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Sample records for agonist quinolinic acid

  1. Interactions of amino acids, carboxylic acids, and mineral acids with different quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Dipjyoti; Deka, Himangshu; Samanta, Shyam Sundar; Guchait, Subrata; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-03-01

    A series of quinoline containing receptors having amide and ester bonds are synthesized and characterised. The relative binding abilities of these receptors with various amino acids, carboxylic acids and mineral acids are determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence intensity. Among the receptors bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate shows fluorescence enhancement on addition of amino acids whereas the other receptors shows fluorescence quenching on addition of amino acids. The receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) propanamide has higher binding affinity for amino acids. However, the receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide having similar structure do not bind to amino acids. This is attributed to the concave structure of the former which is favoured due to the presence of methyl substituent. The receptor bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate do not bind to hydroxy carboxylic acids, but is a good receptor for dicarboxylic acids. The crystal structure of bromide and perchlorate salts of receptor 2-bromo-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-propanamide are determined. In both the cases the amide groups are not in the plane of quinoline ring. The structure of N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide, N-(2-methoxyphenethyl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide and their salts with maleic acid as well as fumaric acid are determined. It is observed that the solid state structures are governed by the double bond geometry of these two acid. Maleic acid forms salt in both the cases, whereas fumaric acid forms either salt or co-crystals.

  2. Quinoline

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Quinoline ; CASRN 91 - 22 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  3. Structure of Quinolinate Synthase from Pyrococcus horikoshii in the Presence of Its Product, Quinolinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Esakova, Olga A; Silakov, Alexey; Grove, Tyler L; Saunders, Allison H; McLaughlin, Martin I; Yennawar, Neela H; Booker, Squire J

    2016-06-15

    Quinolinic acid (QA) is a common intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its derivatives in all organisms that synthesize the molecule de novo. In most prokaryotes, it is formed from the condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and aspartate-enamine by the action of quinolinate synthase (NadA). NadA contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster cofactor with a unique, non-cysteinyl-ligated, iron ion (Fea), which is proposed to bind the hydroxyl group of a postulated intermediate in the last step of the reaction to facilitate a dehydration. However, direct evidence for this role in catalysis has yet to be provided. Herein, we present the structure of NadA in the presence of the product of its reaction, QA. We find that N1 and the C7 carboxylate group of QA ligate to Fea in a bidentate fashion, which is confirmed by Hyperfine Sublevel Correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy. This binding mode would place the C5 hydroxyl group of the postulated final intermediate distal to Fea and virtually incapable of coordinating to it. The structure shows that three strictly conserved amino acids, Glu198, Tyr109, and Tyr23, are in close proximity to the bound product. Substitution of these amino acids with Gln, Phe, and Phe, respectively, leads to complete loss of activity. PMID:27224840

  4. Quinolinic acid induces cell apoptosis in PC12 cells through HIF-1-dependent RTP801 activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Yang, Kaiyong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yongjin

    2016-04-01

    Neurological disease comprises a series of disorders featuring brain dysfunction and neuronal cell death. Among the factors contributing to neuronal death, excitotoxicity induced by excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate, plays a critical role. However, the mechanisms about how the excitatory amino acids induce neuronal death remain elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1α) and RTP801 in cell apoptosis induced by quinolinic acid (QUIN), a glutamatergic agonist, in PC12 cells. We found that QUIN at 5 μM increased the expression of HIF-1α significantly with a peak at 24 h. After the treatment with QUIN (5-20 μM) for 24 h, the cells exhibited decreased viability and cell apoptosis with a concomitant increased expression of apoptosis related proteins. QUIN treatment also induced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and RTP801 up-regulation in a HIF-1α-dependent manner that were inhibited by 2-methoxyestradiol, a HIF-1α inhibitor. Importantly, HIF-1 or RTP801 invalidation by siRNA rescued the cell apoptosis induced by QUIN or cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1. Taken together, these findings support the concept that neurotoxicity induced by QUIN is associated with HIF-1-dependent RTP801 activation and provide insight into the potential of RTP801 inhibitor in treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26738727

  5. Nerve cell death induced in vivo by kainic acid and quinolinic acid does not involve apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ignatowicz, E; Vezzani, A M; Rizzi, M; D'Incalci, M

    1991-11-01

    We investigated whether in vivo excitotoxicity was mediated by a mechanism of programmed cell death called apoptosis. Neurotoxic doses of kainic acid (1.2 nmol) and quinolinic acid (120 nmol) were unilaterally injected in the dorsal hippocampus of anesthetized rats. Eight or 16 h later the animals were killed and DNA was extracted from the injected hippocampi. DNA from mouse thymocytes exposed to methylprednisolone (10(-5) M for 6 h at 37 degrees C) was used as a positive control of apoptotic cells. No typical 'ladder' of DNA fragments (multimers of approximately 200 Kb) which characterizes apoptosis was seen in hippocampal cells after toxic doses of kainic or quinolinic acid, as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. This suggests that hippocampal nerve cell death induced in vivo by the excitotoxins is not mediated by apoptosis. PMID:1839770

  6. Copper blocks quinolinic acid neurotoxicity in rats: contribution of antioxidant systems.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Abel; Flores-Escartín, Abigail; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Osorio, Laura; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Chaverrí, José Pedraza; Maldonado, Perla D; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E; Manjarrez, Joaquín; Ríos, Camilo

    2003-08-15

    Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are involved in quinolinic acid (QUIN)-induced neurotoxicity. QUIN, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) agonist and prooxidant molecule, produces NMDAr overactivation, excitotoxic events, and direct reactive oxygen species formation. Copper is an essential metal exhibiting both modulatory effects on neuronal excitatory activity and antioxidant properties. To investigate whether this metal is able to counteract the neurotoxic and oxidative actions of QUIN, we administered copper (as CuSO(4)) intraperitoneally to rats (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mg/kg) 30 min before the striatal infusion of 1 microliter of QUIN (240 nmol). A 5.0 mg/kg CuSO(4) dose significantly increased the copper content in the striatum, reduced the neurotoxicity measured both as circling behavior and striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depletion, and blocked the oxidative injury evaluated as striatal lipid peroxidation (LP). In addition, copper reduced the QUIN-induced decreased striatal activity of Cu,Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase, and increased the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin in cerebrospinal fluid from QUIN-treated rats. However, copper also produced significant increases of plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity and mortality at the highest doses employed (7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg). These results show that at low doses, copper exerts a protective effect on in vivo QUIN neurotoxicity. PMID:12899943

  7. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Ortiz de Lima, Bárbara; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina; Totarelli Monteforte, Priscila; Castro Medaglia, Natalia de; Bincoletto, Claudia; Soubhi Smaili, Soraya; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2014-04-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative

  8. 40 CFR 180.426 - 2-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid... Tolerances § 180.426 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues. A tolerance is established for residues of the herbicide 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid, in or on the raw agricultural commodity...

  9. 40 CFR 180.426 - 2-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid... Tolerances § 180.426 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues. A tolerance is established for residues of the herbicide 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid, in or on the raw agricultural commodity...

  10. Noncovalent-bonded 1D-3D supramolecular architectures from 2-methylquinoline/quinoline with monocarboxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Li; Ye, XiangHang; Zheng, Lu; Li, JingWen; Jin, BinPeng; Wang, Daqi

    2014-10-01

    Studies concentrating on noncovalent weak interactions between the organic base of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline, and carboxylic acid derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have in binding with carboxylic acids. Here anhydrous multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have been prepared with carboxylic acids that ranged from monocarboxylic acid to dicarboxylic acid such as p-nitrobenzoic acid, (4-chloro-phenoxy)-acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, and 4-nitrophthalic acid. The seven crystalline complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, m.p., and elemental analysis. These structures adopted the hetero supramolecular synthons. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-7 suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯N, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between the acid and quinoline moieties in the studied compounds. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. These weak interactions combined, these compounds displayed 1D-3D framework structure.

  11. The TLR7 agonist imiquimod induces bronchodilation via a nonneuronal TLR7-independent mechanism: a possible role for quinoline in airway dilation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Olivia J; Manson, Martijn L; Starkhammar, Magnus; Fuchs, Barbara; Adner, Mikael; Kumlien Georén, Susanna; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonists are known to reduce allergic airway inflammation. Their recently reported ability to rapidly relax airways has further increased their interest in the treatment of pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms behind this effect are not fully understood. The present study, therefore, aimed to determine whether airway smooth muscle (ASM)-dependent mechanisms could be identified. TLR7 agonists were added to guinea pig airways following precontraction with carbachol in vitro or histamine in vivo. Pharmacological inhibitors were used to dissect conventional pathways of bronchodilation; tetrodotoxin was used or bilateral vagotomy was performed to assess neuronal involvement. Human ASM cells (HASMCs) were employed to determine the effect of TLR7 agonists on intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) mobilization. The well-established TLR7 agonist imiquimod rapidly relaxed precontracted airways in vitro and in vivo. This relaxation was demonstrated to be independent of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and cAMP signaling, as well as neuronal activity. A limited role for prostanoids could be detected. Imiquimod induced [Ca(2+)]i release from endoplasmic reticulum stores in HASMCs, inhibiting histamine-induced [Ca(2+)]i The TLR7 antagonist IRS661 failed to inhibit relaxation, and the structurally dissimilar agonist CL264 did not relax airways or inhibit [Ca(2+)]i This study shows that imiquimod acts directly on ASM to induce bronchorelaxation, via a TLR7-independent release of [Ca(2+)]i The effect is paralleled by other bronchorelaxant compounds, like chloroquine, which, like imiquimod, but unlike CL264, contains the chemical structure quinoline. Compounds with quinoline moieties may be of interest in the development of multifunctional drugs to treat pulmonary disease. PMID:27084847

  12. Post-Bariatric Surgery Changes in Quinolinic and Xanthurenic Acid Concentrations Are Associated with Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Verkindt, Hélène; Leloire, Audrey; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Yengo, Loïc; Allorge, Delphine; Froguel, Philippe; Pattou, François

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase of plasma kynurenine concentrations, potentially bioactive metabolites of tryptophan, was found in subjects with obesity, resulting from low-grade inflammation of the white adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery decreases low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and improves glucose control. Objective Our goal was to determine the concentrations of all kynurenine metabolites after bariatric surgery and whether they were correlated with glucose control improvement. Design Kynurenine metabolite concentrations, analysed by liquid or gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, circulating inflammatory markers, metabolic traits, and BMI were measured before and one year after bariatric surgery in 44 normoglycemic and 47 diabetic women with obesity. Associations between changes in kynurenine metabolites concentrations and in glucose control and metabolic traits were analysed between baseline and twelve months after surgery. Results Tryptophan and kynurenine metabolite concentrations were significantly decreased one year after bariatric surgery and were correlated with the decrease of the usCRP in both groups. Among all the kynurenine metabolites evaluated, only quinolinic acid and xanthurenic acid were significantly associated with glucose control improvement. The one year delta of quinolinic acid concentrations was negatively associated with the delta of fasting glucose (p = 0.019) and HbA1c (p = 0.014), whereas the delta of xanthurenic acid was positively associated with the delta of insulin sensitivity index (p = 0.0018). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has induced a global down-regulation of kynurenine metabolites, associated with weight loss. Our results suggest that, since kynurenine monoxygenase diverts the kynurenine pathway toward the synthesis of xanthurenic acid, its inhibition may also contribute to glucose homeostasis. PMID:27327770

  13. Episodic barrel rotations induced by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid in rats. Inhibition by anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Marrannes, R; Wauquier, A

    1988-09-01

    Unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2,3 pyridine dicarboxylate; QUIN) in the rat produces episodic barrel rotations and tonic-clonic forepaw movements, lasting for several hours. We investigated whether intraperitoneal posttreatment with anticonvulsants could abolish this phenomenon when it is already fully developed, and whether their potency ratio was similar in models of epilepsy. All 8 tested antiepileptics, namely carbamazepine, clonazepam, diazepam, diphenylhydantoin, ethosuximide, flunarizine, phenobarbital and sodium valproate decreased this behaviour in a dose-dependent way. Six other drugs with anticonvulsant properties were also effective: DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, desipramine, etomidate, ketamine, meprobamate and sabeluzole. The ED50-values for halving the frequency of the episodes of barrel rotation correlated well with published ED50-values for inhibition of tonic hindpaw extension in the maximal metrazol seizure test (rs = .95, p less than 0.001) and with the ED50-values for halving the duration of the forepaw clonus in the rat-kindling model (rs = .93, p less than 0.001). This quinolinic acid test allows visualization of the onset of action of anticonvulsants, with each animal as its own control. In order to assess whether this test is also sensitive to drugs influencing the symptoms of Huntington's disease, the effect of the dopamine antagonists haloperidol and pimozide, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and the anticholinergics atropine and dexetimide were investigated as well. The experiments suggested that the barrel rotations and clonic forepaw movements, only 3-6 hours after intrastriatal injection of QUIN respond to anticonvulsants, but are not specifically sensitive to drugs used in the symptomatic treatment of Huntington's disease. PMID:2978064

  14. Characterization of the Kynurenine Pathway and Quinolinic Acid Production in Macaque Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chai K.; Yap, Margaret M.C.; Kent, Stephen J.; Gras, Gabriel; Samah, Boubekeur; Batten, Jane C.; De Rose, Robert; Heng, Benjamin; Brew, Bruce J.; Guillemin, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) and one of its end-products, the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN), are involved in the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammatory brain diseases. A relevant animal model to study KP metabolism is now needed to assess whether intervention in this pathway may improve the outcome of such diseases. Humans and macaques share a very similar genetic makeup. In this study, we characterized the KP metabolism in macaque primary macrophages of three different species in comparison to human cells. We found that the KP profiles in simian macrophages were very similar to those in humans when challenged with inflammatory cytokines. Further, we found that macaque macrophages are capable of producing a pathophysiological concentration of QUIN. Our data validate the simian model as a relevant model to study the human cellular KP metabolism in the context of inflammation. PMID:23761975

  15. Quinolinic Acid Responses during Interferon-α-Induced Depressive Symptomatology in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection - A Novel Aspect for Depression and Inflammatory Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Andreas; Meinitzer, Andreas; Breitenecker, Robert J.; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; Stauber, Rudolf; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this exploratory study is to gain for the first time a more comprehensive picture of the impact of changes of quinolinic acid concentrations on depressive symptomatology during and after IFN-α therapy. Methods The quinolinic acid concentrations of 35 HCV patients are examined in a prospective survey over the entire period of IFN-α treatment as well as three months later at six different times (baseline, one, three, six and nine months after the beginning of IFN-α treatment, and after the end of treatment). Results During IFN-α treatment Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores rise significantly. At the same time there is greater activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, with a resulting increase in plasma kynurenine concentrations. Compared to baseline values quinolinic acid concentrations increase significantly during therapy, reflecting an increased neurotoxic challenge. In addition, patients with higher scores in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at six and nine months after starting therapy show significantly higher levels of quinolinic acid concentration. Conclusions The increase of quinolinic acid during IFN-α therapy might contribute to depressive symptomatology through the neurotoxic challenge caused by quinolinic acid. Subsequently, our exploratory study results support the inflammatory hypothesis of depression. The awareness of relevant risk factors of IFN-α treatment-induced depression is essential to develop preventative treatment strategies. PMID:26368809

  16. Spectral investigation and theoretical study of zwitterionic and neutral forms of quinolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, M.; Sinha, L.; Prasad, O.; Bilgili, S.; Sachan, Alok K.; Asiri, A. M.; Atac, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, molecular structure and vibrational analysis of quinolinic acid (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid), in zwitterionic and neutral forms, were presented using FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV experimental techniques and quantum chemical calculations. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,3-PDCA) in the solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-0 cm-1, respectively. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for zwitter and neutral forms by using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. 3D potential energy scan was performed by varying the selected dihedral angles using M06-2X and B3LYP functionals at 6-31G(d) level of theory and thus the most stable conformer of the title compound was determined. The most stable conformer was further optimized at higher level and vibrational wavenumbers were calculated. Theoretical vibrational assignment of 2,3-PDCA, using percentage potential energy distribution (PED) was done with MOLVIB program. 13C and 1H NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO. Chemical shifts were calculated at the same level of theory. The UV absorption spectra of the studied compound in ethanol and water were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. The optimized geometric parameters were compared with experimental data.

  17. Design, Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some New 2-Phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaoyang; Cai, Yuanhong; Yang, Xiaolan; Li, Jiayu; Li, Yinghan; Chen, Wenna; He, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 2-phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives was synthesized starting from aniline, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, pyruvic acid followed by Doebner reaction, amidation, reduction, acylation and amination. All of the newly-synthesized compounds were characterized by ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and HRMS. The antibacterial activities of these compounds against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis), as well as one strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were evaluated by the agar diffusion method (zone of inhibition) and a broth dilution method (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)), and their structure-activity relationships were obtained and discussed. The results revealed that some compounds displayed good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and Compounds 5a₄ and 5a₇ showed the best inhibition with an MIC value of 64 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and with an MIC value of 128 μg/mL against Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the MTT assay illustrated the low cytotoxicity of Compound 5a₄. PMID:26978336

  18. Quinolinic Acid, an endogenous molecule combining excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and other toxic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Santamaría, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is involved in several neurological disorders, including Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, HIV associated dementia (HAD) etc. QUIN toxicity involves several mechanisms which trigger various metabolic pathways and transcription factors. The primary mechanism exerted by this excitotoxin in the central nervous system (CNS) has been largely related with the overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, ATP exhaustion, free radical formation and oxidative damage. As a result, this toxic pattern is responsible for selective loss of middle size striatal spiny GABAergic neurons and motor alterations in lesioned animals. This toxin has recently gained attention in biomedical research as, in addition to its proven excitotoxic profile, a considerable amount of evidence suggests that oxidative stress and energetic disturbances are major constituents of its toxic pattern in the CNS. Hence, this profile has changed our perception of how QUIN-related disorders combine different toxic mechanisms resulting in brain damage. This review will focus on the description and integration of recent evidence supporting old and suggesting new mechanisms to explain QUIN toxicity. PMID:22408367

  19. On the early toxic effect of quinolinic acid: involvement of RAGE.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan; Newport, Glenn; Divine, Becky; Wu, Qiangen; Paule, Merle G; Tobón-Velasco, J César; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2010-04-26

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN)-induced toxicity is characterized by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors over-activation, excitotoxicity and oxidative damage. The characterization of toxic cascades produced by QUIN during the first hours after its striatal infusion is relevant for understanding toxic mechanisms. The role of the receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) in the early toxic pattern induced by QUIN was evaluated. RAGE expression - assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence - was enhanced in the striata of QUIN-lesioned rats at 2h post-lesion. QUIN-induced RAGE up-regulation was accompanied by expression of a RAGE target molecule, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and genes encoding for different enzymes. Other toxic markers linked to RAGE activation were increased by QUIN, including NO formation, premature glial response, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear condensation. Our results suggest that RAGE up-regulation may play a role in the early stages of QUIN toxicity. PMID:20223279

  20. Sulforaphane reduces the alterations induced by quinolinic acid: modulation of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Santana-Martínez, R A; Galván-Arzáte, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Avila-Chávez, E; López-Acosta, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A; Maldonado, P D

    2014-07-11

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5mg/kg, i.p.) 24h and 5min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities. PMID:24814729

  1. Quinolinic Acid, an Endogenous Molecule Combining Excitotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Other Toxic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Santamaría, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is involved in several neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, HIV associated dementia (HAD) etc. QUIN toxicity involves several mechanisms which trigger various metabolic pathways and transcription factors. The primary mechanism exerted by this excitotoxin in the central nervous system (CNS) has been largely related with the overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, ATP exhaustion, free radical formation and oxidative damage. As a result, this toxic pattern is responsible for selective loss of middle size striatal spiny GABAergic neurons and motor alterations in lesioned animals. This toxin has recently gained attention in biomedical research as, in addition to its proven excitotoxic profile, a considerable amount of evidence suggests that oxidative stress and energetic disturbances are major constituents of its toxic pattern in the CNS. Hence, this profile has changed our perception of how QUIN-related disorders combine different toxic mechanisms resulting in brain damage. This review will focus on the description and integration of recent evidence supporting old and suggesting new mechanisms to explain QUIN toxicity. PMID:22408367

  2. Atorvastatin Prevents Glutamate Uptake Reduction Induced by Quinolinic Acid Via MAPKs Signaling.

    PubMed

    Vandresen-Filho, S; Martins, W C; Bertoldo, D B; Rieger, D K; Maestri, M; Leal, R B; Tasca, C I

    2016-08-01

    Statins have been shown to promote neuroprotection in a wide range of neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in such effects of statins are not fully understood. Quinolinic acid (QA) is a neurotoxin that induces seizures when infused in vivo and promotes glutamatergic excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the putative glutamatergic mechanisms and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the atorvastatin neuroprotective effects against QA toxicity. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days prevented the QA-induced decrease in glutamate uptake, but had no effect on increased glutamate release induced by QA. Moreover, atorvastatin treatment increased the phosphorylation of ERK1 and prevented the decrease in Akt phosphorylation induced by QA. Neither atorvastatin treatment nor QA infusion altered glutamine synthetase activity or the levels of phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) or JNK1/2 during the evaluation. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling pathway, but not PI3K/Akt signaling, abolished the neuroprotective effect of atorvastatin against QA-induced decrease in glutamate uptake. Our data suggest that atorvastatin protective effects against QA toxicity are related to modulation of glutamate transporters via MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27084771

  3. Investigation of prototypal MOFs consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites for quinoline synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Leng, Kunyue; Cash, Lindsay; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Stackhouse, Chavis A; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-03-21

    A series of prototypal metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites, have been systematically investigated for Friedländer annulation reaction, a straightforward approach to synthesizing quinoline and its derivatives. Amongst them MMCF-2 demonstrates significantly enhanced catalytic activity compared with the benchmark MOFs, HKUST-1 and MOF-505, as a result of a high-density of accessible Cu(II) Lewis acid sites and large window size in the cuboctahedral cage-based nanoreactor of MMCF-2. PMID:25693429

  4. Quinolinic acid-immunoreactivity in the naïve mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Yara Pujol; Kenis, Gunter; Rutten, Bart P F; Myint, Aye M; Steinbusch, Harry W M; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-01-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) has been suggested to be involved in infections, inflammatory neurological disorders and in the development of psychiatric disorders. In this view, several studies have been performed to investigate QUIN localization in the brain and its neurotoxic effects. However, evidence is lacking regarding QUIN in healthy, control conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the region-specific distribution and pattern of QUIN expression in the naïve mouse brain. In addition, possible sex differences in QUIN-immunoreactivity and its link with affect-related behavioural observations were assessed. For this purpose, naïve mice were subjected to the forced swim test (FST) and 20 min open field (OF) testing to measure affect-related behaviour. Afterwards, brains were assessed for QUIN-immunoreactivity. QUIN-immunoreactivity was particularly observed in the cingulate cortex (CC), highlighting clearly delineated cells, and the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), showing a more diffuse staining pattern. Subsequently, QUIN-positive cells in the CC were counted, while QUIN-immunoreactivity in the TRN was examined using gray value measurements. No significant differences between sexes were observed for the number of QUIN-positive cells in the CC, neither in levels of QUIN-immunoreactivity in the TRN. A direct correlation was found between QUIN-positive cells in the CC and QUIN-immunoreactivity in the TRN. Moreover, in male mice, a very strong correlation (rsp=.943; p<.01) between QUIN-immunoreactivity at the level of the TRN and motor activity in the OF was observed. Thus, our results suggest that QUIN - detected in the CC and the TRN - may play a role in regulating motor activity in normal conditions. PMID:26686288

  5. C8-Selective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie

    2016-08-01

    A facile and efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed C8-selective acylation of quinoline N-oxides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed. In this approach, N-oxide was utilized as a stepping stone for the remote C-H functionalization. The reactions proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions with excellent regioselectivity and broad functional group tolerance. PMID:27441527

  6. Biochemical characterization of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and inhibition of its activity by pyrazinamide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Shibayama, Keigo; Rimbara, Emiko; Mori, Shigetarou

    2014-01-01

    Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a key enzyme in the de novo pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis and a target for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. QAPRTase catalyzes the synthesis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide from quinolinic acid (QA) and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) through a phosphoribosyl transfer reaction followed by decarboxylation. The crystal structure of QAPRTase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MtQAPRTase) has been determined; however, a detailed functional analysis of MtQAPRTase has not been published. Here, we analyzed the enzymatic activities of MtQAPRTase and determined the effect on catalysis of the anti-tuberculosis drug pyrazinamide (PZA). The optimum temperature and pH for MtQAPRTase activity were 60°C and pH 9.2. MtQAPRTase required bivalent metal ions and its activity was highest in the presence of Mg2+. Kinetic analyses revealed that the Km values for QA and PRPP were 0.08 and 0.39 mM, respectively, and the kcat values for QA and PRPP were 0.12 and 0.14 [s-1], respectively. When the amino acid residues of MtQAPRTase, which may interact with QA, were substituted with alanine residues, catalytic activity was undetectable. Further, PZA, which is an anti-tuberculosis drug and a structural analog of QA, markedly inhibited the catalytic activity of MtQAPRTase. The structure of PZA may provide the basis for the design of new inhibitors of MtQAPRTase. These findings provide new insights into the catalytic properties of MtQAPRTase. PMID:24949952

  7. Isothiouronium compounds as gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, R. D.; Dickenson, H. W.; Hiern, B. P.; Johnston, G. A.; Kazlauskas, R.

    1986-01-01

    Analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) incorporating an isothiouronium salt as a replacement for a protonated amino functional group have been investigated for activity on: GABA receptors in the guinea-pig ileum; [3H]-GABA and [3H]-diazepam binding to rat brain membranes; and GABA uptake and transamination. For the homologous series of omega-isothiouronium alkanoic acids, maximum GABA-mimetic activity was found at 3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]propanoic acid. Introduction of unsaturation into this compound gave two isomeric conformationally restricted analogues. The trans isomer was inactive at GABA receptors while the cis compound ((Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid (ZAPA)) was more potent than muscimol and GABA as a GABA agonist with respect to low affinity GABA receptor sites. Both isomers were moderately potent at inhibiting the uptake of [3H]-GABA into rat brain slices. Comparison of possible conformations of the two unsaturated isomers by interactive computer graphics modelling and comparison with muscimol has led to a plausible active conformation of ZAPA, which may be a selective and potent agonist for low affinity GABA binding sites. PMID:3015310

  8. Pharmacological properties of acid N-thiazolylamide FFA2 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew J; Tsoulou, Christina; Ward, Emma; Gower, Elaine; Bhudia, Nisha; Chowdhury, Forhad; Dean, Tony W; Faucher, Nicolas; Gangar, Akanksha; Dowell, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    FFA2 is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids. Propionate (C3) and 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-N-2-thiazolyl-benzeneacetamide (4-CMTB), the prototypical synthetic FFA2 agonist, evoke calcium mobilization in neutrophils and inhibit lipolysis in adipocytes via this G-protein-coupled receptor. 4-CMTB contains an N-thiazolylamide motif but no acid group, and 4-CMTB and C3 bind to different sites on FFA2 and show allosteric cooperativity. Recently, FFA2 agonists have been described that contain both N-thiazolylamide and carboxylate groups, reminiscent of bitopic ligands. These are thought to engage the carboxylate-binding site on FFA2, but preliminary evidence suggests they do not bind to the same site as 4-CMTB even though both contain N-thiazolylamide. Here, we describe the characterization of four FFA2 ligands containing both N-thiazolylamide and carboxylate. (R)-3-benzyl-4-((4-(2-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)(methyl)amino)-4-oxobutanoic acid (compound 14) exhibits allosteric agonism with 4-CMTB but not C3. Three other compounds agonize FFA2 in [35S]GTPγS-incorporation or cAMP assays but behave as inverse agonists in yeast-based gene-reporter assays, showing orthosteric antagonism of C3 responses but allosteric antagonism of 4-CMTB responses. Thus, the bitopic-like FFA2 ligands engage the orthosteric site but do not compete at the site of 4-CMTB binding on an FFA2 receptor molecule. Compound 14 activates FFA2 on human neutrophils and mouse adipocytes, but appears not to inhibit lipolysis upon treatment of human primary adipocytes in spite of the presence of a functional FFA2 receptor in these cells. Hence, these new ligands may reveal differences in coupling of FFA2 between human and rodent adipose tissues. PMID:26236484

  9. Quinolinic acid lesion of nucleus accumbens reduces D sub 1 but not D sub 2 dopamine receptors: An autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Richards, T.J.; Huff, G.F. ); Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Information concerning the cellular localization of dopamine receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was obtained using receptor autoradiographic analysis. Unilateral, stereotaxic injection of the axonsparing neurotoxin, quinolinic acid, into the NAcc resulted in a prominent loss of dopamine D{sub 1} receptors (as labeled by ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390). Contrarily, no appreciable decrement in D{sub 2} receptors (labeled by ({sup 3}H)raclopride) could be identified within the same region of the NAcc. The findings support the view that accumbens D{sub 1} receptors are located postsynaptically on neurons or their processes, while D{sub 2} receptors within this nucleus are primarily located on afferent terminals.

  10. [Effect of excitant amino acid antagonists on glutamate receptors in the locust and on convulsions induced by glutamate, aspartate, kynurenine and quinolinic acid in mice].

