less attention has been paid to the dialogic dynamics of children&apos;s voices and the sociocultural features shaping their emergence. Drawing on linguistic ethnographic research involving recent recordings of 10- and 11-year-old children&apos;s…

  11. Interrogating Meanings of Work in Children&apos;s Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.; Bauer, Janell C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Wieland and Bauer discuss a teaching activity that helps students understand how meanings of work (MOW) are socially constructed through commonplace texts: children&apos;s books. The activity helps students consider how children&apos;s books shape future workers&apos; understandings of what work is, what kinds of work are most…

  12. Delayed olfactory nerve regeneration in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Britto P; Nisar, Rafia; Short, Jody; Randall, Shari; Grissom, Elin; Griffin, Gwen; Switzer, Paul V; Struble, Robert G

    2005-04-11

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a lipid transporting protein, is extensively expressed in the primary olfactory pathway, but its function is unknown. We previously reported increased apoE levels in the olfactory bulb (OB) following olfactory epithelium (OE) lesion in mice, and hypothesized that apoE may play a vital role in olfactory nerve (ON) regeneration. To directly test this hypothesis, we examined the rate of ON regeneration following OE lesion in apoE deficient/knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. OE was lesioned in 2- to 3-month-old mice by intranasal irrigation with Triton X-100 (TX). OB were collected at 0, 3, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days post-lesion. OB recovery was measured by both immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis of growth cone associated protein (GAP) 43 and olfactory marker protein (OMP). The results revealed that (1) OMP recovery in the OB was significantly slower in apoE KO compared to WT mice; (2) recovery of glomerular area was similarly slower; and (3) GAP43 increases and return to prelesion levels in the OB were slower in KO mice. Together, these results show that olfactory nerve regeneration is significantly slower in KO mice as compared to WT mice, suggesting apoE facilitates olfactory nerve regeneration.

  13. 5-HT(2C) agonists as therapeutics for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Comery, Thomas A; Marquis, Karen L; Gross, Jonathan; Dunlop, John

    2012-01-01

    The 5-HT(2C) receptor is a highly complex, highly regulated receptor which is widely distributed throughout the brain. The 5-HT(2C) receptor couples to multiple signal transduction pathways leading to engagement of a number of intracellular signaling molecules. Moreover, there are multiple allelic variants of the 5-HT(2C) receptor and the receptor is subject to RNA editing in the coding regions. The complexity of this receptor is further emphasized by the studies suggesting the utility of either agonists or antagonists in the treatment of schizophrenia. While several 5-HT(2C) agonists have demonstrated clinical efficacy in obesity (lorcaserin, PRX-000933), the focus of this review is on the therapeutic potential of 5-HT(2C) agonists in schizophrenia. To this end, the preclinical profile of 5-HT(2C) agonists from a neurochemical, electrophysiological, and a behavioral perspective is indicative of antipsychotic-like efficacy without extrapyramidal symptoms or weight gain. Recently, the selective 5-HT(2C) agonist vabicaserin demonstrated clinical efficacy in a Phase II trial in schizophrenia patients without weight gain and with low EPS liability. These data are highly encouraging and suggest that 5-HT(2C) agonists are potential therapeutics for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  14. Identification of Ecdysone Hormone Receptor Agonists as a Therapeutic Approach for Treating Filarial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mhashilkar, Amruta S.; Vankayala, Sai L.; Liu, Canhui; Kearns, Fiona; Mehrotra, Priyanka; Tzertzinis, George; Palli, Subba R.; Woodcock, H. Lee; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A homologue of the ecdysone receptor has previously been identified in human filarial parasites. As the ecdysone receptor is not found in vertebrates, it and the regulatory pathways it controls represent attractive potential chemotherapeutic targets. Methodology/ Principal Findings Administration of 20-hydroxyecdysone to gerbils infected with B. malayi infective larvae disrupted their development to adult stage parasites. A stable mammalian cell line was created incorporating the B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain, its heterodimer partner and a secreted luciferase reporter in HEK293 cells. This was employed to screen a series of ecdysone agonist, identifying seven agonists active at sub-micromolar concentrations. A B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain was developed and used to study the ligand-receptor interactions of these agonists. An excellent correlation between the virtual screening results and the screening assay was observed. Based on both of these approaches, steroidal ecdysone agonists and the diacylhydrazine family of compounds were identified as a fruitful source of potential receptor agonists. In further confirmation of the modeling and screening results, Ponasterone A and Muristerone A, two compounds predicted to be strong ecdysone agonists stimulated expulsion of microfilaria and immature stages from adult parasites. Conclusions The studies validate the potential of the B. malayi ecdysone receptor as a drug target and provide a means to rapidly evaluate compounds for development of a new class of drugs against the human filarial parasites. PMID:27300294

  15. Beta-adrenergic agonist therapy accelerates the resolution of hydrostatic pulmonary edema in sheep and rats.

    PubMed

    Frank, J A; Wang, Y; Osorio, O; Matthay, M A

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether beta-adrenergic agonist therapy increases alveolar liquid clearance during the resolution phase of hydrostatic pulmonary edema, we studied alveolar and lung liquid clearance in two animal models of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was induced in sheep by acutely elevating left atrial pressure to 25 cmH(2)O and instilling 6 ml/kg body wt isotonic 5% albumin (prepared from bovine albumin) in normal saline into the distal air spaces of each lung. After 1 h, sheep were treated with a nebulized beta-agonist (salmeterol) or nebulized saline (controls), and left atrial pressure was then returned to normal. beta-Agonist therapy resulted in a 60% increase in alveolar liquid clearance over 3 h (P < 0.001). Because the rate of alveolar fluid clearance in rats is closer to human rates, we studied beta-agonist therapy in rats, with hydrostatic pulmonary edema induced by volume overload (40% body wt infusion of Ringer lactate). beta-Agonist therapy resulted in a significant decrease in excess lung water (P < 0.01) and significant improvement in arterial blood gases by 2 h (P < 0.03). These preclinical experimental studies support the need for controlled clinical trials to determine whether beta-adrenergic agonist therapy would be of value in accelerating the resolution of hydrostatic pulmonary edema in patients.

