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Sample records for agonist phenylephrine phe

  1. Phenylephrine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for your symptoms. Check nonprescription cough and cold product labels carefully before using two or more products at ... adults to children.Before you give a phenylephrine product to a child, check the package label to find out how much medication the child ...

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase plays an essential role in hypertrophic agonists, endothelin-1 and phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yue, T L; Gu, J L; Wang, C; Reith, A D; Lee, J C; Mirabile, R C; Kreutz, R; Wang, Y; Maleeff, B; Parsons, A A; Ohlstein, E H

    2000-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is activated by hypertrophic stimuli in cardiomyocytes. However, whether ERK plays an essential role or is implicated in all major components of cardiac hypertrophy remains controversial. Using a selective MEK inhibitor, U0126, and a selective Raf inhibitor, SB-386023, to block the ERK signaling pathway at two different levels and adenovirus-mediated transfection of dominant-negative Raf, we studied the role of ERK signaling in response of cultured rat cardiomyocytes to hypertrophic agonists, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and phenylephrine (PE). U0126 and SB-386023 blocked ET-1 and PE-induced ERK but not p38 and JNK activation in cardiomyocytes. Both compounds inhibited ET-1 and PE-induced protein synthesis and increased cell size, sarcomeric reorganization, and expression of beta-myosin heavy chain in myocytes with IC(50) values of 1-2 microm. Furthermore, both inhibitors significantly reduced ET-1- and PE-induced expression of atrial natriuretic factor. In cardiomyocytes transfected with a dominant-negative Raf, ET-1- and PE-induced increase in cell size, sarcomeric reorganization, and atrial natriuretic factor production were remarkably attenuated compared with the cells infected with an adenovirus-expressing green fluorescence protein. Taken together, our data strongly support the notion that the ERK signal pathway plays an essential role in ET-1- and PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PMID:10984495

  3. Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... I use pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine if I am breastfeeding? At recommended doses, only a small amount of pseudoephedrine gets into breast milk. In general, pseudoephedrine does not cause any side effects in the breastfed baby, but a few cases ...

  4. The cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of phenylephrine on corneal stromal cells via a mitochondrion-dependent pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Qiu, Yue; Tian, Cheng-Lei; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Phenylephrine (PHE), a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, is often used as a decongestant for mydriasis prior to cataract surgery, and its abuse might be cytotoxic to the cornea and result in blurred vision. However, the cytotoxicity of PHE to the cornea and its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To provide references for secure medication and prospective therapeutic interventions of PHE, we investigated the cytotoxicity of PHE to corneal stroma and its possible mechanisms using an in vitro model of human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and an in vivo model of cat keratocytes. We found that PHE, above the concentration of 0.0781125% (1/128 of its clinical therapeutic dosage), had a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing morphological abnormality and viability decline, as well as S phase arrest. Moreover, PHE induced apoptosis of HCS cells by inducing plasma membrane permeability elevation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. Furthermore, PHE could induce activations of caspase-3 and -9, disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, along with upregulation of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. The cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of PHE were also proven by the induced apoptotic-like ultrastructural alterations of keratocytes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that PHE has a significant cytotoxicity to corneal stroma cells both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis, and the pro-apoptotic effect of PHE is achieved via a Bcl-2 family proteins-mediated mitochondrion-dependent pathway. PMID:27344612

  5. Investigating the degradation of the sympathomimetic drug phenylephrine by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Trommer, Hagen; Raith, Klaus; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2010-06-01

    The frequently used sympathomimetic drug phenylephrine has been studied by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry. The stability of the adrenoceptor agonist was examined by investigations of the pharmaceutically used salts phenylephrine hydrochloride and phenylephrine bitartrate. Photostability has been studied by use of an irradiation equipment emitting a solar radiation spectrum. The experiments were carried out by analysis of aqueous drug solutions before and after irradiation treatment. The phenylephrine derivative with unsaturated side chain originating from the drug by loss of one water molecule has been detected as the major degradation product of both phenylephrine salts the hydrochloride and the bitartrate. Further degradation and oxidation products were detectable already in the full scan mode demonstrating a low stability of the drug. Tandem mass spectrometry and multiple stage mass spectrometry experiments enabled the establishment of fragmentation schemes of both salts for the first time. Irradiation treatment indicated that phenylephrine bitartrate is more prone to degradation than the hydrochloride because of an additional decomposition sensitivity of the tartaric acid counter ion. An interaction between phenylephrine and its counter ion degradation products via a nucleophilic addition mechanism is suggested to be the explanation for the detected ion signals after irradiation treatment of phenylephrine bitartrate. PMID:20122809

  6. Phenylephrine

    MedlinePlus

    Children's Sudafed PE Nasal Decongestant® ... PediaCare Children's Decongestant® ... be giving cough and cold medications to a child.Nonprescription cough and cold combination products, including products ...

  7. N-terminal guanidinylation of TIPP (Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe) peptides results in major changes of the opioid activity profile.

    PubMed

    Weltrowska, Grazyna; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Chung, Nga N; Wilkes, Brian C; Schiller, Peter W

    2013-09-15

    Derivatives of peptides of the TIPP (Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe; Tic=1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) family containing a guanidino (Guan) function in place of the N-terminal amino group were synthesized in an effort to improve their blood-brain barrier permeability. Unexpectedly, N-terminal amidination significantly altered the in vitro opioid activity profiles. Guan-analogues of TIPP-related δ opioid antagonists showed δ partial agonist or mixed δ partial agonist/μ partial agonist activity. Guanidinylation of the mixed μ agonist/δ antagonists H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) and H-Dmt-TicΨ[CH2NH]Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2[Ψ]) converted them to mixed μ agonistagonists. A docking study revealed distinct positioning of DIPP-NH2 and Guan-DIPP-NH2 in the δ receptor binding site. Lys(3)-analogues of DIPP-NH2 and DIPP-NH2[Ψ] (guanidinylated or non-guanidinylated) turned out to be mixed μ/κ agonists with δ antagonist-, δ partial agonist- or δ full agonist activity. Compounds with some of the observed mixed opioid activity profiles have therapeutic potential as analgesics with reduced side effects or for treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:23932788

  8. Derivative emission spectrofluorimetry for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin and phenylephrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Maher, Hadir M; Alshehri, Mona M; Al-taweel, Shorog M

    2015-05-01

    Rapid, simple and sensitive derivative emission spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixtures of guaifenesin (GUA) and phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE). The methods are based upon measurement of the native fluorescence intensity of the two drugs at λex = 275 nm in methanolic solutions, followed by differentiation using first (D1) and second (D2) derivative techniques. The derivative fluorescence intensity-concentration plots were rectilinear over a range of 0.1-2 µg/mL for both GUA and PHE. The limits of detection were 0.027 (D1, GUA), 0.025 (D2, GUA), 0.031 (D1, PHE) and 0.033 (D2, PHE) µg/mL and limits of quantitation were 0.089 (D1, GUA), 0.083 (D2, GUA), 0.095 (D1, PHE) and 0.097 (D2, PHE) µg/mL. The proposed derivative emission spectrofluorimetric methods (D1 and D2) were successfully applied for the determination of the two compounds in binary mixtures and tablets with high precision and accuracy. The proposed methods were fully validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:25044215

  9. In vivo comparison of phenylephrine and phenylephrine oxazolidine instilled in the monkey eye.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, R D; Folk, J C; Kumar, V; Piper, J G

    1987-01-01

    The ocular and cardiovascular effects as well as aqueous humor and plasma concentrations of 10% phenylephrine HCl and 1% phenylephrine oxazolidine (prodrug) were compared in cynomolgus monkeys. A volume of 25 microliters of either drug was administered to one eye followed by blood pressure, pulse, and pupillary measurements at 10 min intervals up to 60 minutes. Careful slit lamp examinations of the anterior segment, indirect ophthalmoscopy of the vitreous and retina, and ERGs were performed at 60 minutes. Four plasma determinations of phenylephrine following administration of either drug were made between 5 and 60 minutes. Measurement of phenylephrine in aqueous humor was also determined at 60 minutes following all other measurements. The maximal pupillary dilation after administration of 1% prodrug (mean + s.d. = 4.4 + 0.5 mm, n = 12) was slightly greater than after administration of phenylephrine 10% (mean + s.d. = 3.9 + 0.8 mm, n = 12). The differences in pupillary diameter from 20 through 40 minutes were statistically greater for the prodrug. The greater pupillary diameter at the earlier times resulted in an onset of pupillary dilation approximately 15 minutes earlier for the 1% prodrug. There was no ocular toxicity from either drug. Neither drug resulted in any ERG changes compared to baseline. Significantly higher aqueous humor levels along with lower plasma levels were detected and found to be statistically different following administration of the 1% prodrug when compared to 10% phenylephrine. PMID:3503921

  10. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of PL-3994, a novel cyclic peptide (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH2) natriuretic peptide receptor-A agonist that is resistant to neutral endopeptidase and acts as a bronchodilator

    PubMed Central

    Edelson, Jeffrey D.; Makhlina, Marie; Silvester, Kevin R.; Vengurlekar, Shailesh S.; Chen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Jie; Koziol-White, Cynthia J.; Cooper, Philip R.; Hallam, Trevor J.; Hay, Douglas W.P.; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological and airways relaxant profiles of PL-3994 (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-dNle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH2), a novel natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) agonist, were evaluated. PL-3994, a full agonist, has high affinity for recombinant human (h), dog, or rat NPR-As (Kis of 1, 41, and 10 nm, respectively), and produced concentration-dependent cGMP generation in human, dog and rat NPR-As (respective EC50s of 2, 3 and 14 nm). PL-3994 has a Ki of 7 nm for hNPR-C but was without effect on cGMP generation in hNPR-B. PL-3994 (1 µm) was without significant effect against 75 diverse molecular targets. PL-3994 or BNP, a natural NPR ligand, produced concentration-dependent relaxation of pre-contracted guinea-pig trachea (IC50s of 42.7 and 10.7 nm, respectively). PL-3994, and also BNP, (0.1 nm–100 µm) elicited a potent, concentration-dependent but small relaxation of pre-contracted human precision-cut lung slices (hPCLS). Intratracheal PL-3994 (1–1000 µg/kg) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the bronchoconstrictor response evoked by aerosolized methacholine, but was without significant effect on cardiovascular parameters. PL-3994 was resistant to degradation by human neutral endopeptidase (hNEP) (92% remaining after 2 h), whereas the natural ligands, ANP and CNP, were rapidly metabolized (≤1% remaining after 2 h). PL-3994 is a potent, selective NPR agonist, resistant to NEP, with relaxant effects in guinea-pig and human airway smooth muscle systems. PL-3994 has the profile predictive of longer clinical bronchodilator activity than observed previously with ANP, and suggests its potential utility in the treatment of asthma, in addition to being a useful research tool to evaluate NPR biology. PMID:23154072

  11. Responsiveness of superficial hand veins to phenylephrine in essential hypertension. Alpha adrenergic blockade during prazosin therapy.

    PubMed

    Eichler, H G; Ford, G A; Blaschke, T F; Swislocki, A; Hoffman, B B

    1989-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension show an increase in vascular resistance. It is unclear whether this is caused by structural changes in the arterial wall or by hyperresponsiveness of vascular smooth muscle to endogenous alpha adrenergic agonists. Using the dorsal hand vein compliance technique we compared the changes in diameter of superficial veins in response to phenylephrine, an alpha 1 adrenergic receptor agonist, and to nitroglycerin, a venorelaxant, in patients with essential hypertension and in normotensive subjects. The dose of phenylephrine that produced 50% of maximal venoconstriction (ED50) in the hypertensive subjects was 257 ng/min (geometric mean; log mean +/- SD was 2.41 +/- 0.54). In the control subjects the ED50 was 269 ng/min (geometric mean; log mean was 2.43 +/- 0.43). Maximal response (Emax) for phenylephrine was 84 +/- 13% in the hypertensive subjects and 90 +/- 6% in the control subjects. Differences in the group means of the ED50 (P = 0.92) or the Emax (P = 0.27) were not significant. There were no significant differences in the ED50 (P = 0.54) or the Emax (P = 0.08) for nitroglycerin between the two groups. These results show no evidence for a generalized change in alpha adrenergic responsiveness in hypertension and support the concept that increased blood pressure responses to alpha adrenergic stimulation in hypertensives are due to structural and geometric changes in the arterial wall rather than to an increased responsiveness of postsynaptic alpha adrenergic receptors. The phenylephrine studies were repeated in seven hypertensive patients during treatment with prazosin, an alpha 1 adrenergic antagonist. The mean dose ratio of the shift in phenylephrine ED50 (ED50 during prazosin therapy/ED50 before prazosin therapy) was 6.1. This indicates that small doses of prazosin (1-2 mg) cause significant in vivo shifts in the dose-response relationship of alpha adrenergic agonists. The dorsal hand vein compliance technique is useful in

  12. Metformin exaggerates phenylephrine-induced AMPK phosphorylation independent of CaMKKβ and attenuates contractile response in endothelium-denuded rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Pyla, Rajkumar; Osman, Islam; Pichavaram, Prahalathan; Hansen, Paul; Segar, Lakshman

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, a widely prescribed antidiabetic drug, has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Its beneficial effect toward improved vasodilation results from its ability to activate AMPK and enhance nitric oxide formation in the endothelium. To date, metformin regulation of AMPK has not been fully studied in intact arterial smooth muscle, especially during contraction evoked by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. In the present study, ex vivo incubation of endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings with 3 mM metformin for 2 hours resulted in significant accumulation of metformin (~600 pmoles/mg tissue), as revealed by LC-MS/MS MRM analysis. However, metformin did not show significant increase in AMPK phosphorylation under these conditions. Exposure of aortic rings to a GPCR agonist (e.g., phenylephrine) resulted in enhanced AMPK phosphorylation by ~2.5-fold. Importantly, in metformin-treated aortic rings, phenylephrine challenge showed an exaggerated increase in AMPK phosphorylation by ~9.7-fold, which was associated with an increase in AMP/ATP ratio. Pretreatment with compound C (AMPK inhibitor) prevented AMPK phosphorylation induced by phenylephrine alone and also that induced by phenylephrine after metformin treatment. However, pretreatment with STO-609 (CaMKKβ inhibitor) diminished AMPK phosphorylation induced by phenylephrine alone but not that induced by phenylephrine after metformin treatment. Furthermore, attenuation of phenylephrine-induced contraction (observed after metformin treatment) was prevented by AMPK inhibition but not by CaMKKβ inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that, upon endothelial damage in the vessel wall, metformin uptake by the underlying vascular smooth muscle would accentuate AMPK phosphorylation by GPCR agonists independent of CaMKKβ to promote vasorelaxation. PMID:25179145

  13. Phenylephrine protects autotransplanted rabbit submandibular gland from apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Bin; Zhang Yan; Li Yuming; Gao Yan; Gan Yehua; Wu Liling Yu Guangyan

    2008-12-05

    Submandibular gland (SMG) autotransplantation is an effective treatment for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Our previous studies have shown that phenylephrine attenuates structural injury and promotes cell proliferation in autotransplanted rabbit SMG. However, the mechanism by which phenylephrine reduces the injury has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigate the ability of phenylephrine to inhibit apoptosis in autotransplanted rabbit SMG. We observed that apoptosis occurred in the early phase of SMG transplantation and that phenylephrine treatment protected transplanted SMG from apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that phenylephrine could significantly upregulate the expression of Bcl-2, downregulate the expression of Bax, and inhibit the activation of both caspase-3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in autotransplanted SMG. Therefore, the cytoprotective effects of phenylephrine on autotransplanted SMG may be a novel clinical strategy for autotransplanted SMG protection during the early postoperative stage of transplantation.

  14. Validated spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods for simultaneous determination of ketorolac tromethamine and phenylephrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Belal, T S; El-Kafrawy, D S; Mahrous, M S; Abdel-Khalek, M M; Abo-Gharam, A H

    2016-07-01

    This work describes five simple and reliable spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods for analysis of the binary mixture of ketorolac tromethamine (KTR) and phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE). Method I is based on the use of conventional Amax and derivative spectrophotometry with the zero-crossing technique where KTR was determined using its Amax and (1)D amplitudes at 323 and 341nm respectively, while PHE was determined by measuring the (1)D amplitudes at 248.5nm. Method II involves the application of the ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry. For KTR, 12μg/mL PHE was used as a divisor and the (1)DD amplitudes at 265nm were plotted against KTR concentrations; while - by using 4μg/mL KTR as divisor - the (1)DD amplitudes at 243.5nm were found proportional to PHE concentrations. Method III depends on ratio-difference measurement where the peak to trough amplitudes between 260 and 284nm were measured and correlated to KTR concentration. Similarly, the peak to trough amplitudes between 235 and 260nm in the PHE ratio spectra were recorded. For method IV, the two compounds were separated using Merck HPTLC sheets of silica gel 60 F254 and a mobile phase composed of chloroform/methanol/ammonia (70:30:2, by volume) followed by densitometric measurement of KTR and PHE spots at 320 and 278nm respectively. Method V depends on HPLC-DAD. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using Zorbax eclipse plus C8 column (4.6×250mm, 5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05M o-phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (50:50, by volume) at a flow rate 1mL/min and detection at 313 and 274nm for KTR and PHE respectively. Analytical performance of the developed methods was statistically validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, detection and quantification limits. The validated spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods were successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of KTR and PHE in synthetic mixtures

  15. Tributyltin contributes in reducing the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine in isolated aortic rings from female rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Samya Mere L; Ximenes, Carolina F; de Batista, Priscila R; Simões, Fabiana V; Coser, Pedro Henrique P; Sena, Gabriela C; Podratz, Priscila L; de Souza, Leticia N G; Vassallo, Dalton V; Graceli, Jones B; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-03-21

    Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) are used as antifouling paints by shipping companies. TBT inhibits the aromatase responsible for the transformation of testosterone into estrogen. Our hypothesis is that TBT modulates the vascular reactivity of female rats. Female Wistar rats were treated daily (Control; CONT) or TBT (100 ng/kg) for 15 days. Rings from thoracic aortas were incubated with phenylephrine (PHE, 10(-10)-10(-4) M) in the presence and absence of endothelium, and in the presence of N(G)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME), tetraethylammonium (TEA) and apocynin. TBT decreased plasma levels of estrogen and the vascular response to PHE. In the TBT group, the vascular reactivity was increased in the absence of endothelium, L-NAME and TEA. The decrease in PHE reactivity during incubation with apocynin was more evident in the TBT group. The sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was reduced in the TBT group. TBT increased collagen, reduced α1-smooth muscle actin. Female rats treated with TBT for 15 days showed morphology alteration of the aorta and decreased their vascular reactivity, probably due to mechanisms dependent on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, K(+) channels and an increase in oxidative stress. PMID:24468273

  16. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of PL-3994, a novel cyclic peptide (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)) natriuretic peptide receptor-A agonist that is resistant to neutral endopeptidase and acts as a bronchodilator.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Jeffrey D; Makhlina, Marie; Silvester, Kevin R; Vengurlekar, Shailesh S; Chen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Jie; Koziol-White, Cynthia J; Cooper, Philip R; Hallam, Trevor J; Hay, Douglas W P; Panettieri, Reynold A

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacological and airways relaxant profiles of PL-3994 (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)), a novel natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) agonist, were evaluated. PL-3994, a full agonist, has high affinity for recombinant human (h), dog, or rat NPR-As (K(i)s of 1, 41, and 10 nm, respectively), and produced concentration-dependent cGMP generation in human, dog and rat NPR-As (respective EC(50)s of 2, 3 and 14 nm). PL-3994 has a K(i) of 7 nm for hNPR-C but was without effect on cGMP generation in hNPR-B. PL-3994 (1 μm) was without significant effect against 75 diverse molecular targets. PL-3994 or BNP, a natural NPR ligand, produced concentration-dependent relaxation of pre-contracted guinea-pig trachea (IC(50)s of 42.7 and 10.7 nm, respectively). PL-3994, and also BNP, (0.1 nm-100 μm) elicited a potent, concentration-dependent but small relaxation of pre-contracted human precision-cut lung slices (hPCLS). Intratracheal PL-3994 (1-1000 μg/kg) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the bronchoconstrictor response evoked by aerosolized methacholine, but was without significant effect on cardiovascular parameters. PL-3994 was resistant to degradation by human neutral endopeptidase (hNEP) (92% remaining after 2 h), whereas the natural ligands, ANP and CNP, were rapidly metabolized (≤1% remaining after 2 h). PL-3994 is a potent, selective NPR agonist, resistant to NEP, with relaxant effects in guinea-pig and human airway smooth muscle systems. PL-3994 has the profile predictive of longer clinical bronchodilator activity than observed previously with ANP, and suggests its potential utility in the treatment of asthma, in addition to being a useful research tool to evaluate NPR biology. PMID:23154072

  17. Different contractile effects of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic agonists on horse isolated common digital artery smooth muscle ring preparations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, M; Carcano, R; Beretta, C

    2002-10-01

    Despite assays on ring preparations in vitro confirmed that the vasoconstrictor sympathetic control in the horse common digital artery mainly depends on alpha(1)-adrenoceptors stimulation, selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists were investigated under the same experimental conditions. Both detomidine (DET) and UK 14304 differed from noradrenaline (NA) and phenylephrine (PHE) in provoking contractile effects which were slowly onsetting, concentrations-unrelated and unremovable by repeated washings. While prazosin (PRA) clearly antagonized the effects of NA and PHE, neither pre- nor post-treatments of the preparations with alpha(2)-antagonists succeeded in antagonizing or removing the effects of the two alpha(2)-agonists tested, which moreover were unaffectable either by lowering the organ bath temperature or by depriving the nutritive medium of Ca(2+). To explain this unusual behavior of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors stimulation it has been hypothesized that a Ca(2+) mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum of the smooth muscle cell occurs which is followed by a hindered reuptake of them. PMID:12361691

  18. Evaluation of Phenylephrine Stability in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags

    PubMed Central

    Oldland, Alan R.; Kiser, Tyree H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Phenylephrine hydrochloride (HCl) is commonly used to maintain adequate blood pressure during shock and shocklike states. Phenylephrine is prepared in concentrated stock vials that require further dilution prior to administration. This study evaluated the physical and chemical stability of phenylephrine in extemporaneously prepared polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Methods: Phenylephrine HCl 10 mg/mL solution was diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection to final concentrations of 200 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) exposed to fluorescent light. Stability of phenylephrine HCl was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60. Results: Phenylephrine HCl 200 and 400 µg/mL solutions in PVC bags were physically stable during the entire 60-day study period. Phenylephrine HCl retained > 95% of the original concentration. Conclusion: Phenylephrine HCl diluted to 200 or 400 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection is both physically and chemically stable for a period of 60 days with ≤5% degradation when stored at room temperature and exposed to fluorescent lighting. PMID:24958958

  19. Acute ischaemic colitis associated with oral phenylephrine decongestant use.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul W; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Roan, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    In this case, the authors have presented for the first time that ischaemic colitis may be associated with phenylephrine use. Since phenylephrine is the more common active ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications, other presentations may follow this case. A MEDLINE search was performed for all case reports or case series of ischaemic colitis secondary to pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine use published between 1966 and 2013. The search resulted in four case reports and one case series describing patients with acute onset ischaemic colitis with exposure to pseudoephedrine immediately prior to onset. However, we found no case reports of ischaemic colitis associated with phenylephrine use. We present this case as an unexpected clinical outcome of phenylephrine, which has not been associated with ischaemic colitis in the literature. Also, this case serves as a reminder of the important clinical lesson to question all patients' use of OTC and prescribed medications. PMID:24895387

  20. Acute ischaemic colitis associated with oral phenylephrine decongestant use

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul W; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Roan, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    In this case, the authors have presented for the first time that ischaemic colitis may be associated with phenylephrine use. Since phenylephrine is the more common active ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications, other presentations may follow this case. A MEDLINE search was performed for all case reports or case series of ischaemic colitis secondary to pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine use published between 1966 and 2013. The search resulted in four case reports and one case series describing patients with acute onset ischaemic colitis with exposure to pseudoephedrine immediately prior to onset. However, we found no case reports of ischaemic colitis associated with phenylephrine use. We present this case as an unexpected clinical outcome of phenylephrine, which has not been associated with ischaemic colitis in the literature. Also, this case serves as a reminder of the important clinical lesson to question all patients’ use of OTC and prescribed medications. PMID:24895387

  1. Gradient HPLC-DAD determination of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, cetirizine in tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Dewani, A P; Shelke, P G; Bakal, R L; Jaybhaye, S S; Chandewar, A V; Patra, S

    2014-05-01

    Present work describes the development and validation of a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) procedure for the analysis of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE), paracetamol (PAR) and cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET), in pharmaceutical mixture. The method was applied successfully on tablet dosage form. Effective chromatographic separation of PHE, PAR and CET was achieved using a Kinetex-C18 (4.6, 150 mm, 5 mm) column with gradient elution of the mobile phase composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.3) and acetonitrile. The elution was a 3 step gradient elution program step-1 started initially with 2% (by volume) acetonitrile and 98% phosphate buffer (pH 3.3) for first 2 min. In step-2 acetonitrile concentration changed linearly to 20% upto 12 min the analysis was concluded by step-3 changing acetonitrile to 2% upto 20 min. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, selectivity and robustness. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges 5-15, 250-750 and 2.5-7.5 μg/ml for PHE, PAR and CET, with correlation coefficients >0.9996. The validated HPLC method was applied to a pharmaceutical mixture of a marketed preparation tablet in which the analytes were successfully quantified with good recovery values with no interfering peaks from the excipents. PMID:24132702

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Phenylephrine Nasal Drops in Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Gholamreza; Akbarpour, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in the first year of life. In this disease upper respiratory tract infection is associated with nasal congestion, respiratory distress and hypoxia. We studied the effect of phenylephrine drops as a decongestant in treatment of light and moderately severe cases of acute bronchiolitis. Methods: This is a double blind randomized trial involving 100 children aged 4 weeks to 12 months. The patients were divided into two groups, the first group received 0.1 ml phenylephrine 0.5% and the second group 0.1 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.9% as placebo in both nostrils. Respiratory rate, heart rate, O2 saturation, dyspnea, retractions and wheezing were assessed before and 30 minutes after medication. Findings: After medication, O2 saturation and respiratory muscles retractions in the phenylephrine group were significantly better than those of the placebo group (P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively). In the phenylephrine group, O2 saturation, retractions and wheezing were also significantly better before than those after medication (P=0.003 and P<0.0001 respectively). In the placebo group no significant difference before and after intervention was observed. Conclusion: Phenylephrine as a topical decongestant is an inexpensive, easily available and suitable means in the treatment of mild to moderately severe bronchiolitis. PMID:25793067

  3. Phenylephrine Decreases Vascular Tension in Goat Arteries in Specific Circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Renu R.

    2016-01-01

    Phenylephrine (PE) causes vasoconstriction through alpha adrenergic receptors. PE-induced vasodilatation has also been reported earlier in pre-constricted vessels. Here we demonstrate in spiral strips of goat arteries that addition of PE can decrease tone even from base-line levels (i.e. not pre-constricted) and show that this process requires nitric oxide (NO) and alpha adrenergic stimulation, but is cGMP-independent. Under control conditions, PE caused vasoconstriction, but under conditions where NO levels are higher, as with L-Arginine or sodium nitroprusside, PE decreased vessel tension. L-Arginine/PE combination was not able to decrease tension when alpha adrenoceptors were blocked with Phentolamine or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was blocked with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA). Propranolol, a beta blocker, was unable to prevent the reduction in tension by the L-Arginine/PE combination. Adrenaline and noradrenaline (and not isoproterenol) also reduced vessel tension in the presence of L-Arginine. Even when NO levels were not enhanced, relieving NO from having to stimulate the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) (either by using sGC blockers, namely ODQ or methylene blue, or by enhancing cGMP levels (with sildenafil) which by negative feedback probably inhibits sGC) led to PE-induced reduction of vascular tension. PMA—phorbol myristate acetate—an agonist which stimulates Protein Kinase C was able to prevent the ability of PE to reduce vascular tension in a high NO environment. Our conclusion is that PE reduces vascular tension through alpha adrenoceptors if there is excess NO availability to activate a putative pathway. Though the reduction of vessel tone by PE is dependent on NO, it is independent of cGMP. Prior treatment with PMA or PE itself can prevent further PE-induced reduction of tension in a high NO environment. The results here suggest, counter-intuitively, that alpha blockers may be of help in the treatment of septic shock where

  4. Hydrolysis of somatostatin by human tissue kallikrein after the amino acid pair phe-Phe.

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, D C; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L

    1997-01-01

    Somatostatin-(1-14) was hydrolysed by human tissue kallikrein at the Phe7-Trp8 bond, after a Phe-Phe pair of amino acids, with similar kinetic parameters to those described for human high- and low-molecular-mass kininogens. Substance P and human insulin, which also contain a Phe-Phe pair in their sequences, were both resistant. More details of this hydrolytic specificity of human tissue kallikrein were obtained by synthesizing and assaying internally quenched fluorescent peptides containing the sequence of somatostatin-(1-14), as well as the reactive-centre loop of human kallikrein-binding protein (kallistatin). We also observed that human tissue kallikrein hydrolysed growth hormone-releasing hormone at the Arg11-Lys12 bond, although this peptide contains in its structure a pair of leucines (Leu22-Leu23), in contrast with the Phe-Phe pair in somatostatin. We have also demonstrated the susceptibility to human tissue kallikrein of some chromogenic peptide s with the general structure of X-Phe-Phe-p-nitroanilide and D-Pro-Phe-Phe-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide. PMID:9355730

  5. Chemometrics resolution and quantification power evaluation: Application on pharmaceutical quaternary mixture of Paracetamol, Guaifenesin, Phenylephrine and p-aminophenol.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Ali M; Mohamed, Heba M

    2016-01-01

    Three advanced chemmometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods namely; Concentration Residuals Augmented Classical Least Squares (CRACLS), Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and Principal Component Analysis-Artificial Neural Networks (PCA-ANN) were developed, validated and benchmarked to PLS calibration; to resolve the severely overlapped spectra and simultaneously determine; Paracetamol (PAR), Guaifenesin (GUA) and Phenylephrine (PHE) in their ternary mixture and in presence of p-aminophenol (AP) the main degradation product and synthesis impurity of Paracetamol. The analytical performance of the proposed methods was described by percentage recoveries, root mean square error of calibration and standard error of prediction. The four multivariate calibration methods could be directly used without any preliminary separation step and successfully applied for pharmaceutical formulation analysis, showing no excipients' interference. PMID:26254602

  6. Chemometrics resolution and quantification power evaluation: Application on pharmaceutical quaternary mixture of Paracetamol, Guaifenesin, Phenylephrine and p-aminophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia, Ali M.; Mohamed, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    Three advanced chemmometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods namely; Concentration Residuals Augmented Classical Least Squares (CRACLS), Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and Principal Component Analysis-Artificial Neural Networks (PCA-ANN) were developed, validated and benchmarked to PLS calibration; to resolve the severely overlapped spectra and simultaneously determine; Paracetamol (PAR), Guaifenesin (GUA) and Phenylephrine (PHE) in their ternary mixture and in presence of p-aminophenol (AP) the main degradation product and synthesis impurity of Paracetamol. The analytical performance of the proposed methods was described by percentage recoveries, root mean square error of calibration and standard error of prediction. The four multivariate calibration methods could be directly used without any preliminary separation step and successfully applied for pharmaceutical formulation analysis, showing no excipients' interference.

  7. D-004 ameliorates phenylephrine-induced urodynamic changes and increased prostate and bladder oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzábal, Ambar; Pérez, Yohani; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Jiménez, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mainly depend on alpha1-adrenoreceptors (α1-ADR) stimulation, but a link with oxidative stress (OS) is also involved. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia fruits, antagonizes ADR-induced responses and produces antioxidant effects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether D-004 produce antioxidant effects in rats with phenylephrine (PHE)-induced urodynamic changes. Methods Rats were randomized into eight groups (ten rats/group): a negative vehicle control and seven groups injected with PHE: a positive control, three treated with D-004 (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) and three others with tamsulosin (0.4 mg/kg), grape seed extract (GSE) (250 mg/kg) and vitamin E (VE) (250 mg/kg), respectively. Results Effects on urinary total volume (UTV), volume voided per micturition (VM), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl groups (CG) concentrations in prostate and bladder homogenates were study outcomes. While VM and UTV lowered significantly in the positive control as compared to the negative control group, the opposite occurred with prostate and bladder MDA and CG values. D-004 (200-800 mg/kg) increased significantly both VM and UTV, lowered significantly MDA in prostate and bladder homogenates, and reduced GC levels only in the prostate. Tamsulosin increased significantly VM and UTV, but unchanged oxidative variables. GSE and VE unchanged the UTV, whereas VE, not GSE, modestly but significantly attenuated the PHE-induced decrease of VM. Conclusions Single oral administration of D-004 (200-800 mg/kg) was the only treatment that ameliorated the urodynamic changes and reduced increased oxidative variables in the prostate of rats with PHE-induced prostate hyperplasia. PMID:26816837

  8. The Phe-Phe Motif for Peptide Self-Assembly in Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, Silvia; Vargiu, Attilio V; Styan, Katie E

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery, the Phe-Phe motif has gained in popularity as a minimalist building block to drive the self-assembly of short peptides and their analogues into nanostructures and hydrogels. Molecules based on the Phe-Phe motif have found a range of applications in nanomedicine, from drug delivery and biomaterials to new therapeutic paradigms. Here we discuss the various production methods for this class of compounds, and the characterization, nanomorphologies, and application of their self-assembled nanostructures. We include the most recent findings on their remarkable properties, which hold substantial promise for the creation of the next generation nanomedicines. PMID:26540034

  9. Rapid inactivation of cathepsin L by Z-Phe-PheCHN/sub 2/ and Z-Phe-AlaCHN/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschke, H.; Shaw, E.

    1981-07-30

    Z-Phe-PheCHN/sub 2/ and Z-Phe-AlaCHN/sub 2/ were found to react extremely rapidly with cathepsin L from rat liver lysosomes. For measuring the inactivation time it was necessary to work with dilute enzyme and inhibitor solutions, that is in the range of 10/sup -9/ M. These conditions were made possible through the use of Z-Phe-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide, a very sensitive substrate suitable for assays of cathepsin L in about 10/sup -12/ M solutions. Z-Phe-AlaCHN/sub 2/ has an affinity for cathepsin L which is about 2000-fold higher than for cathepsin B from rat and human. Z-Phe-PheCHN/sub 2/ proved to be a selective inactivator of cathepsin L in a certain concentration range. Z-Phe-PheCHN/sub 2/ reacts reversibly with cathepsin B from several species.

  10. Charge-transfer complexes of phenylephrine with nitrobenzene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mossalamy, E. H.

    2004-04-01

    The molecular charge-transfer complexes of phenylephrine with picric acid and m-dinitrobenzene have been studied and investigated by IR, 1H NMR electronic spectra in organic solvents and buffer solutions, respectively. Simple and selective methods are proposed for the determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride in bulk form and in tablets. The two methods are based on the formation of charge-transfer complexes between drug base as a n-donor (D) and picric acid, m-dinitrobenzene as π-acceptor (A). The products exhibit absorption maxima at 497 and 560 nm in acetonitrile for picric acid and m-dinitrobenzene, respectively. The coloured product exhibits an absorption maximum at 650 nm in dioxane. The sensitive kinetic methods for the determination phynylephrine hydrochloride are described. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time at 20 min.

  11. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli. PMID:20519555

  12. Agonist-specific behaviour of the intracellular Ca2+ response in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Chatton, J Y; Cao, Y; Stucki, J W

    1997-01-01

    A variety of agonists stimulate in hepatocytes a response that takes the shape of repetitive cytosolic free Ca2+ transients called Ca2+ oscillations. The shape of spikes and the pattern of oscillations in a given cell differ depending on the agonist of the phosphoinositide pathway that is applied. In this study, the response of individual rat hepatocytes to maximal stimulation by arginine vasopressin (AVP), phenylephrine and ADP was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flash photolysis. Hepatocytes loaded with Ca2+-sensitive probes were stimulated with a first agonist to evoke a maximal response, and then a second agonist was added. When phenylephrine or ADP was used as the first agonist, AVP applied subsequently could elicit an additional response, which did not happen when AVP was first applied and phenylephrine or ADP was applied later. Cells microinjected with caged myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) were challenged with the different agonists and, when a maximal response was obtained, photorelease of IP3 was triggered. Cells maximally stimulated with AVP did not respond to IP3 photorelease, whereas those stimulated with phenylephrine or ADP responded with a fast Ca2+ spike above the elevated steady-state level, which was followed by an undershoot. In contrast, with all three agonists, IP3 photorelease triggered at the top of an oscillatory Ca2+ transient was able to mobilize additional Ca2+. These experiments indicate that the differential response of cells to agonists is found not only during Ca2+ oscillations but also during maximal agonist stimulation and that potency and efficacy differences exist among agonists. PMID:9371717

  13. Phenyl ring dynamics of the insulin fragment Gly-Phe-Phe(B23 B25) by solid state deuterium NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, A.; Iizuka, T.; Tuzi, S.; Price, W. S.; Hayamizu, K.; Saitô, H.

    1995-08-01

    The phenyl ring dynamics of the insulin fragment Gly-Phe-Phe(B23-B25) were investigated using solid state deuterium NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the phenyl rings of the two phenylalanine residues Phe 2 and Phe 3 were rigid even up to 100°C both for the Gly-[ring- d5]Phe-Phe and the Gly-The-[ring- d5]Phe in the hydrated crystals. When the temperature was raised to 120°C, the hydrated water evaporated from the crystal, resulting in the onset of the flipping motion of the phenyl rings. Spectral simulation of the deuterium NMR spectra was performed to better characterize the motion of the phenyl rings in the peptides. It was found that the phenyl ring motion of the fragments is consistent with a 180° flip about the C βC γ bonds. The phenyl ring of Ph 2 of Gly-[ d5]Phe-Phe was more mobile than that of Phe 3 of Gly-Phe-[ d5]Phe when the tripeptide crystal was in the dehydrated state. The Phe-Phe residues in the tripeptide were quite rigid when the hydrophobic interaction around the Phe-Phe moiety was strong.

  14. Intraoperative Pulseless Electrical Activity and Acute Cardiogenic Shock After Administration of Phenylephrine, Epinephrine, and Ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Alan D.; Sabartinelli, Alecia L.; Kaye, Adam M.; Holtzman, Alan M.; Samm, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    The use of phenylephrine has been well described as a potential cause of morbidity and mortality. A thorough literature review of phenylephrine use is presented in this article. The use of ketamine and epinephrine with phenylephrine can precipitate an even more potentially lethal and catastrophic syndrome. We present the case of a 21-year-old man with Hodgkin's lymphoma and lupus who experienced an abrupt hypertensive crisis followed by pulseless electrical activity and cardiogenic shock after application of 2.5% phenylephrine-soaked nasal pledgets prior to excision of a large nasopharyngeal tumor. This case report adds to the current literature on the potential dangers of phenylephrine in clinical practice and describes a case of reversible severe left ventricular dysfunction in the setting of excessive pharmacologically induced sympathetic stimulation. PMID:21603379

  15. Cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Mae, Naomi; Nagata, Shun-ichi; Mamada, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    To determine dose-dependent cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine during anesthesia in horses, increasing doses of dobutamine and phenylephrine were infused to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and infused 3 increasing doses of dobutamine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/kg/min) for 15 min each dose. Following to 30 min of reversal period, 3 increasing doses of phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg/min) were infused. Cardiovascular parameters were measured before and at the end of each 15-min infusion period for each drug. Blood samples were collected every 5 min during phenylephrine infusion period. There were no significant changes in heart rate throughout the infusion period. Both dobutamine and phenylephrine reversed sevoflurane-induced hypotension. Dobutamine increased both mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) as the result of the increase in stroke volume, whereas phenylephrine increased MAP but decreased CO as the result of the increase in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma phenylephrine concentration increased dose-dependently, and these values at 15, 30 and 45 min were 6.2 ± 1.2, 17.0 ± 4.8 and 37.9 ± 7.3 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:23832627

  16. Intracerebral Hemorrhage Associated with Oral Phenylephrine Use: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tark, Brian E; Messe, Steven R; Balucani, Clotilde; Levine, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior reports have linked both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke to use of sympathomimetic drugs including phenylephrine. Objective To describe the first case, to our knowledge, of intracerebral hemorrhage following oral use of phenylephrine and to systematically review the literature on phenylephrine and acute stroke. Methods A case report and review of the literature. Results A 59-year-old female presented with thunderclap headache, right hemiparesis, aphasia, and left gaze deviation. Head CT showed a left frontal intracerebral hemorrhage with intraventricular and subarachnoid extension. She had no significant past medical history. For the previous thirty days, the patient was taking multiple common cold remedies containing phenylephrine to treat sinusitis. CT and MR angiography showed no causative vascular abnormality. Catheter cerebral angiography supported reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Phenylephrine was determined to be the most likely etiology for her hemorrhage. A review of the literature, found 7 cases describing phenylephrine use with acute stroke occurrence: female 5/7 (71%); route of administration: nasal (n=3); ophthalmic (n=2); intravenous (n=1); intracorporeal injection (n=1). Stroke types were: subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=5); ICH (n=4); ischemic (n=1). One case reported reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome after phenylephrine use. Conclusion It is scientifically plausible that phenylephrine may cause strokes, consistent with the pharmacological properties and adverse event profiles of similar amphetamine-like sympathomimetics. As reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome has been well-described in association with over-the-counter sympathomimetics, a likely, although not definitive, causal relationship between phenylephrine and intracerebral hemorrhage is proposed. PMID:25156786

  17. Does topical phenylephrine, tropicamide, or proparacaine affect macular blood flow?

    PubMed

    Robinson, F; Petrig, B L; Sinclair, S H; Riva, C E; Grunwald, J E

    1985-08-01

    The acute effect of topical phenylephrine HCl 10%, tropicamide 1% and proparacaine HCl 0.5% on macular capillary blood flow was studied in six healthy human volunteers using the blue field simulation technique. This technique provides a method for quantifying the velocity of leukocytes flowing in one's own retinal macular capillaries. Patients adjusted the velocity of computer simulated leukocytes moving on a CRT screen to match that of their own entoptically perceived leukocytes before instillation of each of the tested preparations and for 35 minutes immediately thereafter A 5% NaCl solution was used as a control. We found no significant difference in leukocyte velocity between the control drop and any of the tested drugs. With the six subjects tested, the calculated average minimum percentage change in leukocyte velocity detectable with this technique (P less than 0.05, paired t-test) was 9%. None of the tested drugs affected macular leukocyte velocity, and presumably blood flow, by more than this amount. PMID:4047607

  18. Comparison of phenylephrine hydrochloride and mephentermine sulphate for prevention of post spinal hypotension.

    PubMed

    Mohta, M; Janani, S Sai; Sethi, A K; Agarwal, D; Tyagi, A

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the effects of intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and mephentermine on the prevention of maternal hypotension and neonatal outcome in patients receiving spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Sixty ASA 1-2 patients with term, uncomplicated singleton pregnancy undergoing caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each, to receive a prophylactic intravenous infusion of either phenylephrine or mephentermine. The incidence of hypotension was statistically similar in the two groups. However, in patients receiving phenylephrine, 7 (23%) developed bradycardia and 6 (20%), reactive hypertension. Neonatal outcome, in terms of Apgar scores and umbilical artery pH, was similar in both the groups. To conclude, phenylephrine and mephentermine infusions are equally effective in preventing post spinal hypotension in patients undergoing caesarean section and are associated with a similar neonatal outcome. PMID:21182601

  19. Balloon catheter injury abolishes phenylephrine-induced relaxation in the rat contralateral carotid

    PubMed Central

    Pernomian, L; Gomes, MS; de Oliveira, AM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The consequences of compensatory responses to balloon catheter injury in rat carotid artery, on phenylephrine-induced relaxation and contraction in the contralateral carotid artery were studied. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Relaxation and contraction concentration–response curves for phenylephrine were obtained for contralateral carotid arteries in the presence of indomethacin (COX inhibitor), SC560 (COX-1 inhibitor), SC236 (COX-2 inhibitor) or 4-hydroxytetramethyl-L-piperidine-1-oxyl (tempol; superoxide dismutase mimetic). Reactive oxygen species were measured in carotid artery endothelial cells fluorimetrically with dihydroethidium. KEY RESULTS Phenylephrine-induced relaxation was abolished in contralateral carotid arteries from operated rats (Emax= 0.01 ± 0.004 g) in relation to control (Emax= 0.18 ± 0.005 g). Phenylephrine-induced contractions were increased in contralateral arteries (Emax= 0.54 ± 0.009 g) in relation to control (Emax= 0.38 ± 0.014 g). SC236 restored phenylephrine-induced relaxation (Emax= 0.17 ± 0.004 g) and contraction (Emax= 0.34 ± 0.018 g) in contralateral arteries. Tempol restored phenylephrine-induced relaxation (Emax= 0.19 ± 0.012 g) and contraction (Emax= 0.42 ± 0.014 g) in contralateral arteries, while apocynin did not alter either relaxation (Emax= 0.01 ± 0.004 g) or contraction (Emax= 0.54 ± 0.009 g). Dihydroethidium fluorescence was increased in contralateral samples (18 882 ± 435 U) in relation to control (10 455 ± 303 U). SC236 reduced the fluorescence in contralateral samples (8250 ± 365 U). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Balloon catheter injury abolished phenylephrine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in contralateral carotid arteries, through O2− derived from COX-2. PMID:21323906

  20. Phenylephrine as an alternative to cocaine for nasal vasoconstriction before nasal surgery: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    AlHaddad, Sawsan T; Khanna, Ashish K; Mascha, Edward J; Abdelmalak, Basem B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cocaine is often used topically to provide the profound vasoconstriction required for nasal surgery; however, it has been associated with intraoperative cardiac adverse effects. We compared cocaine with phenylephrine as an alternative to ascertain their relative efficacy as vasoconstrictors in nasal septoplasty. Methods: Adult patients, presenting for elective nasal septoplasty, of American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-III, were randomised to either 0.5% phenylephrine or 4% cocaine. The primary outcome was quality of vasoconstriction on a 5-point scale (1=unacceptable, 5=excellent), rated by the surgeon at the end of the procedure. Results: Twenty-nine patients received phenylephrine and 26 received cocaine. The median rating for quality of the vasoconstriction was 4.0 (good) in both the phenylephrine and cocaine groups (P=0.84). Median blood loss was 50 ml in the phenylephrine group and 62.5 ml in the cocaine group (P=0.49). In secondary analyses, phenylephrine was shown to be non-inferior to cocaine on both quality of vasoconstriction (non-inferiority delta of 1 point, P=0.009) and estimated blood loss (non-inferiority delta of 25 ml, P=0.028). The frequency of ventricular ectopy, ST segment changes or blood pressure changes after nasal packing was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Phenylephrine in a concentration of 0.5% is not different from 4% cocaine on the quality of vasoconstriction in septoplasty. Given the abuse potential of cocaine and the added administrative burden associated with its handling, phenylephrine might serve as an alternative. PMID:23825816

  1. Formation of macroporous self-assembled hydrogels through cryogelation of Fmoc-Phe-Phe.

    PubMed

    Berillo, Dmitriy; Mattiasson, Bo; Galaev, Igor Yu; Kirsebom, Harald

    2012-02-15

    In this study, it was found that macroporous hydrogels were formed when self-assembly of fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-diphenylalanine (Phe-Phe) peptides was induced using glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) in apparently frozen samples. Formed cryogels exhibited a heterogeneous structure with pore walls of densely packed fibres of assembled dipeptides and pores in the range 10-100 μm. Hydrogels formed from the same composition above the freezing point exhibited a homogenous structure without any apparent porosity. The formed gels were characterised using microscopy techniques, CD-spectroscopy and stress sweeps. The cryogels exhibited less mechanical strength than the hydrogels that might be due to the heterogeneous structure of the former. It appeared that the self-assembled peptide both in the cryo- and hydrogel maintained the β-sheet structure commonly attributed to these. PMID:22129632

  2. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in sup 32 P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, H.A.; Oren, J.W.; Benscoter, H.A. )

    1989-12-15

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  3. Metal-Catalyzed Cleavage of tRNA[superscript Phe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This laboratory project is one component of a semester-long advanced biochemistry laboratory course that uses several complementary techniques to study tRNA[superscript Phe] conformational changes induced by ligand binding. In this article we describe a set of experiments in which students assay metal-catalyzed hydrolysis of tRNA[superscript Phe]…

  4. Development and Validation of a High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Two Binary Mixtures Containing Ketorolac Tromethamine with Phenylephrine Hydrochloride and with Febuxostat.

    PubMed

    El Yazbi, Fawzy A; Hassan, Ekram M; Khamis, Essam F; Ragab, Marwa A A; Hamdy, Mohamed M A

    2016-01-01

    A validated and highly selective high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the determination of ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) (Mixture 1) and with febuxostat (FBX) (Mixture 2) in bulk drug and in combined dosage forms. The proposed method was based on HPTLC separation of the drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their spots at 273 and 320 nm for Mixtures 1 and 2, respectively. The separation was carried out on Merck HPTLC aluminum sheets of silica gel 60 F254 using chloroform-methanol-ammonia (7:3:0.1, v/v) and (7.5:2.5:0.1, v/v) as mobile phase for KTC/PHE and KTC/FBX mixtures, respectively. Linear regression lines were obtained over the concentration ranges 0.20-0.60 and 0.60-1.95 µg band(-1)for KTC and PHE (Mixture 1), respectively, and 0.10-1.00 and 0.25-2.50 µg band(-1) for KTC and FBX (Mixture 2), respectively, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of the two drugs in their synthetic mixtures and in their dosage forms. The mean percentage recoveries were in the range of 98-102%, and the RSD did not exceed 2%. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines and showed good performances in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability. PMID:26847918

  5. α1 -AR agonist induced piloerection protects against the development of traction alopecia.

    PubMed

    Goren, Andy; Shapiro, Jerry; Sinclair, Rodney; Kovacevic, Maja; McCoy, John

    2016-05-01

    Traction alopecia is hair loss that occurs after persistent pulling (e.g., during cosmetic procedures) on the roots of hair over time. Unlike plucking, which is painful, persistent pulling may go unnoticed until a patient presents with either bald spots or diffuse telogen shedding. Each hair follicle in the scalp contains an arrector pili muscle that, when contracted, erects the hair. The smooth muscle in the arrector pili expresses α1 adrenergic receptors (α1 -AR). As such, we hypothesized that contraction of the arrector pili muscle via an α1 -AR agonist would increase the threshold of force required to pluck hair during cosmetic procedures. Female subjects, ages 18-40, were recruited to study the effect of topically applied phenylephrine, a selective α1 -AR agonist, on epilation force and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures. In our blinded study, 80% of subjects demonstrated reduced shedding on days using phenylephrine compared to days using a placebo solution. The average reduction in hair loss was approximately 42%. In addition, the force threshold required for epilation increased by approximately 172% following topical phenylephrine application. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the utility of α1 -AR agonists in the treatment of traction alopecia and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures. PMID:26678522

  6. Bronchoconstriction following instillation of phenylephrine eye drops in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: two cases report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jee; Choi, Jin Guk; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Premature infants requiring an ophthalmic examination or even surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have a high prevalence of co-existing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Reactive airway is one of the clinical presentations of BPD. We report two cases of bronchoconstriction following instillation of mydriatic eye drops. One occurred during induction of anesthesia for laser photocoagulation and the other before screening of ROP. The most likely cause in each case was phenylephrine eye drops. We recommend that the minimal dosage of phenylephrine needed to attain proper mydriasis should be instilled to infant patients, and the possibility of bronchoconstriction occurrence kept in mind, especially for infants with low body weight with BPD. PMID:26634087

  7. The transcriptional coactivator p300 plays a critical role in the hypertrophic and protective pathways induced by phenylephrine in cardiac cells but is specific to the hypertrophic effect of urocortin.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sean M; Townsend, Paul A; Carroll, Chris; Yurek-George, Alexander; Balasubramanyam, Karanam; Kundu, Tapas K; Stephanou, Anastasis; Packham, Graham; Ganesan, A; Latchman, David S

    2005-01-01

    Anacardic acid is an alkylsalicylic acid obtained from cashew-nut-shell liquid, and is a potent inhibitor of p300 histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) activity. We have used anacardic acid to prevent the induction of hypertrophy in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Hypertrophy was detected as an increase in cell size, the rearrangement of sarcomeres into a striated pattern, and the induction of embryonic genes beta-MHC and ANF. p300 inhibition was equally effective at preventing hypertrophy whether it was induced by treatment with the alpha1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine, or by treatment with urocortin, a member of the corticotrophin-releasing-factor family, which stimulates specific G protein-coupled receptors. Spiruchostatin A is a natural-product inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC) similar to the depsipeptide FK228 molecule. We have recently synthesized spiruchostatin A and now show that, although HDACs act in opposition to HATs, spiruchostatin A has the same effect as anacardic acid, that is, it prevents the induction of hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine or urocortin. Pretreatment with either phenylephrine or urocortin reduced the extent of death observed after the exposure of isolated cardiomyocytes to simulated ischaemia and reoxygenation. Inhibition of p300 or HDAC activity eliminated the protection conferred by phenylephrine; however, it did not affect the protection conferred by urocortin. Therefore, it might eventually be possible to use chemical inhibitors such as these in a therapeutic setting to dissociate the protective effect and hypertrophic effect of urocortin, enhancing the survival of cardiomyocytes exposed to transient ischemia, while inhibiting the hypertrophic pathway that would otherwise be induced concurrently. PMID:15593114

  8. Bupivacaine-induced Vasodilation Is Mediated by Decreased Calcium Sensitization in Isolated Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas Precontracted with Phenylephrine

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong Ho; Bae, Sung Il; Kwon, Seong Chun; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Woo Chan; Park, Kyeong Eon; Shin, Il Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young Kyun; Choi, Mun Jeoung

    2014-01-01

    Background A toxic dose of bupivacaine produces vasodilation in isolated aortas. The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the cellular mechanism associated with bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endotheliumdenuded rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Methods Isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas were suspended for isometric tension recordings. The effects of nifedipine, verapamil, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide on bupivacaine concentration-response curves were assessed in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. The effect of phenylephrine and KCl used for precontraction on bupivacaine-induced concentration-response curves was assessed. The effects of verapamil on phenylephrine concentration-response curves were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine were measured simultaneously with the acetoxymethyl ester of a fura-2-loaded aortic strip. Results Pretreatment with potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine, whereas verapamil or nifedipine attenuated bupivacaine-induced relaxation. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was enhanced in the 100 mM KCl-induced precontracted aortas compared with the phenylephrine-induced precontracted aortas. Verapamil attenuated the phenylephrine-induced contraction. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i decrease in the aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation appears to be mediated by decreased calcium sensitization in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. In addition, potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation

  9. Human sympathetic and vagal baroreflex responses to sequential nitroprusside and phenylephrine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudas, L.; Crossman, A. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Halliwill, J. R.; Tahvanainen, K. U.; Kuusela, T. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated a method of baroreflex testing involving sequential intravenous bolus injections of nitroprusside followed by phenylephrine and phenylephrine followed by nitroprusside in 18 healthy men and women, and we drew inferences regarding human sympathetic and vagal baroreflex mechanisms. We recorded the electrocardiogram, photoplethysmographic finger arterial pressure, and peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity. We then contrasted least squares linear regression slopes derived from the depressor (nitroprusside) and pressor (phenylephrine) phases with 1) slopes derived from spontaneous fluctuations of systolic arterial pressures and R-R intervals, and 2) baroreflex gain derived from cross-spectral analyses of systolic pressures and R-R intervals. We calculated sympathetic baroreflex gain from integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity and diastolic pressures. We found that vagal baroreflex slopes are less when arterial pressures are falling than when they are rising and that this hysteresis exists over pressure ranges both below and above baseline levels. Although pharmacological and spontaneous vagal baroreflex responses correlate closely, pharmacological baroreflex slopes tend to be lower than those derived from spontaneous fluctuations. Sympathetic baroreflex slopes are similar when arterial pressure is falling and rising; however, small pressure elevations above baseline silence sympathetic motoneurons. Vagal, but not sympathetic baroreflex gains vary inversely with subjects' ages and their baseline arterial pressures. There is no correlation between sympathetic and vagal baroreflex gains. We recommend repeated sequential nitroprusside followed by phenylephrine doses as a simple, efficientmeans to provoke and characterize human vagal and sympathetic baroreflex responses.

  10. Prophylactic Phenylephrine for Iatrogenic Priapism: A Pilot Study With Peyronie's Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pengbo; Christakos, Athena; Fam, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography (PDDU) is a common and integral procedure in a Peyronie's disease workup, the intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents can carry a serious risk of priapism. Risk factors include young age, good baseline erectile function, and no coronary artery disease. In addition, patients with Peyronie's disease undergoing PDDU in an outpatient setting are at increased risk given the inability to predict optimal dosing. The present study was conducted to provide support for a standard protocol of early administration of phenylephrine in patients with a sustained erection after diagnostic intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents to prevent the deleterious effects of iatrogenic priapism. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective review of Peyronie's disease patients who received phenylephrine reversal after intracavernosal alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) administration to look at the priapism rate. Safety was determined on the basis of adverse events reported by subjects and efficacy was determined on the basis of the rate of priapism following intervention. Results Patients with Peyronie's disease only had better hemodynamic values on PDDU than did patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction. All of the patients receiving prophylactic phenylephrine had complete detumescence of erections without adverse events, including no priapism cases. Conclusions The reversal of erections with phenylephrine after intracavernosal injections of alprostadil to prevent iatrogenic priapism can be effective without increased adverse effects. PMID:25324950

  11. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P < 0.005) but did not change mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P < 0.001). The sensitivity of baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate, expressed as the slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  12. Recombinant streptokinase vs phenylephrine-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoids, randomized, controlled trial (THERESA-3)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Castellanos-Sierra, Georgina; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen M; Catasús-Álvarez, Karem M; Valle-Cabrera, Roselin; Aguilera-Barreto, Ana; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of recombinant streptokinase (rSK) and phenylephrine-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoidal disease. METHODS: A multicenter (14 sites), randomized (1:1), open, parallel groups, active controlled trial was done. After inclusion, subjects with acute symptoms of hemorrhoids, who gave their written, informed consent to participate, were centrally randomized to receive, as outpatients, rSK (200000 IU) or 0.25% phenylephrine suppositories, which had different organoleptic characteristics. Treatment was administered by the rectal route, one unit every 6 h during 48 h for rSK, and up to a maximum of 5 d (20 suppositories) for phenylephrine. Evaluations were performed at 3, 5 and 10 d post-inclusion. The main end-point was the 5th-day complete clinical response (disappearance of pain and edema, and ≥ 70% reduction of the lesion size). Time to response and need for thrombectomy were secondary efficacy variables. Adverse events were evaluated too. RESULTS: 5th day complete response rates were 83/110 (75.5%) and 36/110 (32.7%) with rSK and phenylephrine suppositories, respectively. This 42.7% difference (95%CI: 30.5-54.2) was highly significant (P < 0.001). The advantage was detected since the early 3rd day evaluation (37.3% vs 6.4% for the rSK and active control groups, respectively; P < 0.001) and was kept even at the late 10th day assessment (83.6% vs 58.2% for rSK and phenylephrine, respectively; P < 0.001). Time for complete response was significantly shorter (P = 0.031; log-rank test) in the rSK group (median: 4.9 d; 95%CI: 4.8-5.0) with respect to the active control (median: 9.8 d; 95%CI: 9.8-10.0). Thrombectomy was necessary in 1/59 and 8/57 patients with baseline thrombosis in the rSK and phenylephrine groups, respectively (P = 0.016). There were no adverse events attributable to the experimental treatment. CONCLUSION: rSK suppositories showed a significant advantage over a widely used over-the-counter phenylephrine

  13. Targeted inhibition of ANKRD1 disrupts sarcomeric ERK-GATA4 signal transduction and abrogates phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lin; Chiusa, Manuel; Cadar, Adrian G.; Lin, Angel; Samaras, Susan; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Lim, Chee C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Accumulating evidence suggest that sarcomere signalling complexes play a pivotal role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by communicating stress signals to the nucleus to induce gene expression. Ankyrin repeat domain 1 (ANKRD1) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that also associates with sarcomeric titin; however, the exact role of ANKRD1 in the heart remains to be elucidated. We therefore aimed to examine the role of ANKRD1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophic signalling. Methods and results In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, we found that ANKRD1 is part of a sarcomeric signalling complex that includes ERK1/2 and cardiac transcription factor GATA4. Treatment with hypertrophic agonist phenylephrine (PE) resulted in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and GATA4 followed by nuclear translocation of the ANKRD1/ERK/GATA4 complex. Knockdown of Ankrd1 attenuated PE-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and GATA4, inhibited nuclear translocation of the ANKRD1 complex, and prevented cardiomyocyte growth. Mice lacking Ankrd1 are viable with normal cardiac function. Chronic PE infusion in wild-type mice induced significant cardiac hypertrophy with reactivation of the cardiac fetal gene program which was completely abrogated in Ankrd1 null mice. In contrast, ANKRD1 does not play a role in haemodynamic overload as Ankrd1 null mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction developed cardiac hypertrophy comparable to wild-type mice. Conclusion Our study reveals a novel role for ANKRD1 as a selective regulator of PE-induced signalling whereby ANKRD1 recruits and localizes GATA4 and ERK1/2 in a sarcomeric macro-molecular complex to enhance GATA4 phosphorylation with subsequent nuclear translocation of the ANKRD1 complex to induce hypertrophic gene expression. PMID:25770146

  14. Pharmacological actions of the slow release hydrogen sulfide donor GYY4137 on phenylephrine-induced tone in isolated bovine ciliary artery.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Madhura Kulkarni; Njie-Mbye, Ya Fatou; Opere, Catherine A; Wood, Mark E; Whiteman, Matthew; Ohia, Sunny E

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a colorless gas characterized by its pungent odor of rotten eggs has been reported to elicit relaxation effects on basal and pre-contracted non-ocular smooth muscles of several mammalian species. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological actions of a H2S donor, GYY4137 on isolated bovine posterior ciliary artery after contraction with the adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine. Furthermore, we studied the underlying mechanism of inhibitory action of GYY4137 on the posterior ciliary arteries. Isolated bovine posterior ciliary arteries were mounted in oxygenated organ baths and changes in isometric tension were measured with a Grass FT03 transducer connected to a recorder using a Grass Polyview Software. The relaxant actions of GYY4137 on phenylephrine pre-contracted arteries were observed in the absence and presence of an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, flurbiprofen. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of GYY4137 were studied in the absence or presence of inhibitors/activators of biosynthetic enzymes for H2S and nitric oxide production, as well as specific ion channel blockers. In the concentration range, 100 nM to 100 μM, GYY4137 elicited a concentration-dependant relaxation of phenylephrine-induced tone in isolated posterior ciliary arteries, with IC50 value of 13.4 ± 1.9 μM (n = 6). The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced the relaxation induced by GYY4137 yielding IC50 value of 0.13 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). Both the inhibitors of cystathionine β-synthase (aminooxyacetic acid, AOAA, 30 μM) and cystathionine γ-lyase (propargylglycine, PAG, 1 mM) caused significant (p < 0.05) rightward shifts in the concentration-response curve to GYY4137. Furthermore, the KATP channel antagonist, glibenclamide (100 μM) significantly (p < 0.01) attenuated the relaxant action induced by GYY4137 on bovine ciliary artery. Conversely, the activator of cystathionine β-synthase, SAM (100 μM) and an

  15. Endothelin-1-induced alterations in phenylephrine-induced contractile responses are largely additive in physiologically diverse rabbit vasculature.

    PubMed

    Gondré, M; Christ, G J

    1998-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an important modulator of vasomotor tone that is thought to participate in the etiology of cardiovascular disease by virtue of its ability to amplify the contractile responses of vascular smooth muscle cells to the effects of other vasoactive agents. Despite this fact, few studies have quantitated the expected contribution of ET-1 to the enhanced contractile responses elicited in the presence of another spasmogen. As a first step in this direction, ET-1 and phenylephrine (PE) were used to evaluate the effects of co-activation of the ETA/B or alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, respectively, on contractile responses in isolated rings of rabbit aorta, mesenteric and femoral artery, or strips of corporal tissue. Cumulative steady-state concentration-response curves (CRCs) were constructed to PE alone before the construction of a CRC to ET-1 alone, or a mixture of PE and ET-1 using a previously described drug concentration paradigm. Computer fits of the logistic equation to CRC data revealed that in all vascular tissues examined, the partial substitution of PE with ET-1 was associated with a significant vessel-dependent approximately 3- to 30-fold leftward shift in the CRC (P < .01, Student's t test for paired samples), as judged by a significant increase in the pEC50 (negative logarithm of the concentration of drug that elicits one-half of the calculated maximal effect), in the absence of any detectable effect on the calculated maximal contractile response (Emax) or the slope factor (rho). A theoretical CRC constructed using the Pöch and Holzmann method for equiactive substitution demonstrated that the responses to mixtures of PE and ET-1 were often the result of simple additivity of agonist effects in these preparations, and thus, were "expected" based on detailed knowledge of the individual effects of these two agonists. Regardless of the precision of the Poch and Holzmann CRC in predicting the effects of this drug mixture in these vascular tissues

  16. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lawuyi, Lola Elizabeth; Gurbaxani, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3%) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis), miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. PMID:26203214

  17. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Lawuyi, Lola Elizabeth; Gurbaxani, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3%) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis), miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. PMID:26203214

  18. Safety of peripheral administration of phenylephrine in a neurologic intensive care unit: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Tim; Wolfe, Brianne; Davis, Gary; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-08-01

    Integral to the management of the neurocritically injured patient are the prevention and treatment of hypotension, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and occasionally blood pressure augmentation. When adequate volume resuscitation fails to meet perfusion needs, vasopressors are often used to restore end-organ perfusion. This has historically necessitated central venous access given well-documented incidence of extravasation injuries associated with peripheral administration of vasopressors. In this pilot study, we report our 6-month experience with peripheral administration of low-concentration phenylephrine (40 μg/mL) in our neurocritical care unit. We were able to administer peripheral phenylephrine, up to a dose of 2 μg/(kg min), for an average of 14.29hours (1-54.3) in 20 patients with only 1 possible minor complication and no major complications. This was achieved by adding additional safety measures in our computerized physician order entry system and additional nurse-driven safety protocols. Thus, with careful monitoring and safety precautions, peripheral administration of phenylephrine at an optimized concentration appears to have an acceptable safety profile for use in the neurocritical care unit up to a mean infusion time of 14hours. PMID:27288620

  19. Photoelectron spectra and structures of three cyclic dipeptides: PhePhe, TyrPro, and HisGly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickrama Arachchilage, Anoja P.; Wang, Feng; Feyer, Vitaliy; Plekan, Oksana; Prince, Kevin C.

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure of three cyclic dipeptides: cyclo(Histidyl-Glycyl) (cHisGly), cyclo(Tyrosyl-Prolyl) (cTyrPro), and cyclo(Phenylalanyl-Phenylalanyl) (cPhePhe) in the vapor phase, by means of photoemission spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. The last compound was evaporated from the solid linear dipeptide, but cyclised, losing water to form cPhePhe in the gas phase. The results are compared with our previous studies of three other cyclopeptides. Experimental valence and core level spectra have been interpreted in the light of calculations to identify the basic chemical properties associated with the central diketopiperazine ring, and with the additional functional groups. The valence spectra are generally characterized by a restricted set of outer valence orbitals separated by a gap from most other valence orbitals. The theoretically simulated core and valence spectra of all three cyclic dipeptides agree reasonably well with the experimental spectra. The central ring and the side chains act as independent chromophores whose spectra do not influence one another, except for prolyl dipeptides, where the pyrrole ring is fused with the central ring. In this case, significant changes in the valence and core level spectra were observed, and explained by stronger hybridization of the valence orbitals.