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, I V; Slepokurov, M V; Lapin, I P; Mandel'shtam, Iu E; Aleksandrov, V G

    1986-03-01

    All excitatory amino acid antagonists studied: diethyl esters of aspartic (DEEA) and glutamic (DEEG) acids, 2-amino-3-phosphono-propionic acid (APPA) and 2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoic acid (APBA), diminished the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPP) of the locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) muscle fibers and arbitrary blocked glutamate (GLU) and aspartate (ASP) responses. Kynurenine (KYN) and quinolinic (QUI) acid had no effect on EPP even at a concentration of 2 X 10(-2) M. The antagonists were not strictly selective against intracerebroventricularly administered endogenous convulsants: GLU, ASP, KYN and QUI and in simulation of experimental seizures in mice. The antagonists structurally similar to ASP prevented ASP- and KYN-induced seizures in lower doses than GLU derivatives. Anti-KYN, but not anti-QUI DEEA, DEEG, APPA and APBA efficacy suggests that KYN and QUI act on different structures or binding sites. PMID:2869799

  11. Cooperation of non-effective concentration of glutamatergic system modulators and antioxidant against oxidative stress induced by quinolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Dobrachinski, Fernando; Bastos, Luiza Lena; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; Corte, Cristiane Lenz Dalla; de Ávila, Daiana Silva; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-09-01

    Excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disruption of glutamate uptake have been hypothesized as key mechanisms contributing to quinolinic acid (QA)-induced toxicity. Thus, here we investigate if the use of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2), guanosine (GUO) and MK-801, alone or in combination, could protect rat brain slices from QA-induced toxicity. QA (1 mM) increased ROS formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased cell viability after 2 h of exposure. (PhSe)(2) (1 μM) protected against this ROS formation in the cortex and the striatum and also prevented decreases in cell viability induced by QA. (PhSe)(2) (5 μM) prevented ROS formation in the hippocampus. GUO (10 and 100 μM) blocked the increase in ROS formation caused by QA and MK-801 (20 and 100 μM) abolished the pro-oxidant effect of QA. When the noneffective concentrations were used in combination produced a decrease in ROS formation, mainly (PhSe)(2) + GUO and (PhSe)(2) + GUO + MK-801. These results demonstrate that this combination could be effective to avoid toxic effects caused by high concentrations of QA. Furthermore, the data obtained in the ROS formation and cellular viability assays suggest different pathways in amelioration of QA toxicity present in the neurodegenerative process. PMID:22674085

  12. Cathepsin L Plays a Role in Quinolinic Acid-Induced NF-Κb Activation and Excitotoxicity in Rat Striatal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Wu, Jun-Chao; Liang, Zhong-Qin; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The present study seeks to investigate the role of cathepsin L in glutamate receptor-induced transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and excitotoxicity in rats striatal neurons. Stereotaxic administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist Quinolinic acid (QA) into the unilateral striatum was used to produce the in vivo excitotoxic model. Co-administration of QA and the cathepsin L inhibitor Z-FF-FMK or 1-Naphthalenesulfonyl-IW-CHO (NaphthaCHO) was used to assess the contribution of cathepsin L to QA-induced striatal neuron death. Western blot analysis and cathepsin L activity assay were used to assess the changes in the levels of cathepsin L after QA treatment. Western blot analysis was used to assess the changes in the protein levels of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha isoform (IκB-α) and phospho-IκB alpha (p-IκBα) after QA treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect the effects of Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO on QA-induced NF-κB. Western blot analysis was used to detect the effects of Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO on QA-induced IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation, changes in the levels of IKKα, p-IKKα, TP53, caspase-3, beclin1, p62, and LC3II/LC3I. The results show that QA-induced loss of striatal neurons were strongly inhibited by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. QA-induced degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, up-regulation of NF-κB responsive gene TP53, and activation of caspase-3 was strongly inhibited by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. QA-induced increases in beclin 1, LC3II/LC3I, and down-regulation of p62 were reduced by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. These results suggest that cathepsin L is involved in glutamate receptor-induced NF-κB activation. Cathepsin L inhibitors have neuroprotective effects by inhibiting glutamate receptor-induced IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation. PMID:24073275

  13. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  14. Protective Effect of Spermidine Against Excitotoxic Neuronal Death Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats: Possible Neurotransmitters and Neuroinflammatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    Huntington disease is hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by selective and immense degradation of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in striatum. Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as excitotoxicity, ATP depletion, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, as well as selective GABAergic neuronal loss. Therefore, we investigated spermidine, an endogenous molecule with free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic properties, for its beneficial potential if any, in QA-induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered with QA (200 nmol/2 µl saline) bilaterally on 0 day. Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days once a day. Behavioral parameters (body weight, locomotor activity, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) observations were done on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after QA treatment. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA, adenosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite, and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), GABA, glutamate, catecholamines level (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites), and purines level (adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine). Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated these alterations in body weight, motor impairments, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, adenosine, and their metabolites levels in striatum. The neuroprotective effect of spermidine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death is attributed to its antioxidant, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic, anti

  15. Obeticholic acid, a synthetic bile acid agonist of the farnesoid X receptor, attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peggy P; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-02-01

    Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The bile acid-FXR interaction regulates bile acid synthesis, transport, and cholesterol metabolism. Recently, bile acid-FXR regulation has been reported to play an integral role in both hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and in atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that FXR knockout mice had more disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Obeticholic acid (6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid, 6-ECDCA), a synthetic FXR agonist, is an orally available drug that is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. When we treated mice exhibiting established EAE with 6-ECDCA, or the natural FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), clinical disease was ameliorated by (i) suppressing lymphocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production; (ii) reducing CD4(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cell populations and their expression of negative checkpoint regulators programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA); (iii) increasing CD8(+) T cells and PD1, PDl-1, and BTLA expression; and (iv) reducing VLA-4 expression in both the T- and B-cell populations. Moreover, adoptive transfer of 6-ECDCA- or CDCA-treated donor cells failed to transfer disease in naive recipients. Thus, we show that FXR functions as a negative regulator in neuroinflammation and we highlight that FXR agonists represent a potential previously unidentified therapy for MS. PMID:26811456

  16. CAR and PXR agonists stimulate hepatic bile acid and bilirubin detoxification and elimination pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Halilbasic, Emina; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Zollner, Gernot; Fickert, Peter; Langner, Cord; Zatloukal, Kurt; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Induction of hepatic phase I/II detoxification enzymes and alternative excretory pumps may limit hepatocellular accumulation of toxic biliary compounds in cholestasis. Because the nuclear xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulate involved enzymes and transporters, we aimed to induce adaptive alternative pathways with different CAR and PXR agonists in vivo. Mice were treated with the CAR agonists phenobarbital and 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichlorpyridyloxy)]benzene, as well as the PXR agonists atorvastatin and pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile. Hepatic bile acid and bilirubin-metabolizing/detoxifying enzymes (Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Sult2a1), their regulatory nuclear receptors (CAR, PXR, farnesoid X receptor), and bile acid/organic anion and lipid transporters (Ntcp, Oatp1,2,4, Bsep, Mrp2-4, Mdr2, Abcg5/8, Asbt) in the liver and kidney were analyzed via reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Potential functional relevance was tested in common bile duct ligation (CBDL). CAR agonists induced Mrp2-4 and Oatp2; PXR agonists induced only Mrp3 and Oatp2. Both PXR and CAR agonists profoundly stimulated bile acid-hydroxylating/detoxifying enzymes Cyp3a11 and Cyp2b10. In addition, CAR agonists upregulated bile acid-sulfating Sult2a1 and bilirubin-glucuronidating Ugt1a1. These changes were accompanied by reduced serum levels of bilirubin and bile acids in healthy and CBDL mice and by increased levels of polyhydroxylated bile acids in serum and urine of cholestatic mice. Atorvastatin significantly increased Oatp2, Mdr2, and Asbt, while other transporters and enzymes were moderately affected. In conclusion, administration of specific CAR or PXR ligands results in coordinated stimulation of major hepatic bile acid/bilirubin metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes and hepatic key alternative efflux systems, effects that are predicted to counteract cholestasis. PMID:15986414

  17. Selective Retinoic Acid Receptor γ Agonists Promote Repair of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Agnese; Uchibe, Kenta; Larmour, Colleen; Berger, Rebecca; Liu, Min; Barton, Elisabeth R; Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Retinoic acid signaling regulates several biological events, including myogenesis. We previously found that retinoic acid receptor γ (RARγ) agonist blocks heterotopic ossification, a pathological bone formation that mostly occurs in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, RARγ agonist also weakened deterioration of muscle architecture adjacent to the heterotopic ossification lesion, suggesting that RARγ agonist may oppose skeletal muscle damage. To test this hypothesis, we generated a critical defect in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7-week-old mice with a cautery, treated them with RARγ agonist or vehicle corn oil, and examined the effects of RARγ agonist on muscle repair. The muscle defects were partially repaired with newly regenerating muscle cells, but also filled with adipose and fibrous scar tissue in both RARγ-treated and control groups. The fibrous or adipose area was smaller in RARγ agonist-treated mice than in the control. In addition, muscle repair was remarkably delayed in RARγ-null mice in both critical defect and cardiotoxin injury models. Furthermore, we found a rapid increase in retinoid signaling in lacerated muscle, as monitored by retinoid signaling reporter mice. Together, our results indicate that endogenous RARγ signaling is involved in muscle repair and that selective RARγ agonists may be beneficial to promote repair in various types of muscle injuries. PMID:26205250

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives as novel free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuekun; Zhao, Tianxiao; Yang, Baowei; Li, Zheng; Cui, Jian; Dai, Yuxuan; Qiu, Qianqian; Qiang, Hao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a new potential drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its role in amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cell. In the present studies, we identified phenoxyacetic acid derivative (18b) as a potent FFA1 agonist (EC50=62.3 nM) based on the structure of phenylpropanoic acid derivative 4p. Moreover, compound 18b could significantly improve oral glucose tolerance in ICR mice and dose-dependently reduced glucose levels in type 2 diabetic C57BL/6 mice without observation of hypoglycemic side effect. Additionally, compound 18b exhibited acceptable PK profiles. In summary, compound 18b with ideal PK profiles exhibited good activity in vitro and in vivo, and might be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25481394

  19. Toxic synergism between quinolinic acid and organic acids accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I and in disorders of propionate metabolism in rat brain synaptosomes: Relevance for metabolic acidemias.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, A L; Paz-Loyola, A L; Serratos, I; Seminotti, B; Ribeiro, C A J; Leipnitz, G; Souza, D O; Wajner, M; Santamaría, A

    2015-11-12

    The brain of children affected by organic acidemias develop acute neurodegeneration linked to accumulation of endogenous toxic metabolites like glutaric (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OHGA), methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic (PA) acids. Excitotoxic and oxidative events are involved in the toxic patterns elicited by these organic acids, although their single actions cannot explain the extent of brain damage observed in organic acidemias. The characterization of co-adjuvant factors involved in the magnification of early toxic processes evoked by these metabolites is essential to infer their actions in the human brain. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway (KP) - a metabolic route devoted to degrade tryptophan to form NAD(+) - produce increased levels of the excitotoxic metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN), which has been involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Herein we investigated the effects of subtoxic concentrations of GA, 3-OHGA, MMA and PA, either alone or in combination with QUIN, on early toxic endpoints in rat brain synaptosomes. To establish specific mechanisms, we pre-incubated synaptosomes with different protective agents, including the endogenous N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KA), the antioxidant S-allylcysteine (SAC) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). While the incubation of synaptosomes with toxic metabolites at subtoxic concentrations produced no effects, their co-incubation (QUIN+GA, +3-OHGA, +MMA or +PA) decreased the mitochondrial function and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation. For all cases, this effect was partially prevented by KA and l-NAME, and completely avoided by SAC. These findings suggest that early damaging events elicited by organic acids involved in metabolic acidemias can be magnified by toxic synergism with QUIN, and this process is mostly mediated by oxidative stress, and in a lesser extent by excitotoxicity and

  20. 10-Iodo-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic Acids Are Selective Inhibitors of DYRK1A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase DYRK1A has been suggested to act as one of the intracellular regulators contributing to neurological alterations found in individuals with Down syndrome. For an assessment of the role of DYRK1A, selective synthetic inhibitors are valuable pharmacological tools. However, the DYRK1A inhibitors described in the literature so far either are not sufficiently selective or have not been tested against closely related kinases from the DYRK and the CLK protein kinase families. The aim of this study was the identification of DYRK1A inhibitors exhibiting selectivity versus the structurally and functionally closely related DYRK and CLK isoforms. Structure modification of the screening hit 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid revealed structure–activity relationships for kinase inhibition and enabled the design of 10-iodo-substituted derivatives as very potent DYRK1A inhibitors with considerable selectivity against CLKs. X-ray structure determination of three 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids cocrystallized with DYRK1A confirmed the predicted binding mode within the ATP binding site. PMID:25730262

  1. Discovery of Azetidinone Acids as Conformationally-Constrained Dual PPARalpha/gamma Agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Devasthale, P; Farrelly, D; Gu, L; Harrity, T; Cap, M; Chu, C; Kunselman, L; Morgan, N; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    A novel class of azetidinone acid-derived dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists has been synthesized for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. The preferred stereochemistry in this series for binding and functional agonist activity against both PPARa and PPAR? receptors was shown to be 3S,4S. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo activities of compounds in this series are described. A high-yielding method for N-arylation of azetidinone esters is also described.

  2. Obeticholic acid, a synthetic bile acid agonist of the farnesoid X receptor, attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peggy P.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The bile acid–FXR interaction regulates bile acid synthesis, transport, and cholesterol metabolism. Recently, bile acid–FXR regulation has been reported to play an integral role in both hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and in atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that FXR knockout mice had more disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Obeticholic acid (6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid, 6-ECDCA), a synthetic FXR agonist, is an orally available drug that is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. When we treated mice exhibiting established EAE with 6-ECDCA, or the natural FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), clinical disease was ameliorated by (i) suppressing lymphocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production; (ii) reducing CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cell populations and their expression of negative checkpoint regulators programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA); (iii) increasing CD8+ T cells and PD1, PDl-1, and BTLA expression; and (iv) reducing VLA-4 expression in both the T- and B-cell populations. Moreover, adoptive transfer of 6-ECDCA– or CDCA-treated donor cells failed to transfer disease in naive recipients. Thus, we show that FXR functions as a negative regulator in neuroinflammation and we highlight that FXR agonists represent a potential previously unidentified therapy for MS. PMID:26811456

  3. Quinoline: A versatile heterocyclic

    PubMed Central

    Marella, Akranth; Tanwar, Om Prakash; Saha, Rikta; Ali, Mohammad Rahmat; Srivastava, Sandeep; Akhter, Mymoona; Shaquiquzzaman, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Mumtaz

    2012-01-01

    Quinoline or 1-aza-naphthalene is a weak tertiary base. Quinoline ring has been found to possess antimalarial, anti-bacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, cardiotonic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity. Quinoline not only has a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities but there are several established protocols for the synthesis of this ring. The article aims at highlighting these very diversities of the ring. PMID:23960814

  4. Binding characteristics of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid as a weak but selective GABAB receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Mathivet, P; Bernasconi, R; De Barry, J; Marescaux, C; Bittiger, H

    1997-02-19

    The aim of this study was to reexamine the concept that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a weak but selective agonist at gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptors, using binding experiments with several radioligands. Ki values of GHB were similar (approximately equal to 100 microM) in three agonist radioligand assays for GABAB receptors, [3H]baclofen (beta-para-chlorophenyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid), [3H]CGP 27492 (3-aminopropyl-phosphinic acid) and [3H]GABA, in the presence of the GABAA receptor agonist isoguvacine with rat cortical, cerebellar and hippocampal membranes. In competition experiments between GHB and the GABAB receptor antagonist, [3H]CGP 54626 (3-N [1-{(S)-3,4-dichlorophenyl}-ethylamino]-2-(S)-hydroxypropyl cyclo-hexylmethyl phosphinic acid), the IC50 values were significantly increased with 300 microM of 5'-guanyl-imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p), which suggested that guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) modulate GHB binding on GABAB receptors. The inhibition by GHB of [3H]CGP 27492 binding in cortical membranes was not altered in the presence of 0.3 or 3 mM of the two GHB dehydrogenase inhibitors, valproate and ethosuximide. Thus, GHB is not reconverted into GABA by GHB dehydrogenase. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that GHB is an endogenous weak but selective agonist at GABAB receptors. PMID:9083788

  5. D-amino acid oxidase generates agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor from D-tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh P; Hsu, Erin L; Chowdhury, Goutam; Dostalek, Miroslav; Guengerich, F Peter; Bradfield, Christopher A

    2009-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known for its role in mediating the toxic and adaptive responses to xenobiotic compounds. Recent studies also indicate that AHR ligands are endogenously produced and may be essential for normal development. Previously, we showed that the endogenous enzyme, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), generates the AHR proagonist, indole-3-pyruvic acid (I3P), by deamination of its substrate L-tryptophan. We hypothesized that other enzymatic pathways capable of producing I3P may generate AHR agonists in vivo. We now demonstrate that the enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) catalyzes the production of AHR agonists through the enzymatic conversion of D-tryptophan to I3P. Moreover, we provide evidence that the nonenzymatic oxidation and condensation of I3P is a critical step in the generation of receptor agonists by DAAO and AST. Products of this process include two novel agonists, 1,3-di(1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-one and 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3H-indol-3-ylidene) propan-2-one [characterized in the accompanying paper, Chowdhury et al. ( 2009 ) Chem. Res. Toxicol. , DOI: 10.1021/tx9000418 ], both of which can potently activate the AHR at concentrations in the nanomolar range. These results show that endogenous AHR activity can be modulated by I3P production from amino acid precursors through multiple enzymatic pathways, including those catalyzed by DAAO and AST. PMID:19860415

  6. New metabolically stabilized analogues of lysophosphatidic acid: agonists, antagonists and enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Xu, Y; Qian, L; Gajewiak, J; Jiang, G

    2005-12-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a metabolically labile natural phospholipid with a bewildering array of physiological effects. We describe herein a variety of long-lived receptor-specific agonists and antagonists for LPA receptors. Several LPA and PA (phosphatidic acid) analogues also inhibit LPP (lipid phosphate phosphatase). The sn-1 or sn-2 hydroxy groups have been replaced by fluorine, difluoromethyl, difluoroethyl, O-methyl or O-hydroxyethoxy groups to give non-migrating LPA analogues that resist acyltransferases. Alkyl ether replacement of acyl esters produced lipase and acyltransferase-resistant analogues. Replacement of the bridging oxygen in the monophosphate by an alpha-monofluoromethylene-, alpha-bromomethylene- or alpha,alpha-difluoromethylenephosphonate gave phosphatase-resistant analogues. Phosphorothioate analogues with O-acyl and O-alkyl chains are potent, long-lived agonists for LPA1 and LPA3 receptors. Most recently, we have (i) prepared stabilized O-alkyl analogues of lysobisphosphatidic acid, (ii) explored the structure-activity relationship of stabilized cyclic LPA analogues and (iii) synthesized neutral head group trifluoromethylsulphonamide analogues of LPA. Through collaborative studies, we have collected data for these stabilized analogues as selective LPA receptor (ant)agonists, LPP inhibitors, TREK (transmembrane calcium channel) K+ channel agonists, activators of the nuclear transcription factor PPAR-gamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), promoters of cell motility and survival, and radioprotectants for human B-cells. PMID:16246118

  7. Synthesis, activity, and docking study of phenylthiazole acids as potential agonists of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Taijin; Shi, Min; Ye, Haoyu

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-mediated transcription factor playing key roles in glucose and lipid homeostasis, and PPARγ ligands possess therapeutic potential in these as well as other areas. In this study, a series of phenylthiazole acids have been synthesized and evaluated for agonistic activity by a convenient fluorescence polarization-based PPARγ ligand screening assay. Compound 4t, as a potential PPARγ agonist with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) 0.75±0.20 μM, exhibited in vitro potency comparable with a 0.83±0.14 μM of the positive control rosiglitazone. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that phenylthiazole acid 4t interacted with the amino acid residues of the active site of the PPARγ complex in a stable manner, consistent with the result of the in vitro ligand assay. PMID:27313447

  8. Studies on the potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of quinolinic acid in rats with altered blood-brain barrier permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Vezzani, A.; Stasi, M.A.; Wu, H.Q.; Castiglioni, M.; Weckermann, B.; Samanin, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Intravenous injection of 450 mg/kg quinolinic acid (Quin), an endogenous kynurenine metabolite with excitotoxic properties, induced only minor electroencephalographic (EEG) modifications and no neurotoxicity in rats with a mature blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB permeability was altered in rats by focal unilateral irradiation of the cortex (7 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth) with protons (60 Gy, 9 Gy/min). Three days after irradiation, Evans blue dye staining showed BBB breakdown in the dorsal hippocampus of the irradiated hemisphere. No neurotoxic or convulsant effects were observed as a consequence of the radiation itself. When BBB-lesioned rats were challenged with 225 mg/kg Quin iv, epileptiform activity was observed on EEG analysis. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by 225-450 mg/kg Quin. Light microscopic analysis showed a dose-related excitotoxic type of lesion restricted to the hippocampus ipsilateral to the irradiated side. Neuro-degeneration was prevented by local injection of 120 nmol D(-)2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. No lesions or EEG or behavioral modifications occurred after 450 mg/kg nicotinic acid, an inactive analog of Quin. The potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of Quin under conditions of altered BBB permeability are discussed.

  9. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  10. Phenoxyacetic acids as PPARδ partial agonists: synthesis, optimization, and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen A; Shearer, Barry G; Wisnoski, David D; Shi, Dongchuan; Sparks, Steven M; Sternbach, Daniel D; Winegar, Deborah A; Billin, Andrew N; Britt, Christy; Way, James M; Epperly, Andrea H; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Merrihew, Raymond V; Xu, Robert X; Lambert, Millard H; Jin, Jian

    2011-04-15

    A series of phenoxyacetic acids as subtype selective and potent hPPARδ partial agonists is described. Many analogues were readily accessible via a single solution-phase synthetic route which resulted in the rapid identification of key structure-activity relationships (SAR), and the discovery of two potent exemplars which were further evaluated in vivo. Details of the SAR, optimization, and in vivo efficacy of this series are presented herein. PMID:21414782

  11. Identification of Darmstoff analogs as selective agonists and antagonists of lysophosphatidic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gududuru, Veeresa; Zeng, Kui; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Makarova, Natalia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Pigg, Kathryn R; Baker, Daniel L; Tigyi, Gabor; Miller, Duane D

    2006-01-15

    Darmstoff describes a family of gut smooth muscle-stimulating acetal phosphatidic acids initially isolated and characterized from the bath fluid of stimulated gut over 50 years ago. Despite similar structural and biological profiles, Darmstoff analogs have not previously been examined as potential LPA mimetics. Here, we report a facile method for the synthesis of potassium salts of Darmstoff analogs. To understand the effect of stereochemistry on lysophosphatidic acid mimetic activity, synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of selected Darmstoff analogs was achieved starting with chiral methyl glycerates. Each Darmstoff analog was evaluated for subtype-specific LPA receptor agonist/antagonist activity, PPARgamma activation, and autotaxin inhibition. From this study we identified compound 12 as a pan-antagonist and several pan-agonists for the LPA(1-3) receptors. Introduction of an aromatic ring in the lipid chain such as analog 22 produced a subtype-specific LPA(3) agonist with an EC(50) of 692 nM. Interestingly, regardless of their LPA(1/2/3) ligand properties all of the Darmstoff analogs tested activated PPARgamma. However, these compounds are weak inhibitors of autotaxin. The results indicate that Darmstoff analogs constitute a novel class of lysophosphatidic acid mimetics. PMID:16290140

  12. Detection of retinoic acid receptor agonistic activity and identification of causative compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazuko; Inoue, Daisuke; Wada, Yuichiro; Sei, Kazunari; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2012-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) receptor (RAR) agonists are potential toxicants that can cause teratogenesis in vertebrates. To determine the occurrence of RAR agonists in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), we examined the RARα agonistic activities of influent and effluent samples from several municipal WWTPs in Osaka, Japan, using a yeast two-hybrid assay. Significant RARα agonistic activity was detected in all the influent samples investigated, suggesting that municipal wastewater consistently contains RAR agonists. Fractionations using high-performance liquid chromatography, directed by the bioassay, found several bioactive peaks from influent samples. The RAR agonists, all-trans RA (atRA), 13-cis RA (13cRA), 4-oxo-atRA, and 4-oxo-13cRA, possibly arising from human urine, were identified by liquid chromatography ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Quantification of the identified compounds in municipal WWTPs confirmed that they were responsible for the majority of RARα agonistic activity in WWTP influents, and also revealed they were readily removed from wastewater by activated sludge treatment. Simultaneous measurement of the RARα agonistic activity revealed that although total activity typically declined concomitant with the reduction of the four identified compounds, it remained high after the decline of RAs and 4-oxo-RAs in one WWTP, suggesting the occurrence of unidentified RAR agonists during the activated sludge treatment. PMID:22095885

  13. Treadmill exercise improves short-term memory by enhancing hippocampal cell proliferation in quinolinic acid-induced Huntington’s disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You-Mi; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder, characterized by cognitive dysfunction and abnormal body movements called chorea. Quinolinic acid (QA) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway. QA-induced alterations are similar to the symptoms of HD patients. Physical exercise has beneficial effects on the brain functions. Exercise increases production of neurotrophic factors in the brain and improves learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise short-term memory on QA-induced HD rats in relation with cell proliferation. For the induction of Huntington’s animal model, 2 μL of 100 nmol QA was intrastriatal injected into the rats. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, five times a week for 2 weeks. Step-down avoidance test was conducted for the determination of short-term memory. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was determined by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated QA-induced short-term memory impairment in HD rats. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus through enhancing BDNF expression in the HD rats. These results revealed that treadmill exercise is effective for the symptom improvement in the HD patients. PMID:25830138

  14. Novel Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Agonists for Treatment of Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruijie; Li, Zhengzhe; Chen, Yibang; Evans, Todd; Chuang, Peter; Das, Bhaskar; He, John Cijiang

    2011-01-01

    Development of pharmacologic agents that protect podocytes from injury is a critical strategy for the treatment of kidney glomerular diseases. Retinoic acid reduces proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in multiple animal models of kidney diseases. However, clinical studies are limited because of significant side effects of retinoic acid. Animal studies suggest that all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) attenuates proteinuria by protecting podocytes from injury. The physiological actions of ATRA are mediated by binding to all three isoforms of the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs): RARα, RARβ, and RARγ. We have previously shown that ATRA exerts its renal protective effects mainly through the agonism of RARα. Here, we designed and synthesized a novel boron-containing derivative of the RARα-specific agonist Am580. This new derivative, BD4, binds to RARα receptor specifically and is predicted to have less toxicity based on its structure. We confirmed experimentally that BD4 binds to RARα with a higher affinity and exhibits less cellular toxicity than Am580 and ATRA. BD4 induces the expression of podocyte differentiation markers (synaptopodin, nephrin, and WT-1) in cultured podocytes. Finally, we confirmed that BD4 reduces proteinuria and improves kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, a model for HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Mice treated with BD4 did not develop any obvious toxicity or side effect. Our data suggest that BD4 is a novel RARα agonist, which could be used as a potential therapy for patients with kidney disease such as HIVAN. PMID:22125642

  15. γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is not an agonist of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, William M; Errington, Adam C; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound and a drug used clinically to treat the symptoms of narcolepsy. GHB is known to be an agonist of GABAB receptors with millimolar affinity, but also binds with much higher affinity to another site, known as the GHB receptor. While a body of evidence has shown that GHB does not bind to GABAA receptors widely, recent evidence has suggested that the GHB receptor is in fact on extrasynaptic α4β1δ GABAA receptors, where GHB acts as an agonist with an EC50 of 140 nM. We investigated three neuronal cell types that express a tonic GABAA receptor current mediated by extrasynaptic receptors: ventrobasal (VB) thalamic neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells and striatal medium spiny neurons. Using whole-cell voltage clamp in brain slices, we found no evidence that GHB (10 µM) induced any GABAA receptor mediated current in these cell types, nor that it modulated inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, a high concentration of GHB (3 mM) was able to produce a GABAB receptor mediated current, but did not induce any other currents. These results suggest either that GHB is not a high affinity agonist at native α4β1δ receptors, or that these receptors do not exist in classical areas associated with extrasynaptic currents. PMID:24244421

  16. γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Is Not an Agonist of Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, William M.; Errington, Adam C.; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound and a drug used clinically to treat the symptoms of narcolepsy. GHB is known to be an agonist of GABAB receptors with millimolar affinity, but also binds with much higher affinity to another site, known as the GHB receptor. While a body of evidence has shown that GHB does not bind to GABAA receptors widely, recent evidence has suggested that the GHB receptor is in fact on extrasynaptic α4β1δ GABAA receptors, where GHB acts as an agonist with an EC50 of 140 nM. We investigated three neuronal cell types that express a tonic GABAA receptor current mediated by extrasynaptic receptors: ventrobasal (VB) thalamic neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells and striatal medium spiny neurons. Using whole-cell voltage clamp in brain slices, we found no evidence that GHB (10 µM) induced any GABAA receptor mediated current in these cell types, nor that it modulated inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, a high concentration of GHB (3 mM) was able to produce a GABAB receptor mediated current, but did not induce any other currents. These results suggest either that GHB is not a high affinity agonist at native α4β1δ receptors, or that these receptors do not exist in classical areas associated with extrasynaptic currents. PMID:24244421

  17. Semisynthetic bile acid FXR and TGR5 agonists: physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Roda, Aldo; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gioiello, Antimo; Neri, Flavia; Camborata, Cecilia; Passeri, Daniela; De Franco, Francesca; Spinozzi, Silvia; Colliva, Carolina; Adorini, Luciano; Montagnani, Marco; Aldini, Rita

    2014-07-01

    We report on the relationship between the structure-pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and therapeutic activity of semisynthetic bile acid analogs, including 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a selective farnesoid X receptor [FXR] receptor agonist), 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a specific Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 [TGR5] receptor agonist), and 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-24-nor-5β-cholan-23-sulfate (a dual FXR/TGR5 agonist). We measured the main physicochemical properties of these molecules, including ionization constants, water solubility, lipophilicity, detergency, and protein binding. Biliary secretion and metabolism and plasma and hepatic concentrations were evaluated by high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry in bile fistula rat and compared with natural analogs chenodeoxycholic, cholic acid, and taurochenodexycholic acid and intestinal bacteria metabolism was evaluated in terms of 7α-dehydroxylase substrate-specificity in anaerobic human stool culture. The semisynthetic derivatives detergency, measured in terms of their critical micellar concentration, was quite similar to the natural analogs. They were slightly more lipophilic than the corresponding natural analogs, evaluated by their 1-octanol water partition coefficient (log P), because of the ethyl group in 6 position, which makes these molecules very stable toward bacterial 7-dehydroxylation. The hepatic metabolism and biliary secretion were different: 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, as chenodeoxycholic acid, was efficiently conjugated with taurine in the liver and, only in this form, promptly and efficiently secreted in bile. 6α-Ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid was poorly conjugated with taurine because of the steric hindrance of the methyl at C23(S) position metabolized to the C23(R) isomer and partly conjugated with taurine. Conversely, 6

  18. Insights into the unexpected chemoselectivity in Brønsted acid catalyzed cyclization of isatins with enaminones: convenient synthesis of pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinolin-1-ones and spirooxindoles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Zhou, Bei; Zhou, Pan; Zhou, Jie; Shen, Yuehai; Yu, Fu-Chao; Lu, Ling-Ling

    2016-06-28

    Divergent cascade syntheses constitute a highly attractive and challenging area in synthetic chemistry, and can exhibit unexpected chemoselectivity. Herein, a Brønsted acid-controlled protocol is described for the efficient catalysis of two different reactions, namely acylation cascade- and [1+2+3]-type cyclization of enaminones and isatins for the concise synthesis of highly functionalized pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinolin-1-ones and spirooxindoles in the presence of carboxylic acids and KHSO4, respectively. The observed chemoselectivity was reasonably explained by trapping the intermediate α,β-unsaturated 2-oxindoles, and the source of the hydroxyl group, carbocation intermediate, and amination reaction were also evaluated. PMID:27264102