  16. Effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor agonists and their interaction on learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Mariam; Komaki, Alireza; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Taheri, Masoumeh; Komaki, Hamidreza; Etaee, Farshid

    2017-04-01

    Despite previous findings on the effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on learning and memory, the effects of the combined stimulation of these 2 systems on learning and memory have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we tested the interactive effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on learning and memory in rats by using passive avoidance learning (PAL) tests. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into the following 4 groups: (1) control (DMSO+saline), (2) WIN55,212-2, (3) capsaicin, and (4) WIN55,212-2 + capsaicin. On test day, capsaicin, a vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) agonist, or WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor (CB1/CB2) agonist, or both substances were injected intraperitoneally. Compared to the control group, the group treated with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) had better scores in the PAL acquisition and retention test, whereas treatment with WIN55,212-2 (CB1/CB2 agonist) decreased the test scores. Capsaicin partly reduced the effects of WIN55,212-2 on PAL and memory. We conclude that the acute administration of a TRPV1 agonist improves the rats' cognitive performance in PAL tasks and that a vanilloid-related mechanism may underlie the agonistic effect of WIN55,212-2 on learning and memory.

  17. TRPA1 agonist activity of probenecid desensitizes channel responses: consequences for screening.

    PubMed

    McClenaghan, Conor; Zeng, Fanning; Verkuyl, Jan Martin

    2012-12-01

    The transient receptor potential channel subtype A member 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel widely viewed as having therapeutic potential, particularly for pain-related indications. Realization of this potential will require potent, selective modulators; however, currently the pharmacology of TRPA1 is poorly defined. As TRPA1 is calcium permeable, calcium indicators offer a simple assay format for high-throughput screening. In this report, we show that probenecid, a uricosuric agent used experimentally in screening to increase loading of calcium-sensitive dyes, activates TRPA1. Prolonged probenecid incubation during the dye-loading process reduces agonist potency upon subsequent challenge. When Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-hTRPA1 or STC-1 cells, which endogenously express TRPA1, were dye loaded in the presence of 2 mM probenecid TRPA1, agonists appeared less potent; EC(50) for allyl isothiocyante agonists in CHO-hTRPA1 was increased from 1.5±0.19 to 7.32±1.20 μM (P<0.01). No significant effect on antagonist potency was observed when using the agonist EC(80) concentration determined under the appropriate dye-loading conditions. We suggest an alternative protocol for calcium imaging using another blocker of anion transport, sulfinpyrazone. This blocker significantly augments indicator dye loading and the screening window, but is not a TRPA1 agonist and has no effect on agonist potency.

  18. Analysis of the agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M. I.; Harper, D.; Smith, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) was characterized in the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. 2. Fenoldopam was an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor with lower affinity and efficacy than the naturally occurring agonist 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Fenoldopam had an affinity (pKA) of 5.84 +/- 0.04 and efficacy (tau) of 0.57 +/- 0.04, whereas 5-HT had a pKA of 6.65 +/- 0.12 and tau of 2.66 +/- 0.41. 3. The constrictor effects of fenoldopam and 5-HT were competitively antagonized by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, with pKB values of 8.81 +/- 0.11 and 8.83 +/- 0.10 respectively. 4. Prior incubation with fenoldopam produced a concentration-related rightward shift of a subsequent 5-HT concentration-response curve. This inhibition was specific for 5-HT since constrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected. 5. This study indicates that the D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam, acts as an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor, but with an affinity and efficacy less than that of the naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT. PMID:1361397

  19. A Systematic Approach to Identify Biased Agonists of the Apelin Receptor through High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    McAnally, Danielle; Siddiquee, Khandaker; Sharir, Haleli; Qi, Feng; Phatak, Sharangdhar; Li, Jian-Liang; Berg, Eric; Fishman, Jordan; Smith, Layton

    2017-03-01

    Biased agonists are defined by their ability to selectively activate distinct signaling pathways of a receptor, and they hold enormous promise for the development of novel drugs that specifically elicit only the desired therapeutic response and avoid potential adverse effects. Unfortunately, most high-throughput screening (HTS) assays are designed to detect signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) downstream of either G protein or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but not both. A comprehensive drug discovery program seeking biased agonists must employ assays that report on the activity of each compound at multiple discrete pathways, particularly for HTS campaigns. Here, we report a systematic approach to the identification of biased agonists of human apelin receptor (APJ). We synthesized 448 modified versions of apelin and screened them against a cascade of cell-based assays, including intracellular cAMP and β-arrestin recruitment to APJ, simultaneously. The screen yielded potent and highly selective APJ agonists. Representative hits displaying preferential signaling via either G-protein or β-arrestin were subjected to a battery of confirmation assays. These biased agonists will be useful as tools to probe the function and pharmacology of APJ and provide proof of concept of our systematic approach to the discovery of biased ligands. This approach is likely universally applicable to the search for biased agonists of GPCRs.