  20. Comparative analysis of cross strand aromatic-Phe interactions in designed peptide β-hairpins.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Kamlesh Madhusudan; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan

    2014-04-01

    The mode(s), geometry and strength of interaction of the three aromatic amino acids, namely Phe, Tyr and Trp, with the benzyl side chain of Phe, at the non-hydrogen bonding position of designed model octapeptide β-hairpins, nucleated by the central (D)Pro-Gly turn, have been examined. In the absence of solvent-driven hydrophobic forces, the extent of contribution of such interactions indicates that the stereospecific face-to-edge (FtE) geometry of aromatic rings is most stabilizing in the Trp-Phe pair. In contrast, our study shows that the Tyr-Phe pair exhibits the weakest interaction energy, despite its abundance in protein structures. The contribution of aromatic interactions as opposed to the influence of spatial proximity to electron-rich groups, to the observed anomalous backbone and side chain chemical shifts, has also been delineated. Our findings indicate that the Trp-Phe pair contributes an additional ∼0.9 kcal mol(-1) and ∼1.3 kcal mol(-1) towards scaffold stabilization, when compared with the Phe-Phe and Tyr-Phe pair, respectively, even in an amphipathic solvent such as methanol. Detailed NMR analysis of backbone resonances, as well as the extent of pronounced anomalous chemical shifts, indicates that the strength of aromatic interactions with Phe follows the order Trp > Phe > Tyr. Furthermore, the advantages of Trp-Phe or Phe-Phe pairs as alternative structure stabilizing elements are also highlighted. PMID:24413913

  1. Nitric oxide donor beta2-agonists: furoxan derivatives containing the fenoterol moiety and related furazans.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, M Federica; Bertinaria, Massimo; Stilo, Antonella Di; Cena, Clara; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The structure of fenoterol, a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist used in therapy, has been joined with furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor beta2-agonists. The furazan analogues, devoid of the property to release NO, were also synthesized for comparison. All the compounds retained beta2-agonistic activity at micromolar or submicromolar concentration when tested on guinea pig tracheal rings precontracted with carbachol. Among the furoxan derivatives, the NO contribution to trachea relaxation was evident with product 15b at micromolar concentrations. All the new NO-donor hybrids were able to dilate rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Both furoxan and furazan derivatives displayed antioxidant activity greater than that of fenoterol. PMID:17845020

  2. Differential double capture cross sections in p+He collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M.; Brand, J. A.; Vajnai, T.

    2007-02-15

    We have measured differential double capture cross sections for 15 to 150 keV p+He collisions. We also analyzed differential double to single capture ratios, where we find pronounced peak structures. An explanation of these structures probably requires a quantum-mechanical description of elastic scattering between the projectile and the target nucleus. Strong final-state correlations have a large effect on the magnitude of the double capture cross sections.

  3. Phenylephrine does not limit myocardial blood flow or oxygen delivery during isoflurane-induced hypotension in dogs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, M; Kim, S J; Salem, M R; Crystal, G J

    1992-06-01

    Experiments were performed on seven fentanyl-pentobarbital-anesthetized, open-chest dogs to determine whether stimulation of coronary alpha 1-adrenergic receptors by phenylephrine causes coronary vasoconstriction and impaired myocardial oxygen delivery when phenylephrine is infused to correct isoflurane-induced hypotension. Myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres, and myocardial oxygen and lactate extraction were determined. The Fick equation was used to calculate myocardial oxygen consumption. Measurements were obtained (a) under control conditions, (b) after a 30-min inhalation of isoflurane sufficient to decrease mean aortic pressure by 30%, and (c) while maintaining administration of isoflurane, 5-10 min after restoration of mean aortic pressure by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine. Isoflurane-induced hypotension was accompanied by a baroreceptor-mediated increase in heart rate and by a decrease in myocardial oxygen consumption; however, myocardial blood flow was maintained, resulting in decreased oxygen extraction and increased coronary sinus PO2, thus implying a direct coronary vasodilating effect for isoflurane. Lactate extraction was unaffected. Phenylephrine infusion during inhalation of isoflurane returned mean aortic pressure and heart rate to their respective control values, and it did not change myocardial oxygen consumption, myocardial blood flow, myocardial oxygen extraction, coronary sinus PO2, or lactate extraction from values obtained during isoflurane alone. These latter findings are consistent with undiminished coronary vasodilation by isoflurane in the presence of phenylephrine. In conclusion, infused phenylephrine to restore aortic pressure during isoflurane administration had no vasoconstrictor effect in the coronary circulation and did not impair myocardial oxygen delivery. Apparently, the direct coronary vasodilating action of isoflurane completely nullified phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction via local alpha

  4. Flaxseed oil increases aortic reactivity to phenylephrine through reactive oxygen species and the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flaxseed oil has the highest concentration of omega-3 α-linolenic acid, which has been associated with cardiovascular benefit. However, the mechanism underlying the vascular effects induced through flaxseed oil is not well known. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of flaxseed oil on vascular function in isolated rat aortic rings. Methods Wistar rats were treated daily with flaxseed oil or a control (mineral oil) intramuscular (i.m.) for fifteen days. Isolated aortic segments were used to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, superoxide anion levels and vascular reactivity experiments. Results Flaxseed oil treatment increased the vasoconstrictor response of aortic rings to phenylephrine. Endothelium removal increased the response to phenylephrine in aortic segments isolated from both groups, but the effect was smaller in the treated group. L-NAME incubation similarly increased the phenylephrine response in segments from both groups. The TXA2 synthase inhibitor furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, the TP receptor antagonist SQ 29.548, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger apocynin, the superoxide anion scavengers tiron and the phospholipase A2 inhibitor dexamethasone partially reversed the flaxseed oil-induced increase in reactivity to phenylephrine. Conclusions These findings suggest that flaxseed oil treatment increased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine through an increase in ROS production and COX-2-derived TXA2 production. The results obtained in the present study provide new insight into the effects of flaxseed oil treatment (i.m.) on vascular function. PMID:24993607

  5. Metal-Rich SX Phe Stars in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, James M.; Balona, Luis A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Murphy, Simon J.; Jeon, Young-Beom; Kurtz, Donald W.; Pigulski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations have been made for 32 of the 34 candidate SX Phe stars identified in the Kepler field by Balona & Nemec (2012). All available long-and short-cadence Q0-Q17 Kepler photometry has been analyzed for the 34 candidates. Radial velocities (RVs), space motions (U, V, W), projected rotation velocities (υ sin i), spectral types, and atmospheric characteristics (Teff, log g, [M/H], υmic, etc.) were derived from ~ 160 spectra taken with the ESPaDOnS spectrograph on the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope and with the ARCES spectrograph on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. Two thirds of the stars are fast rotators with υ sin i > 50 km/s, including four stars with υ sin i > 200 km/s. Three of the stars have (negative) RVs > 250 km/s and retrograde space motions, and seven stars have total space motions > 400 km/s. All the spectroscopically measured SX Phe candidates have positions in a Toomre diagram that are consistent with being bona fide halo and thick-disk stars. Although several stars show a marked metal weakness, the mean [Fe/H] of the sample is near 0.0 dex (σ ~ 0.25 dex), which is considerably more metal-rich than is normally expected for a sample of Pop. II stars. Observed pulsation frequency modulations and optical time delays suggest that at least eight of the SX Phe stars are in binary systems, some of which show significant RV variations. Six of the time-delay binaries have secondary masses ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 M⊙ and orbital periods in the range 9 to 1570 days. Another star appears to be an ellipsoidal variable with a 2.3-day orbital period; and two other systems have orbital periods longer than the ~ 4-year sampling interval of the Kepler data.

  6. Determination of phenylephrine in human plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Qian; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei

    2013-02-01

    This paper described a sensitive and rapid method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of phenylephrine in human plasma. Plasma samples were pre-purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The chromatographic separation was achieved with BEH HILIC column using a mixture of 10mM pH 3.5 ammonium formate and acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The mass spectrometry was carried out using positive electrospray ionization (ESI) and data acquisition was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was fully validated over the concentration range of 10.0-5000 pg/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10.0 pg/mL. Inter- and intra-batch precision was less than 15% and the accuracy was within 85-115%. Extraction recovery was 78.5%. Selectivity, matrix effects and stability were also validated. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of phenylephrine hydrochloride in Chinese subjects. PMID:23314401

  7. Phenylephrine infusion for spinal-induced hypotension in elective cesarean delivery: Does preload make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Bottiger, Brandi A; Bezinover, Dmitri S; Mets, Berend; Dalal, Priti G; Prozesky, Jansie; Ural, Serdar; Vaida, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery (CD) have a high-risk of spinal-induced hypotension (SIH). We hypothesized that a colloid preload would further reduce SIH when compared with a crystalloid preload. Material and Methods: Eighty-two healthy parturients undergoing elective CD were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups (41 patients in each group) to receive either Lactated Ringer's solution (1500 ml) or hydroxyethyl starch (6% in normal saline, 500 ml) 30 min prior to placement of spinal anesthesia. All patients were treated with a phenylephrine infusion (100 mcg/min), titrated during the study. Results: There was no statistical difference between groups with regards to the incidence of hypotension (10.8% in the colloid group vs. 27.0% in the crystalloid group, P = 0.12). There was also no difference between groups with respect to bradycardia, APGAR scores, and nausea and vomiting. Significantly less phenylephrine (1077.5 ± 514 mcg) was used in the colloid group than the crystalloid group (1477 ± 591 mcg, P = 0.003). Conclusion: The preload with 6% of hydroxyethyl starch before CD might be beneficial for the prevention of SIH. PMID:27625478

  8. Phenylephrine stimulated breakdown of phosphoinositides in brown adipocytes is attenuated by adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmel, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    Selective activation of alpha adrenergic receptors on brown adipocytes brings about increased mitochondrial respiration. This response is associated with a rapid breakdown of phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane. The authors have shown that respiration increased by alpha receptor activation can be inhibited by adenosine but the mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. The present study probes the possibility that adenosine inhibition of alpha receptor stimulated respiration is secondary to an inhibition of stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids. Phospholipids were labeled with (/sup 32/P) by incubation with (/sup 32/P)-Pi for up to four hours. Phenylephrine and other ligands were then added and the radioactivity present in individual lipids determined following their resolution by thin layer chromatography. Addition of 2-chloroadenosine or phenylisopropyl adenosine, but not 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, inhibited phenylephrine promoted breakdown of phosphoinositides. The dose response relation for this effect was similar to that for attenuation of stimulated respiration. This finding demonstrates adenosine inhibition of a phospholipase in brown fat cells and suggests the possibility that breakdown of inositol phospholipids is a critical control site for stimulation and attenuation of respiration.

  9. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  10. New SX Phe variables in the globular cluster NGC 288

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinazzi, E.; Kepler, S. O.; Costa, J. E. S.; Pieres, A.; Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.; Fraga, L.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of two new variable stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 288, found by means of time series CCD photometry. We classified the new variables as SX Phoenicis (SX Phe) due to their characteristic fundamental mode periods (1.02 ± 0.01 and 0.69 ± 0.01 h), and refine the period estimates for other six known variables. SX Phe stars are known to follow a well-defined period-luminosity (P-L) relation and, thus, can be used for determining distances; they are more numerous than RR Lyraes in NGC 288. We obtain the P-L relation for the fundamental mode MV = (-2.59 ± 0.18) log P0(d) + (-0.34 ± 0.24) and for the first-overtone mode MV = (-2.59 ± 0.18) log P1(d) + (0.50 ± 0.25). Multichromatic isochrone fits to our UBV colour-magnitude diagrams, based on the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database, provide <[Fe/H]> = -1.3 ± 0.1, E(B - V) = 0.02 ± 0.01 and absolute distance modulus (m - M)0 = 14.72 ± 0.01 for NGC 288.

  11. Constrained H-Phe-Phe-NH2 analogues with high affinity to the substance P 1-7 binding site and with improved metabolic stability and cell permeability.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Rebecca; Sköld, Christian; Kratz, Jadel M; Svensson, Richard; Artursson, Per; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias; Sandström, Anja

    2013-06-27

    We recently reported the discovery of H-Phe-Phe-NH2 as a small and high affinity ligand for the substance P 1-7 (SP(1-7), H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-OH) specific binding site and its intriguing ability to reduce neuropathic pain. With the overall aim to develop stable and orally bioavailable SP(1-7) mimetics, the dipeptide was chosen as a lead compound. Herein the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a set of modified H-Phe-Phe-NH2 analogues is presented together with their potential active uptake by PEPT1 transporter, intestinal permeability, and metabolic stability. Local constraints via peptide backbone methylation or preparation of cyclized analogues based on pyrrolidine were evaluated and were shown to significantly improve the in vitro pharmacokinetic properties. The SAR was rationalized by deriving a plausible binding pose for the high affinity ligands. Rigidification using a 3-phenylpyrrolidine moiety in the C-terminal of H-Phe-Phe-NH2 resulted in high affinity and improved intrinsic clearance and intestinal epithelial permeability. PMID:23735006

  12. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate in pharmaceutical preparations using multivariate calibration 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Hassani Nejad-Darzi, Seyed Karim

    2010-04-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable, principal component regression and hybrid linear analysis. Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra of the above compounds. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 1-15 mg L -1 for both calibration and validation sets. The models refinement procedure and their validation were performed by cross-validation. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and limit of detection were determined for all three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the above compounds in pharmaceutical tablets.

  13. Asymmetric membrane capsules of phenylephrine hydrochloride: an osmotically controlled drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Philip, Anil Kumar; Pathak, Kamla

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop osmotically controlled release system of freely water soluble drug phenylephrine hydrochloride by use of asymmetric membrane capsules to reduce the dosing frequency and consequently improve the patient compliance. Ethyl cellulose asymmetric membrane capsules were developed by phase inversion process and solubility modulation was accomplished by common ion effect wherein sodium chloride was included in the formulation that also served as an osmogen. The effect of formulation variables namely level of polymer (ethyl cellulose), level of pore former (glycerol) and level of osmogen (sodium chloride) on the in vitro release of the drug was evaluated by 2(3) factorial design. Effects of environmental factors on the release rate of the drug from asymmetric membrane capsules were also evaluated. Membrane characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed an outer dense region with less pores and inner porous region for the prepared asymmetric membrane. The dimensional analysis of asymmetric membrane capsule documented the capsules to be of uniform cap and body size comparable to commercial hard gelatin capsules. In vitro release studies results showed that incorporation of higher amount of osmogen not only increased the osmotic pressure but also controlled the drug release for a period of 12 hr. The drug release was inversely proportional to the level of polymer in asymmetric membrane capsule but directly related to the level of pore former in the membrane. The optimized asymmetric membrane capsule (F5) was able to provide zero order release of phenylephrine hydrochloride independent of agitation rate, intentional defect in the membrane and pH of dissolution medium but was dependent on the osmotic pressure gradient between inside and outside of the delivery system. PMID:21696358

  14. Chimeric human mitochondrial PheRS exhibits editing activity to discriminate nonprotein amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kartvelishvili, Ekaterine; Peretz, Moshe; Tworowski, Dmitry; Moor, Nina; Safro, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are considered as the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nearly all eukaryotic cells during respiration. The harmful effects of these compounds range from direct neurotoxicity to incorporation into proteins producing aberrant molecules with multiple physiological problems. Phenylalanine exposure to ROS produces multiple oxidized isomers: tyrosine, Levodopa, ortho-Tyr, meta-Tyr (m-Tyr), and so on. Cytosolic phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) exerts control over the translation accuracy, hydrolyzing misacylated products, while monomeric mitochondrial PheRS lacks the editing activity. Recently we showed that "teamwork" of cytosolic and mitochondrial PheRSs cannot prevent incorporation of m-Tyr and l-Dopa into proteins. Here, we present human mitochondrial chimeric PheRS with implanted editing module taken from EcPheRS. The monomeric mitochondrial chimera possesses editing activity, while in bacterial and cytosolic PheRSs this type of activity was detected for the (αβ)2 architecture only. The fusion protein catalyzes aminoacylation of tRNA(Phe) with cognate phenylalanine and effectively hydrolyzes the noncognate aminoacyl-tRNAs: Tyr-tRNA(Phe) and m-Tyr-tRNA(Phe) . PMID:26645192

  15. Influence of prostaglandins and adrenoceptor agonists on contractile activity in the human cervix at term.

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1986-04-01

    The influence of prostaglandins as well as adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on contractile activity of isolated cervical smooth muscle from term pregnant women was studied. Prostaglandin E2 had an inhibitory effect at extremely low concentrations. Inhibition also was induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha, prostaglandin I2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, but at considerably higher concentrations. Contractions evoked by noradrenaline or phenylephrine were blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline acted as an inhibitor, whereas isoprenaline in most cases stimulated contractile activity. The inhibitory action of prostaglandins and especially the high sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 point to a physiologic role of these compounds for cervical dilatation and retraction. A predominance of alpha-adrenoceptors might be of importance for the maintenance of cervical competence during pregnancy. PMID:2870450

  16. Redoubling the ring size of an endomorphin-2 analog transforms a centrally acting mu-opioid receptor agonist into a pure peripheral analgesic.

    PubMed

    Piekielna, Justyna; De Marco, Rossella; Gentilucci, Luca; Cerlesi, Maria Camilla; Calo', Girolamo; Tömböly, Csaba; Artali, Roberto; Janecka, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The study reports the synthesis and biological evaluation of two opioid analogs, a monomer and a dimer, obtained as products of the solid-phase, side-chain to side-chain cyclization of the pentapeptide Tyr-d-Lys-Phe-Phe-AspNH2 . The binding affinities to the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, as well as results obtained in a calcium mobilization functional assay are reported. Tyr-[d-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]2 -NH2 1 was a potent and selective full agonist of mu with sub-nanomolar affinity, while the dimer (Tyr-[d-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]2 -NH2 )2 2 showed a significant mixed mu/kappa affinity, acting as an agonist at the mu. Molecular docking computations were utilized to explain the ability of the dimeric cyclopeptide 2 to interact with the receptor. Interestingly, in spite of the increased ring size, the higher flexibility allowed 2 to fold and fit into the mu receptor binding pocket. Both cyclopeptides were shown to elicit strong antinociceptive activity after intraventricular injection but only cyclomonomer 1 was able to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, the cyclodimer 2 displayed a potent peripheral antinociceptive activity in a mouse model of visceral inflammatory pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 309-317, 2016. PMID:27038094

  17. Stereoselective self-sorting in the self-assembly of a Phe-Phe extended guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole carboxylate zwitterion: formation of two diastereomeric dimers with significantly different stabilities.

    PubMed

    Rodler, Fabian; Sicking, Wilhelm; Schmuck, Carsten

    2011-07-28

    The 'dipeptide extended' guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole carboxylate zwitterion GCP-Phe-Phe 1 forms stable dimers in DMSO. However, dimerization is highly stereoselective. Only homochiral dimers are formed and the (L,L)·(L,L) dimer (K(dim) > 10(5) M(-1)) is significantly more stable by a factor of 10(3) than the diastereomeric (D,L)·(D,L) dimer (K(dim) = 120 M(-1)). PMID:21670799

  18. A DKP Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) Found in Chicken Essence Is a Dual Inhibitor of the Serotonin Transporter and Acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Beppu, Yoshinori; Koda, Hirofumi; Doe, Nobutaka; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Diketopiperazines (DKPs) are naturally-occurring cyclic dipeptides with a small structure and are found in many organisms and in large amounts in some foods and beverages. We found that a chicken essence beverage, which is popular among Southeast Asians as a traditional remedy and a rich source of DKPs, inhibited the serotonin transporter (SERT) and suppressed serotonin uptake from rat brain synaptosomes, which prompted us to isolate and identify the active substance(s). We purified a SERT inhibitor from the chicken essence beverage and identified it as the DKP cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe). Interestingly, it was a naturally occurring dual inhibitor that inhibited both SERT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. The DKP increased extracellular levels of the cerebral monoamines serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and acetylcholine in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats when administered orally. Moreover, cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) significantly shortened escape latency in the water maze test in depressed mice previously subjected to a repeated open-space swimming task, which induces a depression-like state. Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) also significantly improved accuracy rates in a radial maze test in rats and increased step-through latencies in a passive avoidance test in mice with scopolamine-induced amnesia. These animal test results suggest that cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe), which is present abundantly in some foods such as chicken essence, may abrogate the onset of depression and, thus, contribute to preventing the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia, because senile depression is a risk factor for dementia. PMID:23209830

  19. Roles of G-protein beta gamma, arachidonic acid, and phosphorylation inconvergent activation of an S-like potassium conductance by dopamine, Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2, and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2.

    PubMed

    van Tol-Steye, H; Lodder, J C; Mansvelder, H D; Planta, R J; van Heerikhuizen, H; Kits, K S

    1999-05-15

    Dopamine and the neuropeptides Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide or APGWa) and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide or FMRFa) all activate an S-like potassium channel in the light green cells of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, neuroendocrine cells that release insulin-related peptides. We studied the signaling pathways underlying the responses, the role of the G-protein betagamma subunit, and the interference by phosphorylation pathways. All responses are blocked by an inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) release, 4-bromophenacylbromide, and by inhibitors of lipoxygenases (nordihydroguaiaretic acid and AA-861) but not by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. AA and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) induced currents with similar I-V characteristics and potassium selectivity as dopamine, APGWa, and FMRFa. PLA2 occluded the response to FMRFa. We conclude that convergence of the actions of dopamine, APGWa, and FMRFa onto the S-like channel occurs at or upstream of the level of AA and that formation of lipoxygenase metabolites of AA is necessary to activate the channel. Injection of a synthetic peptide, which interferes with G-protein betagamma subunits, inhibited the agonist-induced potassium current. This suggests that betagamma subunits mediate the response, possibly by directly coupling to a phospholipase. Finally, the responses to dopamine, APGWa, and FMRFa were inhibited by activation of PKA and PKC, suggesting that the responses are counteracted by PKA- and PKC-dependent phosphorylation. The PLA2-activated potassium current was inhibited by 8-chlorophenylthio-cAMP but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). However, TPA did inhibit the potassium current induced by irreversible activation of the G-protein using GTP-gamma-S. Thus, it appears that PKA targets a site downstream of AA formation, e.g., the potassium channel, whereas PKC acts at the active G-protein or the phospholipase. PMID:10234006

  20. Transfer and amplification of chirality in Phe-based C3-symmetric non-ionic amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Julia; García, Fátima; Yélamos, Belén; Sánchez, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of amphiphiles and endowed with three l- or d-Phe units is reported. The chiral features provided by the Phe fragment are transferred to the supramolecular level to yield enantiomerically enriched helices. Additionally, we report herein the first example of amplification of chirality demonstrated by MR performed with supramolecular polymers showing very low degree of cooperativity. PMID:27345432

  1. MGMT Leu84Phe gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-xiong; Xue, Fei; Shi, Xuan-feng; He, Xiao; Ma, Hui-ni; Chen, Lan; Chen, Pin-zhong

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have examined the association between the MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. The PubMed and CNKI database was searched for case-control studies published up to Nov. 2013. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ultimately, 7 studies, comprising 3,094 lung cancer cases and 4,216 controls, were included. Overall, for (Phe/Phe+Phe/Leu) versus Leu/Leu, the pooled OR for all studies was 1.08 (95% CI = 0.97-1.21 P = 0.518 for heterogeneity); for Phe/Phe versus Leu/Leu and Phe versus Leu, the pooled OR was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.99-1.21 P = 0.445 for heterogeneity) and 1.46 (95% CI = 1.05-2.02 P = 0.352 for heterogeneity), respectively. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly risks were found among Caucasians not in Asians. This meta-analysis suggests that the MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer risk among Caucasians not in Asians. PMID:24390665

  2. Probing Changes in the Conformation of tRNA[superscript Phe]: An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.; Taylor, Buck L. H.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a new guided-inquiry laboratory for an advanced biochemistry course. This integrated laboratory focuses on the biomolecule tRNA[superscript Phe] and combines elements of bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry with biochemistry. Throughout the semester students work together to study tRNA[superscript Phe] structure and ligand…

  3. UV Thermal Melting Curves of tRNA[superscript Phe] in the Presence of Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This laboratory project is one component of a semester-long advanced biochemistry laboratory course that uses several complementary techniques to study tRNA[superscript Phe] conformational changes induced by ligand binding. In this article we describe a set of experiments in which the thermal unfolding of tRNA[superscript Phe] is studied with…

  4. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in a kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) cocktail using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Penjamras, Pimpimol; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2012-04-10

    A simple HPLC technique for determining mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in 'kratom cocktail' was developed. The analytical method for mitragynine, codeine and caffeine used an Eclipse XDB-C8 column. A Lichrospher CN column was using for analysing chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine. The correlation coefficient of each standard was between 0.9957 and 0.9993. The precision of the methods were between 0.700 and 7.108% RSD. The concentration of mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in 'kratom cocktail' was 90.021, 234.174, 73.986, 7.053 and 1.486 mg/L, respectively. PMID:22018854

  5. Towards the identification of the allosteric Phe-binding site in phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Carla; Fraternali, Franca; Salvatore, Francesco; Fornili, Arianna; Zagari, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    The enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is defective in the inherited disorder phenylketonuria. PAH, a tetrameric enzyme, is highly regulated and displays positive cooperativity for its substrate, Phe. Whether Phe binds to an allosteric site is a matter of debate, despite several studies worldwide. To address this issue, we generated a dimeric model for Phe-PAH interactions, by performing molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulations on human and rat wild-type sequences and also on a human G46S mutant. Our results suggest that the allosteric Phe-binding site lies at the dimeric interface between the regulatory and the catalytic domains of two adjacent subunits. The structural and dynamical features of the site were characterized in depth and described. Interestingly, our findings provide evidence for lower allosteric Phe-binding ability of the G46S mutant than the human wild-type enzyme. This also explains the disease-causing nature of this mutant. PMID:26479306

  6. Human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency resulting from mutation of Phe-240

    SciTech Connect

    Minling Chang; Xiaoyun Wu; Maquat, L.E. ); Artymiuk, P.J. ); Hollan, S. ); Lammi, A. )

    1993-06-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketolisomerase [E.C.5.3.1.1]) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that typically results in chronic, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and in neuromuscular impairment. The molecular basis of this disease was analyzed for one Hungarian family and for two Australian families by localizing the defects in TPI cDNA and by determining how each defect affects TPI gene expression. The Hungarian family is noteworthy in having the first reported case of an individual, A. Jo., who harbors two defective TPI alleles but who does not manifest neuromuscular disabilities. This family was characterized by two mutations that have never been described. One is a missense mutation within codon 240 (TTC [Phe][r arrow]CTC [Leu]), which creates a thermolabile protein, as indicated by the results of enzyme activity assays using cell extracts. This substitution, which changes a phylogenetically conserved amino acid, may affect enzyme activity by dusrupting intersubunit contacts or substrate binding, as deduced from enzyme structural studies. The other mutation has yet to be localized but reduces the abundance of TPI mRNA 10--20-fold. Each of the Australian families was characterized by a previously described mutation within codon 104 (GAG [Glu][r arrow]GAC [Asp]), which also results in thermolabile protein. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Muscarinic receptor antagonist and an alpha-adrenergic agonist are required in combination to provide stable mydriasis following intravitreal injection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mojumder, Deb Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Tropicamide (muscarinic receptor antagonist) and phenylephrine (α-adrenergic receptor agonist) are commonly used to dilate the pupils by topical application. These two eye drops are often used, singly or in combination, to dilate the pupil and perform acute light-evoked physiological experiments (electroretinography, for example), before and after intravitreal injections of pharmacological agents, as an assay for their affect on retinal activity. This study wanted to determine whether treatment with one of these drugs, or with both, is most effective in maintaining mydriasis after intravitreal injections. Changes in pupillary dilation before and after intravitreal injection of balanced salt solution (0.5 µl) were recorded. Phenylephrine (α-adrenergic agonist) and tropicamide (muscarinic agonist) when combined, but not singly, produced full and stable pupillary dilation following intravitreal injections. Re-instillation of topical mydriatics after intravitreal injections was required for maximal pupillary dilation. A combination of a muscarinic receptor antagonist and an alpha-adrenergic agonist is required for stable mydriasis following intravitreal injection. PMID:20852745

  8. Transient supersensitivity to α-adrenoceptor agonists, and distinct hyper-reactivity to vasopressin and angiotensin II after denervation of rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Tripovic, Diana; Pianova, Svetlana; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Vascular ‘denervation’ hyper-reactivity has generally been investigated 1–2 weeks after administration of chemicals that temporarily prevent transmitter release, but do not necessarily inactivate the neuronal noradrenaline transporters (NETs). We have investigated the reactivity of rat tail arteries over longer periods after removing the terminals by surgical denervation. Experimental approach: Two and 7 weeks after denervation, myography was used to assess contractions of isolated arterial segments to phenylephrine, methoxamine, clonidine, vasopressin and angiotensin II (AII). Denervation was confirmed by lack of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals. Key results: The NET inhibitor, desmethylimipramine, increased the pEC50 for phenylephrine in control, but not denervated arteries after both 2 and 7 weeks. Relative to controls, pEC50s for phenylephrine (with desmethylimipramine), methoxamine, clonidine and vasopressin were increased at 2 but not 7 weeks after denervation. The pEC50 for phenylephrine in the absence of desmethylimipramine was greater than control after both 2 and 7 weeks' denervation. The maximum contraction to vasopressin was larger than in controls at 2 but not 7 weeks after denervation, whereas contractions to AII were markedly enhanced at both time points. Conclusions and implications: Increased vascular reactivity to α1- and α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and vasopressin is transient following denervation. After 7 weeks, increased reactivity to phenylephrine can be entirely accounted for by the loss of NETs. Maintained supersensitivity to AII indicates that denervation differentially and selectively affects vascular reactivity to circulating vasoconstrictor agents. This might explain persistent vasoconstriction in denervated skin of humans after nerve injuries. PMID:20002103

  9. Preparation and in vitro characterization of thermosensitive and mucoadhesive hydrogels for nasal delivery of phenylephrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Sun, Chunmeng; Li, Chang; Xiong, Yerong; Tu, Jiasheng

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a nasal delivery system of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE) in spray form to make prolonged remedy of nasal congestion. The formulations contain the thermosensitive hydrogel, i.e., Poloxamer 407 (P407) and Poloxamer 188 (P188) mixtures, and mucoadhesives, i.e., ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and low molecular weight sodium hyaluronate (MW 11,000Da). The in vitro characterizations of formulations including rheology studies, texture profiles and in vitro mucoadhesion potential were investigated after gelation temperatures measurements. The results showed that the concentration of P407 or P188 had significant influence on gelation temperature and texture profiles. The addition of mucoadhesives, though lowered the gel strength of formulations, increased interaction with mucin. After screening, two formulations (i.e., 1.0% PE/0.5% ε-PL/17% P407/0.5% P188 or Formulation A; and 1.0% PE/0.5% HA/17% P407/0.8% P188 or Formulation B) presenting suitable gelation temperatures (∼32°C) were used for further studies on in vitro release behaviors and mucosa ciliotoxicity. Both formulations showed sustained release of PE for up to 8h and similar toxicity to saline, the negative control. Thus, the thermosensitive and mucoadhesive PE-containing hydrogels are promising to achieve prolonged decongestion in nasal cavity. PMID:25257714

  10. Ultrasound-assisted (R)-phenylephrine whole-cell bioconversion by S. marcescens N10612.

    PubMed

    Zang, Chi-Zong; Kan, Shu-Chen; Yeh, Chiung-Wen; Lin, Chia-Chi; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    The strain Serratia marcescens N10612 is used to perform the bioconversion of 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methyamino)-ethanone (HPMAE) to (R)-phenylephrine ((R)-PE), which is an ephedrine drug substitute. The use of an ultrasound approach is found to improve the efficiency of the (R)-PE bioconversion. The optimization of the (R)-PE bioconversion is carried out by means of statistical experiment design. The optimal conditions obtained are 1.0mM HPMAE, 18.68 g/L glucose and ultrasound power of 120 W, where the predicted specific rate of the (R)-PE bioconversion is 31.46 ± 2.22 (ìmol/h/g-cells) and the experimental specific rate is 33.27 ± 1.46 (ìmol/h/g-cells), which is 3-fold higher than for the operation under ultrasound power of 200 W (11.11 ìmol/h/g-cells) and 4.3-fold higher than for the shaking operation (7.69 ìmol/h/g-cells). The kinetics study of the bioconversion also shows that under the ultrasound operation, the optimal rate (Vmax) of the (R)-PE bioconversion increases from 7.69 to 11.11 (μmol/h/g-cells) and the substrate inhibition constant (KSi) increases from 1.063 mM for the shaking operation to 1.490 mM for ultrasound operation. PMID:25691009

  11. Local transdermal delivery of phenylephrine to the anal sphincter muscle using microneedles.

    PubMed

    Baek, Changyoon; Han, MeeRee; Min, Junhong; Prausnitz, Mark R; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jung Ho

    2011-09-01

    We propose pretreatment using microneedles to increase perianal skin permeability for locally targeted delivery of phenylephrine (PE), a drug that increases resting anal sphincter pressure to treat fecal incontinence. Microneedle patches were fabricated by micromolding poly-lactic-acid. Pre-treatment of human cadaver skin with microneedles increased PE delivery across the skin by up to 10-fold in vitro. In vivo delivery was assessed in rats receiving treatment with or without use of microneedles and with or without PE. Resting anal sphincter pressure was then measured over time using water-perfused anorectal manometry. For rats pretreated with microneedles, topical application of 30% PE gel rapidly increased the mean resting anal sphincter pressure from 7±2 cm H(2)O to a peak value of 43±17 cm H(2)O after 1 h, which was significantly greater than rats receiving PE gel without microneedle pretreatment. Additional safety studies showed that topically applied green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli penetrated skin pierced with 23- and 26-gauge hypodermic needles, but E. coli was not detected in skin pretreated with microneedles, which suggests that microneedle-treated skin may not be especially susceptible to infection. In conclusion, this study demonstrates local transdermal delivery of PE to the anal sphincter muscle using microneedles, which may provide a novel treatment for fecal incontinence. PMID:21586307

  12. Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations. PMID:18476338

  13. Comparison Between Phenylephrine and Dopamine in Maintaining Cerebral Oxygen Saturation in Thoracic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Won; Joo Ahn, Hyun; JooAhn, Hyun; Yang, Mikyung; Kim, Jie Ae; Lee, Sangmin M; Ahn, Jin Hee

    2015-12-01

    Fluid is usually restricted during thoracic surgery, and vasoactive agents are often administered to maintain blood pressure. One-lung ventilation (OLV) decreases arterial oxygenation; thus oxygen delivery to the brain can be decreased. In this study, we compared phenylephrine and dopamine with respect to maintaining cerebral oxygenation during OLV in major thoracic surgery.Sixty-three patients undergoing lobectomies were randomly assigned to the dopamine (D) or phenylephrine (P) group. The patients' mean arterial pressure was maintained within 20% of baseline by a continuous infusion of dopamine or phenylephrine. Maintenance fluid was kept at 5 mL/kg/h. The depth of anesthesia was maintained with desflurane 1MAC and remifentanil infusion under bispectral index guidance. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and hemodynamic variables were recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy and esophageal cardiac Doppler.The rScO2 was higher in the D group than the P group during OLV (OLV 60 min: 71 ± 6% vs 63 ± 12%; P = 0.03). The number of patients whose rScO2 dropped more than 20% from baseline was 0 and 6 in the D and P groups, respectively (P = 0.02). The D group showed higher cardiac output, but lower mean arterial pressure than the P group (4.7 ± 1.0 vs 3.9 ± 1.2 L/min; 76.7 ± 8.1 vs 84.5 ± 7.5 mm Hg; P = 0.02, P = 0.02). Among the variables, age, hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac output were associated with rScO2 by correlation analysis.Dopamine was superior to phenylephrine in maintaining cerebral oxygenation during OLV in thoracic surgery. PMID:26656357

  14. Effects of α1-adrenoceptor antagonists on phenylephrine-induced salivary secretion and intraurethral pressure elevation in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Yanai-Inamura, Hiroko; Ohtake, Akiyoshi; Noguchi, Yukiko; Hatanaka, Toshiki; Suzuki, Masanori; Ueshima, Koji; Sato, Shuichi; Sasamata, Masao

    2012-03-15

    α(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used for the treatment of voiding dysfunction associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Activation of α(1)-adrenoceptors is reported to induce salivary secretion in rats and humans. However, the effects of α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists on salivary secretion remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of the α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin and urapidil on phenylephrine-induced salivary secretion and compared the results with the effects on phenylephrine-induced intraurethral pressure (IUP) elevation in anesthetized rats. All antagonists inhibited phenylephrine-induced salivary secretion and IUP elevation in a dose-dependent fashion. Comparison of DR(10) values (the dose required to shift the dose-response curve 10-fold to the right) in both tissues showed that the inhibitory effect of silodosin was significantly more potent in the salivary gland than in the urethra (18-fold), but tamsulosin (2.3-fold), prazosin (1.7-fold) and urapidil (1.1-fold) did not show comparable tissue selectivity. These results suggest that α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists inhibit not only urethral contraction but also salivary secretion, and that high tissue selectivity for the salivary gland over the urethra as shown by silodosin may contribute to the incidence of dry mouth. PMID:22314219

  15. Mesenteric artery responsiveness to acetylcholine and phenylephrine in cirrhotic rats challenged with endotoxin: the role of TLR4.

    PubMed

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rezayat, Seyed-Mahdi; Ejtemaei-Mehr, Shahram; Tavangar, Seyed-Mohammad; Nikoui, Vahid; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Golnar; Abdollahi, Alireza; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2015-06-01

    Cirrhosis is associated with vascular dysfunction and endotoxemia. These experiments were designed to investigate the hypothesis that the administration of a low-dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) worsens vascular dysfunction in rats subjected to bile-duct ligation (BDL), and to determine whether LPS initiates changes in vascular Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. Four weeks after BDL, the animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or LPS (1.0 mg/kg body mass). Three hours later, the superior mesenteric artery was isolated, perfused, and then subjected to the vasoconstriction and vasodilatation effects of phenylephrine and acetylcholine, respectively. Our results show that phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction decreased in the cirrhotic vascular bed (BDL rats) compared with the vascular bed of the sham-operated animals, and that the LPS injections in the cirrhotic (BDL) rats worsened this response. LPS injection administered to the sham-operated animals had no such effect. On the other hand, both the BDL procedure and the LPS injection increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation, but LPS administration to the BDL rats had no effect on this response. The mRNA levels of TLR4 did not change, but immunohistochemical studies showed that TLR4 localization switched from the endothelium to vascular smooth muscle cells following chronic BDL. In conclusion, acute endotoxemia in cirrhotic rats is associated with hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine and tolerance to the effects of acetylcholine. Altered localization of TLR4 may be responsible for these effects. PMID:25978623

  16. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca/sup 2 +/. This study examined the effects of Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. (/sup 32/P) Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with /sup 32/P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production.

  17. Synthesis of tritium labeled Ac-(Nle/sup 4/, D-Phe/sup 7/)-. cap alpha. -MSH/sub 4-11/-NH/sub 2/: a superpotent melanotropin with prolonged biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, B.D.; Hruby, V.J.; Yamamura, H.I.; Akiyama, K.; Castrucci, A.M. de; Hadley, M.E.; Andrews, J.R.; Wan, Y.P.

    1984-03-05

    Ac-(Nle/sup 4/, D-Phe/sup 7/)-..cap alpha..-MSH/sub 4-11/-NH/sub 2/ an octapeptide, is a melanotropin analogue (Ac-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH/sub 2/), which is a superpotent agonist of frog and lizard skin melanocytes and mouse S 91 (Cloudman) melanoma cells. This melanotropin possesses ultraprolonged activity on melanocytes, both in vitro and in vivo, and the peptide is resistant to inactivation by serum enzymes. The tritium-labeled congener was prepared by direct incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-labeled norleucine into the peptide. The melanotropic activity of the labeled peptide is identical to the unlabeled analogue. This labeled peptide should be useful for studies on the localization and characterization of melanotropin receptors.

  18. PheP, a putative amino acid permease of Staphylococcus aureus, contributes to survival in vivo and during starvation.

    PubMed

    Horsburgh, Malcolm J; Wiltshire, Michael D; Crossley, Howard; Ingham, Eileen; Foster, Simon J

    2004-05-01

    PheP, a putative amino acid permease in Staphylococcus aureus, contributes to starvation survival under glucose-limiting conditions and virulence. A pheP mutation led to poor growth after microaerobic or anaerobic incubation on pig serum agar, which was recovered by phenylalanine addition. Genetic complementation of pheP restored growth and starvation survival. PMID:15102825

  19. Phenylephrine alteration of cerebral blood flow during orthostasis: effect on n-back performance in chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Shilpa; Messer, Zachary; Dzogbeta, Seli; Terilli, Courtney; Stewart, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with orthostatic intolerance is characterized by neurocognitive deficits and impaired working memory, concentration, and information processing. In CFS, upright tilting [head-up tilt (HUT)] caused decreased cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) related to hyperventilation/hypocapnia and impaired cerebral autoregulation; increasing orthostatic stress resulted in decreased neurocognition. We loaded the baroreflex with phenylephrine to prevent hyperventilation and performed n-back neurocognition testing in 11 control subjects and 15 CFS patients. HUT caused a significant increase in heart rate (109.4 ± 3.9 vs. 77.2 ± 1.6 beats/min, P < 0.05) and respiratory rate (20.9 ± 1.7 vs. 14.2 ± 1.2 breaths/min, P < 0.05) and decrease in end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2; 42.8 ± 1.2 vs. 33.9 ± 1.1 Torr, P < 0.05) in CFS vs. control. HUT caused CBFv to decrease 8.7% in control subjects but fell 22.5% in CFS. In CFS, phenylephrine prevented the HUT-induced hyperventilation/hypocapnia and the significant drop in CBFv with HUT (−8.1% vs. −22.5% untreated). There was no difference in control subject n-back normalized response time (nRT) comparing supine to HUT (106.1 ± 6.9 vs. 97.6 ± 7.1 ms at n = 4), and no difference comparing control to CFS while supine (97.1 ± 7.1 vs 96.5 ± 3.9 ms at n = 4). However, HUT of CFS subjects caused a significant increase in nRT (148.0 ± 9.3 vs. 96.4 ± 6.0 ms at n = 4) compared with supine. Phenylephrine significantly reduced the HUT-induced increase in nRT in CFS to levels similar to supine (114.6 ± 7.1 vs. 114.6 ± 9.3 ms at n = 4). Compared with control subjects, CFS subjects are more sensitive both to orthostatic challenge and to baroreflex/chemoreflex-mediated interventions. Increasing blood pressure with phenylephrine can alter CBFv. In CFS subjects, mitigation of the HUT-induced CBFv decrease with phenylephrine has a beneficial effect on n-back outcome. PMID:25277740

  20. Phenylephrine alteration of cerebral blood flow during orthostasis: effect on n-back performance in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Medow, Marvin S; Sood, Shilpa; Messer, Zachary; Dzogbeta, Seli; Terilli, Courtney; Stewart, Julian M

    2014-11-15

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with orthostatic intolerance is characterized by neurocognitive deficits and impaired working memory, concentration, and information processing. In CFS, upright tilting [head-up tilt (HUT)] caused decreased cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) related to hyperventilation/hypocapnia and impaired cerebral autoregulation; increasing orthostatic stress resulted in decreased neurocognition. We loaded the baroreflex with phenylephrine to prevent hyperventilation and performed n-back neurocognition testing in 11 control subjects and 15 CFS patients. HUT caused a significant increase in heart rate (109.4 ± 3.9 vs. 77.2 ± 1.6 beats/min, P < 0.05) and respiratory rate (20.9 ± 1.7 vs. 14.2 ± 1.2 breaths/min, P < 0.05) and decrease in end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2; 42.8 ± 1.2 vs. 33.9 ± 1.1 Torr, P < 0.05) in CFS vs. control. HUT caused CBFv to decrease 8.7% in control subjects but fell 22.5% in CFS. In CFS, phenylephrine prevented the HUT-induced hyperventilation/hypocapnia and the significant drop in CBFv with HUT (-8.1% vs. -22.5% untreated). There was no difference in control subject n-back normalized response time (nRT) comparing supine to HUT (106.1 ± 6.9 vs. 97.6 ± 7.1 ms at n = 4), and no difference comparing control to CFS while supine (97.1 ± 7.1 vs 96.5 ± 3.9 ms at n = 4). However, HUT of CFS subjects caused a significant increase in nRT (148.0 ± 9.3 vs. 96.4 ± 6.0 ms at n = 4) compared with supine. Phenylephrine significantly reduced the HUT-induced increase in nRT in CFS to levels similar to supine (114.6 ± 7.1 vs. 114.6 ± 9.3 ms at n = 4). Compared with control subjects, CFS subjects are more sensitive both to orthostatic challenge and to baroreflex/chemoreflex-mediated interventions. Increasing blood pressure with phenylephrine can alter CBFv. In CFS subjects, mitigation of the HUT-induced CBFv decrease with phenylephrine has a beneficial effect on n-back outcome. PMID:25277740

  1. Characterization of Cu(II) and Cd(II) resistance mechanisms in Sphingobium sp. PHE-SPH and Ochrobactrum sp. PHE-OCH and their potential application in the bioremediation of heavy metal-phenanthrene co-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Lei, Wenrui; Lu, Min; Zhang, Jianan; Zhang, Zhou; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Yahua; Hong, Qing; Shen, Zhenguo

    2016-04-01

    Soil that is co-contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is difficult to bioremediate due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. We demonstrated the resistance mechanisms to Cu(II) and Cd(II) of two newly isolated strains of Sphingobium sp. PHE-SPH and Ochrobactrum sp. PHE-OCH and further tested their potential application in the bioremediation of HM-phenanthrene (PhA) co-contaminated sites. The PHE-SPH and PHE-OCH strains tolerated 4.63 and 4.34 mM Cu(II) and also showed tolerance to 0.48 and 1.52 mM Cd(II), respectively. Diverse resistance patterns were detected between the two strains. In PHE-OCH cells, the maximum accumulation of Cu(II) occurred in the cell wall, while the maximum accumulation was in the cytoplasm of PHE-SPH cells. This resulted in a sudden suppression of growth in PHE-OCH and a gradual inhibition in PHE-SPH as the concentration of Cu(II) increased. Organic acid production was markedly higher in PHE-OCH than in PHE-SPH, which may also have a role in the resistance mechanisms, and contributes to the higher Cd(II) tolerance of PHE-OCH. The factors involved in the absorption of Cu(II) or Cd(II) in PHE-SPH and PHE-OCH were identified as proteins and carbohydrates by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, both strains showed the ability to efficiently degrade PhA and maintained this high degradation efficiency under HM stress. The high tolerance to HMs and the PhA degradation capacity make Sphingobium sp. PHE-SPH and Ochrobactrum sp. PHE-OCH excellent candidate organisms for the bioremediation of HM-PhA co-contaminated sites. PMID:26670028

  2. Aminocarbonylation of 4-iodo-1H-imidazoles with an amino acid amide nucleophile: synthesis of constrained H-Phe-Phe-NH2 analogues.

    PubMed

    Skogh, Anna; Fransson, Rebecca; Sköld, Christian; Larhed, Mats; Sandström, Anja

    2013-12-01

    A simple and an expedient process to prepare 5-aryl-1-benzyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamides by the aminocarbonylation of 5-aryl-4-iodo-1H-imidazoles using ex situ generation of CO from Mo(CO)6 with an amino acid amide nucleophile is reported. Furthermore, a microwave-assisted protocol for the direct C-5 arylation of 1-benzyl-1H-imidazole and a regioselective C-4 iodination method to acquire starting material for our aminocarbonylation are presented. The method can be used to prepare imidazole based peptidomimetics, herein exemplified by the synthesis of constrained H-Phe-Phe-NH2 analogues. PMID:24171628

  3. The agonist SR 146131 and the antagonist SR 27897 occupy different sites on the human CCK(1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Gouldson, P; Legoux, P; Carillon, C; Delpech, B; Le Fur, G; Ferrara, P; Shire, D

    2000-07-21

    1-[2-(4-(2-Chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl) aminocarbonyl indoyl] acetic acid (SR 27897) is an effective CCK(1) receptor antagonist, while the structurally related molecule 2-[4-(4-chloro-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(2-cyclohexyl-ethyl)-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl ]-5, 7-dimethyl-indol-1-yl-1-acetic acid (SR 146131) is a highly potent and specific agonist for the same receptor. To discover how the two molecules interact with the human cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(1) receptor, we have carried out binding and activity studies with 33-point mutated receptors. Only six mutants showed altered [3H]SR 27897 binding properties, Lys(115), Lys(187), Phe(198), Trp(209), Leu(214) and Asn(333). In contrast, numerous mutations throughout the receptor either reduced SR 146131 agonist potency, Phe(97), Gly(122), Phe(198), Trp(209), Ile(229), Asn(333), Arg(336) and Leu(356) or increased it, Tyr(48), Cys(94), Asn(98), Leu(217) and Ser(359). Only mutations of Phe(198), Trp(209) and Asn(333) affected both SR 27897 and SR 146131 binding or activity. The collated information was used to construct molecular models of SR 27897 and SR 146131 bound to the human CCK(1) receptor. The clear difference in the binding sites of SR 27897 and SR 146131 offers a molecular explanation for their contrasting pharmacological characteristics. PMID:10988332

  4. Highly selective agonists for substance P receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Wormser, U; Laufer, R; Hart, Y; Chorev, M; Gilon, C; Selinger, Z

    1986-01-01

    The existence of a third tachykinin receptor (SP-N) in the mammalian nervous system was demonstrated by development of highly selective agonists. Systematic N-methylation of individual peptide bonds in the C-terminal hexapeptide of substance P gave rise to agonists which specifically act on different receptor subtypes. The most selective analog of this series, succinyl-[Asp6,Me-Phe8]SP6-11, elicits half-maximal contraction of the guinea pig ileum through the neuronal SP-N receptor at a concentration of 0.5 nM. At least 60,000-fold higher concentrations of this peptide are required to stimulate the other two tachykinin receptors (SP-P and SP-E). The action of selective SP-N agonists in the guinea pig ileum is antagonized by opioid peptides, suggesting a functional counteraction between opiate and SP-N receptors. These results indicate that the tachykinin receptors are distinct entities which may mediate different physiological functions. PMID:2431898

  5. Beta-Adrenergic Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Baroffio, Michele; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptoms-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. In this article, we first review the basic mechanisms by which the β2-adrenergic system contributes to the control of airway smooth muscle tone. Then, we go on describing the structural characteristics of β2-AR and the molecular basis of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and mechanisms of its desensitization/ dysfunction. In particular, phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A and β-adrenergic receptor kinase are examined in detail. Finally, we discuss the pivotal role of inhaled β2-AR agonists in the treatment of asthma and the concerns about their safety that have been recently raised.

  6. Expression of a set of synthetic suppressor tRNA(Phe) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Masson, J M; Meuris, P; Grunstein, M; Abelson, J; Miller, J H

    1987-01-01

    Synthetic ochre and amber tRNA suppressor genes derived from the yeast tRNA(PheGAA) sequence have been constructed. They were efficiently transcribed in vitro and expressed in vivo via a synthetic expression cassette. tRNA(PheUUA) and tRNA(PheUUA) delta IVS (IVS = intervening sequence) are relatively inefficient ochre suppressors. They are toxic to the cell when expressed on a multicopy plasmid, and they do not suppress at all when present as single copies. The intron does not seem to have any effect on suppression. In contrast, the amber suppressor tRNA(PheCUA) delta IVS is efficient when expressed from a single-copy plasmid, while its efficiency is reduced on a multicopy vector. Images PMID:3309948

  7. Ile-Phe Dipeptide Self-Assembly: Clues to Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Natalia Sánchez; Parella, Teodor; Aviles, Francesc X.; Vendrell, Josep; Ventura, Salvador

    2007-01-01

    Peptidic self-assembled nanostructures are said to have a wide range of applications in nanotechnology, yet the mechanistic details of hierarchical self-assembly are still poorly understood. The Phe-Phe recognition motif of the Alzheimer's Aβ peptide is the smallest peptide able to assemble into higher-order structures. Here, we show that the Ile-Phe dipeptide analog is also able to self-associate in aqueous solution as a transparent, thermoreversible gel formed by a network of fibrillar nanostructures that exhibit strong birefringence upon Congo red binding. Besides, a second dipeptide Val-Phe, differing only in a methyl group from the former, is unable to self-assemble. The detailed analysis of the differential polymeric behavior of these closely related molecules provides insight into the forces triggering the first steps in self-assembly processes such as amyloid formation. PMID:17172307

  8. Ile-phe dipeptide self-assembly: clues to amyloid formation.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Natalia Sánchez; Parella, Teodor; Aviles, Francesc X; Vendrell, Josep; Ventura, Salvador

    2007-03-01

    Peptidic self-assembled nanostructures are said to have a wide range of applications in nanotechnology, yet the mechanistic details of hierarchical self-assembly are still poorly understood. The Phe-Phe recognition motif of the Alzheimer's Abeta peptide is the smallest peptide able to assemble into higher-order structures. Here, we show that the Ile-Phe dipeptide analog is also able to self-associate in aqueous solution as a transparent, thermoreversible gel formed by a network of fibrillar nanostructures that exhibit strong birefringence upon Congo red binding. Besides, a second dipeptide Val-Phe, differing only in a methyl group from the former, is unable to self-assemble. The detailed analysis of the differential polymeric behavior of these closely related molecules provides insight into the forces triggering the first steps in self-assembly processes such as amyloid formation. PMID:17172307

  9. Discovery of potent hexapeptide agonists to human neuromedin u receptor 1 and identification of their serum metabolites.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kentaro; Mori, Kenji; Sohma, Yuko; Taketa, Koji; Taguchi, Akihiro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Minamino, Naoto; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2015-03-12

    Neuromedin U (NMU) and S (NMS) display various physiological activities, including an anorexigenic effect, and share a common C-terminal heptapeptide-amide sequence that is necessary to activate two NMU receptors (NMUR1 and NMUR2). On the basis of this knowledge, we recently developed hexapeptide agonists 2 and 3, which are highly selective to human NMUR1 and NMUR2, respectively. However, the agonists are still less potent than the endogenous ligand, hNMU. Therefore, we performed an additional structure-activity relationship study, which led to the identification of the more potent hexapeptide 5d that exhibits similar NMUR1-agonistic activity as compared to hNMU. Additionally, we studied the stability of synthesized agonists, including 5d, in rat serum, and identified two major biodegradation sites: Phe(2)-Arg(3) and Arg(5)-Asn(6). The latter was more predominantly cleaved than the former. Moreover, substitution with 4-fluorophenylalanine, as in 5d, enhanced the metabolic stability at Phe(2)-Arg(3). These results provide important information to guide the development of practical hNMU agonists. PMID:25815150

  10. The effect of ionophore A23187 on calcium ion fluxes and alpha-adrenergic-agonist action in perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, P H; Taylor, W M; Bygrave, F L

    1983-01-01

    The effect of ionophore A23187 on cellular Ca2+ fluxes, glycogenolysis and respiration was examined in perfused liver. At low extracellular Ca2+ concentrations (less than 4 microM), A23187 induced the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and stimulated the rate of glycogenolysis and respiration. As the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was elevated, biphasic cellular Ca2+ fluxes were observed, with Ca2+ uptake preceding Ca2+ efflux. Under these conditions, both the glycogenolytic response and the respiratory response also became biphasic, allowing the differentiation between the effects of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+. Under all conditions examined the rate of Ca2+ efflux induced by A23187 was much slower than the rate of phenylephrine-induced Ca2+ efflux, although the net amounts of Ca2+ effluxed were similar for both agents. The effect of A23187 on phenylephrine-induced Ca2+ fluxes, glycogenolysis and respiration is dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. At concentrations of less than 50 microM-Ca2+, A23187 only partially inhibited alpha-agonist action, whereas at 1.3 mM-Ca2+ almost total inhibition was observed. The action of A23187 at the cellular level is complex, dependent on the experimental conditions used, and shows both differences from and similarities to the hepatic action of alpha-adrenergic agonists. PMID:6412701

  11. Phenome-wide association studies (PheWASs) for functional variants

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhan; Mayer, John; Ivacic, Lynn; Zhou, Zhiyi; He, Min; Schrodi, Steven J; Page, David; Brilliant, Murray H; Hebbring, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful approach for studying the genetic complexities of human disease. Unfortunately, GWASs often fail to identify clinically significant associations and describing function can be a challenge. GWAS is a phenotype-to-genotype approach. It is now possible to conduct a converse genotype-to-phenotype approach using extensive electronic medical records to define a phenome. This approach associates a single genetic variant with many phenotypes across the phenome and is called a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS). The majority of PheWASs conducted have focused on variants identified previously by GWASs. This approach has been efficient for rediscovering gene–disease associations while also identifying pleiotropic effects for some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, the use of SNPs identified by GWAS in a PheWAS is limited by the inherent properties of the GWAS SNPs, including weak effect sizes and difficulty when translating discoveries to function. To address these challenges, we conducted a PheWAS on 105 presumed functional stop-gain and stop-loss variants genotyped on 4235 Marshfield Clinic patients. Associations were validated on an additional 10 640 Marshfield Clinic patients. PheWAS results indicate that a nonsense variant in ARMS2 (rs2736911) is associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These results demonstrate that focusing on functional variants may be an effective approach when conducting a PheWAS. PMID:25074467

  12. Effects of caffeine, halothane, succinylcholine, phenylephrine and isoproterenol on myocardial force of contraction of malignant hyperthermia susceptible swine.

    PubMed

    Scholz, J; Roewer, N; Rum, U; Schmitz, W; Scholz, H; Schulte am Esch, J

    1991-05-01

    The effects of caffeine, halothane, succinylcholine, phenylephrine and isoproterenol on force of contraction were studied in electrically driven (0.2 Hz) trabeculae isolated from the right ventricles of the hearts of malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) and healthy control (nMHS) swine. Caffeine (0.1-10 mmol/l) had positive inotropic effects, amounting to 275 +/- 35% of control in nMHS and 268 +/- 34% in MHS (n = 16). Halothane (0.25-4 vol%) decreased the force of contraction maximally to 52 +/- 4% in nMHS and 51 +/- 5% of control in MHS (n = 16). Propranolol did not change these effects. Succinylcholine (0.1-10000 mumol/l) had a small positive inotropic effect in both groups, which was blocked by propranolol. Phenylephrine (0.1-300 mumol/l) increased the force of contraction maximally to 188 +/- 24% of control in nMHS and to 193 +/- 23% in MHS (n = 16). The inotropic effect was blocked by prazosin but not by succinylcholine (1 mmol/l). Isoproterenol (0.01-10 mumol/l) had a positive inotropic effect of maximally 275 +/- 21% of control in nMHS and 396 +/- 31% in MHS (n = 17) (P less than 0.05). Succinylcholine potentiated this effect, and propranolol shifted the concentration-response curves to the right. We conclude that caffeine, halothane, succinylcholine and phenylephrine have similar inotropic effects in the hearts of nMHS and MHS, whereas isoproterenol has a significantly greater effect in MHS than in nMHS. PMID:1853693

  13. Use of hollow microneedles for targeted delivery of phenylephrine to treat fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyesun; Han, Mee-Ree; Kang, Nae-Gyu; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jung Ho

    2015-06-10

    A hollow microneedle (HM) was prepared to deliver a phenylephrine (PE) solution into the anal sphincter muscle as a method for treating fecal incontinence. The goal of this study was the local targeted delivery of PE into the sphincter muscle through the perianal skin with minimal pain using hollow microneedles, resulting in the increase of resting anal sphincter pressure. PE was administered on the left and the right sides of the anus of a rat through the perianal skin using 1.5mm long HM. An in vivo imaging system study was conducted after injection of Rhodamine B, and a histological study was performed after injection of gentian violet. The resting anal sphincter pressure in response to various drug doses was measured by using an air-charged catheter. Anal pressure change produced by HM administration was compared with change produced by intravenous injection (IV), subcutaneous (SC) injection and intramuscular (IM) injection. The change in mean blood pressure produced by HM administration as a function of PE dose was compared with change produced by PBS injection. A pharmacokinetic study of the new HM administration method was performed. A model drug solution was localized in the muscle layer under the perianal skin at the injection site and then diffused out over time. HM administration of PE induced significant contraction of internal anal sphincter pressure over 12h after injection, and the maximum anal pressure was obtained between 5 and 6h. Compared to IV, SC and IM treatments, HM treatment produced greater anal pressure. There was no increase in blood pressure after HM administration of PE within the range of predetermined concentration. Administration of 800μg/kg of PE using HM produced 0.81±0.38h of tmax. Our study suggests that HM administration enables local delivery of a therapeutic dose of PE to the anal sphincter muscle layer with less pain. This new treatment has great potential as a clinical application because of the ease of the procedure

  14. Marked behavioral activation from inhibitory stimulation of locus coeruleus α1-adrenoceptors by a full agonist

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Eric A.; Lin, Yan; Sarfraz, Yasmeen; Quartermain, David

    2009-01-01

    α1-Adrenoceptors are concentrated in the locus coeruleus (LC) where they appear to regulate various active behaviors but have been difficult to stimulate effectively. The present study examined the behavioral, pharmacological and neural effects of possible stimulation of these receptors with 6-fluoronorepinephrine (6FNE), the only known selective α-agonist that has full efficacy at all brain α-receptors. Infusion of this compound in the mouse LC was found to produce extreme activation of diverse motivated behaviors of exploration, wheel running and operant approach responding in different environments consistent with a global behavioral function of the dorsal noradrenergic system. Infusion of selective antagonists of α1- (terazosin) or α2-(atipamezole) receptors or of either the partial α1-agonist, phenylephrine, or full α2-agonist, dexmedetomidine, indicated that the behavioral effects of 6FNE were due largely due to activation of LC α1-receptors consistent with the known greater density of α1-than α2-adrenoreceptors in the mouse nucleus. Immunohistochemistry of fos in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive LC neurons following IV ventricular infusions indicated that 6FNE markedly depressed whereas terazosin strongly enhanced the apparent functional activity of the nucleus. The changes in fos expression following 6FNE and terazosin were significantly greater than those following dexmedetomidine and atipamezole. It is hypothesized that the α1-receptors of the mouse LC are strongly activated by 6FNE and serve to potently inhibit its tonic or stress-induced activity which in turn disinhibits prepotent motivated behaviors. PMID:19632210

  15. Agonist-induced redistribution of calponin in contractile vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, C A; Takahashi, K; Tao, T; Morgan, K G

    1994-11-01

    Calponin is a thin filament-associated protein that has been implicated in playing an auxiliary regulatory role in smooth muscle contraction. We have used immunofluorescence and digital imaging microscopy to determine the cellular distribution of calponin in single cells freshly isolated from the ferret portal vein. In resting cells calponin is distributed throughout the cytosol, associated with filamentous structures, and is excluded from the nuclear area of the cell. The ratio of surface cortex-associated calponin to cytosol-associated calponin (R) was found to be 0.639 +/- 0.021. Upon depolarization of the cell with physiological saline solution containing 96 mM K+, the distribution of calponin did not change from that of a resting cell (R = 0.678 +/- 0.025, P = 0.369). Upon stimulation with an agonist (10 microM phenylephrine) that is known to activate protein kinase C (PKC) in these cells, the cellular distribution of calponin changed from primarily cytosolic to primarily surface cortex associated (R = 1.24 +/- 0.085, P < 0.001). This agonist-induced redistribution of calponin was partially inhibited by the PKC inhibitor calphostin, overlapped in time with PKC translocation, and preceded contraction of these cells. These results suggest that the physiological function of calponin may be to mediate agonist-activated contraction via a PKC-dependent pathway. PMID:7526695

  16. Contrasting Association Results between Existing PheWAS Phenotype Definition Methods and Five Validated Electronic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Leader, Joseph B; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Verma, Anurag; Carey, David J; Hartzel, Dustin N; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Kirchner, H. Lester

    2015-01-01

    Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) comprehensively investigate the association between genetic variation and a wide array of outcome traits. Electronic health record (EHR) based PheWAS uses various abstractions of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify case/control status for diagnoses that are used as the phenotypic variables. However, there have not been comparisons within a PheWAS between results from high quality derived phenotypes and high-throughput but potentially inaccurate use of ICD-9 codes for case/control definition. For this study we first developed a group of high quality algorithms for five phenotypes. Next we evaluated the association of these “gold standard” phenotypes and 4,636,178 genetic variants with minor allele frequency > 0.01 and compared the results from high-throughput associations at the 3 digit, 5 digit, and PheWAS codes for defining case/control status. We found that certain diseases contained similar patient populations across phenotyping methods but had differences in PheWAS. PMID:26958218

  17. The dipeptide alanylphenylalanine ( H-Ala-Phe-OH) - protonation and coordination ability with Au(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, B. B.; Kolev, Ts.; Zareva, S. Y.; Spiteller, M.

    2007-04-01

    The dipeptide alanylphenylalanine ( H-Ala-Phe-OH), its hydrochloride ( HCl × H-Ala-Phe-OH) and Au(III)-complex have been characterized structurally. Quantum chemical DFT and ab initio calculations, solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy and 1H and 13C NMR data were employed. The results are confirmed by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of HCl × H-Ala-Phe-OH. The coordination with Au(III) is supported by data from MS, TGV, DSC methods and by elemental analysis. The H-Ala-Phe-OH coordinates in a bidentate manner via an O-atom of the COO --group and N-amide nitrogen, after a previous deprotonation of the NH-group has taken place. Two Cl - ions are attached to the metal center as terminal ligands, yielding a completely planar geometry for the AuNOCl 2 chromophor in the mononuclear [Au(( H-Ala-Phe-OH)H -1)Cl 2] complex.