  19. Structural Investigation for Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Derivatives as Partial FXR Agonists by in Silico Approaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Kang, Jie; Gan, Huijuan; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a three level in silico approach was applied to investigate some important structural and physicochemical aspects of a series of anthranilic acid derivatives (AAD) newly identified as potent partial farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists. Initially, both two and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (2D- and 3D-QSAR) studies were performed based on such AAD by a stepwise technology combined with multiple linear regression and comparative molecular field analysis. The obtained 2D-QSAR model gave a high predictive ability (R²train = 0.935, R²test = 0.902, Q²LOO = 0.899). It also uncovered that number of rotatable single bonds (b_rotN), relative negative partial charges (RPC(-)), oprea's lead-like (opr_leadlike), subdivided van der Waal's surface area (SlogP_VSA2) and accessible surface area (ASA) were important features in defining activity. Additionally, the derived3D-QSAR model presented a higher predictive ability (R²train = 0.944, R²test = 0.892, Q²LOO = 0.802). Meanwhile, the derived contour maps from the 3D-QSAR model revealed the significant structural features (steric and electronic effects) required for improving FXR agonist activity. Finally, nine newly designed AAD with higher predicted EC50 values than the known template compound were docked into the FXR active site. The excellent molecular binding patterns of these molecules also suggested that they can be robust and potent partial FXR agonists in agreement with the QSAR results. Overall, these derived models may help to identify and design novel AAD with better FXR agonist activity. PMID:27070594

  20. Structural Investigation for Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Derivatives as Partial FXR Agonists by in Silico Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Kang, Jie; Gan, Huijuan; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a three level in silico approach was applied to investigate some important structural and physicochemical aspects of a series of anthranilic acid derivatives (AAD) newly identified as potent partial farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists. Initially, both two and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (2D- and 3D-QSAR) studies were performed based on such AAD by a stepwise technology combined with multiple linear regression and comparative molecular field analysis. The obtained 2D-QSAR model gave a high predictive ability (R2train = 0.935, R2test = 0.902, Q2LOO = 0.899). It also uncovered that number of rotatable single bonds (b_rotN), relative negative partial charges (RPC−), oprea's lead-like (opr_leadlike), subdivided van der Waal’s surface area (SlogP_VSA2) and accessible surface area (ASA) were important features in defining activity. Additionally, the derived3D-QSAR model presented a higher predictive ability (R2train = 0.944, R2test = 0.892, Q2LOO = 0.802). Meanwhile, the derived contour maps from the 3D-QSAR model revealed the significant structural features (steric and electronic effects) required for improving FXR agonist activity. Finally, nine newly designed AAD with higher predicted EC50 values than the known template compound were docked into the FXR active site. The excellent molecular binding patterns of these molecules also suggested that they can be robust and potent partial FXR agonists in agreement with the QSAR results. Overall, these derived models may help to identify and design novel AAD with better FXR agonist activity. PMID:27070594

  1. Synthesis, Activity, and Docking Study of Novel Phenylthiazole-Carboxamido Acid Derivatives as FFA2 Agonists.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Taijin; Shi, Min; Fu, Ping; Pei, Heying; Ye, Haoyu

    2016-07-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), also known as GPR43, is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are mainly produced by the gut microbiota through the fermentation of undigested carbohydrates and dietary fibers. FFA2 currently appears to be a potential target in the management of obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. In the study, a series of novel phenylthiazole-carboxamido acid derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated as potential orthosteric FFA2 ligands for the study of structure-activity relationships. Compound 6e was found to exhibit the twofold potent agonistic activity in the stable hFFA2-transfected CHO-K1 cells (EC50 = 23.1 μm) as that of positive control propionate (EC50 = 43.3 μm). We also reported the results of mutagenesis studies based on the crystal structure of hFFA1 bound to TAK-875 at 2.3 Å resolution to identify important residues for orthosteric agonist 6e inducing FFA2 activation. PMID:26808470

  2. Discovery of a potent and selective free fatty acid receptor 1 agonist with low lipophilicity and high oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Urban, Christian; Grundmann, Manuel; Schmidt, Johannes; Hansen, Steffen V F; Hudson, Brian D; Zaibi, Mohamed; Markussen, Stine B; Hagesaether, Ellen; Milligan, Graeme; Cawthorne, Michael A; Kostenis, Evi; Kassack, Matthias U; Ulven, Trond

    2013-02-14

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1, also known as GPR40) mediates enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and is emerging as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several FFA1 agonists are known, but the majority of these suffer from high lipophilicity. We have previously reported the FFA1 agonist 3 (TUG-424). We here describe the continued structure-activity exploration and optimization of this compound series, leading to the discovery of the more potent agonist 40, a compound with low lipophilicity, excellent in vitro metabolic stability and permeability, complete oral bioavailability, and appreciable efficacy on glucose tolerance in mice. PMID:23294321

  3. New quinoline derivatives as nicotinic receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Manetti, Dina; Bellucci, Cristina; Dei, Silvia; Teodori, Elisabetta; Varani, Katia; Spirova, Ekaterina; Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Tsetlin, Victor; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2016-03-01

    As a continuation of previous work on quinoline derivatives, which showed some preference (2-3 times) for the α7 with respect to α4β2 acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), we synthesized a series of novel azabicyclic or diazabicyclic compounds carrying a quinoline or isoquinoline ring, with the aim of searching for more selective α7 nAChR compounds. Radioligand binding studies on α7* and α4β2* nAChRs (rat brain homogenate) revealed one compound (7) with a 2-fold higher affinity for the α4β2*-subtype, and four compounds (11, 13, 14 and 16) with at least 3-fold higher affinity for α7* nAChR. The most promising was 11, showing Ki∼100 nM and over 10-fold selectivity for α7* nAChR. Compounds 7, 11, 13 and 16 at 50 μM suppressed ion currents induced in the rat α4β2 nAChR and the chimeric nAChR composed of the ligand-binding domain of the chick α7 and transmembrane domain of the α1 glycine receptor, expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Calcium imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells and potentiated by PNU-120596 confirmed the antagonistic activity for 7; on the contrary, 11, 13 and 16 were agonists with the EC50 values in the range of 1.0-1.6 μM. Thus, the introduced modifications allowed us to enhance the selectivity of quinolines towards α7 nAChR and to get novel compounds with agonistic activity. PMID:26840365

  4. Behavioural profile of Wistar rats with unilateral striatal lesion by quinolinic acid (animal model of Huntington disease) post-injection of apomorphine and exposure to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Giorgetto, Carolina; Silva, Elaine Cristina Mazzei; Kitabatake, Takae Tamy; Bertolino, Guilherme; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We analysed the motor behaviour of Wistar rats after 7 days lesion in the left striatum, injected with apomorphine (APO) and stimulated by a continuous magnetic field of 3,200 Gauss. For the behaviour assessment, we utilised the activity cage test and the rotarod test. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, sham, sham magnetic, lesion, and stimulated South and North Poles. After the experiments, coronal sections of the striatum were taken and stained with Nissl for analysis of the lesion. In the activity cage test for distance (F = 3.19), time of activity (F = 5.46) and crossings (F = 3.31) in all groups, except for the North Pole-stimulated group, we observed a significant increase in these behaviours when compared to the control group. Considering the number of counterclockwise turns, we observed a significant increase in the lesion in the South and North Pole stimulation groups compared with the control group. Highlighting the minor number of counterclockwise turns observed in the North Pole-stimulated group in relation to the South Pole-stimulated and Lesion groups (F = 16.01). The rotarod test revealed a decrease in the time spent in this apparatus for the Lesion group when compared to all other groups (F = 5.46). The morphometric analysis showed a reduction in the number of neurons in the Lesion group in relation to all other groups (F = 5.13). Thus, the results suggest that the static magnetic field north and south promoted a distinct behavioural profile and morphological preservation after 7 days of lesion with quinolinic acid associated with APO. PMID:25665872

  5. Minocycline modulates neuroprotective effect of hesperidin against quinolinic acid induced Huntington's disease like symptoms in rats: behavioral, biochemical, cellular and histological evidences.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chaudhary, Tanya; Mishra, Jitendriya

    2013-11-15

    Emerging evidences indicate hesperidin, a citrus flavanone, attenuates neurodegenerative processes and related complications. Besides its anti-oxidant properties, the other probable mechanisms which underpin its neuroprotective potential are still not clear. In light of emerging role of flavonoids in modulating oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation, the study has been designed to explore the possible neuroprotective effect of hesperidin and its combination with minocycline (microglial inhibitor), against quinolinic acid (QA) induced Huntington's disease (HD) like symptoms in rats. Unilateral intrastriatal administration of QA (300 nmol/4 µl) significantly reduced body weight, impaired behavior (locomotor activity, beam balance and memory performance), caused oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, depleted super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione), demonstrated mitochondrial dysfunction (decreased Complex-I, II, III, and IV activities), increased striatal lesion volume and altered the levels of TNF-α, caspase-3 as well as BDNF expression, as compared to sham group. Meanwhile, chronic hesperidin (100mg/kg, p.o.) and minocycline (25mg/kg, p.o.) treatment for 21 days significantly attenuated the behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations as compared to QA treated (control) animals, whereas hesperidin (50mg/kg, p.o.) treatment was found to be non-significant. However, treatment of hesperidin (50mg/kg) in combination with minocycline (25mg/kg) potentiated their neuroprotective effect, which was significant as compared to their effects per se in QA treated animals. Taken altogether, the results of the present study suggest a possible interplay of microglial modulation and anti-oxidant effect in neuroprotective potential of hesperidin against QA induced HD like symptoms in rats. PMID:24211676

  6. Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered via tetracycline-regulated lentiviral vectors in the quinolinic acid rat model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Régulier, E; Pereira de Almeida, L; Sommer, B; Aebischer, P; Déglon, N

    2002-11-01

    The ability to regulate gene expression constitutes a prerequisite for the development of gene therapy strategies aimed at the treatment of neurologic disorders. In the present work, we used tetracycline (Tet)-regulated lentiviral vectors to investigate the dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the quinolinic acid (QA) model of Huntington's disease (HD). The Tet system was split in two lentiviruses, the first one containing the CNTF or green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNAs under the control of the Tet-response element (TRE) and a second vector encoding the transactivator (tTA). Preliminary coinfection study demonstrated that 63.8% +/- 2.0% of infected cells contain at least two viral copies. Adult rats were then injected with CNTF- and GFP-expressing viral vectors followed 3 weeks later by an intrastriatal administration of QA. A significant reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations was observed in the CNTF-on group. In contrast, GFP-treated animals or CNTF-off rats displayed an ipsilateral turning behavior in response to apomorphine. A selective sparing of DARPP-32-, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, and NADPH-d-positive neurons was observed in the striatum of CNTF-on rats compared to GFP animals and CNTF-off group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed on striatal samples of rats sacrificed at the same time point indicated that this neuroprotective effect was associated with the production of 15.5 +/- 4.7 ng CNTF per milligram of protein whereas the residual CNTF expression in the off state (0.54 +/- 0.02 ng/mg of protein) was not sufficient to protect against QA toxicity. These results establish the proof of principle of neurotrophic factor dosing for neurodegenerative diseases and demonstrate the feasibility of lentiviral-mediated tetracycline-regulated gene transfer in the brain. PMID:12427308

  7. Structure-Activity Study of Dihydrocinnamic Acids and Discovery of the Potent FFA1 (GPR40) Agonist TUG-469.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Urban, Christian; Merten, Nicole; Pfleiderer, Michael; Karlsen, Kasper K; Rasmussen, Sanne S; Steensgaard, Mette; Hamacher, Alexandra; Schmidt, Johannes; Drewke, Christel; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Kristiansen, Karsten; Ullrich, Susanne; Kostenis, Evi; Kassack, Matthias U; Ulven, Trond

    2010-10-14

    The free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFA1 or GPR40), which is highly expressed on pancreatic β-cells and amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several FFA1 agonists containing the para-substituted dihydrocinnamic acid moiety are known. We here present a structure-activity relationship study of this compound family suggesting that the central methyleneoxy linker is preferable for the smaller compounds, whereas the central methyleneamine linker gives higher potency to the larger compounds. The study resulted in the discovery of the potent and selective full FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (29). PMID:24900217

  8. Different agonist- and antagonist-induced conformational changes in retinoic acid receptors analyzed by protease mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Keidel, S; LeMotte, P; Apfel, C

    1994-01-01

    The pleiotropic effects of retinoic acid on cell differentiation and proliferation are mediated by two subfamilies of nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Recently the synthetic retinoid Ro 41-5253 was identified as a selective RAR alpha antagonist. As demonstrated by gel retardation assays, Ro 41-5253 and two related new RAR alpha antagonists do not influence RAR alpha/RXR alpha heterodimerization and DNA binding. In a limited trypsin digestion assay, complexation of RAR alpha with retinoic acid or several other agonistic retinoids altered the degradation of the receptor such that a 30-kDa proteolytic fragment became resistant to proteolysis. This suggests a ligand-induced conformational change, which may be necessary for the interaction of the DNA-bound RAR alpha/RXR alpha heterodimer with other transcription factors. Our results demonstrate that antagonists compete with agonists for binding to RAR alpha and may induce a different structural alteration, suggested by the tryptic resistance of a shorter 25-kDa protein fragment in the digestion assay. This RAR alpha conformation seems to allow RAR alpha/RXR alpha binding to DNA but not the subsequent transactivation of target genes. Protease mapping with C-terminally truncated receptors revealed that the proposed conformational changes mainly occur in the DE regions of RAR alpha. Complexation of RAR beta, RAR gamma, and RXR alpha, as well as the vitamin D3 receptor, with their natural ligands resulted in a similar resistance of fragments to proteolytic digestion. This could mean that ligand-induced conformational changes are a general feature in the hormonal activation of vitamin D3 and retinoid receptors. Images PMID:8264595

  9. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes. PMID:27378357

  10. Novel Analogues of (R)-5-(Methylamino)-5,6-dihydro-4H-imidazo[4,5,1-ij]quinolin-2(1H)-one (Sumanirole) Provide Clues to Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Agonist Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zou, Mu-Fa; Keck, Thomas M; Kumar, Vivek; Donthamsetti, Prashant; Michino, Mayako; Burzynski, Caitlin; Schweppe, Catherine; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Free, R Benjamin; Sibley, David R; Janowsky, Aaron; Shi, Lei; Javitch, Jonathan A; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2016-04-14

    Novel 1-, 5-, and 8-substituted analogues of sumanirole (1), a dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) agonist, were synthesized. Binding affinities at both D2R and D3R were higher when determined in competition with the agonist radioligand [(3)H]7-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) than with the antagonist radioligand [(3)H]N-methylspiperone. Although 1 was confirmed as a D2R-preferential agonist, its selectivity in binding and functional studies was lower than previously reported. All analogues were determined to be D2R/D3R agonists in both GoBRET and mitogenesis functional assays. Loss of efficacy was detected for the N-1-substituted analogues at D3R. In contrast, the N-5-alkyl-substituted analogues, and notably the n-butyl-arylamides (22b and 22c), all showed improved affinity at D2R over 1 with neither a loss of efficacy nor an increase in selectivity. Computational modeling provided a structural basis for the D2R selectivity of 1, illustrating how subtle differences in the highly homologous orthosteric binding site (OBS) differentially affect D2R/D3R affinity and functional efficacy. PMID:27035329

  11. Development of betulinic acid as an agonist of TGR5 receptor using a new in vitro assay

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Li, Ying-Xiao; Chang, Chin-Hong; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Lee, Kung-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Background G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, also known as TGR5 is known to be involved in glucose homeostasis. In animal models, treatment with a TGR5 agonist induces incretin secretion to reduce hyperglycemia. Betulinic acid, a triterpenoid present in the leaves of white birch, has been introduced as a selective TGR5 agonist. However, direct activation of TGR5 by betulinic acid has not yet been reported. Methods Transfection of TGR5 into cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was performed to establish the presence of TGR5. Additionally, TGR5-specific small interfering RNA was employed to silence TGR5 in cells (NCI-H716 cells) that secreted incretins. Uptake of glucose by CHO-K1 cells was evaluated using a fluorescent indicator. Amounts of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and glucagon-like peptide were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results Betulinic acid dose-dependently increases glucose uptake by CHO-K1 cells transfected with TGR5 only, which can be considered an alternative method instead of radioligand binding assay. Additionally, signals coupled to TGR5 activation are also increased by betulinic acid in cells transfected with TGR5. In NCI-H716 cells, which endogenously express TGR5, betulinic acid induces glucagon-like peptide secretion via increasing calcium levels. However, the actions of betulinic acid were markedly reduced in NCI-H716 cells that received TGR5-silencing treatment. Therefore, the present study demonstrates the activation of TGR5 by betulinic acid for the first time. Conclusion Similar to the positive control lithocholic acid, which is the established agonist of TGR5, betulinic acid has been characterized as a useful agonist of TGR5 and can be used to activate TGR5 in the future. PMID:27578964

  12. Early modulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 in rodent striatal slices by quinolinic acid, a toxic metabolite of the kynurenine pathway.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, A L; Luna-López, A; Königsberg, M; Ali, S F; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A

    2014-02-28

    Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor involved in the orchestration of antioxidant responses. Although its pharmacological activation has been largely hypothesized as a promising tool to ameliorate the progression of neurodegenerative events, the actual knowledge about its modulation in neurotoxic paradigms remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the early profile of Nrf2 modulation in striatal slices of rodents incubated in the presence of the toxic kynurenine pathway metabolite, quinolinic acid (QUIN). Tissue slices from rats and mice were obtained and used throughout the experiments in order to compare inter-species responses. Nuclear Nrf2 protein levels and oxidative damage to lipids were compared. Time- and concentration-response curves of all markers were explored. Nrf2 nuclear activation was corroborated through phase 2 antioxidant protein expression. The effects of QUIN on Nrf2 modulation and oxidative stress were also compared between slices of wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) and Nrf2 knock-out (Nrf2(-/-)) mice. The possible involvement of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) in the Nrf2 modulation and lipid peroxidation was further explored in mice striatal slices. In rat striatal slices, QUIN stimulated the Nrf2 nuclear translocation. This effect was accompanied by augmented lipid peroxidation. In the mouse striatum, QUIN per se exerted an induction of Nrf2 factor only at 1h of incubation, and a concentration-response effect on lipid peroxidation after 3h of incubation. QUIN stimulated the striatal content of phase 2 enzymes. Nrf2(-/-) mice were slightly more responsive than Nrf2(+/+) mice to the QUIN-induced oxidative damage, and completely unresponsive to the NMDAr antagonist MK-801 when tested against QUIN. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) Nrf2 is modulated in rodent striatal tissue in response to QUIN; (2) Nrf2(-/-) striatal tissue was moderately more vulnerable to oxidative damage than the Wt

  13. Electrochemical mineralization pathway of quinoline by boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunrong; Ma, Keke; Wu, Tingting; Ye, Min; Tan, Peng; Yan, Kecheng

    2016-04-01

    Boron-doped diamond anodes were selected for quinoline mineralization, and the resulting intermediates, phenylpropyl aldehyde, phenylpropionic acid, and nonanal were identified and followed during quinoline oxidation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The evolutions of formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, NO2(-), NO3(-), and NH4(+) were quantified. A new reaction pathway for quinoline mineralization by boron-doped diamond anodes has been proposed, where the pyridine ring in quinoline is cleaved by a hydroxyl radical giving phenylpropyl aldehyde and NH4(+). Phenylpropyl aldehyde is quickly oxidized into phenylpropionic acid, and the benzene ring is cleaved giving nonanal. This is further oxidized to formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid. Finally, these organic intermediates are mineralized to CO2 and H2O. NH4(+) is also oxidized to NO2(-) and on to NO3(-). The results will help to gain basic reference for clearing intermediates and their toxicity. PMID:26855227

  14. Novel free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40) agonists based on 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-carboxamide scaffold.

    PubMed

    Krasavin, Mikhail; Lukin, Alexey; Zhurilo, Nikolay; Kovalenko, Alexey; Zahanich, Ihor; Zozulya, Sergey; Moore, Daniel; Tikhonova, Irina G

    2016-07-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1), previously known as GPR40 is a G protein-coupled receptor and a new target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two series of FFA1 agonists utilizing a 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-caboxamide scaffold were synthetized. Both series offered significant improvement of the potency compared to the previously described 1,3,4-thiadiazole-based FFA1 agonists and high selectivity for FFA1. Molecular docking predicts new aromatic interactions with the receptor that improve agonist potency. The most potent compounds from both series were profiled for in vitro ADME properties (plasma and metabolic stability, LogD, plasma protein binding, hERG binding and CYP inhibition). One series suffered very rapid degradation in plasma and in presence of mouse liver microsomes. However, the other series delivered a lead compound that displayed a reasonable ADME profile together with the improved FFA1 potency. PMID:27229618

  15. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor subtype inverse agonists as therapeutic agents in cognition.

    PubMed

    Gabriella, Guerrini; Giovanna, Ciciani

    2010-01-01

    The gabaergic system has been identified as a relevant regulator of cognitive and emotional processing. In fact, the discovery that negative allosteric regulators (or inverse agonists) at GABA(A) (γ-aminobutyric acid) α5 subtype receptors improve learning and memory tasks, has further validated this concept. The localization of these extrasynaptic subtype receptors, mainly in the hippocampus, has suggested that they play a key role in the three stages of memory: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. The "α5 inverse agonist" binds to an allosteric site at GABA(A) receptor, provoking a reduction of chlorine current, but to elicit this effect, the necessary condition is the binding of agonist neurotransmitter (γ-amino butyric acid) at its orthosteric site. In this case, the GABA(A) receptor is not a "constitutively active receptor" and, however, the presence of spontaneous opening channels for native GABA(A) receptors is rare. Here, we present various classes of nonselective and α5 selective GABA(A) receptor ligands, and the in vitro and in vivo tests to elucidate their affinity and activity. The study of the GABA(A) α5 inverse agonists is one of the important tools, although not the only one, for the development of clinical strategies for treatment of Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. PMID:21050918

  16. The FXR agonist obeticholic acid prevents gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation in cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Len; Farre, Ricard; Verbinnen, Bert; Covens, Kris; Vanuytsel, Tim; Verhaegen, Jan; Komuta, Mina; Roskams, Tania; Chatterjee, Sagnik; Annaert, Pieter; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Trebicka, Jonel; Nevens, Frederik; Laleman, Wim

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial translocation (BTL) drives pathogenesis and complications of cirrhosis. Farnesoid X-activated receptor (FXR) is a key transcription regulator in hepatic and intestinal bile metabolism. We studied potential intestinal FXR dysfunction in a rat model of cholestatic liver injury and evaluated effects of obeticholic acid (INT-747), an FXR agonist, on gut permeability, inflammation, and BTL. Rats were gavaged with INT-747 or vehicle during 10 days after bile-duct ligation and then were assessed for changes in gut permeability, BTL, and tight-junction protein expression, immune cell recruitment, and cytokine expression in ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Auxiliary in vitro BTL-mimicking experiments were performed with Transwell supports. Vehicle-treated bile duct-ligated rats exhibited decreased FXR pathway expression in both jejunum and ileum, in association with increased gut permeability through increased claudin-2 expression and related to local and systemic recruitment of natural killer cells resulting in increased interferon-γ expression and BTL. After INT-747 treatment, natural killer cells and interferon-γ expression markedly decreased, in association with normalized permeability selectively in ileum (up-regulated claudin-1 and occludin) and a significant reduction in BTL. In vitro, interferon-γ induced increased Escherichia coli translocation, which remained unaffected by INT-747. In experimental cholestasis, FXR agonism improved ileal barrier function by attenuating intestinal inflammation, leading to reduced BTL and thus demonstrating a crucial protective role for FXR in the gut-liver axis. PMID:25592258

  17. The retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 increases hippocampal ADAM10 in aged SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Ono, Koji; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nakagomi, Madoka; Shudo, Koichi; Ishimura, Kazunori; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshizaki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    The retinoic acid (RA, a vitamin A metabolite) receptor (RAR) is a transcription factor. Vitamin A/RA administration improves the Alzheimer's disease (AD)- and age-related attenuation of memory/learning in mouse models. Recently, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) was identified as a key molecule in RA-mediated anti-AD mechanisms. We investigated the effect of chronic administration of the RAR agonist Am80 (tamibarotene) on ADAM10 expression in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8). Moreover, we estimated changes in the expression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), amyloid beta (Aβ), and hairy/enhancer of split (Hes), which are mediated by ADAM10. Spatial working memory and the levels of a hippocampal proliferation marker (Ki67) were also assessed in these mice. ADAM10 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of 13-month-old SAMP8 mice; their expression improved significantly after Am80 administration. Further, after Am80 administration, the expression levels of Hes5 and Ki67 were restored and the deterioration of working memory was suppressed, whereas APP and Aβ levels remained unchanged. Our results suggest that Am80 administration effectively improves dementia by activating the hippocampal ADAM10-Notch-Hes5 proliferative pathway. PMID:23624141

  18. Quinoline biodegradation by filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans and adaptive modifications of the fungal membrane composition.

    PubMed

    Felczak, Aleksandra; Bernat, Przemysław; Różalska, Sylwia; Lisowska, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Quinoline, which belongs to N-heterocyclic compounds, occurs naturally in the environment and is used in numerous industrial processes. The structures of various chemicals, such as dyes and medicines, are based on this compound. Due to that fact, quinoline and its derivatives are widely distributed in environment and can exert toxic effects on organisms from different trophic levels. The ability of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans IM 1785/21Gp to degrade quinoline and modulate the membrane composition in response to the pollutant was studied. C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp removes quinoline with high efficiency and transforms the pollutant into two novel hydroxylated derivatives, 2-hydroxyquinoline and 3-hydroxyquinoline. Moreover, due to the disruption in the membrane stability by quinoline, C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp modulates the fatty acid composition and phospholipid profile. PMID:26810790

  19. Eicosopentaneoic Acid and Other Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists Inhibit Lysophosphatidic Acid- and Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Mandi M.; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ze; Meier, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Many key actions of ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids have recently been shown to be mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family, FFA1 (GPR40) and FFA4 (GPR120). n-3 Fatty acids inhibit proliferation of human breast cancer cells in culture and in animals. In the current study, the roles of FFA1 and FFA4 were investigated. In addition, the role of cross-talk between GPCRs activated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the tyrosine kinase receptor activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), was examined. In MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines, both LPA and EGF stimulated proliferation, Erk activation, Akt activation, and CCN1 induction. LPA antagonists blocked effects of LPA and EGF on proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and on cell migration in MCF-7. The n-3 fatty acid eicosopentaneoic acid inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation in both cell lines. Two synthetic FFAR agonists, GW9508 and TUG-891, likewise inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation. The data suggest a major role for FFA1, which was expressed by both cell lines. The results indicate that n-3 fatty acids inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation via FFARs, and suggest a mechanism involving negative cross-talk between FFARS, LPA receptors, and EGF receptor. PMID:26821052

  20. The AhR agonist VAF347 augments retinoic acid-induced differentiation in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Ibabao, Christopher N; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Schaefer, Deanna M W; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In binary cell-fate decisions, driving one lineage and suppressing the other are conjoined. We have previously reported that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) promotes retinoic acid (RA)-induced granulocytic differentiation of lineage bipotent HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. VAF347, an AhR agonist, impairs the development of CD14(+)CD11b(+) monocytes from granulo-monocytic (GM) stage precursors. We thus hypothesized that VAF347 propels RA-induced granulocytic differentiation and impairs D3-induced monocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells. Our results show that VAF347 enhanced RA-induced cell cycle arrest, CD11b integrin expression and neutrophil respiratory burst. Granulocytic differentiation is known to be driven by MAPK signaling events regulated by Fgr and Lyn Src-family kinases, the CD38 cell membrane receptor, the Vav1 GEF, the c-Cbl adaptor, as well as AhR, all of which are embodied in a putative signalsome. We found that the VAF347 AhR ligand regulates the signalsome. VAF347 augments RA-induced expression of AhR, Lyn, Vav1, and c-Cbl as well as p47(phox). Several interactions of partners in the signalsome appear to be enhanced: Fgr interaction with c-Cbl, CD38, and with pS259c-Raf and AhR interaction with c-Cbl and Lyn. Thus, we report that, while VAF347 impedes monocytic differentiation induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, VAF347 promotes RA-induced differentiation. This effect seems to involve but not to be limited to Lyn, Vav1, c-Cbl, AhR, and Fgr. PMID:25941627

  1. 40 CFR 721.9100 - Substituted quinoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted quinoline. 721.9100... Substances § 721.9100 Substituted quinoline. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted quinoline (PMN P-93-1183)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9100 - Substituted quinoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted quinoline. 721.9100... Substances § 721.9100 Substituted quinoline. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted quinoline (PMN P-93-1183)...