  20. Substrate specificity of the agonist-stimulated release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Garcia, M.C.; Sprecher, H. )

    1989-11-01

    Stimulation of vascular endothelial cells with agonists such as histamine and thrombin results in release of arachidonic acid from membrane lipids and subsequent eicosanoid synthesis. As shown previously, the agonist-stimulated deacylation is specific for arachidonate, eicosapentaenoate, and 5,8,11-eicosatrienoate. This study has utilized radiolabeled fatty acids differing in chain length and position of double bonds to further elucidate the fatty acyl specificity of agonist-stimulated deacylation. Replicate wells of confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with 14C-labeled fatty acids and then challenged with histamine, thrombin, or the calcium ionophore A23187. Comparison of the results obtained with isomeric eicosatetraenoic fatty acids with initial double bonds at carbons 4, 5, or 6 indicated that the deacylation induced by all three agonists exhibited marked specificity for the cis-5 double bond. Lack of stringent chain length specificity was indicated by agonist-stimulated release of 5,8,11,14- tetraenoic fatty acids with 18, 19, 20, and 21 carbons. Release of 5,8,14-(14C)eicosatrienoate was two-to threefold that of 5,11,14-(14C)eicosatrienoate, thus indicating that the cis-8 double bond may also contribute to the stringent recognition by the agonist-sensitive phospholipase. The present study has also demonstrated that histamine, thrombin, and A23187 do not stimulate release of docosahexaenoate from endothelial cells.

  1. Dopa-testotoxicosis: disruptive hypersexuality in hypogonadal men with prolactinomas treated with dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Chapman, Ian M; Falhammar, Henrik; Torpy, David J

    2017-02-01

    Dopamine agonists are the first line of therapy for prolactinomas, with high rates of biochemical control and tumour shrinkage. Toxicity is considered to be low and manageable by switching of agents and dose reduction. Dopamine agonist-induced impulse control disorders are well described in the neurology setting, but further data are required regarding this toxicity in prolactinoma patients. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of eight men with prolactinomas and associated central hypogonadism. The eight men had no prior history of psychiatric disease, but each developed disruptive hypersexuality whilst on dopamine agonist therapy at various doses. Cabergoline, bromocriptine and quinagolide were all implicated. Hypersexuality had manifold consequences, including relationship discord, financial loss, reduced work performance, and illicit activity. We hypothesise that this phenomenon is due to synergy between reward pathway stimulation by dopamine agonists, together with rapid restoration of the eugonadal state after prolonged hypogonadism. We refer here to this distinct drug toxicity as 'dopa-testotoxicosis'. Given the profound impact in these patients and their families, cessation of dopamine agonists should be considered in men who develop hypersexuality, and pituitary surgery may be required to facilitate this. Awareness of this distinct impulse control disorder should enable further research into the prevalence, natural history and management of dopa-testotoxicosis. The condition is likely under-reported due to the highly personal nature of the symptoms and we suggest a simple written questionnaire to screen for hypersexuality and other behavioural symptoms within the first six months of dopamine agonist treatment.

  2. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  3. The therapeutic potential of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists as analgesics without abuse liability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann P; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2013-02-20

    Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans.

  4. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Agonistic Behaviour in Juvenile Crocodilians

    PubMed Central

    Brien, Matthew L.; Lang, Jeffrey W.; Webb, Grahame J.; Stevenson, Colin; Christian, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined agonistic behaviour in seven species of hatchling and juvenile crocodilians held in small groups (N = 4) under similar laboratory conditions. Agonistic interactions occurred in all seven species, typically involved two individuals, were short in duration (5–15 seconds), and occurred between 1600–2200 h in open water. The nature and extent of agonistic interactions, the behaviours displayed, and the level of conspecific tolerance varied among species. Discrete postures, non-contact and contact movements are described. Three of these were species-specific: push downs by C. johnstoni; inflated tail sweeping by C. novaeguineae; and, side head striking combined with tail wagging by C. porosus. The two long-snouted species (C. johnstoni and G. gangeticus) avoided contact involving the head and often raised the head up out of the way during agonistic interactions. Several behaviours not associated with aggression are also described, including snout rubbing, raising the head up high while at rest, and the use of vocalizations. The two most aggressive species (C. porosus, C. novaeguineae) appeared to form dominance hierarchies, whereas the less aggressive species did not. Interspecific differences in agonistic behaviour may reflect evolutionary divergence associated with morphology, ecology, general life history and responses to interspecific conflict in areas where multiple species have co-existed. Understanding species-specific traits in agonistic behaviour and social tolerance has implications for the controlled raising of different species of hatchlings for conservation, management or production purposes. PMID:24349018

  5. Fluorescence characteristics of hydrophobic partial agonist probes of the cholecystokinin receptor.

    PubMed

    Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Pinon, Delia I; Miller, Laurence J

    2006-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopic studies are powerful tools for the evaluation of receptor structure and the dynamic changes associated with receptor activation. Here, we have developed two chemically distinct fluorescent probes of the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor by attaching acrylodan or a nitrobenzoxadiazole moiety to the amino terminus of a partial agonist CCK analogue. These two probes were able to bind to the CCK receptor specifically and with high affinity, and were able to elicit only submaximal intracellular calcium responses typical of partial agonists. The fluorescence characteristics of these probes were compared with those previously reported for structurally-related full agonist and antagonist probes. Like the previous probes, the partial agonist probes exhibited longer fluorescence lifetimes and increased anisotropy when bound to the receptor than when free in solution. The receptor-bound probes were not easily quenched by potassium iodide, suggesting that the fluorophores were protected from the extracellular aqueous milieu. The fluorescence characteristics of the partial agonist probes were quite similar to those of the analogous full agonist probes and quite distinct from the analogous antagonist probes. These data suggest that the partially activated conformational state of this receptor is more closely related to its fully active state than to its inactive state.