  18. Measuring patient engagement: development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients' engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients' engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health. In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale), a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods. The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model). In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N = 382) to assess the measure's psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed. The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability. Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions. PMID:25870566

  19. Tachykinin NK(3) receptor agonists induced microvascular leakage hypersensitivity in the guinea-pig airways.

    PubMed

    Daoui, S; Ahnaou, A; Naline, E; Emonds-Alt, X; Lagente, V; Advenier, C

    2001-12-21

    Microvascular leakage hypersensitivity is a main component of neurogenic inflammation and of tachykinin effects. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of neurokinin B and of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor agonists, [MePhe(7)]neurokinin B or senktide, to potentiate when given by aerosol the microvascular leakage induced by histamine in guinea-pig airways and to compare their effects to those of tachykinin NK(1) (substance P, [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P) or tachykinin NK(2) (neurokinin A, [betaAla(8)]neurokinin A (4-10)) receptor agonists. Guinea-pigs were pretreated successively for 10 min with aerolized salbutamol and phosphoramidon; 15 min later, they were exposed for 30 min to an aerosolized solution of tachykinin receptor agonists; 24 h later, the animals were anaesthetized and vascular permeability was quantified by extravasation of Evans blue dye. Neurokinin B, [MePhe(7)]neurokinin B and senktide (3 x 10(-6)-3 x 10(-5)M) induced a potentiation of the effects of histamine on the vascular permeability in the trachea and main bronchi. Compared to other tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptor agonists, the order of potency was: senktide>neurokinin B=[Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P=[betaAla(8)]neurokinin A (4-10)=[MePhe(7)]neurokinin B>neurokinin A>substance P. The potentiation by [MePhe(7)]neurokinin B of histamine-induced microvascular leakage was abolished by the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist SR140333 ([(S)1-(2-[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-iso-propoxyphenylacetyl)piperidin-3-yl]etyl)-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, chloride]) or the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonists SR 142801 ([(R)-(N)-(1-(3-(l-benzoyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl) propyl)-4-phenylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-methylacetamide]) and SB 223412 ([(S)-(-)-N-(alpha-ethylbenzyl)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxamide]). In conclusion, these results suggest that tachykinin NK(3) receptors might be involved in the potentiation of histamine-induced increase in microvascular

  20. Neurokinin B- and specific tachykinin NK3 receptor agonists-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Daoui, Samira; Naline, Emmanuel; Lagente, Vincent; Emonds-Alt, Xavier; Advenier, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether neurokinin B (NKB) or specific agonists of tachykinin NK3 receptors, [MePhe7]NKB and senktide, were able to induce airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pigs. The effects of these compounds were compared to those of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and the preferential tachykinin NK1 ([Sar9, Met(02)11]SP) or NK2 ([βAla8]NKA (4-10)) receptor agonists.In guinea-pigs pretreated with phosphoramidon (10−4 M aerosol for 10 min) and salbutamol (8.7×10−3 M for 10 min), all tachykinins administrated by aerosol (3×10−7 to 10−4 M) induced airway hyperresponsiveness 24 h later, displayed by an exaggerated response to the bronchoconstrictor effect of acetylcholine (i.v.). The rank order of potency was: [βAla8]NKA (4-10)>NKA=NKB=senktide=[MePhe7]NKB=[Sar9,Met(02)11]SP>SP.Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by [MePhe7]NKB was prevented by the tachykinin NK3 (SR 142801) and NK2 (SR 48968) receptor antagonists.Bronchoconstriction induced by tachykinins administered by aerosol was also determined. SP, NKA, NKB and the tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptor agonist induced bronchoconstriction. The rank order of potency was: NKA=[βAla8]NKA (4-10)>NKB=SP=[Sar9,Met(02)11]SP. Under similar conditions, and for concentrations which induce airway hyperresponsiveness, senktide and [MePhe7]NKB failed to induce bronchoconstriction.It is concluded that tachykinin NK3-receptor stimulation can induce airway hyperresponsiveness and that this effect is not related to the ability of tachykinins to induce bronchoconstriction. PMID:10780997

  1. Opioid effects of short enkephalin fragments containing the Gly-Phe sequence on contractile responses of guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Radomirov, R; Pencheva, N; Stoyneva, I; Lazova, L

    1994-03-01

    1. Effects of the fragments H-Gly-Phe-OH, H-Gly-Phe-NH2 or H-Gly-Phe-OMe on the electrically stimulated cholinergic contractions of the longitudinal layer in isolated guinea pig ileum and on the Morphine-, Met-enkephalin- or Leu-enkephalin-induced inhibition of these contractions were analyzed for opioid activity in respect to Gly-Phe sequence. 2. H-Gly-Phe-OH or H-Gly-Phe-NH2 exerted no effects, while H-Gly-Phe-OMe applied cumulatively (1 pM-1 mM), concentration-dependently reduced the contractions to electrical stimulation, the IC50 value being 1.96 +/- 0.06 microM. Naloxone (1-5 microM) did not reverse the H-Gly-Phe-OMe effects. 3. H-Gly-Phe-OMe at single concentrations (1-10 microM) significantly decreased the maximum inhibition produced by cumulatively added (0.1 nM-100 microM) morphine, Met-enkephalin or Leu-enkephalin. The regression lines for the opioids were shifted to the right but not always in a parallel fashion; the IC50 values were higher as compared to the controls and lower as compared to the IC50 values after naloxone. 4. The pA2 value for H-Gly-Phe-OMe with respect to morphine (6.43 +/- 0.14) did not differ from that to Met-enkephalin (6.68 +/- 0.35) or Leu-enkephalin (9.06 +/- 0.98); the slope of the pA2 plot to morphine was near unity. 5. These data indicated that H-Gly-Phe-OMe exerted predominantly a potent non-competitive opioid antagonistic effect suggesting that short enkephalin fragments containing the Gly-Phe sequence might possess an opioid activity. PMID:8026730

  2. Enhanced β-turn conformational stability of tripeptides containing ΔPhe in cis over trans configuration.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Mariusz; Jaremko, Lukasz; Mazur, Adam; Makowski, Maciej; Lisowski, Marek

    2013-10-01

    Conformations of three pairs of dehydropeptides with the opposite configuration of the ΔPhe residue, Boc-Gly-Δ(Z/E)Phe-Phe-p-NA (Z- p -NA and E- p -NA), Boc-Gly-Δ(Z/E)Phe-Phe-OMe (Z-OMe and E-OMe), and Boc-Gly-Δ(Z/E)Phe-Phe-OH (Z-OH and E-OH) were compared on the basis of CD and NMR studies in MeOH, TFE, and DMSO. The CD results were used as the additional input data for the NMR-based calculations of the detailed solution conformations of the peptides. It was found that Z- p -NA, E- p -NA, Z-OMe, and Z-OH adopt the β-turn conformations and E-OMe and E-OH are unordered. There are two overlapping type III β-turns in Z- p -NA, type II' β-turn in E- p -NA, and type II β-turn in Z-OMe and Z-OH. The results obtained indicate that in the case of methyl esters and peptides with a free carboxyl group, Δ(Z)Phe is a much stronger inducer of ordered conformations than Δ(E)Phe. It was also found that temperature coefficients of the amide protons are not reliable indicators of intramolecular hydrogen bonds donors in small peptides. PMID:23812673

  3. The effect of urapidil, an alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A agonist, on the vascular tone of the porcine coronary and pulmonary arteries, the rat aorta and the human pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Claire; Auger, Cyril; Diemunsch, Pierre; Schini-Kerth, Valérie

    2016-05-15

    Urapidil (Eupressyl(®)) an antihypertensive drug acting as an α1 antagonist and a 5-HT1A agonist, may be of special interest in the treatment of hypertension associated with preeclamptic toxaemia and hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction. However, the effect of urapidil on vascular tone has been poorly investigated. Vascular reactivity was evaluated using pulmonary and coronary arteries from 36 pigs, aortae from 22 rats and 9 human pulmonary artery samples suspended in organ chambers. Concentration-relaxation curves either to urapidil, 5-HT, or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT were constructed after pre-contraction of rings. Pig pulmonary and coronary artery rings were contracted with U46619, a thromboxane mimetic, rat aortic rings with either endothelin-1 or phenylephrine, and human pulmonary artery rings with U46619 or phenylephrine. Urapidil markedly inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions in rat aortic rings with and without endothelium with a more pronounced effect observed in rings without endothelium. Both 5-HT and 8-OH-DPAT failed to induce relaxation in rat aortic rings with an intact endothelium. 5-HT, but not urapidil and 8-OH-DPAT, induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary and pulmonary artery rings with an intact endothelium (P<0.05). 5-HT and phenylephrine but not urapidil caused concentration-dependent contractions in human pulmonary artery rings. The present findings, while confirming that urapidil is a potent inhibitor of α1-adrenoceptor-induced contraction, do not support the role of 5-HT1A receptor activation in the control of the vascular tone of the different types of arteries tested in response to urapidil. In addition, they indicate that urapidil seems to preferentially target arteries with endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26957055

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of FGLamide allatostatin analogs with Phe(3) residue modifications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yong; Wang, Meizi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Xinling; Tobe, Stephen S

    2016-09-01

    A FGLamide allatostatin neuropeptide mimic (H17) is a potential insect growth regulator which inhibits the production of juvenile hormone by the corpora allata. To find more evidence to reveal the structure-activity relationships of the Phe(3) residue in the C-terminal conserved pentapeptide and search for novel analogs with high activity, a series of Phe(3) residue-modified analogs were designed and synthesized using H17 as the lead compound. Bioassay using juvenile hormone (JH) production by corpora allata of the cockroach Diploptera punctata indicated that analogs 4, 11, and 13 showed strong ability to inhibit JH production in vitro, with IC50 of 38.5, 22.5, and 26 nM, respectively. As well, the activity of analog 2 (IC50 : 89.5 nM) proved roughly equivalent to that of H17. Based on the primary structure-activity relationships of Phe(3) residue, we suggest that for analogs containing six-membered aromatic rings, removing the methylene group of Phe(3) or an o-halogen or p-halogen-substituted benzene ring could increase the ability to inhibit biosynthesis of JH. This study will be useful for the design of new allatostatin analogs for insect management. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27477941

  5. [Dmt1]DALDA analogues with enhanced μ opioid agonist potency and with a mixed μ/κ opioid activity profile

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Longxiang; Li, Ziyuan; Chen, Jiajia; Chung, Nga N.; Wilkes, Brian C.; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Analogues of [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt = 2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity, were prepared by replacing Phe3 with various 2′,6′-dialkylated Phe analogues, including 2′,6′-dimethylphenylalanine (Dmp), 2′4′,6′-trimethylphenylalanine (Tmp), 2′-isopropyl-6′-methylphenylalanine (Imp) and 2′-ethyl-6′-methylphenylalanine (Emp), or with the bulky amino acids 3′-(1-naphthyl)alanine (1-Nal), 3′-(2-naphthyl)alanine (2-Nal) or Trp. Several compounds showed significantly increased μ agonist potency, retained μ receptor selectivity and are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Surprisingly, the Dmp3-, Imp3-, Emp3- and 1-Nal3-containing analogues showed much increased κ receptor binding affinity and had mixed μ/κ properties. In these cases, molecular dynamics studies indicated conformational preorganization of the unbound peptide ligands due to rotational restriction around the Cβ-Cγ bond of the Xxx3 residue, in correlation with the observed κ receptor binding enhancement. Compounds with a mixed μ/κ opioid activity profile are known to have therapeutic potential for treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:24602401

  6. Defining Nicotinic Agonist Binding Surfaces through Photoaffinity Labeling†

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Maltby, David; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Zhang, Nanjing; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Presley, Jack; Talley, Todd T.; Taylor, Palmer; Burlingame, Alma L.; Casida, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) agonists are potential therapeutic agents for neurological dysfunction. In the present study, the homopentameric mollusk ACh binding protein (AChBP), used as a surrogate for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the nAChR, was specifically derivatized by the highly potent agonist azidoepibatidine (AzEPI) prepared as a photoaffinity probe and radioligand. One EPI-nitrene photoactivated molecule was incorporated in each subunit interface binding site based on analysis of the intact derivatized protein. Tryptic fragments of the modified AChBP were analyzed by collision-induced dissociation and Edman sequencing of radiolabeled peptides. Each specific EPI-nitrene-modified site involved either Tyr195 of loop C on the principal or (+)-face or Met116 of loop E on the complementary or (−)-face. The two derivatization sites were observed in similar frequency, providing evidence of the reactivity of the azido/nitrene probe substituent and close proximity to both residues. [3H]AzEPI binds to the α4β2 nAChR at a single high-affinity site and photoaffinity-labels only the α4 subunit, presumably modifying Tyr225 spatially corresponding to Tyr195 of AChBP. Phe137 of the β2 nAChR subunit, equivalent to Met116 of AChBP, conceivably lacks sufficient reactivity with the nitrene generated from the probe. The present photoaffinity labeling in a physiologically relevant condition combined with the crystal structure of AChBP allows development of precise structural models for the AzEPI interactions with AChBP and α4β2 nAChR. These findings enabled us to use AChBP as a structural surrogate to define the nAChR agonist site. PMID:17614369

  7. Truncation of the peptide sequence in bifunctional ligands with mu and delta opioid receptor agonist and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist activities

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Padma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Cowell, Scott; Kulkarni, Vinod; Moye, Sharif; Navratilova, Edita; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-Wu; Vanderah, Todd W.; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The optimization and truncation of our lead peptide-derived ligand TY005 possessing eight amino-acid residues was performed. Among the synthesized derivatives, NP30 (Tyr1-DAla2-Gly3-Phe4-Gly5-Trp6-O-[3′,5′-Bzl(CF3)2]) showed balanced and potent opioid agonist as well as substance P antagonist activities in isolated tissue-based assays, together with significant antinociceptive and antiallodynic activities in vivo. PMID:23899615

  8. G673 could be a novel mutational hot spot for intragenic suppressors of pheS5 lesion in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ponmani, Thangaraj; Munavar, M Hussain

    2014-06-01

    The pheS5 Ts mutant of Escherichia coli defined by a G293 → A293 transition, which is responsible for thermosensitive Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase has been well studied at both biochemical and molecular level but genetic analyses pertaining to suppressors of pheS5 were hard to come by. Here we have systematically analyzed a spectrum of Temperature-insensitive derivatives isolated from pheS5 Ts mutant and identified two intragenic suppressors affecting the same base pair coordinate G673 (pheS19 defines G673 → T673 ; Gly225 → Cys225 and pheS28 defines G673 → C673 ; Gly225 → Arg225). In fact in the third derivative, the intragenic suppressor originally named pheS43 (G673 → C673 transversion) is virtually same as pheS28. In the fourth case, the very pheS5 lesion itself has got changed from A293 → T293 (named pheS40). Cloning of pheS(+), pheS5, pheS5-pheS19, pheS5-pheS28 alleles into pBR322 and introduction of these clones into pheS5 mutant revealed that excess of double mutant protein is not at all good for the survival of cells at 42°C. These results clearly indicate a pivotal role for Gly225 in the structural/functional integrity of alpha subunit of E. coli PheRS enzyme and it is proposed that G673 might define a hot spot for intragenic suppressors of pheS5. PMID:24811065

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chlorinated-Ethene Degrader, Cupriavidus necator Strain PHE3-6 (NBRC 110655)

    PubMed Central

    Yonezuka, Kenta; Shimodaira, Jun; Tabata, Michiro; Nagase, Shun; Kasai, Daisuke; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator strain PHE3-6 grows on phenol as a sole carbon source and cometabolizes cis- and trans-dichloroethenes and trichloroethene. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of PHE3-6, which provides insights into the degradation system of phenol and chlorinated ethenes. PMID:26941158

  10. 40 CFR 721.7620 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). 721.7620 Section 721... Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl)...

  11. The GSTM1null (deletion) and MGMT84 rs12917 (Phe/Phe) haplotype are associated with bulky DNA adduct levels in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Edith; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Rubio, Julieta; Petrosyan, Pavel; Cadena, Leticia Hernández; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Gonsebatt, María E

    2013-12-12

    Tobacco smoke and air pollutants contain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA), that are substrates of metabolizing enzymes generating reactive metabolites that can bind to DNA. Variation in the activity of these enzymes may modify the extent to which these metabolites can interact with DNA. We compared the levels of bulky DNA adducts in blood leukocytes from 93 volunteers living in Mexico City with the presence of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to PAH and TSNA metabolism (AhR rs2044853, CYP1A1 rs1048943, CYP1A1 rs1048943, CYP1A1 rs1799814, EPHX1 rs1051740, EPHX1 rs2234922, GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 rs947894), DNA repair (XRCC1 rs25487, ERCC2 rs13181 and MGMT rs12917) and cell cycle (TP53 rs1042522). (32)P-postlabeling analysis was used to quantify bulky DNA adduct formation. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP. The mean levels of bulky DNA adducts were 8.51±3.66 adducts/10(8) nucleotides (nt) in smokers and 8.38±3.59 adducts/10(8) nt in non-smokers, being the difference not statistically significant. Without taking into account the smoking status, GSTM1 null individuals had a marginally significant lower adduct levels compared with GSTM1 volunteers (p=0.0433) and individuals heterozygous for MGMT Leu/Phe had a higher level of bulky adducts than those who were homozygous wild type (p=0.0170). A multiple regression analysis model showed a significant association between the GSTM1 (deletion) and MGMT rs12917 (Phe/Phe) haplotype and the formation of DNA adducts in smokers (R(2)=0.2401, p=0.0215). The presence of these variants conferred a greater risk for higher adduct levels in this Mexican population. PMID:24084248

  12. Cathepsin G-regulated Release of Formyl Peptide Receptor Agonists Modulate Neutrophil Effector Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Woloszynek, Josh C.; Hu, Ying; Pham, Christine T. N.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil serine proteases play an important role in inflammation by modulating neutrophil effector functions. We have previously shown that neutrophils deficient in the serine proteases cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase (CG/NE neutrophils) exhibit severe defects in chemokine CXCL2 release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production when activated on immobilized immune complex. Exogenously added active CG rescues these defects, but the mechanism remains undefined. Using a protease-based proteomic approach, we found that, in vitro, the addition of exogenous CG to immune complex-stimulated CG/NE neutrophils led to a decrease in the level of cell-associated annexin A1 (AnxA1) and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), both known inflammatory mediators. We further confirmed that, in vivo, CG was required for the extracellular release of AnxA1 and CRAMP in a subcutaneous air pouch model. In vitro, CG efficiently cleaved AnxA1, releasing the active N-terminal peptide Ac2-26, and processed CRAMP in limited fashion. Ac2-26 and CRAMP peptides enhanced the release of CXCL2 by CG/NE neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) stimulation. Blockade of FPRs by an antagonist, Boc2 (t-Boc-Phe-d-Leu-Phe-d-Leu-Phe), abrogates CXCL2 release, whereas addition of FPR agonists, fMLF and F2L, relieves Boc2 inhibition. Furthermore, the addition of active CG, but not inactive CG, also relieves Boc2 inhibition. These findings suggest that CG modulates neutrophil effector functions partly by controlling the release (and proteolysis) of FPR agonists. Unexpectedly, we found that mature CRAMP, but not Ac2-26, induced ROS production through an FPR-independent pathway. PMID:22879591

  13. Pharmacological properties of novel cyclic pentapeptides with µ-opioid receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Perlikowska, Renata; Piekielna, Justyna; Fichna, Jakub; do-Rego, Jean Claude; Toth, Geza; Janecki, Tomasz; Janecka, Anna

    2014-03-01

    In our previous paper we have reported the synthesis and biological activity of a cyclic analog, Tyr-c(D-Lys- Phe-Phe-Asp)-NH2, based on endomorphin-2 (EM-2) structure. This analog displayed high affinity for the µ-opioid receptor, was much more stable than EM-2 in rat brain homogenate and showed remarkable antinociceptive activity after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. Even more importantly, the cyclic analog elicited weak analgesia also after peripheral administration, giving evidence that it was able to cross, at least to some extent, the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here we describe further modifications of this analog aimed at enhancing brain delivery by increasing lipophilicity. Two new cyclic pentapeptides, Tyr-c(D-Lys-D-1-Nal-Phe-Asp)-NH2 and Tyr-c(D-Lys-D-2-Nal-Phe-Asp)-NH2 (where 1-Nal=1- naphthyl-3-alanine, 2-Nal=2-naphthyl-3-alanine) were synthesized and evaluated in biological assays. Both analogs showed high µ-opioid receptor affinity and agonist activity and were stable in the rat brain homogenates. Unfortunately, the increase of lipophilicity was achieved at the expense of water solubility. The analog with D-2-Nal residue showed strong analgesic effect when given i.c.v. but could not be tested after intravenous (i.v.) administration where higher concentrations of the compound are required. However, this analog showed inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in vivo, providing an interesting approach to the development of peripherally restricted agents that could be useful for studying gastrointestinal disorders in animal models. PMID:23628088

  14. New, potent, selective, and short-acting peptidic V1a receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Kazimierz; Galyean, Robert; Tariga, Hiroe; Alagarsamy, Sudarkodi; Croston, Glenn; Heitzmann, Joshua; Kohan, Arash; Wisniewska, Halina; Laporte, Régent; Rivière, Pierre J-M; Schteingart, Claudio D

    2011-07-14

    [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP) produces vasoconstriction via V(1a) receptor (V(1a)R)-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell contraction and is being used to increase blood pressure in septic shock, a form of vasodilatory hypotension. However, AVP also induces V(2) receptor (V(2)R)-mediated antidiuresis, vasodilation, and coagulation factor release, all deleterious in septic shock. The V(1a)R agonist terlipressin (H-Gly(3)[Lys(8)]VP) also lacks selectivity vs the V(2)R and has sizably longer duration of action than AVP, preventing rapid titration of its vasopressor effect in the clinic. We designed and synthesized new short acting V(1a)R selective analogues of general structure [Xaa(2),Ile(3),Yaa(4),Zaa(8)]VP. The most potent and selective compounds in in vitro functional assays (e.g., [Phe(2),Ile(3),Asn(Me(2))(4),Orn(8)]VP (31), [Phe(2),Ile(3),Asn((CH(2))(3)OH)(4),Orn(8)]VP (34), [Phe(2),Ile(3),Hgn(4),Orn(iPr)(8)]VP (45), [Phe(2),Ile(3),Asn(Et)(4),Dab(8)]VP (49), [Thi(2),Ile(3),Orn(iPr)(8)]VP (59), [Cha(2),Ile(3),Asn(4),Orn(iPr)(8)]VP (68)) were tested by intravenous bolus in rats for duration of vasopressive action. Analogues 31, 34, 45, and 49 were as short-acting as AVP. Compound 45, FE 202158, is currently undergoing clinical trials in septic shock. PMID:21688787

  15. Agonist-induced Ca2+ Sensitization in Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Artamonov, Mykhaylo V.; Momotani, Ko; Stevenson, Andra; Trentham, David R.; Derewenda, Urszula; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.; Read, Paul W.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Somlyo, Avril V.

    2013-01-01

    Many agonists, acting through G-protein-coupled receptors and Gα subunits of the heterotrimeric G-proteins, induce contraction of smooth muscle through an increase of [Ca2+]i as well as activation of the RhoA/RhoA-activated kinase pathway that amplifies the contractile force, a phenomenon known as Ca2+ sensitization. Gα12/13 subunits are known to activate the regulator of G-protein signaling-like family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), which includes PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG) and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG). However, their contributions to Ca2+-sensitized force are not well understood. Using permeabilized blood vessels from PRG(−/−) mice and a new method to silence LARG in organ-cultured blood vessels, we show that both RhoGEFs are activated by the physiologically and pathophysiologically important thromboxane A2 and endothelin-1 receptors. The co-activation is the result of direct and independent activation of both RhoGEFs as well as their co-recruitment due to heterodimerization. The isolated recombinant C-terminal domain of PRG, which is responsible for heterodimerization with LARG, strongly inhibited Ca2+-sensitized force. We used photolysis of caged phenylephrine, caged guanosine 5′-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) in solution, and caged GTPγS or caged GTP loaded on the RhoA·RhoGDI complex to show that the recruitment and activation of RhoGEFs is the cause of a significant time lag between the initial Ca2+ transient and phasic force components and the onset of Ca2+-sensitized force. PMID:24106280

  16. Agonist-trafficking and hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    González-Maeso, Javier; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2009-01-01

    Seven transmembrane domain receptors, also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), represent the most common molecular target for therapeutic drugs. The generally accepted pharmacological model for GPCR activation is the ternary complex model, in which GPCRs exist in a dynamic equilibrium between the active and inactive conformational states. However, the demonstration that different agonists sometimes elicit a different relative activation of two signaling pathways downstream of the same receptor has led to a revision of the ternary complex model. According to this agonist- trafficking model, agonists stabilize distinct activated receptor conformations that preferentially activate specific signaling pathways. Hallucinogenic drugs and non-hallucinogenic drugs represent an attractive experimental system with which to study agonist-trafficking of receptor signaling. Thus many of the behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin or mescaline, depend on activation of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT2ARs). In contrast, this neuropsychological state in humans is not induced by closely related chemicals, such as lisuride or ergotamine, despite their similar in vitro activity at the 5-HT2AR. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, as well as unresolved questions, regarding agonist-trafficking and the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. PMID:19275609

  17. Opposite effects of delta and mu opioid receptor agonists on the in vitro release of substance P-like material from the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mauborgne, A; Lutz, O; Legrand, J C; Hamon, M; Cesselin, F

    1987-02-01

    Superfusion of slices from the dorsal half of the lumbar enlargement of rat spinal cord with Krebs-Henseleit medium supplemented with 30 microM bacitracin allowed the collection of substance P-like immunoreactive material (SPLI), which was released at a rate of approximately 10 pg/4 min. Tissue depolarization by an excess of K+ (30-60 mM) or veratridine (50 microM) induced a marked increase in SPLI outflow, provided that Ca2+ was present in the superfusing fluid. K+- or veratridine-induced SPLI overflow could be modulated in opposite directions by mu and delta opioid receptor agonists. Thus, the two preferential mu agonists Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol (DAGO; 10 microM) and Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Met(O)5-OH (FK-33824; 0.1 microM) enhanced SPLI overflow from depolarized tissues, whereas the selective delta agonists Tyr-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr (deltakephalin; 3 microM) and [2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine]enkephalin (50 microM) reduced it. The effect of DAGO was antagonized by a low concentration (1 microM) of naloxone but not by the selective delta antagonist ICI-154129 (50 microM). In contrast, the latter drug prevented the inhibitory influence of delta agonists on K+-induced SPLI release. Complementary experiments with morphine (10 microM) and [2-D-alanine, 5-D-leucine]enkephalinamide (3 microM), in combination with 1 microM naloxone or 50 microM ICI-154129 for the selective blockade of mu or delta receptors, respectively, confirmed that the stimulation of mu receptors increased, whereas the stimulation of delta receptors reduced, SPLI overflow. The results suggest that, at the spinal level, and antinociceptive action of delta but not mu agonists might involve a presynaptic inhibition of substance P-containing primary afferent fibers. PMID:2432185

  18. Propellant Handler's Ensemble (PHE) Aka Self-Contained Atmospheric Protective Ensemble (SCAPE), Ventilator Improvement Study Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective for this project is to evaluate two candidate alternatives for the existing Propellant Handler's Ensemble (PHE) escape ventilator. The new candidate ventilators use newer technology with similar quantities of air at approximately half the weight of the current ventilator. Ventilators are typically used to ingress/egress a hazardous work area when hard line air is provided at the work area but the hose is not long enough to get the operator to and from the staging area to the work area. The intent of this test is to verify that the new ventilators perform as well as or better than the current ventilators in maintaining proper oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the PHE during a typical use for the rated time period (10 minutes). We will evaluate two new units comparing them to the existing unit. Subjects will wear the Category I version of the Propellant Handler's Ensemble with the rear suit pouch snapped.

  19. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination for cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y H; Strokes, D C; Naren, A P

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening inherited disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity resulting from mutations in the CFTR gene. Phe508del is the most prevalent mutation, with approximately 90% of all CF patients carrying it on at least one allele. Over the past two or three decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of CF, and in the development of effective CF therapies. The approval of Orkambi® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) marks another milestone in CF therapeutics development, which, with the advent of personalized medicine, could potentially revolutionize CF care and management. This article reviews the rationale, progress and future direction in the development of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination to treat CF patients homozygous for the Phe508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:27252987

  20. Side chain and backbone contributions of Phe508 to CFTR folding

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Machius, Mischa; Thomas, Philip J.

    2010-12-07

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an integral membrane protein, cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common CF-causing mutant, deletion of Phe508, fails to properly fold. To elucidate the role Phe508 plays in the folding of CFTR, missense mutations at this position were generated. Only one missense mutation had a pronounced effect on the stability and folding of the isolated domain in vitro. In contrast, many substitutions, including those of charged and bulky residues, disrupted folding of full-length CFTR in cells. Structures of two mutant nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) reveal only local alterations of the surface near position 508. These results suggest that the peptide backbone plays a role in the proper folding of the domain, whereas the side chain plays a role in defining a surface of NBD1 that potentially interacts with other domains during the maturation of intact CFTR.

  1. 3,4-Phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) Based Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Bai-Xue; Zhang, Fang-Shuai; Yu, Hui-Juan; Ma, Shuang; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Shao, Guang; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Two new electron-rich molecules based on 3,4-phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) were synthesized and successfully adopted as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). X-ray diffraction, absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical properties, thermal stabilities, hole mobilities, conductivities, and photovoltaic parameters of PSCs based on these two HTMs were compared with each other. By introducing methoxy substituents into the main skeleton, the energy levels of PheDOT-core HTM were tuned to match with the perovskite, and its hole mobility was also improved (1.33×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) , being higher than that of spiro-OMeTAD, 2.34×10(-5)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) ). The PSC based on MeO-PheDOT as HTM exhibits a short-circuit current density (Jsc ) of 18.31 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit potential (Voc ) of 0.914 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.636, yielding an encouraging power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.64 % under AM 1.5G illumination. These results give some insight into how the molecular structures of HTMs affect their performances and pave the way for developing high-efficiency and low-cost HTMs for PSCs. PMID:26840766

  2. Discovery of Novel Multifunctional Ligands with μ/δ Opioid Agonist/Neurokinin-1 (NK1) Antagonist Activities for the Treatment of Pain.

    PubMed

    Giri, Aswini Kumar; Apostol, Christopher R; Wang, Yue; Forte, Brittany L; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Davis, Peg; Rankin, David; Molnar, Gabriella; Olson, Keith M; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-11-12

    Multifunctional ligands with agonist bioactivities at μ/δ opioid receptors (MOR/DOR) and antagonist bioactivity at the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been designed and synthesized. These peptide-based ligands are anticipated to produce better biological profiles (e.g., higher analgesic effect with significantly less adverse side effects) compared to those of existing drugs and to deliver better synergistic effects than coadministration of a mixture of multiple drugs. A systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) study has been conducted to find multifunctional ligands with desired activities at three receptors. It has been found that introduction of Dmt (2,6-dimethyl-tyrosine) at the first position and NMePhe at the fourth position (ligand 3: H-Dmt-d-Ala-Gly-NMePhe-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) displays binding as well as functional selectivity for MOR over DOR while maintaining efficacy, potency, and antagonist activity at the NK1R. Dmt at the first position with Phe(4-F) at the fourth position (ligand 5: H-Dmt-d-Ala-Gly-Phe(4-F)-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) exhibits balanced binding affinities at MOR and DOR though it has higher agonist activity at DOR over MOR. This study has led to the discovery of several novel ligands including 3 and 5 with excellent in vitro biological activity profiles. Metabolic stability studies in rat plasma with ligands 3, 5, and 7 (H-Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe(4-F)-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) showed that their stability depends on modifications at the first and fourth positions (3: T1/2 > 24 h; 5: T1/2 ≈ 6 h; 7: T1/2 > 2 h). Preliminary in vivo studies with these two ligands have shown promising antinociceptive activity. PMID:26465170

  3. (/sup 3/H)(D-Ala2,NMePhe4,Gly-ol5)-enkephalin (mu-opioid) binding in beige-J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Raffa, R.B.; Baldy, W.J. Jr.; Shank, R.P.; Mathiasen, J.R.; Vaught, J.L.

    1988-05-01

    Tritiated (D-Ala2,NMePhe4,Gly-ol5)-enkephalin ((3H)DAGO) was used to examine mu-opioid receptor number and mu-ligand binding in brain synaptic membranes (P2 fraction) from C57BL/6J-bgJ/bgJ (beige-J) mice, a strain with combined deficiencies in immunological function (resembling Chediak-Higashi syndrome) and analgesic response to mu-opioid agonists such as morphine and DAGO. As controls, white mice, beige-J littermates (normally responsive to mu-opioid agonists), and a known mu-deficient strain (CXBK) were also examined. Neither the KD (0.47 to 0.49 nM) nor the Bmax (153 to 168 fmol/mg protein) determined for beige-J mice was significantly different from values determined for littermates or white mice. In contrast, the Bmax of CXBK mice (66 fmol/mg protein) was clearly less than that of the other strains. The analgesic defect of beige-J mice, therefore, is not likely due to an insufficient number of mu-opioid receptors, as it presumably is in CXBK mice. Carbachol (200 micrograms/ml), which partly corrects the analgesic defect of beige-J mice, had no effect on (3H)DAGO binding either acutely in vitro or chronically ex vivo after administration to beige-J mice for three weeks. Hence, the analgesic defect of beige-J mice appears to be due to some defect in the mu-opioid receptor-effector coupling mechanism or to some endogenous substance that inhibits binding of mu-opioid ligands to otherwise functional receptors.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Nicola A; Lillycrop, Karen A; Fielding, Barbara; Torrens, Christopher; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) α1-adrenoceptors induces myosin phosphorylation and vasoconstriction via mobilisation of intracellular calcium and production of specific eicosanoids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved, although the precise mechanism is not known. To address this, we characterised PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells and determined its role in intracellular calcium release and eicosanoid production. Murine VSM cells converted 18:2n-6 to longer chain PUFA including 22:5n-6. Δ6 (D6d) and Δ5 (D5d) desaturase, and elongase (Elovl) 5 were expressed. Elovl2 was not detected in human, mouse or rat VSM cells, or in rat or mouse aortae, but tit was not associated with hypermethylation of its promoter. D6d or D5d inhibition reduced 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 synthesis, respectively, and induced concentration-related decrease in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release, and in PGE2 and PGF2α secretion. Together these findings suggest that PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved in calcium release associated with vasoconstriction. PMID:26324193

  5. Enhanced bioconversion rate and released substrate inhibition in (R)-phenylephrine whole-cell bioconversion via partial acetone treatment.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shu-Chen; Zang, Chi-Zong; Yeh, Chiung-Wen; Chang, Wei-Feng; Lin, Chia-Chi; Hung, Tzu-Hsiang; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    An approach was developed to enhance the efficiency for the bioconversion of 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methyamino)-ethanone to (R)-phenylephrine. The strain Serratia marcescens N10612, giving the benefit of 99% enantiomeric excess in (R)-PE conversion, was used. The fermentation was devised to harvest cells with high hydrophobic prodigiosin content inside the cells. Then, the partial acetone extraction was applied to remove prodigiosin from the cells. The treatment was found to increase the cells conversion rate without loss of the cells NADPH redox system. When using 50% (v/v) acetone for 5min, the processed cells can give a specific conversion rate of 16.03μmol/h/g-cells. As compared the treated cells with cells under the basal medium, the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) increased from 6.69 to 10.27 (μmol/h/g-cells), the dissociation constant (Km) decreased from 0.236 to 0.167mM and the substrate inhibition constant (KSi) increased from 0.073 to 1.521mM. The 20-fold increase in substrate inhibition constant referred to a great release from the substrate inhibition for the use of S. marcescens N10612 in the bioconversion, which would greatly benefit the bioconversion to be industrialized. PMID:26992790

  6. X-ray diffraction studies of enkephalins. Crystal structure of [(4'-bromo) Phe4,Leu5]enkephalin.

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, T; Kenmotsu, M; Mino, Y; Inoue, M; Fujiwara, T; Tomita, K; Kimura, T; Sakakibara, S

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of [Leu5]- and [Met5]enkephalins, [(4'-bromo)Phe4, Leu5]-, [(4'-bromo)Phe4, Met5]- and [Met5] enkephalins were synthesized and crystallized. The crystal structure of [(4'-bromo) Phe4, Leu5]- enkephalin was determined by X-ray diffraction method using the heavy atom method and refined to R = 0.092 by the least-squares method. The molecule in this crystal took essentially the same type I' beta-turn conformation found in [Leu5]enkephalin [Smith & Griffin (1978) Science 199, 1214-1216). On the other hand, the preliminary three-dimensional Patterson analyses showed that the most probable conformations of [(4'-bromo)Phe4,Met5]- and [Met5]enkephalins are both the dimeric extended forms. Based on these insights, the biologically active conformation of enkephalin was discussed in relation to the mu- and delta-receptors. PMID:6721829

  7. Influence of the dopamine receptor agonists fenoldopam and quinpirole in the rat superior mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, A. G.; Lefebvre, R. A.; Vanderniepen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of local administration of the dopamine 2 (DA2)-receptor agonist quinpirole and of the DA1-receptor agonist fenoldopam was studied in the in situ, constant flow autoperfused, superior mesenteric vascular bed of the rat. Local infusion of quinpirole (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) had no effect on baseline perfusion pressure; it reduced the pressor responses to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial sympathetic nerves to 45.6 +/- 2.1% of its original value but did not modify similar pressor responses produced by locally administered noradrenaline. The inhibitory effect of quinpirole was antagonized by the selective DA2-receptor antagonist domperidone (10 micrograms kg-1) but not by the selective DA1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1). Local infusion of fenoldopam (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) reduced baseline perfusion pressure to 89.9 +/- 1.9%, increased the pressor response to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial nerves to 134.7 +/- 14.0%, but reduced the pressor response to locally administered noradrenaline to 37.2 +/- 8.2%. Similar pressor responses induced by the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were also reduced by fenoldopam (to 38.4 +/- 6.4%), but responses to locally administered angiotensin II were not modified. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1) antagonized the effect of fenoldopam on baseline perfusion pressure, but had no influence on the effect of fenoldopam on responses to electrical stimulation or to noradrenaline. Pretreatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (100 micrograms kg-1) had no effect on the reduction in baseline perfusion pressure induced by fenoldopam nor on its inhibitory effect on the response to noradrenaline, but it antagonized the stimulatory effect of fenoldopam on the response to electrical stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2886174

  8. Relevance of the C-terminal Arg-Phe sequence in γ2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ2-MSH) for inducing cardiovascular effects in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Nijsen, M J M A; de Ruiter, G J W; Kasbergen, C M; Hoogerhout, P; de Wildt, D J

    2000-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects by γ2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ2-MSH) are probably not due to any of the well-known melanocortin subtype receptors. We hypothesize that the receptor for Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFa) or Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-amide (neuropeptide FF; NPFFa), other Arg-Phe containing peptides, is the candidate receptor. Therefore, we studied various Arg-Phe containing peptides to compare their haemodynamic profile with that of γ2-MSH(6–12), the most potent fragment of γ2-MSH. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) changes were measured in conscious rats after intravenous administration of γ2-MSH related peptides. Phe-Arg-Trp-Asp-Arg-Phe-Gly (γ2-MSH(6–12)), FMRFa, NPFFa, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe-amide (MERFa), Arg-Phe-amide (RFa), acetyl-Phe-norLeu-Arg-Phe-amide (acFnLRFa) and desamino-Tyr-Phe-norLeu-Arg-Phe-amide (daYFnLRFa) caused a dose-dependent increase in MAP and HR. γ2-MSH(6–12) showed the most potent cardiovascular effects (ED50=12 nmol kg−1 for ΔMAP; 7 nmol kg−1 for ΔHR), as compared to the other Arg-Phe containing peptides (ED50=177–292 nmol kg−1 for ΔMAP; 130–260 nmol kg−1 for ΔHR). Peptides, which lack the C-terminal Arg-Phe sequence (Lys-Tyr-Val-Met-Gly-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Asp-Arg-Pro-Gly (γ2-pro11-MSH), desamino-Tyr-Phe-norLeu-Arg-[L-1,2,3,4 tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid]-amide (daYFnLR[TIC]a) and Met-enkephalin (ME)), were devoid of cardiovascular actions. The results indicate that the baroreceptor reflex-mediated reduction of tonic sympathetic activity due to pressor effects is inhibited by γ2-MSH(6–12) and that its cardiovascular effects are dependent on the presence of a C-terminal Arg-Phe sequence. It is suggested that the FMRFa/NPFFa receptor is the likely candidate receptor, involved in these cardiovascular effects. PMID:11090122

  9. Candida glabrata binds to glycosylated and lectinic receptors on the coronary endothelial luminal membrane and inhibits flow sense and cardiac responses to agonists.

    PubMed

    Torres-Tirado, David; Knabb, Maureen; Castaño, Irene; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Rubio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata (CG) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that initiates infection by binding to host cells via specific lectin-like adhesin proteins. We have previously shown the importance of lectin-oligosaccharide binding in cardiac responses to flow and agonists. Because of the lectinic-oligosaccharide nature of CG binding, we tested the ability of CG to alter the agonist- and flow-induced changes in cardiac function in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed strong attachment of CG to the coronary endothelium, even after extensive washing. CG shifted the coronary flow vs. auricular-ventricular (AV) delay relationship upward, indicating that greater flow was required to achieve the same AV delay. This effect was completely reversed with mannose, partially reversed with galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, but hyaluronan had no effect. Western blot analysis was used to determine binding of CG to isolated coronary endothelial luminal membrane (CELM) receptors, and the results indicate that flow-sensitive CELM receptors, ANG II type I, α-adrenergic 1A receptor, endothelin-2, and VCAM-1 bind to CG. In addition, CG inhibited agonist-induced effects of bradykinin, angiotensin, and phenylephrine on AV delay, coronary perfusion pressure, and left ventricular pressure. Mannose reversed the inhibitory effects of CG on the agonist responses. These results suggest that CG directly binds to flow-sensitive CELM receptors via lectinic-oligosaccharide interactions with mannose and disrupts the lectin-oligosaccharide binding necessary for flow-induced cardiac responses. PMID:26491100

  10. A close hidden stellar companion to the SX Phe-type variable star DW Psc

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Wang, S.-M.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2015-01-01

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion (M{sub 2}sini∼0.45(±0.03) M{sub ⊙}). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  11. A Close Hidden Stellar Companion to the SX Phe-Type Variable Star DW Psc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Wang, S.-M.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2015-01-01

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion ({{M}2}sin i˜ 0.45(+/- 0.03) {{M}⊙ }). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ˜ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  12. N-Methyl scan of somatostatin octapeptide agonists produces interesting effects on receptor subtype specificity.

    PubMed

    Rajeswaran, W G; Hocart, S J; Murphy, W A; Taylor, J E; Coy, D H

    2001-04-26

    The search for synthetic analogues of somatostatin which exhibit selective affinities for the five receptor subtypes is of considerable basic and therapeutic interest and has generated a large number of potent agonist analogues with a wide spectrum of binding profiles. In the past, conformational restriction of side chain groups and the peptide backbone has yielded the most interesting results. Under the latter category and as part of the present study, we were interested in the potential effects of N-methylation of peptide bond NH groups on binding affinity since this approach had not been systematically examined with these peptides. This was aided by new chemistries for introducing an N-Me group during regular solid-phase peptide synthesis using Boc protection. A number of interesting effects were noted on relative binding affinities of the two series of agonist sequences chosen, DPhe(5)(or Tyr(5))-c[Cys(6)-Phe(7)-DTrp(8)-Lys(9)-Thr(10)-Cys(11)]Thr(12)-NH(2) (SRIF numbering), at the five known human somatostatin receptors transfected into and stably expressed by CHO cells. N-Methylation of residues 7 (Phe), 10 (Thr), 11 (Cys), and 12 (Thr) largely destroyed affinities for all five receptors. N-Methylation of DTrp in the DPhe series gave an analogue with extraordinarily high affinity for the type 5 receptor for which it was also quite selective. N-Methylation of Lys in both series resulted in retention of type 2 affinity despite this residue constituting the "active center" of somatostatin peptides. N-Methylation of either the N-terminal Tyr residue or of Cys(6) in the Tyr series resulted in analogues with extraordinarily high affinity for the type 3 receptor, also with a degree of specificity. N-Methylation of the peptide bond constrains the conformational space of the amino acid and eliminates the possibility of donor hydrogen bond formation from the amide linkage. The beta-bend conformation of the agonists around DTrp-Lys is stabilized by a transannular

  13. The Importance of Micelle-Bound States for the Bioactivities of Bifunctional Peptide Derivatives for δ/μ Opioid Receptor Agonists and Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Nair, Padma; Jacobsen, Neil E.; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-wu; Navratilova, Edita; Moye, Sharif; Lai, Josephine; Yamamura, Henry I.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide new insight into the determining factors of membrane-bound peptide conformation which might play an important role in peptide-receptor docking and further biological behaviors, the dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelle-bound conformations of bifunctional peptide derivatives of δ-preferring opioid agonists and NK1 antagonists (1: Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-Pro-Leu-Trp-O-3,5-Bzl(CF3)2; 2: Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-3,5-Bzl(CF3)2; 3: Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bzl) were determined based on 2D NMR studies. Although the differences in the primary sequence were limited to the C-terminus, the obtained NMR conformations were unexpectedly different for each compound. Moreover, their biological activities showed different trends in direct relation to the compound-specific conformations in DPC micelles. The important result is that not only were the NK1 antagonist activities different (the pharmacophore located at the C-terminus), but the opioid agonist activities (this pharmacophore was at the structurally preserved N-terminus) also were shifted, suggesting that a general conformational change in the bioactive state was induced due to relatively small and limited structural modifications. PMID:18821747

  14. Fast HPLC method using ion-pair and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography for determination of phenylephrine in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Dousa, Michal; Gibala, Petr

    2010-01-01

    A rapid procedure based on a direct extraction and HPLC determination with fluorescence detection of phenylephrine in pharmaceutical sachets that include a large excess of paracetamol (65 + 1, w/w), ascorbic acid (5 + 1, w/w), and other excipients (aspartame and sucrose) was developed and validated. The final optimized chromatographic method for ion-pair chromatography used an XTerra RP18 column, 3 microm particle size, 50 x 3.0 mm id. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (10 mM sodium octane-1-sulfonate, adjusted with H3PO4 to pH 2.2; 200 + 800, v/v), with a constant flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The separation was carried out at 30 degrees C, and the injection volume was 3 microL. Fluorescence detection was performed at excitation and emission wavelengths of 275 and 310 nm, respectively. The mobile phase parameters, such as the organic solvent fraction (acetonitrile) in mobile phase as an organic modifier, the concentration of sodium octane-1-sulfonate as a counter-ion, temperature, and pH of mobile phase, were studied. As an alternative to ion-pair chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was investigated using a Luna HILIC column, 3 microm, 100 x 4.6 mm id. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and buffer (5 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, adjusted with H3PO4 to pH 2.5; 750 + 250, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The separation was carried out at 25 degrees C, and the injection volume was 5 microL. The proposed method has an advantage of a very simple sample pretreatment, and is much faster than the currently utilized HPLC methods using gradient elution and UV detection. Commercial samples of sachets were successfully analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. PMID:21140654

  15. A cyclic carbo-isosteric penta-depsipeptide: cyclo(Phe1–d-Ala2–Gly3–Phe4–APO5)

    PubMed Central

    Guéret, Stéphanie M.; Wagner, Trixie

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, cyclo(Phe1–d-Ala2–Gly3–Phe4–APO5), C26H32N4O5, is the minor diastereoisomer of a cyclic penta-peptidomimetic analogue containing a novel 2-amino­propyl lactone (APO) motif, which displays the same number of atoms as the native amino acid glycine and has a methyl group in place of the carbonyl O atom. The crystal structure presented here allows the analysis of the secondary structure of this unprecedented cyclic carbo-isosteric depsipeptide. The conformation of the central ring is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond between the carbonyl O atom of the first residue (Phe1) and the amide group H atom of the fourth residue (Phe4). Based on the previously reported hydrogen bond and on the values of the torsion angles ϕ and ψ, the loop formed by the first, second, third and fourth residues (Phe1, d-Ala2, Gly3 and Phe4) can be classified as a type II′ β-turn. The loop around the new peptidomimetic motif, on the other hand, resembles an open γ-turn containing a weak N—H⋯O hydrogen bond between the carbonyl group O atom of the fourth residue (Phe4) and the amide unit H atom of the first residue (Phe1). In the crystal, the peptidomimetic mol­ecules are arranged in chains along the b-axis direction. Within such a chain, the mol­ecules of the structure are linked via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amide group H atom of the secondary residue (d-Ala2) and the carb­oxy unit O atom of the fourth residue (Phe4) in a neighboring mol­ecule. The newly formed methyl stereocentre of the APO peptidomimetic motif (APO5) was obtained as the minor diastereoisomer in a ring-closing reductive amination reaction and adopts an R configuration. PMID:25705467

  16. Cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe): a new antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant cyclic dipeptide from Bacillus sp. N strain associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode.

    PubMed

    Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep, C; Mohandas, C; Nambisan, Bala; Ca, Jayaprakas

    2014-03-01

    A new microbial cyclic dipeptide (diketopiperazine), cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) was isolated for the first time from the ethyl acetate extract of fermented modified nutrient broth of Bacillus sp. N strain associated with rhabditid Entomopathogenic nematode. Antibacterial activity of the compound was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration and agar disc diffusion method against medically important bacteria and the compound recorded significant antibacterial against test bacteria. Highest activity was recorded against Staphylococcus epidermis (1 µg/ml) followed by Proteus mirabilis (2 µg/ml). The activity of cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) against S. epidermis is better than chloramphenicol, the standard antibiotics. Cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) recorded significant antitumor activity against A549 cells (IC50 value: 10 μM) and this compound recorded no cytotoxicity against factor signaling normal fibroblast cells up to 100 μM. Cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) induced significant morphological changes and DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis in A549 cells. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide stained cells indicated apoptosis induction by cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) did not induce cell cycle arrest. Effector molecule of apoptosis such as caspase-3 was found activated in treated cells, suggesting apoptosis as the main mode of cell death. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging and reducing power activity, and the compound recorded significant antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity of cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) is almost equal to that of butylated hydroxyanisole, the standard antioxidant agent. We also compared the biological activity of natural cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) with synthetic cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) and cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Phe). Natural and synthetic cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Phe) recorded similar pattern of activity. Although synthetic cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Phe) recorded lower activity. But in the case of reducing power activity

  17. Oxidation of Phe454 in the Gating Segment Inactivates Trametes multicolor Pyranose Oxidase during Substrate Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Volc, Jindrich; Peterbauer, Clemens K.; Leitner, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The flavin-dependent enzyme pyranose oxidase catalyses the oxidation of several pyranose sugars at position C-2. In a second reaction step, oxygen is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. POx is of interest for biocatalytic carbohydrate oxidations, yet it was found that the enzyme is rapidly inactivated under turnover conditions. We studied pyranose oxidase from Trametes multicolor (TmPOx) inactivated either during glucose oxidation or by exogenous hydrogen peroxide using mass spectrometry. MALDI-MS experiments of proteolytic fragments of inactivated TmPOx showed several peptides with a mass increase of 16 or 32 Da indicating oxidation of certain amino acids. Most of these fragments contain at least one methionine residue, which most likely is oxidised by hydrogen peroxide. One peptide fragment that did not contain any amino acid residue that is likely to be oxidised by hydrogen peroxide (DAFSYGAVQQSIDSR) was studied in detail by LC-ESI-MS/MS, which showed a +16 Da mass increase for Phe454. We propose that oxidation of Phe454, which is located at the flexible active-site loop of TmPOx, is the first and main step in the inactivation of TmPOx by hydrogen peroxide. Oxidation of methionine residues might then further contribute to the complete inactivation of the enzyme. PMID:26828796

  18. Investigation of silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) agonists from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chung; Jian, Yi-Ru; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Tung-Ti; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2013-01-01

    Silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), a class III nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent histone deacetylases, is important in cardioprotection, neuroprotection, metabolic disease, calorie restriction, and diseases associated with aging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) compounds from TCM Database@Taiwan ( http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw/ ) were employed for screening potent Sirt1 agonists, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was implemented to simulate ligand optimum docking poses and protein structure under dynamic conditions. TCM compounds such as (S)-tryptophan-betaxanthin, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid, and RosA exhibited good binding affinity across different computational methods, and their drug-like potential were validated by MD simulation. Docking poses indicate that the carboxylic group of the three candidates generated H-bonds with residues in the protein chain from Ser441 to Lys444 and formed H-bond, π-cation interactions, or hydrophobic contacts with Phe297 and key active residue, His363. During MD, stable π-cation interactions with residues Phe273 or Arg274 were formed by (S)-tryptophan-betaxanthin and RosA. All candidates were anchored to His363 by stable π- or H-bonds. Hence, we propose (S)-tryptophan-betaxanthin, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid, and RosA as potential lead compounds that can be further tested in drug development process for diseases associated with aging An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:28. PMID:23075283

  19. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  20. The conserved Phe GH5 of importance for hemoglobin intersubunit contact is mutated in gadoid fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functionality of the tetrameric hemoglobin molecule seems to be determined by a few amino acids located in key positions. Oxygen binding encompasses structural changes at the interfaces between the α1β2 and α2β1 dimers, but also subunit interactions are important for the oxygen binding affinity and stability. The latter packing contacts include the conserved Arg B12 interacting with Phe GH5, which is replaced by Leu and Tyr in the αA and αD chains, respectively, of birds and reptiles. Results Searching all known hemoglobins from a variety of gnathostome species (jawed vertebrates) revealed the almost invariant Arg B12 coded by the AGG triplet positioned at an exon-intron boundary. Rare substitutions of Arg B12 in the gnathostome β globins were found in pig, tree shrew and scaled reptiles. Phe GH5 is also highly conserved in the β globins, except for the Leu replacement in the β1 globin of five marine gadoid species, gilthead seabream and the Comoran coelacanth, while Cys and Ile were found in burbot and yellow croaker, respectively. Atlantic cod β1 globin showed a Leu/Met polymorphism at position GH5 dominated by the Met variant in northwest-Atlantic populations that was rarely found in northeast-Atlantic cod. Site-specific analyses identified six consensus codons under positive selection, including 122β(GH5), indicating that the amino acid changes identified at this position may offer an adaptive advantage. In fact, computational mutation analysis showed that the replacement of Phe GH5 with Leu or Cys decreased the number of van der Waals contacts essentially in the deoxy form that probably causes a slight increase in the oxygen binding affinity. Conclusions The almost invariant Arg B12 and the AGG codon seem to be important for the packing contacts and pre-mRNA processing, respectively, but the rare mutations identified might be beneficial. The Leu122β1(GH5)Met and Met55β1(D6)Val polymorphisms in Atlantic cod hemoglobin modify the

  1. Lumacaftor–Ivacaftor in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for Phe508del CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, C.E.; Elborn, J.S.; Ramsey, B.W.; Marigowda, G.; Huang, X.; Cipolli, M.; Colombo, C.; Davies, J.C.; De Boeck, K.; Flume, P.A.; Konstan, M.W.; McColley, S.A.; McCoy, K.; McKone, E.F.; Munck, A.; Ratjen, F.; Rowe, S.M.; Waltz, D.; Boyle, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting disease that is caused by defective or deficient cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein activity. Phe508del is the most common CFTR mutation. METHODS We conducted two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that were designed to assess the effects of lumacaftor (VX-809), a CFTR corrector, in combination with ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in patients 12 years of age or older who had cystic fibrosis and were homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. In both studies, patients were randomly assigned to receive either lumacaftor (600 mg once daily or 400 mg every 12 hours) in combination with ivacaftor (250 mg every 12 hours) or matched placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change from baseline in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 24. RESULTS A total of 1108 patients underwent randomization and received study drug. The mean baseline FEV1 was 61% of the predicted value. In both studies, there were significant improvements in the primary end point in both lumacaftor–ivacaftor dose groups; the difference between active treatment and placebo with respect to the mean absolute improvement in the percentage of predicted FEV1 ranged from 2.6 to 4.0 percentage points (P<0.001), which corresponded to a mean relative treatment difference of 4.3 to 6.7% (P<0.001). Pooled analyses showed that the rate of pulmonary exacerbations was 30 to 39% lower in the lumacaftor–ivacaftor groups than in the placebo group; the rate of events leading to hospitalization or the use of intravenous antibiotics was lower in the lumacaftor–ivacaftor groups as well. The incidence of adverse events was generally similar in the lumacaftor–ivacaftor and placebo groups. The rate of discontinuation due to an adverse event was 4.2% among patients who received lumacaftor–ivacaftor versus 1.6% among those who received placebo

  2. MGMT Leu84Phe Polymorphism Contributes to Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from 44 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuicui; Sun, Yan; Jia, Chuanliang; Zhang, Lijing; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Li, Xiaodong; Lang, Juntian; Song, Xicheng

    2013-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. Methods We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. Results Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50) and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50). In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58), whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97). Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61), but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45). Conclusions These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers. PMID:24086516

  3. Middle cerebral O2 delivery during the modified Oxford maneuver increases with sodium nitroprusside and decreases during phenylephrine

    PubMed Central

    Medow, Marvin S.; DelPozzi, Andrew; Messer, Zachary R.; Terilli, Courtney; Schwartz, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    The modified Oxford maneuver is the reference standard for assessing arterial baroreflex function. The maneuver comprises a systemic bolus injection of 100 μg sodium nitroprusside (SNP) followed by 150 μg phenylephrine (PE). On the one hand, this results in an increase in oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin followed by a decrease within the cerebral sample volume illuminated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). On the other hand, it produces a decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during SNP and an increase in CBFv during PE as measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we hypothesized that SNP dilates, whereas PE constricts, the MCA. We combined transcranial Doppler ultrasound of the right MCA with NIRS illuminating the right frontal cortex in 12 supine healthy subjects 18–24 yr old. Assuming constant O2 consumption and venous saturation, as estimated by partial venous occlusion plethysmography, we used conservation of mass (continuity) equations to estimate the changes in arterial inflow (ΔQa) and venous outflow (ΔQv) of the NIRS-illuminated area. Oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin, respectively, increased by 13.6 ± 1.6 and 15.2 ± 1.4 μmol/kg brain tissue with SNP despite hypotension and decreased by 6 ± 1 and 7 ± 1 μmol/kg with PE despite hypertension. SNP increased ΔQa by 0.36 ± .03 μmol·kg−1·s−1 (21.6 μmol·kg−1·min−1), whereas CBFv decreased from 71 ± 2 to 62 ± 2 cm/s. PE decreased ΔQa by 0.27 ± .2 μmol·kg−1·s−1 (16.2 μmol·kg−1·min−1), whereas CBFv increased to 75 ± 3 cm/s. These results are consistent with dilation of the MCA by SNP and constriction by PE. PMID:23564308

  4. Discovery of a β-Hairpin Octapeptide, c[Pro-Arg-Phe-Phe-Dap-Ala-Phe-DPro], Mimetic of Agouti-Related Protein(87-132) [AGRP(87-132)] with Equipotent Mouse Melanocortin-4 Receptor (mMC4R) Antagonist Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mark D; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2015-06-11

    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a potent orexigenic peptide that antagonizes the melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R). While the C-terminal domain of AGRP, AGRP(87-132), is equipotent to the full-length peptide, further truncation decreases potency at the MC3R and MC4R. Herein, we report AGRP-derived peptides designed to mimic the active β-hairpin secondary structure that contains the hypothesized Arg-Phe-Phe pharmacophore. The most potent scaffold, c[Pro-Arg-Phe-Phe-Asn-Ala-Phe-DPro], comprised the hexa-peptide β-hairpin loop from AGRP cyclized through a DPro-Pro motif. A 20 compound library was synthesized from this scaffold for further structure-activity relationship studies. The most potent peptide from this library was an asparagine to diaminopropionic acid substitution that possessed sub-nanomolar antagonist activity at the mMC4R and was greater than 160-fold selective for the mMC4R versus the mMC3R. The reported ligands may serve as probes to characterize the melanocortin receptors in vivo and leads in the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25898270

  5. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused ..beta..-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)/sup +/ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states.

  6. Hydrolysis of tRNA(sup Phe) on Suspensions of Amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Kui; Orgel, Leslie E.

    2001-01-01

    RNA is adsorbed strongly on suspensions of many moderately soluble organic solids. In some cases, the hydrolysis of tRNA(sup Phe) is greatly accelerated by adsorption, and the major sites of hydrolysis are changed from those that are important in homogeneous solution. Here we show that the hydrolysis is greatly accelerated by suspensions of aspartic acid and beta-glutamic acid but not by suspensions of alpha-glutamic acid, asparagine, or glutamine. The non-enzymatic hydrolysis of RNA has been studied extensively, especially because of its relevance to the mechanisms of action of ribozymes and to biotechnology and therapy. Many ribonucleases, ribozymes, and non-biological catalysts function via acid-base catalysis of an intramolecular transesterification mechanism in which the 2'-OH group attacks the adjacent phosphate group. The pentacoordinated phosphorane intermediate may collapse back to starting material, or yield isomerized or cleaved products.

  7. Accurate long-range coefficients for two excited like isotope He atoms: He(2 {sup 1}P)-He(2 {sup 1}P), He(2 {sup 1}P)-He(2 {sup 3}P), and He(2 {sup 3}P)-He(2 {sup 3}P)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Yan, Z.-C.; Vrinceanu, D.; Babb, J. F.; Sadeghpour, H. R.

    2007-07-15

    A general formalism is used to express the long-range potential energies in inverse powers of the separation distance between two like atomic or molecular systems with P symmetries. The long-range molecular interaction coefficients are calculated for the molecular symmetries {delta}, {pi}, and {sigma}, arising from the following interactions: He(2 {sup 1}P)-He(2 {sup 1}P), He(2 {sup 1}P)-He(2 {sup 3}P), and He(2 {sup 3}P)-He(2 {sup 3}P). The electric quadrupole-quadrupole term C{sub 5}, the van der Waals (dispersion) term C{sub 6}, and higher-order terms C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} are calculated ab initio using accurate variational wave functions in Hylleraas coordinates with finite nuclear mass effects. A comparison is made with previously published results where available.

  8. NMR solution structure of the glucagon antagonist [desHis1, desPhe6, Glu9]glucagon amide in the presence of perdeuterated dodecylphosphocholine micelles.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jinfa; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Jacobsen, Neil E; Brown, Michael F; Hruby, Victor J

    2003-03-18

    Glucagon, a 29-residue peptide hormone, plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and in diabetes mellitus. Several glucagon antagonists and agonists have been developed, but limited structural information is available to clarify the basis of their biological activity. The solution structure of the potent glucagon antagonist, [desHis1, desPhe6, Glu9]glucagon amide, was determined by homonuclear 2D NMR spectroscopy at pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C in perdeuterated dodecylphosphocholine micelles. The overall backbone root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) for the structured portion (residues 7-29, glucagon numbering) of the micelle-bound 27-residue peptide is 1.36 A for the 15 lowest-energy structures, after restrained molecular dynamics simulation. The structure consists of four regions (segment backbone rmsd in A): an unstructured N-terminal segment between residues 2 and 5 (1.68), an irregular helix between residues 7 and 14 (0.79), a hinge region between residues 15 and 18 (0.54), and a well-defined alpha-helix between residues 19 and 29 (0.33). The two helices form an L-shaped structure with an angle of about 90 degrees between the helix axes. There is an extended hydrophobic cluster, which runs along the inner surface of the L-structure and incorporates the side chains of the hydrophobic residues of each of the amphipathic helices. The outer surface contains the hydrophilic side chains, with two salt bridges (D15-R18 and R17-D21) implied from close approach of the charged groups. This result is the first clear indication of an overall tertiary fold for a glucagon analogue in the micelle-bound state. The relationship of the two helical structural elements may have important implications for the biological activity of the glucagon antagonist. PMID:12627948

  9. The effects of bepridil, compared with calcium-channel inhibitors and calmodulin antagonists on both spontaneous activity and contractions induced by potassium or phenylephrine in rat portal vein.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J K; Winslow, E; Marshall, R J

    1986-12-16

    Bepridil is known to block calcium channels in some vascular tissues. Recent work has shown that bepridil also antagonises calmodulin. The present study attempted to more fully characterize the vasodilator actions of bepridil by comparing it with the known calcium channel blocking drugs, nifedipine, diltiazem, verapamil and flunarizine, the calmodulin inhibitors, trifluoperazine and W7 and propylmethylenedioxyindene, which is thought to act intracellularly, on rat portal vein. The relative activities of the test drugs were compared on spontaneous activity and on all components of the contractile responses to potassium and phenylephrine. Bepridil inhibited all components of the potassium and phenylephrine responses equally, actions similar to those of the intracellular acting drugs. The exception to this was trifluoperazine which also exerted alpha-adrenoceptor blocking actions. In contrast the calcium channel blocking drugs, with the exception of verapamil, inhibited the tonic component of both spasmogen responses more than the phasic component. Bepridil like the intracellular acting drugs, but unlike the calcium channel blockers, markedly increased the frequency of spontaneous contractions whilst reducing amplitude. It is concluded that the profile of bepridil on rat portal vein more closely resembles that of intracellularly acting drugs than that of classical calcium channel inhibitors. PMID:3493163

  10. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  11. Novel selective agonists and antagonists confirm neurokinin NK1 receptors in guinea-pig vas deferens.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J. M.; Morton, I. K.

    1991-01-01

    1. This study investigated the recognition characteristics of neurokinin receptors mediating potentiation of the contractile response to field stimulation in the guinea-pig vas deferens. 2. A predominant NK1 receptor population is strongly suggested by the relative activities of the common naturally-occurring tachykinin agonists, which fall within less than one order of magnitude. This conclusion is supported by the relative activities of the synthetic NK1 selective agonists substance P methyl ester, [Glp6,L-Pro9]-SP(6-11) and delta-aminovaleryl-[L-Pro9,N-MeLeu10]- SP(7-11) (GR73632) which were 0.78, 9.3 and 120 as active as substance P, respectively. Furthermore, the NK2 selective agonist [Lys3, Gly8,-R-gamma-lactam-Leu9]-NKA(3-10) (GR64349) was active only at the highest concentrations tested (greater than 10 microM), and the NK3 selective agonist, succ-[Asp6,N-MePhe8]-SP(6-11) (senktide) was essentially inactive (10 nM-32 microM). 3. [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-SP(1-11) antagonized responses to neurokinin A, neurokinin B, physalaemin, eledoisin, [Glp6,D-Pro9]-SP(6-11), GR73632 and GR64349 (apparent pKB s 5.6-6.2), but was less potent in antagonizing responses to substance P, substance P methyl ester and [Glp6,L-Pro9]-SP(6-11) (apparent pKB s less than or equal to 5.0-5.0). 4. In contrast, the recently developed NK1-selective receptor antagonist [D-Pro9[Spiro-gamma-lactam]Leu10,Trp11]-SP(1-11) (GR71251) did not produce agonist-dependent pKB estimates. Schild plot analysis indicated a competitive interaction with a single receptor population where the antagonist had an estimated overall pKB of 7.58 +/- 0.13 for the four agonists of differing subtype selectivity tested (GR73632, GR64349, substance P methyl ester and neurokinin B).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1707714

  12. Potent μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists from Cyclic Peptides Tyr-c[D-Lys-Xxx-Tyr-Gly]: Synthesis, Biological, and Structural Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangmei; Cazares, Margret; Wu, Jinhua; Houghten, Richard A; Toll, Laurence; Dooley, Colette

    2016-02-11

    To optimize the structure of a μ-opioid receptor ligand, analogs H-Tyr-c[D-Lys-Xxx-Tyr-Gly] were synthesized and their biological activity was tested. The analog containing a Phe(3) was identified as not only exhibiting binding affinity 14-fold higher than the original hit but also producing agonist activity 3-fold more potent than morphine. NMR study suggested that a trans conformation at D-Lys(2)-Xxx(3) is crucial for these cyclic peptides to maintain high affinity, selectivity, and functional activity toward the μ-opioid receptor. PMID:26789491

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Comamonas thiooxydans Strain PHE2-6 (NBRC 110656), a Chlorinated-Ethene-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Shimodaira, Jun; Yonezuka, Kenta; Tabata, Michiro; Nagase, Shun; Kasai, Daisuke; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Comamonas thiooxydans strain PHE2-6 (NBRC 110656), which was isolated from a trichloroethene-contaminated site in Japan, utilizes phenol as a sole source of carbon and cometabolizes cis- and trans-dichloroethenes. We report here the draft genome sequence of this strain, containing 5,309,680 bp, with 60.6% G+C content. PMID:27340052

  14. Phe362Tyr in AChE: A Major Factor Responsible for Azamethiphos Resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Jansen, Peder Andreas; Aspehaug, Vidar Teis; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphates (OP) are one of the major treatments used against the salmon louse (Lepeophtherius salmonis) in Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. The use of OP since the late 1970s has resulted in widespread resistant parasites. Recently, we reported a single mutation (Phe362Tyr) in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as the major mechanism behind resistance in salmon louse towards OP. The present study was carried out to validate this mechanism at the field level. A total of 6658 salmon louse samples were enrolled from 56 different fish farms across the Norwegian coast, from Vest Agder in the south to Finnmark in the north. All the samples were genotyped using a TaqMan probe assay for the Phe362Tyr mutation. A strong association was observed between areas with frequent use of the OP (azamethiphos) and the Phe362Tyr mutation. This was confirmed at 15 sites where results from independently conducted bioassays and genotyping of parasites correlated well. Furthermore, genotyping of surviving and moribund parasites from six bioassay experiments demonstrated a highly significant negative correlation between the frequency of resistance alleles and the probability of dying when exposed to azamethiphos in a bioassay. Based on these observations, we could strongly conclude that the Phe362Tyr mutation is a major factor responsible for OP resistance in salmon louse on Norwegian fish farms. PMID:26882536

  15. 40 CFR 721.7600 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-ny-lazohetero monocyclic poly-one (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-ny-lazohetero monocyclic poly-one (generic name). 721.7600 Section 721.7600 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7600 Alkyl(heterocyclicyl)...