  3. Quinoline-2-sulfonamide

    PubMed Central

    Marciniec, Krzysztof; Maślankiewicz, Andrzej; Kusz, Joachim; Nowak, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H8N2O2S, the sulfamoyl –NH2 group is involved in inter­molecular hydrogen bonding with the sulfonamide O and quinoline N atoms. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into dimers via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(10) motif. The dimers are further assembled into chains parallel to the b axis through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a C(4) motif. The crystal packing is additionally stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin with a domain ratio of 0.938 (2):0.062 (2). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, at the B3LYP/6–31 G(d,p) level of theory, were used to optimize the mol­ecular structure and to determine inter­action energies for the title compound. The resulting inter­action energy is ∼4.4 kcal mol−1 per bridge for the C(4) chain and ∼5.9 kcal mol−1 per bridge for the R 2 2(10) motif. PMID:24109421

  4. Inhibition by a retinoic acid receptor γ agonist of extracellular matrix remodeling mediated by human Tenon fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Orita, Tomoko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Teranishi, Shinichiro; Mori, Takuya; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Scar formation is most frequently responsible for the failure of glaucoma filtration surgery. Retinoic acids are vitamin A derivatives that play diverse roles in development, immunity, and tissue repair. The effects of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) γ agonist R667 on the contractility of human Tenon fibroblasts (HTFs) cultured in a three-dimensional collagen gel as well as on intraocular pressure (IOP) in a rat model of glaucoma filtration surgery were investigated. Methods HTFs were cultured in a type I collagen gel, the contraction of which was evaluated by measurement of the gel diameter. The release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) into culture supernatants was assessed with immunoblot analysis and gelatin zymography. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was examined with immunoblot analysis, and production of fibronectin and type I collagen was measured with immunoassays. Results R667 inhibited transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen gel contraction mediated by HTFs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, whereas an RARα agonist inhibited this process to a lesser extent and an RARβ agonist had no effect. TGF-β1-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 release, FAK phosphorylation, and fibronectin and type I collagen production in HTFs were also attenuated by R667. Furthermore, R667 lowered IOP in rats after glaucoma filtration surgery. Conclusions R667 inhibited TGF-β1-induced contraction and extracellular matrix synthesis in HTFs. Such effects might have contributed to the lowering of IOP by R667 in a rat model of glaucoma filtration surgery. RARγ agonists might thus prove effective for inhibition of scar formation after such surgery. PMID:26788029

  5. Involvement of Nitric Oxide on Calcium Mobilization and Arachidonic Acid Pathway Activation during Platelet Aggregation with different aggregating agonists.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debipriya; Mazumder, Sahana; Kumar Sinha, Asru

    2016-03-01

    Platelet aggregation by different aggregating agonists is essential in the normal blood coagulation process, the excess of which caused acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In all cases, the activation of arachidonic acid by cycloxygenase was needed for the synthesis of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) but the mechanism of arachidonic acid release in platelets remains obscure. Studies were conducted to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO), if any, on the release of arachidonic acid in platelets. The cytosolic Ca(2+) was visualized and quantitated by fluorescent spectroscopy by using QUIN-2. NO was measured by methemoglobin method. Arachidonic acid was determined by HPLC. TXA2 was measured as ThromboxaneB2 (TXB2) by ELISA. Treatment of platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with different aggregating agents resulted in the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which inhibited the production of NO synthesis and increased TXA2 synthesis. Furthermore, the treatment of washed PRP with different platelet aggregating agents resulted in the increase of [Ca(2+)] in nM ranges. In contrast, the pre-treatment of washed PRP with aspirin increased platelet NO level and inhibited the Ca(2+) mobilization and TXA2 synthesis. These results indicated that the aggregation of platelets by different aggregating agonists was caused by the cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization due to the inhibition of NOS. PMID:27127451

  6. CoMSIA study on substituted aryl alkanoic acid analogs as GPR40 agonists.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aaditya; Patel, Pallav D; Patel, Maulik R; Singh, Satyakam; Lau-Cam, Cesar A; Talele, Tanaji T

    2011-05-01

    GPR40, a G-protein-coupled receptor has been well established to play a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels. Hence, GPR40 is a potential target for future antidiabetic agents. The present 3D QSAR study is aimed at delineating structural parameters governing GPR40 agonistic activity. To meet this objective, a comparative molecular similarity indices analysis for 63 different GPR40 agonists was performed using two methods; a ligand-based 3D QSAR model employing the atom fit alignment method and a receptor-based 3D QSAR model that was derived from the predicted binding conformations obtained by docking all the GPR40 agonists at the active site of GPR40. The results of these studies showed the ligand-based model to be superior (r(cv)(2) value of 0.610) to the receptor-based model (r(cv)(2) value of 0.519) in terms of statistical data. The predictive ability of these models was evaluated using a test set of 15 compounds not included in the preliminary training set of 48 compounds. The predictive r(2) values for the ligand- and the receptor-based models were found to be 0.863 and 0.599, respectively. Further, interpretation of the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis contour maps with reference to the active site of GPR40 provided an insight into GPR40-agonist interactions. PMID:21352503

  7. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  8. Structural identification of Diindole agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor derived from degradation of indole-3-pyruvic acid.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Dostalek, Miroslav; Hsu, Erin L; Nguyen, Linh P; Stec, Donald F; Bradfield, Christopher A; Guengerich, F Peter

    2009-12-01

    Aerobic incubation of the tryptophan transamination/oxidation product indole-3-pyruvic acid (I3P) at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C yielded products with activity as Ah receptor (AHR) agonists. The extracts were fractionated using HPLC and screened for AHR agonist activity. Two compounds were identified as agonists: 1,3-di(1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-one (1) and 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3H-indol-3-ylidene) propan-2-one (2), with the potency of 2 being 100-fold > 1 [ Nguyen et al. ( 2009 ) Chem. Res. Toxicol. , DOI: 10.1021/tx900043s . ]. Both 1 and 2 showed UV spectra indicative of indole. The molecular formulas were established by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and the structures were determined by a combination of NMR methods, including (1)H, natural abundance (13)C, and two-dimensional methods. An intermediate in the oxidation of I3P to 1 is 3-hydroxy-2,4-di(1H-indol-3-yl)butanal (HRMS established the presence of a compound with the formula C(20)H(19)N(2)O(2)). Compound 1 was converted to 2 in air or (faster) with mild oxidants, and 2 could be further oxidized to 1,3-di(3H-indol-3-ylidene)propan-2-one. Determination of the structures allowed estimation of the molar Ah receptor agonist activity of these natural products, similar in potency to known classical AHR inducers. PMID:19860413

  9. Insights on FXR selective modulation. Speculation on bile acid chemical space in the discovery of potent and selective agonists

    PubMed Central

    Sepe, Valentina; Festa, Carmen; Renga, Barbara; Carino, Adriana; Cipriani, Sabrina; Finamore, Claudia; Masullo, Dario; del Gaudio, Federica; Monti, Maria Chiara; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are the endogenous modulators of the nuclear receptor FXR and the membrane receptor GPBAR1. FXR represents a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of cholestatic liver disorders. Currently available semisynthetic bile acid derivatives cover the same chemical space of bile acids and therefore they are poorly selective toward BA receptors, increasing patient risk for adverse side effects. In this report, we have investigated around the structure of CDCA describing the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of a novel family of compounds modified on the steroidal tetracyclic core and on the side chain. Pharmacological characterization resulted in the identification of several potent and selective FXR agonists. These novel agents might add utility in the treatment of cholestatic disorders by potentially mitigating side effects linked to unwanted activation of GPBAR1. PMID:26740187

  10. Insights on FXR selective modulation. Speculation on bile acid chemical space in the discovery of potent and selective agonists.

    PubMed

    Sepe, Valentina; Festa, Carmen; Renga, Barbara; Carino, Adriana; Cipriani, Sabrina; Finamore, Claudia; Masullo, Dario; Del Gaudio, Federica; Monti, Maria Chiara; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are the endogenous modulators of the nuclear receptor FXR and the membrane receptor GPBAR1. FXR represents a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of cholestatic liver disorders. Currently available semisynthetic bile acid derivatives cover the same chemical space of bile acids and therefore they are poorly selective toward BA receptors, increasing patient risk for adverse side effects. In this report, we have investigated around the structure of CDCA describing the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of a novel family of compounds modified on the steroidal tetracyclic core and on the side chain. Pharmacological characterization resulted in the identification of several potent and selective FXR agonists. These novel agents might add utility in the treatment of cholestatic disorders by potentially mitigating side effects linked to unwanted activation of GPBAR1. PMID:26740187

  11. Potent and selective activation of abscisic acid receptors in vivo by mutational stabilization of their agonist-bound conformation

    PubMed Central

    Mosquna, Assaf; Peterson, Francis C.; Park, Sang-Youl; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Volkman, Brian F.; Cutler, Sean R.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrabactin resistance (PYR) 1 and its relatives belong to a family of soluble abscisic acid (ABA) receptors that inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) when in their agonist-stabilized conformation. Given their switch-like properties, we envisioned that mutations that stabilize their agonist-bound conformation could be used to activate signaling in vivo. To identify such mutations, we subjected PYR1 to site-saturation mutagenesis at 39 highly conserved residues that participate in ABA or PP2C contacts. All 741 possible single amino acid substitutions at these sites were tested to identify variants that increase basal PYR1-PP2C interactions, which uncovered activating mutations in 10 residues that preferentially cluster in PYR1's gate loop and C-terminal helix. The mutations cause measurable but incomplete receptor activation in vitro; however, specific triple and quadruple mutant combinations were constructed that promote an agonist-bound conformation, as measured by heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, and lead to full receptor activation. Moreover, these mutations retain functionality when introduced into divergent family members, and can therefore be used to dissect individual receptor function in vivo, which has been problematic because of redundancy and family size. Expression of activated PYL2 in Arabidopsis seeds activates ABA signaling by a number of measures: modulation of ABA-regulated gene expression, induction of hyperdormancy, and suppression of ABA deficiency phenotypes in the aba2-1 mutant. Our results set the stage for systematic gain-of-function studies of PYR1 and related ABA receptors and reveal that, despite the large number of receptors, activation of a single receptor is sufficient to activate signaling in planta. PMID:22139369

  12. Discovery and characterization of GSK256073, a non-flushing hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2) agonist.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Dennis; Maxwell, Miles; Goodman, Joanne; White, Brian; Tang, Chi-Man; Boullay, Valerie; de Gouville, Anne-Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Niacin has been used for many years in the treatment of dyslipidemia due to its ability to decrease serum levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and to increase levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, niacin causes severe flushing resulting in poor patient compliance. The discovery of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2) as a high affinity receptor for niacin has opened avenues to investigate the mechanism of action of niacin, and to potentially discover agonists which maintain the antilipolytic effects of niacin accessed by a decrease in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and thereby perhaps the lipid/lipoprotein effects, but avoid the flushing effects. Here we describe the strategy we implemented to identify such compounds. This approach resulted in the discovery of GSK256073, a highly potent HCA2 agonist, which produced similar NEFA lowering effects to niacin in preclinical models (rat and guinea pig). A guinea pig model was used to predict flushing, via an increase in ear temperature, and GSK256073 was found to have a minimal effect in this model. These preclinical models appeared to be predictive of human response, since in a first-time-in-human study, GSK256073 displayed long lasting NEFA and triglyceride lowering effects in healthy male subjects, which were not associated with flushing. GSK256073 can be used as a pharmacological tool to better understand the role of HCA2 in lipid metabolism. PMID:25773497

  13. 4-Hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist alleviates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Keiko; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Iseki, Mioko; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Yamanoue, Yu; Itoh, Toshimasa; Nishii, Yasuho; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2008-03-14

    (5E,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-4-Hydroxy-5,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (4-OHDHA) is a potential agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and antidiabetic agent as has been previously reported. As PPAR{gamma} agonists may also have anti-inflammatory functions, in this study, we investigated whether 4-OHDHA has an inhibitory effect on expression of inflammatory genes in vitro and whether 4-OHDHA could relieve the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. 4-OHDHA inhibited production of nitric oxide and expression of a subset of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2/iNOS) and interleukin 6 (Il6) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. In addition, 4-OHDHA-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of 4-OHDHA-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). These results suggest that 4-OHDHA has potentially clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory gene expression.

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Augment the Actions of Nuclear Receptor Agonists in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casali, Brad T.; Corona, Angela W.; Mariani, Monica M.; Karlo, J. Colleen; Ghosal, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly prevalent disorder for which there are no effective therapies. Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is associated with impaired cognition and memory, pronounced inflammatory dysregulation, and subsequent amyloid plaque deposition. Thus, drugs that promote the clearance of Aβ peptides and resolution of inflammation may represent viable therapeutic approaches. Agonists of nuclear receptors LXR:RXR and PPAR:RXR act to ameliorate AD-related cognitive impairment and amyloid accumulation in murine models of AD. The use of an agonist to the nuclear receptor RXR, bexarotene, as monotherapy against AD, presents potential challenges due to the metabolic perturbations it induces in the periphery, most prominently hypertriglyceridemia. We report that the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in combination with bexarotene, enhances LXR:RXR target gene expression of Abca1 and ApoE, reduces soluble forms of Aβ, and abrogates release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators both in vitro and in a mouse model of AD. Moreover, DHA abrogates bexarotene-induced hypertriglyceridemia in vivo. Importantly, dual therapy promotes reductions in AD pathology and resultant amelioration of cognitive deficits. While monotherapy with either bexarotene or DHA resulted in modest effects in vitro and in vivo, combined treatment with both agents produced a significant additive benefit on associated AD-related phenotypes, suggesting that targeted combinatorial agents may be beneficial over single agents alone in treating AD. PMID:26085639

  15. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel phenoxyacetamide-based free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Qiu, Qianqian; Qiang, Hao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-10-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) has attracted extensive attention as a novel antidiabetic target in the last decade. Several FFA1 agonists reported in the literature have been suffered from relatively high molecular weight and lipophilicity. We have previously reported the FFA1 agonist 1. Based on the common amide structural characteristic of SAR1 and NIH screened compound, we here describe the continued structure-activity exploration to decrease the molecular weight and lipophilicity of the compound 1 series by converting various amide linkers. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the preferable lead compound 18, a compound with considerable agonistic activity, high LE and LLE values, lower lipophilicity than previously reported agonists, and appreciable efficacy on glucose tolerance in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:26420383

  16. (+)Lysergic acid diethylamide, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a potent serotonin 5HT1C receptor agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, K.D.; Breeding, M.; Sanders-Bush, E. )

    1991-09-01

    Activation of central serotonin 5HT2 receptors is believed to be the primary mechanism whereby lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other hallucinogens induce psychoactive effects. This hypothesis is based on extensive radioligand binding and electrophysiological and behavioral studies in laboratory animals. However, the pharmacological profiles of 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors are similar, making it difficult to distinguish between effects due to activation of one or the other receptor. For this reason, it was of interest to investigate the interaction of LSD with 5HT1C receptors. Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat choroid plexus was used as a direct measure of 5HT1C receptor activation. (+)LSD potently stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in intact choroid plexus and in cultures of choroid plexus epithelial cells, with EC50 values of 9 and 26 nM, respectively. The effect of (+)LSD in both systems was blocked by 5HT receptor antagonists with an order of activity consistent with interaction at 5HT1C receptors. Neither (+)-2-bromo-LSD nor lisuride, two nonhallucinogenic congeners of LSD, were able to stimulate 5HT1C receptors in cultured cells or intact choroid plexus. In contrast, lisuride, like (+)LSD, is a partial agonist at 5HT2 receptors in cerebral cortex slices and in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with 5HT2 receptor cDNA. The present finding that (+)LSD, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a 5HT1C receptor agonist suggests a possible role for these receptors in mediating the psychoactive effects of LSD.

  17. Activities of new quinoline derivatives against genital pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, J; Caballero, M C; Lozano, M C; de Miguel, C; Palomares, J C; Perea, E J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activities of four quinoline carboxylic acids against 48 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 10 of Chlamydia trachomatis, and 32 of Ureaplasma urealyticum were compared. Ciprofloxacin was the most active against N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis but had poor bactericidal activity against U. urealyticum, whereas ofloxacin showed the most bactericidal activity against U. urealyticum but was less active than ciprofloxacin against the two former pathogens. Norfloxacin and enoxacin were less active against all the studied pathogens. PMID:3920959

  18. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  19. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist.

    PubMed

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists. PMID:24025677

  20. Binding of [3H]-muscimol, a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist, to membranes of the bovine retina.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    1 The binding of [3H]-muscimol, a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist, to crude membrane preparations of bovine retina was studied, using a filtration method to isolate membrane-bound ligand. 2 Specific binding was found to be saturable and occurred at two binding sites with affinity constants of 4.3 nM and 38.2 nM. 3 Binding was sodium-independent, enhanced by both freezing and Triton X-100 treatment but abolished with sodium laurylsulphate. 4 The binding sites demonstrated a high degree of pharmacological specificity, GABA being a potent displacer of [3H]-muscimol. 5 A higher degree of [3H]-muscimol binding was associated with subcellular fractions enriched with photoreceptor synaptosomes rather than with fractions enriched with conventional synaptosomes. PMID:7470740

  1. Role of arachidonic acid metabolites in the action of a beta adrenergic agonist on human monocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Borda, E S; Tenenbaum, A; Sales, M E; Rumi, L; Sterin-Borda, L

    1998-02-01

    The mechanisms by which beta adrenergic stimulation regulates phagocytosis of Candida albicans by human peripheral monocytes (HPM) are characterized. Isoproterenol (ISO) inhibits phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was blunted by propranolol, inhibitors of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase and verapamil, pointing to a participation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites and calcium in the phenomenon. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP) also exerted the same inhibitory effect on phagocytosis. ISO interacts with beta adrenergic receptors of HPM increasing PGE2 and cAMP. We conclude that the mechanisms by which beta adrenergic stimulation regulates phagocytosis of Candida albicans by HPM appear to be secondary to beta adrenoceptor-mediated hydrolysis of AA accompanied by an increase in PGE2 generation and cAMP production. Both PGE2 and cAMP could act as mediators of the inhibitory action of beta agonists on the HPM-phagocytosis process. PMID:9578144

  2. The conjugated linoleic acid isomer trans-9,trans-11 is a dietary occurring agonist of liver X receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard; Patsch, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Gerd

    2009-10-30

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers are dietary fatty acids that modulate gene expression in many cell types. We have previously reported that specifically trans-9,trans-11 (t9,t11)-CLA induces expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of human macrophages. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional activation, we asked whether t9,t11-CLA affects activity of liver X receptor (LXR) {alpha}, a major regulator of macrophage lipid metabolism. Here we show that t9,t11-CLA is a regulator of LXR{alpha}. We further demonstrate that the CLA isomer induces expression of direct LXR{alpha} target genes in human primary macrophages. Knockdown of LXR{alpha} with RNA interference in THP-1 cells inhibited t9,t11-CLA mediated activation of LXR{alpha} including its target genes. To evaluate the effective concentration range of t9,t11-CLA, human primary macrophages were treated with various doses of CLA and well known natural and synthetic LXR agonists and mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was analyzed. Incubation of human macrophages with 10 {mu}M t9,t11-CLA led to a significant modulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transcription and caused enhanced cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein AI. In summary, these data show that t9,t11-CLA is an agonist of LXR{alpha} in human macrophages and that its effects on macrophage lipid metabolism can be attributed to transcriptional regulations associated with this nuclear receptor.

  3. Physiological concentrations of bile acids down-regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Keating, Niamh; Mroz, Magdalena S; Scharl, Michael M; Marsh, Christine; Ferguson, Gail; Hofmann, Alan F; Keely, Stephen J

    2009-08-01

    In patients with bile acid malabsorption, high concentrations of bile acids enter the colon and stimulate Cl(-) and fluid secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA), the predominant colonic bile acid, is normally present at lower concentrations where its role in regulating transport is unclear. Thus, the current study set out to investigate the effects of physiologically relevant DCA concentrations on colonic epithelial secretory function. Cl(-) secretion was measured as changes in short-circuit current across voltage-clamped T(84) cell monolayers. At high concentrations (0.5-1 mM), DCA acutely stimulated Cl(-) secretion but this effect was associated with cell injury, as evidenced by decreased transepithelial resistance (TER) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. In contrast, chronic (24 hrs) exposure to lower DCA concentrations (10-200 microM) inhibited responses to Ca(2+) and cAMP-dependent secretagogues without altering TER, LDH release, or secretagogue-induced increases in intracellular second messengers. Other bile acids - taurodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid - had similar antisecretory effects. DCA (50 microM) rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) and both ERK and p38 MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases). The EGFr inhibitor, AG1478, and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, reversed the antisecretory effects of DCA, while the MAPK inhibitors, PD98059 and SB203580, did not. In summary, our studies suggest that, in contrast to its acute prosecretory effects at pathophysiological concentrations, lower, physiologically relevant, levels of DCA chronically down-regulate colonic epithelial secretory function. On the basis of these data, we propose a novel role for bile acids as physiological regulators of colonic secretory capacity. PMID:19583809

  4. Physiological concentrations of bile acids down‐regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Niamh; Mroz, Magdalena S.; Scharl, Michael M.; Marsh, Christine; Ferguson, Gail; Hofmann, Alan F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In patients with bile acid malabsorption, high concentrations of bile acids enter the colon and stimulate Cl− and fluid secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA), the predominant colonic bile acid, is normally present at lower concentrations where its role in regulating transport is unclear. Thus, the current study set out to investigate the effects of physiologically relevant DCA concentrations on colonic epithelial secretory function. Cl− secretion was measured as changes in short‐circuit current across voltage‐clamped T84 cell monolayers. At high concentrations (0.5–1 mM), DCA acutely stimulated Cl− secretion but this effect was associated with cell injury, as evidenced by decreased transepithelial resistance (TER) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. In contrast, chronic (24 hrs) exposure to lower DCA concentrations (10–200 μM) inhibited responses to Ca2+ and cAMP‐dependent secretagogues without altering TER, LDH release, or secretagogue‐induced increases in intracellular second messengers. Other bile acids – taurodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid – had similar antisecretory effects. DCA (50 μM) rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) and both ERK and p38 MAPKs (mitogen‐activated protein kinases). The EGFr inhibitor, AG1478, and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, reversed the antisecretory effects of DCA, while the MAPK inhibitors, PD98059 and SB203580, did not. In summary, our studies suggest that, in contrast to its acute prosecretory effects at pathophysiological concentrations, lower, physiologically relevant, levels of DCA chronically down‐regulate colonic epithelial secretory function. On the basis of these data, we propose a novel role for bile acids as physiological regulators of colonic secretory capacity. PMID:19583809

  5. Cooperative therapeutic action of retinoic acid receptor and retinoid x receptor agonists in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kohichi; Suenobu, Michita; Ohtsuka, Hideyuki; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Nakagomi, Madoka; Fukasawa, Hiroshi; Shudo, Koichi; Nakayama, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative process involving amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition, neuroinflammation, and progressive memory loss. Here, we evaluated whether oral administration of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α,β agonist Am80 (tamibarotene) or specific retinoid X receptor (RXR) pan agonist HX630 or their combination could improve deficits in an AD model, 8.5-month-old amyloid-β protein precursor 23 (AβPP23) mice. Co-administration of Am80 (0.5 mg/kg) and HX630 (5 mg/kg) for 17 days significantly improved memory deficits (Morris water maze) in AβPP23 mice, whereas administration of either agent alone produced no effect. Only co-administration significantly reduced the level of insoluble Aβ peptide in the brain. These results thus indicate that effective memory improvement via reduction of insoluble Aβ peptide in 8.5-month-old AβPP23 mice requires co-activation of RARα,β and RXRs. RARα-positive microglia accumulated Aβ plaques in the AβPP23 mice. Rat primary microglia co-treated with Am80/HX630 showed increased degradation activity towards 125I-labeled oligomeric Aβ1-42 peptide in an insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE)-dependent manner. The co-administration increased mRNA for IDE and membrane-associated IDE protein in vivo, suggesting that IDE contributes to Aβ clearance in Am80/HX630-treated AβPP23 mice. Am80/HX630 also increased IL-4Rα expression in microglial MG5 cells. The improvement in memory of Am80/HX630-treated AβPP23 mice was correlated with the levels and signaling of hippocampal interleukin-4 (IL-4). Therefore, Am80/HX630 may promote differentiation of IL-4-responsive M2-like microglia and increase their activity for clearance of oligomeric Aβ peptides by restoring impaired IL-4 signaling in AβPP23 mice. Combination treatment with RAR and RXR agonists may be an effective approach for AD therapy. PMID:24916544

  6. Discovery of potent and selective agonists for the free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA(1)/GPR40), a potential target for the treatment of type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Urban, Christian; Merten, Nicole; Liebscher, Kathrin; Karlsen, Kasper K; Hamacher, Alexandra; Spinrath, Andreas; Bond, Andrew D; Drewke, Christel; Ullrich, Susanne; Kassack, Matthias U; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond

    2008-11-27

    A series of 4-phenethynyldihydrocinnamic acid agonists of the free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA(1)) has been discovered and explored. The preferred compound 20 (TUG-424, EC(50) = 32 nM) significantly increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at 100 nM and may serve to explore the role of FFA(1) in metabolic diseases such as diabetes or obesity. PMID:18947221

  7. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  8. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lizhi; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Atigadda, Venkatram R; Belyaeva, Olga V; Harville, Steven R; Elmets, Craig A; Muccio, Donald D; Athar, Mohammad; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2016-01-01

    UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations. PMID:27078158

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  10. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lizhi; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Atigadda, Venkatram R.; Belyaeva, Olga V.; Harville, Steven R.; Elmets, Craig A.; Muccio, Donald D.; Athar, Mohammad; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2016-01-01

    UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations. PMID:27078158

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of novel [alpha]-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPAR[alpha/gamma] dual agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Bigge, Christopher F.; Davis, Jo Ann; Padalino, Teresa; Pulaski, James; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; McConnell, Patrick; Kane, Christopher D.; Royer, Lori J.; Stevens, Kimberly A.; Auerbach, Bruce; Collard, Wendy; McGregor, Christine; Song, Kun; Pfizer

    2010-09-27

    The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the {alpha}-position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{l_brace}4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual agonist (EC{sub 50} = 0.013 and 0.061 {micro}M, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat and dog. 17j was shown to decrease insulin levels, plasma glucose, and triglycerides in the ZDF female rat model. In the human apolipoprotein A-1/CETP transgenic mouse model 17j produced increases in hApoA1 and HDL-C and decreases in plasma triglycerides. The increased potency for binding and activation of both PPAR subtypes observed with 17j when compared to previous analogs in this series was explained based on results derived from crystallographic and modeling studies.

  12. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in man. Stimulation by acid and inhibition by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine.

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, L; Flemström, G

    1989-01-01

    A multi-channel small diameter tube was used to study the secretion of bicarbonate by 3 cm long segments of the proximal duodenum isolated between balloons. The tube had an outer diameter of 5.3 mm and two central and four smaller, peripheral channels. Measurements of infused phenol red, 14C-PEG and vitamin B12 and of trypsin activity were performed to rule out contamination of the perfusate by gastric and pancreatic secretions. Basal secretion of bicarbonate by the duodenal mucosa in healthy subjects varied between 135 and 220 mumol/cm of intestine per hour. Perfusion of the lumen with acid (100 mM HCl for five minutes) increased the secretion to greater than 400 mumol/cm/h and the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine (150 micrograms iv) decreased the HCO3- secretion by 70 mumol/cm/h. Clonidine simultaneously reduced the mean arterial blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline concentration, but did not affect the plasma glucose or adrenaline concentration. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion is important in the protection of this mucosa against acid discharged from the stomach. Increased sympathetic activity may, by inhibiting the bicarbonate secretion, decrease the protection in proximal duodenum in man and facilitate ulceration. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2558985

  13. Substituted 2-[(4-aminomethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropionic acid PPARalpha agonists. 1. Discovery of a novel series of potent HDLc raising agents.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Michael L; Beneton, Véronique; Boullay, Anne-Bénédict; Boyer, Thierry; Brewster, Andrew G; Donche, Frédéric; Forest, Marie-Claire; Fouchet, Marie-Hélène; Gellibert, Françoise J; Grillot, Didier A; Lambert, Millard H; Laroze, Alain; Le Grumelec, Christelle; Linget, Jean Michel; Montana, Valerie G; Nguyen, Van-Loc; Nicodème, Edwige; Patel, Vipul; Penfornis, Annie; Pineau, Olivier; Pohin, Danig; Potvain, Florent; Poulain, Géraldine; Ruault, Cécile Bertho; Saunders, Michael; Toum, Jérôme; Xu, H Eric; Xu, Robert X; Pianetti, Pascal M

    2007-02-22

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta are ligand-activated transcription factors that play a key role in lipid homeostasis. The fibrates raise circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower levels of triglycerides in part through their activity as PPARalpha agonists; however, the low potency and restricted selectivity of the fibrates may limit their efficacy, and it would be desirable to develop more potent and selective PPARalpha agonists. Modification of the selective PPARdelta agonist 1 (GW501516) so as to incorporate the 2-aryl-2-methylpropionic acid group of the fibrates led to a marked shift in potency and selectivity toward PPARalpha agonism. Optimization of the series gave 25a, which shows EC50 = 4 nM on PPARalpha and at least 500-fold selectivity versus PPARdelta and PPARgamma. Compound 25a (GW590735) has been progressed to clinical trials for the treatment of diseases of lipid imbalance. PMID:17243659

  14. Design, synthesis and Structure-activity relationship studies of new thiazole-based free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Qiu, Qianqian; Xu, Xue; Wang, Xuekun; Jiao, Lei; Su, Xin; Pan, Miaobo; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2016-05-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) has attracted interest as a novel target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several series of FFA1 agonists including TAK-875, the most advanced compound terminated in phase III studies due to concerns about liver toxicity, have been hampered by relatively high molecular weight and lipophilicity. Aiming to develop potent FFA1 agonists with low risk of liver toxicity by decreasing the lipophilicity, the middle phenyl of TAK-875 was replaced by 11 polar five-membered heteroaromatics. Subsequently, systematic exploration of SAR and application of molecular modeling, leads to the identification of compound 44, which was an excellent FFA1 agonist with robustly hypoglycemic effect both in normal and type 2 diabetic mice, low risks of hypoglycemia and liver toxicity even at the twice molar dose of TAK-875. Meanwhile, two important findings were noted. First, the methyl group in our thiazole series occupied a small hydrophobic subpocket which had no interactions with TAK-875. Furthermore, the agonistic activity revealed a good correlation with the dihedral angle between thiazole core and the terminal benzene ring. These results promote the understanding of ligand-binding pocket and might help to design more promising FFA1 agonists. PMID:26945112

  15. Design and synthesis of silicon-containing fatty acid amide derivatives as novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Daisuke; Nakamura, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Yotaro; Ishikawa, Minoru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Fujii, Shinya

    2015-08-15

    We recently reported that diphenylsilane structure can function as a cis-stilbene mimetic. Here, we investigate whether silyl functionality can also serve as a mimetic of aliphatic cis-olefin. We designed and synthesized various silyl derivatives of oleoylethanolamide (OEA: 8), an endogenous cis-olefin-containing PPARα agonist, and evaluated their PPARα/δ/γ agonistic activity. We found that diethylsilyl derivative 20 exhibited PPARα/δ agonistic activity, and we also obtained a PPARδ-selective agonist, 32. Our results suggest that incorporation of silyl functionality is a useful option for structural development of biologically active compounds. PMID:26071639

  16. Biostable beta-amino acid PK/PBAN analogs: Agonist and antagonist properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PK/PBAN) family plays a significant role in a multifunctional array of important physiological processes in insects. PK/PBAN analogs incorporating beta-amino acids were synthesized and evaluated in a pheromonotropic assay in Heliothis pe...