  6. Comparative Review of Approved Melatonin Agonists for the Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wilbur P Trey; McLin, Dewey E; Dressman, Marlene A; Neubauer, David N

    2016-09-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) are characterized by persistent or recurrent patterns of sleep disturbance related primarily to alterations of the circadian rhythm system or the misalignment between the endogenous circadian rhythm and exogenous factors that affect the timing or duration of sleep. These disorders collectively represent a significant unmet medical need, with a total prevalence in the millions, a substantial negative impact on quality of life, and a lack of studied treatments for most of these disorders. Activation of the endogenous melatonin receptors appears to play an important role in setting the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Therefore, melatonin agonists, which may be able to shift and/or stabilize the circadian phase, have been identified as potential therapeutic candidates for the treatment of CRSWDs. Currently, only one melatonin receptor agonist, tasimelteon, is approved for the treatment of a CRSWD: non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (or non-24). However, three additional commercially available melatonin receptor agonists-agomelatine, prolonged-release melatonin, and ramelteon-have been investigated for potential use for treatment of CRSWDs. Data indicate that these melatonin receptor agonists have distinct pharmacologic profiles that may help clarify their clinical use in CRSWDs. We review the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of these melatonin agonists and summarize their efficacy profiles when used for the treatment of CRSWDs. Further studies are needed to determine the therapeutic potential of these melatonin agonists for most CRSWDs.

  7. β-Adrenoreceptor agonists in the management of pain associated with renal colic: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Graham David; Fakis, Apostolos; Surtees, Jane; Lennon, Robert Iain

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether β-adrenoreceptor agonists are effective analgesics for patients with renal colic through a systematic review of the literature. Setting Adult emergency departments or acute assessment units. Participants Human participants with proven or suspected renal colic. Interventions β-adrenoreceptor agonists. Outcome measures Primary: level of pain at 30 min following administration of the β-agonist. Secondary: level of pain at various time points following β-agonist administration; length of hospital stay; analgesic requirement; stone presence, size and position; degree of hydronephrosis. Results 256 records were screened and 4 identified for full-text review. No articles met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions and implications There is no evidence to support or refute the proposed use of β-agonists for analgesia in patients with renal colic. Given the biological plausibility and existing literature base, clinical trials investigating the use of β-adrenoreceptor agonists in the acute setting for treatment of the pain associated with renal colic are recommended. Trial registration number CRD42015016266. PMID:27324714

  8. ApoE4 expression accelerates hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits by enhancing Aβ impairment of insulin signaling in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Elizabeth S.; Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Chen, Christopher; Soong, Tuck Wah; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The AD brain was shown to be insulin resistant at end stage, but the interplay between insulin signaling, ApoE4 and Aβ across time, and their involvement in memory decline is unclear. To investigate insulin response in the ageing mouse hippocampus, we crossed the human ApoE-targeted replacement mice with the mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice (ApoExAPP). While hippocampal Aβ levels were comparable between ApoE3xAPP and ApoE4xAPP mice at 26 weeks, insulin response was impaired in the ApoE4xAPP hippocampus. Insulin treatment was only able to stimulate insulin signaling and increased AMPA-GluR1 phosphorylation in forskolin pre-treated hippocampal slices from ApoE3xAPP mice. In ApoE4xAPP mice, insulin dysfunction was also associated with poorer spatial memory performance. Using dissociated hippocampal neuron in vitro, we showed that insulin response in ApoE3 and ApoE4 neurons increased AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitudes and GluR1-subunit insertion. Pre-treatment of ApoE3 neurons with Aβ42 did not affect insulin-mediated GluR1 subunit insertion. However, impaired insulin sensitivity observed only in the presence of ApoE4 and Aβ42, attenuated GluR1-subunit insertion. Taken together, our results suggest that ApoE4 enhances Aβ inhibition of insulin-stimulated AMPA receptor function, which accelerates memory impairment in ApoE4xAPP mice. PMID:27189808

  9. Radiolabelled D2 agonists as prolactinoma imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, C.A.

    1989-08-01

    During the past year, further studies on mAChR were conducted. These studies included verification of the difference in pituitary distribution based on ligand charge. The pituitary localization of TRB. A neutral mAChR ligand, was verified. The lack of QNB blockade of TRB uptake was tested by blockage with scopolamine, another mAChR antagonist and by testing the effect in a different strain of rat. Neither scopolamine or change of rat strain had any effect. We concluded that TRB uptake in pituitary is not a receptor-mediated process. Further studies were conducted with an additional quaternized mAChR ligand: MQNB. Pituitary localization of MQNB, like MTRB, could be blocked by pretreatment with QNB. We have tentatively concluded that permanent charge on a mAChR antagonist changes the mechanism of uptake in the pituitary. Time course studies and the effects of DES on myocardial uptake are reported. A brief report on preliminary results of evaluation of quaternized mAChR ligands in the heart is included. In a limited series of such ligands, we have observed a single binding site and a difference in B{sub max} values: QNB competition studies yield larger B{sub max} values than studies with {sup 3}H-NMS. Progress in the synthesis of D{sub 2} agonists includes solving a synthetic problem and preparation of the cold'' analogue of N-0437 using procedures applicable to eventual synthesis with {sup 11}C-CH{sub 3}I. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Metabolic mapping of A3 adenosine receptor agonist MRS5980