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase PheB from Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Matsufuzi, Kazuki; Ohnuma, Hiroaki; Senda, Miki; Fukuda, Masao; Senda, Toshiya

    2006-02-01

    PheB, an extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, and diffracts to 2.3 Å resolution. Class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, a key enzyme of aromatic compound degradation in bacteria, cleaves the aromatic ring of catechol by adding two O atoms. PheB is one of the class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenases and shows a high substrate specificity for catechol derivatives, which have one aromatic ring. In order to reveal the mechanism of the substrate specificity of PheB, PheB has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The space group of the obtained crystal was P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, b = 119.2, c = 158.7 Å. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution.

  17. Novel phenanthridine (PHE-4i) derivative inhibits carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema through suppression of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    George, Leema; Ramasamy, Tamizhselvi; Manickam, Venkatraman; Iyer, Sathiyanarayanan Kulathu; Radhakrishnan, Vidya

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel synthesized phenanthridine alkaloid (PHE-4i) and to examine the possible involvement of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in anti-inflammatory mechanism. The synthesized phenanthridine derivative PHE-4i (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to rats. One hour following treatment, inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (1 %), in the hind paw. Paw volume as the index of inflammation was measured before and after carrageenan injection. Neutrophil sequestration into the hind paw was quantified by measuring tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and was compared for the inhibition of H2S production. Pretreatment with PHE-4i significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw weight, MPO activity, leukocyte infiltration, and H2S production in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effect of PHE-4i on carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema could be via the inhibition of the gaseous mediator H2S. PMID:27380491

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Comamonas thiooxydans Strain PHE2-6 (NBRC 110656), a Chlorinated-Ethene-Degrading Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, Jun; Yonezuka, Kenta; Tabata, Michiro; Nagase, Shun; Kasai, Daisuke; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Comamonas thiooxydans strain PHE2-6 (NBRC 110656), which was isolated from a trichloroethene-contaminated site in Japan, utilizes phenol as a sole source of carbon and cometabolizes cis- and trans-dichloroethenes. We report here the draft genome sequence of this strain, containing 5,309,680 bp, with 60.6% G+C content. PMID:27340052

  19. Phe362Tyr in AChE: A Major Factor Responsible for Azamethiphos Resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Jansen, Peder Andreas; Aspehaug, Vidar Teis; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphates (OP) are one of the major treatments used against the salmon louse (Lepeophtherius salmonis) in Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. The use of OP since the late 1970s has resulted in widespread resistant parasites. Recently, we reported a single mutation (Phe362Tyr) in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as the major mechanism behind resistance in salmon louse towards OP. The present study was carried out to validate this mechanism at the field level. A total of 6658 salmon louse samples were enrolled from 56 different fish farms across the Norwegian coast, from Vest Agder in the south to Finnmark in the north. All the samples were genotyped using a TaqMan probe assay for the Phe362Tyr mutation. A strong association was observed between areas with frequent use of the OP (azamethiphos) and the Phe362Tyr mutation. This was confirmed at 15 sites where results from independently conducted bioassays and genotyping of parasites correlated well. Furthermore, genotyping of surviving and moribund parasites from six bioassay experiments demonstrated a highly significant negative correlation between the frequency of resistance alleles and the probability of dying when exposed to azamethiphos in a bioassay. Based on these observations, we could strongly conclude that the Phe362Tyr mutation is a major factor responsible for OP resistance in salmon louse on Norwegian fish farms. PMID:26882536

  20. β2-agonist therapy in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive P; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, M Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    β2-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to relax airway smooth muscle (ASM). They exert their effects via their binding to the active site of β2-adrenoceptors on ASM, which triggers a signaling cascade that results in a number of events, all of which contribute to relaxation of ASM. There are some differences between β2-agonists. Traditional inhaled short-acting β2-agonists albuterol, fenoterol, and terbutaline provide rapid as-needed symptom relief and short-term prophylactic protection against bronchoconstriction induced by exercise or other stimuli. The twice-daily β2-agonists formoterol and salmeterol represent important advances. Their effective bronchodilating properties and long-term improvement in lung function offer considerable clinical benefits to patients. More recently, a newer β2-agonist (indacaterol) with a longer pharmacodynamic half-life has been discovered, with the hopes of achieving once-daily dosing. In general, β2-agonists have an acceptable safety profile, although there is still controversy as to whether long-acting β2-agonists may increase the risk of asthma mortality. In any case, they can induce adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, palpitations, transient decrease in PaO2, and tremor. Desensitization of β2-adrenoceptors that occurs during the first few days of regular use of β2-agonist treatment may account for the commonly observed resolution of the majority of these adverse events after the first few doses. Nevertheless, it can also induce tolerance to bronchoprotective effects of β2-agonists and has the potential to reduce bronchodilator sensitivity to them. Some novel once-daily β2-agonists (olodaterol, vilanterol, abediterol) are under development, mainly in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid or a long-acting antimuscarinic agent. PMID:23348973

  1. Comparative Structural Dynamics of tRNA(Phe) with Respect to Hinge Region Methylated Guanosine: A Computational Approach.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Kailas D; Bavi, Rohit S; Sambhare, Susmit B; Fandilolu, Prayagraj M

    2016-06-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) contain various uniquely modified nucleosides thought to be useful for maintaining the structural stability of tRNAs. However, their significance for upholding the tRNA structure has not been investigated in detail at the atomic level. In this study, molecular dynamic simulations have been performed to assess the effects of methylated nucleic acid bases, N (2)-methylguanosine (m(2)G) and N (2)-N (2)-dimethylguanosine (m 2 (2) G) at position 26, i.e., the hinge region of E. coli tRNA(Phe) on its structure and dynamics. The results revealed that tRNA(Phe) having unmodified guanosine in the hinge region (G26) shows structural rearrangement in the core of the molecule, resulting in lack of base stacking interactions, U-turn feature of the anticodon loop, and TΨC loop. We show that in the presence of the unmodified guanosine, the overall fold of tRNA(Phe) is essentially not the same as that of m(2)G26 and m 2 (2) G26 containing tRNA(Phe). This structural rearrangement arises due to intrinsic factors associated with the weak hydrogen-bonding patterns observed in the base triples of the tRNA(Phe) molecule. The m(2)G26 and m 2 (2) G26 containing tRNA(Phe) retain proper three-dimensional fold through tertiary interactions. Single-point energy and molecular electrostatics potential calculation studies confirmed the structural significance of tRNAs containing m(2)G26 and m 2 (2) G26 compared to tRNA with normal G26, showing that the mono-methylated (m(2)G26) and dimethylated (m 2 (2) G26) modifications are required to provide structural stability not only in the hinge region but also in the other parts of tRNA(Phe). Thus, the present study allows us to better understand the effects of modified nucleosides and ionic environment on tRNA folding. PMID:27216172

  2. Different affinity states of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors defined by agonists and antagonists in bovine aorta plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, G.; Deth, R.C.

    1987-11-01

    Evidence for a nonlinear relationship between alpha-1 adrenergic receptor occupancy and tissue responses, together with the finding of different affinity states for agonist binding, has raised the possibility of functional heterogeneity of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We have conducted studies to examine: 1) binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)prazosin, 2) competition of antagonists at these sites and 3) different affinity states of the receptor for agonists and modulation of these states by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p). A plasma membrane-enriched vesicular fraction (F2; 15%/33% sucrose interphase) was prepared from the muscular medial layer of bovine thoracic aorta. (/sup 3/H)Prazosin binding was characterized by a monophasic saturation isotherm (KD = 0.116 nM, Bmax = 112 fmol/mg of protein). Antagonist displacement studies yielded a relative potency order of prazosin greater than or equal to WB4104 much greater than phentolamine greater than corynanthine greater than yohimbine greater than or equal to idazoxan greater than rauwolscine. Competition curves for unlabeled prazosin, WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4 benzodioxane) and phentolamine were shallow and were best modeled to two binding sites with picomolar and nanomolar KD values. Gpp(NH)p was without effect on antagonist affinity. Agonist (epinephrine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine) competition with (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding was biphasic with pseudo-Hill slopes less than 1.0. Binding was best described by a two-site model in which the average contribution of high affinity sites was 23% of total binding. KD values for the high affinity site ranged from 2.9 to 18 nM, and 3.9 to 5.0 microM for the low affinity site.

  3. Efficient Activation of Pathogenic ΔPhe501 Mutation in Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 by Chemical and Pharmacological Chaperones.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter expressed in many cell types, including neurons. Mutations that inactivate transport activity of MCT8 cause severe X-linked psychomotor retardation in male patients, a syndrome originally described as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. Treatment options currently explored the focus on finding thyroid hormone-like compounds that bypass MCT8 and enter cells through different transporters. Because MCT8 is a multipass transmembrane protein, some pathogenic mutations affect membrane trafficking while potentially retaining some transporter activity. We explore here the effects of chemical and pharmacological chaperones on the expression and transport activity of the MCT8 mutant ΔPhe501. Dimethylsulfoxide, 4-phenylbutyric acid as well as its sodium salt, and the isoflavone genistein increase T3 uptake into MDCK1 cells stably transfected with mutant MCT8-ΔPhe501. We show that ΔPhe501 represents a temperature-sensitive mutant protein that is stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. 4-Phenylbutyrate has been used to stabilize ΔPhe508 mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein and is in clinical use in patients with urea cycle defects. Genistein is enriched in soy and available as a nutritional supplement. It is effective in stabilizing MCT8-ΔPhe501 at 100 nM concentration. Expression of the L471P mutant is increased in response to phenylbutyrate, but T3 uptake activity is not induced, supporting the notion that the chaperone specifically increases membrane expression. Our findings suggest that certain pathogenic MCT8 mutants may be responsive to (co-)treatment with readily available compounds, which increase endogenous protein function. PMID:26368820

  4. Potential of Endophytic Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 Isolated from Plantago asiatica L. for Reduction of PAH Contamination in Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Jin, Li; Sun, Kai; Li, Shuang; Ling, Wanting; Li, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are ubiquitous in plants, and they may have a natural capacity to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In our study, a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 was isolated from P. asiatica L. grown in a PAH-contaminated site. The effects of environmental variables on phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 were studied, and the ability of strain PHE-3 to use high molecular weight PAH (HMW-PAH) as a sole carbon source was also evaluated. Our results indicated that pH value of 4.0-8.0, temperature of 30 °C-42 °C, initial phenanthrene concentration less than 100 mg·L(-1), and some additional nutrients are favorable for the biodegradation of phenanthrene by strain PHE-3. The maximum biodegradation efficiency of phenanthrene was achieved at 99.9% after 84 h cultivation with additional glutamate. Moreover, the phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 was positively correlated with the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity (ρ = 0.981, p < 0.05), suggesting that strain PHE-3 had the capability of degrading HMW-PAHs. In the presence of other 2-, 3-ringed PAHs, strain PHE-3 effectively degraded HMW-PAHs through co-metabolism. The results of this study are beneficial in that the re-colonization potential and PAH degradation performance of endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 may be applied towards reducing PAH contamination in plants. PMID:27347988

  5. Potential of Endophytic Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 Isolated from Plantago asiatica L. for Reduction of PAH Contamination in Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Jin, Li; Sun, Kai; Li, Shuang; Ling, Wanting; Li, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are ubiquitous in plants, and they may have a natural capacity to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In our study, a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 was isolated from P. asiatica L. grown in a PAH-contaminated site. The effects of environmental variables on phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 were studied, and the ability of strain PHE-3 to use high molecular weight PAH (HMW-PAH) as a sole carbon source was also evaluated. Our results indicated that pH value of 4.0–8.0, temperature of 30 °C–42 °C, initial phenanthrene concentration less than 100 mg·L−1, and some additional nutrients are favorable for the biodegradation of phenanthrene by strain PHE-3. The maximum biodegradation efficiency of phenanthrene was achieved at 99.9% after 84 h cultivation with additional glutamate. Moreover, the phenanthrene biodegradation by strain PHE-3 was positively correlated with the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity (ρ = 0.981, p < 0.05), suggesting that strain PHE-3 had the capability of degrading HMW-PAHs. In the presence of other 2-, 3-ringed PAHs, strain PHE-3 effectively degraded HMW-PAHs through co-metabolism. The results of this study are beneficial in that the re-colonization potential and PAH degradation performance of endophytic Paenibacillus sp. PHE-3 may be applied towards reducing PAH contamination in plants. PMID:27347988

  6. PHENOME-WIDE INTERACTION STUDY (PheWIS) IN AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP DATA (ACTG)

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shefali S.; Frase, Alex T.; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Mahony, Shaun; Haas, David W.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Association studies have shown and continue to show a substantial amount of success in identifying links between multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes. These studies are also believed to provide insights toward identification of new drug targets and therapies. Albeit of all the success, challenges still remain for applying and prioritizing these associations based on available biological knowledge. Along with single variant association analysis, genetic interactions also play an important role in uncovering the etiology and progression of complex traits. For gene-gene interaction analysis, selection of the variants to test for associations still poses a challenge in identifying epistatic interactions among the large list of variants available in high-throughput, genome-wide datasets. Therefore in this study, we propose a pipeline to identify interactions among genetic variants that are associated with multiple phenotypes by prioritizing previously published results from main effect association analysis (genome-wide and phenome-wide association analysis) based on a-priori biological knowledge in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) data. We approached the prioritization and filtration of variants by using the results of a previously published single variant PheWAS and then utilizing biological information from the Roadmap Epigenome project. We removed variants in low functional activity regions based on chromatin states annotation and then conducted an exhaustive pairwise interaction search using linear regression analysis. We performed this analysis in two independent pre-treatment clinical trial datasets from ACTG to allow for both discovery and replication. Using a regression framework, we observed 50,798 associations that replicate at p-value 0.01 for 26 phenotypes, among which 2,176 associations for 212 unique SNPs for fasting blood glucose phenotype reach Bonferroni significance and an additional 9,970 interactions for high

  7. Rational design and characterization of D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-derived direct thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana C; Clement, Cristina C; Zakia, Sheuli; Gingold, Julian; Philipp, Manfred; Pereira, Pedro J B

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous social and economic impact of thrombotic disorders, together with the considerable risks associated to the currently available therapies, prompt for the development of more efficient and safer anticoagulants. Novel peptide-based thrombin inhibitors were identified using in silico structure-based design and further validated in vitro. The best candidate compounds contained both L- and D-amino acids, with the general sequence D-Phe(P3)-Pro(P2)-D-Arg(P1)-P1'-CONH₂. The P1' position was scanned with L- and D-isomers of natural or unnatural amino acids, covering the major chemical classes. The most potent non-covalent and proteolysis-resistant inhibitors contain small hydrophobic or polar amino acids (Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr) at the P1' position. The lead tetrapeptide, D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH₂, competitively inhibits α-thrombin's cleavage of the S2238 chromogenic substrate with a K(i) of 0.92 µM. In order to understand the molecular details of their inhibitory action, the three-dimensional structure of three peptides (with P1' L-isoleucine (fPrI), L-cysteine (fPrC) or D-threonine (fPrt)) in complex with human α-thrombin were determined by X-ray crystallography. All the inhibitors bind in a substrate-like orientation to the active site of the enzyme. The contacts established between the D-Arg residue in position P1 and thrombin are similar to those observed for the L-isomer in other substrates and inhibitors. However, fPrC and fPrt disrupt the active site His57-Ser195 hydrogen bond, while the combination of a P1 D-Arg and a bulkier P1' residue in fPrI induce an unfavorable geometry for the nucleophilic attack of the scissile bond by the catalytic serine. The experimental models explain the observed relative potency of the inhibitors, as well as their stability to proteolysis. Moreover, the newly identified direct thrombin inhibitors provide a novel pharmacophore platform for developing antithrombotic agents by exploring the conformational

  8. Serum stability of selected decapeptide agonists of KISS1R using pseudopeptides.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Nishibori, Kimiko; Nakayama, Masaharu; Horikoshi, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Tarui, Naoki; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2012-10-15

    Metastin/kisspeptin, a 54-amino acid peptide, is the ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor KISS1R which plays a key role in pathways that regulate reproduction and cell migration in many endocrine and gonadal tissues. The N-terminally truncated decapeptide, metastin(45-54), has 3-10 times higher receptor affinity and intracellular calcium ion-mobilizing activity but is rapidly inactivated in serum. In this study we designed and synthesized stable KISS1R agonistic decapeptide analogs with selected substitutions at positions 47, 50, and 51. Replacement of glycine with azaglycine (azaGly) in which the α-carbon is replaced with a nitrogen atom at position 51 improved the stability of amide bonds between Phe(50)-Gly(51) and Gly(51)-Leu(52) as determined by in vitro mouse serum stability studies. Substitution for tryptophan at position 47 with other amino acids such as serine, threonine, β-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and D-tryptophan (D-Trp), produced analogs that were highly stable in mouse serum. D-Trp(47) analog 13 showed not only high metabolic stability but also excellent KISS1R agonistic activity. Other labile peptides may have increased serum stability using amino acid substitution. PMID:22975302

  9. Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

  10. Comparative pharmacology of bombesin receptor subtype-3, nonpeptide agonist MK-5046, a universal peptide agonist, and peptide antagonist Bantag-1 for human bombesin receptors.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Reitman, Marc L; González, Nieves; Coy, David H; Jensen, Robert T

    2013-10-01

    Bombesin-receptor-subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor of the bombesin (Bn) family whose natural ligand is unknown and which does not bind any natural Bn-peptide with high affinity. It is present in the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and tumors; however, its role in normal physiology/pathophysiology is largely unknown because of the lack of selective ligands. Recently, MK-5046 [(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-[4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-{[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-2-yl)propan-2-ol] and Bantag-1 [Boc-Phe-His-4-amino-5-cyclohexyl-2,4,5-trideoxypentonyl-Leu-(3-dimethylamino) benzylamide N-methylammonium trifluoroacetate], a nonpeptide agonist and a peptide antagonist, respectively, for BRS-3 have been described, but there have been limited studies on their pharmacology. We studied MK-5046 and Bantag-1 interactions with human Bn-receptors-human bombesin receptor subtype-3 (hBRS-3), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), and neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R)-and compared them with the nonselective, peptide-agonist [d-Tyr6,βAla11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn-(6-14) (peptide #1). Receptor activation was detected by activation of phospholipase C (PLC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and Akt. In hBRS-3 cells, the relative affinities were Bantag-1 (1.3 nM) > peptide #1 (2 nM) > MK-5046 (37-160 nM) > GRP, NMB (>10 μM), and the binding-dose-inhibition curves were broad (>4 logs), with Hill coefficients differing significantly from unity. Curve-fitting demonstrated high-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 0.08 nM) and low-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 11-29 nM) binding sites. For PLC activation in hBRS-3 cells, the relative potencies were MK-5046 (0.02 nM) > peptide #1 (6 nM) > GRP, NMB, Bantag-1 (>10 μM), and MK-5046 had a biphasic dose response, whereas peptide #1 was monophasic. Bantag-1 was a specific hBRS-3-antagonist. In hBRS-3 cells, MK-5046 was a full agonist for activation of MAPK, FAK, Akt

  11. Comparative Pharmacology of Bombesin Receptor Subtype-3, Nonpeptide Agonist MK-5046, a Universal Peptide Agonist, and Peptide Antagonist Bantag-1 for Human Bombesin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A.; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Reitman, Marc L.; González, Nieves; Coy, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Bombesin-receptor-subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor of the bombesin (Bn) family whose natural ligand is unknown and which does not bind any natural Bn-peptide with high affinity. It is present in the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and tumors; however, its role in normal physiology/pathophysiology is largely unknown because of the lack of selective ligands. Recently, MK-5046 [(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-[4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-{[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-2-yl)propan-2-ol] and Bantag-1 [Boc-Phe-His-4-amino-5-cyclohexyl-2,4,5-trideoxypentonyl-Leu-(3-dimethylamino) benzylamide N-methylammonium trifluoroacetate], a nonpeptide agonist and a peptide antagonist, respectively, for BRS-3 have been described, but there have been limited studies on their pharmacology. We studied MK-5046 and Bantag-1 interactions with human Bn-receptors—human bombesin receptor subtype-3 (hBRS-3), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), and neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R)—and compared them with the nonselective, peptide-agonist [d-Tyr6,βAla11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn-(6–14) (peptide #1). Receptor activation was detected by activation of phospholipase C (PLC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and Akt. In hBRS-3 cells, the relative affinities were Bantag-1 (1.3 nM) > peptide #1 (2 nM) > MK-5046 (37–160 nM) > GRP, NMB (>10 μM), and the binding-dose-inhibition curves were broad (>4 logs), with Hill coefficients differing significantly from unity. Curve-fitting demonstrated high-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 0.08 nM) and low-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 11–29 nM) binding sites. For PLC activation in hBRS-3 cells, the relative potencies were MK-5046 (0.02 nM) > peptide #1 (6 nM) > GRP, NMB, Bantag-1 (>10 μM), and MK-5046 had a biphasic dose response, whereas peptide #1 was monophasic. Bantag-1 was a specific hBRS-3-antagonist. In hBRS-3 cells, MK-5046 was a full agonist for activation of MAPK

  12. Symptomatic treatment of the common cold with a fixed-dose combination of paracetamol, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The common cold and other viral airway infections are highly prevalent in the population, and their treatment often requires the use of medications for symptomatic relief. Paracetamol is as an analgesic and antipyretic; chlorphenamine is an antihistamine; and phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor and decongestant. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of paracetamol, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine in the symptomatic treatment of the common cold and flu-like syndrome in adults. Methods This study enrolled 146 individuals aged 18 to 60 years who had moderate to severe flu-like syndrome or common cold. After clinical examination and laboratory tests, individuals were randomly assigned to receive the fixed-dose combination (73) or placebo (73), five capsules per day for 48 to 72 hours. The primary efficacy endpoint was the sum of the scores of 10 symptoms on a four-point Likert-type scale. To evaluate treatment safety, the occurrence of adverse events was also measured. Results Mean age was 33.5 (±9.5) years in the placebo group and 33.8 (±11.5) in the treatment group. There were 55 women and 18 men in the placebo group, and 46 women and 27 men in the treatment group. Comparison of overall symptom scores in the two groups revealed a significantly greater reduction in the treatment group than in the placebo group (p = 0.015). Analysis at the first 13 dose intervals (± 66 h of treatment) showed a greater reduction of symptom scores in the treatment group than in the placebo group (p < 0.05). The number and distribution of adverse events were similar in both groups. Conclusion A fixed-dose combination of paracetamol, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine was safe and more effective than placebo in the symptomatic treatment of the common cold or flu-like syndrome in adults. Trial registration NCT01389518 PMID:24261438

  13. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of the binding of tRNA(phe) by the putative anticancer alkaloid chelerythrine: Spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Basu, Pritha; Payghan, Pavan V; Ghoshal, Nanda; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of the putative anticancer alkaloid chelerythrine with tRNA(phe) was characterized by spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular docking studies. The charged iminium form of chelerythrine binds with tRNA(phe) in a cooperative mode with a binding affinity value of (4.06±0.01)×10(5)M(-1). The neutral alkanolamine form does not bind to tRNA(phe) but in the presence of high concentration of tRNA(phe) this form gets converted to the iminium form and then binds with tRNA(phe). The partial intercalative mode of binding of chelerythrine to the tRNA(phe) was characterized from the steady state anisotropy, iodide ion-induced fluorescence quenching and viscosity measurements. Chelerythrine binding induced conformational perturbations in tRNA(phe) as observed from the circular dichroism spectroscopy. The strong binding was also supported by the ethidium bromide displacement assay. The binding was favoured by both enthalpy and entropy contributions. Although the binding was dependent on the [Na(+)], non-electrostatic forces contributed predominantly to the Gibbs energy change. The negative value of the heat capacity change proposed the involvement of hydrophobic forces in the binding. Molecular docking study was carried out to decipher the details of the recognition of tRNA(phe) by chelerythrine. The study provided insights about the chelerythrine binding pockets on tRNA(phe) and marked the necessary interactions for binding of chelerythrine molecule. Partially intercalative mode of the alkaloid binding was supported by docking studies. In total, docking studies corroborated well with our experiential observations. The structural and thermodynamic results of chelerythrine binding to tRNA(phe) may be helpful to develop new RNA therapeutic agents. PMID:27289446

  14. Aspirin metabolites are GPR35 agonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huayun; Fang, Ye

    2012-07-01

    Aspirin is widely used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anti-pyretic, and cancer-preventive agent; however, the molecular mode of action is unlikely due entirely to the inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Here, we report the agonist activity of several aspirin metabolites at GPR35, a poorly characterized orphan G protein-coupled receptor. 2,3,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid, an aspirin catabolite, was found to be the most potent GPR35 agonist among aspirin metabolites. Salicyluric acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, was also active. These results suggest that the GPR35 agonist activity of certain aspirin metabolites may contribute to the clinical features of aspirin. PMID:22526472

  15. The Bifunctional μ Opioid Agonist/Antioxidant [Dmt1]DALDA Is a Superior Analgesic in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Type I

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Peter W.; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Saray, Amy; Poon, Annie Wing Hoi; Laferrière, André; Coderre, Terence J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I), as also demonstrated with the chronic post ischemia pain (CPIP) animal model of CRPS-I. We show that morphine and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) act synergistically to reduce mechanical allodynia in CPIP rats. The tetrapeptide amide [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) is a potent and selective μ opioid receptor (MOR) agonist with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and with antioxidant activity due to its N-terminal Dmt (2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine) residue. In the CPIP model, [Dmt1]DALDA was 15-fold more potent than morphine in reversing mechanical allodynia and 4.5-fold more potent as analgesic in the heat algesia test. The results indicate that bifunctional compounds with MOR agonist/antioxidant activity have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CRPS-I. PMID:26352668

  16. The bifunctional μ opioid agonist/antioxidant [Dmt(1)]DALDA is a superior analgesic in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type i.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Peter W; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Saray, Amy; Poon, Annie Wing Hoi; Laferrière, André; Coderre, Terence J

    2015-11-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I), as also demonstrated with the chronic post ischemia pain (CPIP) animal model of CRPS-I. We show that morphine and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) act synergistically to reduce mechanical allodynia in CPIP rats. The tetrapeptide amide [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) is a potent and selective μ opioid receptor (MOR) agonist with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and with antioxidant activity due to its N-terminal Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) residue. In the CPIP model, [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 15-fold more potent than morphine in reversing mechanical allodynia and 4.5-fold more potent as analgesic in the heat algesia test. The results indicate that bifunctional compounds with MOR agonist/antioxidant activity have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CRPS-I. PMID:26352668

  17. Effects of opioids in morphine-treated pigeons trained to discriminate among morphine, the low-efficacy agonist nalbuphine, and saline.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ellen A; Picker, Mitchell J; Granger, Arthur; Dykstra, Linda A

    2004-07-01

    In opioid-dependent subjects, the low-efficacy mu agonist nalbuphine generally precipitates withdrawal or withdrawal-like stimulus effects. To provide a more complete characterization of the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in opioid-treated subjects, seven White Carneux pigeons were treated daily with 10 mg/kg morphine i.m. and trained 6 h later to discriminate among 10 mg/kg morphine, 1.0 mg/kg nalbuphine, and saline by responding on one of three different keys. When tested, morphine produced morphine-key responding and nalbuphine produced nalbuphine-key responding. Replacing the daily morphine injection with saline produced nalbuphine-key responding, and this effect was reversed by the administration of morphine. In substitution tests with other compounds, the antagonists naltrexone (i.m.) and CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Tryp-Lys-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2) (i.c.v.) produced nalbuphine-key responding. High-efficacy agonists fentanyl and etorphine produced morphine-key responding. The intermediate-efficacy agonists buprenorphine, dezocine, and butorphanol produced a pattern of morphine-, saline-, and/or nalbuphine-key responding that differed across individual pigeons. The lower efficacy agonists nalorphine and levallorphan produced predominantly nalbuphine-key responding. The kappa agonists spiradoline and U50,488 [trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate], the nonopioid d-amphetamine, and saline produced predominantly saline-key responding. Naltrexone and nalbuphine dose dependently reversed the morphine-key responding produced by the training dose of morphine. Together, these data suggest that the discriminative-stimulus effects of the low-efficacy micro agonist nalbuphine in morphine-treated pigeons are similar to those of other low-efficacy agonists, naltrexone, and the termination of daily morphine treatment. PMID:15044559

  18. Monoterpenoid agonists of TRPV3

    PubMed Central

    Vogt-Eisele, A K; Weber, K; Sherkheli, M A; Vielhaber, G; Panten, J; Gisselmann, G; Hatt, H

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transient receptor potential (TRP) V3 is a thermosensitive ion channel expressed predominantly in the skin and neural tissues. It is activated by warmth and the monoterpene camphor and has been hypothesized to be involved in skin sensitization. A selection of monoterpenoid compounds was tested for TRPV3 activation to establish a structure-function relationship. The related channel TRPM8 is activated by cool temperatures and a number of chemicals, among them the monoterpene (-)-menthol. The overlap of the receptor pharmacology between the two channels was investigated. Experimental approach: Transfected HEK293 cells were superfused with the test substances. Evoked currents were measured in whole cell patch clamp measurements. Dose-response curves for the most potent agonists were obtained in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Key results: Six monoterpenes significantly more potent than camphor were identified: 6-tert-butyl-m-cresol, carvacrol, dihydrocarveol, thymol, carveol and (+)-borneol. Their EC50 is up to 16 times lower than that of camphor. All of these compounds carry a ring-located hydroxyl group and neither activates TRPM8 to a major extent. Conclusions and implications: Terpenoids have long been recognized as medically and pharmacologically active compounds, although their molecular targets have only partially been identified. TRPV3 activation may be responsible for several of the described effects of terpenoids. We show here that TRPV3 is activated by a number of monoterpenes and that a secondary hydroxyl-group is a structural requirement. PMID:17420775

  19. Rational design and identification of a non-peptidic aggregation inhibitor of amyloid-β based on a pharmacophore motif obtained from cyclo[-Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-].

    PubMed

    Arai, Tadamasa; Araya, Takushi; Sasaki, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Atsuhiko; Sato, Takeshi; Sohma, Youhei; Kanai, Motomu

    2014-07-28

    Inhibition of pathogenic protein aggregation may be an important and straightforward therapeutic strategy for curing amyloid diseases. Small-molecule aggregation inhibitors of Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) are extremely scarce, however, and are mainly restricted to dye- and polyphenol-type compounds that lack drug-likeness. Based on the structure-activity relationship of cyclic Aβ16-20 (cyclo-[KLVFF]), we identified unique pharmacophore motifs comprising side-chains of Leu(2), Val(3), Phe(4), and Phe(5) residues without involvement of the backbone amide bonds to inhibit Aβ aggregation. This finding allowed us to design non-peptidic, small-molecule aggregation inhibitors that possess potent activity. These molecules are the first successful non-peptidic, small-molecule aggregation inhibitors of amyloids based on rational molecular design. PMID:24931598

  20. Endomorphin-2: a biased agonist at the μ-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Guadalupe; Llorente, Javier; McPherson, Jamie; Cooke, Alex; Mundell, Stuart J; McArdle, Craig A; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Charlton, Steven J; Krasel, Cornelius; Bailey, Christopher P; Henderson, Graeme; Kelly, Eamonn

    2012-08-01

    Previously we correlated the efficacy for G protein activation with that for arrestin recruitment for a number of agonists at the μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) stably expressed in HEK293 cells. We suggested that the endomorphins (endomorphin-1 and -2) might be biased toward arrestin recruitment. In the present study, we investigated this phenomenon in more detail for endomorphin-2, using endogenous MOPr in rat brain as well as MOPr stably expressed in HEK293 cells. For MOPr in neurons in brainstem locus ceruleus slices, the peptide agonists [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and endomorphin-2 activated inwardly rectifying K(+) current in a concentration-dependent manner. Analysis of these responses with the operational model of pharmacological agonism confirmed that endomorphin-2 had a much lower operational efficacy for G protein-mediated responses than did DAMGO at native MOPr in mature neurons. However, endomorphin-2 induced faster desensitization of the K(+) current than did DAMGO. In addition, in HEK293 cells stably expressing MOPr, the ability of endomorphin-2 to induce phosphorylation of Ser375 in the COOH terminus of the receptor, to induce association of arrestin with the receptor, and to induce cell surface loss of receptors was much more efficient than would be predicted from its efficacy for G protein-mediated signaling. Together, these results indicate that endomorphin-2 is an arrestin-biased agonist at MOPr and the reason for this is likely to be the ability of endomorphin-2 to induce greater phosphorylation of MOPr than would be expected from its ability to activate MOPr and to induce activation of G proteins. PMID:22553358

  1. Agonist-selective mechanisms of mu-opioid receptor desensitization in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth A; Oldfield, Sue; Braksator, Ellen; Gonzalez-Cuello, Ana; Couch, Daniel; Hall, Kellie J; Mundell, Stuart J; Bailey, Chris P; Kelly, Eamonn; Henderson, Graeme

    2006-08-01

    The ability of two opioid agonists, [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine, to induce mu-opioid receptor (MOR) phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization was examined in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing rat MOR1 as well G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK) channel subunits. Both DAMGO and morphine activated GIRK currents, but the maximum response to DAMGO was greater than that of morphine, indicating that morphine is a partial agonist. The responses to DAMGO and morphine desensitized rapidly in the presence of either drug. Expression of a dominant negative mutant G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), GRK2-K220R, markedly attenuated the DAMGO-induced desensitization of MOR1, but it had no effect on morphine-induced MOR1 desensitization. In contrast, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) either by the PKC inhibitory peptide PKC (19-31) or staurosporine reduced MOR1 desensitization by morphine but not that induced by DAMGO. Morphine and DAMGO enhanced MOR1 phosphorylation over basal. The PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide 1 (GF109203X) inhibited MOR1 phosphorylation under basal conditions and in the presence of morphine, but it did not inhibit DAMGO-induced phosphorylation. DAMGO induced arrestin-2 translocation to the plasma membrane and considerable MOR1 internalization, whereas morphine did not induce arrestin-2 translocation and induced very little MOR1 internalization. Thus, DAMGO and morphine each induce desensitization of MOR1 signaling in HEK293 cells but by different molecular mechanisms; DAMGO-induced desensitization is GRK2-dependent, whereas morphine-induced desensitization is in part PKC-dependent. MORs desensitized by DAMGO activation are then readily internalized by an arrestin-dependent mechanism, whereas those desensitized by morphine are not. These data suggest that opioid agonists induce different conformations of the MOR that are susceptible to different

  2. Endomorphin-2: A Biased Agonist at the μ-Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Guadalupe; Llorente, Javier; McPherson, Jamie; Cooke, Alex; Mundell, Stuart J.; McArdle, Craig A.; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M.; Charlton, Steven J.; Krasel, Cornelius; Bailey, Christopher P.; Henderson, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Previously we correlated the efficacy for G protein activation with that for arrestin recruitment for a number of agonists at the μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) stably expressed in HEK293 cells. We suggested that the endomorphins (endomorphin-1 and -2) might be biased toward arrestin recruitment. In the present study, we investigated this phenomenon in more detail for endomorphin-2, using endogenous MOPr in rat brain as well as MOPr stably expressed in HEK293 cells. For MOPr in neurons in brainstem locus ceruleus slices, the peptide agonists [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and endomorphin-2 activated inwardly rectifying K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. Analysis of these responses with the operational model of pharmacological agonism confirmed that endomorphin-2 had a much lower operational efficacy for G protein-mediated responses than did DAMGO at native MOPr in mature neurons. However, endomorphin-2 induced faster desensitization of the K+ current than did DAMGO. In addition, in HEK293 cells stably expressing MOPr, the ability of endomorphin-2 to induce phosphorylation of Ser375 in the COOH terminus of the receptor, to induce association of arrestin with the receptor, and to induce cell surface loss of receptors was much more efficient than would be predicted from its efficacy for G protein-mediated signaling. Together, these results indicate that endomorphin-2 is an arrestin-biased agonist at MOPr and the reason for this is likely to be the ability of endomorphin-2 to induce greater phosphorylation of MOPr than would be expected from its ability to activate MOPr and to induce activation of G proteins. PMID:22553358

  3. Disagreement between standard transthoracic impedance cardiography and the automated transthoracic electrical bioimpedance method in estimating the cardiovascular responses to phenylephrine and isoprenaline in healthy man.

    PubMed Central

    De Mey, C; Enterling, D

    1993-01-01

    1. Impedance cardiography is a well-established noninvasive method to assess within-subject changes of cardiovascular function. We compared the standard approach (ZCG) which requires tedious signal analysis with an automated approach (TEB: NCCOM 3) with its own specific equipment, algorithms and equations in order to assess agreement of the method-specific measurements and calculations. 2. Ten healthy men were studied on two occasions with either ZCG or TEB, at rest and at the end of 5 min i.v.-infusions with 1 microgram min-1 isoprenaline and 100 micrograms min-1 phenylephrine. 3. There was good agreement for the method-independent changes (HR, SBP/DBP), but there were large differences for method-specific measurements: dZ/dtmax [TEB-ZCG] = -0.68, CI: -0.83 to -0.53 ohm s-1, PEP [TEB-ZCG] = -22.1, CI: -35.0 to -9.2 ms and QS2c [TEB-ZCG] = -16.5, CI: -32.4 to -0.6 ms and for the calculated stroke volume SV [TEB-ZCG] = 30.3, CI: 15.5 to 45.2 ml. The responses of dZ/dtmax and SV to isoprenaline and phenylephrine, although qualitatively similar, reached no quantitative agreement either. A substantial disagreement was evident for the STI responses to isoprenaline where TEB failed to detect the expected reduction of VETc and thus grossly underestimated the shortening of QS2c. 4. It is concluded that TEB-measurements and -calculations did not agree with standard ZCG, that the methods, albeit related, cannot be considered as interchangeable and that suspicion is justified that TEB might yield erroneous results under specific circumstances. PMID:8485014

  4. Western-style diet modulates contractile responses to phenylephrine differently in mesenteric arteries from senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and resistant (SAMR1) mice.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Onetti, Yara; Heras, Magda; Dantas, Ana P; Vila, Elisabet

    2013-08-01

    The influence of two known cardiovascular risk factors, aging and consumption of a high-fat diet, on vascular mesenteric artery reactivity was examined in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Five-month-old SAM prone (SAMP8) and resistant (SAMR1) female mice were fed a Western-type high-fat diet (WD; 8 weeks). Mesenteric arteries were dissected, and vascular reactivity, protein and messenger RNA expression, superoxide anion (O 2 (·-) ) and hydrogen peroxide formation were evaluated by wire myography, immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, ethidium fluorescence and ferric-xylenol orange, respectively. Contraction to KCl and relaxation to acetylcholine remained unchanged irrespective of senescence and diet. Although similar contractions to phenylephrine were observed in SAMR1 and SAMP8, accelerated senescence was associated with decreased eNOS and nNOS and increased O 2 (·-) synthesis. Senescence-related alterations were compensated, at least partly, by the contribution of NO derived from iNOS and the enhanced endogenous antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase 1 to maintain vasoconstriction. Administration of a WD induced qualitatively different alterations in phenylephrine contractions of mesenteric arteries from SAMR1 and SAMP8. SAMR1 showed increased contractions partly as a result of decreased NO availability generated by decreased eNOS and nNOS and enhanced O 2 (·-) formation. In contrast, WD feeding in SAMP8 resulted in reduced contractions due to, at least in part, the increased functional participation of iNOS-derived NO. In conclusion, senescence-dependent intrinsic alterations during early stages of vascular senescence may promote vascular adaptation and predispose to further changes in response to high-fat intake, which may lead to the progression of aging-related cardiovascular disease, whereas young subjects lack the capacity for this adaptation. PMID:22777652

  5. Replacement of glycine with dicarbonyl and related moieties in analogues of the C-terminal pentapeptide of cholecystokinin: CCK(2) agonists displaying a novel binding mode.

    PubMed

    Bellier, B; Million, M E; DaNascimento, S; Meudal, H; Kellou, S; Maigret, B; Garbay, C

    2000-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of cholecystokinin have indicated the possible occurrence of multiple affinity states of the CCK(2) receptor. Besides, numerous pharmacological experiments performed "in vitro" and "in vivo" support the eventuality of different pharmacological profiles associated to CCK(2) ligands. Indeed, some agonists are essentially anxiogenic and uneffective in memory tests, whereas others are not anxiogenic and appear as able to reinforce memory. The reference compound for the latter profile is the CCK-8 analogue BC 264 (Boc-Tyr(SO(3)H)-gNle-mGly-Trp-(NMe)Nle-Asp-Phe-NH(2)). However, although tetrapeptide ligands based on CCK-4 (Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2)) are known to possess sufficient structural features for CCK(2) recognition, none shares the properties of BC 264. Hence we have developed new short peptidic or pseudo-peptidic derivatives containing the C-terminal tetrapeptide of BC 264. Our results indicate that some compounds characterized by the presence of two carbonyl groups at the N-terminus, as in 2b (HO(2)C-CH(2)-CONH-Trp-(NMe)Nle-Asp-Phe-NH(2)), are likely to show a BC 264-like profile, bind to the CCK(2) receptor in a specific way, and display remarkable affinities (2b: 0.28 nM on guinea-pig cortex membrane preparations). This original binding mode is discussed and further enlightened by NMR and molecular modeling studies. PMID:11020275

  6. Piperidine derivatives as nonprostanoid IP receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryoji; Sakagami, Hideki; Koiwa, Masakazu; Ito, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Isogaya, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of a new class of nonprostanoid prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP receptor) agonists is reported. Among them, the unique piperidine derivative 31b (2-((1-(2-(N-(4-tolyl)benzamido)ethyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)acetic acid) was a good IP receptor agonist and was 50-fold more selective for the human IP receptor than for other human prostanoid receptors. This compound showed good pharmacokinetic properties in dog. PMID:26996371

  7. Identification of Phe187 as a crucial dimerization determinant facilitates crystallization of a monomeric retroviral integrase core domain.

    PubMed

    Galilee, Meytal; Alian, Akram

    2014-10-01

    Retroviral DNA integration into the host genome is mediated by nucleoprotein assemblies containing tetramers of viral integrase (IN). Whereas the fully active form of IN comprises a dimer of dimers, the molecular basis of IN multimerization has not been fully characterized. IN has consistently been crystallized in an analogous dimeric form in all crystallographic structures and experimental evidence as to the level of similarity between IN monomeric and dimeric conformations is missing because of the lack of IN monomeric structures. Here we identify Phe187 as a critical dimerization determinant of IN from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a nonprimate lentivirus that causes AIDS in the natural host, and report, in addition to a canonical dimeric structure of the FIV IN core-domain, a monomeric structure revealing the preservation of the backbone structure between the two multimeric forms and suggest a role for Phe187 in "hinging" the flexible IN dimer. PMID:25199694

  8. ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide, a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors: Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Albert, R.; Bruns, C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Hofland, L.J.; Marbach, P.; Pless, J.; Pralet, D.; Stolz, B.; Koper, J.W.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P. Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    As starting material for a potentially convenient radiopharmaceutical, a diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated derivative of octreotide (SMS 201-995) was prepared. This peptide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide (SDZ 215-811) binds more than 95% of added {sup 111}In in an easy, single-step labeling procedure without necessity of further purification. The specific somatostatin-like biologic effect of these analogues was proven by the inhibition of growth hormone secretion by cultured rat pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion by octreotide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide and non-radioactive ({sup 115}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide. The binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to rat brain cortex membranes proved to be displaced similarly by natural somatosatin as well as by octreotide, suggesting specific binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to somatostatin receptors. The binding of the indium-labeled compound showed a somewhat lower affinity when compared with the iodinated (Tyr{sup 3})-octreotide, but indium-labeled (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide still binds with nanomolar affinity. In conjunction with in vivo studies, these results suggest that ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a promising radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

  9. Asn47 and Phe114 modulate the inner sphere reorganization energies of type zero copper proteins.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh

    2016-06-22

    The geometric structures and electron transfer properties of type 1 Cu proteins are reasonably understood at the molecular level (E. I. Solomon and R. G. Hadt, Coord. Chem. Rev., 2011, 255, 774-789, J. J. Warren, K. M. Lancaster, J. H. Richards and H. B. Gray, J. Inorg. Biochem., 2012, 115, 119-126). Much understanding of type 1 copper electron transfer reactivity has come from site directed mutagenesis studies. For example, artificial "type zero" Cu-centres constructed in cupredoxin-azurin have showcased the capacity of outer-sphere hydrogen bonding networks to enhance Cu II/I electron transfer reactivity. In this paper, we have elaborated on earlier kinetics and electronic structural studies of type zero Cu by calculating the inner sphere reorganization energies of type 1, type 2, and type zero Cu proteins using density functional theory (DFT). Although the choice of density functionals for copper systems is not straightforward, we have benchmarked the density functionals against the recently reported ESI-PES data for two synthetic copper models (S. Niu, D.-L. Huang, P. D. Dau, H.-T. Liu, L.-S. Wang and T. J. Ichiye, Chem. Theory Comput., 2014, 10, 1283). For the Cu proteins, our calculations predict that changes in the coordination number upon metal reduction lead to large inner sphere reorganization energies for type 2 Cu sites, whereas retention in the coordination number is observed for type zero Cu sites. These variations in the coordination number are modulated by the outer-sphere coordinating residues Asn47 and Phe114, which are involved in hydrogen bonding with the Asp112 side chain. PMID:27271560

  10. Temporin-SHf, a New Type of Phe-rich and Hydrophobic Ultrashort Antimicrobial Peptide*

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Feten; Lequin, Olivier; Piesse, Christophe; Goasdoué, Nicole; Foulon, Thierry; Nicolas, Pierre; Ladram, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Because issues of cost and bioavailability have hampered the development of gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides to combat infectious diseases, short linear peptides with high microbial cell selectivity have been recently considered as antibiotic substitutes. A new type of short antimicrobial peptide, designated temporin-SHf, was isolated and cloned from the skin of the frog Pelophylax saharica. Temporin-SHf has a highly hydrophobic sequence (FFFLSRIFa) and possesses the highest percentage of Phe residues of any known peptide or protein. Moreover, it is the smallest natural linear antimicrobial peptide found to date, with only eight residues. Despite its small size and hydrophobicity, temporin-SHf has broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts, with no hemolytic activity. CD and NMR spectroscopy combined with restrained molecular dynamics calculations showed that the peptide adopts a well defined non-amphipathic α-helical structure from residue 3 to 8, when bound to zwitterionic dodecyl phosphocholine or anionic SDS micelles. Relaxation enhancement caused by paramagnetic probes showed that the peptide adopts nearly parallel orientations to the micelle surface and that the helical structure is stabilized by a compact hydrophobic core on one face that penetrates into the micelle interior. Differential scanning calorimetry on multilamellar vesicles combined with membrane permeabilization assays on bacterial cells indicated that temporin-SHf disrupts the acyl chain packing of anionic lipid bilayers, thereby triggering local cracks and microbial membrane disintegration through a detergent-like effect probably via the carpet mechanism. The short length, compositional simplicity, and broad-spectrum activity of temporin-SHf make it an attractive candidate to develop new antibiotic agents. PMID:20308076

  11. Clinical and structural impact of mutations affecting the residue Phe367 of FOXP3 in patients with IPEX syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colobran, Roger; Álvarez de la Campa, Elena; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Pujol-Borrell, Ricardo; de la Cruz, Xavier; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica

    2016-02-01

    Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic autoimmune disease characterized by early-onset life-threatening multisystemic autoimmunity. This rare hereditary disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, which plays a key role in the differentiation and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) natural regulatory T cells (Tregs), essential for the establishment and maintenance of natural tolerance. We identified a novel mutation in the FOXP3 gene affecting the Phe367 residue of the protein (F367V) in a family with three male siblings affected by IPEX. Two other mutations affecting the FOXP3 Phe367 residue (F367L and F367C) have been described previously. This unique situation of three mutations affecting the same residue in FOXP3 led us to study the molecular impact of these mutations on the structure of FOXP3 protein. Structure analysis showed that Phe367 is involved in a rich interaction network related to both monomer and dimer structure stabilization, and is crucial for FOXP3 regulatory activity. The relevance of this location is confirmed by the results of SIFT and PolyPhen-2 pathogenicity predictions for F367V mutation. In summary, as assessment of the pathogenicity of a novel mutation is crucial to achieve a proper molecular diagnosis, we analysed the impact of mutations affecting the Phe367 residue using a combined approach that provides a mechanistic view of their pathogenic effect. PMID:26748374

  12. mTOR Complexes Repress Hypertrophic Agonist-Stimulated Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Adult Cardiac Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Kamala; Pleasant, Dorea L; Moschella, Phillip C; Panneerselvam, Kavin; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2016-02-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a fibrogenic cytokine that promotes fibrosis in various organs. In the heart, both cardiomyocytes (CM) and cardiac fibroblasts have been reported as a source of CTGF expression, aiding cardiac fibrosis. Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms 2 distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, and plays a central role in integrating biochemical signals for protein synthesis and cellular homeostasis, we explored its role in CTGF expression in adult feline CM. CM were stimulated with 10 μM phenylephrine (PE), 200 nM angiotensin (Ang), or 100 nM insulin for 24 hours. PE and Ang, but not insulin, caused an increase in CTGF mRNA expression with the highest expression observed with PE. Inhibition of mTOR with torin1 but not rapamycin significantly enhanced PE-stimulated CTGF expression. Furthermore, silencing of raptor and rictor using shRNA adenoviral vectors to suppress mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively, or blocking phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling with LY294002 (LY) or Akt signaling by dominant-negative Akt expression caused a substantial increase in PE-stimulated CTGF expression as measured by both mRNA and secreted protein levels. However, studies with dominant-negative delta isoform of protein kinase C demonstrate that delta isoform of protein kinase C is required for both agonist-induced CTGF expression and mTORC2/Akt-mediated CTGF suppression. Finally, PE-stimulated CTGF expression was accompanied with a corresponding increase in Smad3 phosphorylation and pretreatment of cells with SIS3, a Smad3 specific inhibitor, partially blocked the PE-stimulated CTGF expression. Therefore, a PI3K/mTOR/Akt axis plays a suppressive role on agonist-stimulated CTGF expression where the loss of this mechanism could be a contributing factor for the onset of cardiac fibrosis in the hypertrophying myocardium. PMID:26371948

  13. Conformation-Specific Infrared Spectroscopy of γ2-PEPTIDE Foldamers: Ac-γ2-hPhe-γ2-hAla-NHMe and Ac-γ2-hAla-γ2-hPhe-NHMe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, William H., III; Buchanan, Evan G.; Müller, Christian W.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Guo, Li; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2010-06-01

    IR/UV double-resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the intrinsic conformational preferences of naturally occurring and synthetic peptides. These studies demonstrated the power of double-resonance methods and highlighted the ability of even short peptide mimics to form a variety of intramolecular hydrogen bonded architectures. Currently, we are extending these studies to a series of model γ2-peptides, which differ from α-peptides by virtue of having two additional, substitutable methylene units separating amide groups in the peptide backbone. Initial studies centered on the conformation-specific infrared spectra of Ac-γ2-hPhe-NHMe, where three unique conformational isomers (two hydrogen-bonded and one intramolecular amide stacked) were observed under the isolated-molecule conditions of a jet-cooled environment. This talk will focus on on two larger γ2-peptides, Ac-γ2-hPhe-γ2-hAla-NHMe and Ac-γ2-hAla-γ2-hPhe-NHMe. Utilizing resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy, the single-conformation infrared spectra of eight resolved conformers of the two molecules were recorded in the amide NH stretch region. The resulting infrared spectra of the tri-amides contain evidence for structures comprised of one, two, and three intramolecular amide-amide hydrogen bonds, the last of which is unprecedented for a tri-amide. In an effort to make firm conformational assignments, the spectroscopic data will be compared to the results of harmonic vibrational frequency calculations using traditional DFT and dispersion-corrected DFT methods, the results of which will be discussed.

  14. beta2-Agonists at the Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2006-01-01

    The different approaches that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) had adopted to beta2-agonists and the implications for athletes are reviewed by a former Olympic team physician who later became a member of the Medical Commission of the IOC (IOC-MC). Steadily increasing knowledge of the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on health, is concerned with the fact that oral beta2-agonists may be anabolic, and rapid increased use of inhaled beta2-agonists by elite athletes has contributed to the changes to the IOC rules. Since 2001, the necessity for athletes to meet IOC criteria (i.e., that they have asthma and/or exercise-induced asthma [EIA]) has resulted in improved management of athletes. The prevalence of beta2-agonist use by athletes mirrors the known prevalence of asthma symptoms in each country, although athletes in endurance events have the highest prevalence. The age-of-onset of asthma/EIA in elite winter athletes may be atypical. Of the 193 athletes at the 2006 Winter Olympics who met th IOC's criteria, only 32.1% had childhood asthma and 48.7% of athletes reported onset at age 20 yr or older. These findings lead to speculation that years of intense endurance training may be a causative factor in bronchial hyperreactivity. The distinction between oral (prohibited in sports) and inhaled salbutamol is possible, but athletes must be warned that excessive use of inhaled salbutamol can lead to urinary concentrations similar to those observed after oral administration. This article provides justification that athletes should provide evidence of asthma or EIA before being permitted to use inhaled beta2-agonists. PMID:17085798

  15. Introduction of a single isomer beta agonist.

    PubMed

    Rau, J L

    2000-08-01

    The release of levalbuterol offers the first approved single-isomer beta agonist for oral inhalation. Data from in vitro studies support the concept that S albuterol is not inactive and may have properties antagonistic to bronchodilation. There is some variability in the results of clinical studies with the separate isomers of albuterol, which suggests the need for further study. The introduction of levalbuterol into general clinical use in managing asthma and chronic obstructive disease should begin to offer additional information on the effects of a single isomer beta agonist in comparison to previous racemic mixtures. PMID:10963321

  16. Copper.Lys-Gly-His-Lys mediated cleavage of tRNA(Phe): studies of reaction mechanism and cleavage specificity.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Seth; Kawarasaki, Yuta; Cowan, J A

    2009-06-01

    The reactivity of [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys-NH2]2+ and [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys]+ toward tRNA(Phe) has been evaluated. The amidated and carboxylate forms of the copper peptides display complex binding behavior with strong and weak sites evident (K(D1)(app) approximately 71 microM, K(D2)(app) approximately 211 microM for the amide form; and K(D1)(app) approximately 34 microM, K(D2)(app) approximately 240 microM for the carboxylate form), while Cu2+(aq) yielded K(D1)(app) approximately 81 microM and K(D2)(app) approximately 136 microM. The time-dependence of the reaction of [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys]+ and [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys-NH2]2+ with tRNA(Phe) yielded k(obs) approximately 0.075 h(-1) for both complexes. HPLC analysis of the reaction products demonstrated guanine as the sole base product. Mass spectrometric data shows a limited number of cleavage fragments with product peak masses consistent with chemistry occurring at a discrete site defined by the structurally contiguous D and TPsiC loops, and in a domain where high affinity magnesium centers have previously been observed to promote hydrolysis of the tRNA(Phe) backbone. This cleavage pattern is more selective than that previously observed by Long and coworkers for nickel complexes of a series of C-terminally amidated peptides (Gly-Gly-His, Lys-Gly-His, and Arg-Gly-His), and may reflect variations in structural recognition and a distinct reaction path by the nickel derivatives. The data emphasizes the optimal positioning of the metal-associated reactive oxygen species, relative to scissile bonds, as a major criterion for development of efficient catalytic nucleases or therapeutics. PMID:19386364

  17. Protease activity at invadopodial focal digestive areas is dependent on NHE1-driven acidic pHe.

    PubMed

    Greco, Maria Raffaella; Antelmi, Ester; Busco, Giovanni; Guerra, Lorenzo; Rubino, Rosa; Casavola, Valeria; Reshkin, Stephan Joel; Cardone, Rosa Angela

    2014-02-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step of tumor cell invasion and requires protease-dependent proteolysis focalized at the invadopodia where the proteolysis of the ECM occurs. Most of the extracellular proteases belong to serine- or metallo-proteases and the invadopodia is where protease activity is regulated. While recent data looking at global protease activity in the growth medium reported that their activity and role in invasion is dependent on Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1)-driven extracellular acidification, there is no data on this aspect at the invadopodia, and an open question remains whether this acid extracellular pH (pHe) activation of proteases in tumor cells occurs preferentially at invadopodia. We previously reported that the NHE1 is expressed in breast cancer invadopodia and that the NHE1‑dependent acidification of the peri-invadopodial space is critical for ECM proteolysis. In the present study, using, for the first time, in situ zymography analysis, we demonstrated a concordance between NHE1 activity, extracellular acidification and protease activity at invadopodia to finely regulate ECM digestion. We demonstrated that: (i) ECM proteolysis taking place at invadopodia is driven by acidification of the peri-invadopodia microenvironment; (ii) that the proteases have a functional pHe optimum that is acidic; (iii) more than one protease is functioning to digest the ECM at these invadopodial sites of ECM proteolysis; and (iv) lowering pHe or inhibiting the NHE1 increases protease secretion while blocking protease activity changes NHE1 expression at the invadopodia. PMID:24337203

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Time of Maxima for the SX Phe star XX Cyg (Conidis+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conidis, G. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Maxwell, A. J.; Delaney, P. A.; Manzer, L. H.

    2011-03-01

    Newly calculated O-C (observed minus calculated) values for the SX Phe star, XX Cyg, are combined with all times of maxima available in literature. The calculated values are generated from the newly presented linear ephemeris (equation 2). For each time of maxima, the source from which the maxima was acquired from, the time of maxima in HJD, the cycle number from our newly presented linear ephemeris, and the O-C value are presented in the order as just stated. (1 data file).

  19. Clinical assessment of the warming sensation accompanying flavor 316282 in a cold and cough syrup containing paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by flavor 316282 in a cold and cough product in the target population. Methods: A single-cohort, single-treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30-mL dose of syrup containing flavor 316282, paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessment of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture, and acceptability of the product as a cold and cough remedy was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 51 subjects were included; 47 (92.1%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 100 s (95% confidence interval = 82 s, 112 s). The majority of subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good, or fair for treatment of cough and cold symptoms (96.1%), taste (80.4%), and texture (98.0%). There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: Flavor 316282 in a cold and cough syrup is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe, and palatable. PMID:26770699

  20. Effect of the administration of Solanum nigrum fruit on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to phenylephrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used in Asia to manage, control, and treat diabetes but there is no scientific evidence of the efficacy of Solanum nigrum fruit in treatment of diabetes. We designed this study to investigate the effect of the administration of oral doses of aqueous extract from Solanum nigrum fruit on plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and the sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to Phenylephrine in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Material/Methods Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=10): 2 groups served as non-diabetic controls (NDC), and the other groups had diabetes induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Solanum nigrum-treated chronic diabetic (CD-SNE) and Solanum nigrum-treated controls (ND-SNE) received 1g/l of Solanum nigrum added to drinking water for 8 weeks. The mesenteric vascular beds were prepared using the McGregor method. Results Administration of Solanum nigrum caused Ca/Mg ratio, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations to return to normal levels, and was shown to decrease alteration in vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that Solanum nigrum could play a role in the management of diabetes and the prevention of vascular complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23660828

  1. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of nimesulide, phenylephrine hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Rishbha; Nair, Anroop; Saini, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nimesulide (NS), phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) and caffeine anhydrous (CF) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. A reversed phase Hypersil phenyl column (4.6 mm x 25 cm) with mobile phase having pH 5.5 consisting of methanol and buffer (55:45, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL per minute and the effluents were monitored at 214 nm. The retention times of all the drugs were found to be 7.47 min (NS), 3.944 min (PE), 4.55 min (CF) and 17.15 min (CPM), respectively. The linearity for all the drugs was obtained in the range of 300-800 microg/mL (NS), 15-32 microg/mL (PE), 16-32 microg/mL (CPM) and 30-180 microg/mL (CF), respectively. The results of analysis have been well validated according to guidelines of International Conference of Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use. The method was found to be simple, precise, economical, less time consuming and reproducible. Hence, the suggested procedure could be used for the determination of all the four drugs in commercial preparations. PMID:23285660

  2. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim’s likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals. PMID:22298910

  3. Multiple tyrosine metabolites are GPR35 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huayun; Hu, Haibei; Fang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Both kynurenic acid and 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid have been postulated to be the endogenous agonists of GPR35. However, controversy remains whether alternative endogenous agonists exist. The molecular targets accounted for many nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones are mostly unknown. Here we report the agonist activity of multiple tyrosine metabolites at the GPR35. Tyrosine metabolism intermediates that contain carboxylic acid and/or catechol functional groups were first selected. Whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays enabled by label-free optical biosensor were then used to characterize their agonist activity in native HT-29. Molecular assays including β-arrestin translocation, ERK phosphorylation and receptor internalization confirmed that GPR35 functions as a receptor for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, gentisate, rosmarinate, and 3-nitrotyrosine. These results suggest that multiple tyrosine metabolites are alternative endogenous ligands of GPR35, and GPR35 may represent a druggable target for treating certain diseases associated with abnormality of tyrosine metabolism. PMID:22523636

  4. Small molecule TSHR agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Neumann, S; Gershengorn, M C

    2011-04-01

    TSH activates the TSH receptor (TSHR) thereby stimulating the function of thyroid follicular cells (thyrocytes) leading to biosynthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Because TSHR is involved in several thyroid pathologies, there is a strong rationale for the design of small molecule "drug-like" ligands. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen(®)) has been used in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer to increase the sensitivity for detection of recurrence or metastasis. rhTSH is difficult to produce and must be administered by injection. A small molecule TSHR agonist could produce the same beneficial effects as rhTSH but with greater ease of oral administration. We developed a small molecule ligand that is a full agonist at TSHR. Importantly for its clinical potential, this agonist elevated serum thyroxine and stimulated thyroidal radioiodide uptake in mice after its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration. Graves' disease (GD) is caused by persistent, unregulated stimulation of thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate TSHR. We identified the first small molecule TSHR antagonists that inhibited TSH- and TSAb-stimulated signalling in primary cultures of human thyrocytes. Our results provide proof-of-principle for effectiveness of small molecule agonists and antagonists for TSHR. We suggest that these small molecule ligands are lead compounds for the development of higher potency ligands that can be used as probes of TSHR biology with therapeutic potential. PMID:21511239

  5. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim's likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals. PMID:22298910

  6. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with α-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  7. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs. PMID:26277325

  8. Heparin and penicillamine-hypotaurine-epinephrine (PHE) solution during bovine in vitro fertilization procedures impair the quality of spermatozoa but improve normal oocyte fecundation and early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, F S; Barretto, L S S; Arruda, R P; Perri, S H V; Mingoti, G Z

    2014-01-01

    The presence of heparin and a mixture of penicillamine, hypotaurine, and epinephrine (PHE) solution in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) media seem to be a prerequisite when bovine spermatozoa are capacitated in vitro, in order to stimulate sperm motility and acrosome reaction. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the addition of heparin and PHE during IVF on the quality and penetrability of spermatozoa into bovine oocytes and on subsequent embryo development. Sperm quality, evaluated by the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes and mitochondrial function, was diminished (P<0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE. Oocyte penetration and normal pronuclear formation rates, as well as the percentage of zygotes presenting more than two pronuclei, was higher (P<0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE. No differences were observed in cleavage rates between treatment and control (P>0.05). However, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was increased in the presence of heparin and PHE (P>0.05). The quality of embryos that reached the blastocyst stage was evaluated by counting the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers and total number of cells; the percentage of ICM and TE cells was unaffected (P>0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that while the supplementation of IVF media with heparin and PHE solution impairs spermatozoa quality, it plays an important role in sperm capacitation, improving pronuclear formation, and early embryonic development. PMID:23949783

  9. The crystal structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C) in complex with the inhibitor Gly-Phe-CHN2

    PubMed Central

    Mølgaard, Anne; Arnau, Jose; Lauritzen, Conni; Larsen, Sine; Petersen, Gitte; Pedersen, John

    2006-01-01

    hDDPI (human dipeptidyl peptidase I) is a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in zymogen activation of granule-associated proteases, including granzymes A and B from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells, cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase, and mast cell tryptase and chymase. In the present paper, we provide the first crystal structure of an hDPPI–inhibitor complex. The inhibitor Gly-Phe-CHN2 (Gly-Phe-diazomethane) was co-crystallized with hDPPI and the structure was determined at 2.0 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The structure of the native enzyme was also determined to 2.05 Å resolution to resolve apparent discrepancies between the complex structure and the previously published structure of the native enzyme. The new structure of the native enzyme is, within the experimental error, identical with the structure of the enzyme–inhibitor complex presented here. The inhibitor interacts with three subunits of hDPPI, and is covalently bound to Cys234 at the active site. The interaction between the totally conserved Asp1 of hDPPI and the ammonium group of the inhibitor forms an essential interaction that mimics enzyme–substrate interactions. The structure of the inhibitor complex provides an explanation of the substrate specificity of hDPPI, and gives a background for the design of new inhibitors. PMID:17020538

  10. The Phe105 Loop of Alix Bro1 Domain Plays a Key Role in HIV-1 Release

    SciTech Connect

    Sette, Paola; Mu, Ruiling; Dussupt, Vincent; Jiang, Jiansheng; Snyder, Greg; Smith, Patrick; Xiao, Tsan Sam; Bouamr, Fadila

    2011-12-07

    Alix and cellular paralogs HD-PTP and Brox contain N-terminal Bro1 domains that bind ESCRT-III CHMP4. In contrast to HD-PTP and Brox, expression of the Bro1 domain of Alix alleviates HIV-1 release defects that result from interrupted access to ESCRT. In an attempt to elucidate this functional discrepancy, we solved the crystal structures of the Bro1 domains of HD-PTP and Brox. They revealed typical 'boomerang' folds they share with the Bro1 Alix domain. However, they each contain unique structural features that may be relevant to their specific function(s). In particular, phenylalanine residue in position 105 (Phe105) of Alix belongs to a long loop that is unique to its Bro1 domain. Concurrently, mutation of Phe105 and surrounding residues at the tip of the loop compromise the function of Alix in HIV-1 budding without affecting its interactions with Gag or CHMP4. These studies identify a new functional determinant in the Bro1 domain of Alix.