  17. Multicomponent Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy: Combinatorial Synthesis of Novel Spiro-Tethered Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline Hybrid Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Sumesh, Remani Vasudevan; Muthu, Muthumani; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Suresh Kumar, Raju; Arumugam, Natarajan; Athimoolam, S; Jeya Yasmi Prabha, E Arockia; Kumar, Raju Ranjith

    2016-05-01

    The stereoselective syntheses of a library of novel spiro-tethered pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole/indolizine-oxindole/acenaphthene hybrid heterocycles have been achieved through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from α-amino acids and 1,2-diketones to dipolarophiles derived from pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives. PMID:27027478

  18. In vitro metabolism and metabolic effects of ajulemic acid, a synthetic cannabinoid agonist.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Sumner H; Tepper, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Ajulemic acid is a synthetic analog of Δ(8)-THC-11-oic acid, the terminal metabolite of Δ(8)-THC. Unlike Δ(9)-THC, the psychoactive principle of Cannabis, it shows potent anti-inflammatory action and has minimal CNS cannabimimetic activity. Its in vitro metabolism by hepatocytes from rats, dogs, cynomolgus monkeys and humans was studied and the results are reported here. Five metabolites, M1 to M5, were observed in human hepatocyte incubations. One metabolite, M5, a glucuronide, was observed in the chromatogram of canine hepatocyte incubations. In monkey hepatocyte incubations, M5 was observed in the chromatograms of both the 120 and 240 min samples, trace metabolite M1 (side-chain hydroxyl) was observed in the 120 min samples, and trace metabolite M4 (side-chain dehydrogenation) was observed in the 240 min samples. No metabolites were found in the rat hepatocyte incubations. Unchanged amounts of ajulemic acid detected after the 2-h incubation were 103%, 90%, 86%, and 83% for rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes, respectively. Additional studies were done to ascertain if ajulemic acid can inhibit the activities of five principal human cytochrome P450 isozymes; CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5. In contrast to the phytocannabinoids Δ(9)-THC and CBD, no significant inhibition of cytochrome activity was observed. These data further support the conclusions reached in earlier reports on ajulemic acid's high margin of safety and suggest that it undergoes minimal metabolism and is not likely to interfere with the normal metabolism of drugs or endogenous substances. PMID:25505570

  19. In vitro metabolism and metabolic effects of ajulemic acid, a synthetic cannabinoid agonist

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sumner H; Tepper, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Ajulemic acid is a synthetic analog of Δ8-THC-11-oic acid, the terminal metabolite of Δ8-THC. Unlike Δ9-THC, the psychoactive principle of Cannabis, it shows potent anti-inflammatory action and has minimal CNS cannabimimetic activity. Its in vitro metabolism by hepatocytes from rats, dogs, cynomolgus monkeys and humans was studied and the results are reported here. Five metabolites, M1 to M5, were observed in human hepatocyte incubations. One metabolite, M5, a glucuronide, was observed in the chromatogram of canine hepatocyte incubations. In monkey hepatocyte incubations, M5 was observed in the chromatograms of both the 120 and 240 min samples, trace metabolite M1 (side-chain hydroxyl) was observed in the 120 min samples, and trace metabolite M4 (side-chain dehydrogenation) was observed in the 240 min samples. No metabolites were found in the rat hepatocyte incubations. Unchanged amounts of ajulemic acid detected after the 2-h incubation were 103%, 90%, 86%, and 83% for rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes, respectively. Additional studies were done to ascertain if ajulemic acid can inhibit the activities of five principal human cytochrome P450 isozymes; CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5. In contrast to the phytocannabinoids Δ9-THC and CBD, no significant inhibition of cytochrome activity was observed. These data further support the conclusions reached in earlier reports on ajulemic acid's high margin of safety and suggest that it undergoes minimal metabolism and is not likely to interfere with the normal metabolism of drugs or endogenous substances. PMID:25505570

  20. Valerian extract and valerenic acid are partial agonists of the 5-HT5a receptor in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Mahady, Gail B; Pauli, Guido F; Farnsworth, Norman R

    2005-08-18

    Insomnia is the most frequently encountered sleep complaint worldwide. While many prescription drugs are used to treat insomnia, extracts of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) are also used for the treatment of insomnia and restlessness. To determine novel mechanisms of action, radioligand binding studies were performed with valerian extracts (100% methanol, 50% methanol, dichloromethane [DCM], and petroleum ether [PE]) at the melatonin, glutamate, and GABA(A) receptors, and 8 serotonin receptor subtypes. Both DCM and PE extracts had strong binding affinity to the 5-HT(5a) receptor, but only weak binding affinity to the 5-HT(2b) and the serotonin transporter. Subsequent binding studies focused on the 5-HT(5a) receptor due to the distribution of this receptor in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, which is implicated in the sleep-wake cycle. The PE extract inhibited [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) binding to the human 5-HT(5a) receptor (86% at 50 microg/ml) and the DCM extract inhibited LSD binding by 51%. Generation of an IC(50) curve for the PE extract produced a biphasic curve, thus GTP shift experiments were also performed. In the absence of GTP, the competition curve was biphasic (two affinity sites) with an IC(50) of 15.7 ng/ml for the high-affinity state and 27.7 microg/ml for the low-affinity state. The addition of GTP (100 microM) resulted in a right-hand shift of the binding curve with an IC(50) of 11.4 microg/ml. Valerenic acid, the active constituent of both extracts, had an IC(50) of 17.2 microM. These results indicate that valerian and valerenic acid are new partial agonists of the 5-HT(5a) receptor. PMID:15921820

  1. Non-equivalence of Key Positively Charged Residues of the Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor in the Recognition and Function of Agonist Versus Antagonist Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Pandey, Sunil K.; MacKenzie, Amanda E.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of poorly digested carbohydrates. A key mediator of their actions is the G protein-coupled free fatty acid 2 (FFA2) receptor, and this has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases. However, a lack of understanding of the molecular determinants dictating how ligands bind to this receptor has hindered development. We have developed a novel radiolabeled FFA2 antagonist to probe ligand binding to FFA2, and in combination with mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies, we define how agonist and antagonist ligands interact with the receptor. Although both agonist and antagonist ligands contain negatively charged carboxylates that interact with two key positively charged arginine residues in transmembrane domains V and VII of FFA2, there are clear differences in how these interactions occur. Specifically, although agonists require interaction with both arginine residues to bind the receptor, antagonists require an interaction with only one of the two. Moreover, different chemical series of antagonist interact preferentially with different arginine residues. A homology model capable of rationalizing these observations was developed and provides a tool that will be invaluable for identifying improved FFA2 agonists and antagonists to further define function and therapeutic opportunities of this receptor. PMID:26518871

  2. Non-equivalence of Key Positively Charged Residues of the Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor in the Recognition and Function of Agonist Versus Antagonist Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Pandey, Sunil K; MacKenzie, Amanda E; Hudson, Brian D; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of poorly digested carbohydrates. A key mediator of their actions is the G protein-coupled free fatty acid 2 (FFA2) receptor, and this has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases. However, a lack of understanding of the molecular determinants dictating how ligands bind to this receptor has hindered development. We have developed a novel radiolabeled FFA2 antagonist to probe ligand binding to FFA2, and in combination with mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies, we define how agonist and antagonist ligands interact with the receptor. Although both agonist and antagonist ligands contain negatively charged carboxylates that interact with two key positively charged arginine residues in transmembrane domains V and VII of FFA2, there are clear differences in how these interactions occur. Specifically, although agonists require interaction with both arginine residues to bind the receptor, antagonists require an interaction with only one of the two. Moreover, different chemical series of antagonist interact preferentially with different arginine residues. A homology model capable of rationalizing these observations was developed and provides a tool that will be invaluable for identifying improved FFA2 agonists and antagonists to further define function and therapeutic opportunities of this receptor. PMID:26518871

  3. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR QUINOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for quinoline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constit...

  4. Quinoline-based antimalarial hybrid compounds.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Stéphanie; D'hooghe, Matthias

    2015-08-15

    Quinoline-containing compounds, such as quinine and chloroquine, have a long-standing history as potent antimalarial agents. However, the increasing resistance of the Plasmodium parasite against these drugs and the lack of licensed malaria vaccines have forced chemists to develop synthetic strategies toward novel biologically active molecules. A strategy that has attracted considerable attention in current medicinal chemistry is based on the conjugation of two biologically active molecules into one hybrid compound. Since quinolines are considered to be privileged antimalarial building blocks, the synthesis of quinoline-containing antimalarial hybrids has been elaborated extensively in recent years. This review provides a literature overview of antimalarial hybrid molecules containing a quinoline core, covering publications between 2009 and 2014. PMID:25593097

  5. Room-temperature luminescence of benzo[f]quinoline, p-aminobenzoic acid, phenanthrene, and 4-phenylphenol on a variety of solid surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, B.B.; Hurtubise, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Analytical figures of merit for the room-temperature luminescence of four model compounds with quite different chemical structures were compared. The compounds were adsorbed on four different surfaces that have been employed recently in solid-surface luminescence analysis. The solid materials investigated were silica gel with a polyacrylate binder, filter paper, 1% polyacrylic acid-NaBr, and 80% [alpha]-cyclodextrin-NaCl. The experimental conditions were optimized to give enhanced luminescence signals. In some cases, filter paper and 80% [alpha]-cyclodextrin-NaCl gave comparable analytical results. However, filter paper gave the best overall results.

  6. Farnesoid X Receptor Agonists and Other Bile Acid Signaling Strategies for Treatment of Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Halilbasic, Emina; Fuchs, Claudia; Traussnigg, Stefan; Trauner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) respond to bile acids (BAs) by activating transcriptional networks and/or signaling cascades. These cascades affect the expression of a great number of target genes relevant for BA, cholesterol, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis and carcinogenesis. FXR activation in the liver tissue and beyond, such as the gut-liver axis, kidney and adipose tissue, plays a role in metabolic diseases. These BA receptors activators hold promise to become a new class of drugs to be used in the treatment of chronic liver disease, hepatocellular cancer and extrahepatic inflammatory and metabolic diseases. This review discusses the relevant BA receptors, the new drugs that target BA transport and signaling and their possible applications. PMID:27332721

  7. Effects of MK-801, ketamine and alaptide on quinolinate models in the maturing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Keilhoff, G; Wolf, G; Stastný, F

    1991-01-01

    The ability of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, MK-801, ketamine and alaptide [a newly synthesized cyclo(1-amino-1-cyclopentane-carbonyl-L-alanyl) with protective properties in models of hypoxia], to prevent neuronal degeneration caused by intracerebroventricular application of quinolinic acid was investigated. Neurodegenerative effects of quinolinate in the hippocampal formation were found to increase with the degree of maturity of glutamatergic target structures. A protective potency of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists was observed at all developmental stages studied (12- and 30-day-old and adult rats). MK-801 showed the highest efficacy, alaptide the lowest. These findings suggest a parallelism in maturity of glutamatergic transmission processes as one prerequisite of quinolinate vulnerability and postnatal increases of target fields of the protectives. Application of MK-801 or ketamine after quinolinate injection intensified their protective effects when compared to simultaneous or preadministration. This observation is interpreted as indicating that quinolinate is a prompter of a delayed neurodegenerative process rather than acting immediately as a toxicant. PMID:1832751

  8. Comprehensive X-Ray Structural Studies of the Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase (BNA6) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    di Luccio, E.; Wilson, D.K.

    2009-05-14

    Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a 32 kDa enzyme encoded by the BNA6 gene in yeast and catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide from quinolinate and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). QAPRTase plays a key role in the tryptophan degradation pathway via kynurenine, leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} and clearing the neurotoxin quinolinate. To improve our understanding of the specificity of the eukaryotic enzyme and the course of events associated with catalysis, we have determined the crystal structures of the apo and singly bound forms with the substrates quinolinate and PRPP. This reveals that the enzyme folds in a manner similar to that of various prokaryotic forms which are {approx}30% identical in sequence. In addition, the structure of the Michaelis complex is approximated by PRPP and the quinolinate analogue phthalate bound to the active site. These results allow insight into the kinetic mechanism of QAPRTase and provide an understanding of structural diversity in the active site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme when compared to prokaryotic homologues.

  9. Extending the structure-activity relationship of anthranilic acid derivatives as farnesoid X receptor modulators: development of a highly potent partial farnesoid X receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Merk, Daniel; Lamers, Christina; Ahmad, Khalil; Carrasco Gomez, Roberto; Schneider, Gisbert; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    The ligand activated transcription factor nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved as a regulator in many metabolic pathways including bile acid and glucose homeostasis. Therefore, pharmacological activation of FXR seems a valuable therapeutic approach for several conditions including metabolic diseases linked to insulin resistance, liver disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and certain forms of cancer. The available FXR agonists, however, activate the receptor to the full extent which might be disadvantageous over a longer time period. Hence, partial FXR activators are required for long-term treatment of metabolic disorders. We here report the SAR of anthranilic acid derivatives as FXR modulators and development, synthesis, and characterization of compound 51, which is a highly potent partial FXR agonist in a reporter gene assay with an EC50 value of 8 ± 3 nM and on mRNA level in liver cells. PMID:25255039

  10. Cannabinoid receptor agonists reduce the short-term mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress linked to excitotoxicity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rangel-López, E; Colín-González, A L; Paz-Loyola, A L; Pinzón, E; Torres, I; Serratos, I N; Castellanos, P; Wajner, M; Souza, D O; Santamaría, A

    2015-01-29

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in a considerable number of physiological processes in the Central Nervous System. Recently, a modulatory role of cannabinoid receptors (CBr) and CBr agonists on the reduction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activation has been demonstrated. Quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous analog of glutamate and excitotoxic metabolite produced in the kynurenine pathway (KP), selectively activates NMDAr and has been shown to participate in different neurodegenerative disorders. Since the early pattern of toxicity exerted by this metabolite is relevant to explain the extent of damage that it can produce in the brain, in this work we investigated the effects of the synthetic CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) and other agonists (anandamide or AEA, and CP 55,940 or CP) on early markers of QUIN-induced toxicity in rat striatal cultured cells and rat brain synaptosomes. WIN, AEA and CP exerted protective effects on the QUIN-induced loss of cell viability. WIN also preserved the immunofluorescent signals for neurons and CBr labeling that were decreased by QUIN. The QUIN-induced early mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were also partially or completely prevented by WIN pretreatment, but not when this CBr agonist was added simultaneously with QUIN to brain synaptosomes. These findings support a neuroprotective and modulatory role of cannabinoids in the early toxic events elicited by agents inducing excitotoxic processes. PMID:25446347

  11. Discovery of TUG-770: A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian; Hudson, Brian D; Wargent, Edward T; Grundmann, Manuel; Jenkins, Laura; Zaibi, Mohamed; Stocker, Claire J; Ullrich, Susanne; Kostenis, Evi; Kassack, Matthias U; Milligan, Graeme; Cawthorne, Michael A; Ulven, Trond

    2013-05-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing. PMID:23687558

  12. Substituted quinoline quinones as surrogates for the PQQ cofactor: an electrochemical and computational study.

    PubMed

    Dorfner, Walter L; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2015-04-17

    Pyrroloquinoline quinones (PQQ) are important cofactors that shuttle redox equivalents in diverse metalloproteins. Quinoline 7,8-quinones have been synthesized and characterized as surrogates for PQQ to elucidate redox energetics within metalloenzyme active sites. The quinoline 7,8-quinones were accessed using polymer-supported iodoxybenzoic acid and the compounds evaluated using solution electrochemistry. Together with a family of quinones, the products were evaluated computationally and used to generate a predictive correlation between a computed ΔG and the experimental reduction potentials. PMID:25826406

  13. Different efficacy of specific agonists at 5-HT3 receptor splice variants: the role of the extra six amino acid segment

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, M-I; Lummis, S C R

    1998-01-01

    Whole cell voltage clamp electrophysiology and radioligand binding were used to examine the agonist characteristics of the two splice variants of the 5-HT3 receptor which have been cloned from neuronal cell lines. Homo-oligomeric 5-HT3 receptors were examined in HEK 293 cells stably transfected with either long (5-HT3-L) or short (5-HT3-S) receptor subunit DNAs. Functional homo-oligomeric receptors were formed from both subunits, and responses to 5-HT3 receptor agonists (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 2-methyl 5-HT and m-chlorophenylbiguanide) were qualitatively similar. Maximum currents (Rmax) elicited by the 5-HT3 receptor agonists m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG) and 2-methyl-5-HT (2-Me-5-HT), as compared to 5-HT, differed in the two splice variants: Rmax mCPBG/Rmax 5-HT values were 0.68±0.04 and 0.91±0.01 in 5-HT3-L and 5-HT3-S receptors, respectively. Comparable values for 2-Me-5-HT were 0.30±0.02 and 0.23±0.02. Radioligand binding data showed no difference in affinity of agonist or antagonist binding sites; thus the six amino acid deletion appears to cause differences in agonist efficacy. The role of the 6 amino acid insertion was further investigated by use of site-directed mutagenesis to create two mutant receptors, one where serine 286 was replaced with alanine, and the second where all 6 amino acids were replaced with alanines. Examination of the mutant receptors when stably expressed in HEK 293 cells revealed agonist properties resembling long and not short 5-HT3 receptors. Thus specific amino acids in this region are not responsible for the observed differences. The data show intracellular structure can have significant effects on ligand-gated ion channel function, and suggest that minor changes in structure may be responsible for differences in function observed when ligand-gated ion channel proteins are modulated intracellularly. PMID:9517385

  14. Chemical consequences of pyrazole orientation in Ru(II) complexes of unsymmetric quinoline-pyrazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Hedberg Wallenstein, Joachim; Fredin, Lisa A; Jarenmark, Martin; Abrahamsson, Maria; Persson, Petter

    2016-08-01

    A series of homoleptic Ru(II) complexes including the tris-bidentate complexes of a new bidentate ligand 8-(1-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q1Pz) and bidentate 8-(3-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q3PzH), as well as the bis-tridentate complex of bis(quinolinyl)-1,3-pyrazole (DQPz) was studied. Together these complexes explore the orientation of the pyrazole relative to the quinoline. By examining the complexes structurally, photophysically, photochemically, electrochemically, and computationally by DFT and TD-DFT, it is shown that the pyrazole orientation has a significant influence on key properties. In particular, its orientation has noticeable effects on oxidation and reduction potentials, photostability and proton sensitivity, indicating that [Ru(Q3PzH)3](2+) is a particularly good local environment acidity-probe candidate. PMID:27240703

  15. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) agonists: mesylpropoxy appendage lowers lipophilicity and improves ADME properties.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Urban, Christian; Grundmann, Manuel; Schröder, Ralf; Hudson, Brian D; Milligan, Graeme; Cawthorne, Michael A; Kostenis, Evi; Kassack, Matthias U; Ulven, Trond

    2012-07-26

    FFA1 (GPR40) is a new target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. We recently identified the potent FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (5). Inspired by the structurally related TAK-875, we explored the effects of a mesylpropoxy appendage on 5. The appendage significantly lowers lipophilicity and improves metabolic stability while preserving potency, resulting in discovery of the potent FFA1 agonist 13. PMID:22724451

  16. Loss of force induced by high extracellular [K+] in rat muscle: effect of temperature, lactic acid and beta2-agonist.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Clausen, Torben; Nielsen, Ole Baekgaard

    2003-08-15

    Loss of K+ from active muscles, leading to increased [K+]o, has been proposed to cause muscle fatigue by reducing excitability. Since exercise increases muscle temperature, we investigated the influence of temperature on muscle [K+]o sensitivity. Intact rat soleus or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were mounted on force transducers and stimulated electrically to evoke short isometric tetani at regular intervals. In each experiment, control force at 4 mM K+ was initially determined at every temperature used. In soleus muscles at 20 degrees C, 9 mM K+ reduced force to 33 +/- 5 % of control force. Increasing the temperature to 30 degrees C restored force to 89 +/- 5 % of control force. Likewise, at 30 degrees C 11 mM K+ reduced force to 16 +/- 4 % and increasing the temperature to 35 degrees C restored force to 35 +/- 5 %. Similar results were obtained using EDL. The force recovery induced by elevating temperature, reflecting reduced [K+]o sensitivity, was associated with improved excitability assessed from compound action potentials. Force recovery induced by a temperature elevation from 20 to 30 degrees C was associated with hyperpolarization (5 mV), reduced [Na+]i and a 93 % increase in Na+-K+ pump activity. The force recovery was blocked by ouabain. Since intensive exercise leads to lactic acidosis and increased plasma catecholamines, the effect of these two factors was also investigated. At 11 mM K+, force was completely restored by combining temperature elevation (30 to 35 degrees C), L-lactic acid (10 mM) and the beta2-agonist salbutamol (10-5 M). We suggest an exercise scenario where the depressing action of exercise-induced hyperkalaemia is counteracted by elevated muscle temperature, lactic acidosis and catecholamines. PMID:12813152

  17. An amino acid residue in the second extracellular loop determines the agonist-dependent tolerance property of the human D3 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mast, Sara; Kortagere, Sandhya; Kota, Kokila; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2013-06-19

    The D3 dopamine receptor is a therapeutic target for treating various nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, depression, and addictive behaviors. The crystal structure of the D3 receptor bound to an antagonist was recently described; however, the structural features that contribute to agonist-induced conformational changes and signaling properties are not well understood. We have previously described the conformation-dependent tolerance and slow response termination (SRT) signaling properties of the D3 receptor and identified the C147 residue in the second intracellular loop (IL2) of the D3 receptor as important for the tolerance property. Interestingly, while IL2 and the C147 residue, in particular, were important for dopamine- and quinpirole-induced tolerance, this residue did not affect the severe tolerance induced by the high affinity, D3 receptor-selective agonist, PD128907. Here, we used D2/D3 receptor chimeras and site-specific D3 receptor mutants to identify another residue, D187, in the second extracellular loop (EC2) of the human D3 receptor that mediates the tolerance property induced by PD128907, quinpirole, pramipexole, and dopamine. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the distinct conformation adopted by D3 receptor during tolerance and suggested that in the tolerant D3 receptor the D187 residue in EC2 forms a salt bridge with the H354 residue in EC3. Indeed, site-directed mutation of the H354 residue resulted in loss of PD1287907-induced tolerance. The mapping of specific amino acid residues that contribute to agonist-dependent conformation changes and D3 receptor signaling properties refines the agonist-bound D3 receptor pharmacophore model which will help develop novel D3 receptor agonists. PMID:23477444

  18. 6-(4-Amino-2-butyl-imidazoquinolyl)-norleucine: Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonist amino acid for self-adjuvanting peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshio; Hirai, Kazuyuki; Nishida, Keigo; Taguchi, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    Generally, small peptides by themselves are weak to induce antibody responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are attractive candidates of vaccine adjuvants to improve their antigenicity. The covalent conjugation of TLR ligands with antigens to produce self-adjuvanting peptide vaccine is a promising approach. Based on the structure of TLR7/8 ligands, a series of synthetic amino acids 6-imidazoquinolyl-norleucines were synthesized, wherein an imidazoquinoline structure as the TLR7/8 agonistic pharmacophores was constructed on the ε-NH2 group of Lys. Of them, 6-(4-amino-2-butyl-imidazoquinolyl)-norleucine showed the most potent TLR7 and TLR8 agonistic activities with EC50 values of 8.55 and 106 μM, respectively. Subsequently, mice were immunized with the influenza A virus M2e antigen mixed with or covalently conjugated to the TLR7/8 agonist amino acid, which led to induction of M2e specific antibody productions in the absence of other adjuvant. We successfully developed a novel efficient tool for self-adjuvanting peptide vaccines targeting TLR7/8. PMID:26874701

  19. 40 CFR 721.9080 - Nitro methyl quinoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nitro methyl quinoline. 721.9080... Substances § 721.9080 Nitro methyl quinoline. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as nitro methyl quinoline (PMN P-96-1319)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9080 - Nitro methyl quinoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitro methyl quinoline. 721.9080... Substances § 721.9080 Nitro methyl quinoline. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as nitro methyl quinoline (PMN P-96-1319)...

  1. Two amino acids, located in transmembrane domains VI and VII, determine the selectivity of the peptide agonist SMS 201-995 for the SSTR2 somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kaupmann, K; Bruns, C; Raulf, F; Weber, H P; Mattes, H; Lübbert, H

    1995-01-01

    Human somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5) bind their natural ligands SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 with high affinity. By contrast, short synthetic SRIF analogues such as SMS 201-995, a peptide agonist used for the treatment of various endocrine and malignant disorders, display sub-nanomolar affinity only for the receptor subtype SSTR2. To understand the molecular nature of selective peptide agonist binding to somatostatin receptors we have now, by site-directed mutagenesis, identified amino acids mediating SMS 201-995 specificity for SSTR2. Sequentially, amino acids in SSTR1, a receptor subtype exhibiting low affinity for SMS 201-995, were exchanged for the corresponding SSTR2 residues. After three consecutive steps, in which eight amino acids were exchanged, a SSTR1 mutant receptor with high affinity for SMS 201-995 was obtained. Receptor mutants with different combinations of these eight amino acids were then constructed. A single Ser305 to Phe mutation in TM VII increased the affinity of SSTR1 for SMS 201-995 nearly 100-fold. When this mutation was combined with an exchange of Gln291 to Asn in TM VI, almost full susceptibility to SMS 201-995 was obtained. Thus, it is concluded that the specificity of SMS 201-995 for SSTR2 is mainly defined by these two amino acids in transmembrane domains VI and VII. Using the conjugate gradient method we have, by analogy to the well established structure of bacteriorhodopsin, built a model for SRIF receptor-ligand interactions that explains the importance of Gln291 and Ser305 for the selectivity of agonists. Images PMID:7882976

  2. Exploring amino acids derivatives as potent, selective, and direct agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype-1.

    PubMed

    Evindar, Ghotas; Deng, Hongfeng; Bernier, Sylvie G; Doyle, Elisabeth; Lorusso, Jeanine; Morgan, Barry A; Westlin, William F

    2013-01-15

    In the quest to discover a potent and selective class of direct agonists to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, we explored the carboxylate functional group as a replacement to previously reported lead phosphates. This has led to the discovery of potent and selective direct agonists with moderate to substantial in vivo lymphopenia. The previously reported selectivity enhancing moiety (SEM) and selectivity enhancing orientation (SEO) in the phenylamide and phenylimidazole scaffolds were crucial to obtaining selectivity for S1P receptor subtype 1 over 3. PMID:23245510

  3. Conformationally constrained farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists: Heteroaryl replacements of the naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Jonathan Y.; Caravella, Justin A.; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L.; Deaton, David N.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Marr, Harry B.; McFadyen, Robert B.; Miller, Aaron B.; Mills, Wendy Y.; Navas, III, Frank; Parks, Derek J.; Smalley, Jr., Terrence L.; Spearing, Paul K.; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P.; Wisely, G. Bruce

    2014-08-13

    To improve on the drug properties of GSK8062 1b, a series of heteroaryl bicyclic naphthalene replacements were prepared. The quinoline 1c was an equipotent FXR agonist with improved drug developability parameters relative to 1b. In addition, analog 1c lowered body weight gain and serum glucose in a DIO mouse model of diabetes.

  4. Substituted quinolines as noncovalent proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Tanner J; Lansdell, Theresa A; Dissanayake, Amila A; Azevedo, Lauren M; Claes, Jacob; Odom, Aaron L; Tepe, Jetze J

    2016-06-01

    Screening of a library of diverse heterocyclic scaffolds identified substituted quinolines as inhibitors of the human proteasome. The heterocyclic library was prepared via a novel titanium-catalyzed multicomponent coupling reaction, which rendered a diverse set of isoxazoles, pyrimidines, pyrroles, pyrazoles and quinolines. SAR of the parent lead compound indicated that hydrophobic residues on the benzo-moiety significantly improved potency. Lead compound 25 inhibits the chymotryptic-like proteolytic activity of the proteasome (IC50 5.4μM), representing a new class of nonpeptidic, noncovalent proteasome inhibitors. PMID:27112450

  5. G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, TGR5) agonists reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and stabilize the alternative macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Högenauer, Klemens; Arista, Luca; Schmiedeberg, Niko; Werner, Gudrun; Jaksche, Herbert; Bouhelal, Rochdi; Nguyen, Deborah G; Bhat, B Ganesh; Raad, Layla; Rauld, Celine; Carballido, José M

    2014-12-26

    GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that triggers intracellular signals upon ligation by various bile acids. The receptor has been studied mainly for its function in energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis, and there is little information on the role of GPBAR1 in the context of inflammation. After a high-throughput screening campaign, we identified isonicotinamides exemplified by compound 3 as nonsteroidal GPBAR1 agonists. We optimized this series to potent derivatives that are active on both human and murine GPBAR1. These agonists inhibited the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-12 but not the antiinflammatory IL-10 in primary human monocytes. These effects translate in vivo, as compound 15 inhibits LPS induced TNF-α and IL-12 release in mice. The response was GPBAR1 dependent, as demonstrated using knockout mice. Furthermore, agonism of GPBAR1 stabilized the phenotype of the alternative, noninflammatory, M2-like type cells during differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. Overall, our results illustrate an important regulatory role for GPBAR1 agonists as controllers of inflammation. PMID:25411721

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety.

    PubMed

    Bingul, Murat; Tan, Owen; Gardner, Christopher R; Sutton, Selina K; Arndt, Greg M; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B; Kumar, Naresh; Black, David StC

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the novel (E)-N'-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 19-26 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G₁ cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27(kip1) cell cycle regulating protein. PMID:27428941

  7. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid agonist regulates human mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes through activation of HO-1-pAKT signaling and a decrease in PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Vanella, Luca; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Burgess, Angela; Gotlinger, Katherine; Manthati, Vijaya Lingam; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Zeldin, Darryl C; Falck, John R; Schwartzman, Michal L; Abraham, Nader G

    2010-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed substantial levels of CYP2J2, a major CYP450 involved in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) formation. MSCs synthesized significant levels of EETs (65.8 ± 5.8 pg/mg protein) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) (15.83 ± 1.62 pg/mg protein), suggesting the presence of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The addition of an sEH inhibitor to MSC culture decreased adipogenesis. EETs decreased MSC-derived adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, 8,9- and 14,15-EET having the maximum reductive effect on adipogenesis. We examined the effect of 12-(3-hexylureido)dodec-8(Z)-enoic acid, an EET agonist, on MSC-derived adipocytes and demonstrated an increased number of healthy small adipocytes, attenuated fatty acid synthase (FAS) levels (P < 0.01), and reduced PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS, and lipid accumulation (P < 0.05). These effects were accompanied by increased levels of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and adiponectin (P < 0.05), and increased glucose uptake (P < 0.05). Inhibition of HO activity or AKT by tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) and LY2940002, respectively, reversed EET-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, suggesting that activation of the HO-1-adiponectin axis underlies EET effect in MSCs. These findings indicate that EETs decrease MSC-derived adipocyte stem cell differentiation by upregulation of HO-1-adiponectin-AKT signaling and play essential roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS and in stem cell development. These novel observations highlight the seminal role of arachidonic acid metabolism in MSCs and suggest that an EET agonist may have potential therapeutic use in the treatment of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20412023

  8. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Agonist Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Derived Adipocytes Through Activation of HO-1-pAKT Signaling and a Decrease in PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Vanella, Luca; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Burgess, Angela; Gotlinger, Katherine; Manthati, Vijaya Lingam; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Falck, John R.; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed substantial levels of CYP2J2, a major CYP450 involved in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) formation. MSCs synthesized significant levels of EETs (65.8 ± 5.8 pg/mg protein) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) (15.83 ± 1.62 pg/mg protein), suggesting the presence of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The addition of an sEH inhibitor to MSC culture decreased adipogenesis. EETs decreased MSC-derived adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, 8,9- and 14,15-EET having the maximum reductive effect on adipogenesis. We examined the effect of 12-(3-hexylureido)dodec-8(Z)-enoic acid, an EET agonist, on MSC-derived adipocytes and demonstrated an increased number of healthy small adipocytes, attenuated fatty acid synthase (FAS) levels (P < 0.01), and reduced PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS, and lipid accumulation (P < 0.05). These effects were accompanied by increased levels of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and adiponectin (P < 0.05), and increased glucose uptake (P < 0.05). Inhibition of HO activity or AKT by tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) and LY2940002, respectively, reversed EET-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, suggesting that activation of the HO-1-adiponectin axis underlies EET effect in MSCs. These findings indicate that EETs decrease MSC-derived adipocyte stem cell differentiation by upregulation of HO-1-adiponectin-AKT signaling and play essential roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS and in stem cell development. These novel observations highlight the seminal role of arachidonic acid metabolism in MSCs and suggest that an EET agonist may have potential therapeutic use in the treatment of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20412023

  9. Modification on ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) scaffold. discovery of bile acid derivatives as selective agonists of cell-surface G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GP-BAR1).