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Tosh, Dilip K.; Tanaka, Naoki; Wang, Haina; Krausz, Kristopher W.; O'Connor, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    (1S,2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(2-((5-Chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethynyl)-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxamide (MRS5980) is an A3AR selective agonist containing multiple receptor affinity- and selectivity-enhancing modifications and a therapeutic candidate drug for many inflammatory diseases. Metabolism-related poor pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicities are a major reason of drug R&D failure. Metabolomics with UPLC-MS was employed to profile the metabolism of MRS5980 and MRS5980-induced disruption of endogenous compounds. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes screening experiment were used to determine the enzymes involved in MRS5980 metabolism. Analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes was performed to investigate the reason for MRS5980-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Unsupervised principal components analysis separated the control and MRS5980 treatment group in feces, urine, and liver samples, but not in bile and serum. The major ions mainly contributing to the separation for feces and urine were oxidized MRS5980, glutathione (GSH) conjugates and cysteine conjugate (degradation product of the GSH conjugates) of MRS5980. The major ions contributing to the group separation of liver samples were phosphatidylcholines. In vitro incubation experiments showed the major involvement of CYP3A enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of MRS5980 and direct GSH reactivity of MRS5980. The electrophilic attack by MRS5980 is a minor pathway and did not alter GSH levels in liver or liver histology, and thus may be of minor clinical consequence. Gene expression analysis further showed decreased expression of PC biosynthetic genes choline kinase a and b, which further accelerated conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholines through increasing the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3. These data will be useful to guide rational design of drugs targeting A3AR, considering efficacy, metabolic elimination, and

  11. Metabolic mapping of A3 adenosine receptor agonist MRS5980.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Tosh, Dilip K; Tanaka, Naoki; Wang, Haina; Krausz, Kristopher W; O'Connor, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-09-15

    (1S,2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(2-((5-Chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethynyl)-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxamide (MRS5980) is an A3AR selective agonist containing multiple receptor affinity- and selectivity-enhancing modifications and a therapeutic candidate drug for many inflammatory diseases. Metabolism-related poor pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicities are a major reason for drug R&D failure. Metabolomics with UPLC-MS was employed to profile the metabolism of MRS5980 and MRS5980-induced disruption of endogenous compounds. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes screening experiment were used to determine the enzymes involved in MRS5980 metabolism. Analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes was performed to investigate the reason for MRS5980-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Unsupervised principal components analysis separated the control and MRS5980 treatment groups in feces, urine, and liver samples, but not in bile and serum. The major ions mainly contributing to the separation of feces and urine were oxidized MRS5980, glutathione (GSH) conjugates and cysteine conjugate (degradation product of the GSH conjugates) of MRS5980. The major ions contributing to the group separation of liver samples were phosphatidylcholines. In vitro incubation experiments showed the involvement of CYP3A enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of MRS5980 and direct GSH reactivity of MRS5980. The electrophilic attack by MRS5980 is a minor pathway and did not alter GSH levels in liver or liver histology, and thus may be of minor clinical consequence. Gene expression analysis further showed decreased expression of PC biosynthetic genes choline kinase a and b, which further accelerated conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholines through increasing the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3. These data will be useful to guide rational design of drugs targeting A3AR, considering efficacy, metabolic elimination, and

  12. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves with Strong Sudden Cooling Weather on ApoE Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyu; Kuang, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Xiakun

    2015-05-26

    This study analyzes the mechanism of influence of heat waves with strong sudden cooling on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in ApoE-/- mice. The process of heat waves with strong sudden cooling was simulated with a TEM1880 meteorological-environment simulation chamber according to the data obtained at 5 a.m. of 19 June 2006 to 11 p.m. of 22 June 2006. Forty-eight ApoE-/- mice were divided into six blocks based on their weight. Two mice from each block were randomly assigned to control, heat wave, temperature drop, and rewarming temperature groups. The experimental groups were transferred into the climate simulator chamber for exposure to the simulated heat wave process with strong sudden temperature drop. After 55, 59, and 75 h of exposure, the experimental groups were successively removed from the chamber to monitor physiological indicators. Blood samples were collected by decollation, and the hearts were harvested in all groups. The levels of heat stress factors (HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, HIF-1α), cold stress factors (NE, EPI), vasoconstrictor factors (ANGII, ET-1, NO), and four items of blood lipid (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C) were measured in each ApoE-/- mouse. Results showed that the heat waves increased the levels of heat stress factors except SOD decreased, and decreased the levels of vasoconstrictor factors and blood lipid factors except TC increased. The strong sudden temperature drop in the heat wave process increased the levels of cold stress factors, vasoconstrictor factors and four blood lipid items (except the level of HDL-C which decreased) and decreased the levels of heat stress factors (except the level of SOD which increased). The analysis showed that heat waves could enhance atherosclerosis of ApoE-/- mice. The strong sudden temperature drop during the heat wave process increased the plasma concentrations of NE and ANGII, which indicates SNS activation, and resulted in increased blood pressure. NE and ANGII are vasoconstrictors involved in systemic