  11. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  12. Role of PheE15 Gate in Ligand Entry and Nitric Oxide Detoxification Function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Truncated Hemoglobin N

    PubMed Central

    Bidon-Chanal, Axel; Forti, Flavio; Martí, Marcelo A.; Boechi, Leonardo; Estrin, Dario A.; Dikshit, Kanak L.; Luque, F. Javier

    2012-01-01

    The truncated hemoglobin N, HbN, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endowed with a potent nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) activity that allows it to relieve nitrosative stress and enhance in vivo survival of its host. Despite its small size, the protein matrix of HbN hosts a two-branched tunnel, consisting of orthogonal short and long channels, that connects the heme active site to the protein surface. A novel dual-path mechanism has been suggested to drive migration of O2 and NO to the distal heme cavity. While oxygen migrates mainly by the short path, a ligand-induced conformational change regulates opening of the long tunnel branch for NO, via a phenylalanine (PheE15) residue that acts as a gate. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular simulations have been used to examine the gating role played by PheE15 in modulating the NOD function of HbN. Mutants carrying replacement of PheE15 with alanine, isoleucine, tyrosine and tryptophan have similar O2/CO association kinetics, but display significant reduction in their NOD function. Molecular simulations substantiated that mutation at the PheE15 gate confers significant changes in the long tunnel, and therefore may affect the migration of ligands. These results support the pivotal role of PheE15 gate in modulating the diffusion of NO via the long tunnel branch in the oxygenated protein, and hence the NOD function of HbN. PMID:23145144

  13. Development of Spexin-based Human Galanin Receptor Type II-Specific Agonists with Increased Stability in Serum and Anxiolytic Effect in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Lee, Yoo-Na; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Yun, Seongsik; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Seong, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The novel neuropeptide spexin (SPX) was discovered to activate galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) and 3 (GALR3) but not galanin receptor 1 (GALR1). Although GALR2 is known to display a function, particularly in anxiety, depression, and appetite regulation, the further determination of its function would benefit from a more stable and selective agonist that acts only at GALR2. In the present study, we developed a GALR2-specific agonist with increased stability in serum. As galanin (GAL) showed a low affinity to GALR3, the residues in SPX were replaced with those in GAL, revealing that particular mutations such as Gln5 → Asn, Met7 → Ala, Lys11 → Phe, and Ala13 → Pro significantly decreased potencies toward GALR3 but not toward GALR2. Quadruple (Qu) mutation of these residues still retained potency to GALR2 but totally abolished the potency to both GALR3 and GALR1. The first amino acid modifications or D-Asn1 substitution significantly increased the stability when they are incubated in 100% fetal bovine serum. Intracerebroventricular administration of the mutant peptide with D-Asn1 and quadruple substitution (dN1-Qu) exhibited an anxiolytic effect in mice. Taken together, the GALR2-specific agonist with increased stability can greatly help delineation of GALR2-mediated functions and be very useful for treatments of anxiety disorder. PMID:26907960

  14. HERG1 Channel Agonists and Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG1) potassium channels are a key determinant of normal repolarization of cardiac action potentials. Loss of function mutations in hERG1 channels cause inherited long QT syndrome and increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. Many common medications that block hERG1 channels as an unintended side effect also increase arrhythmic risk. Routine preclinical screening for hERG1 block led to the discovery of agonists that shorten action potential duration and QT interval. Agonists have the potential to be used as pharmacotherapy for long QT syndrome, but can also be proarrhythmic. Recent studies have elucidated multiple mechanisms of action for these compounds and the structural basis for their binding to the pore domain of the hERG1 channel. PMID:24721650

  15. HERG1 channel agonists and cardiac arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    Type 1 human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG1) potassium channels are a key determinant of normal repolarization of cardiac action potentials. Loss of function mutations in hERG1 channels cause inherited long QT syndrome and increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. Many common medications that block hERG1 channels as an unintended side effect also increase arrhythmic risk. Routine preclinical screening for hERG1 block led to the discovery of agonists that shorten action potential duration and QT interval. Agonists have the potential to be used as pharmacotherapy for long QT syndrome, but can also be proarrhythmic. Recent studies have elucidated multiple mechanisms of action for these compounds and the structural basis for their binding to the pore domain of the hERG1 channel. PMID:24721650

  16. The antimetastatic drug NAMI-A potentiates the phenylephrine-induced contraction of aortic smooth muscle cells and induces a transient increase in systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Vadori, M; Florio, C; Groppo, B; Cocchietto, M; Pacor, S; Zorzet, S; Candussio, L; Sava, G

    2015-07-01

    The ruthenium-based drug imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethylsulphoxidetetrachlorido ruthenate (NAMI-A) is a novel antitumour drug under clinical evaluation. In this study, NAMI-A is tested on aortic rings in vitro and on the systolic blood pressure in vivo with the aim of evaluating its effects on smooth muscle cells and, more in general, on the vascular system. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with 10 µM NAMI-A for 10 min potentiates the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE). The reduction of the B max value of [(3)H]-prazosin bound to NAMI-A-treated aortic rings and the ability of NAMI-A to displace [(3)H]-prazosin and [(3)H]-IP3 binding by 25 and 42%, respectively, suggest the involvement of α1-adrenoceptor in mediating the effects on smooth muscle cells. NAMI-A also decreases the number of maximal sites of [(3)H]-prazosin bound to kidney membrane preparation from 34 to 24 fmol/mg proteins. A single i.p. dose (105 mg/kg) or a repeated treatment for 6 consecutive days (17 mg/kg/day) in Wistar rats increases the systolic blood pressure, respectively, 1 h and 3 days after treatment, and the responsiveness of rat aortic rings to PE. Atomic absorption spectroscopy confirms the presence of ruthenium in the aortic rings excised from the treated rats. These findings suggest monitoring the cardiovascular parameters when the drug is used in humans for treating cancer patients, particularly if the drug is associated with chemicals that are potentially active at the cardiovascular level. PMID:25982099

  17. Hemodynamic effects of ephedrine and phenylephrine bolus injection in patients in the prone position under general anesthesia for lumbar spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangyan; Sun, Yongying; Yuan, Jing; Lu, Xinjian; Peng, Zhendan; Yin, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Ephedrine and phenylephrine (PE) are vasoconstrictors commonly used to restore the blood pressure (BP) to normal values. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ephedrine and PE bolus administration on intra-arterial systolic BP (ISBP), intra-arterial diastolic BP (IDBP) and cardiac output (CO) in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery in the prone position under general anesthesia (GA). In this prospective, randomized, and double-blind study, a total of 60 patients aged 20–60 years and undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery were administered either a single dose of ephedrine (0.1 mg/kg) or PE (1 µg/kg) through a central venous catheter as a bolus injection following the achievement of a stable hemodynamic status for ≥10 min. Following bolus injection of ephedrine or PE, a significant increase in ISBP was observed in the two experimental groups compared with pre-ephedrine and pre-PE values. The duration of the increment in ISBP however was significantly longer in the ephedrine group compared with the PE group. A similar response was observed in IDBP. A significant increase in CO began 1 min following ephedrine injection and lasted for the entire observation period, whereas the increase was only sustained for 3 min following bolus injection in the PE group. The results of the present study demonstrated that bolus ephedrine produces a more persistent pressor response and durable increase in CO and CI compared with PE when patients are in the prone position with GA for spine surgery.

  18. Chronic activation of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases by phenylephrine is required to elicit a hypertrophic response in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Anthony J; Finn, Stephen G; Fuller, Stephen J

    2003-01-01

    Extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) are activated rapidly and transiently in response to phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cardiac myocytes, but whether this is linked to the subsequent development of the hypertrophic phenotype remains equivocal. To investigate this, we examined the dependence of the hypertrophic response on the length of exposure to PE in neonatal myocyte cultures. In addition to the initial transient activation of ERKs (maximum at 5-10 min), PE (10 microM) induced a second, more prolonged peak of activity several hours later. The activity of a transfected atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase reporter gene was increased 10- to 24-fold by PE. This response was inhibited by the alpha(1)-antagonist prazosin (100 nM) and by U0126 (10 microM) and PD184352 (1 microM), inhibitors of ERK activation, irrespective of whether these were added before or up to 24 h after the addition of PE. Prazosin had no effect on ET-1 (50 nM)-stimulated atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase activity. Protein synthesis was enhanced by 35+/-6% by PE, and this was blocked by prazosin added 1 h after the addition of PE, but decreased only by half when added 8 h after PE. Similarly, PE (48 h) increased myocyte area by 49% and this was prevented by prazosin added 1 h after PE, but decreased only by half when added at 24 h. These results demonstrate that prolonged exposure to PE is required to elicit alterations in gene expression, protein synthesis and cell size, characteristic of hypertrophied myocytes, and they confirm that the initial peak of ERK activity is insufficient to trigger hypertrophic responses. PMID:12513686

  19. Partial agonistic effect of 9-hydroxycorynantheidine on mu-opioid receptor in the guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Ishikawa, Hayato; Aimi, Norio; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Watanabe, Kazuo; Horie, Syunji

    2006-04-01

    Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid isolated from the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa that is reported to have opioid agonistic properties. The 9-demethyl analogue of mitragynine, 9-hydroxycorynantheidine, is synthesized from mitragynine. 9-Hydroxycorynantheidine inhibited electrically stimulated guinea-pig ileum contraction, but its maximum inhibition was weaker than that of mitragynine and its effect was antagonized by naloxone, suggesting that 9-hydroxycorynantheidine possesses partial agonist properties on opioid receptors. Receptor binding assays revealed that 9-hydroxycorynantheidine has high affinity for mu-opioid receptors. In an assay of the guinea-pig ileum, naloxone shifted the concentration-response curves for [D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO), (5alpha,7alpha,8beta)-(+)-N-Methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide (U69593) and 9-hydroxycorynantheidine to the right in a competitive manner. The pA(2) values of naloxone against 9-hydroxycorynantheidine and DAMGO were very similar, but not that against U69593. As indicated by the two assay systems, the opioid effect of 9-hydroxycorynantheidine is selective for the mu-opioid receptor. 9-Hydroxycorynantheidine shifted the concentration-response curve for DAMGO slightly to the right. Pretreatment with the mu-opioid selective and irreversible antagonist beta-funaltorexamine hydrochloride (beta-FNA) shifted the concentration-response curve for DAMGO to the right without affecting the maximum response. On the other hand, beta-FNA did not affect the curve for 9-hydroxycorynantheidine, but decreased the maximum response because of the lack of spare receptors. These studies suggest that 9-hydroxycorynantheidine has partial agonist properties on mu-opioid receptors in the guinea-pig ileum. PMID:16266723

  20. Signal Use by Octopuses in Agonistic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Scheel, David; Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Lawrence, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Cephalopods show behavioral parallels to birds and mammals despite considerable evolutionary distance [1, 2]. Many cephalopods produce complex body patterns and visual signals, documented especially in cuttlefish and squid, where they are used both in camouflage and a range of interspecific interactions [1, 3-5]. Octopuses, in contrast, are usually seen as solitary and asocial [6, 7]; their body patterns and color changes have primarily been interpreted as camouflage and anti-predator tactics [8-12], though the familiar view of the solitary octopus faces a growing list of exceptions. Here, we show by field observation that in a shallow-water octopus, Octopus tetricus, a range of visible displays are produced during agonistic interactions, and these displays correlate with the outcome of those interactions. Interactions in which dark body color by an approaching octopus was matched by similar color in the reacting octopus were more likely to escalate to grappling. Darkness in an approaching octopus met by paler color in the reacting octopus accompanied retreat of the paler octopus. Octopuses also displayed on high ground and stood with spread web and elevated mantle, often producing these behaviors in combinations. This study is the first to document the systematic use of signals during agonistic interactions among octopuses. We show prima facie conformity of our results to an influential model of agonistic signaling [13]. These results suggest that interactions have a greater influence on octopus evolution than has been recognized and show the importance of convergent evolution in behavioral traits. PMID:26832440

  1. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Agonists Reduce Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Ebefors, Kerstin; Johansson, Martin E.; Stefánsson, Bergur; Granqvist, Anna; Arnadottir, Margret; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nyström, Jenny; Haraldsson, Börje

    2010-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Recent reports suggest that treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) reduces proteinuria, but the mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we identified gene expression of the melanocortin receptor MC1R in podocytes, glomerular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and tubular epithelial cells. Podocytes expressed most MC1R protein, which colocalized with synaptopodin but not with an endothelial-specific lectin. We treated rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) with MS05, a specific MC1R agonist, which significantly reduced proteinuria compared with untreated PHN rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, treatment with MC1R agonists improved podocyte morphology and reduced oxidative stress. In summary, podocytes express MC1R, and MC1R agonism reduces proteinuria, improves glomerular morphology, and reduces oxidative stress in nephrotic rats with PHN. These data may explain the proteinuria-reducing effects of ACTH observed in patients with membranous nephropathy, and MC1R agonists may provide a new therapeutic option for these patients. PMID:20507942

  2. IR and IR + UV spectroscopy of isolated [Al-AcPheOMe]n+ cluster cations (n = 1, 3).

    PubMed

    Bialach, P M; Martin, T C; Gerhards, M

    2012-06-14

    Singly and triply charged cationic clusters of aluminium and the protected amino acid AcPheOMe are investigated in a supersonic beam by using a combination of a thermic and a laser ablation ion source. For the singly charged species UV- and IR photodissociation spectroscopy is applied. In the case of the triply charged clusters a variant of combined IR + UV spectroscopy is used to obtain information in the NH-stretching region. By comparison with DFT calculations structural assignments are suggested and it turns out that both clusters prefer a helical arrangement with aluminium being aggregated to both carbonyl groups. For the triply charged cluster a globular structure is formed in which aluminium is captured both by the carbonyl groups and the phenyl ring. PMID:22532114

  3. Stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors facilitates GABAergic transmission onto pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Luo, F; Tang, H; Cheng, Z-Y

    2015-08-01

    Whereas activation of α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs) modulates glutamatergic transmission, the roles of α1-ARs in GABAergic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are elusive. Here, we examined the effects of the α1-AR agonist phenylephrine (Phe) on GABAergic transmission onto pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of the mPFC. We found that bath application of Phe dose-dependently increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs). Phe increased the frequency but not the amplitude of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Ca(2+) influx through T-type voltage-gated calcium channels is required for Phe-induced increases in GABA release. Phe increases GABA release probability and the number of releasable vesicles. Phe depolarizes the fast-spiking (FS) interneurons without effects on the firing rate of action potentials (APs) of interneurons. Phe-induced depolarization is independent of extracellular Na(+), Ca(2+) and T-type calcium channels, but requires inward rectifier K(+) channels (Kirs). The present study demonstrates that Phe enhances GABAergic transmission onto mPFC pyramidal neurons through inhibiting interneurons Kirs, which further depolarizes interneurons leading to increase in Ca(2+) influx via T-type calcium channels. Our results may provide a cellular and molecular mechanism that helps explain α1-AR-induced PFC dysfunction. PMID:25943480

  4. Intracameral phenylephrine and ketorolac injection (OMS302) for maintenance of intraoperative pupil diameter and reduction of postoperative pain in intraocular lens replacement with phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Richard L; Loden, James C; Walters, Thomas R; Dunn, Steven H; Whitaker, J Steven; Kim, Terry; Demopulos, Gregory A; Tjia, Khiun

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of OMS302 on intraoperative pupil diameter and early postoperative ocular pain when administered during intraocular lens replacement surgery. Methods Four hundred and six patients (406 study eyes; 202 in the OMS302 group and 204 in the placebo group) were entered into this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase III study, which was conducted at 15 centers in the USA and the Netherlands. The patients received OMS302 (60.75 mM phenylephrine HCl and 11.25 mM ketorolac tromethamine) or placebo in irrigation solution during intraocular lens replacement. No other changes in procedure were required. Coprimary endpoints were change in pupil diameter over time from surgical baseline to end of procedure and patient-reported ocular pain during the first 12 hours postoperatively. Secondary endpoints included additional measures of pupil diameter and postoperative pain. Results OMS302 was superior to placebo in maintaining intraoperative mydriasis, preventing miosis, and reducing postoperative pain. The weighted mean (standard error) difference (OMS302 – placebo) in change in the area under the curve from baseline for pupil diameter was 0.590 ([0.049]; 95% confidence interval 0.494 to 0.686; P<0.0001). For ocular pain scores, the weighted mean (standard error) difference was −4.580 ([1.192]; 95% confidence interval −6.917 to 2.244; P=0.0002). All secondary efficacy results favored OMS302. Specifically, analyses supporting prevention of miosis (patients with ≥6 mm pupil diameter at completion of cortical clean-up and those with <6 mm diameter at any time during surgery) were significant for OMS302 (95.9% versus 77.0% and 9.2% versus 38.0%, respectively; P<0.0001 for each endpoint). OMS302 was well tolerated and not associated with any unexpected adverse events. Conclusion OMS302 maintained mydriasis, prevented miosis, and reduced early postoperative pain when administered in

  5. Dopamine agonist: pathological gambling and hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    (1) Pathological gambling and increased sexual activity can occur in patients taking dopaminergic drugs. Detailed case reports and small case series mention serious familial and social consequences. The frequency is poorly documented; (2) Most affected patients are being treated for Parkinson's disease, but cases have been reported among patients prescribed a dopamine agonist for restless legs syndrome or pituitary adenoma; (3) Patients treated with this type of drug, and their relatives, should be informed of these risks so that they can watch for changes in behaviour. If such disorders occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose or to withdraw the drug or replace it with another medication. PMID:19536937

  6. A novel mutation in DNAJB6, p.(Phe91Leu), in childhood-onset LGMD1D with a severe phenotype.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tai-Seung; Li, Wenting; Heo, Suk-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Anna; Shin, Jin-Hong; Kim, Young Ok; Chae, Jong-Hee; Kim, Dae-Seong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Choi, Seok-Yong

    2015-11-01

    To identify and characterize genetic mutation in a Korean family with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1 (LGMD1), we analyzed in the affected family members clinical features, DNAJB6 by Sanger sequencing, muscle structures by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional consequences of the identified mutation using a zebrafish model. The clinical phenotypes along with identification of a novel c.271T > C (p.(Phe91Leu)) mutation in DNAJB6 led to the diagnosis of LGMD1D in the affected family members. This mutation presents unique clinical and radiological features compared with other DNAJB6 mutants. All affected members examined showed reduced pulmonary function, and had nasal voice and dysphagia except the two members who were thirteen and twelve years of age at the time of examination. Muscle phenotypes developed between 8 and 11 years of age and were more severe as compared to previously reported LGMD1D patients with mutant DNAJB6. Patients' MRI scans exhibited early involvement of the lateral head of gastrocnemius, in contrast to its late involvement in reported LGMD1D cases. Functional study using zebrafish embryos demonstrated that p.Phe91Leu elicits more severe muscle defects than the reported p.Phe93Leu and p.Pro96Arg mutations. We conclude that a novel p.(Phe91Leu) mutation in DNAJB6 is associated with severe childhood-onset LGMD1D. PMID:26371419

  7. Higher-order structure of bovine mitochondrial tRNA(Phe) lacking the 'conserved' GG and T psi CG sequences as inferred by enzymatic and chemical probing.

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, K; Watanabe, Y; Yokogawa, T; Kumazawa, Y; Nakamura, S; Ueda, T; Watanabe, K; Nishikawa, K

    1994-01-01

    Bovine mitochondrial (mt) phenylalanine tRNA (tRNA(Phe)), which lacks the 'conserved' GG and T psi YCG sequences, was efficiently purified by the selective hybridization method using a solid phase DNA probe. The entire nucleotide sequence of the tRNA, including modified nucleotides, was determined and its higher-order structure was investigated using RNaseT2 and chemical reagents as structural probes. The D and T loop regions as well as the anticodon loop region were accessible to RNaseT2, and the N-3 positions of cytidines present in the D and T loops were easily modified under the native conditions in the presence of 10mM Mg2+. On the other hand, the nucleotides present in the extra loop were protected from the chemical modification under the native conditions. From the results of these probing analyses and a comparison of the sequences of mitochondrial tRNA(Phe) genes from various organisms, it was inferred that bovine mt tRNA(Phe) lacks the D loop/T loop tertiary interactions, but does have the canonical extra loop/D stem interactions, which seem to be the main factor for bovine mt tRNA(Phe) to preserve its L-shaped higher-order structure. Images PMID:7510390

  8. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of tRNA[superscript Phe] Y Base in the Presence of Mg[superscript 2+] and Small Molecule Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This laboratory project is one component of a semester-long advanced biochemistry laboratory course that uses several complementary techniques to study tRNA[superscript Phe] conformational changes induced by ligand binding. In this article we describe a set of experiments in which students use fluorescence spectroscopy to study tRNA[superscript…

  9. Modulation of Innate Immune Responses via Covalently Linked TLR Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis of novel adjuvants for vaccine development using multivalent scaffolds and bioconjugation chemistry to spatially manipulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. TLRs are primary receptors for activation of the innate immune system during vaccination. Vaccines that contain a combination of small and macromolecule TLR agonists elicit more directed immune responses and prolong responses against foreign pathogens. In addition, immune activation is enhanced upon stimulation of two distinct TLRs. Here, we synthesized combinations of TLR agonists as spatially defined tri- and di-agonists to understand how specific TLR agonist combinations contribute to the overall immune response. We covalently conjugated three TLR agonists (TLR4, 7, and 9) to a small molecule core to probe the spatial arrangement of the agonists. Treating immune cells with the linked agonists increased activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and enhanced and directed immune related cytokine production and gene expression beyond cells treated with an unconjugated mixture of the same three agonists. The use of TLR signaling inhibitors and knockout studies confirmed that the tri-agonist molecule activated multiple signaling pathways leading to the observed higher activity. To validate that the TLR4, 7, and 9 agonist combination would activate the immune response to a greater extent, we performed in vivo studies using a vaccinia vaccination model. Mice vaccinated with the linked TLR agonists showed an increase in antibody depth and breadth compared to mice vaccinated with the unconjugated mixture. These studies demonstrate how activation of multiple TLRs through chemically and spatially defined organization assists in guiding immune responses, providing the potential to use chemical tools to design and develop more effective vaccines. PMID:26640818

  10. Mechanisms of agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Lin, Hong; Strange, Philip G

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms of agonist action at the G protein-coupled D2 dopamine receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Stimulation of guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding by full and partial agonists was determined at different concentrations of [35S]GTPgammaS (0.1 and 10 nM) and in the presence of different concentrations of GDP. At both concentrations of [35S]GTPgammaS, increasing GDP decreased the [35S]GTPgammaS binding observed with maximally stimulating concentrations of agonist, with partial agonists exhibiting greater sensitivity to the effects of GDP than full agonists. The relative efficacy of partial agonists was greater at the lower GDP concentrations. Concentration-response experiments were performed for a range of agonists at the two [35S]GTPgammaS concentrations and with different concentrations of GDP. At 0.1 nM [35S]GTPgammaS, the potency of both full and partial agonists was dependent on the GDP concentration in the assays. At 10 nM [35S]GTPgammaS, the potency of full agonists exhibited a greater dependence on the GDP concentration, whereas the potency of partial agonists was virtually independent of GDP. We concluded that at the lower [35S]GTPgammaS concentration, the rate-determining step in G protein activation is the binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to the G protein. At the higher [35S]GTPgammaS concentration, for full agonists, [35S]GTPgammaS binding remains the slowest step, whereas for partial agonists, another (GDP-independent) step, probably ternary complex breakdown, becomes rate-determining. PMID:15340043

  11. Computational modeling toward understanding agonist binding on dopamine 3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaxue; Lu, Xuefeng; Yang, Chao-Yie; Huang, Zhimin; Fu, Wei; Hou, Tingjun; Zhang, Jian

    2010-09-27

    The dopamine 3 (D3) receptor is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and current research interests primarily focus on the discovery/design of potent D3 agonists. Herein, a well-designed computational protocol, which combines pharmacophore identification, homology modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was employed to understand the agonist binding on D3 aiming to provide insights into the development of novel potent D3 agonists. We (1) identified the chemical features required in effective D3 agonists by pharmacophore modeling based upon 18 known diverse D3 agonists; (2) constructed the three-dimensional (3D) structure of D3 based on homology modeling and the pharmacophore hypothesis; (3) identified the binding modes of the agonists to D3 by the correlation between the predicted binding free energies and the experimental values; and (4) investigated the induced fit of D3 upon agonist binding through MD simulations. The pharmacophore models of the D3 agonists and the 3D structure of D3 can be used for either ligand- or receptor-based drug design. Furthermore, the MD simulations further give the insight that the long and flexible EL2 acts as a "door" for agonist binding, and the "ionic lock" at the bottom of TM3 and TM6 is essential to transduce the activation signal. PMID:20695484

  12. Effects of TRA-418, a novel TP-receptor antagonist, and IP-receptor agonist, on human platelet activation and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Yamada, Naohiro; Ikezawa, Shiho; Ohno, Michihiro; Otake, Atsushi; Umemura, Kazuo; Matsushita, Teruo

    2003-11-01

    [4-[2-(1,1-Diphenylethylsulfanyl)-ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-8-yloxy]-acetic acid N-Methyl-d-glucamine salt (TRA-418) has both thromboxane A2 (TP)-receptor antagonist and prostacyclin (IP)-receptor agonist properties. The present study examined the advantageous effects of TRA-418 based on the dual activities, over an agent having either activity alone and also the difference in the effects of TRA-418 and a glycoprotein alphaIIb/beta3 integrin (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibitor. TRA-418 inhibited platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation as well as P-selectin expression induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate, thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2), and U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619+ epinephrine). TRA-418 also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by those platelet-stimulants in Ca2+ chelating anticoagulant, citrate and in nonchelating anticoagulant, d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone (PPACK). The TP-receptor antagonist SQ-29548 inhibited only U-46619+epinephrine-induced GPIIb/IIIa activation, P-selectin expression, and platelet aggregation. The IP-receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet activation. Beraprost also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by platelet stimulants we tested in citrate and in PPACK. The GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab blocked GPIIb/IIIa activation and platelet aggregation. However, abciximab showed slight inhibitory effects on P-selectin expression. TRA-418 is more advantageous as an antiplatelet agent than TP-receptor antagonists or IP-receptor agonists separately used. TRA-418 showed a different inhibitory profile from abciximab in the effects on P-selectin expression. PMID:14504133

  13. Biological findings from the PheWAS catalog: focus on connective tissue-related disorders (pelvic floor dysfunction, abdominal hernia, varicose veins and hemorrhoids).

    PubMed

    Salnikova, Lyubov E; Khadzhieva, Maryam B; Kolobkov, Dmitry S

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction, specifically genital prolapse (GP) and stress urinary inconsistency (SUI) presumably co-occur with other connective tissue disorders such as hernia, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins. Observations on non-random coexistence of these disorders have never been summarized in a meta-analysis. The performed meta-analysis demonstrated that varicose veins and hernia are associated with GP. Disease connections on the molecular level may be partially based on shared genetic susceptibility. A unique opportunity to estimate shared genetic susceptibility to disorders is provided by a PheWAS (phenome-wide association study) designed to utilize GWAS data concurrently to many phenotypes. We searched the PheWAS Catalog, which includes the results of the PheWAS study with P value < 0.05, for genes associated with GP, SUI, abdominal hernia, varicose veins and hemorrhoids. We found pronounced signals for the associations of the SLC2A9 gene with SUI (P = 6.0e-05) and the MYH9 gene with varicose veins of lower extremity (P = 0.0001) and hemorrhoids (P = 0.0007). The comparison of the PheWAS Catalog and the NHGRI Catalog data revealed enrichment of genes associated with bone mineral density in GP and with activated partial thromboplastin time in varicose veins of lower extremity. In cross-phenotype associations, genes responsible for peripheral nerve functions seem to predominate. This study not only established novel biologically plausible associations that may warrant further studies but also exemplified an effective use of the PheWAS Catalog data. PMID:27126235

  14. The effect of high-fructose intake on the vasopressor response to angiotensin II and adrenergic agonists in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Mohammed Hadi; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Johns, Edward James

    2013-07-01

    Effect of losartan was assessed on systemic haemodynamic responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in the model of high-fructose-fed rat. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed for 8 weeks either 20% fructose solution (FFR) or tap water (C) ad libitum. FFR or C group received losartan (10mg/kg/day p.o.) for 1 week at the end of feeding period (FFR-L and L) respectively, then the vasopressor responses to Ang II, noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE) and methoxamine (ME) were determined. The responses (%) to NA, PE, ME and Ang II in FFR were lower (P<0.05) than C (FFR vs. C; 22±2 vs. 32±2, 30±3 vs. 40±3, 9±1 vs. 13±1, 10±1 vs. 17±1) respectively. L group had blunted (P<0.05) responses to NA, PE, ME and Ang II compared to C (L vs. C; 26±2 vs. 32±2, 30±3 vs. 40±3, 7±0.7 vs. 13±1, 5±0.4 vs. 17±1) respectively. FFR-L group had aggravated (P<0.05) response to NA and ME, but blunted response to Ang II compared to FFR (FFR-L vs. FFR; 39±3 vs. 22±2, 11±1 vs. 9±1, 3±0.4 vs. 10±1) respectively. Fructose intake for 8 weeks results in smaller vasopressor response to adrenergic agonists and Ang II. Data also demonstrated an important role played by Ang II in the control of systemic haemodynamics in FFR and point to its interaction with adrenergic neurotransmission. PMID:23811449

  15. Strategies for designing synthetic immune agonists.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tom Y-H

    2016-08-01

    Enhancing the immune system is a validated strategy to combat infectious disease, cancer and allergy. Nevertheless, the development of immune adjuvants has been hampered by safety concerns. Agents that can stimulate the immune system often bear structural similarities with pathogen-associated molecular patterns found in bacteria or viruses and are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Activation of these PRRs results in the immediate release of inflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and recruitment of innate immune cells. The distribution and duration of these early inflammatory events are crucial in the development of antigen-specific adaptive immunity in the forms of antibody and/or T cells capable of searching for and destroying the infectious pathogens or cancer cells. However, systemic activation of these PRRs is often poorly tolerated. Hence, different strategies have been employed to modify or deliver immune agonists in an attempt to control the early innate receptor activation through temporal or spatial restriction. These approaches include physicochemical manipulation, covalent conjugation, formulation and conditional activation/deactivation. This review will describe recent examples of discovery and optimization of synthetic immune agonists towards clinical application. PMID:27213842

  16. Proglumide exhibits delta opioid agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A; Stokes, K B; Rhoads, D L; Way, E L

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that proglumide, a cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist, potentiates the analgetic effects of morphine and endogenous opioid peptides and reverses morphine tolerance by antagonizing the CCK system in the central nervous system of the rat. In order to provide additional insight into the mode of action of this agent, we assessed the effect of proglumide in the isolated guinea pig ileum and the mouse, rat and rabbit vas deferens. Furthermore, we studied the in vitro binding affinity of this substance to mouse brain synaptosomes. Our results show that proglumide inhibits, dose dependently, the electrically stimulated twitches in the mouse vas deferens and guinea pig ileum, but not in the rat or rabbit vas deferens. The inhibitory action of proglumide on the mouse vas deferens, but not on the guinea pig ileum, is antagonized by naloxone and by the selective delta-antagonist, ICI 174,864, in a competitive fashion. Other CCK antagonists were found to be devoid of such activity on the mouse vas deferens. In vitro binding studies showed that proglumide displaces D-ala-D-[leucine]5-enkephalin (DADLE), a delta agonist, but not ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), a preferentially selective kappa agonist. The effect of proglumide appeared to be elicited presynaptically since it did not alter the norepinephrine-induced contractions of the mouse vas deferens. Our results suggest that proglumide might exert its opiate-like effects by activation of delta-opioid receptors. PMID:3030338

  17. Chimpanzees Extract Social Information from Agonistic Screams

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, Katie E.; Kaller, Tanja; Call, Josep; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) agonistic screams are graded vocal signals that are produced in a context-specific manner. Screams given by aggressors and victims can be discriminated based on their acoustic structure but the mechanisms of listener comprehension of these calls are currently unknown. In this study, we show that chimpanzees extract social information from these vocal signals that, combined with their more general social knowledge, enables them to understand the nature of out-of-sight social interactions. In playback experiments, we broadcast congruent and incongruent sequences of agonistic calls and monitored the response of bystanders. Congruent sequences were in accordance with existing social dominance relations; incongruent ones violated them. Subjects looked significantly longer at incongruent sequences, despite them being acoustically less salient (fewer call types from fewer individuals) than congruent ones. We concluded that chimpanzees categorised an apparently simple acoustic signal into victim and aggressor screams and used pragmatics to form inferences about third-party interactions they could not see. PMID:20644722

  18. MR-PheWAS: hypothesis prioritization among potential causal effects of body mass index on many outcomes, using Mendelian randomization.

    PubMed

    Millard, Louise A C; Davies, Neil M; Timpson, Nic J; Tilling, Kate; Flach, Peter A; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    Observational cohort studies can provide rich datasets with a diverse range of phenotypic variables. However, hypothesis-driven epidemiological analyses by definition only test particular hypotheses chosen by researchers. Furthermore, observational analyses may not provide robust evidence of causality, as they are susceptible to confounding, reverse causation and measurement error. Using body mass index (BMI) as an exemplar, we demonstrate a novel extension to the phenome-wide association study (pheWAS) approach, using automated screening with genotypic instruments to screen for causal associations amongst any number of phenotypic outcomes. We used a sample of 8,121 children from the ALSPAC dataset, and tested the linear association of a BMI-associated allele score with 172 phenotypic outcomes (with variable sample sizes). We also performed an instrumental variable analysis to estimate the causal effect of BMI on each phenotype. We found 21 of the 172 outcomes were associated with the allele score at an unadjusted p < 0.05 threshold, and use Bonferroni corrections, permutation testing and estimates of the false discovery rate to consider the strength of results given the number of tests performed. The most strongly associated outcomes included leptin, lipid profile, and blood pressure. We also found novel evidence of effects of BMI on a global self-worth score. PMID:26568383

  19. Rapid Brownian Motion Primes Ultrafast Reconstruction of Intrinsically Disordered Phe-Gly Repeats Inside the Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi-Baygi, R.; Mofrad, M. R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Conformational behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins, such as Phe-Gly repeat domains, alters drastically when they are confined in, and tethered to, nan channels. This has challenged our understanding of how they serve to selectively facilitate translocation of nuclear transport receptor (NTR)-bearing macromolecules. Heterogeneous FG-repeats, tethered to the NPC interior, nonuniformly fill the channel in a diameter-dependent manner and adopt a rapid Brownian motion, thereby forming a porous and highly dynamic polymeric meshwork that percolates in radial and axial directions and features two distinguishable zones: a dense hydrophobic rod-like zone located in the center, and a peripheral low-density shell-like zone. The FG-meshwork is locally disrupted upon interacting with NTR-bearing macromolecules, but immediately reconstructs itself between 0.44 μs and 7.0 μs, depending on cargo size and shape. This confers a perpetually-sealed state to the NPC, and is solely due to rapid Brownian motion of FG-repeats, not FG-repeat hydrophobic bonds. Elongated-shaped macromolecules, both in the presence and absence of NTRs, penetrate more readily into the FG-meshwork compared to their globular counterparts of identical volume and surface chemistry, highlighting the importance of the shape effects in nucleocytoplasmic transport. These results can help our understanding of geometrical effects in, and the design of, intelligent and responsive biopolymer-based materials in nanofiltration and artificial nanopores. PMID:27470900

  20. Crystal structure of Boc-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Ala-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Phe-OBn chloro-form monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Emmanuel; Moulat, Laure; Legrand, Baptiste; Amblard, Muriel; Calmès, Monique; Didierjean, Claude

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, phenyl (S)-2-[(S)-(1-{2-[(S)-(1-{[(tert-but-oxy)carbon-yl]amino}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-propanamido}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-3-phenyl-propano-ate chloro-form monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S)-1-amino-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-2-carb-oxy-lic acid [(S)-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S)-2-amino-propanoic acid [(S)-Ala] and (S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-propanoic acid [(S)-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-but-oxy-carbonyl (Boc) and benzyl ester (OBn). The tetra-mer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intra-molecular i,i + 3 and i,i - 1 C=O⋯H-N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloro-form solvent mol-ecules are inter-calated between the folded chains via C-H⋯O=C inter-actions. PMID:26594404

  1. Intraoperative detection of somatostatin-receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumours using indium-111-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide.

    PubMed Central

    Wangberg, B.; Forssell-Aronsson, E.; Tisell, L. E.; Nilsson, O.; Fjalling, M.; Ahlman, H.

    1996-01-01

    After injection of 111In-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, intraoperative tumour localisation was performed using a scintillation detector in 23 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Count rates from suspect tumour lesions and adjacent normal tissue were expressed as a ratio before (Rin situ) and after (Rex vivo) excision. 111In activity concentration ratios of tumour tissue to blood (T/B) were determined in a gamma counter. In patients with midgut carcinoids, (all scintigraphy positive), false Rin situ recordings were found in 4/29 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were all high (27-650). In patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas (eight out of ten scintigraphy positive), misleading Rin situ results were found in 4/37 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were lower (3-39) than those seen in midgut carcinoids. Two out of four patients with endocrine pancreatic tumours had positive scintigraphy, reliable intraoperative measurements and very high T/B ratios (910-1500). One patient with a gastric carcinoid had correct measurements in situ and ex vivo with high T/B ratios (71-210). In situ measurements added little information to preoperative scintigraphy and surgical findings using the present detection system. Rex vivo measurements were more reliable. The very high T/B ratios seen in midgut carcinoids and some endocrine pancreatic tumours would be favourable for future radiation therapy via somatostatin receptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8611378

  2. Validation challenge of density-functional theory for peptides-example of Ac-Phe-Ala5-LysH(+).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mariana; Chutia, Sucismita; Scheffler, Matthias; Blum, Volker

    2014-09-01

    We assess the performance of a group of exchange-correlation functionals for predicting the secondary structure of peptide chains, up to a new many-body dispersion corrected hybrid density functional, dubbed PBE0+MBD* by its original authors. For the purpose of validation, we first compare to published, high-level benchmark conformational energy hierarchies (coupled cluster at the singles, doubles, and perturbative triples level, CCSD(T)) for 73 conformers of small three-residue peptides, establishing that the van der Waals corrected PBE0 functional yields an average error of only ∼20 meV (∼0.5 kcal/mol). This compares to ∼40-50 meV for nondispersion corrected PBE0 and 40-100 meV for different empirical force fields (estimated for the alanine tetrapeptide). For longer peptide chains that form a secondary structure, CCSD(T) level benchmark data are currently unaffordable. We thus turn to the experimentally well studied Ac-Phe-Ala5-LysH(+) peptide, for which four closely competing conformers were established by infrared spectroscopy. For comparison, an exhaustive theoretical conformational space exploration yields at least 11 competing low energy minima. We show that (i) the many-body dispersion correction, (ii) the hybrid functional nature of PBE0+MBD*, and (iii) zero-point corrections are needed to reveal the four experimentally observed structures as the minima that would be populated at low temperature. PMID:24405171

  3. MR-PheWAS: hypothesis prioritization among potential causal effects of body mass index on many outcomes, using Mendelian randomization

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Louise A. C.; Davies, Neil M.; Timpson, Nic J.; Tilling, Kate; Flach, Peter A.; Smith, George Davey

    2015-01-01

    Observational cohort studies can provide rich datasets with a diverse range of phenotypic variables. However, hypothesis-driven epidemiological analyses by definition only test particular hypotheses chosen by researchers. Furthermore, observational analyses may not provide robust evidence of causality, as they are susceptible to confounding, reverse causation and measurement error. Using body mass index (BMI) as an exemplar, we demonstrate a novel extension to the phenome-wide association study (pheWAS) approach, using automated screening with genotypic instruments to screen for causal associations amongst any number of phenotypic outcomes. We used a sample of 8,121 children from the ALSPAC dataset, and tested the linear association of a BMI-associated allele score with 172 phenotypic outcomes (with variable sample sizes). We also performed an instrumental variable analysis to estimate the causal effect of BMI on each phenotype. We found 21 of the 172 outcomes were associated with the allele score at an unadjusted p < 0.05 threshold, and use Bonferroni corrections, permutation testing and estimates of the false discovery rate to consider the strength of results given the number of tests performed. The most strongly associated outcomes included leptin, lipid profile, and blood pressure. We also found novel evidence of effects of BMI on a global self-worth score. PMID:26568383

  4. Human biodistribution of [111In]diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-(DTPA)-D-[Phe1]-octreotide and peroperative detection of endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ohrvall, U; Westlin, J E; Nilsson, S; Wilander, E; Juhlin, C; Rastad, J; Akerström, G

    1995-12-01

    Requisites for preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization with [111In]diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-[Phe1]-octreotide scanning were explored in 23 patients with endocrine tumors (15 carcinoids, 4 insulinomas, and single cases of gastrinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, aldosteronoma, and paraganglioma). The patients were subjected to Octreoscan single photon emission computed tomographic examination prior to surgery and well counter investigation of nuclide uptake in tumors and normal tissues sampled at surgery. Somatostatin receptor-positive tumors demonstrated efficient nuclide accumulation with mean tumor:blood radioactivity ratios of 180-370 (for carcinoids and insulinoma), compared with tissue:blood ratios of 302 for spleen, 42 for liver, and < 10-15 in other normal tissues (pancreas, small intestine, and mesenteric fat). Inefficient preoperative visualization of lesions was related to inconspicuous size, as for primary intestinal carcinoids, tiny liver metastases, and a single small insulinoma. High background activity, pronounced tumor fibrosis, and meager accumulation of tracer also interfered with visualization. Tumor deposits in organs with low background activity (such as carcinoid mesenteric metastases and endocrine pancreatic tumors) were generally most readily detected. Intraoperative investigations with hand-held gamma detector probes were disturbed by obvious high background activity. These investigations revealed two preoperatively unrecognized primary intestinal carcinoids, which, however, were both palpable during surgery. These studies, therefore, had little impact on the surgical strategy. PMID:7493348

  5. Rapid Brownian Motion Primes Ultrafast Reconstruction of Intrinsically Disordered Phe-Gly Repeats Inside the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Moussavi-Baygi, R; Mofrad, M R K

    2016-01-01

    Conformational behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins, such as Phe-Gly repeat domains, alters drastically when they are confined in, and tethered to, nan channels. This has challenged our understanding of how they serve to selectively facilitate translocation of nuclear transport receptor (NTR)-bearing macromolecules. Heterogeneous FG-repeats, tethered to the NPC interior, nonuniformly fill the channel in a diameter-dependent manner and adopt a rapid Brownian motion, thereby forming a porous and highly dynamic polymeric meshwork that percolates in radial and axial directions and features two distinguishable zones: a dense hydrophobic rod-like zone located in the center, and a peripheral low-density shell-like zone. The FG-meshwork is locally disrupted upon interacting with NTR-bearing macromolecules, but immediately reconstructs itself between 0.44 μs and 7.0 μs, depending on cargo size and shape. This confers a perpetually-sealed state to the NPC, and is solely due to rapid Brownian motion of FG-repeats, not FG-repeat hydrophobic bonds. Elongated-shaped macromolecules, both in the presence and absence of NTRs, penetrate more readily into the FG-meshwork compared to their globular counterparts of identical volume and surface chemistry, highlighting the importance of the shape effects in nucleocytoplasmic transport. These results can help our understanding of geometrical effects in, and the design of, intelligent and responsive biopolymer-based materials in nanofiltration and artificial nanopores. PMID:27470900

  6. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  7. Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researches suggest that two agonists can bind to the same binding site of an important transmembrane protein and elicit a biological response through strikingly different binding interactions. Evidence is provided which suggests two possible types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist binding like acetlycholine (cholinergic) or like nicotine…

  8. Estrogen receptor beta agonists in neurobehavioral investigations.

    PubMed

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Kavaliers, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Neurobehavioral investigations into the functions of estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta have utilized 'knockout' mice, phytoestrogens and, more recently, ER-specific agonists. Feeding, sexual, aggressive and social behavior, anxiety, depression, drug abuse, pain perception, and learning (and associated synaptic plasticity) are affected by ERalpha and ERbeta in a manner that is dependent upon the specific behavior studied, gender and developmental stage. Overall, ERalpha and ERbeta appear to function together to foster sociosexual behavior while inhibiting behaviors that, if occurring at the time of behavioral estrous, may compete with reproduction (eg, feeding). Recently developed pharmacological tools have limited selectivity and availability to the research community at large, as they are not commercially available. The development of highly selective, commercially available ERbeta-specific antagonists would greatly benefit preclinical and applied research. PMID:18600582

  9. Non-Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists for Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Becker, Philip M; Somiah, Manya

    2015-03-01

    Because of proven efficacy, reduced side effects, and less concern about addiction, non-benzodiazepine receptor agonists (non-BzRA) have become the most commonly prescribed hypnotic agents to treat onset and maintenance insomnia. First-line treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy. When pharmacologic treatment is indicated, non-BzRA are first-line agents for the short-term and long-term management of transient and chronic insomnia related to adjustment, psychophysiologic, primary, and secondary causation. In this article, the benefits and risks of non-BzRA are reviewed, and the selection of a hypnotic agent is defined, based on efficacy, pharmacologic profile, and adverse events. PMID:26055674

  10. Adiponectin Agonist ADP355 Attenuates CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Thorn, Natalie E.; Anania, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a growing global health problem characterized by excess deposition of fibrillar collagen, and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Adiponectin is known to possess anti-fibrotic properties; however a high physiological concentration and multiple forms circulating in blood prohibit clinical use. Recently, an adiponectin-like small synthetic peptide agonist (ADP355: H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2) was synthesized for the treatment of murine breast cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ADP355 as an anti-fibrotic agent in the in vivo carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis model. Liver fibrosis was induced in eight-week old male C57BL/6J mice by CCl4-gavage every other day for four weeks before injection of a nanoparticle-conjugated with ADP355 (nano-ADP355). Control gold nanoparticles and nano-ADP355 were administered by intraperitoneal injection for two weeks along with CCl4-gavage. All mice were sacrificed after 6 weeks, and serum and liver tissue were collected for biochemical, histopathologic and molecular analyses. Biochemical studies suggested ADP355 treatment attenuates liver fibrosis, determined by reduction of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase ALT) and hydroxyproline. Histopathology revealed chronic CCl4-treatment results in significant fibrosis, while ADP355 treatment induced significantly reversed fibrosis. Key markers for fibrogenesis–α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase I (TIMP1) were also markedly attenuated. Conversely, liver lysates from ADP355 treated mice increased phosphorylation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and AMPK while AKT phosphorylation was diminished. These findings suggest ADP355 is a potent anti-fibrotic agent that can be an effective intervention against liver fibrosis. PMID

  11. Interactions between cannabinoid receptor agonists and mu opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys discriminating fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) enhance some (antinociceptive) but not other (positive reinforcing) effects of mu opioid receptor agonists, suggesting that cannabinoids might be combined with opioids to treat pain without increasing, and possibly decreasing, abuse. The degree to which cannabinoids enhance antinociceptive effects of opioids varies across drugs insofar as Δ(9)-THC and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 increase the potency of some mu opioid receptor agonists (e.g., fentanyl) more than others (e.g., nalbuphine). It is not known whether interactions between cannabinoids and opioids vary similarly for other (abuse-related) effects. This study examined whether Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 differentially impact the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine in monkeys (n=4) discriminating 0.01mg/kg of fentanyl (s.c.) from saline. Fentanyl (0.00178-0.0178mg/kg) and nalbuphine (0.01-0.32mg/kg) dose-dependently increased drug-lever responding. Neither Δ(9)-THC (0.032-1.0mg/kg) nor CP55940 (0.0032-0.032mg/kg) enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl or nalbuphine; however, doses of Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 that shifted the nalbuphine dose-effect curve markedly to the right and/or down were less effective or ineffective in shifting the fentanyl dose-effect curve. The mu opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.032mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine similarly. These data indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine are more sensitive to attenuation by cannabinoids than those of fentanyl. That the discriminative stimulus effects of some opioids are more susceptible to modification by drugs from other classes has implications for developing maximally effective therapeutic drug mixtures with reduced abuse liability. PMID:27184925

  12. Design, Synthesis, Structural and Functional Characterization of Novel Melanocortin Agonists Based on the Cyclotide Kalata B1*

    PubMed Central

    Eliasen, Rasmus; Daly, Norelle L.; Wulff, Birgitte S.; Andresen, Thomas L.; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian W.; Craik, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly important global health problem that lacks current treatment options. The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a target for obesity therapies because its activation triggers appetite suppression and increases energy expenditure. Cyclotides have been suggested as scaffolds for the insertion and stabilization of pharmaceutically active peptides. In this study, we explored the development of appetite-reducing peptides by synthesizing MC4R agonists based on the insertion of the His-Phe-Arg-Trp sequence into the cyclotide kalata B1. The ability of the analogues to fold similarly to kalata B1 but display MC4R activity were investigated. Four peptides were synthesized using t-butoxycarbonyl peptide chemistry with a C-terminal thioester to facilitate backbone cyclization. The structures of the peptides were found to be similar to kalata B1, evaluated by Hα NMR chemical shifts. KB1(GHFRWG;23–28) had a Ki of 29 nm at the MC4R and was 107 or 314 times more selective over this receptor than MC1R or MC5R, respectively, and had no detectable binding to MC3R. The peptide had higher affinity for the MC4R than the endogenous agonist, α-melanocyte stimulation hormone, but it was less potent at the MC4R, with an EC50 of 580 nm for activation of the MC4R. In conclusion, we synthesized melanocortin analogues of kalata B1 that preserve the structural scaffold and display receptor binding and functional activity. KB1(GHFRWG;23–28) is potent and selective for the MC4R. This compound validates the use of cyclotides as scaffolds and has the potential to be a new lead for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23012369

  13. Opioid receptor agonistic characteristics of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl in comparison with mitragynine derived from Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, L T; Horie, S; Takayama, H; Aimi, N; Sakai, S; Yano, S; Shan, J; Pang, P K; Ponglux, D; Watanabe, K

    1999-07-01

    We have previously elucidated the opiate-like action of mitragynine, an active principle isolated from the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa. In the present study, effects of the related compound, mitragynine pseudoindoxyl on electrically stimulated contraction in guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens, and on its binding affinity in the guinea pig brain membranes were studied. Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl inhibited the electrically stimulated ileum and mouse vas deferens contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In the ileum, the effective concentration is in an nM order, being nearly equivalent to reported concentrations of the micro-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Met-Phe4, Gly-ol5] enkephalin (DAMGO), and is 100- and 20-fold smaller than those of mitragynine and morphine, respectively. In the vas deferens, it is 35-fold smaller than that of morphine. The inhibitory action of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl in the ileum was antagonized by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the micro-receptor antagonist naloxonazine. It was also antagonized by the delta-receptor antagonist naltrindole in the vas deferens. Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl showed a similar binding affinity to DAMGO and naltrindole at micro- and delta-receptors, respectively. However, the affinity at kappa-receptors was negligible. The present study demonstrates that mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, a novel alkaloid structurally different from other opioid agonists, acts on opioid receptors, leading to a potent inhibition of electrically stimulated contraction in the ileum through the micro-receptors and in mouse vas deferens through delta-receptors. PMID:10428019

  14. Try235Phe homozygous mutation of the steroid 5-a reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) gene in a Turkish patient.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Durmaz, Erdem; Gursoy, Semin; Bircan, Iffet; Akcurin, Sema

    2014-01-01

    Steroid 5-a reductase type 2 isoenzyme (SRD5A2) deficiency is a male-limited autosomal recessive disorder that results in decreased conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone with various de.gree of incomplete virilization in affected 46, XY infants. No clear genotype-phenotype relationship has been reported till date; moreover, the same mutation can result in considerable heterogeneity in clinical manifestations. Of 6 documented cases with Try235Phe homozygous mutation of the SRD5A2 gene, 3 patients had predominantly female external genitalia whereas the other 3 had predominantly male phenotype. We report Try235Phe homozygous mutation of the SRD5A2 gene in a Turkish patient who was initially assigned as a girl because of the predominantly female appearance of the external genitalia. PMID:25266188

  15. Giant submarine landslide grooves in the Neoproterozoic/Lower Cambrian Phe Formation, northwest Himalaya: Mechanisms of formation and palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, E.; Schlaf, J.; Grasemann, B.; Argles, T.

    2008-04-01

    Giant groove casts have been found in the upper Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian Phe Formation (Haimanta Group), a siliciclastic sandstone/shale succession in the Tethyan Zone of the Higher Himalaya tectonic unit. The grooves are among the largest linear erosion structures related to submarine mass-movements observed in the geologic record. They are up to 4 m wide, about 0.2 m deep and can be traced for more than 35 m without changing their character. The grooves are straight, subparallel to cross-cutting striations with shallow semi-circular cross-sections and well-defined superimposed minor ridges and grooves. Groove casts exist on the soles of several sandstone beds within a 73 m thick logged section, commonly associated with flute casts. Their characteristics were compared with several other types of ancient and modern submarine linear erosion structures. A sand-rich, non-channelized basin floor depositional environment is inferred from the lithofacies, the combination of sedimentary structures, the lack of coarse-grained pebbly facies, the lateral continuity of beds, and the lack of channel structures. The grooves probably formed by laminar debris flows/concentrated density flows dragging blocks of already lithified sediment across the basin floor. When the bedding is structurally rotated back to horizontal, the groove casts show consistent North-South oriented palaeocurrent trends, with South-directed palaeocurrent directions indicated by flute casts. These palaeocurrent orientations contrast with previous palaeogeographic reconstructions of this area, which propose sediment delivery from the South. We therefore suggest a new "double provenance" model for the spatial relationship of late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian strata of the Himalaya, in which Lesser and Tethyan Himalayan age-equivalent sediment was deposited in a connected basin, where the former received detritus from the South, and the latter from a hitherto unknown source in the North. One possible

  16. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata.

    PubMed Central

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P; Bosch, T C; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra is the most frequently used model for the study of development in cnidarians. Recently we isolated four novel Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide) neuropeptides, the Hydra-RFamides I-IV, from Hydra magnipapillata. Here we describe the molecular cloning of three different preprohormones from H. magnipapillata, each of which gives rise to a variety of RFamide neuropeptides. Preprohormone A contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I (QWLGGRFG), II (QWFNGRFG), III/IV [(KP)HLRGRFG] and two putative neuropeptide sequences (QLMSGRFG and QLMRGRFG). Preprohormone B has the same general organization as preprohormone A, but instead of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide III/IV it contains a slightly different neuropeptide sequence [(KP)HYRGRFG]. Preprohormone C contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I and seven additional putative neuropeptide sequences (with the common N-terminal sequence QWF/LSGRFGL). The two Hydra-RFamide II copies (in preprohormones A and B) are preceded by Thr residues, and the single Hydra-RFamide III/IV copy (in preprohormone A) is preceded by an Asn residue, confirming that cnidarians use unconventional processing signals to generate neuropeptides from their precursor proteins. Southern blot analyses suggest that preprohormones A and B are each coded for by a single gene, whereas one or possibly two closely related genes code for preprohormone C. Northern blot analyses and in situ hybridizations show that the gene coding for preprohormone A is expressed in neurons of both the head and foot regions of Hydra, whereas the genes coding for preprohormones B and C are specifically expressed in neurons of different regions of the head. All of this shows that neuropeptide biosynthesis in the primitive metazoan Hydra is already rather complex. PMID:9601069

  17. Mutation of Tyr-218 to Phe in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase: effects on bioelectronic interface performance.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Brian L; Dennis, Megan; Laivenieks, Maris; Zeikus, J Gregory; Worden, Robert M

    2007-10-01

    Bioelectronic interfaces that facilitate electron transfer between the electrode and a dehydrogenase enzyme have potential applications in biosensors, biocatalytic reactors, and biological fuel cells. The secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees ADH) from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus is especially well suited for the development of such bioelectronic interfaces because of its thermostability and facile production and purification. However, the natural cofactor for the enzyme, beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), is more expensive and less stable than beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). PCR-based, site-directed mutagenesis was performed on 2 degrees ADH in an attempt to adjust the cofactor specificity toward NAD+ by mutating Tyr218 to Phe (Y218F 2 degrees ADH). This mutation increased the Km(app) for NADP+ 200-fold while decreasing the Km(app) for NAD+ 2.5-fold. The mutant enzyme was incorporated into a bioelectronic interface that established electrical communication between the enzyme, the NAD+, the electron mediator toluidine blue O (TBO), and a gold electrode. Cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, constant potential amperometry, and chronoamperometry were used to characterize the mutant and wild-type enzyme incorporated in the bioelectronic interface. The Y218F 2 degrees ADH exhibited a fourfold increase in the turnover ratio compared to the wild type in the presence of NAD+. The electrochemical and kinetic measurements support the prediction that the Rossmann fold of the enzyme binds to the phosphate moiety of the cofactor. During the 45 min of continuous operation, NAD+ was electrically recycled 6.7 x 10(4) times, suggesting that the Y218F 2 degrees ADH-modified bioelectronic interface is stable. PMID:18025592

  18. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation. PMID:22269613

  19. [PPAR receptors and insulin sensitivity: new agonists in development].

    PubMed

    Pégorier, J-P

    2005-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (or glitazones) are synthetic PPARgamma (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gamma) ligands with well recognized effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The clinical use of these PPARgamma agonists in type 2 diabetic patients leads to an improved glycemic control and an inhanced insulin sensitivity, and at least in animal models, to a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cell function. However, they can produce adverse effects, generally mild or moderate, but some of them (mainly peripheral edema and weight gain) may conduct to treatment cessation. Several pharmacological classes are currently in pre-clinical or clinical development, with the objective to retain the beneficial metabolic properties of PPARgamma agonists, either alone or in association with the PPARalpha agonists (fibrates) benefit on lipid profile, but devoid of the side-effects on weight gain and fluid retention. These new pharmacological classes: partial PPARgamma agonists, PPARgamma antagonists, dual PPARalpha/PPARgamma agonists, pan PPARalpha/beta(delta)/gamma agonists, RXR receptor agonists (rexinoids), are presented in this review. Main results from in vitro cell experiments and animal model studies are discussed, as well as the few published short-term studies in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:15959400

  20. Risk versus benefit considerations for the beta(2)-agonists.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H William

    2006-09-01

    Short-acting beta(2)-agonists are the mainstay of therapy for acute bronchospasm associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, whereas long-acting beta(2)-agonists are used in maintaining disease control in these respiratory disorders. This review describes and compares the pharmacology of the beta(2)-agonists and explains how these differences translate into differences in efficacy and beta(2)-adrenergic-mediated adverse effects. Questions commonly asked by clinicians regarding the efficacy and safety of short- and long-acting beta(2)-agonists include issues about cardiovascular effects, tolerance to their bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effects, blunting of albuterol response by long-acting beta(2)-agonists, potential masking of worsening asthma control, and the role of long-acting beta(2)-agonists as adjunctive therapy with inhaled corticosteroids in maintaining asthma control. Pharmacogenetics may play a role in determining which patients may be at risk for a reduced response to a beta(2)-agonist. The continued use of racemic albuterol, which contains a mixture of R-albuterol and S-albuterol, has been questioned because of data from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that S-albuterol causes proinflammatory effects and may increase bronchial hyperreactivity. The preclinical and clinical effects of these two stereoisomers are reviewed. Data describing the efficacy and safety of levalbuterol (R-albuterol) and racemic albuterol are presented. PMID:16945063

  1. Free-operant avoidance behavior by rats after reinforcer revaluation using opioid agonists and D-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anushka; Urcelay, Gonzalo; Mar, Adam; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor

    2014-04-30

    The associative processes that support free-operant instrumental avoidance behavior are still unknown. We used a revaluation procedure to determine whether the performance of an avoidance response is sensitive to the current value of the aversive, negative reinforcer. Rats were trained on an unsignaled, free-operant lever press avoidance paradigm in which each response avoided or escaped shock and produced a 5 s feedback stimulus. The revaluation procedure consisted of noncontingent presentations of the shock in the absence of the lever either paired or unpaired with systemic morphine and in a different cohort with systemic d-amphetamine. Rats were then tested drug free during an extinction test. In both the d-amphetamine and morphine groups, pairing of the drug and shock decreased subsequent avoidance responding during the extinction test, suggesting that avoidance behavior was sensitive to the current incentive value of the aversive negative reinforcer. Experiment 2 used central infusions of D-Ala(2), NMe-Phe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO), a mu-opioid receptor agonist, in the periacqueductal gray and nucleus accumbens shell to revalue the shock. Infusions of DAMGO in both regions replicated the effects seen with systemic morphine. These results are the first to demonstrate the impact of revaluation of an aversive reinforcer on avoidance behavior using pharmacological agents, thereby providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of avoidance behavior symptomatic of anxiety disorders. PMID:24790199

  2. RET and anisotropy measurements establish the proximity of the conserved Trp17 to Ile98 and Phe99 of tear lipocalin.

    PubMed

    Gasymov, Oktay K; Abduragimov, Adil R; Yusifov, Taleh N; Glasgow, Ben J

    2002-07-16

    Previous studies suggest that the conserved Trp17 on strand A of TL has a role in lipocalin stability and interacts, directly or indirectly, with Ile98 and Phe99 on strand G to influence ligand binding. Here, we determined the proximity of Trp17 to Ile98 and Phe99. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments showed resonance energy transfer between tryptophans at positions 17 and 98. In addition, an exciton effect was discovered in CD experiments resulting from interactions of the excited states of these tryptophans. Fluorescence anisotropy values of mutants containing two tryptophans (positions 99/17 and 98/17) were lower than expected in the absence of RET, confirming that these residues are proximate in tear lipocalin. The data support a model of tear lipocalin in which Trp17 and Phe99 are close together deep in the cavity and participate in an internal hydrophobic cluster. Ile98 is proximate to Trp17 but faces toward the outside of the cavity and in the model is part of an external hydrophobic patch. Comparison with beta-lactoglobulin suggests that these motifs may have an important influence on protein stability and ligand binding in other members of the lipocalin family. PMID:12102626

  3. Role of Phe-99 and Trp-196 of sepiapterin reductase from Chlorobium tepidum in the production of L-threo-tetrahydrobiopterin.