    PubMed

    Sepe, Valentina; Renga, Barbara; Festa, Carmen; D'Amore, Claudio; Masullo, Dario; Cipriani, Sabrina; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Monti, Maria Chiara; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-09-25

    Bile acids are signaling molecules interacting with the nuclear receptor FXR and the G-protein coupled receptor 1 (GP-BAR1/TGR5). GP-BAR1 is a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Endogenous bile acids and currently available semisynthetic bile acids are poorly selective toward GP-BAR1 and FXR. Thus, in the present study we have investigated around the structure of UDCA, a clinically used bile acid devoid of FXR agonist activity, to develop a large family of side chain modified 3α,7β-dihydroxyl cholanoids that selectively activate GP-BAR1. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that administration of compound 16 selectively increases the expression of pro-glucagon 1, a GP-BAR1 target, in the small intestine, while it had no effect on FXR target genes in the liver. Further, compound 16 results in a significant reshaping of bile acid pool in a rodent model of cholestasis. These data demonstrate that UDCA is a useful scaffold to generate novel and selective steroidal ligands for GP-BAR1. PMID:25162837

  10. A novel electrochemical sensor for the analysis of β-agonists: the poly(acid chrome blue K)/graphene oxide-nafion/glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2013-09-15

    A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists - clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0-36.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58-1.46 ng mL(-1) range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples. PMID:23811373

  11. Crystal Structures of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster-Dependent Quinolinate Synthase in Complex with Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate, Iminoaspartate Analogues, and Quinolinate.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Michael K; Ealick, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    The quinolinate synthase of prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, NadA, contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster with unknown function. We report crystal structures of Pyrococcus horikoshii NadA in complex with dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), iminoaspartate analogues, and quinolinate. DHAP adopts a nearly planar conformation and chelates the [4Fe-4S] cluster via its keto and hydroxyl groups. The active site architecture suggests that the cluster acts as a Lewis acid in enediolate formation, like zinc in class II aldolases. The DHAP and putative iminoaspartate structures suggest a model for a condensed intermediate. The ensemble of structures suggests a two-state system, which may be exploited in early steps. PMID:27404889

  12. Design and Synthesis of 3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Containing Retinoids from a Retinoic Acid Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhaskar C.; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Sanyal, Swarnava; Mohapatra, Seetaram; Rogler, Patrick; Nayak, Sabita; Evans, Todd

    2011-01-01

    We previously synthesized novel retinoid libraries, and after screening for bioactivity found one compound BT10 that functions as a specific agonist for retinoic acid receptors. This lead compound was further derivatized using SAR and LRD to obtain 3,5-disubstituted-1,2,4-oxadiazole-containing retinoids. The new oxadiazole (amide bioisosters)-containing retinoids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were synthesized in 42-65% yield by reacting with (E)-4-((3-ethyl,2-4,4,4-trimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene)methyl)benzoic acid and phenyl substituted amidoxime in DMF using CDI as the coupling reagent. The biological activities of the synthesized compounds are currently being evaluated. PMID:21765558

  13. Retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 inhibits CXCL2 production from microglial BV-2 cells via attenuation of NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Moeka; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that retinoic acid receptor agonists such as Am80 exerts anti-inflammatory actions in the central nervous system, although detailed mechanisms of the action remain largely unknown. Our previous findings suggest that Am80 provides therapeutic effect on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice via suppression of expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2). Here we investigated the mechanisms of inhibitory action of Am80 on expression of CXCL2 and other pro-inflammatory factors in microglial BV-2 cells. Pretreatment with Am80 markedly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of CXCL2 mRNA and release of CXCL2 protein. Am80 had no effect on LPS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. On the other hand, Am80 prevented LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB complex. In addition, total expression levels of p65 and IκBα proteins, as well as of mRNAs encoding p65 and IκBα, were lowered by Am80. Dependence of CXCL2 expression on NF-κB was confirmed by the effect of an NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester that abolished LPS-induced CXCL2 expression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester also abolished LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α, which may be relevant to the inhibitory effect of Am80 on expression of these pro-inflammatory factors. We additionally found that Am80 attenuated LPS-induced up-regulation of CD14, a co-receptor for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These results suggest that inhibitory effect on TLR4 signaling mediated by NF-κB pathway underlies the anti-inflammatory action of retinoic acid receptor agonists in microglia. PMID:27351827

  14. Antileishmanial 2-substituted quinolines: in vitro behaviour towards biological components.

    PubMed

    Desrivot, Julie; Herrenknecht, Christine; Ponchel, Gilles; Garbi, Najla; Prina, Eric; Fournet, Alain; Bories, Christian; Figadère, Bruno; Hocquemiller, Reynald; Loiseau, Philippe M

    2007-08-01

    Quinolines substituted on their carbon 2 have in vivo antileishmanial activity but some of them could not be detected in plasma when assayed for pharmacokinetic studies, suggesting a sequestration of the drugs by components of the blood compartment. The present study, performed on three quinolines (1, 2 and 3), showed strong affinity for two of them (2 and 3) with red blood cells (RBCs), whereas quinoline 1 did not react with them. This process was saturable, temperature dependant and positively correlated with the in vitro antileishmanial activity of the quinolines. In addition, a rapid and spontaneous reaction with thiol groups was demonstrated for unsaturated quinolines 2 and 3. The reactivity with RBCs could be part of the compounds targeting to the parasite. These results illustrate that derivatives of the quinoline series with similar antileishmanial in vivo activity have different behaviour in the blood compartment. PMID:17459651

  15. Microbial degradation of quinoline and methylquinolines. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Aislabie, J.; Bej, A.K.; Hurst, H.; Rothenburger, S.; Atlas, R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Several bacterial cultures were isolated that are able to degrade quinoline and to transform or to degrade methylquinolines. The degradation of quinoline by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa QP and Pseudomonas. putida QP produced hydroxyquinolines, a transient pink compound, and other undetermined products. The quinoline-degrading strains of P. aeruginosa QP and P. putida QP hydroxylated a limited number of methylquinolines but could not degrade them, nor could they transform 2-methylquinoline, isoquinoline, or pyridine. Another pseudomonad, Pseudomonas sp. strain MQP, was isolated that could degrade 2-methylquinoline. P. aeruginosa QP was able to degrade or to transform quinoline and a few methylquinolines in a complex heterocyclic nitrogen-containing fraction of a shale oil. All of the quinoline- and methylquinoline-degrading strains have multiple plasmids including a common 250-kilobase plasmid. The 225-, 250-, and 320-kilobase plasmids of the P. aeruginosa QP strain all contained genes involved in quinoline metabolism.

  16. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of Pyridines and Quinolines

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Ashley; Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-07-29

    additive proved even more effective, with the yield of 1a improving to 61% (entry 2). Further enhancement in yield was not observed upon the inclusion of other additives such as MgO (entry 3), various organic bases (entries 4, 5), or a protic acid source (entry 6). Absolute concentration proved very important, with the best results being obtained at relatively high concentrations of the aryl bromide (compare entries 7 and 8). A marginal improvement was observed upon running the reaction with 6 equivalents of 2-methyl pyridine (entry 9). The reaction temperature could also be increased to 175 or 190 C while maintaining reaction yield, to enable the reaction time to be reduced to 24 h (entries 10 and 11). In summary, we have developed a Rh(I)-catalyzed strategy for the direct arylation of pyridines and quinolines. The heterocycle is used without the need for prefunctionalization, and all reaction components are inexpensive and readily available. The strategy represents an expeditious route to an important class of bis(hetero)aryls and should be of broad utility.

  17. New quinoline alkaloids from Ruta chalepensis.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, K; Al-Said, M S; El-Feraly, F S; Ross, S A

    2000-07-01

    The roots of Ruta chalepensis, collected from the northern Saudi desert, yielded two new quinoline alkaloids, namely, 2-¿6'-(2H-benzo[d]1' ',3' '-dioxolen-5' '-yl)hexyl¿-hydroquinolin-4-one (1) and 2-¿6'-(2H-benzo[d]1' ',3' '-dioxolen-5' '-yl)hexyl¿-4-methoxy-quinoline (2). Nine previously reported alkaloids, dictamnine, pteleine, skimmianine, rutacridone, isogravacridonechlorine, maculosidine, graveoline, graveolinine, and 4-methoxy-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinolinone, and coumarins, chalepensin, and umbelliferone were also isolated. Structure elucidations were based primarily on 1D and 2D NMR analyses and chemical transformations. Antimicrobial activity of these compounds is discussed. PMID:10924184

  18. Anti-leishmanial evaluation of C2-aryl quinolines: mechanistic insight on bioenergetics and sterol biosynthetic pathway of Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Bompart, Daznia; Núñez-Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Daniel; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Meléndez Gómez, Carlos M; Sojo, Felipe; Arvelo, Francisco; Visbal, Gonzalo; Alvarez, Alvaro; Serrano-Martín, Xenón; García-Marchán, Yael

    2013-07-15

    A series of diverse simple C2-aryl quinolines was synthesized de novo via a straightforward synthesis based on the acid-catalyzed multicomponent imino Diels-Alder reactions. Seven selected quinolines were evaluated at different stages of Leishmania braziliensis parasite. Among them, the 6-ethyl-2-phenylquinoline 5f was able to inhibit the growth of promastigotes of this parasite without affecting the mammalian cells viability and decreasing the number of intracellular L. braziliensis amastigotes on BMDM macrophages. The mechanism of action studied for the selected compound consisted in: (1) alteration of parasite bioenergetics, by disrupting mitochondrial electrochemical potential and alkalinization of acidocalcisomes, and (2) inhibition of ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in promastigote forms. These results validate the efficiency of quinoline molecules as leishmanicide compounds. PMID:23719286

  19. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Owais; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Gurpreet; Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  20. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  1. Anticonvulsant activity of a mGlu(4alpha) receptor selective agonist, (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chapman, A G; Talebi, A; Yip, P K; Meldrum, B S

    2001-07-20

    The metabotropic Group III agonist, (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (ACPT-1), selective for the mGlu(4alpha) receptor, suppresses sound-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice following its intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration (ED(50) 5.6 [2.9-10.7], nmol i.c.v., 15 min, clonic phase) and in genetically epilepsy-prone (GEP) rats following focal administration into the inferior colliculus (ED(50) 0.08 [0.01-0.50], nmol, 60 min, clonic phase). ACPT-1 also protects against clonic seizures induced in DBA/2 mice by the Group I agonist, (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) (ED(50) 0.60 [0.29-1.2], nmol i.c.v.) and by the Group III antagonist, (RS)-alpha-methylserine-O-phosphate (MSOP) (ED(50) 49.3 [37.9-64.1], nmol i.c.v.). Another Group III agonist, (RS)-4-phosphonophenyl-glycine (PPG), preferentially activating the mGlu(8) receptor, previously shown to protect against sound-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice and GEP rats, also protects against seizures induced in DBA/2 by 3,5-DHPG (ED(50) 3.7 [2.4-5.7], nmol i.c.v.) and by the Group III antagonist, MSOP (ED(50) 40.2 [21.0-77.0], nmol i.c.v.). At very high doses (500 nmol i.c.v. and above), Group III antagonists have pro-convulsant and convulsant activity. The anticonvulsant protection against sound-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice provided by a fully protective dose (20 nmol, i.c.v.) of the mGlu(4) receptor agonist ACPT-1, is partially reversed by the co-administration of the Group III antagonists, MSOP, (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) or (S)-2-amino-2-methyl-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (MAP4), in the 20-50 nmol dose range. At doses of 50-200 nmol, MPPG and MAP4 cause further reversal of the ACPT-1 anticonvulsant protection, while the MSOP effect on ACPT-1 protection is abolished at higher doses. In contrast, the anticonvulsant protection against sound-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice provided by a fully protective dose (20 nmol, i.c.v.) of the mGlu(8) receptor agonist PPG, is not

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazol-1-ylacetic acid derivatives as non-brain penetrant bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) agonists.

    PubMed

    Kiyotsuka, Yohei; Shimada, Kousei; Kobayashi, Shozo; Suzuki, Masanori; Akiu, Mayuko; Asano, Masayoshi; Sogawa, Yoshitaka; Hara, Takashi; Konishi, Masahiro; Abe-Ohya, Rie; Izumi, Masanori; Nagai, Yoko; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Abe, Yasuyuki; Takamori, Hideo; Takahashi, Hisashi

    2016-09-01

    Novel compounds based on 1a were synthesized with the focus of obtaining agonists acting upon peripheral BRS-3. To identify potent anti-obesity compounds without adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS), a carboxylic acid moiety and a labile carboxylic ester with an antedrug functionality were introduced. Through the extensive synthetic exploration and the pharmacokinetic studies of intravenous administration in mice, the ester 2b was selected owing to its most suitable pharmacological profile. In the evaluation of food intake suppression in C57BL/6N mice, 2b showed significant in vivo efficacy and no clear adverse effects on blood pressure change in dogs administered the compound by intravenous infusion. PMID:27491709

  3. Adjunctive β2-agonist treatment reduces glycogen independently of receptor-mediated acid α-glucosidase uptake in the limb muscles of mice with Pompe disease

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Benjamin L.; Madden, Lauran; Li, Songtao; Nance, Sierra; Bird, Andrew; Bursac, Nenad; Yen, Paul M.; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme or gene replacement therapy with acid α-glucosidase (GAA) has achieved only partial efficacy in Pompe disease. We evaluated the effect of adjunctive clenbuterol treatment on cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR)-mediated uptake and intracellular trafficking of GAA during muscle-specific GAA expression with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in GAA-knockout (KO) mice. Clenbuterol, which increases expression of CI-MPR in muscle, was administered with the AAV vector. This combination therapy increased latency during rotarod and wirehang testing at 12 wk, in comparison with vector alone. The mean urinary glucose tetrasaccharide (Glc4), a urinary biomarker, was lower in GAA-KO mice following combination therapy, compared with vector alone. Similarly, glycogen content was lower in cardiac and skeletal muscle following 12 wk of combination therapy in heart, quadriceps, diaphragm, and soleus, compared with vector alone. These data suggested that clenbuterol treatment enhanced trafficking of GAA to lysosomes, given that GAA was expressed within myofibers. The integral role of CI-MPR was demonstrated by the lack of effectiveness from clenbuterol in GAA-KO mice that lacked CI-MPR in muscle, where it failed to reverse the high glycogen content of the heart and diaphragm or impaired wirehang performance. However, the glycogen content of skeletal muscle was reduced by the addition of clenbuterol in the absence of CI-MPR, as was lysosomal vacuolation, which correlated with increased AKT signaling. In summary, β2-agonist treatment enhanced CI-MPR-mediated uptake and trafficking of GAA in mice with Pompe disease, and a similarly enhanced benefit might be expected in other lysosomal storage disorders.—Farah, B. L., Madden, L., Li, S., Nance, S., Bird, A., Bursac, N., Yen, P. M., Young, S. P., Koeberl, D. D. Adjunctive β2-agonist treatment reduces glycogen independently of receptor-mediated acid α-glucosidase uptake in the limb muscles of mice with

  4. Microbial degradation of quinoline by immobilized cells of Burkholderia pickettii.

    PubMed

    Jianlong, Wang; Xiangchun, Quan; Liping, Han; Yi, Qian; Hegemann, Werner

    2002-05-01

    A quinoline-biodegrading microorganism was isolated from activated sludge of coke-oven wastewater treatment plant using quinoline as sole carbon and nitrogen source. It is a gram negative, rod-shaped and aerobic strain, which was identified as Burkholderia pickettii. The biodegradation of quinoline was carried out with this isolated strain. Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrum (GC/MS) revealed that 2-hydroxyquinoline (2-OH-Q) was the first intermediate in the course of quinoline biodegradation. A novel immobilization carrier, that is, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gauze hybrid carrier, was developed. The isolated strain was immobilized by two different immobilizing techniques and used for the quinolinerdegradation. It was found that biodegradation rate of quinoline by the microorganisms immobilized on PVA-gauze hybrid carrier was faster than that by the microorganisms immobilized in PVA gel beads. Kinetics of quinoline biodegradation by cells of Burkholderia pickettii immobilized on PVA-gauze hybrid carrier was investigated. The results demonstrate that quinoline degradation could be described by zero-order reaction rate equation when the initial quinoline concentration was in the range of 50-500 mg l(-1). PMID:12108721

  5. Regulation of the activity of Escherichia coli quinolinate synthase by reversible disulfide-bond formation.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Allison H; Booker, Squire J

    2008-08-19

    Quinolinate synthase (NadA) catalyzes a unique condensation reaction between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and iminoaspartate, yielding inorganic phosphate, 2 mol of water, and quinolinic acid, a central intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its derivatives. The enzyme from Escherichia coli contains a C (291)XXC (294)XXC (297) motif in its primary structure. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that only Cys297 serves as a ligand to a [4Fe-4S] cluster that is required for turnover. In this report, we show that the two remaining cysteines, Cys291 and Cys294, undergo reversible disulfide-bond formation, which regulates the activity of the enzyme. This mode of redox regulation of NadA appears physiologically relevant, since disulfide-bond formation and reduction are effected by oxidized and reduced forms of E. coli thioredoxin. A midpoint potential of -264 +/- 1.77 mV is approximated for the redox couple. PMID:18651751

  6. The [4Fe-4S] cluster of quinolinate synthase from Escherichia coli: investigation of cluster ligands.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Carine; Fontecave, Marc; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine

    2008-08-20

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) derives from quinolinic acid which is synthesized in Escherichia coli from l-aspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate through the concerted action of l-aspartate oxidase and the [4Fe-4S] quinolinate synthase (NadA). Here, we addressed the question of the identity of the cluster ligands. We performed in vivo complementation experiments as well as enzymatic, spectroscopic and structural in vitro studies using wild-type vs. Cys-to-Ala mutated NadA proteins. These studies reveal that only three cysteine residues, the conserved Cys113, Cys200 and Cys297, are ligands of the cluster. This result is in contrast to the previous proposal that pointed the three cysteines of the C(291)XXC(294)XXC(297) motif. Interestingly, we demonstrated that Cys291 and Cys294 form a disulfide bridge and are important for activity. PMID:18674537

  7. Disturbance of rapid eye movement sleep in senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 mice is improved by retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 (Tamibarotene).

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, K; Sano, A; Chikahisa, S; Yoshizaki, K; Séi, H

    2010-05-19

    Senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8) mice are known to exhibit age-related deterioration in sleep-wake architecture compared with senescence-accelerated mouse resistant/1 (SAMR1) mice. We investigated whether treatment with Am80 (Tamibarotene), a retinoic acid receptor agonist, would improve sleep in 9-10-month-old SAMP8 mice. One week of Am80 administration improved the decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep shown by SAMP8 mice. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated an impairment in the hippocampal retinoid cascade (retinoic acid receptor alpha and transthyretin) in SAMP8 in comparison to SAMR1 mice. Am80 treatment induced an increase in mRNA expression in the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the brainstem and transthyretin in the hippocampus. Furthermore, decreased cortical acetylcholine content in SAMP8 was improved by Am80 administration. Decreased non-REM sleep and delta oscillation were also observed in SAMP8 mice; however, this was not improved by Am80 administration. These results partially support the hypothesis that the effects of aging on sleep-wake architecture are improved by the activation of retinoic acid receptors. The improvement may be induced by the activation of the cholinergic pathway. PMID:20138974

  8. Structural requirements for activation of the 5-oxo-6E,8Z, 11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) receptor: identification of a mead acid metabolite with potent agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pranav; Cossette, Chantal; Anumolu, Jaganmohan R; Gravel, Sylvie; Lesimple, Alain; Mamer, Orval A; Rokach, Joshua; Powell, William S

    2008-05-01

    The 5-lipoxygenase product 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils and eosinophils, and its actions are mediated by the oxoeicosanoid (OXE) receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. To define the requirements for activation of the OXE receptor, we have synthesized a series of 5-oxo-6E,8Z-dienoic acids with chain lengths between 12 and 20 carbons, as well as a series of 20-carbon 5-oxo fatty acids, either fully saturated or containing between one and five double bonds. The effects of these compounds on neutrophils (calcium mobilization, CD11b expression, and cell migration) and eosinophils (actin polymerization) were compared with those of 5-oxo-ETE. The C12 and C14 analogs were without appreciable activity, whereas the C16 5-oxo-dienoic acid was a weak partial agonist. In contrast, the corresponding C18 analog (5-oxo-18:2) was nearly as potent as 5-oxo-ETE. Among the C20 analogs, the fully saturated compound had virtually no activity, whereas 5-oxo-6E-eicosenoic acid had only weak agonist activity. In contrast, 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid (5-oxo-20:3) and its 8-trans isomer were approximately equipotent with 5-oxo-ETE in activating granulocytes. Because of the potent effects of 5-oxo-20:3, we investigated its formation from Mead acid (5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid), which accumulates in dietary essential fatty acid deficiency, by neutrophils. The main Mead acid metabolite identified was 5-hydroxy-6,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid, followed by 5-oxo-20:3 and two 6-trans isomers of leukotriene B(3). We conclude that optimal activation of the OXE receptor is achieved with 5-oxo-ETE, 5-oxo-18:2, and 5-oxo-20:3, and that the latter compound could potentially be formed under conditions of essential fatty acid deficiency. PMID:18292294

  9. Nonclinical Pharmacokinetics, Disposition, and Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of a Novel d-Amino Acid Peptide Agonist of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor AMG 416 (Etelcalcetide).

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Raju; Zhu, Xiaochun; Kerr, Savannah J; Esmay, Joel D; Louie, Steven W; Edson, Katheryne Z; Walter, Sarah; Fitzsimmons, Michael; Wagner, Mylo; Soto, Marcus; Pham, Roger; Wilson, Sarah F; Skiles, Gary L

    2016-08-01

    AMG 416 (etelcalcetide) is a novel synthetic peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor composed of a linear chain of seven d-amino acids (referred to as the d-amino acid backbone) with a d-cysteine linked to an l-cysteine via a disulfide bond. AMG 416 contains four basic d-arginine residues and is a +4 charged peptide at physiologic pH with a mol. wt. of 1048.3 Da. The pharmacokinetics (PK), disposition, and potential of AMG 416 to cause drug-drug interaction were investigated in nonclinical studies with two single (14)C-labels placed either at a potentially metabolically labile acetyl position or on the d-alanine next to d-cysteine in the interior of the d-amino acid backbone. After i.v. dosing, the PK and disposition of AMG 416 were similar in male and female rats. Radioactivity rapidly distributed to most tissues in rats with intact kidneys, and renal elimination was the predominant clearance pathway. No strain-dependent differences were observed. In bilaterally nephrectomized rats, minimal radioactivity (1.2%) was excreted via nonrenal pathways. Biotransformation occurred primarily via disulfide exchange with endogenous thiol-containing molecules in whole blood rather than metabolism by enzymes, such as proteases or cytochrome P450s; the d-amino acid backbone remained unaltered. A substantial proportion of the plasma radioactivity was covalently conjugated to albumin. AMG 416 presents a low risk for P450 or transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions because it showed no interactions in vitro. These studies demonstrated a (14)C label on either the acetyl or the d-alanine in the d-amino acid backbone would be appropriate for clinical studies. PMID:26895981

  10. The β2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol elicits neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic actions in the kainic acid model of excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Lorna C; Ryan, Katie J; Griffin, Eadaoin W; Connor, Thomas J; Harkin, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Excitotoxicity is a mechanism of neuronal cell death implicated in a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Systemic administration of the excitotoxin kainic acid (KA) induces inflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, resulting in neuronal loss. Evidence indicates that stimulation of glial β(2)-adrenoceptors has anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic properties that could result in neuroprotection. Consequently, in this study we examined the effect of the β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol on KA-induced inflammation, neurotrophic factor expression and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Clenbuterol (0.5mg/kg) was administered to rats one hour prior to KA (10mg/kg). Epileptic behaviour induced by KA was assessed for three hours following administration using the Racine scale. Twenty-four hours later TUNEL staining in the CA3 hippocampal subfield and hippocampal caspase-3 activity was assessed to measure KA-induced apoptosis. In addition, expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), kynurenine pathway enzymes indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO), the microglial activation marker CD11b, and the neurotrophins BDNF and NGF were quantified in the hippocampus using real-time PCR. Whilst clenbuterol treatment did not significantly alter KA-induced epileptic behavior it ameliorated KA-induced apoptosis, and this neuroprotective effect was accompanied by reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, reduced expression of iNOS, IDO, KMO and CD11b, coupled with increased BDNF and NGF expression in KA-treated rats. In conclusion, the β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol has anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic actions and elicits a neuroprotective effect in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:20599496

  11. Discovery and Characterization of a Novel Small-Molecule Agonist for Medium-Chain Free Fatty Acid Receptor G Protein-Coupled Receptor 84.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Yang, Hui; Li, Jing; Xie, Xin

    2016-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a free fatty acid receptor activated by medium-chain free fatty acids with 9-14 carbons. It is expressed mainly in the immune-related tissues, such as spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood leukocytes. GPR84 plays significant roles in inflammatory processes and may represent a novel drug target for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. However, the lack of potent and specific ligands for GPR84 hindered the study of its functions and the development of potential clinical applications. Here, we report the screen of 160,000 small-molecule compounds with a calcium mobilization assay using a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line stably expressing GPR84 and Gα16, and the identification of 2-(hexylthio)pyrimidine-4,6-diol (ZQ-16) as a potent and selective agonist of GPR84 with a novel structure. ZQ-16 activates several GPR84-mediated signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization, inhibition of cAMP accumulation, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, receptor desensitization and internalization, and receptor-β-arrestin interaction. This compound may be a useful tool to study the functions of GPR84 and a potential candidate for further structural optimization. PMID:26962172

  12. Extremely potent orally active benzo[g]quinoline analogue of the dopaminergic prodrug: 1-propyl-trans-2,3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-1H-benzo-[g]quinolin-6-one [corrected].

    PubMed

    Liu, Danyang; Wikström, Håkan V; Dijkstra, Durk; de Vries, Jan B; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2006-02-23

    Enone prodrugs of dopaminergic catecholamines represent a new type of prodrug in the research area of dopamine agonists. Here, we demonstrate the first benzo[g]quinoline-derived enone that induces potent dopamine agonist effects similar to aminotetralin-derived enones. Significant effects of (-)-4 were observed in microdialysis studies after administration of 1 nmol kg(-1) sc and 3 nmol kg(-1) po. With a potency comparable to that of the most potent apomorphines, (-)-4 could potentially compete with L-DOPA and apomorphine in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:16480286

  13. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zgoda-Pols, Joanna R.; Chowdhury, Swapan; Wirth, Mark; Milburn, Michael V.; Alexander, Danny C.; Alton, Kevin B.