  13. Is ApoE ε4 Associated with Cognitive Functioning in African Americans Diagnosed with Alzheimer Disease? An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Mount, David L.; Ashley, Angela V.; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Goldstein, Felicia C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of the apolipoprotein ε4 allele (ApoE ε4) on cognitive performance in patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) has been studied in primarily Caucasian samples. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether the presence of ApoE ε4 is associated with cognitive performance in African American AD patients. Methods A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used to address the study objective. Data were extracted from the records of 65 African American patients who participated in the National Institutes of Health-National Institute on Aging (NIH-NIA) Emory University Alzheimer Disease Center Registry. Inclusion criteria were a clinical diagnosis of probable AD, cognitive testing using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery, and ApoE genotyping. Results Seventy percent of the patients were ApoE ε4 positive. Multiple regression analyses indicated that ApoE ε4 was significantly associated with poorer design copying (CERAD Constructional Praxis subtest), but other significant relationships were not observed between positive ε4 status and cognitive performance. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that the ApoE ε4 allele is not strongly associated with a particular pattern of cognitive functioning in African Americans once they are diagnosed with AD. However, these findings require replication in a large prospectively recruited and population-based sample of African American AD patients before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:19668025

  14. The Impact of Teachers&apos; Characteristics and Self-Reported Practices on Students&apos; Algebra Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Liza M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of teachers&apos; characteristics and self-reported practices on students&apos; Algebra achievement while controlling for students&apos; characteristics. This study is based on the secondary analysis of data collected from a nationally representative sample of 9 th grade students and their mathematics teachers during…

  15. The Role of a Model&apos;s Age for Young Children&apos;s Imitation: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmyj, Norbert; Seehagen, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a model&apos;s age on young children&apos;s behaviour has been a subject of considerable debate among developmental theorists. Despite the recent surge of interest, controversy remains about the nature of peer influence in early life. This article reviews studies that investigated the influence of a model&apos;s age on young…

  16. Using Video Analysis to Support Prospective K-8 Teachers&apos; Noticing of Students&apos; Multiple Mathematical Knowledge Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth McDuffie, Amy; Foote, Mary Q.; Bolson, Catherine; Turner, Erin E.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger research project aimed at transforming preK-8 mathematics teacher preparation, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which prospective teachers notice children&apos;s competencies related to children&apos;s mathematical thinking, and children&apos;s community, cultural, and linguistic funds of knowledge or what…

  17. Teacher Characteristics Associated with Mathematics Teachers&apos; Beliefs and Awareness of Their Students&apos; Mathematical Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; DePiper, Jill Neumayer; Frank, Toya Jones; Nishio, Masako; Campbell, Patricia F.; Smith, Toni M.; Griffin, Matthew J.; Rust, Amber H.; Conant, Darcy L.; Choi, Youyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between teacher characteristics and teachers&apos; beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning and the extent to which teachers claim awareness of their students&apos; mathematical dispositions. Regression analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between teachers&apos; beliefs and…

  18. Parents&apos; Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviours, and Skills Predict Children&apos;s Recognition of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others&apos; emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children&apos;s abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents&apos; own emotion-related beliefs,…

  19. "Yes, Master&apos;s": A Graduate Degree&apos;s Moment in the Age of Higher Education Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, enrollment in professional master&apos;s degree programs has grown substantially, and this category has outpaced the overall recent flattening of college enrollment. Today, 5 million more U.S. adults hold a master&apos;s degree compared with a decade ago, and in some circles the master&apos;s is being referred to as "the…

  20. The pharmacologic basis for clinical differences among GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier

    2011-11-01

    The incretin system plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, largely through the actions of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Unlike GIP, the actions of GLP-1 are preserved in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has led to the development of injectable GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. GLP-1R agonists-which can be dosed to pharmacologic levels-act directly upon the GLP-1R. In contrast, DPP-4 inhibitors work indirectly by inhibiting the enzymatic inactivation of native GLP-1, resulting in a modest increase in endogenous GLP-1 levels. GLP-1R agonists generally lower the fasting and postprandial glucose levels more than DPP-4 inhibitors, resulting in a greater mean reduction in glycated hemoglobin level with GLP-1R agonists (0.4%-1.7%) compared with DPP-4 inhibitors (0.4%-1.0%). GLP-1R agonists also promote satiety and reduce total caloric intake, generally resulting in a mean weight loss of 1 to 4 kg over several months in most patients, whereas DPP-4 inhbitors are weight-neutral overall. GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are generally safe and well tolerated. The glucose-dependent manner of stimulation of insulin release and inhibition of glucagon secretion by both GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors contribute to the low incidence of hypoglycemia. Although transient nausea occurs in 26% to 28% of patients treated with GLP-1R agonists but not DPP-4 inhibitors, this can be reduced by using a dose-escalation strategy. Other adverse events (AEs) associated with GLP-1R agonists include diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. The main AEs associated with DPP-4 inhibitors include upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and headache. Overall, compared with other therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus with similar efficacy, incretin-based agents have low risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, GLP-1R agonists demonstrate greater