    PubMed

    Supangat, Supangat; Park, Sun Ok; Seo, Kyung Hye; Lee, Sang Yeol; Park, Young Shik; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-06-01

    Sepiapterin reductase from Chlorobium tepidum (cSR) catalyzes the synthesis of a distinct tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), L-threo-BH4, different from the mammalian enzyme product. The 3-D crystal structure of cSR has revealed that the product configuration is determined solely by the substrate binding mode within the well-conserved catalytic triads. In cSR, the sepiapterin is stacked between two aromatic side chains of Phe-99 and Trp-196 and rotated approximately 180 degrees C around the active site from the position in mouse sepiapterin reductase. To confirm their roles in substrate binding, we mutated Phe-99 and/or Trp-196 to alanine (F99A, W196A) by site-directed mutagenesis and comparatively examined substrate binding of the purified proteins by kinetics analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These mutants had higher Km values than the wild type. Remarkably, the W196A mutation resulted in a higher Km increase compared with the F99A mutation. Consistent with the results, the melting temperature (Tm) in the presence of sepiapterin was lower in the mutant proteins and the worst was W196A. These findings indicate that the two residues are indispensable for substrate binding in cSR, and Trp-196 is more important than Phe-99 for different stereoisomer production. PMID:18542834

  4. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine agonists are effective treatments for a variety of indications, including Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, but may have serious side effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations, and impulse control disorders (including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping/buying, and hypersexuality). The most effective way to alleviate these side effects is to taper or discontinue dopamine agonist therapy. A subset of patients who taper a dopamine agonist, however, develop dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS), which has been defined as a severe, stereotyped cluster of physical and psychological symptoms that correlate with dopamine agonist withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner, cause clinically significant distress or social/occupational dysfunction, are refractory to levodopa and other dopaminergic medications, and cannot be accounted for by other clinical factors. The symptoms of DAWS include anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. The severity and prognosis of DAWS is highly variable. While some patients have transient symptoms and make a full recovery, others have a protracted withdrawal syndrome lasting for months to years, and therefore may be unwilling or unable to discontinue DA therapy. Impulse control disorders appear to be a major risk factor for DAWS, and are present in virtually all affected patients. Thus, patients who are unable to discontinue dopamine agonist therapy may experience chronic impulse control disorders. At the current time, there are no known effective treatments for DAWS. For this reason, providers are urged to use dopamine agonists judiciously, warn patients about the risks of DAWS prior to the initiation of dopamine agonist therapy, and follow patients closely for withdrawal symptoms during dopamine agonist taper. PMID:23686524

  5. Supra-physiological efficacy at GPCRs: superstition or super agonists?

    PubMed

    Langmead, Christopher J; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2013-05-01

    The concept of 'super agonism' has been described since the discovery of peptide hormone analogues that yielded greater functional responses than the endogenous agonists, in the early 1980s. It has remained an area of debate as to whether such compounds can really display greater efficacy than an endogenous agonist. However, recent pharmacological data, combined with crystal structures of different GPCR conformations and improved analytical methods for quantifying drug action, are starting to shed light on this phenomenon and indicate that super agonists may be more than superstition. PMID:23441648

  6. Modulation of luminol chemiluminescence of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils by affecting dephosphorylation and the metabolism of phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, J; Benard, S; Kilian, U; Reichl, S; Schiller, J; Arnold, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper is addressed to study how PKC-mediated effects and phosphatidic acid interact together in activation of NADPH-oxidase in formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) stimulated neutrophils as detected by luminol chemiluminescence. The early luminescence response in fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated cells (up to 5 min after stimulation) depends mainly on reactive oxygen species generated extracellularly, whereas all later events are caused by oxidation of luminol inside the cells. The two protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid and calyculin A, dramatically increased the late luminescence of cells. This enhancement was totally inhibited by the phospholipase D modulator butanol, while the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I was insensitive. The early luminescence response of the cells was slightly inhibited by both protein phosphatase inhibitors and depended on protein kinase C as well as on phospholipase D activities. Propranolol, an inhibitor of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, enhanced all parts of luminescence response of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils at concentrations up to 2.5 x 10(-5) mol/L. While the late luminescence response of propranolol-treated cells was not inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I, the first response depended on protein kinase C. The inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase R59949 enhanced the luminescence signal only during the first 4 min in fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated cells. Only diacylglycerols derived from phospholipase C, such as 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, were able to initiate an oxidative burst in cells. Saturated diacylglycerols (e.g. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol) did not yield any luminol chemiluminescence, although they were incorporated into the plasma membrane, as evidenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D is

  7. Relamorelin: A Novel Gastrocolokinetic Synthetic Ghrelin Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic ghrelin agonists, predominantly small molecules, are being developed as prokinetic agents that may prove useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders. Relamorelin (RM-131) is a pentapeptide synthetic ghrelin analog that activates the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS)-1a (also called the ghrelin) receptor with approximately 6-fold greater potency than natural ghrelin. The ability of relamorelin to stimulate growth hormone (GH) release is comparable to that of native ghrelin. Relamorelin has enhanced efficacy and plasma stability compared to native ghrelin. In this review, we discuss the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and potential indications for relamorelin. Relamorelin is administered subcutaneously, dosed daily or twice daily. Relamorelin is being studied for the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders. Phase IIA pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated acceleration of gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. In a phase IIA study in patients with diabetic gastroparesis, relamorelin accelerated gastric emptying and significantly improved vomiting frequency compared to placebo and improved other symptoms of gastroparesis in a pre-specified subgroup of patients with vomiting at baseline. In patients with chronic idiopathic constipation with defined transit profile at baseline, relamorelin relieved constipation and accelerated colonic transit compared to placebo. These characteristics suggest that this new ghrelin analog shows great promise to relieve patients with upper or lower gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:25545036

  8. Two amino acids, located in transmembrane domains VI and VII, determine the selectivity of the peptide agonist SMS 201-995 for the SSTR2 somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kaupmann, K; Bruns, C; Raulf, F; Weber, H P; Mattes, H; Lübbert, H

    1995-01-01

    Human somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5) bind their natural ligands SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 with high affinity. By contrast, short synthetic SRIF analogues such as SMS 201-995, a peptide agonist used for the treatment of various endocrine and malignant disorders, display sub-nanomolar affinity only for the receptor subtype SSTR2. To understand the molecular nature of selective peptide agonist binding to somatostatin receptors we have now, by site-directed mutagenesis, identified amino acids mediating SMS 201-995 specificity for SSTR2. Sequentially, amino acids in SSTR1, a receptor subtype exhibiting low affinity for SMS 201-995, were exchanged for the corresponding SSTR2 residues. After three consecutive steps, in which eight amino acids were exchanged, a SSTR1 mutant receptor with high affinity for SMS 201-995 was obtained. Receptor mutants with different combinations of these eight amino acids were then constructed. A single Ser305 to Phe mutation in TM VII increased the affinity of SSTR1 for SMS 201-995 nearly 100-fold. When this mutation was combined with an exchange of Gln291 to Asn in TM VI, almost full susceptibility to SMS 201-995 was obtained. Thus, it is concluded that the specificity of SMS 201-995 for SSTR2 is mainly defined by these two amino acids in transmembrane domains VI and VII. Using the conjugate gradient method we have, by analogy to the well established structure of bacteriorhodopsin, built a model for SRIF receptor-ligand interactions that explains the importance of Gln291 and Ser305 for the selectivity of agonists. Images PMID:7882976

  9. Selecting agonists from single cells infected with combinatorial antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkai; Yea, Kyungmoo; Xie, Jia; Ruiz, Diana; Wilson, Ian A; Lerner, Richard A

    2013-05-23

    We describe a system for direct selection of antibodies that are receptor agonists. Combinatorial antibody libraries in lentiviruses are used to infect eukaryotic cells that contain a fluorescent reporter system coupled to the receptor for which receptor agonist antibodies are sought. In this embodiment of the method, very large numbers of candidate antibodies expressing lentivirus and eukaryotic reporter cells are packaged together in a format where each is capable of replication, thereby forging a direct link between genotype and phenotype. Following infection, cells that fluoresce are sorted and the integrated genes encoding the agonist antibodies recovered. We validated the system by illustrating its ability to generate rapidly potent antibody agonists that are complete thrombopoietin phenocopies. The system should be generalizable to any pathway where its activation can be linked to production of a selectable phenotype. PMID:23706638

  10. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT6 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Karila, Delphine; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine; Boulouard, Michel; Dallemagne, Patrick; Rochais, Christophe

    2015-10-22

    Given its predominant expression in the central nervous system (CNS), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: serotonin) subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has been considered as a valuable target for the development of CNS drugs with limited side effects. After 2 decades of intense research, numerous selective ligands have been developed to target this receptor; this holds potential interest for the treatment of neuropathological disorders. In fact, some agents (mainly antagonists) are currently undergoing clinical trial. More recently, a series of potent and selective agonists have been developed, and preclinical studies have been conducted that suggest the therapeutic interest of 5-HT6R agonists. This review details the medicinal chemistry of these agonists, highlights their activities, and discusses their potential for treating cognitive issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, or obesity. Surprisingly, some studies have shown that both 5-HT6R agonists and antagonists exert similar procognitive activities. This article summarizes the hypotheses that could explain this paradox. PMID:26099069

  11. Partial agonist therapy in schizophrenia: relevance to diminished criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Gavaudan, Gilles; Magalon, David; Cohen, Julien; Lançon, Christophe; Léonetti, Georges; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2010-11-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), classified in the DSM-IV among impulse control disorders, is defined as inappropriate, persistent gaming for money with serious personal, family, and social consequences. Offenses are frequently committed to obtain money for gambling. Pathological gambling, a planned and structured behavioral disorder, has often been described as a complication of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. It has never been described in patients with schizophrenia receiving dopamine agonists. We present two patients with schizophrenia, previously treated with antipsychotic drugs without any suggestion of PG, who a short time after starting aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, developed PG and criminal behavior, which totally resolved when aripiprazole was discontinued. Based on recent advances in research on PG and adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease, we postulate a link between aripiprazole and PG in both our patients with schizophrenia and raise the question of criminal responsibility. PMID:20579229

  12. Selective 5-HT2C agonists as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Leysen, D C

    1999-02-01

    The antidepressants currently used need improvement, especially in terms of efficacy, relapse rate and onset of action. In this review the clinical and experimental data which support the rationale for 5-HT2C agonists in the treatment of depression are listed. Next, the results obtained with the non-selective 5-HT2C agonists on the market and in clinical development are described. Finally, the preclinical data on the more selective 5-HT2C agonists are summarized. These recent preclinical results reveal a greater potency and effect size compared to fluoxetine, good tolerability and no evidence of tolerance development. Selective 5-HT2C agonists might become innovative drugs for the treatment of depression, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), some forms of aggression and eating disorders. PMID:16160946

  13. Agonist pharmacology of two Drosophila GABA receptor splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. The Drosophila melanogaster gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunits, RDLac and DRC 17-1-2, form functional homo-oligomeric receptors when heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The subunits differ in only 17 amino acids, principally in regions of the N-terminal domain which determine agonist pharmacology in vertebrate ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors. A range of conformationally restricted GABA analogues were tested on the two homo-oligomers and their agonists pharmacology compared with that of insect and vertebrate iontropic GABA receptors. 2. The actions of GABA, isoguvacine and isonipecotic acid on RDLac and DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers were compared, by use of two-electrode voltage-clamp. All three compounds were full agonists of both receptors, but were 4-6 fold less potent agonists of DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers than of RDLac. However, the relative potencies of these agonists on each receptor were very similar. 3. A more complete agonist profile was established for RDLac homo-oligomers. The most potent agonists of these receptors were GABA, muscimol and trans-aminocrotonic acid (TACA), which were approximately equipotent. RDLac homo-oligomers were fully activated by a range of GABA analogues, with the order of potency: GABA > ZAPA ((Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid) > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid > or = isonipecotic acid > or = cis-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) > beta-alanine. 3-Aminopropane sulphonic acid (3-APS), a partial agonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, was the weakest agonist tested and 100 fold less potent than GABA. 4. SR95531, an antagonist of vertebrate GABAA receptors, competitively inhibited the GABA responses of RDLac homo-oligomers, which have previously been found to insensitive to bicuculline. However, its potency (IC50 500 microM) was much reduced when compared to GABAA receptors. 5. The agonist pharmacology of Drosophila RDLac homo-oligomers exhibits aspects of the characteristic pharmacology of

  14. Sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists: review

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Carl Nikolaus; Wenzel, Karoline; Suppan, Klaudia; Ivanic, Gerd; Kriechbaum, Norbert; Crevenna, Richard; Ott, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assess the evidence for the existence and prevalence of sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease, the type of drugs implicated, and strategies for prevention and treatment. Design Review of publications between July 1999 and May 2001 in which sleep attacks or narcoleptic-like attacks were discussed in patients with Parkinson's disease. Results 124 patients with sleep events were found in 20 publications. Overall, 6.6% of patients taking dopamine agonists who attended movement disorder centres had sleep events. Men were over-represented. Sleep events occurred at both high and low doses of the drugs, with different durations of treatment (0-20 years), and with or without preceding signs of tiredness. Sleep attacks are a class effect, having been found in patients taking the following dopamine agonists: levodopa (monotherapy in 8 patients), ergot agonists (apomorphine in 2 patients, bromocriptine in 13, cabergoline in 1, lisuride or piribedil in 23, pergolide in 5,) and non-ergot agonists (pramipexole in 32, ropinirole in 38). Reports suggest two distinct types of events: those of sudden onset without warning and those of slow onset with prodrome drowsiness. Conclusion Insufficient data are available to provide effective guidelines for prevention and treatment of sleep events in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease. Prospective population based studies are needed to provide this information. What is already known on this topicCar crashes in patients with Parkinson's disease have been associated with sleep attacks caused by the dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropiniroleWhether sleep attacks exist, their connection with certain agonists, prevention or treatment, and the justification of legal actions are controversialWhat this study addsSleep attacks as a phenomenon distinct from normal somnolence really do existThey are a class effect of all dopamine drugsEffective prevention and treatment

  15. Identification of M-CSF agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan; Jancarik, Jarmila; Kim, Sung-Hou; Koths, Kirston; Halenbeck, Robert; Fear, Anna Lisa; Taylor, Eric; Yamamoto, Ralph; Bohm, Andrew

    2000-02-15

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  16. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25326839

  17. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25437461

  18. PPAR dual agonists: are they opening Pandora's Box?

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Rose, Madhankumar; Ganti, Subrahmanya S; Krishan, Pawan; Singh, Manjeet

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the major cause of mortality in patients of diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily comprising of three subtypes such as PPARalpha, PPARgamma and PPARdelta/beta. Activation of PPARalpha reduces triglycerides and involves in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARgamma causes insulin sensitization and enhances glucose metabolism, whereas activation of PPARdelta enhances fatty acid metabolism. Current therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of diabetes do not inhibit the associated secondary cardiovascular complications. Hence, the development of multimodal drugs which can reduce hyperglycemia and concomitantly inhibit the progression of secondary cardiovascular complications may offer valuable therapeutic option. Several basic and clinical studies have exemplified the beneficial effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma ligands in preventing the cardiovascular risks. The PPARalpha/gamma dual agonists are developed to increase insulin sensitivity and simultaneously prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. Such compounds are under clinical trials and proposed for treatment of Type II diabetes with secondary cardiovascular complications. However, PPARalpha/gamma dual agonists such as muraglitazar, tesaglitazar and ragaglitazar have been noted to produce several cardiovascular risks and carcinogenicity, which raised number of questions about the clinical applications of dual agonists in diabetes and its associated complications. The ongoing basic studies have elucidated the cardio protective role of PPARdelta. Therefore, further studies are on the track to develop PPARalpha/delta and PPAR gamma/delta dual agonists and PPARalpha/gamma/delta pan agonists for the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications. The present review critically analyzes the protective and detrimental effect of PPAR agonists in

  19. Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Strange, Philip G

    2005-05-01

    Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at the D2(short) dopamine receptor have been examined. Discrimination of G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled forms of the receptor by inverse agonists was examined in competition ligand-binding studies versus the agonist [3H]NPA at a concentration labelling both G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled receptors. Competition of inverse agonists versus [3H]NPA gave data that were fitted best by a two-binding site model in the absence of GTP but by a one-binding site model in the presence of GTP. K(i) values were derived from the competition data for binding of the inverse agonists to G-protein-uncoupled and -coupled receptors. K(coupled) and K(uncoupled) were statistically different for the set of compounds tested (ANOVA) but the individual values were different in a post hoc test only for (+)-butaclamol. These observations were supported by simulations of these competition experiments according to the extended ternary complex model. Inverse agonist efficacy of the ligands was assessed from their ability to reduce agonist-independent [35S]GTP gamma S binding to varying degrees in concentration-response curves. Inverse agonism by (+)-butaclamol and spiperone occurred at higher potency when GDP was added to assays, whereas the potency of (-)-sulpiride was unaffected. These data show that some inverse agonists ((+)-butaclamol, spiperone) achieve inverse agonism by stabilising the uncoupled form of the receptor at the expense of the coupled form. For other compounds tested, we were unable to define the mechanism. PMID:15735658

  20. Differential effects of AMPK agonists on cell growth and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Emma E.; Coelho, Paula P.; Blagih, Julianna; Griss, Takla; Viollet, Benoit; Jones, Russell G.

    2016-01-01

    As a sensor of cellular energy status, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is believed to act in opposition to the metabolic phenotypes favored by proliferating tumor cells. Consequently, compounds known to activate AMPK have been proposed as cancer therapeutics. However, the extent to which the anti-neoplastic properties of these agonists are mediated by AMPK is unclear. Here we examined the AMPK-dependence of six commonly used AMPK agonists (metformin, phenformin, AICAR, 2DG, salicylate and A-769662) and their influence on cellular processes often deregulated in tumor cells. We demonstrate that the majority of these agonists display AMPK-independent effects on cell proliferation and metabolism with only the synthetic activator, A-769662, exerting AMPK-dependent effects on these processes. We find that A-769662 promotes an AMPK-dependent increase in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity (SRC). Finally, contrary to the view of AMPK activity being tumor suppressive, we find A-769662 confers a selective proliferative advantage to tumor cells growing under nutrient deprivation. Our results indicate that many of the anti-growth properties of these agonists cannot be attributed to AMPK activity in cells, and thus any observed effects using these agonists should be confirmed using AMPK-deficient cells. Ultimately, our data urge caution, not only regarding the type of AMPK agonist proposed for cancer treatment, but also the context in which they are used. PMID:25241895

  1. Perception of specific trigeminal chemosensory agonists

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, J; Albrecht, J; Bryant, B; Lundström, JN

    2011-01-01

    The intranasal trigeminal system is a third chemical sense in addition to olfaction and gustation. As opposed to smell and taste, we still lack knowledge on the relationship between receptor binding and perception for the trigeminal system. We therefore investigated the sensitivity of the intranasal trigeminal system towards agonists of the trigeminal receptors TRPM8 and TRPA1 by assessing subjects’ ability to identify which nostril has been stimulated in a monorhinal stimulation design. We summed the number of correct identifications resulting in a lateralization score. Stimuli were menthol (activating TRPM8 receptors), eucalyptol (TRPM8), mustard oil (TRPA1) and two mixtures thereof (menthol/eucalyptol and menthol/mustard oil). In addition, we examined the relationship between intensity and lateralization scores and investigated whether intensity evaluation and lateralization scores of the mixtures show additive effects. All stimuli were correctly lateralized significantly above chance. Across subjects the lateralization scores for single compounds activating the same receptor showed a stronger correlation than stimuli activating different receptors. Although single compounds were isointense, the mixture of menthol and eucalyptol (activating only TRPM8) was perceived as weaker and was lateralized less accurately than the mixture of menthol and mustard oil (activating both TRPM8 and TRPA1) suggesting suppression effects in the former mixture. In conclusion, sensitivity of different subpopulations of trigeminal sensory neurons seems to be related, but only to a certain degree. The large coherence in sensitivity between various intranasal trigeminal stimuli suggests that measuring sensitivity to one single trigeminal chemical stimulus may be sufficient to generally assess the trigeminal system’s chemosensitivity. Further, for stimuli activating the same receptor a mixture suppression effect appears to occur similar to that observed in the other chemosensory

  2. Identification of Determinants Required for Agonistic and Inverse Agonistic Ligand Properties at the ADP Receptor P2Y12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Philipp; Ritscher, Lars; Dong, Elizabeth N.; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Cöster, Maxi; Wittkopf, Doreen; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The ADP receptor P2Y12 belongs to the superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its activation triggers platelet aggregation. Therefore, potent antagonists, such as clopidogrel, are of high clinical relevance in prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events. P2Y12 displays an elevated basal activity in vitro, and as such, inverse agonists may be therapeutically beneficial compared with antagonists. Only a few inverse agonists of P2Y12 have been described. To expand this limited chemical space and improve understanding of structural determinants of inverse agonist-receptor interaction, this study screened a purine compound library for lead structures using wild-type (WT) human P2Y12 and 28 constitutively active mutants. Results showed that ATP and ATP derivatives are agonists at P2Y12. The potency at P2Y12 was 2-(methylthio)-ADP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP > ADP > ATP. Determinants required for agonistic ligand activity were identified. Molecular docking studies revealed a binding pocket for the ATP derivatives that is bordered by transmembrane helices 3, 5, 6, and 7 in human P2Y12, with Y105, E188, R256, Y259, and K280 playing a particularly important role in ligand interaction. N-Methyl-anthraniloyl modification at the 3′-OH of the 2′-deoxyribose leads to ligands (mant-deoxy-ATP [dATP], mant-deoxy-ADP) with inverse agonist activity. Inverse agonist activity of mant-dATP was found at the WT human P2Y12 and half of the constitutive active P2Y12 mutants. This study showed that, in addition to ADP and ATP, other ATP derivatives are not only ligands of P2Y12 but also agonists. Modification of the ribose within ATP can result in inverse activity of ATP-derived ligands. PMID:23093496

  3. Roles of the {beta} subunit hinge domain in ATP synthase F{sub 1} sector: Hydrophobic network formed by introduced {beta}Phe174 inhibits subunit rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu

    2010-04-30

    The ATP synthase {beta} subunit hinge domain ({beta}Phe148 {approx} {beta}Gly186, P-loop/{alpha}-helixB/loop/{beta}-sheet4, Escherichia coli residue numbering) dramatically changes in conformation upon nucleotide binding. We previously reported that F{sub 1} with the {beta}Ser174 to Phe mutation in the domain lowered the {gamma} subunit rotation speed, and thus decreased the ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F{sub 1} sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the {beta} subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704.]. Homology modeling indicates that the amino acid replacement induces a hydrophobic network, in which the {beta}Met159, {beta}Ile163, and {beta}Ala167 residues of the {beta} subunit are involved together with the mutant {beta}Phe174. The network is expected to stabilize the conformation of {beta}{sub DP} (nucleotide-bound form of the {beta} subunit), resulting in increased activation energy for transition to {beta}{sub E} (empty {beta} subunit). The modeling further predicts that replacement of {beta}Met159 with Ala or Ile weakens the hydrophobic network. As expected, these two mutations experimentally suppressed the ATPase activities as well as subunit rotation of {beta}S174F. Furthermore, the rotation rate decreased with the increase of the strength in the hydrophobic network. These results indicate that the smooth conformational change of the {beta} subunit hinge domain is pertinent for the rotational catalysis.

  4. The CF-modifying gene EHF promotes p.Phe508del-CFTR residual function by altering protein glycosylation and trafficking in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stanke, Frauke; van Barneveld, Andrea; Hedtfeld, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Becker, Tim; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2014-05-01

    The three-base-pair deletion c.1521_1523delCTT (p.Phe508del, F508del) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the most frequent disease-causing lesion in cystic fibrosis (CF). The CFTR gene encodes a chloride and bicarbonate channel at the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Altered ion transport of CFTR-expressing epithelia can be used to differentiate manifestations of the so-called CF basic defect. Recently, an 11p13 region has been described as a CF modifier by the North American CF Genetic Modifier Study Consortium. Selecting the epithelial-specific transcription factor EHF (ets homologous factor) as the likely candidate gene on 11p13, we have genotyped two intragenic microsatellites in EHF to replicate the 11p13 finding in the patient cohort of the European CF Twin and Sibling Study. We could observe an association of rare EHF haplotypes among homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, which exhibit a CF-untypical manifestation of the CF basic defect such as CFTR-mediated residual chloride secretion and low response to amiloride. We have reviewed transcriptome data obtained from intestinal epithelial samples of homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, which were stratified for their EHF genetic background. Transcripts that were upregulated among homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, who carry two rare EHF alleles, were enriched for genes that alter protein glycosylation and trafficking, both mechanisms being pivotal for the effective targeting of fully functional p.Phe508del-CFTR to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. We conclude that EHF modifies the CF phenotype by altering capabilities of the epithelial cell to correctly process the folding and trafficking of mutant p.Phe508del-CFTR. PMID:24105369

  5. Difficult diagnosis and localization of focal nesidioblastosis: clinical implications of 68Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide PET scanning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Ri; Shin, Yong Chan; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Han, Young Min; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Focal nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Because it is difficult to localize and detect with current imaging modalities, nesidioblastosis is challenging for biliary-pancreatic surgeons. 68Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide PET scanning and 111indium-pentetreotide diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid octreotide scanning may be superior to conventional imaging modalities in determining the localization of nesidioblastosis. We report the successful surgical treatment of a 54-year-old woman with focal hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans, who experienced frequent hypoglycemic symptoms and underwent various diagnostic examinations with different results. PMID:27433465

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of mutations at the Phe41 position in the distal haem pocket of horseradish peroxidase C: structural and functional consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Heering, Hendrik A; Smith, Andrew T; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2002-01-01

    Three mutants of horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) have been constructed in which the conserved distal aromatic residue Phe(41) has been substituted by Trp, Val or Ala and the properties of the mutant proteins have been compared with that of the wild-type. The ferric and ferrous states have been studied by resonance Raman, electronic absorption and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, together with their respective fluoride and CO complexes as probes for the integrity of the distal haem-pocket hydrogen-bonding network. The catalytic properties of the mutants, most notably the HRPC-mutant Phe(41)-->Trp (F41W) variant, were also affected. Structural modelling suggests that the bulky indole group of the F41W mutant blocks the distal cavity, inhibiting the binding of fluoride and CO to the haem iron, severely impairing the reaction of the enzyme with H(2)O(2) to form Compound I. Substitution with the smaller side-chain residues Val or Ala resulted in a 2-fold increase in the affinity of the mutants for the aromatic donor benzhydroxamic acid (BHA) compared with the wild-type, whereas the sterically hindered F41W mutant was not able to bind BHA at all. All the mutations studied increased the amount of a ferric six-coordinate aquo-high-spin species. On the other hand, the similarity in the Fe-Im stretching frequencies of the mutants and wild-type protein suggests that the distal haem-pocket mutations do not cause any substantive changes on the proximal side of the haem. Spectra of the HRPC mutant Phe(41)-->Ala-CO and the HRPC mutant Phe(41)-->Val-CO complexes strongly suggested a weakening of the interaction between CO and Arg(38) due to a secondary rearrangement of the haem relative to helix B. The effects observed for these HRP mutants were somewhat different from those noted recently for the analogous Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) mutants, particularly the Trp mutant. These differences can be reconciled in part as being due to the smaller size of the

  7. Difficult diagnosis and localization of focal nesidioblastosis: clinical implications of (68)Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide PET scanning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ri; Jang, Jin-Young; Shin, Yong Chan; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Han, Young Min; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-07-01

    Focal nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Because it is difficult to localize and detect with current imaging modalities, nesidioblastosis is challenging for biliary-pancreatic surgeons. (68)Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide PET scanning and (111)indium-pentetreotide diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid octreotide scanning may be superior to conventional imaging modalities in determining the localization of nesidioblastosis. We report the successful surgical treatment of a 54-year-old woman with focal hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans, who experienced frequent hypoglycemic symptoms and underwent various diagnostic examinations with different results. PMID:27433465

  8. Anti-nociception mediated by a κ opioid receptor agonist is blocked by a δ receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, A M W; Roberts, K W; Pradhan, A A; Akbari, H A; Walwyn, W; Lutfy, K; Carroll, F I; Cahill, C M; Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The opioid receptor family comprises four structurally homologous but functionally distinct sub-groups, the μ (MOP), δ (DOP), κ (KOP) and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. As most opioid agonists are selective but not specific, a broad spectrum of behaviours due to activation of different opioid receptors is expected. In this study, we examine whether other opioid receptor systems influenced KOP-mediated antinociception. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used a tail withdrawal assay in C57Bl/6 mice to assay the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered opioid agonists with varying selectivity at KOP receptors. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyse the interactions of the other opioid receptors in modulating KOP-mediated antinociception. KEY RESULTS Etorphine, a potent agonist at all four opioid receptors, was not anti-nociceptive in MOP knockout (KO) mice, although etorphine is an efficacious KOP receptor agonist and specific KOP receptor agonists remain analgesic in MOP KO mice. As KOP receptor agonists are aversive, we considered KOP-mediated antinociception might be a form of stress-induced analgesia that is blocked by the anxiolytic effects of DOP receptor agonists. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the DOP antagonist, naltrindole (10 mg·kg−1), unmasked etorphine (3 mg·kg−1) antinociception in MOP KO mice. Further, in wild-type mice, KOP-mediated antinociception by systemic U50,488H (10 mg·kg−1) was blocked by pretreatment with the DOP agonist SNC80 (5 mg·kg−1) and diazepam (1 mg·kg−1). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Systemic DOP receptor agonists blocked systemic KOP antinociception, and these results identify DOP receptor agonists as potential agents for reversing stress-driven addictive and depressive behaviours mediated through KOP receptor activation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles

  9. Dihydrocodeine/Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Albrecht; Müller, Markus; Frietsch, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients. Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC) to 102 heavily alcohol addicted patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks), Baclofen, and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DHC, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-steps scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details. Conclusion: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around 1/4 of the patients already. Many further

  10. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  11. Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature☆

    PubMed Central

    Atanasov, Atanas G.; Wang, Jian N.; Gu, Shi P.; Bu, Jing; Kramer, Matthias P.; Baumgartner, Lisa; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Ladurner, Angela; Malainer, Clemens; Vuorinen, Anna; Noha, Stefan M.; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Heiss, Elke H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists are clinically used to counteract hyperglycemia. However, so far experienced unwanted side effects, such as weight gain, promote the search for new PPARγ activators. Methods We used a combination of in silico, in vitro, cell-based and in vivo models to identify and validate natural products as promising leads for partial novel PPARγ agonists. Results The natural product honokiol from the traditional Chinese herbal drug Magnolia bark was in silico predicted to bind into the PPARγ ligand binding pocket as dimer. Honokiol indeed directly bound to purified PPARγ ligand-binding domain (LBD) and acted as partial agonist in a PPARγ-mediated luciferase reporter assay. Honokiol was then directly compared to the clinically used full agonist pioglitazone with regard to stimulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes as well as adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. While honokiol stimulated basal glucose uptake to a similar extent as pioglitazone, it did not induce adipogenesis in contrast to pioglitazone. In diabetic KKAy mice oral application of honokiol prevented hyperglycemia and suppressed weight gain. Conclusion We identified honokiol as a partial non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist in vitro which prevented hyperglycemia and weight gain in vivo. General significance This observed activity profile suggests honokiol as promising new pharmaceutical lead or dietary supplement to combat metabolic disease, and provides a molecular explanation for the use of Magnolia in traditional medicine. PMID:23811337

  12. Modification of opiate agonist binding by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, M.E.; Lee, N.M.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    Opiate agonist binding is decreased by GTP, suggesting the possible involvement of GTP binding proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding. This possibility was addressed by asking whether pertussis toxin treatment, which results in ADP-ribosylation and modification of G proteins, would alter opiate agonist binding. The striatum was chosen for the initial brain area to be studied, since regulation of opiate action in this area had been shown to be modified by pertussis toxin. Treatment of striatal membranes with pertussis toxin results in up to a 55% decrease in /sup 3/(H)-DADLE binding as compared with membranes treated identically without toxin. This corresponds to a near complete ADP-ribosylation of both G proteins in the striatal membrane. The decrease in agonist binding appears to be due to an altered affinity of the receptor for agonist as opposed to a decrease in the number of sites. This effect of pertussis toxin on opiate agonist binding demonstrates the actual involvement of G proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding.

  13. Radiation therapy generates platelet-activating factor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ravi P.; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Weyerbacher, Jonathan; Murphy, Robert C.; Konger, Raymond L.; Garrett, Joy Elizabeth; Chin-Sinex, Helen Jan; Johnston, Michael Edward; Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Mendonca, Marc; McMullen, Kevin; Li, Gengxin; Spandau, Dan F.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Pro-oxidative stressors can suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipid agonists of the platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R). As radiation therapy also induces reactive oxygen species, the present studies were designed to define whether ionizing radiation could generate PAF-R agonists and if these lipids could subvert host immunity. We demonstrate that radiation exposure of multiple tumor cell lines in-vitro, tumors in-vivo, and human subjects undergoing radiation therapy for skin tumors all generate PAF-R agonists. Structural characterization of radiation-induced PAF-R agonistic activity revealed PAF and multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholines that are produced non-enzymatically. In a murine melanoma tumor model, irradiation of one tumor augmented the growth of the other (non-treated) tumor in a PAF-R-dependent process blocked by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. These results indicate a novel pathway by which PAF-R agonists produced as a byproduct of radiation therapy could result in tumor treatment failure, and offer important insights into potential therapeutic strategies that could improve the overall antitumor effectiveness of radiation therapy regimens. PMID:26959112

  14. Radiation therapy generates platelet-activating factor agonists.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ravi P; Harrison, Kathleen A; Weyerbacher, Jonathan; Murphy, Robert C; Konger, Raymond L; Garrett, Joy Elizabeth; Chin-Sinex, Helen Jan; Johnston, Michael Edward; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Mendonca, Marc; McMullen, Kevin; Li, Gengxin; Spandau, Dan F; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2016-04-12

    Pro-oxidative stressors can suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipid agonists of the platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R). As radiation therapy also induces reactive oxygen species, the present studies were designed to define whether ionizing radiation could generate PAF-R agonists and if these lipids could subvert host immunity. We demonstrate that radiation exposure of multiple tumor cell lines in-vitro, tumors in-vivo, and human subjects undergoing radiation therapy for skin tumors all generate PAF-R agonists. Structural characterization of radiation-induced PAF-R agonistic activity revealed PAF and multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholines that are produced non-enzymatically. In a murine melanoma tumor model, irradiation of one tumor augmented the growth of the other (non-treated) tumor in a PAF-R-dependent process blocked by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. These results indicate a novel pathway by which PAF-R agonists produced as a byproduct of radiation therapy could result in tumor treatment failure, and offer important insights into potential therapeutic strategies that could improve the overall antitumor effectiveness of radiation therapy regimens. PMID:26959112

  15. In vivo application of ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide for detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Setyono-Han, B.; de Jong, M.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Bruns, C.; van Hagen, P.M.; Marbach, P.; Visser, T.J.; Pless, J.; Lamberts, S.W.J. Sandoz Research Inst., Berne Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated its in vivo application in the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical was investigated after intravenous injection in normal rats and in rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic carcinoma CA 20948. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies showed that specific accumulation of radioactivity occurred in somatostatin receptor-containing tissue (anterior pituitary gland). However, in contrast to the adrenals and pituitary, the tracer accumulation in the kidneys was not mediated by somatostatin receptors. Increasing radioactivity over the somatostatin receptor-positive tumors was measured rapidly after injection and the tumors were clearly visualized by gamma camera scintigraphy. In rats pretreated with 1 mg octreotide accumulation of ({sup 111}In-DPTA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide in the tumors was prevented. Because of its relatively long effective half-life, ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogue which can be used to visualize somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors efficiently after 24 hr, when interfering background radioactivity is minimized by renal clearance.

  16. Divalent Metal-Ion Complexes with Dipeptide Ligands Having Phe and His Side-Chain Anchors: Effects of Sequence, Metal Ion, and Anchor.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Robert C; Berden, Giel; Martens, Jonathan K; Oomens, Jos

    2015-09-24

    Conformational preferences have been surveyed for divalent metal cation complexes with the dipeptide ligands AlaPhe, PheAla, GlyHis, and HisGly. Density functional theory results for a full set of complexes are presented, and previous experimental infrared spectra, supplemented by a number of newly recorded spectra obtained with infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy, provide experimental verification of the preferred conformations in most cases. The overall structural features of these complexes are shown, and attention is given to comparisons involving peptide sequence, nature of the metal ion, and nature of the side-chain anchor. A regular progression is observed as a function of binding strength, whereby the weakly binding metal ions (Ba(2+) to Ca(2+)) transition from carboxylate zwitterion (ZW) binding to charge-solvated (CS) binding, while the stronger binding metal ions (Ca(2+) to Mg(2+) to Ni(2+)) transition from CS binding to metal-ion-backbone binding (Iminol) by direct metal-nitrogen bonds to the deprotonated amide nitrogens. Two new sequence-dependent reversals are found between ZW and CS binding modes, such that Ba(2+) and Ca(2+) prefer ZW binding in the GlyHis case but prefer CS binding in the HisGly case. The overall binding strength for a given metal ion is not strongly dependent on the sequence, but the histidine peptides are significantly more strongly bound (by 50-100 kJ mol(-1)) than the phenylalanine peptides. PMID:26325483

  17. Hepatobiliary handling of iodine-125-Tyr3-octreotide and indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide by isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    de Jong, M; Bakker, W H; Breeman, W A; van der Pluijm, M E; Kooij, P P; Visser, T J; Docter, R; Krenning, E P

    1993-11-01

    Radiolabeled bioactive peptides may show receptor-mediated binding to tumors, making them suitable for scintigraphic imaging. The liver is an important organ for peptide clearance. To gain insight into the uptake and intracellular processing of somatostatin analogs, we compared the hepatobiliary handling of 125I-Tyr3-octreotide and 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, which are successfully used to image somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in vivo in isolated recirculating perfused rat livers. Sixty minutes following administration of the radiolabeled peptides, perfusion medium and biliary radioactivity were analyzed. Radioiodinated Tyr3-octreotide was rapidly cleared by the liver and 60% of the dose was excreted intact into the bile after 60 min. In contrast, 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was not cleared by the liver; medium radioactivity levels remained about constant and only 2% of the dose was found in the bile. These results are in agreement with in vivo findings in rats and humans. We concluded that isolated rat liver perfusion is a good system to rapidly gain insight into the hepatic handling of radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:8229254

  18. A Novel Missense Mutation in the Second Extracellular Domain of GJB2, p.Ser183Phe, Causes a Syndrome of Focal Palmoplantar Keratoderma with Deafness

    PubMed Central

    de Zwart-Storm, Eugene A.; van Geel, Michel; van Neer, Pierre A.F.A.; Steijlen, Peter M.; Martin, Patricia E.; van Steensel, Maurice A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Gap junctions, which consist of connexins, are intercellular channels that mediate rapid intercellular communication. In the skin, connexins are involved in the regulation of epidermal growth and differentiation. GJB2 encodes connexin26, which is an important skin-expressed gap junction protein. Mutations in GJB2 cause a wide variety of unique disorders, but despite extensive research, their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. The identification of novel diseases caused by mutations in GJB2 may help to illuminate the genotype-phenotype correlation and elucidate the function of different regions of the protein. Here, we report the first account of a family with a GJB2 missense mutation in the second extracellular domain (p.Ser183Phe) that causes skin abnormalities in addition to sensorineural hearing loss. Using fluorescent connexin26-EGFP fusion proteins, we showed that the mutation induces a partial protein transport defect that cannot be rescued by wild-type protein. Dye-transfer experiments using a parachute assay revealed channel functionality. Although p.Ser183Phe affects the second extracellular domain, mutations in the first extracellular domain also lead to focal palmoplantar keratoderma and likewise perturb protein transport in a dominant-negative manner. Therefore, we hypothesize that focal palmoplantar keratoderma in gap junction skin disease may be specifically associated with connexin trafficking defects as well as with mutations affecting its extracellular domains, thus broadening the spectrum of GJB2-associated diseases. PMID:18787097

  19. Supra-physiological efficacy at GPCRs: superstition or super agonists?

    PubMed Central

    Langmead, Christopher J; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ‘super agonism’ has been described since the discovery of peptide hormone analogues that yielded greater functional responses than the endogenous agonists, in the early 1980s. It has remained an area of debate as to whether such compounds can really display greater efficacy than an endogenous agonist. However, recent pharmacological data, combined with crystal structures of different GPCR conformations and improved analytical methods for quantifying drug action, are starting to shed light on this phenomenon and indicate that super agonists may be more than superstition. Linked Article This article is a commentary on Schrage et al., pp. 357–370 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12003 PMID:23441648

  20. Principles of agonist recognition in Cys-loop receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lynagh, Timothy; Pless, Stephan A.

    2014-01-01

    Cys-loop receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a structurally diverse array of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, serotonin, glycine, and GABA. After the term “chemoreceptor” emerged over 100 years ago, there was some wait until affinity labeling, molecular cloning, functional studies, and X-ray crystallography experiments identified the extracellular interface of adjacent subunits as the principal site of agonist binding. The question of how subtle differences at and around agonist-binding sites of different Cys-loop receptors can accommodate transmitters as chemically diverse as glycine and serotonin has been subject to intense research over the last three decades. This review outlines the functional diversity and current structural understanding of agonist-binding sites, including those of invertebrate Cys-loop receptors. Together, this provides a framework to understand the atomic determinants involved in how these valuable therapeutic targets recognize and bind their ligands. PMID:24795655

  1. Alpha-2 agonists as pain therapy in horses.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Alpha-2 agonists, such as xylazine, clonidine, romifidine, detomidine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine, are potent analgesic drugs that also induce physiologic and behavioral changes, such as hypertension, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, excessive sedation and ataxia, all of which can potentially limit their systemic use as analgesics in some clinical cases. The use of medetomidine and dexmetomidine has been introduced for equine anesthesia/analgesia, and although not approved in this species, their increased specificity for alpha-2 receptors may offer some potential advantages over the traditional alpha-2 agonists. Similarly, other routes of administration and benefits of alpha-2 agonists are recognized in the human and laboratory animal literature, which may prove useful in the equine patient if validated in the near future. This review presents this relevant information. PMID:21056297

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Revealed that the Human Polyomavirus JC Virus Agnoprotein Contains an α-Helix Encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-Rich Domain

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Pascale; Saribas, A. Sami; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne; White, Martyn K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agnoprotein is a small multifunctional regulatory protein required for sustaining the productive replication of JC virus (JCV). It is a mostly cytoplasmic protein localizing in the perinuclear area and forms highly stable dimers/oligomers through a Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain. There have been no three-dimensional structural data available for agnoprotein due to difficulties associated with the dynamic conversion from monomers to oligomers. Here, we report the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a synthetic agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids Thr17 to Glu55 where Lys23 to Phe39 encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain forms an amphipathic α-helix. On the basis of these structural data, a number of Ala substitution mutations were made to investigate the role of the α-helix in the structure and function of agnoprotein. Single L29A and L36A mutations exhibited a significant negative effect on both protein stability and viral replication, whereas the L32A mutation did not. In addition, the L29A mutant displayed a highly nuclear localization pattern, in contrast to the pattern for the wild type (WT). Interestingly, a triple mutant, the L29A+L32A+L36A mutant, yielded no detectable agnoprotein expression, and the replication of this JCV mutant was significantly reduced, suggesting that Leu29 and Leu36 are located at the dimer interface, contributing to the structure and stability of agnoprotein. Two other single mutations, L33A and E34A, did not perturb agnoprotein stability as drastically as that observed with the L29A and L36A mutations, but they negatively affected viral replication, suggesting that the role of these residues is functional rather than structural. Thus, the agnoprotein dimerization domain can be targeted for the development of novel drugs active against JCV infection. IMPORTANCE Agnoprotein is a small regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV) and is required for the successful completion of the viral replication cycle. It forms

  3. Agonist treatment in opioid use: advances and controversy.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Chand, Prabhat; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima

    2012-06-01

    Opioid dependence is a chronic relapsing condition which requires comprehensive care; pharmacological agents form the mainstay of its long term treatment. The two most popular approaches are the harm reduction method using agonists and the complete abstinence method using antagonists. Currently, particularly from the harm minimization perspective and the low feasibility of an abstinence based approach, there is an increasing trend toward agonist treatment. The use of buprenorphine has gained popularity in view of its safety profile and the availability of the buprenorphine-naloxone combination has made it popular as a take-home treatment. This review outlines the pharmacological advances and controversies in this area. PMID:22813654

  4. Insect Nicotinic Receptor Agonists as Flea Adulticides in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Dai Tan; Hsu, Walter H.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Fleas are significant ectoparasites of small animals. They can be a severe irritant to animals and serve as a vector for a number of infectious diseases. In this article, we discuss the pharmacological characteristics of four insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists used as fleacides in dogs and cats, which include three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and dinotefuran) and spinosad. Insect nAChR agonists are one of the most important new classes of insecticides, which are used to control sucking insects both on plants and on companion animals. These new compounds provide a new approach for practitioners to safely and effectively eliminate fleas. PMID:20646191

  5. Piperidine derivatives as nonprostanoid IP receptor agonists 2.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Hiroaki; Ishigaki, Takeshi; Morita, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Isogaya, Masafumi

    2016-06-15

    We searched for a strong and selective nonprostanoid IP agonist bearing piperidine and benzanilide moieties. Through optimization of substituents on the benzanilide moiety, the crucial part of the agonist, 43 (2-((1-(2-(N-(4-tolyl)benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamido)ethyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)acetic acid monohydrate monohydrochloride) was discovered and exhibited strong platelet aggregation inhibition (IC50=21nM) and 100-fold selectivity for IP receptor over other PG receptors. The systemic exposure level and bioavailability after oral administration of 43 were also good in dog. PMID:27133594

  6. Pyrrolo- and Pyridomorphinans: Non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Clark, M.J.; Traynor, J.R.; Lewis, J.W.; Husbands, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse. PMID:24973818

  7. Pyrrolo- and pyridomorphinans: non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Clark, M J; Traynor, J R; Lewis, J W; Husbands, S M

    2014-08-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse. PMID:24973818

  8. Synthetic RORγt Agonists Enhance Protective Immunity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mi Ra; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Doebelin, Christelle; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D; Novick, Scott J; Kuruvilla, Dana S; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Griffin, Patrick R

    2016-04-15

    The T cell specific RORγ isoform RORγt has been shown to be the key lineage-defining transcription factor to initiate the differentiation program of TH17 and TC17 cells, cells that have demonstrated antitumor efficacy. RORγt controls gene networks that enhance immunity including increased IL17 production and decreased immune suppression. Both synthetic and putative endogenous agonists of RORγt have been shown to increase the basal activity of RORγt enhancing TH17 cell proliferation. Here, we show that activation of RORγt using synthetic agonists drives proliferation of TH17 cells while decreasing levels of the immune checkpoint protein PD-1, a mechanism that should enhance antitumor immunity while blunting tumor associated adaptive immune resistance. Interestingly, putative endogenous agonists drive proliferation of TH17 cells but do not repress PD-1. These findings suggest that synthetic agonists of RORγt should activate TC17/TH17 cells (with concomitant reduction in the Tregs population), repress PD-1, and produce IL17 in situ (a factor associated with good prognosis in cancer). Enhanced immunity and blockage of immune checkpoints has transformed cancer treatment; thus such a molecule would provide a unique approach for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26785144

  9. Amphetamine- type reinforcement by dopaminergic agonists in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A; Wise, R A

    1978-07-19

    Intravenous self-administration of d-amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg/injection) decreased in a dose-related fashion after injections of the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and piribedil. The dopaminergic agonists appear to suppress amphetamine intake in the same way as do 'free' amphetamine injections, by extending drug satiation in a given interresponse period. Clonidine, an alpha noradrenergic agonist, did not have similar effects. Apomorphine and piribedil did not increase 14C-amphetamine levels in rat brains, nor did they retard disappearance of 14C-amphetamine; thus their amphetamine-like effects are not due to alterations of amphetamine metabolism. Rats responding for amphetamine continued to respond for apomorphine or peribedil when the latter drugs were substituted for the former. Rats experienced in amphetamine self-administration readily initiated and maintained responding for apomorphine and piribedil. The dopaminergic blocker (+)-butaclamol disrupted responding for apomorphine and piribedil, although it produced no marked increase in responding for the dopaminergic agonists, as it does for amphetamine. These data add to the evidence that actions in the dopaminergic synapse account for amphetamine's reinforcing properties. PMID:98800

  10. Alkaloid delta agonist BW373U86 increases hypoxic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bofetiado, D M; Mayfield, K P; D'Alecy, L G

    1996-06-01

    Activation of delta opioid receptors increases survival time during acute, lethal hypoxia in mice. delta Agonists therefore present a promising avenue for therapeutic application to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with clinical hypoxia in settings such as drowning, head injury apnea, and complicated childbirths. However, most delta agonists now available are peptides, and may have limited clinical utility. In the present study, we evaluate the neuroprotective ability of an alkaloid delta agonist, BW373U86. Alkaloid compounds, due to increased stability and increased systemic distribution, may be more favorable for clinical use. We found that BW373U86, like the peptide delta agonist, DPDPE ([D-Pen2, D-Pen5]-enkephalin), increases survival time of mice during lethal hypoxia. The mechanism of neuroprotection induced by delta receptor activation appears to involve decreasing body temperature. Further, using selective opioid receptor antagonists, it appears that BW373U86 exerts these neuroprotective effects by acting at delta-opioid receptors. PMID:8638797

  11. The Agonistic Approach: Reframing Resistance in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2008-01-01

    The agonistic approach--aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political--sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a…

  12. [Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, G; Minguet, G; Brichant, J F

    2014-02-01

    Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists have long been used in the treatment of arterial hypertension. However, in that indication they have progressively been replaced by antihypertensive drugs with a more interesting therapeutic profile. Nonetheless, pharmacological activation of alpha-2 adrenoreceptors leads to a variety of clinical effects that are of major interest for anaesthesia and intensive care practice. Indeed, the sedative and analgesic properties of alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists allow a reduction of hypnotic and opioid needs during general anaesthesia. In addition, they induce a down-regulation of the level of consciousness comparable to that of natural slow-wave sleep during post-anaesthesia and intensive care unit stay. These drugs may also prevent some deleterious effects of the sympathetic discharge in response to surgical stress. Furthermore, alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists are potent adjuncts for locoregional anaesthesia. In this article, we will summarize the most frequent applications of alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. We will focus on the clinical data available for the two most representative molecules of this pharmacological class: clonidine and dexmedetomidine. PMID:24683831

  13. The emerging therapeutic roles of κ-opioid agonists.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark R; Kaye, Alan D; Kaye, Aaron J; Urman, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    The current practice of μ-opioid receptor agonists such as morphine as the primary means of acute and chronic pain relief has several dangerous consequences that limit their effectiveness, including respiratory depression, gastrointestinal motility inhibition, addiction, tolerance, and abuse. Several other opioid receptors, notably the μ-opioid (KOP) receptor, have long been known to play a role in pain relief. Recent discoveries and advancements in laboratory techniques have allowed significant developments of KOP agonists as potential novel therapies for pain relief and other pathological processes. These drugs exhibit none of the classic opioid adverse effects and have displayed pronounced analgesia in several different scenarios. New formulations since 2014 have unveiled increased oral bioavailability, exceptional peripheral versus central selectivity, and a positive safety profile. Continued refinements of established μ-opioid agonist formulations have virtually eliminated the centrally mediated side effects of dysphoria and sedation that limited the applicability of previous KOP agonists. Further research is required to better elucidate the potential of these compounds in pain management, as well as in the mediation or modulation of other complex pathophysiological processes as therapeutic agents. PMID:27194194

  14. Physician perceptions of GLP-1 receptor agonists in the UK.

    PubMed

    Matza, Louis S; Curtis, Sarah E; Jordan, Jessica B; Adetunji, Omolara; Martin, Sherry A; Boye, Kristina S

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been used to treat type 2 diabetes for almost a decade, and new treatments in this class have recently been introduced. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of GLP-1 receptor agonists among physicians who treat patients with type 2 diabetes in the UK. Methods A total of 670 physicians (226 diabetes specialists; 444 general practice [GP] physicians) completed a survey in 2014. Results Almost all physicians had prescribed GLP-1 receptor agonists (95.4% total sample; 99.1% specialists; 93.5% GP), most frequently to patients whose glucose levels are not adequately controlled with oral medications (85.9% of physicians) and obese/overweight patients (83.7%). Physicians' most common reasons for prescribing a GLP-1 receptor agonist were: associated with weight loss (65.8%), good efficacy (55.7%), less hypoglycemia risk than insulin (55.2%), not associated with weight gain (34.5%), and better efficacy than oral medications (32.7%). Factors that most commonly cause hesitation when prescribing this class were: not considered first line therapy according to guidelines (56.9%), injectable administration (44.6%), cost (36.7%), gastrointestinal side effects (33.4%), and risk of pancreatitis (26.7%). Almost all specialists (99.1%) believed they had sufficient knowledge to prescribe a GLP-1 receptor agonist, compared with 76.1% of GPs. Conclusions Results highlight the widespread use of GLP-1 receptor agonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the UK. However, almost a quarter of GPs reported that they do not have enough knowledge to prescribe GLP-1s, suggesting a need for increased dissemination of information to targeted groups of physicians. Study limitations were that the generalizability of the clinician sample is unknown; survey questions required clinicians to select answers from multiple response options rather than generating the responses themselves; and responses to this survey conducted

  15. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly

  16. Induction of Selective Blood-Tumor Barrier Permeability and Macromolecular Transport by a Biostable Kinin B1 Receptor Agonist in a Glioma Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Jérôme; Bovenzi, Veronica; Savard, Martin; Dubuc, Céléna; Fortier, Audrey; Neugebauer, Witold; Tremblay, Luc; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Tsanaclis, Ana-Maria; Lepage, Martin; Fortin, David; Gobeil, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of malignant glioma with chemotherapy is limited mostly because of delivery impediment related to the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). B1 receptors (B1R), inducible prototypical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can regulate permeability of vessels including possibly that of brain tumors. Here, we determine the extent of BTB permeability induced by the natural and synthetic peptide B1R agonists, LysdesArg9BK (LDBK) and SarLys[dPhe8]desArg9BK (NG29), in syngeneic F98 glioma-implanted Fischer rats. Ten days after tumor inoculation, we detected the presence of B1R on tumor cells and associated vasculature. NG29 infusion increased brain distribution volume and uptake profiles of paramagnetic probes (Magnevist and Gadomer) at tumoral sites (T1-weighted imaging). These effects were blocked by B1R antagonist and non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, but not by B2R antagonist and non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Consistent with MRI data, systemic co-administration of NG29 improved brain tumor delivery of Carboplatin chemotherapy (ICP-Mass spectrometry). We also detected elevated B1R expression in clinical samples of high-grade glioma. Our results documented a novel GPCR-signaling mechanism for promoting transient BTB disruption, involving activation of B1R and ensuing production of COX metabolites. They also underlined the potential value of synthetic biostable B1R agonists as selective BTB modulators for local delivery of different sized-therapeutics at (peri)tumoral sites. PMID:22629405

  17. Effects of receptor-selective neurokinin agonists and a neurokinin antagonist on the electrical activity of spinal cord neurones in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Wienrich, M.; Reuss, K.; Harting, J.

    1989-01-01

    1. Rat spinal cord neurones grown in tissue culture were used to examine the electrophysiological effects of the neurokin in (NK)-selective agonists (pGlu6, Pro9) substance P(6-11) (septide; NK1, 10(-6)M) and (pGlu5, MePhe8, MeGly9)SP(1-7) (DiMe-C7; NK3, 10(-6)M). In addition, the effect of the neurokinin antagonist (D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11)SP (10(-5)M) on the neurokinin-evoked responses was investigated. 2. Neurokinin-evoked responses consisted of an increase in neuronal activity with or without long-lasting (mean: 50s) depolarizations of the membrane potential of up to 25mV. The latter also occurred in the presence of tetrodotoxin (10(-7)M) (direct response). 3. In a number of spinal cord neurones (n = 17) only septide induced a membrane depolarization while DiMe-C7 elicited no response. On the other hand, in 2 neurones a response was exclusively evoked by DiMe-C7. 4. The neurokinin antagonist (D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11)SP had no effect of its own but blocked the septide- and DiMe-C7-induced depolarizations. It had no effect on the glutamate (10(-5)M)-evoked depolarization. 5. It is concluded that by the use of neurokinin receptor-selective agonists, subpopulations of spinal cord neurones in primary dissociated cell culture can be differentiated which express the NK1 or the NK3 receptor. Cells expressing only the NK1 receptor outnumber those expressing only the NK3 receptor subtype. Both receptors can be blocked by the neurokinin antagonist (D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11)SP. PMID:2480170

  18. Discovery of Tertiary Amine and Indole Derivatives as Potent RORγt Inverse Agonists.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Liu, Qian; Cheng, Yaobang; Cai, Wei; Ma, Yingli; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Qianqian; Orband-Miller, Lisa A; Zhou, Ling; Xiang, Zhijun; Huxdorf, Melanie; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Leung, Stewart; Qiu, Yang; Zhong, Zhong; Elliott, John D; Lin, Xichen; Wang, Yonghui

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of tertiary amines as retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma-t (RORγt) inverse agonists was discovered through agonist/inverse agonist conversion. The level of RORγt inhibition can be enhanced by modulating the conformational disruption of H12 in RORγt LBD. Linker exploration and rational design led to the discovery of more potent indole-based RORγt inverse agonists. PMID:24900774

  19. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel indazolyl glucocorticoid receptor partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, John L; Sheppeck, James E; Wang, Jim; Dhar, T G Murali; Cavallaro, Cullen; Doweyko, Arthur M; Mckay, Lorraine; Cunningham, Mark D; Habte, Sium F; Nadler, Steven G; Dodd, John H; Somerville, John E; Barrish, Joel C

    2013-10-01

    SAR was used to further develop an indazole class of non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor agonists aided by a GR LBD (ligand-binding domain)-agonist co-crystal structure described in the accompanying paper. Progress towards discovering a dissociated GR agonist guided by human in vitro assays biased the optimization of this compound series towards partial agonists that possessed excellent selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:23916594

  20. Sex differences in opioid antinociception: kappa and 'mixed action' agonists.

    PubMed

    Craft, R M; Bernal, S A

    2001-08-01

    A number of investigators have shown that male animals are more sensitive than females to the antinociceptive effects of mu-opioid agonists. The present study was conducted to examine sex differences in opioid antinociception in the rat using agonists known to differ in selectivity for and efficacy at kappa- versus mu-receptors. Dose- and time-effect curves were obtained for s.c. U69593, U50488, ethylketazocine, (-)-bremazocine, (-)-pentazocine, butorphanol and nalbuphine on the 50 or 54 degrees C hotplate and warm water tail withdrawal assays; spontaneous locomotor activity was measured 32-52 min post-injection in the same rats. On the hotplate assay, only butorphanol (54 degrees C) and nalbuphine (50 degrees C) were significantly more potent in males than females. On the tail withdrawal assay, all agonists were significantly more potent or efficacious in males than females at one or both temperatures. In contrast, no agonist was consistently more potent in one sex or the other in decreasing locomotor activity. Estrous stage in female rats only slightly influenced opioid effects, accounting for an average of 2.6% of the variance in females' antinociceptive and locomotor responses to drug (50 degrees C experiment). These results suggest that (1) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioids are not mu-receptor-dependent, as they may occur with opioids known to have significant kappa-receptor-mediated activity; (2) the mechanisms underlying sex differences in kappa-opioid antinociception may be primarily spinal rather than supraspinal; (3) sex differences in antinociceptive effects of opioid agonists are not secondary to sex differences in their sedative effects. PMID:11418226

  1. Benzyloxycarbonyl-D-Phe-Pro-methoxypropylboroglycine: a novel inhibitor of thrombin with high selectivity containing a neutral side chain at the P1 position.

    PubMed Central

    Claeson, G; Philipp, M; Agner, E; Scully, M F; Metternich, R; Kakkar, V V; DeSoyza, T; Niu, L H

    1993-01-01

    Thrombin, the blood-clotting enzyme, is a serine proteinase with trypsin-like specificity and is able to cleave Arg-Xaa peptide bonds but only in a very limited number of substrates (and sites therein). For the prevention and treatment of thrombosis the control of thrombin activity is a key target, and a variety of synthetic inhibitors have been introduced recently, all of which have a positive charge at the P1 site. We report the synthesis of the first example of a new class of inhibitor containing a neutral side chain at the P1 site, the peptide benzyloxycarbonyl-D-Phe-Pro- methoxypropylboroglycine. The peptide is a potent inhibitor of thrombin [Ki (limiting) = 7 nM] and is highly selective for its target enzyme in respect of other serine proteinases. This may be expected to confer considerable advantage in terms of specificity of action and reduced toxicity over conventional, positively charged, inhibitors. PMID:8452516

  2. Synthesis and SAR of potent LXR agonists containing an indole pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Campobasso, Nino; Smallwood, Angela; Parks, Derek J.; Webb, Christine L.; Frank, Kelly A.; Nord, Melanie; Duraiswami, Chaya; Evans, Christopher; Jaye, Michael; Thompson, Scott K.

    2009-03-27

    A novel series of 1H-indol-1-yl tertiary amine LXR agonists has been designed. Compounds from this series were potent agonists with good rat pharmacokinetic parameters. In addition, the crystal structure of an LXR agonist bound to LXR{alpha} will be disclosed.

  3. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists: Beta-Cell Protection or Exhaustion?

    PubMed

    van Raalte, Daniël H; Verchere, C Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists enhance insulin secretion and may improve pancreatic islet cell function. However, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist treatment may have more complex, and sometimes deleterious, effects on beta cells. We discuss the concepts of beta cell protection versus exhaustion for different GLP-1R agonists based on recent data. PMID:27160799

  4. Fundus albipunctatus: review of the literature and report of a novel RDH5 gene mutation affecting the invariant tyrosine (p.Tyr175Phe).

    PubMed

    Skorczyk-Werner, Anna; Pawłowski, Przemysław; Michalczuk, Marta; Warowicka, Alicja; Wawrocka, Anna; Wicher, Katarzyna; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Krawczyński, Maciej R

    2015-08-01

    Fundus albipunctatus (FA) is a rare, congenital form of night blindness with rod system impairment, characterised by the presence of numerous small, white-yellow retinal lesions. FA belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes. This disorder shows autosomal recessive inheritance and is caused mostly by mutations in the RDH5 gene. This gene encodes the enzyme that is a part of the visual cycle, the 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase. This study is a brief review of the literature on FA and a report of the first molecular evidence for RDH5 gene mutation in a Polish patient with this rare disorder. We present a novel pathogenic RDH5 gene mutation in a 16-year-old female patient with symptoms of night blindness. The patient underwent ophthalmological examinations, including colour vision testing, fundus photography, automated visual field testing, full-field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral optical coherent tomography (SOCT). The patient showed typical FA ERG records, the visual field was constricted and fundus examination revealed numerous characteristic, small, white-yellowish retinal lesions. DNA sequencing of the RDH5 gene coding sequence (exons 2-5) enabled the detection of the homozygous missense substitution c.524A > T (p.Tyr175Phe) in exon 3. This is the first report of RDH5 gene mutation that affects the invariant tyrosine, one of the most conserved amino acid residues in short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs), crucial for these enzymes' activity. The location of this substitution, together with its predicted influence on the protein function, indicate that the p.Tyr175Phe mutation is the cause of FA in our patient. PMID:25820994

  5. In vitro studies of human monocyte migration across endothelium in response to leukotriene B4 and f-Met-Leu-Phe.

    PubMed Central

    Migliorisi, G.; Folkes, E.; Pawlowski, N.; Cramer, E. B.

    1987-01-01

    Relatively little is known about monocyte emigration from the vasculature or about the factors that regulate this process. In this study, a human in vitro model of a blood vessel wall was used for examination of monocyte transendothelial migration. Umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown to confluency on amnion connective tissue, and human monocytes were stimulated to cross the monolayer in response to the chemoattractants leukotriene B4 or f-Met-Leu-Phe. The pattern and time course of monocyte migration were similar for the two chemotactic factors. In both cases, approximately 40-50% of the adherent monocytes extended single or multiple pseudopods into the apical endothelial surface. This indenting behavior was also observed in the absence of chemotactic factors. It was not affected by the medium (M199 or Gey's) or method of monocyte isolation. Neutrophils also displayed this behavior, but only about half as many neutrophils as monocytes indented the endothelial surface. The integrity of the endothelium remained intact as the monocytes traversed the monolayer. When the monocytes reached the basal surface of the endothelium, they frequently wedged themselves between the basal surface of the endothelium and its basal lamina. The monocytes then invaded the basal lamina and accumulated in the connective tissue. In response to both f-Met-Leu-Phe and leukotriene B4, monocyte migration across the endothelium began as early as 10 minutes. The average rate of accumulation in the connective tissue peaked at 30 minutes; and by 60 minutes, 25-35% of the monocytes had traversed the monolayer. Approximately two to three times as many monocytes traversed the endothelium under conditions of chemotaxis as under conditions of chemokinesis or random migration. These studies provide the basis for understanding the process of monocyte migration out of the bloodstream and lay the foundation for the study of their differentiation into macrophages in the connective tissue. Images

  6. Ligand Binding Ensembles Determine Graded Agonist Efficacies at a G Protein-coupled Receptor.

    PubMed

    Bock, Andreas; Bermudez, Marcel; Krebs, Fabian; Matera, Carlo; Chirinda, Brian; Sydow, Dominique; Dallanoce, Clelia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; De Amici, Marco; Lohse, Martin J; Wolber, Gerhard; Mohr, Klaus

    2016-07-29

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and modulate almost every physiological process in humans. Binding of agonists to G protein-coupled receptors induces a shift from inactive to active receptor conformations. Biophysical studies of the dynamic equilibrium of receptors suggest that a portion of receptors can remain in inactive states even in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonist and G protein mimetic. However, the molecular details of agonist-bound inactive receptors are poorly understood. Here we use the model of bitopic orthosteric/allosteric (i.e. dualsteric) agonists for muscarinic M2 receptors to demonstrate the existence and function of such inactive agonist·receptor complexes on a molecular level. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, dynophores (i.e. a combination of static three-dimensional pharmacophores and molecular dynamics-based conformational sampling), ligand design, and receptor mutagenesis, we show that inactive agonist·receptor complexes can result from agonist binding to the allosteric vestibule alone, whereas the dualsteric binding mode produces active receptors. Each agonist forms a distinct ligand binding ensemble, and different agonist efficacies depend on the fraction of purely allosteric (i.e. inactive) versus dualsteric (i.e. active) binding modes. We propose that this concept may explain why agonist·receptor complexes can be inactive and that adopting multiple binding modes may be generalized also to small agonists where binding modes will be only subtly different and confined to only one binding site. PMID:27298318

  7. A Potent and Site-Selective Agonist of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Junichiro; Mio, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Otsuka, Shinya; Mori, Yasuo; Uesugi, Motonari

    2015-12-23

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family that is expressed primarily on sensory neurons. This chemosensor is activated through covalent modification of multiple cysteine residues with a wide range of reactive compounds including allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a spicy component of wasabi. The present study reports on potent and selective agonists of TRPA1, discovered through screening 1657 electrophilic molecules. In an effort to validate the mode of action of hit molecules, we noted a new TRPA1-selective agonist, JT010 (molecule 1), which opens the TRPA1 channel by covalently and site-selectively binding to Cys621 (EC50 = 0.65 nM). The results suggest that a single modification of Cys621 is sufficient to open the TRPA1 channel. The TRPA1-selective probe described herein might be useful for further mechanistic studies of TRPA1 activation. PMID:26630251

  8. β2-adrenoceptor agonists in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Yuri K.; Cameron, Robert B.; Wills, Lauren P.; Trager, Richard E.; Lindsey, Chris C.; Beeson, Craig C.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2014-01-01

    The stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) via cell surface G-protein coupled receptors is a promising strategy for cell repair and regeneration. Here we report the specificity and chemical rationale of a panel of β2-adrenoceptor agonists with regards to MB. Using primary cultures of renal cells, a diverse panel of β2-adrenoceptor agonists elicited three distinct phenotypes: full MB, partial MB, and non-MB. Full MB compounds had efficacy in the low nanomolar range and represent two chemical scaffolds containing three distinct chemical clusters. Interestingly, the MB phenotype did not correlate with reported receptor affinity or chemical similarity. Chemical clusters were then subjected to pharmacophore modeling creating two models with unique and distinct features, consisting of five conserved amongst full MB compounds were identified. The two discrete pharmacophore models were coalesced into a consensus pharmacophore with four unique features elucidating the spatial and chemical characteristics required to stimulate MB. PMID:23954364

  9. A Human Platelet Calcium Calculator Trained by Pairwise Agonist Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  10. Octopaminergic agonists for the cockroach neuronal octopamine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2003-01-01

    The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor. Abbreviation: AEA arylethanolamine AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine APAT 2-(α-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline BPAT 2-(β-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline CAO 2-(3-chlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DCAO 2-(3,5-dichlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DET5 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)-5-methylthiazolidine DET6 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)thiazine EGTA ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid GFA genetic function approximation G/PLS genetic partial least squares IND 2-aminomethyl-2-indanol LAH lithium aluminum hydride MCSG maximum common subgroup MCT6 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenylimino)thiazine OA octopamine PLS partial least squares QSAR quantitative structure-activity relationship SBAT 2-(substituted benzylamino)-2-thiazoline SD the sum of squared deviations of the dependent variable values from their mean SPIT 3-(substituted phenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione THI 2-amino-1-(2-thiazoyl)ethanol TMS tetramethyl silane PMID:15841226

  11. A human platelet calcium calculator trained by pairwise agonist scanning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-02-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  12. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K.

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  13. Alpha-adrenoceptor agonistic activity of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline.

    PubMed

    Haenisch, Britta; Walstab, Jutta; Herberhold, Stephan; Bootz, Friedrich; Tschaikin, Marion; Ramseger, René; Bönisch, Heinz

    2010-12-01

    Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline are both used as nasal mucosa decongesting α-adrenoceptor agonists during a common cold. However, it is largely unknown which of the six α-adrenoceptor subtypes are actually present in human nasal mucosa, which are activated by the two alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and to what extent. Therefore, mRNA expression in human nasal mucosa of the six α-adrenoceptor subtypes was studied. Furthermore, the affinity and potency of the imidazolines oxymetazoline and xylometazoline at these α-adrenoceptor subtypes were examined in transfected HEK293 cells. The rank order of mRNA levels of α-adrenoceptor subtypes in human nasal mucosa was: α(2A) > α(1A) ≥ α(2B) > α(1D) ≥ α(2C) > α(1B) . Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline exhibited in radioligand competition studies higher affinities than the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline at most α-adrenoceptor subtypes. Compared to xylometazoline, oxymetazoline exhibited a significantly higher affinity at α(1A) - but a lower affinity at α(2B) -adrenoceptors. In functional studies in which adrenoceptor-mediated Ca(2+) signals were measured, both, oxymetazoline and xylometazoline behaved at α(2B) -adrenoceptors as full agonists but oxymetazoline was significantly more potent than xylometazoline. Furthermore, oxymetazoline was also a partial agonist at α(1A) -adrenoceptors; however, its potency was relatively low and it was much lower than its affinity. The higher potency at α(2B) -adrenoceptors, i.e. at receptors highly expressed at the mRNA level in human nasal mucosa, could eventually explain why in nasal decongestants oxymetazoline can be used in lower concentrations than xylometazoline. PMID:20030735

  14. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced pituitary apoplexy

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Fergus; Navin, Patrick; Brett, Francesca; Dennedy, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary apoplexy represents an uncommon endocrine emergency with potentially life-threatening consequences. Drug-induced pituitary apoplexy is a rare but important consideration when evaluating patients with this presentation. We describe an unusual case of a patient with a known pituitary macroadenoma presenting with acute-onset third nerve palsy and headache secondary to tumour enlargement and apoplexy. This followed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) agonist therapy used to treat metastatic prostate carcinoma. Following acute management, the patient underwent transphenoidal debulking of his pituitary gland with resolution of his third nerve palsy. Subsequent retrospective data interpretation revealed that this had been a secretory gonadotropinoma and GNRH agonist therapy resulted in raised gonadotropins and testosterone. Hence, further management of his prostate carcinoma required GNRH antagonist therapy and external beam radiotherapy. This case demonstrates an uncommon complication of GNRH agonist therapy in the setting of a pituitary macroadenoma. It also highlights the importance of careful, serial data interpretation in patients with pituitary adenomas. Finally, this case presents a unique insight into the challenges of managing a hormonal-dependent prostate cancer in a patient with a secretory pituitary tumour. Learning points While non-functioning gonadotropinomas represent the most common form of pituitary macroadenoma, functioning gonadotropinomas are exceedingly rare. Acute tumour enlargement, with potential pituitary apoplexy, is a rare but important adverse effect arising from GNRH agonist therapy in the presence of both functioning and non-functioning pituitary gonadotropinomas. GNRH antagonist therapy represents an alternative treatment option for patients with hormonal therapy-requiring prostate cancer, who also have diagnosed with a pituitary gonadotropinoma. PMID:27284452

  15. Synthesis of fluorinated agonist of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Aliouane, Lucie; Chao, Sovy; Brizuela, Leyre; Pfund, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Olivier; Jean, Ludovic; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Lequeux, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    The bioactive metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a product of sphingosine kinases (SphKs), mediates diverse biological processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. A fluorinated analogue of S1P receptor agonist has been synthesized by utilizing a ring opening reaction of oxacycles by a lithiated difluoromethylphosphonate anion as the key reaction. In vitro activity of this S1P analogue is also reported. PMID:25047939

  16. Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the ah receptor.

    PubMed

    Bohonowych, Jessica E S; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T; Denison, Michael S

    2008-04-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  17. A new hemoglobin variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T] with a double base mutation at the same codon.