    2011-08-15

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research Highlights: > Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. > MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. > 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than creatinine

  14. Regional release of [3H]adenosine derivatives from rat brain in vivo: effect of excitatory amino acids, opiate agonists, and benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Jhamandas, K; Dumbrille, A

    1980-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the theophylline-sensitive actions of (a) glutamic acid and related excitatory amino acids, (b) opiate agonists, and (c) benzodiazepines may be mediated by adenosine and its derivatives (AD). In this study the effects of these theophylline-sensitive agents on the in vivo release of labelled AD from the rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum were examined. Application of L-glutamate (L-Glu) to the cortex or cerebellum, preloaded with [3H]adenosine or [3H]adenine, markedly stimulated the release of [3H]adenosine derivatives ([3H]AD) from these regions. This effect was also produced by L-aspartate (L-Asp), kainate (Kai), and two "non-amino-acid" depolarizing agents, veratridine and potassium (56 mM). In the cerebral cortex the excitatory action of L-Glu or L-Asp was stronger than that of Kai but in the cerebellum all of these agents produced a similar effect on the release of [3H]AD. Pretreatment of the cortex with glutamic acid diethylester, HA966, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate, and 2,3-diaminopropionate, but not theophylline, selectively antagonized the releasing action of L-Glu. This action of L-Glu was also reduced by EGTA added to a Ca-free physiological medium. In the cortex and cerebellum the excitatory action of L-Glu on the release of [3H]AD was attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX). TTX also antagonized the action of veratridine, but not potassium, on the cortical output of [3H]AD. Chromatographic analysis of release samples showed that about 60% of the total radioactivity released by L-Glu was associated with pharmacologically active AD, adenosine, and adenine nucleotides. The opiate agonists morphine and D-Met2-Pro5-enkephalinamide by themselves did not influence the spontaneous release of [3H]AD from the cortex but both agents very effectively inhibited the release evoked by L-Glu. This inhibitory action was antagonized by naloxone. At a low dose levorphanol, but not dextrorphan, inhibited the L-Glu-evoked release of [3H]AD. Both

  15. Iron porphyrinate Fe(TPPS) reduces brain cell damage in rats intrastriatally lesioned by quinolinate.

    PubMed

    González-Cortés, Carolina; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Gómez-López, Marcos Artemio; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Rembao-Bojórquez, Daniel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gómez-Ruiz, Celedonio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2008-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is involved in the neurotoxic pattern produced by quinolinic acid in the rat brain [V. Pérez-De La Cruz, C. González-Cortés, S. Galván-Arzate, O.N. Medina-Campos, F. Pérez-Severiano, S.F. Ali, J. Pedraza-Chaverrí, A. Santamaría, Excitotoxic brain damage involves early peroxynitrite formation in a model of Huntington's disease in rats: protective role of iron porphyrinate 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III), Neuroscience 135 (2005) 463-474.]. The aim of this work was to investigate whether ONOO(-) can also be responsible for morphological alterations and inflammatory events in the same paradigm. For this purpose, we evaluated the effect of a pre-treatment with the iron porphyrinate Fe(TPPS), a well-known ONOO(-) decomposition catalyst (10 mg/kg, i.p., 120 min before lesion), on the quinolinate-induced striatal cell damage and immunoreactivities to glial-fibrilar acidic protein (GFAP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), one and seven days after the intrastriatal infusion of quinolinate (240 nmol/microl) to rats. The striatal tissue from animals lesioned by quinolinate showed a significant degree of damage and enhanced immunoreactivities to GFAP, IL-6 and iNOS, both at 1 and 7 days post-lesion. Pre-treatment of rats with Fe(TPPS) significantly attenuated or prevented all these markers at both post-lesion times tested, except for GFAP immunoreactivity at 7 days post-lesion and iNOS immunoreactivity at 1 day post-lesion. Altogether, our results suggest that ONOO(-) is actively participating in triggering inflammatory events and morphological alterations in the toxic model produced by quinolinate, since the use of agents affecting its formation, such as Fe(TPPS), are effective experimental tools to reduce the brain lesions associated to excitotoxic and oxidative damage. PMID:18579343

  16. Aspirin metabolites are GPR35 agonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huayun; Fang, Ye

    2012-07-01

    Aspirin is widely used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anti-pyretic, and cancer-preventive agent; however, the molecular mode of action is unlikely due entirely to the inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Here, we report the agonist activity of several aspirin metabolites at GPR35, a poorly characterized orphan G protein-coupled receptor. 2,3,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid, an aspirin catabolite, was found to be the most potent GPR35 agonist among aspirin metabolites. Salicyluric acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, was also active. These results suggest that the GPR35 agonist activity of certain aspirin metabolites may contribute to the clinical features of aspirin. PMID:22526472

  17. A retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 rescues neurons, attenuates inflammatory reactions, and improves behavioral recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hideaki; Hijioka, Masanori; Hisatsune, Akinori; Isohama, Yoichiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Am80 (tamibarotene) is a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist clinically available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. As intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accompanies inflammatory reactions in the brain and also because retinoids may suppress activation of microglia, we investigated the effect of Am80 on collagenase-induced experimental model of ICH in adult mice. Daily oral administration of Am80 (5 mg/kg) starting from 1 day before or from up to 6 hours after intrastriatal injection of collagenase significantly inhibited the decrease in the number of striatal neurons at 3 days after the insult. Am80 showed no significant effect on the hematoma size and the extent of edema associated with hemorrhage. Prominent expression of RARα was observed in activated microglia/macrophages, and the number of activated microglia/macrophages in the perihematoma region was lower in Am80-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. Am80 treatment also reduced areas affected by hemorrhage-associated oxidative stress as indicated by nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity, and attenuated heme oxygenase-1 expression in activated microglia/macrophages. Moreover, Am80-treated mice exhibited better recovery from hemorrhage-induced neurologic deficits than vehicle-treated mice. These results suggest that RAR is a promising target of neuroprotective therapy for ICH. PMID:20551971

  18. A retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 rescues neurons, attenuates inflammatory reactions, and improves behavioral recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Hideaki; Hijioka, Masanori; Hisatsune, Akinori; Isohama, Yoichiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Am80 (tamibarotene) is a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist clinically available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. As intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accompanies inflammatory reactions in the brain and also because retinoids may suppress activation of microglia, we investigated the effect of Am80 on collagenase-induced experimental model of ICH in adult mice. Daily oral administration of Am80 (5 mg/kg) starting from 1 day before or from up to 6 hours after intrastriatal injection of collagenase significantly inhibited the decrease in the number of striatal neurons at 3 days after the insult. Am80 showed no significant effect on the hematoma size and the extent of edema associated with hemorrhage. Prominent expression of RARα was observed in activated microglia/macrophages, and the number of activated microglia/macrophages in the perihematoma region was lower in Am80-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. Am80 treatment also reduced areas affected by hemorrhage-associated oxidative stress as indicated by nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity, and attenuated heme oxygenase-1 expression in activated microglia/macrophages. Moreover, Am80-treated mice exhibited better recovery from hemorrhage-induced neurologic deficits than vehicle-treated mice. These results suggest that RAR is a promising target of neuroprotective therapy for ICH. PMID:20551971

  19. Agonist-trafficking and hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    González-Maeso, Javier; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2009-01-01

    Seven transmembrane domain receptors, also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), represent the most common molecular target for therapeutic drugs. The generally accepted pharmacological model for GPCR activation is the ternary complex model, in which GPCRs exist in a dynamic equilibrium between the active and inactive conformational states. However, the demonstration that different agonists sometimes elicit a different relative activation of two signaling pathways downstream of the same receptor has led to a revision of the ternary complex model. According to this agonist- trafficking model, agonists stabilize distinct activated receptor conformations that preferentially activate specific signaling pathways. Hallucinogenic drugs and non-hallucinogenic drugs represent an attractive experimental system with which to study agonist-trafficking of receptor signaling. Thus many of the behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin or mescaline, depend on activation of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT2ARs). In contrast, this neuropsychological state in humans is not induced by closely related chemicals, such as lisuride or ergotamine, despite their similar in vitro activity at the 5-HT2AR. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, as well as unresolved questions, regarding agonist-trafficking and the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. PMID:19275609

  20. Structural modifications of quinoline-based antimalarial agents: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Sandhya; Kumar, Suresh; Drabu, Sushma; Kumar, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs constitute a major part of antiprotozoal drugs and have been in practice for a long time. Antimalarial agents generally belong to the class of quinoline which acts by interfering with heme metabolism. The recent increase in development of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and failure of vaccination program against malaria have fuelled the drug discovery program against this old and widespread disease. Quinoline and its related derivative comprise a class of heterocycles, which has been exploited immensely than any other nucleus for the development of potent antimalarial agents. Various chemical modifications of quinoline have been attempted to achieve analogs with potent antimalarial properties against sensitive as well as resistant strains of Plasmodium sp., together with minimal potential undesirable side effects. This review outlines essentially some of the recent chemical modifications undertaken for the development of potent antimalarial agents based on quinoline. PMID:21814435

  1. A review on anticancer potential of bioactive heterocycle quinoline.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Obaid; Kumar, Suresh; Haider, Md Rafi; Ali, Md Rahmat; Kumar, Rajiv; Jaggi, Manu; Bawa, Sandhya

    2015-06-01

    The advent of Camptothecin added a new dimension in the field anticancer drug development containing quinoline motif. Quinoline scaffold plays an important role in anticancer drug development as their derivatives have shown excellent results through different mechanism of action such as growth inhibitors by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, disruption of cell migration, and modulation of nuclear receptor responsiveness. The anti-cancer potential of several of these derivatives have been demonstrated on various cancer cell lines. In this review we have compiled and discussed specifically the anticancer potential of quinoline derivatives, which could provide a low-height flying bird's eye view of the quinoline derived compounds to a medicinal chemist for a comprehensive and target oriented information for development of clinically viable anticancer drugs. PMID:25073919

  2. Investigations of hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline over molydenum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Bell, A.T.

    1991-12-01

    An investigation has been carried out of the reaction pathway for the hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline over Mo{sub 2}N. Quinoline is found to undergo a rapid hydrogenation to form 1,2,3,4,-tetrahydroquinoline. This product then reacts more slowly to form 2-propylanaline, which in turn undergoes hydrogenolysis of the C-N bond in the saturated ring to form propylbenzene. No evidence is found for propylcyclohexane.

  3. Possible Role of Intestinal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Eating-Inhibitory Effect of the PPAR-α Agonist Wy-14643 in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimian Azari, Elnaz; Leitner, Claudia; Jaggi, Thomas; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    PPAR-α plays a key role in lipid metabolism; it enhances fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. Pharmacological PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We here report that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 (40 mg/kg BW) reduced food intake in adult male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 49% of the energy) mainly through an increase in the latency to eat after injection, and without inducing a conditioned taste avoidance. Also, IP administered Wy-14643 caused an acute (the first 60 min) decrease in the respiratory quotient (RQ) and an increase in hepatic portal vein β-hydroxybutyrate level (at 35 min) without affecting plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Given the known stimulatory effect of PPAR-α on FAO and ketogenesis, we measured the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT 1A) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoAS2), two key enzymes for FAO and ketogenesis, respectively, in liver, duodenum and jejunum. Wy-14643 induced a significant increase in the expression of CPT 1A in the jejunum and duodenum and of HMG-CoAS2 in the jejunum, but neither CPT 1A nor HMG-CoAS2 expression was increased in the liver. The induction of CPT 1A and HMG-CoAS2 expression was associated with a decrease in the lipid droplet content selectively in the jejunum. Our findings indicate that Wy-14643 stimulates FAO and ketogenesis in the intestine, in particular in the jejunum, rather than in the liver, thus supporting the hypothesis that PPAR-α activation inhibits eating by stimulating intestinal FAO. PMID:24069361

  4. Behavioral Effects of γ-Hydroxybutyrate, Its Precursor γ-Butyrolactone, and GABAB Receptor Agonists: Time Course and Differential Antagonism by the GABAB Receptor Antagonist 3-Aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic Acid (CGP35348)

    PubMed Central

    Koek, Wouter; Mercer, Susan L.; Coop, Andrew; France, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used therapeutically and recreationally. The mechanism by which GHB produces its therapeutic and recreational effects is not entirely clear, although GABAB receptors seem to play an important role. This role could be complex, because there are indications that different GABAB receptor mechanisms mediate the effects of GHB and the prototypical GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. To further explore possible differences in underlying GABAB receptor mechanisms, the present study examined the effects of GHB and baclofen on operant responding and their antagonism by the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348). Pigeons were trained to peck a key for access to food during response periods that started at different times after the beginning of the session. In these pigeons, GHB, its precursor γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid hydrochloride (SKF97541) decreased the rate of responding in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CGP35348 shifted the dose-response curve of each agonist to the right, but the magnitude of the shift differed among the agonists. Schild analysis yielded a pA2 value of CGP35348 to antagonize GHB and GBL [i.e., 3.9 (3.7–4.2)] that was different (P = 0.0011) from the pA2 value to antagonize baclofen and SKF97541 [i.e., 4.5 (4.4–4.7)]. This finding is further evidence that the GABAB receptor mechanisms mediating the effects of GHB and prototypical GABAB receptor agonists are not identical. A better understanding of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms, and their involvement in the therapeutic effects of GHB and baclofen, could lead to more effective medications with fewer adverse effects. PMID:19564487

  5. Metronidazole and 5-aminosalicylic acid enhance the contractile activity of histaminergic agonists on the guinea-pig isolated ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Winbery, S.L.; Barker, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of metronidazole and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on histamine receptor-effector systems in the small intestine and right atrium of the guinea pig were studied. In an apparently all-or-none manner, both caused a sinistral shift in dose-response curves for the phasic component of the contractile response to histamine at H1 receptors on the ileum. In the presence of either, the EC50 value for histamine was reduced from 0.07 to about 0.03 microM. Similarly, in an apparently all-or-none fashion, both produced an elevation in the dose-response curve for the actions of dimaprit at H2-receptors in the ileum; the response to all doses was increased about 30% with no significant change in the EC50 value. Metronidazole and 5-ASA did not alter dose-response curves for the tonic contractile response to histamine or curves generated by the cumulative addition of histamine. Also, neither altered the positive chronotropic response on isolated right atria or the phasic contractile response on isolated segments of jejunum and duodenum to histamine or dimaprit. Likewise, neither altered dose-response curves for the direct action of carbamylcholine at muscarinic receptors or for the indirect actions of dimethylphenylpiperazinium on the ileum. The effects of 5-ASA or metronidazole on the response to histamine could be prevented as well as reversed by scopolamine or tetrodotoxin. The results suggest that metronidazole and 5-ASA enhance the actions of histamine and dimaprit on the ileum by an action on myenteric plexus neurons.

  6. Tweaking Subtype Selectivity and Agonist Efficacy at (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) Receptors in a Small Series of BnTetAMPA Analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang-Yan; Larsen, Younes; Navarrete, Cristina Vara; Jensen, Anders A; Nielsen, Birgitte; Al-Musaed, Ali; Frydenvang, Karla; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Pickering, Darryl S; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2016-03-10

    A series of analogues of the (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist BnTetAMPA (5b) were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically in radioligand binding assays at native and cloned AMPA receptors and functionally by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology at the four homomeric AMPA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The analogues 6 and 7 exhibit very different pharmacological profiles with binding affinity preference for the subtypes GluA1 and GluA3, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of three ligands (6, 7, and 8) in complex with the agonist binding domain (ABD) of GluA2 show that they induce full domain closure despite their low agonist efficacies. Trp767 in GluA2 ABD could be an important determinant for partial agonism of this compound series at AMPA receptors, since agonist efficacy also correlated with the location of the Trp767 side chain. PMID:26862980

  7. Indanylacetic acid derivatives carrying 4-thiazolyl-phenoxy tail groups, a new class of potent PPAR alpha/gamma/delta pan agonists: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Joachim; Chen, Libing; Majumdar, Dyuti; Bullock, William H; Burns, Michael; Claus, Thomas; Dela Cruz, Fernando E; Daly, Michelle; Ehrgott, Frederick J; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Livingston, James N; Schoenleber, Robert W; Shapiro, Jeffrey; Yang, Ling; Tsutsumi, Manami; Ma, Xin

    2007-03-01

    Compounds that simultaneously activate the three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes alpha, gamma, and delta hold potential to address the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular conditions associated with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. We recently identified the indanylacetic acid moiety as a well-tunable PPAR agonist head group. Here we report the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of novel aryl tail group derivatives that led to a new class of potent PPAR pan agonists. While most of the tail group modifications imparted potent PPAR delta agonist activity, improvement of PPAR alpha and gamma activity required the introduction of new heterocyclic substituents that were not known in the PPAR literature. Systematic optimization led to the discovery of 4-thiazolyl-phenyl derivatives with potent PPAR alpha/gamma/delta pan agonistic activity. The lead candidate from this series was found to exhibit excellent ADME properties and superior therapeutic potential compared to known PPAR gamma activating agents by favorably modulating lipid levels in hApoA1 mice and hyperlipidemic hamsters, while normalizing glucose levels in diabetic rodent models. PMID:17274610

  8. Synthesis of (iso)quinoline, (iso)coumarin and (iso)chromene derivatives from acetylene compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabukhin, D. S.; Vasilyev, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Published data on the methods of synthesis of quinoline, isoquinoline, coumarin, isocoumarin, chromene and isochromene derivatives from acetylene compounds are summarized. The reactions catalyzed by metal complexes (Pd, Pt, Ru, Rh, Au, Ag, Ni, Cu, etc.) and transformations induced by various electrophilic reagents (Brynsted and Lewis acids) are considered. Moieties of the mentioned heterocyclic systems are present in many biologically active natural products and pharmaceutical agents. Besides, derivatives of these heterocycles are used in the manufacture of catalysts, dyes, perfumery and cosmetic products, corrosion inhibitors and so on. The bibliography includes 211 references.

  9. Adjunctive β2-agonist treatment reduces glycogen independently of receptor-mediated acid α-glucosidase uptake in the limb muscles of mice with Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Farah, Benjamin L; Madden, Lauran; Li, Songtao; Nance, Sierra; Bird, Andrew; Bursac, Nenad; Yen, Paul M; Young, Sarah P; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2014-05-01

    Enzyme or gene replacement therapy with acid α-glucosidase (GAA) has achieved only partial efficacy in Pompe disease. We evaluated the effect of adjunctive clenbuterol treatment on cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR)-mediated uptake and intracellular trafficking of GAA during muscle-specific GAA expression with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in GAA-knockout (KO) mice. Clenbuterol, which increases expression of CI-MPR in muscle, was administered with the AAV vector. This combination therapy increased latency during rotarod and wirehang testing at 12 wk, in comparison with vector alone. The mean urinary glucose tetrasaccharide (Glc4), a urinary biomarker, was lower in GAA-KO mice following combination therapy, compared with vector alone. Similarly, glycogen content was lower in cardiac and skeletal muscle following 12 wk of combination therapy in heart, quadriceps, diaphragm, and soleus, compared with vector alone. These data suggested that clenbuterol treatment enhanced trafficking of GAA to lysosomes, given that GAA was expressed within myofibers. The integral role of CI-MPR was demonstrated by the lack of effectiveness from clenbuterol in GAA-KO mice that lacked CI-MPR in muscle, where it failed to reverse the high glycogen content of the heart and diaphragm or impaired wirehang performance. However, the glycogen content of skeletal muscle was reduced by the addition of clenbuterol in the absence of CI-MPR, as was lysosomal vacuolation, which correlated with increased AKT signaling. In summary, β2-agonist treatment enhanced CI-MPR-mediated uptake and trafficking of GAA in mice with Pompe disease, and a similarly enhanced benefit might be expected in other lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:24448824

  10. Direct 2-acetoxylation of quinoline N-oxides via copper catalyzed C-H bond activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Zhu, Chongwei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie

    2013-08-01

    An efficient and direct 2-acetoxylation of quinoline N-oxides via copper(I) catalyzed C-H bond activation has been developed. This transformation was achieved using TBHP as an oxidant in the cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction of quinoline N-oxides with aldehydes, and provided a practical pathway to 2-acyloxyl quinolines. PMID:23793162

  11. Piperidine derivatives as nonprostanoid IP receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryoji; Sakagami, Hideki; Koiwa, Masakazu; Ito, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Isogaya, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of a new class of nonprostanoid prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP receptor) agonists is reported. Among them, the unique piperidine derivative 31b (2-((1-(2-(N-(4-tolyl)benzamido)ethyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)acetic acid) was a good IP receptor agonist and was 50-fold more selective for the human IP receptor than for other human prostanoid receptors. This compound showed good pharmacokinetic properties in dog. PMID:26996371

  12. Antifungal Quinoline Alkaloids from Waltheria indica.

    PubMed

    Cretton, Sylvian; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Azzollini, Antonio; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Voinesco, Francine; Michellod, Emilie; Sanglard, Dominique; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2016-02-26

    Chemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of five polyhydroxymethoxyflavonoids, namely, oxyanin A (1), vitexicarpin (3), chrysosplenol E (4), flindulatin (5), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6), and six quinolone alkaloids, waltheriones M-Q (2, 7, 8, 10, 11) and 5(R)-vanessine (9). Among these, compounds 2, 7, 8, 10, and 11 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY NMR experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by ECD. The isolated constituents and 10 additional quinoline alkaloids previously isolated from the roots of the plant were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and 10 compounds (7, 9, 11-16, 18, 21) showed growth inhibitory activity on both planktonic cells and biofilms (MIC ≤ 32 μg/mL). Their spectrum of activity against other pathogenic Candida species and their cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells were also determined. In addition, the cytological effect of the antifungal isolated compounds on the ultrastructure of C. albicans was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:26848627

  13. [Combination of TLR7 agonist T7-ethacrynic acid conjugate with ROR1 has a stronger anti-breast cancer effect].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Jin, Guangyi; Jin, Zhenchao; Liu, Bing; Peng, Boya; Gao, Ningning; Hu, Yunlong; Tang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the synergistic anti-breast cancer effect of Toll-like receptor 7 agonist T7-ethacrynic acid conjugate (T7-EA) in combination with receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1). Methods ROR1 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope was predicted using Syfpeithi online software. Mouse spleen lymphocytes and bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) were separately stimulated with 4 μmol/L T7-EA and 4 μmol/L ROR1 alone or in combination. ELISA assay was used to measure the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Xenograft model was established via subcutaneous injection of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells. The mice were weekly treated through intraperitoneal administration of 3 mg/kg T7-EA, 15 mg/kg ROR1 or the combination of T7-EA and ROR1. After four rounds of treatment, tumor tissues were weighed. Serum level of anti-4T1 tumor protein IgG was measured by ELISA. Specific CTL activity was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The peptide PYCDETSSV was chosen as an antigen epitope of breast cancer. The T7-EA highly activated in vitro lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner, which wasn't affected by other relevant peptides. The combination of T7-EA and ROR1 stimulated the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-12 by lymphocytes and TNF-α by bone marrow DCs. The growth of tumor in vivo was significantly inhibited by T7-EA combined with ROR1 compared with T7-EA or ROR1 alone. The specific CTL activity triggered by T7-EA combined with ROR1 was much stronger than that triggered by T7-EA or ROR1 alone. The titer of anti-4T1 tumor protein IgG induced by T7-EA combined with ROR1 was higher than that induced by T7-EA or ROR1. Conclusion The combination of T7-EA and ROR1 has a better killing effect on breast cancer. PMID:27363264

  14. Agonists of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids reduce infarct size and ameliorate cardiac dysfunction via activation of HO-1 and Wnt1 canonical pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian; Tsenovoy, Peter L; Thompson, Ellen A; Falck, John R; Touchon, Robert; Sodhi, Komal; Rezzani, Rita; Shapiro, Joseph I; Abraham, Nader G

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is complicated by ventricular fibrosis and associated diastolic and systolic failure. Emerging studies implicate Wnt1 signaling in the formation of new blood vessels. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)-mediated up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects against the detrimental consequences of MI in several animal models, however, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine these mechanisms in the LAD ligation animal model of post infarcted heart failure. Specifically, we sought to clarify the mechanistic basis of the interactions of the Wnt1 canonical pathway, HO-1 and associated angiogenesis. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were exposed to anoxia and treated with the EET agonist, NUDSA, in the presence and absence of tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP). Increased capillary density, and Wnt1 and HO-1 expression occurred in cells treated with NUDSA. Anoxic HMECs treated with NUDSA and Wnt1 siRNA, exhibited decreased in the expression of β-catenin and the Wnt1 target gene, PPARδ (p<0.05 vs. NUDSA). Furthermore, blocking the Wnt 1 antagonist, Dickkopf 1, by siRNA increased β-catenin and PPARδ expression, and this effect was further enhanced by the concurrent administration of NUDSA. In in vivo experiments, C57B16 mice were divided into 4 groups: sham, mice with MI via LAD ligation and mice with MI treated with NUDSA, with and without SnMP. Increased fractional area change (FAC) and myocardial angiogenesis were observed in mice treated with NUDSA (p<0.05 vs. MI). Increased expression of HO-1, Wnt1, β-catenin, adiponectin, and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (p-eNOS), and a decrease in the glycosylated subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, gp91(phox) expression occurred in cardiac tissue of mice treated with NUDSA (p<0.05 vs. MI). SnMP reversed these effects. This novel study demonstrates that increasing the canonical Wnt1 signaling

  15. Supramolecular aggregation of regioregular poly(4-alkyl-2,6-quinoline)s.

    PubMed

    Chen, S H; Zhu, Yan; Jenekhe, Samson A; Su, A C; Chen, S A

    2007-11-01

    Phase behavior and morphological features of regioregular, n-type semiconducting poly(4-alkyl-2,6-quinoline)s were examined in detail via a combination of thermal, microscopic, and diffraction methods. Two members (P4OQ and P4DQ, with n-octyl and n-decyl substitutions, respectively) in this series were selected as representatives. Results indicate the dominance of lamellar mesophase throughout the experimentally accessed temperature range (from ambient to above 300 degrees C), with lamellar spacing well-correlated with side-chain length and temperature. Optical textures observed via polarized light microscopy reveal clear domain-wall features in P4OQ but more solid-like characteristics for P4DQ; improved lamellar order was also observed for P4DQ as compared to P4OQ. These signify stronger tendency toward supramolecular self-assembly with increasing side-chain length. A model of molecular arrangement in the lamellar mesophase in which the free volume is identified as the gap between tips of extended (and interdigitated) side chains and the backbone of the neighboring chain is proposed to account for the observed variation of layer spacing with side-chain length and temperature. The presence of nanodomains (similar to those previously reported for p-type conjugated polymers) is also identified in the present n-type series, implying general existence of this inherent morphological heterogeneity in semiconducting hairy-rod polymers. This means that molecular aggregation is determined solely by ground-state intermolecular forces; differences in carrier transport characteristics are irrelevant during morphological development. Origins of these nanodomains are discussed in terms of backbone folding (via inherent chemical defects or elastic bending) as well as fringed-micelle aggregates. PMID:17929859

  16. Grafting polyethylenimine with quinoline derivatives for targeted imaging of intracellular Zn(2+) and logic gate operations.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Shi, Yupeng; Chen, Junying; Wong, Chap-Mo; Zhang, Heng; Li, Mei-Jin; Li, Cheuk-Wing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent Zn(2+) probe which exhibited excellent biocompatibility, water solubility, and cell-membrane permeability, was facilely synthesized in a single step by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) with quinoline derivatives. The primary amino groups in the branched PEI can increase water solubility and cell permeability of the probe PEIQ, while quinoline derivatives can specifically recognize Zn(2+) and reduce the potential cytotoxicity of PEI. Basing on fluorescence off-on mechanism, PEIQ demonstrated excellent sensing capability towards Zn(2+) in absolute aqueous solution, where a high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 38.1nM, and a high selectivity over competing metal ions and potential interfering amino acids, were achieved. Inspired by these results, elementary logic operations (YES, NOT and INHIBIT) have been constructed by employing PEIQ as the gate while Zn(2+) and EDTA as chemical inputs. Together with the low cytotoxicity and good cell-permeability, the practical application of PEIQ in living cell imaging was satisfactorily demonstrated, emphasizing its wide application in fundamental biology research. PMID:27612748

  17. The 5-amino acid N-terminal extension of non-sulfated drosulfakinin II is a unique target to generate novel agonists.

    PubMed

    Leander, M; Heimonen, J; Brocke, T; Rasmussen, M; Bass, C; Palmer, G; Egle, J; Mispelon, M; Berry, K; Nichols, R

    2016-09-01

    The ability to design agonists that target peptide signaling is a strategy to delineate underlying mechanisms and influence biology. A sequence that uniquely characterizes a peptide provides a distinct site to generate novel agonists. Drosophila melanogaster sulfakinin encodes non-sulfated drosulfakinin I (nsDSK I; FDDYGHMRF-NH2) and nsDSK II (GGDDQFDDYGHMRF-NH2). Drosulfakinin is typical of sulfakinin precursors, which are conserved throughout invertebrates. Non-sulfated DSK II is structurally related to DSK I, however, it contains a unique 5-residue N-terminal extension; drosulfakinins signal through G-protein coupled receptors, DSK-R1 and DSK-R2. Drosulfakinin II distinctly influences adult and larval gut motility and larval locomotion; yet, its structure-activity relationship was unreported. We hypothesized substitution of an N-terminal extension residue may alter nsDSK II activity. By targeting the extension we identified, not unexpectedly, analogs mimicking nsDSK II, yet, surprisingly, we also discovered novel agonists with increased (super) and opposite (protean) effects. We determined [A3] nsDSK II increased larval gut contractility rather than, like nsDSK II, decrease it. [N4] nsDSK II impacted larval locomotion, although nsDSK II was inactive. In adult gut, [A1] nsDSK II, [A2] nsDSKII, and [A3] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II, and [A4] nsDSK II and [A5] nsDSK II were more potent; [N3] nsDSK II and [N4] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II. This study reports nsDSK II signals through DSK-R2 to influence gut motility and locomotion, identifying a novel role for the N-terminal extension in sulfakinin biology and receptor activation; it also led to the discovery of nsDSK II structural analogs that act as super and protean agonists. PMID:27397853

  18. Novel 2,7-Substituted (S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acids: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Partial Agonists with Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Otake, Kazuya; Azukizawa, Satoru; Takeda, Shigemitsu; Fukui, Masaki; Kawahara, Arisa; Kitao, Tatsuya; Shirahase, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of 2,7-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated. (S)-2-(2-Furylacryloyl)-7-[2-(2-methylindane-2-yl)-5-methyloxazol-4-yl]methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid tert-butylamine salt (13jE) was identified as a potent human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-selective agonist (EC50=85 nM) and human protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B) inhibitor (IC50=1.0 µM). Compound 13jE partially activated PPARγ, but not PPARα or PPARδ, and antagonized farglitazar, a full PPARγ agonist. Cmax after the oral administration of 13jE at 10 mg/kg was 28.6 µg/mL (53 µM) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Repeated administration of 13jE and rosiglitazone for 14 d at 10 mg/kg/d decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride levels significantly in male KK-A(y) mice. Rosiglitazone, but not 13jE, significantly increased the plasma volume and liver weight. In conclusion, 13jE showed stronger hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and weaker hemodilution and hepatotoxic effects than rosiglitazone, suggesting that its safer efficacy may be due to its partial PPARγ agonism and PTP-1B inhibition. PMID:26633022

  19. Tomato PYR/PYL/RCAR abscisic acid receptors show high expression in root, differential sensitivity to the abscisic acid agonist quinabactin, and the capability to enhance plant drought resistance

    PubMed Central

    González-Guzmán, Miguel; Rodríguez, Lesia; Lorenzo-Orts, Laura; Pons, Clara; Sarrión-Perdigones, Alejandro; Fernández, Maria A.; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Forment, Javier; Moreno-Alvero, Maria; Cutler, Sean R.; Albert, Armando; Granell, Antonio; Rodríguez, Pedro L.