  1. Selective VIP Receptor Agonists Facilitate Immune Transformation for Dopaminergic Neuroprotection in MPTP-Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Katherine E.; Kosloski-Bilek, Lisa M.; Anderson, Kristi M.; Diggs, Breha J.; Clark, Barbara E.; Gledhill, John M.; Shandler, Scott J.; Mosley, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mediates a broad range of biological responses by activating two related receptors, VIP receptor 1 and 2 (VIPR1 and VIPR2). Although the use of native VIP facilitates neuroprotection, clinical application of the hormone is limited due to VIP's rapid metabolism and inability to distinguish between VIPR1 and VIPR2 receptors. In addition, activation of both receptors by therapeutics may increase adverse secondary toxicities. Therefore, we developed metabolically stable and receptor-selective agonists for VIPR1 and VIPR2 to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic therapeutic end points. Selective agonists were investigated for their abilities to protect mice against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration used to model Parkinson's disease (PD). Survival of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the substantia nigra was determined by stereological tests after MPTP intoxication in mice pretreated with either VIPR1 or VIPR2 agonist or after adoptive transfer of splenic cell populations from agonist-treated mice administered to MPTP-intoxicated animals. Treatment with VIPR2 agonist or splenocytes from agonist-treated mice resulted in increased neuronal sparing. Immunohistochemical tests showed that agonist-treated mice displayed reductions in microglial responses, with the most pronounced effects in VIPR2 agonist-treated, MPTP-intoxicated mice. In parallel studies, we observed reductions in proinflammatory cytokine release that included IL-17A, IL-6, and IFN-γ and increases in GM-CSF transcripts in CD4+ T cells recovered from VIPR2 agonist-treated animals. Moreover, a phenotypic shift of effector to regulatory T cells was observed. These results support the use of VIPR2-selective agonists as neuroprotective agents for PD treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 can elicit immune transformation in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Such immunomodulatory capabilities can lead to neuroprotection by attenuating

  2. Nonlinear analysis of partial dopamine agonist effects on cAMP in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Avalos, M; Mak, C; Randall, P K; Trzeciakowski, J P; Abell, C; Kwan, S W; Wilcox, R E

    2001-01-01

    Most drugs have some efficacy so that improved methods to determine the relative intrinsic efficacy of partial agonists should be of benefit to preclinical and clinical investigators. We examined the effects of partial D(1) or partial D(2) dopamine agonists using a partial agonist interaction model. The dependent variable was the modulation of the dopamine-receptor-mediated cAMP response in C6 glioma cells selectively and stably expressing either D(1) or D(2) recombinant dopamine receptors. The dissociation constant (K(B)) and relative intrinsic efficacy (E(r)) for each partial agonist were calculated using a partial agonist interaction null model in which the effects of fixed concentrations of each partial agonist on the dopamine dose-response curve were evaluated. This model is an extension of the competitive antagonist null model to drugs with efficacy and assumes only that the log-dose--response curve is monotonic. Generally, the partial agonist interaction model fit the data, as well as fits of the independent logistic curves. Furthermore, the partial agonist K(B) values could be shared across partial agonist concentrations without worsening the model fit (by increasing the residual variance). K(B) values were also similar to drug affinities reported in the literature. The model was validated in three ways. First, we assumed a common tissue stimulus parameter (beta) and calculated the E(r) values. This provided a qualitative check on the interaction model results. Second, we calculated new relative efficacy values, E(r)(beta), using the beta estimate. Third, we calculated relative efficacy using relative maxima times midpoint shift ratios (J. Theor. Biol. 198 (1999) 347.). All three methods indicated that the present model yielded reasonable estimates of affinity and relative efficacy for the set of compounds studied. Our results provide a quick and convenient method of quantification of partial agonist efficacy. Special applications and limitations of the

  3. Hexim1 heterozygosity stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis in ApoE null mice fed atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Rozenberg, Inna; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Beckles, Daniel; Mascareno, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Hexim-1 is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. Decreased Hexim-1 expression in animal models of chronic diseases such as left ventricular hypertrophy, obesity and cancer triggered significant changes in adaptation and remodeling. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Hexim1 in lipid metabolism focused in the progression of atherosclerosis and steatosis. We used the C57BL6 apolipoprotein E (ApoE null) crossed bred to C57BL6Hexim1 heterozygous mice to obtain ApoE null - Hexim1 heterozygous mice (ApoE-HT). Both ApoE null backgrounds were fed high fat diet for twelve weeks. Then, we evaluated lipid metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque formation and liver steatosis. In order to understand changes in the transcriptome of both backgrounds during the progression of steatosis, we performed Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 microarray. After 12 weeks of HFD, ApoE null and ApoE-HT showed similar increase of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma. Plaque composition was altered in ApoE-HT. Additionally, liver triglycerides and steatosis were decreased in ApoE-HT mice. Affymetrix analysis revealed that decreased steatosis might be due to impaired inducible SOCS3 expression in ApoE-HT mice. In conclusion, decreased Hexim-1 expression does not alter cholesterol metabolism in ApoE null background after HFD. However, it promotes stable atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis by promoting the anti-inflammatory TGFβ pathway and blocking the expression of the inducible and pro-inflammatory expression of SOCS3 respectively.

  4. Synthesis and opioid receptor affinity of morphinan and benzomorphan derivatives: mixed kappa agonists and mu agonists/antagonists as potential pharmacotherapeutics for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, J L; Bidlack, J M; Zong, R; Bakthavachalam, V; Gao, P; Cohen, D J; Negus, S S; Mello, N K

    2000-01-13

    This report concerns the synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of a novel series of kappa agonists related to the morphinan (-)-cyclorphan (3a) and the benzomorphan (-)-cyclazocine (2) as potential agents for the pharmacotherapy of cocaine abuse. Recent evidence suggests that agonists acting at kappa opioid receptors may modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons and alter the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine. We describe the synthesis and chemical characterization of a series of morphinans 3a-c, structural analogues of cyclorphan [(-)-3-hydroxy-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan S(+)-mandelate, 3a], the 10-ketomorphinans 4a,b, and the 8-ketobenzomorphan 1b. Binding experiments demonstrated that the cyclobutyl analogue 3b [(-)-3-hydroxy-N-cyclobutylmethylmorphinan S(+)-mandelate, 3b, MCL-101] of cyclorphan (3a) had a high affinity for mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors in guinea pig brain membranes. Both 3a,b were approximately 2-fold more selective for the kappa receptor than for the mu receptor. However 3b (the cyclobutyl analogue) was 18-fold more selective for the kappa receptor in comparison to the delta receptor, while cyclorphan (3a) had only 4-fold greater affinity for the kappa receptor in comparison to the delta receptor. These findings were confirmed in the antinociceptive tests (tail-flick and acetic acid writhing) in mice, which demonstrated that cyclorphan (3a) produced antinociception that was mediated by the delta receptor while 3b did not produce agonist or antagonist effects at the delta receptor. Both 3a,b had comparable kappa agonist properties. 3a,b had opposing effects at the mu receptor: 3b was a mu agonist whereas 3a was a mu antagonist.