    PubMed

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We report a new β-globin chain variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T]. The new variant results from a double nucleotide mutation at the same codon. The possible molecular mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25476778

  18. Covalent agonists for studying G protein-coupled receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Dietmar; Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Hiller, Christine; Zhang, Cheng; Hübner, Harald; Kobilka, Brian K.; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provide important insights into the architecture and function of these important drug targets. However, the crystallization of GPCRs in active states is particularly challenging, requiring the formation of stable and conformationally homogeneous ligand-receptor complexes. Native hormones, neurotransmitters, and synthetic agonists that bind with low affinity are ineffective at stabilizing an active state for crystallogenesis. To promote structural studies on the pharmacologically highly relevant class of aminergic GPCRs, we here present the development of covalently binding molecular tools activating Gs-, Gi-, and Gq-coupled receptors. The covalent agonists are derived from the monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine, and they were accessed using a general and versatile synthetic strategy. We demonstrate that the tool compounds presented herein display an efficient covalent binding mode and that the respective covalent ligand-receptor complexes activate G proteins comparable to the natural neurotransmitters. A crystal structure of the β2-adrenoreceptor in complex with a covalent noradrenaline analog and a conformationally selective antibody (nanobody) verified that these agonists can be used to facilitate crystallogenesis. PMID:25006259

  19. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Daphnia magna has been used extensively to evaluate organism- and population-level responses to pollutants in acute toxicity and reproductive toxicity tests. We have previously reported that exposure to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists results in a reduction of reproductive function and production of male offspring in a cyclic parthenogenesis, D. magna. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided tools to understand better the responses to pollutants in aquatic organisms, including D. magna. DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal daphnids exposed to JH agonists: methoprene (125, 250 and 500 ppb), fenoxycarb (0.5, 1 and 2 ppb) and epofenonane (50, 100 and 200 ppb). Exposure to these JH analogs resulted in chemical-specific patterns of gene expression. The heat map analyses based on hierarchical clustering revealed a similar pattern between treatments with a high dose of methoprene and with epofenonane. In contrast, treatment with low to middle doses of methoprene resulted in similar profiles to fenoxycarb treatments. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered as JH-responsive genes. These data suggest that fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism compared with other JH analogs, agreeing with data of previously reported toxicity tests. In conclusion, D. magna DNA microarray is useful for the classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes. PMID:24038158

  20. Biased signaling: potential agonist and antagonist of PAR2.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has emerged as one of the promising therapeutic targets to inhibit rapidly metastasizing breast cancer cells. However, its elusive molecular mechanism of activation and signaling has made it a difficult target for drug development. In this study, in silico methods were used to unfold PAR2 molecular mechanism of signaling based on the concept of GPCR receptor plasticity. Although, there are no conclusive evidences of the presence of specific endogenous ligands for PAR2, the efficacy of synthetic agonist and antagonist in PAR2 signaling has opened up the possibilities of ligand-mediated signaling. Furthermore, it has been proved that ligands specific for one GPCR can induce signaling in GPCRs belonging to other subfamilies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify potential agonists and antagonists from the GPCR ligand library (GLL), which may induce biased signaling in PAR2 using the concept of existence of multiple ligand-stabilized receptor conformations. The results of our in silico study suggest that PAR2 may show biased signaling mainly with agonists of serotonin type 1, β-adrenergic type 1,3 and antagonists of substance K (NK1), serotonin type 2, dopamine type 4, and thromboxane receptors. Further, this study also throws light on the putative ligand-specific conformations of PAR2. Thus, the results of this study provide structural insights to putative conformations of PAR2 and also gives initial clues to medicinal chemists for rational drug design targeting this challenging receptor. PMID:26295578

  1. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-02-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors; or (v) 'multi-targeting'. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed. PMID:19226257

  2. Cryptochinones from Cryptocarya chinensis act as farnesoid X receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Tsung-Hsien; Huang, Din-Wen; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Cryptochinones A-D are tetrahydroflavanones isolated from the leaves of Cryptocarya chinensis, an evergreen tree whose extracts are believed to have a variety of health benefits. The origin of their possible bioactivity is unclear. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for chronic liver disease and for hyperglycemia. We studied whether cryptochinones A-D, which are structurally similar to known FXR ligands, may act at this target. Indeed, in mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, cryptochinones A-D transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, SHP, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in dose-dependent manner, while they exhibited similar agonistic activity as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR agonist. Through molecular modeling docking studies we evaluated their ability to bind to the FXR ligand binding pocket. Our results indicate that cryptochinones A-D can behave as FXR agonists. PMID:25127166

  3. Dopamine-deficient mice are hypersensitive to dopamine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S; Szczypka, M S; Palmiter, R D

    2000-06-15

    Dopamine-deficient (DA-/-) mice were created by targeted inactivation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in dopaminergic neurons. The locomotor activity response of these mutants to dopamine D1 or D2 receptor agonists and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) was 3- to 13-fold greater than the response elicited from wild-type mice. The enhanced sensitivity of DA-/- mice to agonists was independent of changes in steady-state levels of dopamine receptors and the presynaptic dopamine transporter as measured by ligand binding. The acute behavioral response of DA-/- mice to a dopamine D1 receptor agonist was correlated with c-fos induction in the striatum, a brain nucleus that receives dense dopaminergic input. Chronic replacement of dopamine to DA-/- mice by repeated l-DOPA administration over 4 d relieved the hypersensitivity of DA-/- mutants in terms of induction of both locomotion and striatal c-fos expression. The results suggest that the chronic presence of dopaminergic neurotransmission is required to dampen the intracellular signaling response of striatal neurons. PMID:10844009

  4. Potent Adjuvanticity of a Pure TLR7-Agonistic Imidazoquinoline Dendrimer

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Nikunj M.; Salunke, Deepak B.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Mutz, Cole A.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; David, Sunil A.

    2012-01-01

    Engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve to link innate immune responses with adaptive immunity and can be exploited as powerful vaccine adjuvants for eliciting both primary and anamnestic immune responses. TLR7 agonists are highly immunostimulatory without inducing dominant proinflammatory cytokine responses. We synthesized a dendrimeric molecule bearing six units of a potent TLR7/TLR8 dual-agonistic imidazoquinoline to explore if multimerization of TLR7/8 would result in altered activity profiles. A complete loss of TLR8-stimulatory activity with selective retention of the TLR7-agonistic activity was observed in the dendrimer. This was reflected by a complete absence of TLR8-driven proinflammatory cytokine and interferon (IFN)-γ induction in human PBMCs, with preservation of TLR7-driven IFN-α induction. The dendrimer was found to be superior to the imidazoquinoline monomer in inducing high titers of high-affinity antibodies to bovine α-lactalbumin. Additionally, epitope mapping experiments showed that the dendrimer induced immunoreactivity to more contiguous peptide epitopes along the amino acid sequence of the model antigen. PMID:22952720

  5. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-01-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet® (nabilone), Marinol® (dronabinol; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex® (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol® can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex® is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors; or (v) ‘multi-targeting’. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed. PMID:19226257

  6. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.

  7. Development of specific dopamine D-1 agonists and antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Sakolchai, S.

    1987-01-01

    To develop potentially selective dopamine D-1 agonists and to investigate on the structural requirement for D-1 activity, the derivatives of dibenzocycloheptadiene are synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. The target compounds are 5-aminomethyl-10,11-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cycloheptene hydrobromide 10 and 9,10-dihydroxy-1,2,3,7,8,12b-hexahydrobenzo(1,2)cyclohepta(3,4,5d,e)isoquinoline hydrobromide 11. In a dopamine-sensitive rat retinal adenylate cyclase assay, a model for D-1 activity, compound 10 is essentially inert for both agonist and antagonist activity. In contrast, compound 11 is approximately equipotent to dopamine in activation of the D-1 receptor. Based on radioligand and binding data, IC{sub 50} of compound 11 for displacement of {sup 3}H-SCH 23390, a D-1 ligand, is about 7 fold less than that for displacement of {sup 3}H-spiperone, a D-2 ligand. These data indicate that compound 11 is a potent selective dopamine D-1 agonist. This study provides a new structural class of dopamine D-1 acting agent: dihydroxy-benzocycloheptadiene analog which can serve as a lead compound for further drug development and as a probe for investigation on the nature of dopamine D-1 receptor.

  8. Structural studies by proton-NMR spectroscopy of plant horseradish peroxidase C, the wild-type recombinant protein from Escherichia coli and two protein variants, Phe41----Val and Arg38----Lys.

    PubMed

    Veitch, N C; Williams, R J; Bray, R C; Burke, J F; Sanders, S A; Thorneley, R N; Smith, A T

    1992-07-15

    Wild-type recombinant horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C and two protein variants, Phe41----Val and Arg38----Lys, have been characterised using both one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Proton NMR spectra recorded in both resting and cyanide-ligated states of the proteins were compared with those of the corresponding plant peroxidase. The latter contains 18% carbohydrate in eight N-linked oligosaccharide side chains whereas the recombinant proteins are expressed in nonglycosylated form. The spectra of the plant enzyme and refolded recombinant protein are essentially identical with the exception of carbohydrate-linked resonances in the former, indicating that their solution structures are highly similar. This comparison also identifies classes of carbohydrate resonances in the plant enzyme which provides new information on the local environment and mobility of the oligosaccharide side chains. Comparison of the spectra of the cyanide-ligated states of the two variants and those of plant horseradish peroxidase C indicated that there were significant differences with respect to haem and haem-linked resonances. These could not be rationalised simply on the basis of the local perturbation expected from a single-site substitution. The two substitutions made to residues on the distal side of the haem apparently influenced the degree of imidazolate character of the proximal His170 imidazole ring thus perturbing the magnetic environment of the haem group. Inspection of the spectra of the Phe41----Val variant also showed that the resonances of a phenylalanine residue in the haem pocket had been incorrectly assigned to Phe41 in a previous study. A new assignment, based on additional information from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy, was made to Phe152. The assignments made for the Phe41----Val variant were also used as a basis to investigate the structure of the complex formed with the aromatic donor molecule, benzhydroxamic acid. PMID:1633807

  9. 2-Triazole-Substituted Adenosines: A New Class of Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists, Partial Agonists, and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Cosyn, Liesbet; Palaniappan, Krishnan K.; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Duong, Heng T.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Van Calenbergh, Serge

    2016-01-01

    “Click chemistry” was explored to synthesize two series of 2-(1,2,3-triazolyl)adenosine derivatives (1–14). Binding affinity at the human A1, A2A, and A3ARs (adenosine receptors) and relative efficacy at the A3AR were determined. Some triazol-1-yl analogues showed A3AR affinity in the low nanomolar range, a high ratio of A3/A2A selectivity, and a moderate-to-high A3/A1 ratio. The 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl regiomers typically showed decreased A3AR affinity. Sterically demanding groups at the adenine C2 position tended to reduce relative A3AR efficacy. Thus, several 5′-OH derivatives appeared to be selective A3AR antagonists, i.e., 10, with 260-fold binding selectivity in comparison to the A1AR and displaying a characteristic docking mode in an A3AR model. The corresponding 5′-ethyluronamide analogues generally showed increased A3AR affinity and behaved as full agonists, i.e., 17, with 910-fold A3/A1 selectivity. Thus, N6-substituted 2-(1,2,3-triazolyl)-adenosine analogues constitute a novel class of highly potent and selective nucleoside-based A3AR antagonists, partial agonists, and agonists. PMID:17149867

  10. Meclizine is an agonist ligand for mouse constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and an inverse agonist for human CAR.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Ping; Schrader, William T; Moore, David D

    2004-10-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is a key regulator of xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. The ligand-binding domains of murine (m) and human (h) CAR are divergent relative to other nuclear hormone receptors, resulting in species-specific differences in xenobiotic responses. Here we identify the widely used antiemetic meclizine (Antivert; Bonine) as both an agonist ligand for mCAR and an inverse agonist for hCAR. Meclizine increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Like the mCAR agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, meclizine stimulates binding of steroid receptor coactivator 1 to the murine receptor in vitro. Meclizine administration to mice increases expression of CAR target genes in a CAR-dependent manner. In contrast, meclizine suppresses hCAR transactivation and inhibits the phenobarbital-induced expression of the CAR target genes, cytochrome p450 monooxygenase (CYP)2B10, CYP3A11, and CYP1A2, in primary hepatocytes derived from mice expressing hCAR, but not mCAR. The inhibitory effect of meclizine also suppresses acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in humanized CAR mice. These results demonstrate that a single compound can induce opposite xenobiotic responses via orthologous receptors in rodents and humans. PMID:15272053

  11. Different serotonin receptor agonists have distinct effects on sound-evoked responses in inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M

    2006-11-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin has a complex set of effects on the auditory responses of neurons within the inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain auditory nucleus that integrates a wide range of inputs from auditory and nonauditory sources. To determine whether activation of different types of serotonin receptors is a source of the variability in serotonergic effects, four selective agonists of serotonin receptors in the serotonin (5-HT) 1 and 5-HT2 families were iontophoretically applied to IC neurons, which were monitored for changes in their responses to auditory stimuli. Different agonists had different effects on neural responses. The 5-HT1A agonist had mixed facilitatory and depressive effects, whereas 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C agonists were both largely facilitatory. Different agonists changed threshold and frequency tuning in ways that reflected their effects on spike count. When pairs of agonists were applied sequentially to the same neurons, selective agonists sometimes affected neurons in ways that were similar to serotonin, but not to other selective agonists tested. Different agonists also differentially affected groups of neurons classified by the shapes of their frequency-tuning curves, with serotonin and the 5-HT1 receptors affecting proportionally more non-V-type neurons relative to the other agonists tested. In all, evidence suggests that the diversity of serotonin receptor subtypes in the IC is likely to account for at least some of the variability of the effects of serotonin and that receptor subtypes fulfill specialized roles in auditory processing. PMID:16870843

  12. Nodule de Sœur Marie-Josèphe révélateur de carcinomes digestif et ovarien: à propos de 4 cas

    PubMed Central

    Touré, Papa Souleymane; Tall, Cheikh Tidiane; Dioussé, Pauline; Berthé, Adama; Diop, Madoky Maguatte; Sarr, Mamadou Moustapha; Diop, Balla; Léye, Yakham Mohamed; Diop, Bernard Marcel; Ka, Mamadou Mourtalla

    2015-01-01

    Le nodule de Sœur Marie-Josèphe est une métastase ombilicale d'une tumeur le plus souvent intra-abdominale. C'est un signe clinique rare dont l'incidence est de 1-3% de toutes les néoplasies abdomino-pelviennes, avec un pronostic péjoratif du fait de son retard diagnostique. Nous rapportons quatre observations d'une métastase cutanée ombilicale révélatrice d'un adénocarcinome dont deux pancréatiques, un gastrique et un d'origine ovarienne. Le but de notre travail est de montrer à travers ces quatre cas cliniques, l'intérêt de l'imagerie (tomodensitométrie, échographie) et de la biopsie dans la démarche diagnostique. A travers ces quatre observations nous insistons aussi sur les difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques que pose cette tumeur dans nos pays à ressources limitées. PMID:26958132

  13. Hemoglobin Pitié-Salpétrière [beta 34 (B16) Val-->Phe] showing erythrocytosis and mild hemolysis in a Japanese man.

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Kinoshita, T; Hirabayashi, N; Saito, H; Harano, K; Harano, T

    2000-04-01

    We report the first case of Hemoglobin Pitié-Salpétrière (Hb P-S) identified among the Japanese population. The patient was a 33-year-old man referred to us because of severe erythrocytosis and mild hemolysis. DEAE high-performance liquid chromatography showed an abnormal broad peak around Hb A2 peak. Isoelectrofocusing detected abnormal Hb at the position of the Hb F band, and the content of abnormal Hb was estimated at about 25%. An instability test according to the isopropanol precipitation method was positive, and the beta/alpha ratio of biosynthesized globin was slightly reduced. Structural analyses demonstrated the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at beta 34, which was also confirmed by DNA sequencing; that is a single base substitution of GTC-->TTC at codon 34 of beta chain. From these findings, the abnormal Hb was identified as being a high-oxygen-affinity variant, Hb P-S (beta 34 [B16] Val-->Phe). Hb P-S was detected in the patient's mother but not in his father, suggesting that the inheritance pattern is autosomal dominant. It was suggested that the slightly unstable state of Hb P-S caused by the looseness of alpha 1 beta 1 contact could result in mild hemolysis. PMID:10846826

  14. Leu343Phe substitution in the Malx3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the constitutivity and glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression.

    PubMed

    Higgins, V J; Braidwood, M; Bissinger, P; Dawes, I W; Attfield, P V

    1999-06-01

    To utilise maltose as a carbon source Saccharomyces cerevisiae needs one or more functional MAL loci that contain the MALx1 gene encoding maltose permease, MALx2 encoding maltase, and MALx3 encoding a transcriptional activator. Maltose causes a rapid MALx3-dependent induction of MAL gene transcription, and glucose represses this activation via Mig1p. A MALx3 gene conveying high MAL gene expression in the absence of maltose in a malx3 laboratory mutant strain has been isolated from baker's yeast. The construction of hybrid genes between the isolated gene and a highly regulated MALx3 gene showed that constitutivity was the result of multiple amino-acid alterations throughout the structural gene. The combined effect of these amino-acid alterations was shown to be stronger than the sum of their individual effects on constitutivity. Analysis in glucose-repressed conditions confirmed that increased MALx3 transcript levels increased the glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression but did not affect constitutivity. Analysis of four mutations between aa 343 and 375, lying within a proposed negative regulatory domain, showed that the single mutation of Leu343Phe increased the glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression by 30-fold. These results demonstrate that not only Mig1p modulation of MALx3 expression, but also the MALx3 protein structure, is involved in the glucose-insensitive expression of the MAL genes. PMID:10369955

  15. Cyclo(Phe-Pro) Produced by the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Inhibits Host Innate Immune Responses through the NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiwan; Kim, Na-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Kim, In Hwang; Kim, Kun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclo(Phe-Pro) (cFP) is a secondary metabolite produced by certain bacteria and fungi. Although recent studies highlight the role of cFP in cell-to-cell communication by bacteria, its role in the context of the host immune response is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of cFP produced by the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus in the modulation of innate immune responses toward the pathogen. cFP suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocyte/macrophage cell line and in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Specifically, cFP inhibited inhibitory κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) translocation to the cell nucleus, indicating that cFP affects the NF-κB pathway. We searched for genes that are responsible for cFP production in V. vulnificus and identified VVMO6_03017 as a causative gene. A deletion of VVMO6_03017 diminished cFP production and decreased virulence in subcutaneously inoculated mice. In summary, cFP produced by V. vulnificus actively suppresses the innate immune responses of the host, thereby facilitating its survival and propagation in the host environment. PMID:25561711

  16. Crystal structure of N-(tert-but-oxy-carbon-yl)phenyl-alanylde-hydro-alanine isopropyl ester (Boc-Phe-ΔAla-OiPr).

    PubMed

    Lenartowicz, Paweł; Makowski, Maciej; Zarychta, Bartosz; Ejsmont, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    In the title compound, the de-hydro-dipeptide (Boc-Phe-ΔAla-OiPr, C20H28N2O5), the mol-ecule has a trans conformation of the N-methyl-amide group. The geometry of the de-hydro-alanine moiety is to some extent different from those usually found in simple peptides, indicating conjugation between the H2C=C group and the peptide bond. The bond angles around de-hydro-alanine have unusually high values due to the steric hindrance, the same inter-action influencing the slight distortion from planarity of the de-hydro-alanine. The mol-ecule is stabilized by intra-molecular inter-actions between the isopropyl group and the N atoms of the peptide main chain. In the crystal, an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond links the mol-ecules into ribbons, giving a herringbone head-to-head packing arrangement extending along the [100] direction. In the stacks, the mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding associations. PMID:25553003

  17. Heterogeneous responses of human limbs to infused adrenergic agonists: a gravitational effect?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawelczyk, James A.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike quadrupeds, the legs of humans are regularly exposed to elevated pressures relative to the arms. We hypothesized that this "dependent hypertension" would be associated with altered adrenergic responsiveness. Isoproterenol (0.75-24 ng x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) and phenylephrine (0.025-0.8 microg x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) were infused incrementally in the brachial and femoral arteries of 12 normal volunteers; changes in limb blood flow were quantified by using strain-gauge plethysmography. Compared with the forearm, baseline calf vascular resistance was greater (38.8 +/- 2.5 vs. 26.9 +/- 2.0 mmHg x 100 ml x min x ml-1; P < 0.001) and maximal conductance was lower (46.1 +/- 11.9 vs. 59.4 +/- 13.4 ml x ml-1 x min-1 x mmHg-1; P < 0.03). Vascular conductance did not differ between the two limbs during isoproterenol infusions, whereas decreases in vascular conductance were greater in the calf than the forearm during phenylephrine infusions (P < 0.001). With responses normalized to maximal conductance, the half-maximal response for phenylephrine was significantly less for the calf than the forearm (P < 0.001), whereas the half-maximal response for isoproterenol did not differ between limbs. We conclude that alpha1- but not beta-adrenergic-receptor responsiveness in human limbs is nonuniform. The relatively greater response to alpha1-adrenergic-receptor stimulation in the calf may represent an adaptive mechanism that limits blood pooling and capillary filtration in the legs during standing.

  18. Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists as Adjunctive Treatments in Bipolar Disorders.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Etain, Bruno; Franchi, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud; Bellivier, Frank; Ritter, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorders (BD) present with abnormalities of circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis, even during phases of remission. These abnormalities are linked to the underlying neurobiology of genetic susceptibility to BD. Melatonin is a pineal gland secreted neurohormone that induces circadian-related and sleep-related responses. Exogenous melatonin has demonstrated efficacy in treating primary insomnia, delayed sleep phase disorder, improving sleep parameters and overall sleep quality, and some psychiatric disorders like autistic spectrum disorders. In order to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin among patients with BD, this comprehensive review emphasizes the abnormal melatonin function in BD, the rationale of melatonin action in BD, the available data about the exogenous administration of melatonin, and melatonin agonists (ramelteon and tasimelteon), and recommendations of use in patients with BD. There is a scientific rationale to propose melatonin-agonists as an adjunctive treatment of mood stabilizers in treating sleep disorders in BD and thus to possibly prevent relapses when administered during remission phases. We emphasized the need to treat insomnia, sleep delayed latencies and sleep abnormalities in BD that are prodromal markers of an emerging mood episode and possible targets to prevent future relapses. An additional interesting adjunctive therapeutic effect might be on preventing metabolic syndrome, particularly in patients treated with antipsychotics. Finally, melatonin is well tolerated and has little dependence potential in contrast to most available sleep medications. Further studies are expected to be able to produce stronger evidence-based therapeutic guidelines to confirm and delineate the routine use of melatonin-agonists in the treatment of BD. PMID:26088111

  19. Comparative endpoint sensitivity of in vitro estrogen agonist assays.

    PubMed

    Dreier, David A; Connors, Kristin A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-07-01

    Environmental and human health implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly xenoestrogens, have received extensive study. In vitro assays are increasingly employed as diagnostic tools to comparatively evaluate chemicals, whole effluent toxicity and surface water quality, and to identify causative EDCs during toxicity identification evaluations. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated ToxCast under the Tox21 program to generate novel bioactivity data through high throughput screening. This information is useful for prioritizing chemicals requiring additional hazard information, including endocrine active chemicals. Though multiple in vitro and in vivo techniques have been developed to assess estrogen agonist activity, the relative endpoint sensitivity of these approaches and agreement of their conclusions remain unclear during environmental diagnostic applications. Probabilistic hazard assessment (PHA) approaches, including chemical toxicity distributions (CTD), are useful for understanding the relative sensitivity of endpoints associated with in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays by predicting the likelihood of chemicals eliciting undesirable outcomes at or above environmentally relevant concentrations. In the present study, PHAs were employed to examine the comparative endpoint sensitivity of 16 in vitro assays for estrogen agonist activity using a diverse group of compounds from the USEPA ToxCast dataset. Reporter gene assays were generally observed to possess greater endpoint sensitivity than other assay types, and the Tox21 ERa LUC BG1 Agonist assay was identified as the most sensitive in vitro endpoint for detecting an estrogenic response. When the sensitivity of this most sensitive ToxCast in vitro endpoint was compared to the human MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, a common in vitro model for biomedical and environmental monitoring applications, the ERa LUC BG1 assay was several orders of magnitude less

  20. Pharmacological properties of acid N-thiazolylamide FFA2 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew J; Tsoulou, Christina; Ward, Emma; Gower, Elaine; Bhudia, Nisha; Chowdhury, Forhad; Dean, Tony W; Faucher, Nicolas; Gangar, Akanksha; Dowell, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    FFA2 is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids. Propionate (C3) and 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-N-2-thiazolyl-benzeneacetamide (4-CMTB), the prototypical synthetic FFA2 agonist, evoke calcium mobilization in neutrophils and inhibit lipolysis in adipocytes via this G-protein-coupled receptor. 4-CMTB contains an N-thiazolylamide motif but no acid group, and 4-CMTB and C3 bind to different sites on FFA2 and show allosteric cooperativity. Recently, FFA2 agonists have been described that contain both N-thiazolylamide and carboxylate groups, reminiscent of bitopic ligands. These are thought to engage the carboxylate-binding site on FFA2, but preliminary evidence suggests they do not bind to the same site as 4-CMTB even though both contain N-thiazolylamide. Here, we describe the characterization of four FFA2 ligands containing both N-thiazolylamide and carboxylate. (R)-3-benzyl-4-((4-(2-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)(methyl)amino)-4-oxobutanoic acid (compound 14) exhibits allosteric agonism with 4-CMTB but not C3. Three other compounds agonize FFA2 in [35S]GTPγS-incorporation or cAMP assays but behave as inverse agonists in yeast-based gene-reporter assays, showing orthosteric antagonism of C3 responses but allosteric antagonism of 4-CMTB responses. Thus, the bitopic-like FFA2 ligands engage the orthosteric site but do not compete at the site of 4-CMTB binding on an FFA2 receptor molecule. Compound 14 activates FFA2 on human neutrophils and mouse adipocytes, but appears not to inhibit lipolysis upon treatment of human primary adipocytes in spite of the presence of a functional FFA2 receptor in these cells. Hence, these new ligands may reveal differences in coupling of FFA2 between human and rodent adipose tissues. PMID:26236484

  1. AGONISTIC AUTOANTIBODIES AS VASODILATORS IN ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION: A NEW MECHANISM

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongliang; Kem, David C.; Reim, Sean; Khan, Muneer; Vanderlinde-Wood, Megan; Zillner, Caitlin; Collier, Daniel; Liles, Campbell; Hill, Michael A.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Aston, Christopher E.; Yu, Xichun

    2012-01-01

    Agonistic autoantibodies to the β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors are a novel investigative and therapeutic target for certain orthostatic disorders. We have identified the presence of autoantibodies to β2-adrenergic and/or M3 muscarinic receptors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 75% (15 of 20) of patients with significant orthostatic hypotension. Purified serum IgG from all 20 patients and 10 healthy control subjects were examined in a receptor-transfected cell-based cAMP assay for β2 receptor activation and β-arrestin assay for M3 receptor activation. There was a significant increase in IgG-induced activation of β2 and M3 receptors in the patient group compared to controls. A dose response was observed for both IgG activation of β2 and M3 receptors and inhibition of their activation with the non-selective β blocker propranolol and muscarinic blocker atropine. The antibody effects on β2 and/or M3 (via production of nitric oxide) receptor-mediated vasodilation were studied in a rat cremaster resistance arteriole assay. Infusion of IgG from patients with documented β2 and/or M3 receptor agonistic activity produced a dose-dependent vasodilation. Sequential addition of the β blocker propranolol and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester partially inhibited IgG-induced vasodilation (% of maximal dilatory response: from 57.7±10.4 to 35.3±4.6 and 24.3±5.8, respectively, p<0.01, n=3), indicating antibody activation of vascular β2 and/or M3 receptors may contribute to systemic vasodilation. These data support the concept that circulating agonistic autoantibodies serve as vasodilators and may cause or exacerbate orthostatic hypotension. PMID:22215709

  2. Antinociceptive properties of selective MT(2) melatonin receptor partial agonists.

    PubMed

    López-Canul, Martha; Comai, Stefano; Domínguez-López, Sergio; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone involved in the regulation of both acute and chronic pain whose mechanism is still not completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists have antiallodynic properties in animal models of chronic neuropathic pain by modulating ON/OFF cells of the descending antinociceptive system. Here, we examined the antinociceptive properties of the selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists N-{2-[(3-methoxyphenyl)phenylamino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM765) and N-{2-[(3-bromophenyl)-(4-fluorophenyl)amino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM924) in two animal models of acute and inflammatory pain: the hot-plate and formalin tests. UCM765 and UCM924 (5-40 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently increased the temperature of the first hind paw lick in the hot-plate test, and decreased the total time spent licking the injected hind paw in the formalin test. Antinociceptive effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were maximal at the dose of 20mg/kg. At this dose, the effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were similar to those produced by 200 mg/kg acetaminophen in the hot-plate test, and by 3 mg/kg ketorolac or 150 mg/kg MLT in the formalin test. Notably, antinociceptive effects of the two MT2 partial agonists were blocked by the pre-treatment with the MT2 antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT, 10 mg/kg) in both paradigms. These results demonstrate the antinociceptive properties of UCM765 and UCM924 in acute and inflammatory pain models and corroborate the concept that MT2 melatonin receptor may be a novel target for analgesic drug development. PMID:26162699

  3. Induction of depersonalization by the serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine.

    PubMed

    Simeon, D; Hollander, E; Stein, D J; DeCaria, C; Cohen, L J; Saoud, J B; Islam, N; Hwang, M

    1995-09-29

    Sixty-seven subjects, including normal volunteers and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and borderline personality disorder, received ratings of depersonalization after double-blind, placebo-controlled challenges with the partial serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Challenge with m-CPP induced depersonalization significantly more than did placebo. Subjects who became depersonalized did not differ in age, sex, or diagnosis from those who did not experience depersonalization. There was a significant correlation between the induction of depersonalization and increase in panic, but not nervousness, anxiety, sadness, depression, or drowsiness. This report suggests that serotonergic dysregulation may in part underlie depersonalization. PMID:8570768

  4. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight. PMID:26198605

  5. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  6. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter. PMID:26585147

  7. Substituted isoxazole analogs of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist GW4064

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Jonathan Y.; Caldwell, Richard D.; Caravella, Justin A.; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L.; Deaton, David N.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Marr, Harry B.; McFadyen, Robert B.; Miller, Aaron B.; Parks, Derek J.; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P.; Wisely, G. Bruce

    2010-09-27

    Starting from the known FXR agonist GW 4064 1a, a series of alternately 3,5-substituted isoxazoles was prepared. Several of these analogs were potent full FXR agonists. A subset of this series, with a tether between the isoxazole ring and the 3-position aryl substituent, were equipotent FXR agonists to GW 4064 1a, with the 2,6-dimethyl phenol analog 1t having greater FRET FXR potency than GW 4064 1a.

  8. Discovery of potent and selective nonsteroidal indazolyl amide glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Sheppeck, James E; Gilmore, John L; Xiao, Hai-Yun; Dhar, T G Murali; Nirschl, David; Doweyko, Arthur M; Sack, Jack S; Corbett, Martin J; Malley, Mary F; Gougoutas, Jack Z; Mckay, Lorraine; Cunningham, Mark D; Habte, Sium F; Dodd, John H; Nadler, Steven G; Somerville, John E; Barrish, Joel C

    2013-10-01

    Modification of a phenolic lead structure based on lessons learned from increasing the potency of steroidal glucocorticoid agonists lead to the discovery of exceptionally potent, nonsteroidal, indazole GR agonists. SAR was developed to achieve good selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors with the ultimate goal of achieving a dissociated GR agonist as measured by human in vitro assays. The specific interactions by which this class of compounds inhibits GR was elucidated by solving an X-ray co-crystal structure. PMID:23953070

  9. Mechanisms underlying activation of transient BK current in rabbit urethral smooth muscle cells and its modulation by IP3-generating agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Barry D.; Bradley, Eamonn; Large, Roddy; Sergeant, Gerard P.; McHale, Noel G.; Thornbury, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    We used the perforated patch-clamp technique at 37°C to investigate the mechanisms underlying the activation of a transient large-conductance K+ (tBK) current in rabbit urethral smooth muscle cells. The tBK current required an elevation of intracellular Ca2+, resulting from ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation via Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, triggered by Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ (CaV) channels. Carbachol inhibited tBK current by reducing Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release and altered the shape of spike complexes recorded under current-clamp conditions. The tBK currents were blocked by iberiotoxin and penitrem A (300 and 100 nM, respectively) and were also inhibited when external Ca2+ was removed or the CaV channel inhibitors nifedipine (10 μM) and Cd2+ (100 μM) were applied. The tBK current was inhibited by caffeine (10 mM), ryanodine (30 μM), and tetracaine (100 μM), suggesting that RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributed to the activation of the tBK current. When IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) were blocked with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB, 100 μM), the amplitude of the tBK current was not reduced. However, when Ca2+ release via IP3Rs was evoked with phenylephrine (1 μM) or carbachol (1 μM), the tBK current was inhibited. The effect of carbachol was abolished when IP3Rs were blocked with 2-APB or by inhibition of muscarinic receptors with the M3 receptor antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (1 μM). Under current-clamp conditions, bursts of action potentials could be evoked with depolarizing current injection. Carbachol reduced the number and amplitude of spikes in each burst, and these effects were reduced in the presence of 2-APB. In the presence of ryanodine, the number and amplitude of spikes were also reduced, and carbachol was without further effect. These data suggest that IP3-generating agonists can modulate the electrical activity of rabbit urethral smooth muscle cells and may contribute to the effects of neurotransmitters on

  10. Site of action of a pentapeptide agonist at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Insight into a small molecule agonist-binding pocket

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Maoqing; Pinon, Delia I.; Miller, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of small molecule agonists for class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has been quite challenging. With proof-of-concept that exenatide, the parenterally administered peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor, is an effective treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus, the development of small molecule agonists could have substantial advantages. We previously reported a lead for small molecule GLP1 receptor agonist development representing the pentapeptide NRTFD. In this work, we have prepared an NRTFD derivative incorporating a photolabile benzoylphenylalanine and used it to define its site of action. This peptide probe was a full agonist with potency similar to NRTFD, which bound specifically and saturably to a single, distinct site within the GLP1 receptor. Peptide mapping using cyanogen bromide and endoproteinase Lys-C cleavage of labeled wild type and M397L mutant receptor constructs identified the site of covalent attachment of NRTFD within the third extracellular loop above the sixth transmembrane segment. This region is the same as that identified using an analogous photolabile probe based on secretin receptor sequences, and has been shown in mutagenesis studies to be important for natural agonist action of several members of this family. While these observations suggest that small molecule ligands can act at a site bordering the third extracellular loop to activate this class B GPCR, the relationship of this site to the site of action of the amino-terminal end of the natural agonist peptide is unclear. PMID:22079758

  11. Trial Watch: Immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Kristina; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Špíšek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy. PMID:27141345

  12. Synthesis and biological activities of indolizine derivatives as alpha-7 nAChR agonists.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yu; Tang, Jingshu; Ma, Xiaozhuo; Li, Qing; Xie, Bingxue; Hao, Yuchen; Jin, Hongwei; Wang, Kewei; Zhang, Guisen; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Lihe

    2016-06-10

    Human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia accompanied with cognitive impairment. Herein, we report the synthesis and agonistic activities of a series of indolizine derivatives targeting to α7 nAChR. The results show that all synthesized compounds have affinity to α7 nAChR and some give strong agonistic activity, particularly most active agonists show higher potency than control EVP-6124. The docking and structure-activity relationship studies provide insights to develop more potent novel α7 nAChR agonists. PMID:26994846

  13. Dopamine agonist-induced substance addiction: the next piece of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Traditional antiparkinson treatment strategies strive to balance the antiparkinson effects of dopaminergic drugs with the avoidance of motor response complications. Dopamine agonists have an established role in delaying the emergence of motor response complications or reducing motor "off" periods. The recent recognition of a range of "behavioural addictions" that are linked to dopamine agonist use has highlighted the role of dopamine in brain reward function and addiction disorders in general. Dopamine agonists have now even been linked occasionally to new substance addictions. The challenge now for the Parkinsonologist is to also balance the net benefits of using dopamine agonists for their motor effects with avoiding the harm from behavioural compulsions. PMID:20980151

  14. Sustained wash-resistant receptor activation responses of GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, J Daniel; Bussey, Charlotte E; Brown, Alastair J; Scott, James S; Dale, Ian; Rawlins, Philip

    2015-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is involved in regulating metabolic homoeostasis, with GPR119 agonists targeted for the treatment of type-2 diabetes and obesity. Using the endogenous agonist oleoylethanolamide and a number of small molecule synthetic agonists we have investigated the temporal dynamics of receptor signalling. Using both a dynamic luminescence biosensor-based assay and an endpoint cAMP accumulation assay we show that agonist-driven desensitization is not a major regulatory mechanism for GPR119 despite robust activation responses, regardless of the agonist used. Temporal analysis of the cAMP responses demonstrated sustained signalling resistant to washout for some, but not all of the agonists tested. Further analysis indicated that the sustained effects of one synthetic agonist AR-231,453 were consistent with a role for slow dissociation kinetics. In contrast, the sustained responses to MBX-2982 and AZ1 appeared to involve membrane deposition. We also detect wash-resistant responses to AR-231,453 at the level of physiologically relevant responses in an endogenous expression system (GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells). In conclusion, our findings indicate that in a recombinant expression system GPR119 activation is sustained, with little evidence of pronounced receptor desensitization, and for some ligands persistent agonist responses continue despite removal of excess agonist. This provides novel understanding of the temporal responses profiles of potential drug candidates targetting GPR119, and highlights the importance of carefully examining the the mechanisms through which GPCRs generate sustained responses. PMID:26101059

  15. Mapping the agonist binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Orientation requirements for activation by covalent agonist.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D A; Cohen, J B

    2000-04-28

    To characterize the structural requirements for ligand orientation compatible with activation of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), we used Cys mutagenesis in conjunction with sulfhydryl-reactive reagents to tether primary or quaternary amines at defined positions within the agonist binding site of nAChRs containing mutant alpha- or gamma-subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 4-(N-Maleimido)benzyltrimethylammonium and 2-aminoethylmethanethiosulfonate acted as irreversible antagonists when tethered at alphaY93C, alphaY198C, or gammaE57C, as well as at alphaN94C (2-aminoethylmethanethiosulfonate only). [2-(Trimethylammonium)-ethyl]-methanethiosulfonate (MTSET), which attaches thiocholine to binding site Cys, also acted as an irreversible antagonist when tethered at alphaY93C, alphaN94C, or gammaE57C. However, MTSET modification of alphaY198C resulted in prolonged activation of the nAChR not reversible by washing but inhibitable by subsequent exposure to non-competitive antagonists. Modification of alphaY198C (or any of the other positions tested) by [(trimethylammonium)methyl]methanethiosulfonate resulted only in irreversible inhibition, while modification of alphaY198C by [3-(trimethylammonium)propyl]methanethiosulfonate resulted in irreversible activation of nAChR, but at lower efficacy than by MTSET. Thus changing the length of the tethering arm by less than 1 A in either direction markedly effects the ability of the covalent trimethylammonium to activate the nAChR, and agonist activation depends on a very selective orientation of the quaternary ammonium within the agonist binding site. PMID:10777557

  16. Isothiouronium compounds as gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, R. D.; Dickenson, H. W.; Hiern, B. P.; Johnston, G. A.; Kazlauskas, R.

    1986-01-01

    Analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) incorporating an isothiouronium salt as a replacement for a protonated amino functional group have been investigated for activity on: GABA receptors in the guinea-pig ileum; [3H]-GABA and [3H]-diazepam binding to rat brain membranes; and GABA uptake and transamination. For the homologous series of omega-isothiouronium alkanoic acids, maximum GABA-mimetic activity was found at 3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]propanoic acid. Introduction of unsaturation into this compound gave two isomeric conformationally restricted analogues. The trans isomer was inactive at GABA receptors while the cis compound ((Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid (ZAPA)) was more potent than muscimol and GABA as a GABA agonist with respect to low affinity GABA receptor sites. Both isomers were moderately potent at inhibiting the uptake of [3H]-GABA into rat brain slices. Comparison of possible conformations of the two unsaturated isomers by interactive computer graphics modelling and comparison with muscimol has led to a plausible active conformation of ZAPA, which may be a selective and potent agonist for low affinity GABA binding sites. PMID:3015310

  17. Cold Suppresses Agonist-induced Activation of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Chung, M.-K.; Wang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction. PMID:21666106

  18. Antidiabetic Actions of an Estrogen Receptor β Selective Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Ropero, Ana B.; García-Arévalo, Marta; Soriano, Sergi; Quesada, Iván; Muhammed, Sarheed J.; Salehi, Albert; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Nadal, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is emerging as an important player in the physiology of the endocrine pancreas. We evaluated the role and antidiabetic actions of the ERβ selective agonist WAY200070 as an insulinotropic molecule. We demonstrate that WAY200070 enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion both in mouse and human islets. In vivo experiments showed that a single administration of WAY200070 leads to an increase in plasma insulin levels with a concomitant improved response to a glucose load. Two-week treatment administration increased glucose-induced insulin release and pancreatic β-cell mass and improved glucose and insulin sensitivity. In addition, streptozotocin-nicotinamide–induced diabetic mice treated with WAY200070 exhibited a significant improvement in plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance as well as a regeneration of pancreatic β-cell mass. Studies performed in db/db mice demonstrated that this compound restored first-phase insulin secretion and enhanced pancreatic β-cell mass. We conclude that ERβ agonists should be considered as new targets for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23349481

  19. Anti-cancer flavonoids are mouse selective STING agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujeong; Li, Lingyin; Maliga, Zoltan; Yin, Qian; Wu, Hao; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The flavonoids FAA and DMXAA showed impressive activity against solid tumors in mice, but failed clinical trials. They act on a previously unknown molecular target(s) to trigger cytokine release from leukocytes, which causes tumor-specific vascular damage and other anti-tumor effects. We show that DMXAA is a competitive agonist ligand for mouse STING (stimulator of interferon genes), a receptor for the bacterial PAMP cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and an endogenous second messenger cyclic-GMP-AMP. In our structure-activity relationship studies, STING binding affinity and pathway activation activity of four flavonoids correlated with activity in a mouse tumor model measured previously. We propose that STING agonist activity accounts for the anti-tumor effects of FAA and DMXAA in mice. Importantly, DMXAA does not bind to human STING, which may account for its lack of efficacy or mechanism-related toxicity in man. We propose that STING is a druggable target for a novel innate immune activation mechanism of chemotherapy. PMID:23683494

  20. Aging changes agonist induced contractile responses in permeabilized rat bladder.

    PubMed

    Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Denizalti, Merve; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2015-08-01

    Aging alters bladder functions where a decrease in filling, storage and emptying is observed. These changes cause urinary incontinence, especially in women. The aim of this study is to examine how aging affects the intracellular calcium movements due to agonist-induced contractions in permeabilized female rat bladder. Urinary bladder isolated from young and old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Small detrusor strips were permeabilized with β-escin. The contractile responses induced with agonists were compared between young and old groups. Carbachol-induced contractions were decreased in permeabilized detrusor from old rats compared to young group. Heparin and ryanodine decreased carbachol-induced contractions in young rats where only heparin inhibited these contractions in olds. Caffeine-induced contractions but not inositol triphosphate (IP3)-induced contractions were decreased in old group compared to youngs. The cumulative calcium response curves (pCa 8-4) were also decreased in old rats. Carbachol-induced calcium sensitization responses did not alter by age where GTP-β-S and GF-109203X but not Y-27632 inhibited these responses. Carbachol-induced contractions decrease with aging in rat bladder detrusor. It can be postulated as IP3-induced calcium release (IICR) is primarily responsible for the contractions in older rats where the decrease in carbachol contractions in aging may be as a result of a decrease in calcium-induced calcium release (CICR), rather than carbachol-induced calcium sensitization. PMID:26153091

  1. A Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 selective allosteric agonist

    PubMed Central

    Satsu, Hideo; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Guerrero, Miguel; Saldana, Adrian; Eberhart, Christina; Hodder, Peter; Cayanan, Charmagne; Schürer, Stephan; Bhhatarai, Barun; Roberts, Ed; Rosen, Hugh; Brown, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular probe tool compounds for the Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) are important for investigating the multiple biological processes in which the S1PR2 receptor has been implicated. Amongst these are NF-κB-mediated tumor cell survival and fibroblast chemotaxis to fibronectin. Here we report our efforts to identify selective chemical probes for S1PR2 and their characterization. We employed high throughput screening to identify two compounds which activate the S1PR2 receptor. SAR optimization led to compounds with high nanomolar potency. These compounds, XAX-162 and CYM-5520, are highly selective and do not activate other S1P receptors. Binding of CYM-5520 is not competitive with the antagonist JTE-013. Mutation of receptor residues responsible for binding to the zwitterionic headgroup of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) abolishes S1P activation of the receptor, but not activation by CYM-5520. Competitive binding experiments with radiolabeled S1P demonstrate that CYM-5520 is an allosteric agonist and does not displace the native ligand. Computational modeling suggests that CYM-5520 binds lower in the orthosteric binding pocket, and that co-binding with S1P is energetically well tolerated. In summary, we have identified an allosteric S1PR2 selective agonist compound. PMID:23849205

  2. Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688

  3. Serotonergic agonists stimulate inositol lipid metabolism in rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schaechter, M.; Godfrey, P.P.; Minchin, M.C.W.; McClue, S.J.; Young, M.M.

    1985-10-28

    The metabolism of inositol phospholipids in response to serotonergic agonists was investigated in rabbit platelets. In platelets prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)-inositol, in a medium containing 10 mM LiCl which blocks the enzyme inositol-1-phosphatase, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) caused a dose-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP). This suggests a phospholipase-C-mediated breakdown of phosphoinositides. Ketanserin, a selective 5-HT/sub 2/ antagonist, was a potent inhibitor of the 5-HT response, with a Ki of 28 nM, indicating that 5-HT is activating receptors of the 5-HT/sub 2/ type in the platelet. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and quipazine also caused dose-related increases in inositol phosphate levels, though these were considerably less than those produced by 5-HT. These results show that relatively small changes in phosphoinositide metabolism induced by serotonergic agonists can be investigated in the rabbit platelet, and this cell may therefore be a useful model for the study of some 5-HT receptors. 30 references, 4 figures.

  4. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist.

    PubMed

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Solt, Laura A; Burris, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:25800870

  5. A novel PPARgamma agonist monascin's potential application in diabetes prevention.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2014-07-25

    Edible fungi of the Monascus species have been used as traditional Chinese medicine in eastern Asia for several centuries. Monascus-fermented products possess a number of functional secondary metabolites, including the anti-inflammatory pigments monascin and ankaflavin. Monascin has been shown to prevent or ameliorate several conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and obesity. Recently, monascin has been shown to improve hyperglycemia, attenuate oxidative stress, inhibit insulin resistance, and suppress inflammatory cytokine production. In our recent study, we have found that monascin is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist. The PPARgamma agonist activity had been investigated and its exerted benefits are inhibition of inflammation in methylglyoxal (MG)-treated rats, prevention of pancreas impairment causing advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), promotion of insulin expression in vivo and in vitro, and attenuated carboxymethyllysine (CML)-induced hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation in the past several years. Moreover, our studies also demonstrated that monascin also activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in pancreatic RIN-m5F cell line thereby invading methylglyoxal induced pancreas dysfunction. In this review, we focus on the chemo-preventive properties of monascin against metabolic syndrome through PPARgamma and Nrf2 pathways. PMID:24752777

  6. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  7. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  8. Cariprazine:New dopamine biased agonist for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    De Deurwaerdère, P

    2016-02-01

    Cariprazine (RGH-188, MP-214, Vraylar[TM]) is a new dopamine receptor ligand developed for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Cariprazine displays higher affinity at dopamine D3 receptors and a similar affinity at D2 and 5-HT2B receptors. At variance with some atypical antipsychotics, its affinity at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and histamine H1 receptors is modest compared with its three main targets. Cariprazine could correspond to a biased agonist at dopamine receptors, displaying either antagonist or partial agonist properties depending on the signaling pathways linked to D2/D3 receptors. The compound crosses the blood-brain barrier, as revealed by positron emission tomography and pharmacokinetic studies in various species. Two main metabolites result mainly from the activity of CYP34A and display properties similar to those of the parent drug. Behavioral data report that cariprazine is efficacious in animal models addressing positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia with no extrapyramidal side effects. In September 2015, the FDA approved the use of cariprazine for the treatment of schizophrenia and type I bipolar disorder. The efficacy of cariprazine in other neuropsychiatric diseases is currently being evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. Side effects have been observed in humans, including extrapyramidal side effects and akathisia of mild to moderate intensity. PMID:27092339

  9. Long-Acting Beta Agonists Enhance Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551

  10. Biostable agonists that match or exceed activity of native insect kinins on recombinant arthropod GPCRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multifunctional arthropod insect kinins share the evolutionarily conserved C-terminal pentapeptide motif Phe-X1-X2-Trp-Gly-NH2, where X1 = His, Asn, Ser, or Tyr and X2 = Ser, Pro, or Ala. Insect kinins regulate diuresis in many species of insects. Compounds with similar biological activity cou...

  11. Efficacy of the melanocortin analogue Nle4-D-Phe7-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the treatment of patients with Hailey–Hailey disease

    PubMed Central

    Biolcati, G; Aurizi, C; Barbieri, L; Cialfi, S; Screpanti, I; Talora, C

    2014-01-01

    Background Hailey–Hailey disease (HHD) is a rare, chronic and recurrent blistering disorder, which is characterized clinically by erosions occurring primarily in intertriginous regions, and histologically by suprabasal acantholysis. Oxidative stress plays a specific role in the pathogenesis of HHD, by regulating the expression of factors playing an important role in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Aim Given the significance of oxidative stress in HHD, we investigated the potential effects of the antioxidant properties of an α-MSH analogue, Nle4-D-Phe7-α-MSH (afamelanotide), in HHD lesion-derived keratinocytes. Results Treatment of HHD-derived keratinocytes with afamelanotide contributed to upregulation of Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2], a redox-sensitive transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in redox homeostasis during oxidative stress. Additionally, afamelanotide treatment restored the defective proliferative capability of lesion-derived keratinocytes. Our results show that Nrf2 is an important target of the afamelanotide signalling that reduces oxidative stress. Because afamelanotide possesses antioxidant effects, we also assessed the clinical potential of this α-MSH analogue in the treatment of patients with HHD. In a phase II open-label pilot study, afamelanotide 16 mg was administered subcutaneously as a sustained-release resorbable implant formulation to two patients with HHD, who had a number of long-standing skin lesions. For both patients, their scores on the Short Form-36 improved 30 days after the first injection of afamelanotide, and both had 100% clearance of HHD lesions 60 days after the first injection, independently of the lesion location. Conclusions Afamelanotide is effective for the treatment of skin lesions in HHD. PMID:24256215

  12. Quantitation of cardioexcitatory Asn-D-Trp-Phe-NH2 diastereomers in Aplysia's central nervous system by nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Yaru; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2008-09-01

    A tripeptide, Asn-D-Trp-Phe-NH(2) (NdWFa) that contains a D-amino acid residue (i.e. D-tryptophan) was previously identified in Aplysia's central nervous system (CNS) and found to be cardioexcitatory. However, the occurrence of its diastereomers including NWFa, theoretically the precursor of NdWFa, remains largely unknown. In this work, a nanoscale liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (nano-LC-MS/MS) method was developed for a sensitive determination of the diastereomers of NWFa. Resolution of the diastereomers including NWFa, NdWFa, NWdFa, and dNWFa was achieved on capillary columns packed with C(18) silica particles with an MS detection-friendly mobile phase consisting of water, acetonitrile, and formic acid. Columns of different internal diameters (IDs) ranging from 75 to 250 microm were evaluated to achieve the best sensitivity. With the use of a 75 microm ID column integrated with a nanoelectrospray emitter, the method had limits of detection (LOD) of 0.21 nM (or 0.49 pg on column, 5 microl injected) NdWFa in tissue homogenate (S/N=3). The five major ganglia in Aplysia californica's CNS (i.e. buccal, cerebral, abdominal, plural, and pedal) were analyzed. NdWFa was detected only in abdominal ganglion at the ng/g tissue level. Further, its diastereomer, NWFa, was also detected for the first time and also only in abdominal ganglion at a significantly lower level. The levels of both NWFa and NdWFa varied from animal to animal in the range from 0 to 81 ng/g tissue. PMID:18416437

  13. Evaluation of Surlyn 8920 as PHE Visor Material and Evaluations of New Adhesives for Improving Bonding Between Teflon and Stainless Steel at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asit K.

    1991-01-01

    Two studies are presented, and in the first study, Surlyn 8920 (an ionic and amorphous low density polyethylene made by Dupont) was evaluated as a possible replacement of Plexyglass G as PHE visor material. Four formulations of the polymer were made by adding different amounts of UV stabilizer, energy quencher, and antioxident in a Brabender Plasticorder. The formulated polymers were molded in the form of sheets in a compression molder. Cut samples from the molded sheets were exposed in a weatherometer and tested on Instron Tensile Tester for strength and elongation. Specially molded samples of the formulated polymers were subjected to Charpy Impact Tests. In the second study, preliminary evaluations of adhesives for improvement of bonding between Teflon and stainless steel (SS) were performed. Kapton, a high temperature polyimide made by Dupont, and a rubber based adhesive made by Potter Paint Co., were evaluated against industrial quality epoxy, the current material used to bond Teflon and SS. The degreased surfaces of the SS discs were etched mechanically, with a few of these etched chemically. The surfaces of the SS discs were etched mechanically, with a few of these etched chemically. Bonding strengths were evaluated using lap shear tests on the Instron Tensile Tester for the samples bonded by Kapton and industrial quality epoxy. Bond strengths were also evaluated using a pull test on the Instron for the samples bonded by Potter adhesive (CWL-152) and industrial quality epoxy. Based on limited lap shear data, Kapton gave bond strength favorable compared to that of industrial epoxy. Based on limited pull test data, Kapton bonded and CWL-152 bonded samples showed poor strength compared to epoxy bonded sample.

  14. Novel sst(4)-selective somatostatin (SRIF) agonists. 4. Three-dimensional consensus structure by NMR.

    PubMed

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Koerber, Steven C; Erchegyi, Judit; Reubi, Jean Claude; Rivier, Jean; Riek, Roland

    2003-12-18

    The three-dimensional NMR structures of eight cyclic octapeptide analogues of somatostatin (SRIF) are described. These analogues, with the basic sequence H-c[Cys(3)-Phe(6)-Xxx(7)-Yyy(8)-Lys(9)-Thr(10)-Zzz(11)-Cys(14)]-OH (the numbering refers to the position in native SRIF), with Xxx(7) being Phe/Ala/Tyr, Yyy(8) being Trp/DTrp/D-threo-beta-Me2Nal/L-threo-beta-Me2Nal, and Zzz(11) being Phe/Ala, exhibit potent and highly selective binding to human SRIF type 4 (sst(4)) receptors. The conformations reveal that the backbones of these analogues do not have the usual type-II' beta-turn reported in the literature for sst(2)-subtype-selective analogues. Instead, the structures contain a unique arrangement of side chains of Yyy(8), Lys(9), and Phe(6) or Phe(11). The conformational preferences and results from biological analyses of these analogues (parts 1-3 of this series, Rivier et al., Erchegyi et al., and Erchegyi et al., J. Med. Chem. 2003, preceding papers in this issue) allow a detailed study of the structure-activity relationship of SRIF. The proposed consensus structural motif at the binding pocket for the sst(4)-selective analogues requires a unique set of distances between an indole/2-naphthyl ring, a lysine side chain, and another aromatic ring. This motif is necessary and sufficient to explain the binding affinities of all of the analogues studied and is distinct from the existing model suggested for sst(2)/sst(5) selectivity. PMID:14667215

  15. The 1.8 A crystal structure of human cathepsin G in complex with Suc-Val-Pro-PheP-(OPh)2: a Janus-faced proteinase with two opposite specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Hof, P; Mayr, I; Huber, R; Korzus, E; Potempa, J; Travis, J; Powers, J C; Bode, W

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of human neutrophil cathepsin G, complexed with the peptidyl phosphonate inhibitor Suc-Val-Pro-PheP-(OPh)2, has been determined to a resolution of 1.8 A using Patterson search techniques. The cathepsin G structure shows the polypeptide fold characteristic of trypsin-like serine proteinases and is especially similar to rat mast cell proteinase II. Unique to cathepsin G, however, is the presence of Glu226 (chymotrypsinogen numbering), which is situated at the bottom of the S1 specificity pocket, dividing it into two compartments. For this reason, the benzyl side chain of the inhibitor PheP residue does not fully occupy the pocket but is, instead, located at its entrance. Its positively charged equatorial edge is involved in a favourable electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged carboxylate group of Glu226. Arrangement of this Glu226 carboxylate would also allow accommodation of a Lys side chain in this S1 pocket, in agreement with the recently observed cathepsin G preference for Lys and Phe at P1. The cathepsin G complex with the covalently bound phosphonate inhibitor mimics a tetrahedral substrate intermediate. A comparison of the Arg surface distributions of cathepsin G, leukocyte elastase and rat mast cell protease II shows no simple common recognition pattern for a mannose-6-phosphate receptor-independent targeting mechanism for sorting of these granular proteinases. Images PMID:8896442

  16. Modulation of PPAR subtype selectivity. Part 2: Transforming PPARα/γ dual agonist into α selective PPAR agonist through bioisosteric modification.

    PubMed

    Zaware, Pandurang; Shah, Shailesh R; Pingali, Harikishore; Makadia, Pankaj; Thube, Baban; Pola, Suresh; Patel, Darshit; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Suthar, Dinesh; Shah, Maanan; Jamili, Jeevankumar; Sairam, Kalapatapu V V M; Giri, Suresh; Patel, Lala; Patel, Harilal; Sudani, Hareshkumar; Patel, Hiren; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj; Bahekar, Rajesh

    2011-01-15

    A novel series of oxime containing benzyl-1,3-dioxane-r-2-carboxylic acid derivatives (6a-k) were designed as selective PPARα agonists, through bioisosteric modification in the lipophilic tail region of PPARα/γ dual agonist. Some of the test compounds (6a, 6b, 6c and 6f) showed high selectivity towards PPARα over PPARγ in vitro. Further, highly potent and selective PPARα agonist 6c exhibited significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity in vivo, along with its improved pharmacokinetic profile. Favorable in-silico interaction of 6c with PPARα binding pocket correlate its in vitro selectivity profile toward PPARα over PPARγ. Together, these results confirm discovery of novel series of oxime based selective PPARα agonists for the safe and effective treatment of various metabolic disorders. PMID:21195611

  17. Impact of Efficacy at the μ-Opioid Receptor on Antinociceptive Effects of Combinations of μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists and Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combining cannabinoids with opioids would improve pain treatment. Combinations with lower efficacy agonists might be preferred and could avoid adverse effects associated with large doses; however, it is unclear whether interactions between opioids and cannabinoids vary across drugs with different efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists alone and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys (n = 4) using a warm water tail withdrawal procedure. Etorphine, fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, Δ9-THC, and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol) each increased tail withdrawal latency. Pretreatment with doses of Δ9-THC (1.0 mg/kg) or CP 55,940 (0.032 mg/kg) that were ineffective alone shifted the fentanyl dose-effect curve leftward 20.6- and 52.9-fold, respectively, and the etorphine dose-effect curve leftward 12.4- and 19.6-fold, respectively. Δ9-THC and CP 55,940 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve leftward only 3.4- and 7.9-fold, respectively, and the buprenorphine curve only 5.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. Neither Δ9-THC nor CP 55,940 significantly altered the effects of nalbuphine. Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the antinociceptive potency of higher efficacy opioid receptor agonists more than lower efficacy agonists; however, because much smaller doses of each drug can be administered in combinations while achieving adequate pain relief and that other (e.g., abuse-related) effects of opioids do not appear to be enhanced by cannabinoids, these results provide additional support for combining opioids with cannabinoids to treat pain. PMID:25194020

  18. 1,4-Benzodiazepine peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK-A) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, R G; Berman, J M; Birkemo, L; Croom, D K; Dezube, M; Ervin, G N; Grizzle, M K; James, M K; Johnson, M F; Queen, K L; Rimele, T J; Vanmiddlesworth, F; Sugg, E E

    2001-05-01

    A series of 1,4-benzodiazepines, N-1-substituted with an N-isopropyl-N-phenylacetamide moiety, was synthesized and screened for CCK-A agonist activity. In vitro agonist activity on isolated guinea pig gallbladder along with in vivo induction of satiety following intraperitoneal administration in a rat feeding assay was demonstrated. PMID:11354363

  19. The dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 effectively increases eye blinking count in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Manato; Kiyoshi, Akihiko; Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Ogi, Yuji; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2016-03-01

    Eye blinking is a spontaneous behavior observed in all mammals, and has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for dopamine production in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Tourette syndrome [1,2]. Pharmacological studies in humans and non-human primates have shown that dopamine agonists/antagonists increase/decrease eye blinking rate. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field due to their more developed prefrontal cortex than rodents, easy handling compare to other non-human primates, and requirement for small amounts of test drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dopamine D1-4 receptors agonists on eye blinking in common marmosets. Our results show that the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine significantly increased common marmosets eye blinking count, whereas the dopamine D2 agonist (+)-PHNO and the dopamine D3 receptor agonist (+)-PD-128907 produced somnolence in common marmosets resulting in a decrease in eye blinking count. The dopamine D4 receptor agonists PD-168077 and A-41297 had no effect on common marmosets' eye blinking count. Finally, the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 completely blocked apomorphine-induced increase in eye blinking count. These results indicate that eye blinking in common marmosets may be a useful tool for in vivo screening of novel dopamine D1 receptor agonists as antipsychotics. PMID:26675887

  20. Functional desensitization of the β2 adrenoceptor is not dependent on agonist efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Bradley, Michelle E; Kent, Toby C; Charlton, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic treatment with β2 adrenoceptor agonists is recommended as a first-line maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, a potential consequence of long-term treatment may be the loss of functional response (tachyphylaxis) over time. In this study, we have investigated the tendency of such agonists, with a range of efficacies, to develop functional desensitization to cAMP responses in primary human bronchial smooth muscle cells following prolonged agonist exposure. The data show that upon repeat exposure, all agonists produced functional desensitization to the same degree and rate. In addition, β2 adrenoceptor internalization and β-arrestin-2 recruitment were monitored using β2·eGFP visualization and the PathHunter™ β-arrestin-2 assay, respectively. All agonists were capable of causing robust receptor internalization and β-arrestin-2 recruitment, the rate of which was influenced by agonist efficacy, as measured in those assays. In summary, although a relationship exists between agonist efficacy and the rate of both receptor internalization and β-arrestin-2 recruitment, there is no correlation between agonist efficacy and the rate or extent of functional desensitization. PMID:25692019

  1. Classical and atypical agonists activate M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors through common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, Esam E; Jakubík, Jan

    2015-07-01

    We mutated key amino acids of the human variant of the M1 muscarinic receptor that target ligand binding, receptor activation, and receptor-G protein interaction. We compared the effects of these mutations on the action of two atypical M1 functionally preferring agonists (N-desmethylclozapine and xanomeline) and two classical non-selective orthosteric agonists (carbachol and oxotremorine). Mutations of D105 in the orthosteric binding site and mutation of D99 located out of the orthosteric binding site decreased affinity of all tested agonists that was translated as a decrease in potency in accumulation of inositol phosphates and intracellular calcium mobilization. Mutation of D105 decreased the potency of the atypical agonist xanomeline more than that of the classical agonists carbachol and oxotremorine. Mutation of the residues involved in receptor activation (D71) and coupling to G-proteins (R123) completely abolished the functional responses to both classical and atypical agonists. Our data show that both classical and atypical agonists activate hM1 receptors by the same molecular switch that involves D71 in the second transmembrane helix. The principal difference among the studied agonists is rather in the way they interact with D105 in the orthosteric binding site. Furthermore, our data demonstrate a key role of D105 in xanomeline wash-resistant binding and persistent activation of hM1 by wash-resistant xanomeline. PMID:25882246

  2. Prolonging Survival of Corneal Transplantation by Selective Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Min; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yang; Han, Gencheng; Jia, Liang; Wang, Liqiang; Lei, Tian; Huang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most used therapy for eye disorders. Although the cornea is somewhat an immune privileged organ, immune rejection is still the major problem that reduces the success rate. Therefore, effective chemical drugs that regulate immunoreactions are needed to improve the outcome of corneal transplantations. Here, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) selective agonist was systematically evaluated in mouse allogeneic corneal transplantation and compared with the commonly used immunosuppressive agents. Compared with CsA and the non-selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist FTY720, the S1P1 selective agonist can prolong the survival corneal transplantation for more than 30 days with a low immune response. More importantly, the optimal dose of the S1P1 selective agonist was much less than non-selective S1P receptor agonist FTY720, which would reduce the dose-dependent toxicity in drug application. Then we analyzed the mechanisms of the selected S1P1 selective agonist on the immunosuppression. The results shown that the S1P1 selective agonist could regulate the distribution of the immune cells with less CD4+ T cells and enhanced Treg cells in the allograft, moreover the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-10 unregulated which can reduce the immunoreactions. These findings suggest that S1P1 selective agonist may be a more appropriate immunosuppressive compound to effectively prolong mouse allogeneic corneal grafts survival. PMID:25216235

  3. Hyperthermia induced by the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SK&F38393 in combination with the dopamine D2 receptor agonist talipexole in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, M; Yamada, K; Kimura, H; Matsumoto, S; Furukawa, T

    1992-12-01

    The present experiments were performed to investigate the effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists given alone or in combination with dopamine D2 receptor agonists on body temperature in rats. The selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist, 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol (SK&F38393), produced hyperthermia. However, the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, B-HT 920 (talipexole), and the newly synthesized dopamine D2 receptor agonist, (S)-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6-propylamino-benzothiazole (SND 919), did not change the temperature. Interestingly, the SK&F38393-induced hyperthermia was enhanced by talipexole and SND 919. The drastic hyperthermia induced by combined administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists was blocked by either the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, or the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, spiperone. On the other hand, treatment with prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, scopolamine, or methysergide failed to affect the marked hyperthermia. The present results suggest that a functional link between dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may be synergistic in the regulation of body temperature and that concurrent stimulation of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors thereby produces marked hyperthermia in the rat. PMID:1361996

  4. Detection of Pleiotropy through a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) of Epidemiologic Data as Part of the Environmental Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Molly A.; Verma, Anurag; Brown-Gentry, Kristin D.; Goodloe, Robert; Boston, Jonathan; Wilson, Sarah; McClellan, Bob; Sutcliffe, Cara; Dilks, Holly H.; Gillani, Nila B.; Jin, Hailing; Mayo, Ping; Allen, Melissa; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Crawford, Dana C.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) utilizing diverse genotypic and phenotypic data existing across multiple populations in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and accessed by the Epidemiological Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study. We calculated comprehensive tests of association in Genetic NHANES using 80 SNPs and 1,008 phenotypes (grouped into 184 phenotype classes), stratified by race-ethnicity. Genetic NHANES includes three surveys (NHANES III, 1999–2000, and 2001–2002) and three race-ethnicities: non-Hispanic whites (n = 6,634), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 3,458), and Mexican Americans (n = 3,950). We identified 69 PheWAS associations replicating across surveys for the same SNP, phenotype-class, direction of effect, and race-ethnicity at p<0.01, allele frequency >0.01, and sample size >200. Of these 69 PheWAS associations, 39 replicated previously reported SNP-phenotype associations, 9 were related to previously reported associations, and 21 were novel associations. Fourteen results had the same direction of effect across more than one race-ethnicity: one result was novel, 11 replicated previously reported associations, and two were related to previously reported results. Thirteen SNPs showed evidence of pleiotropy. We further explored results with gene-based biological networks, contrasting the direction of effect for pleiotropic associations across phenotypes. One PheWAS result was ABCG2 missense SNP rs2231142, associated with uric acid levels in both non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, protoporphyrin levels in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, and blood pressure levels in Mexican Americans. Another example was SNP rs1800588 near LIPC, significantly associated with the novel phenotypes of folate levels (Mexican Americans), vitamin E levels (non-Hispanic whites) and triglyceride levels (non

  5. Pharmacology and clinical potential of guanylyl cyclase C agonists in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pitari, Giovanni M

    2013-01-01

    Agonists of the transmembrane intestinal receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) have recently attracted interest as promising human therapeutics. Peptide ligands that can specifically induce GCC signaling in the intestine include endogenous hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, diarrheagenic bacterial enterotoxins (ST), and synthetic drugs linaclotide, plecanatide, and SP-333. These agonists bind to GCC at intestinal epithelial surfaces and activate the receptor’s intracellular catalytic domain, an event initiating discrete biological responses upon conversion of guanosine-5′-triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate. A principal action of GCC agonists in the colon is the promotion of mucosal homeostasis and its dependent barrier function. Herein, GCC agonists are being developed as new medications to treat inflammatory bowel diseases, pathological conditions characterized by mucosal barrier hyperpermeability, abnormal immune reactions, and chronic local inflammation. This review will present important concepts underlying the pharmacology and therapeutic utility of GCC agonists for patients with ulcerative colitis, one of the most prevalent inflammatory bowel disease disorders. PMID:23637522

  6. Voltage dependence of agonist effectiveness at the frog neuromuscular junction: resolution of a paradox.

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, V E; Stevens, C F

    1975-01-01

    1. End-plate currents produced by nerve-released acetylcholine and iontophoretically applied acetylcholine and carbachol have been recorded from voltage-clamped frog cutaneous pectoris neuromuscular junctions made visible with Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. 2. The effectiveness of agonists - that is, the end-plate conductance change produced by a given dose-has been determined as a function of post-junctional membrane potential. 3. As the post-junctional membrane potential is made more negative, nerve-released acetylcholine becomes less effective whereas iontophoretically-applied agonists become more effective. 4. This voltage dependence of agonist effectiveness is mediated neither by end-plate current iontophoresis of agonist into the cleft nor through electric field effects on the esterase. 5. Influences of membrane potential on the opening and closing of end-plate channel gates can account quantitatively for the voltage-dependent effectiveness of both nerve-released and iontophoretically applied agonist. PMID:1081139

  7. The link between non-ergot-derived dopamine agonists and heart failure: how strong is it?

    PubMed

    Lockett, Katrina; DeBacker, Danielle; Cauthon, Kimberly A B

    2015-03-01

    Dopamine agonists are commonly used as initial monotherapy and adjunct treatment for Parkinson's disease. However, the Food and Drug Administration recently linked pramipexole use with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). Several case-control studies demonstrate a possible increased risk of the development of HF in patients taking non-ergot-derived dopamine agonists compared with patients not taking dopamine agonists. In patients taking non-ergot-derived dopamine agonists, the studies associated the risk of increased HF with pramipexole. These studies did not find a possible increased risk with ropinirole, but to date no randomized, controlled trials have been conducted to directly compare ropinirole with pramipexole and the risk of HF. The mechanism by which HF occurs is unknown, but the development of edema after dopamine agonist use could increase the risk of HF. If patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or edema are prescribed pramipexole, additional monitoring for HF signs and symptoms is recommended. PMID:25760663

  8. Effects of mu and delta opioid agonists and antagonists on affective vocal and reflexive pain responses during social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Vivian, J A; Miczek, K A

    1998-10-01

    The present experiments evaluated the influence of intraventricular mu and delta opioid receptors on affective vocal and reflexive responses to aversive stimuli in socially inexperienced, as well as defensive and submissive responses in defeated, adult male Long-Evans rats. Defeat stress consisted of: (1) an aggressive confrontation in which the experimental intruder rat exhibited escape, defensive and submissive behaviors [i.e., upright, supine postures and ultrasonic vocalizations (USV)], and subsequently, (2) protection from the resident stimulus rat with a wire mesh screen for 10-20 min. Defeat stress was immediately followed by an experimental session with tactile startle (20 psi). The mu opioid receptor agonists morphine (0.1-0.6 microg i.c.v.) and [D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO; 0.01-0.3 microg i.c.v.), and the delta opioid receptor agonist [D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 10-100 microg i.c.v.) dose-dependently decreased startle-induced USV and increased tail-flick latencies in socially inexperienced and defeated rats. Of greater interest, morphine, DAMGO and DPDPE increased the occurrence of the submissive crouch posture, and defeated rats were more sensitive than socially inexperienced rats to the startle-induced USV-suppressive and antinociceptive effects of morphine and DPDPE. The antinociceptive effects of DAMGO were likewise obtained at lower doses in defeated rats. Finally, the USV-suppressive effects of morphine and DAMGO were reversed with the mu receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg i.p.), but the USV-suppressive effects produced by DPDPE were not reversed with the delta receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 mg/kg i.p.). These results confirm mu, but not delta opioid receptor activation as significant in affective vocal, passive-submissive behavior, as well as reflexive antinociception. Furthermore, similar to previous studies with restraint and electric shock stress, the facilitation of mu opioid effects on vocal responses and

  9. Pharmacological characterization of FE 202158, a novel, potent, selective, and short-acting peptidic vasopressin V1a receptor full agonist for the treatment of vasodilatory hypotension.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Régent; Kohan, Arash; Heitzmann, Joshua; Wisniewska, Halina; Toy, Jeannine; La, Erin; Tariga, Hiroe; Alagarsamy, Sudarkodi; Ly, Brian; Dykert, John; Qi, Steve; Wisniewski, Kazimierz; Galyean, Robert; Croston, Glenn; Schteingart, Claudio D; Rivière, Pierre J-M

    2011-06-01

    FE 202158, ([Phe(2),Ile(3),Hgn(4),Orn(iPr)(8)]vasopressin, where Hgn is homoglutamine and iPr is isopropyl), a peptidic analog of the vasoconstrictor hormone [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP), was designed to be a potent, selective, and short-acting vasopressin type 1a receptor (V(1a)R) agonist. In functional reporter gene assays, FE 202158 was a potent and selective human V(1a)R agonist [EC(50) = 2.4 nM; selectivity ratio of 1:142:1107:440 versus human vasopressin type 1b receptor, vasopressin type 2 receptor (V(2)R), and oxytocin receptor, respectively] contrasting with AVP's lack of selectivity, especially versus the V(2)R (selectivity ratio of 1:18:0.2:92; human V(1a)R EC(50) = 0.24 nM). This activity and selectivity profile was confirmed in radioligand binding assays. FE 202158 was a potent vasoconstrictor in the isolated rat common iliac artery ex vivo (EC(50) = 3.6 nM versus 0.8 nM for AVP) and reduced rat ear skin blood flow after intravenous infusion in vivo (ED(50) = 4.0 versus 3.4 pmol/kg/min for AVP). The duration of its vasopressor effect by intravenous bolus in rats was as short as AVP at submaximally effective doses. FE 202158 had no V(2)R-mediated antidiuretic activity in rats by intravenous infusion at its ED(50) for reduction of ear skin blood flow, in contrast with the pronounced antidiuretic effect of AVP. Thus, FE 202158 seems suitable for treatment of conditions where V(1a)R activity is desirable but V(2)R activity is potentially deleterious, such as vasodilatory hypotension in septic shock. In addition to the desirable selectivity profile, its short-acting nature should allow dose titration with rapid onset and offset of action to optimize vasoconstriction efficacy and safety. PMID:21411496

  10. [Is the LHRH Agonist Recommended for Fertility Preservation ?].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kosei; Iwamoto, Mitsuhiko; Tanaka, Satoru; Watanabe, Toru; Aihara, Tomohiko; Sugimoto, Takeki; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Kouno, Tsutomu; Baba, Shinichi; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Naoki; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-08-01

    The POEMS reportedan effect of goserelin for fertility preservation. The Clinical Practice Guideline for Breast Cancer by The Japanese Breast Cancer Society indicates that the use of the LHRH agonist (LHRHa) for preventing chemotherapy-induced early menopause is a grade C-1 recommendation, and its use for fertility preservation is a grade C-2 recommendation. Results from previous studies on the effects of LHRHa for fertility preservation have varied owing to differences in chemotherapy regimens, definitions of ovarian failure, and dosages of tamoxifen. In the POEMS, the primary endpoint of ovarian failure at 2 years was significantly lower, and the secondary endpoint of pregnancy outcomes was better in the combination group; however, precise interpretation is difficult because many cases were excluded. Currently, it is not necessary to revise The Clinical Practice Guideline; however, desirable results from future studies may allow the recommendation of a specific dosage of LHRHa for fertility preservation. PMID:26321722

  11. The GLP-1 agonist, liraglutide, as a pharmacotherapy for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Crane, James; McGowan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    There is a global obesity epidemic that will continue to be a financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Tackling obesity through diet and exercise should always be the first intervention, but this has not proved to be effective for a large number of patients. Pharmacotherapeutic options have been limited and many previously available drugs have been withdrawn due to safety concerns. Currently, only bariatric surgery has the capability to induce both substantial and durable weight loss. This article briefly reviews the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity before focusing on the clinical trial evidence for the use of the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide as a weight loss agent and comparing its efficacy with other emerging drug therapies for obesity. PMID:26977279

  12. Proopiomelanocortin Deficiency Treated with a Melanocortin-4 Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Kühnen, Peter; Clément, Karine; Wiegand, Susanna; Blankenstein, Oliver; Gottesdiener, Keith; Martini, Lea L; Mai, Knut; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko

    2016-07-21

    Patients with rare defects in the gene encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have extreme early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, hypopigmentation, and hypocortisolism, resulting from the lack of the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotropin. In such patients, adrenal insufficiency must be treated with hydrocortisone early in life. No effective pharmacologic treatments have been available for the hyperphagia and obesity that characterize the condition. In this investigator-initiated, open-label study, two patients with proopiomelanocortin deficiency were treated with setmelanotide, a new melanocortin-4 receptor agonist. The patients had a sustainable reduction in hunger and substantial weight loss (51.0 kg after 42 weeks in Patient 1 and 20.5 kg after 12 weeks in Patient 2). PMID:27468060

  13. TSH and Thyrotropic Agonists: Key Actors in Thyroid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Landgrafe, Gabi; Fotiadou, Elisavet H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the reader with an overview of our current knowledge of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback from a cybernetic standpoint. Over the past decades we have gained a plethora of information from biochemical, clinical, and epidemiological investigation, especially on the role of TSH and other thyrotropic agonists as critical components of this complex relationship. Integrating these data into a systems perspective delivers new insights into static and dynamic behaviour of thyroid homeostasis. Explicit usage of this information with mathematical methods promises to deliver a better understanding of thyrotropic feedback control and new options for personalised diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and targeted therapy, also by permitting a new perspective on the conundrum of the TSH reference range. PMID:23365787

  14. The GLP-1 agonist, liraglutide, as a pharmacotherapy for obesity.

    PubMed

    Crane, James; McGowan, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    There is a global obesity epidemic that will continue to be a financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Tackling obesity through diet and exercise should always be the first intervention, but this has not proved to be effective for a large number of patients. Pharmacotherapeutic options have been limited and many previously available drugs have been withdrawn due to safety concerns. Currently, only bariatric surgery has the capability to induce both substantial and durable weight loss. This article briefly reviews the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity before focusing on the clinical trial evidence for the use of the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide as a weight loss agent and comparing its efficacy with other emerging drug therapies for obesity. PMID:26977279

  15. Saralasin and Sarile Are AT2 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Saralasin and sarile, extensively studied over the past 40 years as angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blockers, induce neurite outgrowth in a NG108-15 cell assay to a similar extent as the endogenous Ang II. In their undifferentiated state, these cells express mainly the AT2 receptor. The neurite outgrowth was inhibited by preincubation with the AT2 receptor selective antagonist PD 123,319, which suggests that the observed outgrowth was mediated by the AT2 receptor. Neither saralasin nor sarile reduced the neurite outgrowth induced by Ang II proving that the two octapeptides do not act as antagonists at the AT2 receptor and may be considered as AT2 receptor agonists. PMID:25313325

  16. Use of Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists in Childhood Immune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Garzon, Angelica Maria; Mitchell, William Beau

    2015-01-01

    Most children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) will have spontaneous remission regardless of therapy, while about 20% will go on to have chronic ITP. In those children with chronic ITP who need treatment, standard therapies for acute ITP may have adverse effects that complicate their long-term use. Thus, alternative treatment options are needed for children with chronic ITP. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RA) have been shown to be safe and efficacious in adults with ITP, and represent a new treatment option for children with chronic ITP. One TPO-RA, eltrombopag, is now approved for children. Clinical trials in children are ongoing and data are emerging on safety and efficacy. This review will focus on the physiology of TPO-RA, their clinical use in children, as well as the long-term safety issues that need to be considered when using these agents. PMID:26322297

  17. Antiinfective applications of toll-like receptor 9 agonists.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Arthur M

    2007-07-01

    The innate immune system detects pathogens by the presence of highly conserved pathogen-expressed molecules, which trigger host immune defenses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 detects unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial or viral DNA, and can be stimulated for therapeutic applications with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing immune stimulatory "CpG motifs." TLR9 activation induces both innate and adaptive immunity. The TLR9-induced innate immune activation can be applied in the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases, and the adaptive immune-enhancing effects can be harnessed for improving vaccines. This article highlights the current understanding of the mechanism of action of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, and provides an overview of the preclinical data and early human clinical trial results, applying these TLR9 agonists in the field of infectious diseases. PMID:17607015

  18. Reduced Anorexigenic Efficacy of Leptin, But Not of the Melanocortin Receptor Agonist Melanotan-II, Predicts Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Gertjan; de Vries, Koert; Nyakas, Csaba; Buwalda, Bauke; Adage, Tiziana; Kuipers, Folkert; Kas, Martien J. H.; Adan, Roger A. H.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Thiele, Todd E.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Leptin gains access to the central nervous system where it influences activity of neuronal networks involved in ingestive behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and metabolism. In particular, the brain melanocortin (MC) system is important in leptin signaling and maintenance of energy balance. Although leptin or MC receptor insensitivity has been proposed to be associated with obesity, the present study compared central leptin and MC receptor stimulation on some of the above-mentioned parameters and investigated whether these treatments predict proneness to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in out-bred Wistar rats. Third-cerebroventricular administration of equi-anorexigenic doses of leptin and of the MC agonist melanotan-II caused comparable increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels and c-Fos-labeling in approximately 70% of paraventricular hypothalamic (PVN) neuronal cell bodies containing CRH. This reinforces involvement of paraventricular CRH neurons in the short-term neuroendocrine and ingestive effects of leptin and melanocortins. In the DIO prediction study, anorexigenic efficacy of melanotan-II was not correlated with any parameter linked to DIO but was highly correlated with MC in situ binding (with labeled [Nle4,d-Phe7]α-MSH) as well as CRH immunoreactivity in the PVN of DIO rats. This suggests intricate relationships among MC signaling, the CRH system, and ingestive behavior unrelated to DIO. In the same animals, leptin’s anorexigenic efficacy was not correlated with PVN MC in situ binding or CRH immunoreactivity but correlated inversely to post-DIO plasma leptin, liver weight, and abdominal adiposity, the latter being correlated to insulin resistance. Thus, differences in leptin but not MC signaling might underlie DIO, visceral obesity, and insulin resistance. PMID:16166222

  19. Cannabinoid withdrawal in mice: inverse agonist vs neutral antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sherrica; Nikas, Spyros P.; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Vemuri, Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Järbe, Torbjörn U.C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Previous reports shows rimonabant's inverse properties may be a limiting factor for treating cannabinoid dependence. To overcome this limitation neutral antagonists were developed, to address mechanisms by which an inverse agonist and neutral antagonist elicit withdrawal. Objective Introduces an animal model to study cannabinoid dependence by incorporating traditional methodologies and profiling novel cannabinoid ligands with distinct pharmacological properties/modes of action by evaluating their pharmacological effects on CB1-receptor (CB1R) related physiological/behavioral endpoints. Methods The cannabinergic AM2389 was acutely characterized in the tetrad (locomotor activity, analgesia, inverted screen/catalepsy bar test and temperature); with some comparisons made to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Tolerance was measured in mice repeatedly administered AM2389. Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal was characterized in cannabinoid-adapted mice induced by either centrally acting antagonists, rimonabant and AM4113, or an antagonist with limited brain penetration, AM6545. Results In the tetrad, AM2389 was more potent and longer acting than THC, suggesting a novel approach for inducing dependence. Repeated administration of AM2389 led to tolerance by attenuating hypothermia that was induced by acute AM2389 administration. Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal signs were induced by rimonabant or AM4113, but not by AM6545. Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal was reversed by reinstating AM2389 or THC. Conclusions These findings suggest cannabinoid-precipitated withdrawal may not be ascribed to the inverse properties of rimonabant, but rather to rapid competition with the agonist at the CB1R. This withdrawal syndrome is likely centrally-mediated, since only the centrally acting CB1R antagonists elicited withdrawal, i.e., such responses were absent after the purported peripherally selective CB1R antagonist AM6545. PMID:25772338

  20. RS 30026: a potent and effective calcium channel agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Patmore, L.; Duncan, G. P.; Clarke, B.; Anderson, A. J.; Greenhouse, R.; Pfister, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    1. A series of dihydropyridine derivatives has been evaluated for calcium channel agonist activity using reversal of nisoldipine-induced inhibition of beating of aggregates of embryonic chick myocytes. This test appears to be specific for calcium channel agonists since isoprenaline and cardiac glycosides are inactive. 2. RS 30026 was the most potent of the series, was significantly more potent than CGP 28392 and of similar potency to Bay K 8644 (pEC50 = 7.45, 6.16 and 7.20, respectively). RS 30026 increased edge movement of individual aggregates, in the absence of nisoldipine, by 50% at 2 nM. 3. Compounds were also evaluated for their effects on guinea-pig papillary muscle and porcine coronary artery rings. RS 30026 displayed positive inotropism at concentrations between 10(-9) and 10(-6) M (pEC200 = 8.21), but was a much more powerful inotrope than Bay K 8644, increasing contractility to 1300% of control at 10(-6) M (compared to 350% of control for Bay K 8644). RS 30026 caused vasoconstriction at concentrations between 10(-10) and 10(-7) M. 4. Calcium channel currents in single embryonic chick myocytes were recorded by whole-cell voltage clamp techniques. RS 30026 (100 nM-500 nM) produced large increases in peak current amplitude and shifted the voltage for threshold and maximal currents to more negative values. RS 30026 (500 nM) also produced large increases in the inward tail currents evoked upon repolarization. The effects of Bay K 8644 (50 and 500 nM) were much less marked.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1694461

  1. Asimadoline, a κ-Opioid Agonist, and Visceral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Asimadoline is a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist with a diaryl acetamide structure. It has high affinity for the κ receptor, with IC50 of 5.6 nM (guinea pig) and 1.2 nM (human recombinant), and high selectively with κ: μ: δ binding ratios of 1:501:498 in human recombinant receptors. It acts as a complete agonist in in vitro assay. Asimadoline reduced sensation in response to colonic distension at subnoxious pressures in healthy volunteers and in IBS patients without alteration of colonic compliance. Asimadoline reduced satiation and enhanced the postprandial gastric volume (in female volunteers). However, there were no significant effects on gastrointestinal transit, colonic compliance, fasting or postprandial colonic tone. In a clinical trial in 40 patients with functional dyspepsia (Rome II), asimadoline did not significantly alter satiation or symptoms over 8 weeks. However, asimadoline, 0.5 mg, significantly decreased satiation in patients with higher postprandial fullness scores, and daily postprandial fullness severity (over 8 weeks); the asimadoline 1.0 mg group was borderline significant. In a clinical trial in patients with IBS, average pain 2 hours post-on-demand treatment with asimadoline was not significantly reduced. Post-hoc analyses suggest asimadoline was effective in mixed IBS. In a 12-week study in 596 patients, chronic treatment with asimadoline, 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg, was associated with adequate relief of pain and discomfort, improvement in pain score and number of pain free days in patients with IBS-D. The 1.0 mg dose was also efficacious in IBS-alternating. There were also weeks with significant reduction in bowel frequency and urgency. Asimadoline has been well tolerated in human trials to date. PMID:18715494

  2. Agonist and antagonist effects of cytisine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Radchenko, Elena V; Dravolina, Olga A; Bespalov, Anton Y

    2015-08-01

    Varenicline, the most successful smoking cessation aid, is a selective partial agonists at α4β2* nicotinic receptors. Its efficacy is likely to be shared by other drugs with similar receptor action, including cytisine. The present study aimed to characterize behavioral effects of cytisine compared with nicotine using locomotor activity tests, intracranial self-stimulation of ventral tegmental area (discrete-trial threshold current intensity titration procedure), drug discrimination (0.6 mg/kg nicotine from vehicle), physical dependence (osmotic minipumps delivering 6 mg/kg/day of nicotine) and intravenous nicotine self-administration (0.01 mg/kg per infusion) in adult Wistar rats. Cytisine (1-3 mg/kg) partially substituted for nicotine and at the highest dose tended to antagonize nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects. Nicotine (0.05-0.4 mg/kg), but not cytisine (0.3-3 mg/kg), lowered ICSS thresholds and cytisine dose-dependently reversed effects of nicotine. Nicotine (0.15-0.6 mg/kg), but not cytisine (0.3-3 mg/kg), stimulated locomotor activity and cytisine (3 mg/kg) fully reversed these effects of nicotine. Acute pretreatment with nicotine (0.15-0.6 mg/kg), but not cytisine (0.3-3 mg/kg), reinstated extinguished nicotine self-administration. Continuous infusion of nicotine induced physical dependence, as indicated by reduced rates of food-reinforced responding induced by a challenge dose of mecamylamine. At the highest tested dose (3 mg/kg), cytisine tended to reduce response rates irrespective of whether the rats were continuously exposed to nicotine or saline. Cytisine behaves like a weak partial agonist, mimicking effects of nicotine to a limited degree. Although cytisine reversed several effects of nicotine, it seemed to have a reduced potential to produce withdrawal signs in nicotine-dependent subjects. PMID:25839895

  3. Could dopamine agonists aid in drug development for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  4. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy and Obesity in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Shiasi Arani, Kobra; Heidari, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depot preparations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are the gold standard drugs for the treatment of central precocious puberty. A concern about these drugs is obesity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) therapy on body mass index (BMI) in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). Patients and Methods: The girls with onset of puberty before eight years of age or menarche before nine years of age were studied. The weight, height, BMI, and pubertal stage were determined before and at sixth and 12th months of treatment. The GnRHa (Triptorelin) was administered intramuscularly for patients with rapidly progressive forms of CPP. Patients with slowly progressive forms of CPP were considered as control group. Results: From 110 subjects with CPP, 46 girls (41.8%) were considered as intervention and 64 (58.2%) as control groups. The mean age at initial visit was 7.46 ± 1.03 years. The BMI standard deviation scores in both groups was not significantly different at sixth and 12th months of treatment compared with baseline (P = 0.257 and P = 0.839, respectively). The prevalence of obesity was not significantly different between study groups at baseline and at and sixth and 12th months of therapy (P = 0.11, P = 0.068, and P = 0.052, respectively). Conclusions: The GnRHa therapy has no effect on BMI and the prevalence of obesity. PMID:26401141

  5. Recent advances in the development of farnesoid X receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Elizabeth J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in high amounts in body tissues that participate in bilirubin metabolism including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. Bile acids (BAs) are the natural ligands of the FXRs. FXRs regulate the expression of the gene encoding for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis. In addition, FXRs play a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin sensitivity. FXRs also modulate live growth and regeneration during liver injury. Preclinical studies have shown that FXR activation protects against cholestasis-induced liver injury. Moreover, FXR activation protects against fatty liver injury in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and improved hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a 6α-ethyl derivative of the natural human BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the first-in-class selective FXR agonist that is ~100-fold more potent than CDCA. Preliminary human clinical trials have shown that OCA is safe and effective. In a phase II clinical trial, administration of OCA was well-tolerated, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In two clinical trials of OCA in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive cholestatic liver disease, OCA significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, an important disease marker that correlates well with clinical outcomes of patients with PBC. Together, these studies suggest that FXR agonists could potentially be used as therapeutic tools in patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty and cholestatic liver diseases. Larger and Longer-term studies are currently ongoing. PMID:25705637

  6. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  7. Recent advances in the development of farnesoid X receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad H; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in high amounts in body tissues that participate in bilirubin metabolism including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. Bile acids (BAs) are the natural ligands of the FXRs. FXRs regulate the expression of the gene encoding for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis. In addition, FXRs play a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin sensitivity. FXRs also modulate live growth and regeneration during liver injury. Preclinical studies have shown that FXR activation protects against cholestasis-induced liver injury. Moreover, FXR activation protects against fatty liver injury in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and improved hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a 6α-ethyl derivative of the natural human BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the first-in-class selective FXR agonist that is ~100-fold more potent than CDCA. Preliminary human clinical trials have shown that OCA is safe and effective. In a phase II clinical trial, administration of OCA was well-tolerated, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In two clinical trials of OCA in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive cholestatic liver disease, OCA significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, an important disease marker that correlates well with clinical outcomes of patients with PBC. Together, these studies suggest that FXR agonists could potentially be used as therapeutic tools in patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty and cholestatic liver diseases. Larger and Longer-term studies are currently ongoing. PMID:25705637

  8. Interaction of a radiolabeled agonist with cardiac muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Harden, T.K.; Meeker, R.B.; Martin, M.W.

    1983-12-01

    The interaction of a radiolabeled muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, (methyl-/sup 3/H)oxotremorine acetate ((/sup 3/H)OXO), with a washed membrane preparation derived from rat heart, has been studied. In binding assays at 4 degrees C, the rate constants for association and dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO were 2 X 10(7) M-1 min-1 and 5 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively, Saturation binding isotherms indicated that binding was to a single population of sites with a Kd of approximately 300 pM. The density of (/sup 3/H)OXO binding sites (90-100 fmol/mg of protein) was approximately 75% of that determined for the radiolabeled receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate. Both muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO with high affinity and Hill slopes of approximately one. Guanine nucleotides completely inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO. This effect was on the maximum binding (Bmax) of (/sup 3/H)OXO with no change occurring in the Kd; the order of potency for five nucleotides was guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio-triphosphate) greater than 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate greater than GTP greater than or equal to guanosine/diphosphate greater than GMP. The (/sup 3/H)OXO-induced interaction of muscarinic receptors with a guanine nucleotide binding protein was stable to solubilization. That is, membrane receptors that were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)OXO could be solubilized with digitonin, and the addition of guanine nucleotides to the soluble, (/sup 3/H)OXO-labeled complex resulted in dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO from the receptor. Pretreatment of membranes with relatively low concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide inhibited (/sup 3/H)OXO binding by 85% with no change in the Kd of (/sup 3/H)OXO, and with no effect on (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding.

  9. GITR agonist enhances vaccination responses in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li X; Davoodi, Michael; Srivastava, Minu K; Kachroo, Puja; Lee, Jay M; St. John, Maie; Harris-White, Marni; Huang, Min; Strieter, Robert M; Dubinett, Steven; Sharma, Sherven

    2015-01-01

    An immune tolerant tumor microenvironment promotes immune evasion of lung cancer. Agents that antagonize immune tolerance will thus aid the fight against this devastating disease. Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family modulate the magnitude, duration and phenotype of immune responsiveness to antigens. Among these, GITR expressed on immune cells functions as a key regulator in inflammatory and immune responses. Here, we evaluate the GITR agonistic antibody (DTA-1) as a mono-therapy and in combination with therapeutic vaccination in murine lung cancer models. We found that DTA-1 treatment of tumor-bearing mice increased: (i) the frequency and activation of intratumoral natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, (ii) the antigen presenting cell (APC) activity in the tumor, and (iii) systemic T-cell specific tumor cell cytolysis. DTA-1 treatment enhanced tumor cell apoptosis as quantified by cleaved caspase-3 staining in the tumors. DTA-1 treatment increased expression of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-12 but reduced IL-10 levels in tumors. Furthermore, increased anti-angiogenic chemokines corresponding with decreased pro-angiogenic chemokine levels correlated with reduced expression of the endothelial cell marker Meca 32 in the tumors of DTA-1 treated mice. In accordance, there was reduced tumor growth (8-fold by weight) in the DTA-1 treatment group. NK cell depletion markedly inhibited the antitumor response elicited by DTA-1. DTA-1 combined with therapeutic vaccination caused tumor rejection in 38% of mice and a 20-fold reduction in tumor burden in the remaining mice relative to control. Mice that rejected tumors following therapy developed immunological memory against subsequent re-challenge. Our data demonstrates GITR agonist antibody activated NK cell and T lymphocyte activity, and enhanced therapeutic vaccination responses against lung cancer. PMID:26137407

  10. Immobilized thrombin receptor agonist peptide accelerates wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Strukova, S M; Dugina, T N; Chistov, I V; Lange, M; Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S; Zubov, V P; Glusa, E

    2001-10-01

    To accelerate the healing processes in wound repair, attempts have been repeatedly made to use growth factors including thrombin and its peptide fragments. Unfortunately, the employment of thrombin is limited because of its high liability and pro-inflammatory actions at high concentrations. Some cellular effects of thrombin in wound healing are mediated by the activation of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). The thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP:SFLLRN) activates this receptor and mimics the effects of thrombin, but TRAP is a relatively weak agonist. We speculated that the encapsulated peptide may be more effective for PAR-1 activation than nonimmobilized peptide and developed a novel method for TRAP encapsulation in hydrogel films based on natural and synthetic polymers. The effects of an encapsulated TRAP in composite poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-calcium alginate (PVCL) hydrogel films were investigated in a mouse model of wound healing. On day 7 the wound sizes decreased by about 60% under TRAP-chitosan-containing PVCL films, as compared with control films without TRAP. In the case of TRAP-polylysine-containing films no significant decrease in wound sizes was found. The fibroblast/macrophage ratio increased under TRAP-containing films on day 3 and on day 7. The number of proliferating fibroblasts increased to 150% under TRAP-chitosan films on day 7 as compared with control films. The number of [3H]-thymidine labeled endothelial and epithelial cells in granulation tissues was also enhanced. Thus, the immobilized TRAP to PVCL-chitosan hydrogel films were found to promote wound healing following the stimulation of fibroblast and epithelial cell proliferation and neovascularization. Furthermore, TRAP was shown to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory mediator PAF from stimulated rat peritoneal mast cells due to augmentation of NO release from the mast cells. The encapsulated TRAP is suggested to accelerate wound healing due to the anti-inflammatory effects

  11. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Li, Sijia; Henke, Adam; Muse, Evan D; Cheng, Bo; Welzel, Gustav; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Wang, Danling; Roland, Jason; Glass, Christopher K; Tremblay, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR), a nuclear hormone receptor, is an essential regulator of immune responses. Activation of LXR-mediated transcription by synthetic agonists, such as T0901317 and GW3965, attenuates progression of inflammatory disease in animal models. However, the adverse effects of these conventional LXR agonists in elevating liver lipids have impeded exploitation of this intriguing mechanism for chronic therapy. Here, we explore the ability of a series of sterol-based LXR agonists to alleviate inflammatory conditions in mice without hepatotoxicity. We show that oral treatment with sterol-based LXR agonists in mice significantly reduces dextran sulfate sodium colitis-induced body weight loss, which is accompanied by reduced expression of inflammatory markers in the large intestine. The anti-inflammatory property of these agonists is recapitulated in vitro in mouse lamina propria mononuclear cells, human colonic epithelial cells, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, treatment with LXR agonists dramatically suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression in a model of traumatic brain injury. Importantly, in both disease models, the sterol-based agonists do not affect the liver, and the conventional agonist T0901317 results in significant liver lipid accumulation and injury. Overall, these results provide evidence for the development of sterol-based LXR agonists as novel therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.-Yu, S., Li, S., Henke, A., Muse, E. D., Cheng, B., Welzel, G., Chatterjee, A. K., Wang, D., Roland, J., Glass, C. K., Tremblay, M. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27025962

  12. Allosteric coupling from G protein to the agonist-binding pocket in GPCRs.

    PubMed

    DeVree, Brian T; Mahoney, Jacob P; Vélez-Ruiz, Gisselle A; Rasmussen, Soren G F; Kuszak, Adam J; Edwald, Elin; Fung, Juan-Jose; Manglik, Aashish; Masureel, Matthieu; Du, Yang; Matt, Rachel A; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K; Sunahara, Roger K

    2016-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remain the primary conduit by which cells detect environmental stimuli and communicate with each other. Upon activation by extracellular agonists, these seven-transmembrane-domain-containing receptors interact with heterotrimeric G proteins to regulate downstream second messenger and/or protein kinase cascades. Crystallographic evidence from a prototypic GPCR, the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), in complex with its cognate G protein, Gs, has provided a model for how agonist binding promotes conformational changes that propagate through the GPCR and into the nucleotide-binding pocket of the G protein α-subunit to catalyse GDP release, the key step required for GTP binding and activation of G proteins. The structure also offers hints about how G-protein binding may, in turn, allosterically influence ligand binding. Here we provide functional evidence that G-protein coupling to the β2AR stabilizes a ‘closed’ receptor conformation characterized by restricted access to and egress from the hormone-binding site. Surprisingly, the effects of G protein on the hormone-binding site can be observed in the absence of a bound agonist, where G-protein coupling driven by basal receptor activity impedes the association of agonists, partial agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. The ability of bound ligands to dissociate from the receptor is also hindered, providing a structural explanation for the G-protein-mediated enhancement of agonist affinity, which has been observed for many GPCR–G-protein pairs. Our data also indicate that, in contrast to agonist binding alone, coupling of a G protein in the absence of an agonist stabilizes large structural changes in a GPCR. The effects of nucleotide-free G protein on ligand-binding kinetics are shared by other members of the superfamily of GPCRs, suggesting that a common mechanism may underlie G-protein-mediated enhancement of agonist affinity. PMID:27362234

  13. Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) in EMR-linked pediatric cohorts, genetically links PLCL1 to speech language development and IL5-IL13 to Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Namjou, Bahram; Marsolo, Keith; Caroll, Robert J.; Denny, Joshua C.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Verma, Shefali S.; Lingren, Todd; Porollo, Aleksey; Cobb, Beth L.; Perry, Cassandra; Kottyan, Leah C.; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Thompson, Susan D.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Kohane, Isaac S.; Harley, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report the first pediatric specific Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) using electronic medical records (EMRs). Given the early success of PheWAS in adult populations, we investigated the feasibility of this approach in pediatric cohorts in which associations between a previously known genetic variant and a wide range of clinical or physiological traits were evaluated. Although computationally intensive, this approach has potential to reveal disease mechanistic relationships between a variant and a network of phenotypes. Method: Data on 5049 samples of European ancestry were obtained from the EMRs of two large academic centers in five different genotyped cohorts. Recently, these samples have undergone whole genome imputation. After standard quality controls, removing missing data and outliers based on principal components analyses (PCA), 4268 samples were used for the PheWAS study. We scanned for associations between 2476 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with available genotyping data from previously published GWAS studies and 539 EMR-derived phenotypes. The false discovery rate was calculated and, for any new PheWAS findings, a permutation approach (with up to 1,000,000 trials) was implemented. Results: This PheWAS found a variety of common variants (MAF > 10%) with prior GWAS associations in our pediatric cohorts including Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA), Asthma, Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) and Type 1 Diabetes with a false discovery rate < 0.05 and power of study above 80%. In addition, several new PheWAS findings were identified including a cluster of association near the NDFIP1 gene for mental retardation (best SNP rs10057309, p = 4.33 × 10−7, OR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.38 − 2.09); association near PLCL1 gene for developmental delays and speech disorder [best SNP rs1595825, p = 1.13 × 10−8, OR = 0.65(0.57 − 0.76)]; a cluster of associations in the IL5-IL13 region with Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) [best at

  14. Cu(II)-catalyzed reactions in ternary [Cu(AA)(AA - H)]+ complexes (AA = Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, t-Leu, Phe).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ohanessian, Gilles; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2009-01-01

    The unimolecular chemistry of [Cu(II)AA(AA - H)](+) complexes, composed of an intact and a deprotonated amino acid (AA) ligand, have been probed in the gas phase by tandem and multistage mass spectrometry in an electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The amino acids examined include Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, t-Leu and Phe. Upon collisionally-activated dissociation (CAD), the [Cu(II)AA(AA - H)](+) complexes undergo decarboxylation with simultaneous reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I); during this process, a radical site is created at the alpha-carbon of the decarboxylated ligand (H(2)N(1) - (*)C(alpha)H - C(beta)H(2) - R; R = side chain substituent). The radical site is able to move along the backbone of the decarboxylated amino acid to form two new radicals (HN(1)(*) - C(alpha)H(2) - C(beta)H(2) - R and H(2)N(1) - C(alpha)H(2) - (*)C(beta)H - R). From the complexes of Gly and t-Leu, only C(alpha) and N(1) radicals can be formed. The whole radical ligand can be lost to form [Cu(I)AA](+) from these three isomeric radicals. Alternatively, further radical induced dissociations can take place along the backbone of the decarboxylated amino acid ligand to yield [Cu(II)AA(AA - 2H - CO(2))](+), [Cu(I)AA((*)NH(2))](+), [Cu(I)AA(HN = C(alpha)H(2))](+), or [Cu(I)AA(H(2)N - C(alpha)H = C(beta)H - R'](+) (R' = partial side chain substituent). The sodiated copper complexes, [Cu(II)(AA - H + Na)(AA - H)](+), show the same fragmentation patterns as their non-sodiated counterparts; sodium ion is retained on the intact amino acid ligand and is not involved in the CAD pathways. The amino groups of both AA units, the carbonyl group of the intact amino acid, and the deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen coordinate Cu(II) in square-planar fashion. Ab initio calculations indicate that the metal ion facilitates hydrogen atom shuttling between the N(1), C(alpha) and C(beta) atoms of the decarboxylated amino acid ligand. The dissociations of the decarboxylated radical ions unveil

  15. His224 Alters the R2 Drug Binding Site and Phe218 Influences the Catalytic Efficiency of the Metallo-β-Lactamase VIM-7

    PubMed Central

    Skagseth, Susann; Edvardsen, Kine Susann Waade; Lorentzen, Marit Sjo; Bjerga, Gro Elin Kjæreng; Leiros, Ingar; Samuelsen, Ørjan

    2014-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are the causative mechanism for resistance to β-lactams, including carbapenems, in many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. One important family of MBLs is the Verona integron-encoded MBLs (VIM). In this study, the importance of residues Asp120, Phe218, and His224 in the most divergent VIM variant, VIM-7, was investigated to better understand the roles of these residues in VIM enzymes through mutations, enzyme kinetics, crystal structures, thermostability, and docking experiments. The tVIM-7-D120A mutant with a tobacco etch virus (TEV) cleavage site was enzymatically inactive, and its structure showed the presence of only the Zn1 ion. The mutant was less thermostable, with a melting temperature (Tm) of 48.5°C, compared to 55.3°C for the wild-type tVIM-7. In the F218Y mutant, a hydrogen bonding cluster was established involving residues Asn70, Asp84, and Arg121. The tVIM-7-F218Y mutant had enhanced activity compared to wild-type tVIM-7, and a slightly higher Tm (57.1°C) was observed, most likely due to the hydrogen bonding cluster. Furthermore, the introduction of two additional hydrogen bonds adjacent to the active site in the tVIM-7-H224Y mutant gave a higher thermostability (Tm, 62.9°C) and increased enzymatic activity compared to those of the wild-type tVIM-7. Docking of ceftazidime in to the active site of tVIM-7, tVIM-7-H224Y, and VIM-7-F218Y revealed that the side-chain conformations of residue 224 and Arg228 in the L3 loop and Tyr67 in the L1 loop all influence possible substrate binding conformations. In conclusion, the residue composition of the L3 loop, as shown with the single H224Y mutation, is important for activity particularly toward the positively charged cephalosporins like cefepime and ceftazidime. PMID:24913158

  16. Evidence of increasing Leu-Phe knockdown resistance mutation in Anopheles gambiae from Niger following a nationwide long-lasting insecticide-treated nets implementation

    PubMed Central

    Czeher, Cyrille; Labbo, Rabiou; Arzika, Ibrahim; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background At the end of 2005, a nationwide long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) distribution targeting the most vulnerable populations was implemented throughout Niger. A large number of studies in Africa have reported the existence of anopheline populations resistant to various insecticides, partly due to knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, but few operational wide-scale control programmes were coupled with the monitoring of such mutations. The distribution of the kdr-west (kdr-w) Leu-Phe mutation was studied in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Niger and temporal variations were monitored following the nationwide LLIN implementation. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from 14 localities during the wet seasons of 2005, 2006 and 2007 with additional sampling in the capital city, Niamey. After morphological identification of Anopheles gambiae s.l. specimens, DNA extracts were used for the determination of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex and for the detection of the kdr-w mutation. Results Around 1,500 specimens collected in the three consecutive years were analysed. All Anopheles arabiensis specimens analysed were homozygous susceptible, whereas the few Anopheles gambiae S forms exhibited a high overall kdr-w frequency. The M form samples exhibited a low overall kdr-w frequency before the LLIN distribution, that increased significantly in the two wet season collections following the LLIN distribution. Higher kdr frequencies were repeatedly noticed within host-seeking females compared to resting ones in indoor collections. In addition, preliminary results in M form urban populations from Niamey showed far higher kdr frequencies than in all of the rural sites studied. Discussion This study describes the first case of kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae populations from Niger. It is suspected that the LLIN have caused the important temporal increase of kdr-w mutation observed during this study. While the kdr mutation is still

  17. Identification of Tetrapeptides from a Mixture Based Positional Scanning Library That Can Restore nM Full Agonist Function of the L106P, I69T, I102S, A219V, C271Y, and C271R Human Melanocortin-4 Polymorphic Receptors (hMC4Rs)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human obesity has been linked to genetic factors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) SNPs have been associated with up to 6% frequency in morbidly obese children and adults. A potential therapy for individuals possessing such genetic modifications is the identification of molecules that can restore proper receptor signaling and function. These compounds could serve as personalized medications improving quality of life issues as well as alleviating diseases symptoms associated with obesity including type 2 diabetes. Several hMC4 SNP receptors have been pharmacologically characterized in vitro to have a decreased, or a lack of response, to endogenous agonists such as α-, β-, and γ2-melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Herein we report the use of a mixture based positional scanning combinatorial tetrapeptide library to discover molecules with nM full agonist potency and efficacy to the L106P, I69T, I102S, A219V, C271Y, and C271R hMC4Rs. The most potent compounds at all these hMC4R SNPs include Ac-His-(pI)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, Ac-His-(pCl)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, Ac-His-(pCl)DPhe-Arg-(pI)Phe-NH2, and Ac-Arg-(pCl)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, revealing new ligand pharmacophore models for melanocortin receptor drug design strategies. PMID:24517312

  18. Selective Retinoic Acid Receptor γ Agonists Promote Repair of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Agnese; Uchibe, Kenta; Larmour, Colleen; Berger, Rebecca; Liu, Min; Barton, Elisabeth R; Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Retinoic acid signaling regulates several biological events, including myogenesis. We previously found that retinoic acid receptor γ (RARγ) agonist blocks heterotopic ossification, a pathological bone formation that mostly occurs in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, RARγ agonist also weakened deterioration of muscle architecture adjacent to the heterotopic ossification lesion, suggesting that RARγ agonist may oppose skeletal muscle damage. To test this hypothesis, we generated a critical defect in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7-week-old mice with a cautery, treated them with RARγ agonist or vehicle corn oil, and examined the effects of RARγ agonist on muscle repair. The muscle defects were partially repaired with newly regenerating muscle cells, but also filled with adipose and fibrous scar tissue in both RARγ-treated and control groups. The fibrous or adipose area was smaller in RARγ agonist-treated mice than in the control. In addition, muscle repair was remarkably delayed in RARγ-null mice in both critical defect and cardiotoxin injury models. Furthermore, we found a rapid increase in retinoid signaling in lacerated muscle, as monitored by retinoid signaling reporter mice. Together, our results indicate that endogenous RARγ signaling is involved in muscle repair and that selective RARγ agonists may be beneficial to promote repair in various types of muscle injuries. PMID:26205250

  19. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  20. Kinetic determinants of agonist action at the recombinant human glycine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Trevor M; Schofield, Peter R; McClellan, Annette M L

    2003-01-01

    The amino acids glycine, β-alanine and taurine are all endogenous agonists of the glycine receptor. In this study, a combination of rapid agonist application onto macropatches and steady-state single-channel recordings was used to compare the actions of glycine, β-alanine and taurine upon homomeric α1 human glycine receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. The 10–90 % rise times determined from rapid application of 100 μm of each agonist were indistinguishable, indicating each agonist has a similar association rate. At saturating concentrations (30 mm) the rise time for glycine (0.26 ms) was 1.8-fold faster than that for β-alanine (0.47 ms) and 3.9-fold faster than that for taurine (1.01 ms), indicating clear differences in the maximum opening rate between agonists. The relaxation following rapid removal of agonist was fitted with a single exponential for β-alanine (3.0 ms) and taurine (2.2 ms), and two exponential components for glycine with a weighted mean time constant of 27.1 ms. This was consistent with differences in dissociation rates estimated from analysis of bursts, with taurine > β-alanine > glycine. Exponential fits to the open period distributions gave time constants that did not differ between agonists and the geometric distribution for the number of openings per burst indicated that all three agonists had a significant component of single-opening bursts. Based upon these data, we propose a kinetic scheme with three independent open states, where the opening rates are dependent upon the activating agonist, while the closing rates are an intrinsic characteristic of the receptor. PMID:12679369

  1. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  2. Pairwise agonist scanning-flow cytometry (PAS-FC) measures inside-out signaling and patient-specific response to combinatorial platelet agonists.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Daniel T L; Diamond, Scott L

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the response of cells to multiple stimuli is vital for predicting donor specific responses and better understanding the signaling pathways involved. This is of particular importance in platelets because exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) occurs upon costimulation but not with a single agonist. Here, we describe a multiplexed pairwise agonist scanning-flow cytometry (PAS-FC) method of measuring platelet inside-out responses to all pairs of six platelet agonists (convulxin, SFLLRN, AYPGKF, ADP, U46619, and PGE(2)) used at their EC(50) concentrations. These agonists allowed exploration of platelet signaling downstream of GPVI, PAR-1, PAR-4, P2Y(1), P2Y(12), TP, and IP receptors. The three-color flow cytometry method simultaneously measured integrin α(IIb)β(3) activation with PAC-1 antibody, P-selectin exposure (via α granule release) with anti-P-selectin, and PS exposure with annexin V. These responses were consistent across a healthy male donor pool. In duplicate measurements with each donor, 4 of the 10 donors had a sufficiently unique 45-parameter (15 pairs × 3 colors) phenotype to self-cluster (P < 0.001). This method has the potential for efficiently scanning for patient specific responses across a broad agonist-receptor space. PMID:23662898

  3. Analgesic effectiveness of the narcotic agonist-antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Raymond W.

    1979-01-01

    1 Two fundamentally different types of narcotic-antogonists have been found to be very effective analgesics with relatively low dependence-producing potentials. 2 These two drug classes can be distinguished as being either morphine-like or nalorphine-like on the basis of their subjective and objective effects after single doses and on chronic administration, and by the character of their abstinence syndromes on abrupt withdrawal or on precipitation by other antagonists. 3 To explain differences in side effects associated with their analgesic actions, the existence of three types of receptors has been postulated: a μ receptor which is believed to be associated with euphoria and other typical morphine-like effects and a kappa (χ) and a sigma (σ) receptor which are believed to be associated with the sedative and psychotomimetic effects, respectively, of the nalorphine-like drugs. 4 The antagonist-analgesics of the morphine-type have the characteristics of being agonists of low intrinsic activity but with high affinity for the μ receptor. Representative analgesics of this type are profadol, propiram and buprenorphine. 5 The antagonist-analgesics of the nalorphine-type are drugs which are believed to have varying degrees of affinity and intrinsic activity at all three receptors, but characteristically seem to act merely as competitive antagonists with no intrinsic activity at the μ receptor. Representative analgesics of this type are pentazocine, nalbuphine and butorphanol. 6 There are considerable differences among the individual drugs of each type in terms of their analgesic and narcotic-antagonistic potencies. However, clear differences in analgesic efficacy among any of the antagonist-analgesics remain to be proved. All give evidence of being capable of relieving pain in nondependent patients in situations in which doses of morphine (or its surrogates) usually used would be effective. 7 The major advantages of the partial agonists of the morphine-type over the

  4. Discovery of 2-Pyridylpyrimidines as the First Orally Bioavailable GPR39 Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The identification of highly potent and orally bioavailable GPR39 agonists is reported. Compound 1, found in a phenotypic screening campaign, was transformed into compound 2 with good activity on both the rat and human GPR39 receptor. This compound was further optimized to improve ligand efficiency and pharmacokinetic properties to yield GPR39 agonists for the potential oral treatment of type 2 diabetes. Thus, compound 3 is the first potent GPR39 agonist (EC50s ≤ 1 nM for human and rat receptor) that is orally bioavailable in mice and robustly induced acute GLP-1 levels. PMID:25313322

  5. Discovery of 2-Pyridylpyrimidines as the First Orally Bioavailable GPR39 Agonists.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Stefan; Hughes, Richard; Nunez, Jill; He, Guo; Yan, Zhao; Jain, Rishi; Llamas, Luis; Luchansky, Sarah; Carlson, Adam; Liang, Guiqing; Kunjathoor, Vidya; Pietropaolo, Mike; Shapiro, Jeffrey; Castellana, Anja; Wu, Xiaoping; Bose, Avirup

    2014-10-01

    The identification of highly potent and orally bioavailable GPR39 agonists is reported. Compound 1, found in a phenotypic screening campaign, was transformed into compound 2 with good activity on both the rat and human GPR39 receptor. This compound was further optimized to improve ligand efficiency and pharmacokinetic properties to yield GPR39 agonists for the potential oral treatment of type 2 diabetes. Thus, compound 3 is the first potent GPR39 agonist (EC50s ≤ 1 nM for human and rat receptor) that is orally bioavailable in mice and robustly induced acute GLP-1 levels. PMID:25313322

  6. Liver X receptor (LXR) partial agonists: biaryl pyrazoles and imidazoles displaying a preference for LXRβ.

    PubMed

    Kick, Ellen; Martin, Richard; Xie, Yinong; Flatt, Brenton; Schweiger, Edwin; Wang, Tie-Lin; Busch, Brett; Nyman, Michael; Gu, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Grace; Wagner, Brandee; Nanao, Max; Nguyen, Lam; Stout, Thomas; Plonowski, Artur; Schulman, Ira; Ostrowski, Jacek; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wexler, Ruth; Mohan, Raju

    2015-01-15

    A series of biaryl pyrazole and imidazole Liver X Receptor (LXR) partial agonists has been synthesized displaying LXRβ selectivity. The LXRβ selective partial agonist 18 was identified with potent induction of ATP binding transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human whole blood (EC50=1.2μM, 55% efficacy). In mice 18 displayed peripheral induction of ABCA1 at 3 and 10mpk doses with no significant elevation of plasma or hepatic triglycerides at these doses, showing an improved profile compared to a full pan-agonist. PMID:25435151

  7. Vasorelaxant responses to endomorphin1[psi] and endomorphin2[psi], analogues of endomorphins, in rat aorta rings.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Zhao, Qian-Yu; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Rui

    2005-11-01

    Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2, EM1) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2, EM2), the endogenous selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, can inhibit phenylephrine (PE) induced contraction which is related to the release of nitric oxide from vascular endothelium in aorta rings of rats and rabbits. The reduced (CH2NH) amide bond is a useful peptide bond surrogate in the design of opioid mimetics because it could enhance conformational flexibility and metabolic stability. The present work was designed to investigate the vascular activities of interrelated endomorphin analogues: endomorphin-1[psi] (Tyr[psi(CH2NH)]Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2, EM1[psi]) and endomorphin-2[psi] (Tyr[psi(CH2NH)]Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2, EM2[psi]). The effect of EM1[psi] (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 microM) and EM2[psi] (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 5 microM) were evaluated on rat thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with PE (0.1 microM). EM1[psi] and EM2[psi] both caused a concentration-dependent relaxation. The IC50 of EM1[psi] and EM2[psi] was 3.332 microM and 1.226 microM, respectively. The vasorelaxant effect of EMs[psi] is 216.9 and 237.1 fold more potent than EMs. Moreover, the vasorelaxant effect of EMs[psi] was blocked by naloxone (NaCl, 1 microM) and was reduced by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 1 microM) and removal of endothelium. The present study demonstrated that EMs[psi] had more potent vasorelaxant effects and their activities were naloxone-sensitive and endothelium-dependent and partially NO-dependent, similar to the mechanism of parent EMs. PMID:16320949

  8. Effects of Phe-to-Trp mutation and fluorotryptophan incorporation on the solution structure of cardiac troponin C, and analysis of its suitability as a potential probe for in situ NMR studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Mercier, Pascal; Letourneau, Paul-Jean; Sykes, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    19F NMR spectroscopy is potentially a powerful tool for probing protein properties in situ. However, results obtained using this technique are relevant only if the 19F probe offers minimal perturbation to the surrounding environment. In this paper, we examine the effect of 5-fluorotryptophan (5fW) incorporation on the three-dimensional structure of cardiac troponin-C (cTnC), with the intention of developing a 19F-labeled TnC for use in in situ 19FNMR. We find that, in general, 5fW does not perturb the structure of the protein significantly. Replacement of residue Phe 153 with 5fW produces no noticeable change in protein conformation. However, replacement of residue Phe 104 with 5fW produces a folding behavior that is dependent on the Escherichia coli strain used to express the mutant. The orientations of the indole rings in these mutants are such that the Trp residue adopts a χ2 of ~90° in the F104W mutant and ~−100° in the F153W mutant. Using results from 19F-1H heteronuclear NOE experiment, we show the replacement of L-Trp with 5fW at these positions does not change the orientation of the indole ring and the spread of the 5fW side-chain dihedral angles increases moderately for the F104(5fW) mutant and not at all for the F153(5fW) mutant. Based on these structures, we conclude that the substitution of Phe by 5fW at these two positions has minimal effects on the structure of cTnC and that the 5fW indole rings in both mutants have well defined orientation, making the two mutants viable candidates for use in in situ 19F NMR spectroscopy. PMID:16131667

  9. Facile transition between 3(10)- and alpha-helix: structures of 8-, 9-, and 10-residue peptides containing the -(Leu-Aib-Ala)2-Phe-Aib- fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Karle, I. L.; Flippen-Anderson, J. L.; Gurunath, R.; Balaram, P.

    1994-01-01

    A structural transition from a 3(10)-helix to an alpha-helix has been characterized at high resolution for an octapeptide segment located in 3 different sequences. Three synthetic peptides, decapeptide (A) Boc-Aib-Trp-(Leu-Aib-Ala)2-Phe-Aib-OMe, nonapeptide (B) Boc-Trp-(Leu-Aib-Ala)2-Phe-Aib-OMe, and octapeptide (C) Boc-(Leu-Aib-Ala)2-Phe-Aib-OMe, are completely helical in their respective crystals. At 0.9 A resolution, R factors for A, B, and C are 8.3%, 5.4%, and 7.3%, respectively. The octapeptide and nonapeptide form ideal 3(10)-helices with average torsional angles phi(N-C alpha) and psi(C alpha-C') of -57 degrees, -26 degrees C and -60 degrees, -27 degrees for B. The 10-residue peptide (A) begins as a 3(10)-helix and abruptly changes to an alpha-helix at carbonyl O(3), which is the acceptor for both a 4-->1 hydrogen bond with N(6)H and a 5-->1 hydrogen with N(7)H, even though the last 8 residues have the same sequence in all 3 peptides. The average phi, psi angles in the decapeptide are -58 degrees, -28 degrees for residues 1-3 and -63 degrees, -41 degrees for residues 4-10. The packing of helices in the crystals does not provide any obvious reason for the transition in helix type. Fourier transform infrared studies in the solid state also provide evidence for a 3(10)- to alpha-helix transition with the amide I band appearing at 1,656-1,657 cm-1 in the 9- and 10-residue peptides, whereas in shorter sequences the band is observed at 1,667 cm-1. PMID:7833814

  10. Synthesis and conformational analysis by 1H NMR and restrained molecular dynamics simulations of the cyclic decapeptide [Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly].

    PubMed

    Buono, R A; Kucharczyk, N; Neuenschwander, M; Kemmink, J; Hwang, L Y; Fauchère, J L; Venanzi, C A

    1996-06-01

    The design of enzyme mimics with therapeutic and industrial applications has interested both experimental and computational chemists for several decades. Recent advances in the computational methodology of restrained molecular dynamics, used in conjunction with data obtained from two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, make it a promising method to study peptide and protein structure and function. Several issues, however, need to be addressed in order to assess the validity of this method for its explanatory and predictive value. Among the issues addressed in this study are: the accuracy and generizability of the GROMOS peptide molecular mechanics force field; the effect of inclusion of solvent on the simulations; and the effect of different types of restraining algorithms on the computational results. The decapeptide Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly, which corresponds to the sequence of ACTH1-10, has been synthesized, cyclized, and studied by two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy. Restrained molecular dynamics (RMD) and time-averaged restrained molecular dynamics (TARMD) simulations were carried out on four different distance-geometry starting structures in order to determine and contrast the behavior of cyclic ACTH1-10 in vacuum and in solution. For the RMD simulations, the structures did not fit the NOE data well, even at high values of the restraining potential. The TARMD simulation method, however, was able to give structures that fit the NOE data at high values of the restraining potential. In both cases, inclusion of explicit solvent molecules in the simulation had little effect on the quality of the fit, although it was found to dampen the motion of the cyclic peptide. For both simulation techniques, the number and size of the NOE violations increased as the restraining potential approached zero. This is due, presumably, to inadequacies in the force field. Additional TARMD vacuum-phase simulations, run with a larger memory length or with a larger sampling

  11. Thromboxane agonist (U46619) potentiates norepinephrine efflux from adrenergic nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Trachte, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of the synthetic thromboxane/prostaglandin (PG) H2 agonist U46619 on the electrically stimulated rabbit isolated vas deferens was examined to test for thromboxane influences on adrenergic nerves. U46619 effects on force generation, (/sup 3/H) norepinephrine release and norepinephrine-induced contractions were assessed to determine the mechanism of action. U46619 maximally enhanced adrenergic force generation 135 +/- 24% at a concentration of 100 nM. U46619 potentiated maximal contractile effects of exogenously administered norepinephrine 16 +/- 4% and augmented (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine release from electrically stimulated preparations 142 +/- 44%. A competitive thromboxane/PGH2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, significantly shifted the concentration-response curve for U46619 to the right in a concentration-dependent manner and blocked U46619-induced tritium release. Thus, U46619 appears to potentiate neurotransmitter release by interacting with thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. Because SQ29548 did not prevent the potentiation of norepinephrine contractions by U46619, the postjunctional effect may be independent of thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. We interpret these results to be indicative of both pre- and postjunctional sites of action of U46619. The physiological importance of these thromboxane effects is unknown currently.

  12. Agonistic experience and individual recognition in male Quelea quelea.

    PubMed

    Shawcross, J E; Slater, P J

    1984-01-01

    Male Quelea were moved between groups to assess whether experience of winning or losing in new groups was correlated with their success in competition over food when they were returned to their original groups. No such effect was found. However, differences in time spent feeding after deprivation and in aggressive behaviour were found between groups depending on whether they were made up from high- or low-ranking individuals. In paired encounters there was no evidence that birds threatened unfamiliar individuals more than familiar ones or that they avoided sitting next to them more than familiar birds. This suggests that individual recognition, if it exists at all in these groups, is not important in their agonistic relationships. The rank birds occupied was correlated with beak colour, a probable measure of androgen levels, and with the amount of food consumed after deprivation. The latter result suggests that the same period of deprivation may affect some individuals more than others and this in turn may lead them to compete more for food. PMID:24923828

  13. Agonists and Antagonists of TGF-β Family Ligands.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chenbei

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family ligands and the realization that their bioactivities need to be tightly controlled temporally and spatially led to intensive research that has identified a multitude of extracellular modulators of TGF-β family ligands, uncovered their functions in developmental and pathophysiological processes, defined the mechanisms of their activities, and explored potential modulator-based therapeutic applications in treating human diseases. These studies revealed a diverse repertoire of extracellular and membrane-associated molecules that are capable of modulating TGF-β family signals via control of ligand availability, processing, ligand-receptor interaction, and receptor activation. These molecules include not only soluble ligand-binding proteins that were conventionally considered as agonists and antagonists of TGF-β family of growth factors, but also extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteoglycans that can serve as "sink" and control storage and release of both the TGF-β family ligands and their regulators. This extensive network of soluble and ECM modulators helps to ensure dynamic and cell-specific control of TGF-β family signals. This article reviews our knowledge of extracellular modulation of TGF-β growth factors by diverse proteins and their molecular mechanisms to regulate TGF-β family signaling. PMID:27413100

  14. PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, ameliorates age-related renal injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2016-08-01

    The kidney ages quickly compared with other organs. Expression of senescence markers reflects changes in the energy metabolism in the kidney. Two important issues in aging are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα plays a major role as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in various processes. In this study, 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, the control group (n=7) and the fenofibrate-treated group (n=7) was fed the normal chow plus fenofibrate for 6months. The PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, improved renal function, proteinuria, histological change (glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis), inflammation, and apoptosis in aging mice. This protective effect against age-related renal injury occurred through the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 signaling. The activation of AMPK and SIRT1 allowed for the concurrent deacetylation and phosphorylation of their target molecules and decreased the kidney's susceptibility to age-related changes. Activation of the AMPK-FOXO3a and AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that activation of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling may have protective effects against age-related renal injury. Pharmacological targeting of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling molecules may prevent or attenuate age-related pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27130813

  15. Lipid metabolome-wide effects of the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Steven M; Reifsnyder, Peter R; Pan, Huei-ju; German, J Bruce; Leiter, Edward H

    2002-11-01

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases must normalize a targeted aspect of metabolism without disrupting the regulation of other metabolic pathways essential for maintaining health. Use of a limited number of single molecule surrogates for disease, or biomarkers, to monitor the efficacy of a therapy may fail to predict undesirable side effects. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomic assessment of lipid metabolites was employed to determine the specific effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist rosiglitazone on structural lipid metabolism in a new mouse model of Type 2 diabetes. Dietary supplementation with rosiglitazone (200 mg/kg diet) suppressed Type 2 diabetes in obese (NZO x NON)F1 male mice, but chronic treatment markedly exacerbated hepatic steatosis. The metabolomic data revealed that rosiglitazone i) induced hypolipidemia (by dysregulating liver-plasma lipid exchange), ii) induced de novo fatty acid synthesis, iii) decreased the biosynthesis of lipids within the peroxisome, iv) substantially altered free fatty acid and cardiolipin metabolism in heart, and v) elicited an unusual accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids within adipose tissue. These observations suggest that the phenotypes induced by rosiglitazone are mediated by multiple tissue-specific metabolic variables. Because many of the effects of rosiglitazone on tissue metabolism were reflected in the plasma lipid metabolome, metabolomics has excellent potential for developing clinical assessments of metabolic response to drug therapy. PMID:12401879

  16. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P; Griffith, Thomas S

    2015-11-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings - ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future. PMID:26343199

  17. Minireview: Challenges and opportunities in development of PPAR agonists.

    PubMed

    Wright, Matthew B; Bortolini, Michele; Tadayyon, Moh; Bopst, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The clinical impact of the fibrate and thiazolidinedione drugs on dyslipidemia and diabetes is driven mainly through activation of two transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ. However, substantial differences exist in the therapeutic and side-effect profiles of specific drugs. This has been attributed primarily to the complexity of drug-target complexes that involve many coregulatory proteins in the context of specific target gene promoters. Recent data have revealed that some PPAR ligands interact with other non-PPAR targets. Here we review concepts used to develop new agents that preferentially modulate transcriptional complex assembly, target more than one PPAR receptor simultaneously, or act as partial agonists. We highlight newly described on-target mechanisms of PPAR regulation including phosphorylation and nongenomic regulation. We briefly describe the recently discovered non-PPAR protein targets of thiazolidinediones, mitoNEET, and mTOT. Finally, we summarize the contributions of on- and off-target actions to select therapeutic and side effects of PPAR ligands including insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular actions, inflammation, and carcinogenicity. PMID:25148456

  18. Agouti signalling protein is an inverse agonist to the wildtype and agonist to the melanic variant of the melanocortin-1 receptor in the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McRobie, Helen R; King, Linda M; Fanutti, Cristina; Symmons, Martyn F; Coussons, Peter J

    2014-06-27

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a key regulator of mammalian pigmentation. Melanism in the grey squirrel is associated with an eight amino acid deletion in the mutant melanocortin-1 receptor with 24 base pair deletion (MC1RΔ24) variant. We demonstrate that the MC1RΔ24 exhibits a higher basal activity than the wildtype MC1R (MC1R-wt). We demonstrate that agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is an inverse agonist to the MC1R-wt but is an agonist to the MC1RΔ24. We conclude that the deletion in the MC1RΔ24 leads to a receptor with a high basal activity which is further activated by ASIP. This is the first report of ASIP acting as an agonist to MC1R. PMID:24879893

  19. The long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist, indacaterol, enhances glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription in human airway epithelial cells in a gene- and agonist-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, T; Johnson, M; Newton, R; Giembycz, M A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Inhaled glucocorticoid (ICS)/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) combination therapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with moderate/severe asthma in whom adequate control cannot be achieved by an ICS alone. Previously, we discovered that LABAs can augment dexamethasone-inducible gene expression and proposed that this effect may explain how these two drugs interact to deliver superior clinical benefit. Herein, we extended that observation by analysing, pharmacodynamically, the effect of the LABA, indacaterol, on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene transcription induced by seven ligands with intrinsic activity values that span the spectrum of full agonism to antagonism. Experimental Approach BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells stably transfected with a 2× glucocorticoid response element luciferase reporter were used to model gene transcription together with an analysis of several glucocorticoid-inducible genes. Key Results Indacaterol augmented glucocorticoid-induced reporter activation in a manner that was positively related to the intrinsic activity of the GR agonist. This effect was demonstrated by an increase in response maxima without a change in GR agonist affinity or efficacy. Indacaterol also enhanced glucocorticoid-inducible gene expression. However, the magnitude of this effect was dependent on both the GR agonist and the gene of interest. Conclusions and Implications These data suggest that indacaterol activates a molecular rheostat, which increases the transcriptional competency of GR in an agonist- and gene-dependent manner without apparently changing the relationship between fractional GR occupancy and response. These findings provide a platform to rationally design ICS/LABA combination therapy that is based on the generation of agonist-dependent gene expression profiles in target and off-target tissues. PMID:25598440

  20. Agonist binding to the NMDA receptor drives movement of its cytoplasmic domain without ion flow.

    PubMed

    Dore, Kim; Aow, Jonathan; Malinow, Roberto

    2015-11-24

    The NMDA receptor (R) plays important roles in brain physiology and pathology as an ion channel. Here we examine the ion flow-independent coupling of agonist to the NMDAR cytoplasmic domain (cd). We measure FRET between fluorescently tagged cytoplasmic domains of GluN1 subunits of NMDARs expressed in neurons. Different neuronal compartments display varying levels of FRET, consistent with different NMDARcd conformations. Agonist binding drives a rapid and transient ion flow-independent reduction in FRET between GluN1 subunits within individual NMDARs. Intracellular infusion of an antibody targeting the GluN1 cytoplasmic domain blocks agonist-driven FRET changes in the absence of ion flow, supporting agonist-driven movement of the NMDARcd. These studies indicate that extracellular ligand binding to the NMDAR can transmit conformational information into the cell in the absence of ion flow. PMID:26553997