  5. A Nontoxic Barlow&apos;s Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Barlow&apos;s wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822. In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns…

  6. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate) diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration. PMID:26828652

  7. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate) diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration.

  8. Detection of glucocorticoid receptor agonists in effluents from sewage treatment plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Sato, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Brouwer, Abraham; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-15

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that several GCs such as cortisol and dexamethasone (Dex) were frequently detected in effluents collected from Japanese sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 2012. In this study, we used the GC-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (GR-CALUX) assay to elucidate GC receptor (GR) agonistic activities of ten pure synthetic GCs and selected STP effluents in Japan for assessment of the risks associated with the presence of GR agonists. The tested GCs demonstrated dose-dependent agonistic effects in the GR-CALUX assay and their EC50 values were calculated for estimation of relative potencies (REPs) compared to Dex. The GR agonistic potency was in the rank of: clobetasol propionate > clobetasone butyrate > betamethasone 17-valerate > difluprednate > betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate > Dex > betamethasone > 6α-methylprednisolone > prednisolone > cortisol. The GR agonistic activity in STP effluents as measured in Dex-equivalent (Dex-EQ) activities ranged from < 3.0-78 ng L(-1) (median: 29 ng L(-1), n = 50). To evaluate the contribution of the target GCs, theoretical Dex-EQs were calculated by multiplying the concentrations of each GC by its respective REP. Our calculation of Dex-EQ contribution for individual GR agonists indicated that the well-known GCs cortisol and Dex should not be given priority for subsequent in vivo testing, monitoring and removal experiments, but rather the highly potent synthetic GCs clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate (REP = 28 and 3.1) as well as other unidentified compounds are important GR agonists in STP effluents in Japan.

  9. PPAR agonists regulate brain gene expression: relationship to their effects on ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura B; Most, Dana; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. Although prescribed for dyslipidemia and type-II diabetes, PPAR agonists also possess anti-addictive characteristics. PPAR agonists decrease ethanol consumption and reduce withdrawal severity and susceptibility to stress-induced relapse in rodents. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms facilitating these properties have yet to be investigated. We tested three PPAR agonists in a continuous access two-bottle choice (2BC) drinking paradigm and found that tesaglitazar (PPARα/γ; 1.5 mg/kg) and fenofibrate (PPARα; 150 mg/kg) decreased ethanol consumption in male C57BL/6J mice while bezafibrate (PPARα/γ/β; 75 mg/kg) did not. We hypothesized that changes in brain gene expression following fenofibrate and tesaglitazar treatment lead to reduced ethanol drinking. We studied unbiased genomic profiles in areas of the brain known to be important for ethanol dependence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala, and also profiled gene expression in liver. Genomic profiles from the non-effective bezafibrate treatment were used to filter out genes not associated with ethanol consumption. Because PPAR agonists are anti-inflammatory, they would be expected to target microglia and astrocytes. Surprisingly, PPAR agonists produced a strong neuronal signature in mouse brain, and fenofibrate and tesaglitazar (but not bezafibrate) targeted a subset of GABAergic interneurons in the amygdala. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed co-expression of treatment-significant genes. Functional annotation of these gene networks suggested that PPAR agonists might act via neuropeptide and dopaminergic signaling pathways in the amygdala. Our results reveal gene targets through which PPAR agonists can affect alcohol consumption behavior.

  10. Desensitization of functional µ-opioid receptors increases agonist off-rate.

    PubMed

    Williams, John T

    2014-07-01

    Desensitization of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) develops over 5-15 minutes after the application of some, but not all, opioid agonists and lasts for tens of minutes after agonist removal. The decrease in function is receptor selective (homologous) and could result from 1) a reduction in receptor number or 2) a decrease in receptor coupling. The present investigation used photolysis of two caged opioid ligands to examine the kinetics of MOR-induced potassium conductance before and after MOR desensitization. Photolysis of a caged antagonist, carboxynitroveratryl-naloxone (caged naloxone), blocked the current induced by a series of agonists, and the time constant of decline was significantly decreased after desensitization. The increase in the rate of current decay was not observed after partial blockade of receptors with the irreversible antagonist, β-chlornaltrexamine (β-CNA). The time constant of current decay after desensitization was never more rapid than 1 second, suggesting an increased agonist off-rate rather than an increase in the rate of channel closure downstream of the receptor. The rate of G protein-coupled K(+) channel (GIRK) current activation was examined using photolysis of a caged agonist, carboxynitrobenzyl-tyrosine-[Leu(5)]-enkephalin. After acute desensitization or partial irreversible block of MORs with β-CNA, there was an increase in the time it took to reach a peak current. The decrease in the rate of agonist-induced GIRK conductance was receptor selective and dependent on receptor number. The results indicate that opioid receptor desensitization reduced the number of functional receptor and that the remaining active receptors have a reduced agonist affinity.

  11. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26