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the plant’s response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Sustainable production of food faces several key challenges, particularly the generation of new varieties with improved water use efficiency and drought tolerance. Different studies have shown the potential applications of Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors to enhance plant drought resistance. Consequently the functional characterization of orthologous genes in crops holds promise for agriculture. The full set of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors have been identified here. From the 15 putative tomato ABA receptors, 14 of them could be grouped in three subfamilies that correlated well with corresponding Arabidopsis subfamilies. High levels of expression of PYR/PYL/RCAR genes was found in tomato root, and some genes showed predominant expression in leaf and fruit tissues. Functional characterization of tomato receptors was performed through interaction assays with Arabidopsis and tomato clade A protein phosphatase type 2Cs (PP2Cs) as well as phosphatase inhibition studies. Tomato receptors were able to inhibit the activity of clade A PP2Cs differentially in an ABA-dependent manner, and at least three receptors were sensitive to the ABA agonist quinabactin, which inhibited tomato seed germination. Indeed, the chemical activation of ABA signalling induced by quinabactin was able to activate stress-responsive genes. Both dimeric and monomeric tomato receptors were functional in Arabidopsis plant cells, but only overexpression of monomeric-type receptors conferred enhanced drought resistance. In summary, gene expression analyses, and chemical and transgenic approaches revealed distinct properties of tomato PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors that might have biotechnological implications. PMID:24863435

  20. Activation of GPR119 by fatty acid agonists augments insulin release from clonal β-cells and isolated pancreatic islets and improves glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Moran, Brian M; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; McKillop, Aine M

    2014-04-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is emerging as a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study assessed the insulin-secreting properties of various GPR119 agonists and the distribution of GPR119 in pancreatic islets. Endogenous ligands [oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamine (PEA)] and chemically synthetic analogues (AS-1269574, PSN-375963) were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Secondary messenger assays such as intracellular Ca²⁺ and cAMP in response to agonists at normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions were assessed. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release. AS-1269574 was the most potent and selective agonist tested in isolated islets, with an EC₅₀ value of 9.7×10⁻⁷ mol/l, enhancing insulin release maximally by 63.2%. Stimulation was also observed with GPR119 ligands; OEA (3.0×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 37.5%), PSN-375963 (2.4×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 28.7%) and PEA (1.2×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 22.2%). Results were corroborated by studies using BRIN-BD11 cells, which revealed augmentation of intracellular Ca²⁺ and cAMP. Both OEA and AS-1269574 enhanced insulin release and improved glucose tolerance in vivo in NIH Swiss mice. These results demonstrate the cellular localisation of GPR119 on islet cells (β and pancreatic polypeptide cells), its activation of the β-cell stimulus-secretion coupling pathway and glucose lowering effects in vivo. PMID:24323890

  1. Biodegradation and interaction of quinoline and glucose in dual substrates system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2015-03-01

    An indigenous mixed culture of microorganisms, isolated from a full-scale coal gasification wastewater treatment plant, was used in degrading quinoline in presence of glucose as an alternative carbon source. The results showed that biodegradation kinetics of both quinoline and glucose could be described by first-order reaction kinetics model. It was also found that the biodegradation rate of quinoline was accelerated by the presence of glucose, while glucose degradation was inhibited by the presence of quinoline. Both the biomass yield coefficient and specific growth rate were increased with the increasing of the glucose concentrations in the dual substrates system. A sum kinetics model was used to describe the relative effects of the two substrates on their individual uptakes. The interaction parameter values indicated that quinoline exhibits stronger inhibition on glucose degradation. But for glucose, its effect on quinoline utilization was stimulative. Furthermore, the stimulation was positively correlated with the concentration of glucose in the system. PMID:25283366

  2. Multiple tyrosine metabolites are GPR35 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huayun; Hu, Haibei; Fang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Both kynurenic acid and 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid have been postulated to be the endogenous agonists of GPR35. However, controversy remains whether alternative endogenous agonists exist. The molecular targets accounted for many nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones are mostly unknown. Here we report the agonist activity of multiple tyrosine metabolites at the GPR35. Tyrosine metabolism intermediates that contain carboxylic acid and/or catechol functional groups were first selected. Whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays enabled by label-free optical biosensor were then used to characterize their agonist activity in native HT-29. Molecular assays including β-arrestin translocation, ERK phosphorylation and receptor internalization confirmed that GPR35 functions as a receptor for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, gentisate, rosmarinate, and 3-nitrotyrosine. These results suggest that multiple tyrosine metabolites are alternative endogenous ligands of GPR35, and GPR35 may represent a druggable target for treating certain diseases associated with abnormality of tyrosine metabolism. PMID:22523636

  3. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  4. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  5. The Pharmacology of TUG-891, a Potent and Selective Agonist of the Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), Demonstrates Both Potential Opportunity and Possible Challenges to Therapeutic Agonism

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; Mackenzie, Amanda E.; Butcher, Adrian J.; Pediani, John D.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Heathcote, Helen; Tobin, Andrew B.; Ulven, Trond

    2013-01-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4′-methyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein–coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof of principle studies to indicate the therapeutic potential of this receptor. TUG-891 displayed similar signaling properties to the LCFA α-linolenic acid at human FFA4 across various assay end points, including stimulation of Ca2+ mobilization, β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 recruitment, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Activation of human FFA4 by TUG-891 also resulted in rapid phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. While these latter events were associated with desensitization of the FFA4 signaling response, removal of TUG-891 allowed both rapid recycling of FFA4 back to the cell surface and resensitization of the FFA4 Ca2+ signaling response. TUG-891 was also a potent agonist of mouse FFA4, but it showed only limited selectivity over mouse FFA1, complicating its use in vivo in this species. Pharmacologic dissection of responses to TUG-891 in model murine cell systems indicated that activation of FFA4 was able to mimic many potentially beneficial therapeutic properties previously reported for LCFAs, including stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells, enhancing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and inhibiting release of proinflammatory mediators from RAW264.7 macrophages, which suggests promise for FFA4 as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Together, these results demonstrate both potential but also significant challenges that still need to be overcome to therapeutically target FFA4. PMID:23979972

  6. The pharmacology of TUG-891, a potent and selective agonist of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), demonstrates both potential opportunity and possible challenges to therapeutic agonism.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Mackenzie, Amanda E; Butcher, Adrian J; Pediani, John D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Heathcote, Helen; Tobin, Andrew B; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2013-11-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein-coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof of principle studies to indicate the therapeutic potential of this receptor. TUG-891 displayed similar signaling properties to the LCFA α-linolenic acid at human FFA4 across various assay end points, including stimulation of Ca²⁺ mobilization, β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 recruitment, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Activation of human FFA4 by TUG-891 also resulted in rapid phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. While these latter events were associated with desensitization of the FFA4 signaling response, removal of TUG-891 allowed both rapid recycling of FFA4 back to the cell surface and resensitization of the FFA4 Ca²⁺ signaling response. TUG-891 was also a potent agonist of mouse FFA4, but it showed only limited selectivity over mouse FFA1, complicating its use in vivo in this species. Pharmacologic dissection of responses to TUG-891 in model murine cell systems indicated that activation of FFA4 was able to mimic many potentially beneficial therapeutic properties previously reported for LCFAs, including stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells, enhancing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and inhibiting release of proinflammatory mediators from RAW264.7 macrophages, which suggests promise for FFA4 as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Together, these results demonstrate both potential but also significant challenges that still need to be overcome to therapeutically target FFA4. PMID:23979972

  7. Internal loop photo-biodegradation reactor used for accelerated quinoline degradation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling; Zhang, Yongming; Gan, Lu; Xu, Hua; Yan, Ning; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-07-01

    Biofilm biodegradation was coupled with ultra-violet photolysis using the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor for degradation of quinoline. Three protocols-photolysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation (P&B)-were used for degradation of quinoline in batch and continuous-flow experiments. For a 1,000 mg/L initial quinoline concentration, the volumetric removal rate for quinoline was 38 % higher with P&B than with B in batch experiments, and the P&B kinetics were the sum of kinetics from the P and B experiments. Continuous-flow experiments with an influent quinoline concentration of 1,000 mg/L also gave significantly greater quinoline removal in P&B, and the quinoline-removal kinetics for P&B were approximately equal to the sum of the removal kinetics for P and B. P&B similarly increased the rate and extent of quinoline mineralization, for which the kinetics for P&B were nearly equal to the sum of kinetics for P and B. These findings support that the rate-limiting step for mineralization was transformation of quinoline, which was accelerated by the simultaneous action of photolysis and biodegradation. PMID:24488551

  8. A novel quinoline derivative that inhibits mycobacterial FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bini; Ross, Larry; Reynolds, Robert C

    2013-07-01

    High throughput phenotypic screening of large commercially available libraries through two NIH programs has produced thousands of potentially interesting hits for further development as antitubercular agents. Unfortunately, these screens do not supply target information, and further follow up target identification is required to allow optimal rational design and development of highly active and selective clinical candidates. Cheminformatic analysis of the quinoline and quinazoline hits from these HTS screens suggested a hypothesis that certain compounds in these two classes may target the mycobacterial tubulin homolog, FtsZ. In this brief communication, activity of a lead quinoline against the target FtsZ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is confirmed as well as good in vitro whole cell antibacterial activity against Mtb H37Rv. The identification of a putative target of this highly tractable pharmacophore should help medicinal chemists interested in targeting FtsZ and cell division develop a rational design program to optimize this activity toward a novel drug candidate. PMID:23647650

  9. A new quinoline epoxide from the Australian plant Drummondita calida.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinzhou; Feng, Yunjiang; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M; Camp, David; Quinn, Ronald J; Davis, Rohan A

    2011-09-01

    A drug discovery program aimed at identifying new antimalarial leads from a prefractionated natural product library has resulted in the purification of a new quinoline alkaloid, (2' R)-2',3'-epoxy- N-methylatanine (1), along with eight known natural products, skimmianin, γ-fagarine, maculosidine, evolitrine, dictamnine, pteleine, N-methylatanine, and werneria chromene. Compound 1 displayed 74 % inhibition at 80 µM against a chloroquine -resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (Dd2). PMID:21472648

  10. Health and environmental-effects profile for quinoline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for quinoline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Quinoline has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (ql*) for quinoline is 12.48 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  11. Agonist pharmacology of two Drosophila GABA receptor splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. The Drosophila melanogaster gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunits, RDLac and DRC 17-1-2, form functional homo-oligomeric receptors when heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The subunits differ in only 17 amino acids, principally in regions of the N-terminal domain which determine agonist pharmacology in vertebrate ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors. A range of conformationally restricted GABA analogues were tested on the two homo-oligomers and their agonists pharmacology compared with that of insect and vertebrate iontropic GABA receptors. 2. The actions of GABA, isoguvacine and isonipecotic acid on RDLac and DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers were compared, by use of two-electrode voltage-clamp. All three compounds were full agonists of both receptors, but were 4-6 fold less potent agonists of DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers than of RDLac. However, the relative potencies of these agonists on each receptor were very similar. 3. A more complete agonist profile was established for RDLac homo-oligomers. The most potent agonists of these receptors were GABA, muscimol and trans-aminocrotonic acid (TACA), which were approximately equipotent. RDLac homo-oligomers were fully activated by a range of GABA analogues, with the order of potency: GABA > ZAPA ((Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid) > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid > or = isonipecotic acid > or = cis-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) > beta-alanine. 3-Aminopropane sulphonic acid (3-APS), a partial agonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, was the weakest agonist tested and 100 fold less potent than GABA. 4. SR95531, an antagonist of vertebrate GABAA receptors, competitively inhibited the GABA responses of RDLac homo-oligomers, which have previously been found to insensitive to bicuculline. However, its potency (IC50 500 microM) was much reduced when compared to GABAA receptors. 5. The agonist pharmacology of Drosophila RDLac homo-oligomers exhibits aspects of the characteristic pharmacology of

  12. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF QUINOLINE [AND IRIS SUMMARY] (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quinoline can be derived from petroleum, coal processing, production and use facilities, and shale oil. It is used as an intermediate in the production of various compounds and paints, and as a solvent for resins and terpenes. Acute exposures to quinoline vapors can result in irr...

  13. Degradation pathway of quinolines in a biofilm system under denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, S.S.; Arvin, E.; Mosbaek, H.; Hansen, A.B.

    1997-09-01

    This article reports for the first time the degradation pathways of quinoline, isoquinoline, and methylquinolines by a mixed culture in a biofilm under nitrate-reducing conditions. A simple reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using ultraviolet detection at 223 nm for determination of seven quinoline analogues and 15 metabolites was developed, and gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analyses were used for identification. The inhibition of nitrification by the parent compounds and their degradation products was assessed by a nitrification toxicity test called MINNTOX. Quinoline and 3-, 4-, 6-, and 8-methylquinoline were all transformed by hydroxylation into their 2-hydroxyquinoline analogues (2-quinolinones), and isoquinoline was transformed into 1-hydroxyisoquinoline. 2-Methylquinoline was not transformed by this microcosm, likely due to the blockage at position 2 by the methyl group. The hydroxylated metabolites of isoquinoline and quinolines methylated at the heterocyclic ring were not transformed further, whereas metabolites of quinoline and quinolines methylated at the homocyclic ring were hydrogenated at position 3 and 4, and the resulting 3,4-dihydro-2-quinolinone analogues accumulated. Of these metabolites, only 3,4-dihydro-2-quinolinone from the degradation of quinoline was further transformed into unidentified products. All quinolines and their metabolites had inhibiting effects on the nitrifying bacteria at the same level (ppm) in the applied bioassay, indicating that the inhibition of the compounds was not influenced by the initial transformation reactions.

  14. Structural Insights into the Quaternary Catalytic Mechanism of Hexameric Human Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase, a Key Enzyme in de novo NAD Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Gyun Kim, Tae; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Bu Kang, Gil; Youn Kang, Jung; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Yop An, Jun; Ryoung Park, Kyoung; Lee, Youngjin; Jun Im, Young; Hyuck Lee, Jun; Hyun Eom, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) catalyses the production of nicotinic acid mononucleotide, a precursor of de novo biosynthesis of the ubiquitous coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QPRT is also essential for maintaining the homeostasis of quinolinic acid in the brain, a possible neurotoxin causing various neurodegenerative diseases. Although QPRT has been extensively analysed, the molecular basis of the reaction catalysed by human QPRT remains unclear. Here, we present the crystal structures of hexameric human QPRT in the apo form and its complexes with reactant or product. We found that the interaction between dimeric subunits was dramatically altered during the reaction process by conformational changes of two flexible loops in the active site at the dimer-dimer interface. In addition, the N-terminal short helix α1 was identified as a critical hexamer stabilizer. The structural features, size distribution, heat aggregation and ITC studies of the full-length enzyme and the enzyme lacking helix α1 strongly suggest that human QPRT acts as a hexamer for cooperative reactant binding via three dimeric subunits and maintaining stability. Based on our comparison of human QPRT structures in the apo and complex forms, we propose a drug design strategy targeting malignant glioma. PMID:26805589

  15. Structural Insights into the Quaternary Catalytic Mechanism of Hexameric Human Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase, a Key Enzyme in de novo NAD Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Tae Gyun; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Kang, Gil Bu; Kang, Jung Youn; Lee, Jung-Gyu; An, Jun Yop; Park, Kyoung Ryoung; Lee, Youngjin; Im, Young Jun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) catalyses the production of nicotinic acid mononucleotide, a precursor of de novo biosynthesis of the ubiquitous coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QPRT is also essential for maintaining the homeostasis of quinolinic acid in the brain, a possible neurotoxin causing various neurodegenerative diseases. Although QPRT has been extensively analysed, the molecular basis of the reaction catalysed by human QPRT remains unclear. Here, we present the crystal structures of hexameric human QPRT in the apo form and its complexes with reactant or product. We found that the interaction between dimeric subunits was dramatically altered during the reaction process by conformational changes of two flexible loops in the active site at the dimer-dimer interface. In addition, the N-terminal short helix α1 was identified as a critical hexamer stabilizer. The structural features, size distribution, heat aggregation and ITC studies of the full-length enzyme and the enzyme lacking helix α1 strongly suggest that human QPRT acts as a hexamer for cooperative reactant binding via three dimeric subunits and maintaining stability. Based on our comparison of human QPRT structures in the apo and complex forms, we propose a drug design strategy targeting malignant glioma. PMID:26805589

  16. Fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, protect proximal tubular cells from albumin-bound fatty acids induced apoptosis via the activation of NF-kB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Nan; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hanzhe; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Albumin-bound fatty acids is the main cause of renal damage, PPARα is responsible in the metabolism of fatty acids. Previous study found that PPARα played a protective role in fatty acids overload associated tubular injury. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether fenofibrate, a PPARα ligands, could contribute to the renoprotective action in fatty acids overload proximal tubule epithelial cells. We observed in HK-2 cells that fenofibrate significantly inhibited fatty acids bound albumin (FA-BSA) induced up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8. Treatment with fenofibrate attenuated renal oxidative stress induced by FA-BSA as evidenced by decreased MDA level, increased SOD activity and catalase, GPx-1 expression. FA-BSA induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells were also obviously prevented by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of PPARα mRNA and protein in FA-BSA treated cells. Finally, the activation of NF-kB induced by FA-BSA was markedly suppressed by fenofibrate. Taken together, our study describes a renoprotective role of fenofibrate in fatty acids associated tubular toxicity, and the transcriptional activation of PPARα and suppression of NF-kB were at least partially involved. PMID:26617775

  17. Fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, protect proximal tubular cells from albumin-bound fatty acids induced apoptosis via the activation of NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Nan; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hanzhe; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Albumin-bound fatty acids is the main cause of renal damage, PPARα is responsible in the metabolism of fatty acids. Previous study found that PPARα played a protective role in fatty acids overload associated tubular injury. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether fenofibrate, a PPARα ligands, could contribute to the renoprotective action in fatty acids overload proximal tubule epithelial cells. We observed in HK-2 cells that fenofibrate significantly inhibited fatty acids bound albumin (FA-BSA) induced up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8. Treatment with fenofibrate attenuated renal oxidative stress induced by FA-BSA as evidenced by decreased MDA level, increased SOD activity and catalase, GPx-1 expression. FA-BSA induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells were also obviously prevented by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of PPARα mRNA and protein in FA-BSA treated cells. Finally, the activation of NF-kB induced by FA-BSA was markedly suppressed by fenofibrate. Taken together, our study describes a renoprotective role of fenofibrate in fatty acids associated tubular toxicity, and the transcriptional activation of PPARα and suppression of NF-kB were at least partially involved. PMID:26617775

  18. Dietary Effects of Oxidized Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Intact EPA on Hepatic Steatosis Induced by a High-sucrose Diet and Liver-X-receptor α Agonist in Mice.

    PubMed

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve lipid metabolism. The beneficial effects of PUFA-derived oxidation products have been increasingly reported. However, EPA is easily oxidized in food products and in the human body, generating various derivatives of oxidized EPA (oxEPA), such that these oxidation products may partially contribute to EPA's effect. We previously reported that oxEPA was more potent than intact EPA in reducing liver-X-receptor α (LXRα)-induced cellular triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation. However, the in vivo hypolipidemic effects of oxEPA remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of EPA and oxEPA on hepatic steatosis in mice induced by a high-sucrose diet and a synthetic LXRα agonist, TO-901317. Both EPA and oxEPA reduced TG accumulation in the liver and plasma biomarkers of liver injury. Furthermore, they suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes, but not β-oxidation genes, in a similar pattern as the biomarkers. Our results suggest that oxEPA and intact EPA suppress de novo lipogenesis to ameliorate hepatic steatosis. PMID:26876675

  19. Beta-Adrenergic Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Baroffio, Michele; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptoms-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. In this article, we first review the basic mechanisms by which the β2-adrenergic system contributes to the control of airway smooth muscle tone. Then, we go on describing the structural characteristics of β2-AR and the molecular basis of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and mechanisms of its desensitization/ dysfunction. In particular, phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A and β-adrenergic receptor kinase are examined in detail. Finally, we discuss the pivotal role of inhaled β2-AR agonists in the treatment of asthma and the concerns about their safety that have been recently raised.

  20. Novel polycarbo-substituted alkyl (thieno[3,2-c]quinoline)-2-carboxylates: synthesis and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Mphahlele, Malose Jack; Maluleka, Marole Maria; Makhafola, Tshepiso Jan; Mabeta, Peace

    2014-01-01

    Direct one-pot base-promoted conjugate addition-elimination of 6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde with methyl mercaptoacetate and subsequent cyclization afforded methyl [(6,8-dibromothieno[3,2-c]quinoline)]-2-carboxylate. The latter undergoes Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with arylboronic acids to yield exclusively the corresponding alkyl [(6,8-diarylthieno[3,2-c]quinoline)]-2-carboxylates,. The cytotoxicity of the prepared compounds was evaluated against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using the MTT assay. The effects of compounds 2, 3c and 4d on cell kinetics were further determined using the xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) system. In both the MTT assay and Real Time Cell Analysis, the compounds inhibited cancer cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, on the basis of the calculated LC50 values, the compounds compared favourably with nocodazole, a well-established anticancer drug. PMID:25401397

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of pyrimido [1, 2-a] quinoline moiety and its 2-substituted derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, A. G.; Halikar, N. K.

    2013-04-01

    2-Amino-3-cyano quinoline (1) and bis (methylthio) methylene malononitrile (2) were refluxed in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) in presence of catalytic amount of anhydrous potassium carbonate to afforded 3, 11-dicyano-4-imino-2-methylthio -4H-pyrimido [1, 2-a] quinoline (3). The latter were further reacted with different substituted aniline, phenol, hetryl amine and compound containing active methyl group. Afforded to 3, 11-dicyano-4-imino -4H-pyrimido [1, 2-a] quinoline and their 2-substuited derivatives (4a-7c). All these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral data, and screened for their antimicrobial activities.

  2. Synthesis of Substituted Quinolines by the Electrophilic Cyclization of N-(2-Alkynyl)anilines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Yao, Tuanli; Campo, Marino A.; Larock, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of substituted quinolines are readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the 6-endo-dig electrophilic cyclization of N-(2-alkynyl)anilines by ICl, I2, Br2, PhSeBr and p-O2NC6H4SCl. The reaction affords 3-halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing quinolines in moderate to good yields in the presence of various functional groups. Analogous quinolines bearing a hydrogen in the 3-position have been synthesized by the Hg(OTf)2-catalyzed ring closure of these same alkynylanilines. PMID:20161633

  3. Selective Removal of Nitrogen from Quinoline and Petroleum by Pseudomonas ayucida IGTN9m

    PubMed Central

    Kilbane, John J.; Ranganathan, Rajaram; Cleveland, Lisa; Kayser, Kevin J.; Ribiero, Claudia; Linhares, Monica M.

    2000-01-01

    Enrichment culture experiments employing soil and water samples obtained from petroleum-contaminated environments succeeded in the isolation of a pure culture possessing the ability to utilize quinoline as a sole nitrogen source but did not utilize quinoline as a carbon source. This culture was identified as Pseudomonas ayucida based on a partial 16S rRNA gene sequence, and the strain was given the designation IGTN9m. Examination of metabolites using thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry suggests that P. ayucida IGTN9m converts quinoline to 2-quinolinone and subsequently to 8-hydroxycoumarin. Resting cells of P. ayucida IGTN9m were shown to be capable of selectively removing about 68% of quinoline from shale oil in a 16-h treatment time. These results suggest that P. ayucida IGTN9m may be useful in petroleum biorefining for the selective removal of organically bound nitrogen from petroleum. PMID:10653737

  4. Molecular simulation of unusual dynamical properties of quinoline in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, C.; Soetens, J.-C.; Ahmad, N.; Adnan, R.

    2011-11-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of liquid quinoline between 276 and 320 K and liquid isoquinoline between 300 and 365 K have been done using a simple effective atom-atom potential. The translational diffusion coefficient of quinoline is found to present a small non-Arrhenius behavior. Rotational diffusion coefficients, second-order reorientational correlation times of the CH vectors and T1 13C NMR relaxation times of quinoline reproduce the non-Arrhenius break around 290 K observed experimentally for quinoline by different experimental techniques. Isoquinoline seems to present a non-Arrhenius behavior, too, though with less clear break temperatures. Such behaviors are correlated with a smooth continuous evolution of the structure at dimer level.

  5. Ultrasound promoted synthesis of quinolines using basic ionic liquids in aqueous media as a green procedure.

    PubMed

    Kowsari, Elaheh; Mallakmohammadi, M

    2011-01-01

    The basic ionic liquid (BIL) based on imidazolum cation efficiently catalyzes the condensation reaction of isatin with ketones by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous media for quinoline synthesis. When two different α-protons are available in a ketone, a mixture of two quinolines is obtained. In this method, one of the quinolines with high selectivity is produced. Another significant advantage of this method is omission of subsidiary reactions, such as aldol condensation. Compared with conventional methods, the main advantages of the present procedure are its being a green method, its milder conditions, necessary shorter reaction time, and its higher yields and selectivity without the need for a transition metal catalyst. The use of BILs and ultrasound promoted this protocol under room temperature. By changing the type of BILs, ultrasonic irradiation time, and ultrasonic frequency, synthesis of quinolines is manageable. PMID:20719553

  6. Anti-Plasmodium falciparum activity of quinoline-sulfonamide hybrids.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Boechat, Núbia; Ferreira, Maria de Lourdes G; Júnior, Carlos C S; Jesus, Antônio M L; Leite, Milene M M; Souza, Nicolli B; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2015-09-01

    Fifteen quinoline-sulfonamide hybrids, with a 7-chloroquinoline moiety connected by a linker group to arylsulfonamide moieties with different substituents in the 4-position were synthesized and assayed against Plasmodium falciparum. The compounds displayed high schizonticidal blood activity in vitro, with IC50 values ranging from 0.05 to 1.63 μM, in the anti-HPR2 assay against clone W2-chloroquine-resistant; ten of them showed an IC50 (ranging from 0.05 to 0.40 μM) lower than that of chloroquine and sulfadoxine. Among them, two compounds inhibited Plasmodium berghei parasitemia by 47% and 49% on day 5 after mice inoculation. The most active, in vivo, hybrid 13 is considered to be a new prototype for the development of an antimalarial drug against chloroquine-resistant parasites. PMID:26190461

  7. 8-Hy­droxy­quinolin-1-ium nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Wan-Sin; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt, C9H8NO+·NO3 −, the quinoline ring system is essentially planar with a maximum deviation of 0.043 (1) Å. In the crystal, an R 2 2(7) ring motif is formed by inter­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cation and the anion. In addition, inter­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the two ions, generating an R 2 2(8) ring motif. These sets of ring motifs are further linked into a ribbon along the a axis via inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21589082

  8. Bioassay of quinoline, 5-fluoroquinoline, carbazole, 9-methylcarbazole and 9-ethylcarbazole in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Weyand, E H; Defauw, J; McQueen, C A; Meschter, C L; Meegalla, S K; LaVoie, E J

    1993-10-01

    Quinoline and carbazole are among the more prevalent aza-arenes present as components of environmental pollutants. Both of these aza-arenes are hepatocarcinogenic to mice when administered in the diet. The hepatocarcinogenic potential of quinoline is consistent with its mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and potential to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in rat hepatocytes. Structure-activity studies with fluorinated quinolines indicate that the presence of a fluorine atom at the 5-position of quinoline may inhibit detoxification and result in enhanced genotoxic potency. Quinoline and 5-fluoroquinoline were assayed in newborn CD-1 mice at a total dose of 1.75 mumol to establish their relative tumorigenic activity. Liver tumours developed in 60 and 90% of the male newborn mice treated with quinoline and 5-fluoroquinoline, respectively. The majority of liver tumours observed among the quinoline-treated mice were classified as adenomas. In contrast, liver carcinomas developed in most of the male mice treated with 5-fluoroquinoline. Unlike the well established genotoxic potential of quinoline, there is limited evidence for carbazole having either genotoxic or carcinogenic activity. Whereas carbazole is not mutagenic towards several strains of S. typhimurium, both 9-methylcarbazole and 9-ethylcarbazole are active as mutagens in S. typhimurium TA100. Carbazole, 9-methylcarbazole and 9-ethylcarbazole were assayed in primary rat hepatocytes to assess their relative potential to induce UDS in rat hepatocytes; only 9-ethylcarbazole did so. These carbazole derivatives were also assayed in newborn CD-1 mice at a total dose of 1.75 mumol. Neither carbazole nor either of these 9-alkylcarbazoles produced a significant tumorigenic response in this bioassay system. PMID:8225128

  9. Agonistic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and its metabolites on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through molecular docking simulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) localised in cell membranes have been shown to alter the levels of BDNF in the brain, suggesting that PUFAs and BDNF could have physical interaction with each other. To decipher the molecular mechanism through which PUFAs modulates BDNF’s activity, molecular docking was performed for BDNF with PUFAs and its metabolites, with 4-Methyl Catechol as a control. Results Inferring from molecular docking studies, lipoxin A4 (LXA4), and a known anti-inflammatory bioactive metabolite derived from PUFAs, with a binding energy of −3.98 Kcal/mol and dissociation constant of 1.2mM showed highest binding affinity for BDNF in comparison to other PUFAs and metabolites considered in the study. Further, the residues Lys 18, Thr 20, Ala 21, Val 22, Phe 46, Glu 48, Lys 50, Lys 58, Thr 75, Gln 77, Arg 97 and Ile 98 form hot point motif, which on interaction enhances BDNF’s function. Conclusion These results suggest that PUFAs and their metabolites especially, LXA4, modulate insulin resistance by establishing a physical interaction with BDNF. Similar interaction(s) was noted between BDNF and resolvins and protectins but were of lesser intensity compared to LXA4. PMID:22943296

  10. Groove binding mediated structural modulation and DNA cleavage by quinoline appended chalcone derivative.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Himank; Devaraji, Vinod; Prasath, Rangaraj; Jadhao, Manojkumar; Joshi, Ritika; Bhavana, Purushothaman; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The present study embodies the detail DNA binding interaction of a potential bioactive quinoline appended chalcone derivative (E)-3-(anthracen-10-yl)-1-(6,8-dibromo-2-methylquinolin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (ADMQ) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and its consequences by UV-Vis absorption, steady state fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichromism, helix melting, agarose gel electrophoresis, molecular docking, Induced Fit Docking (IFD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence study reveal that the molecule undergoes considerable interaction with the nucleic acid. The control KI quenching experiment shows the lesser accessibility of ADMQ molecule to the ionic quencher (I(-)) in presence of ctDNA as compared to the bulk aqueous phase. Insignificant change in helix melting temperature as well as in circular dichromism (CD) spectra points toward non-covalent groove binding interaction. The moderate rotational confinement of this chalcone derivative (anisotropy=0.106) trapped in the nucleic acid environment, the comparative displacement assay with well-known minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 and intercalator Ethidium Bromide establishes the minor groove binding interactions of the probe molecule. Molecular docking, IFD and MD simulation reveal that the DNA undergoes prominent morphological changes in terms of helix unwinding and bending to accommodate ADMQ in a crescent shape at an angle of 110° in a sequence specific manner. During interaction, ADMQ rigidifies and bends the sugar phosphate backbone of the nucleic acid and thereby shortens its overall length by 3.02Å. Agarose gel electrophoresis experiment with plasmid pBR 322 reveals that the groove binded ADMQ result in a concentration dependent cleavage of plasmid DNA into its supercoiled and nicked circular form. The consolidated spectroscopic research described herein provides quantitative insight into the interaction of a heterocyclic chalcone derivative

  11. Time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry identification of quinoline alkaloids in honey.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cabo, Tamara; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Rodríguez, Isaac; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-08-01

    Time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), following a previous chromatographic (gas or liquid chromatography) separation step, is applied to the identification and structural elucidation of quinoline-like alkaloids in honey. Both electron ionization (EI) MS and positive electrospray (ESI+) MS spectra afforded the molecular ions (M(.+) and M+H(+), respectively) of target compounds with mass errors below 5 mDa. Scan EI-MS and product ion scan ESI-MS/MS spectra permitted confirmation of the existence of a quinoline ring in the structures of the candidate compounds. Also, the observed fragmentation patterns were useful to discriminate between quinoline derivatives having the same empirical formula but different functionalities, such as aldoximes and amides. In the particular case of phenylquinolines, ESI-MS/MS spectra provided valuable clues regarding the position of the phenyl moiety attached to the quinoline ring. The aforementioned spectral information, combined with retention times matching, led to the identification of quinoline and five quinoline derivatives, substituted at carbon number 4, in honey samples. An isomer of phenyquinoline was also noticed; however, its exact structure could not be established. Liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography (GC) TOF-MS were applied to the screening of the aforementioned compounds in a total of 62 honeys. Species displaying higher occurrence frequencies were 4-quinolinecarbonitrile, 4-quinolinecarboxaldehyde, 4-quinolinealdoxime, and the phenylquinoline isomer. The Pearson test revealed strong correlations among the first three compounds. PMID:26041455

  12. Quinolines in clothing textiles--a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Ostman, Conny

    2014-05-01

    A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body. PMID:24604325

  13. Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of certain 4-(phenylamino)furo[2,3-b]quinoline and 2-(furan-2-yl)-4-(phenylamino)quinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue-Ling; Chen, Yeh-Long; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi; Chen, I-Li; Wang, Tai-Chi; Han, Chien-Hwa

    2005-02-01

    Certain 4-(phenylamino)furo[2,3-b]quinoline and 2-(furan-2-yl)-4-(phenylamino)quinoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against the full panel of NCIs 60 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results indicated these tricyclic 4-(phenylamino)furo[2,3-b]quinolines were more cytotoxic than their corresponding 2-(furan-2-yl)-4-(phenylamino)quinoline isomers. For the 4-(phenylamino)furo[2,3-b]quinolines, compounds 2a and 3d are two of the most potent with a mean GI50 value of 0.025 microM in each case. Inactivity of 2b and 2c (positional isomers of 2a) indicated that both electronic environment, and the distance between intercalating pharmacophore and H-bond-donating MeO group are important. For the 2-(furan-2-yl)-4-(phenylamino)quinoline isomers, compound 12 (a mean GI50 of 4.36 microM), which bears a para-COMe substituent, is more active than its meta-substituted counterpart 13 (10.5 microM). However, the electron-donating MeO substituent is preferred at the meta-position, and the cytotoxicity for the meta-substituted derivatives decreased in the order: MeO derivative 14b (3.05 microM) > oxime 16 (6.85 microM) > ketone 13 (10.5 microM) > methyl oxime 18 (20.6 microM). PMID:17191973

  14. Discovery and SAR of muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1) allosteric activators from a molecular libraries high throughput screen. Part I: 2,5-dibenzyl-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-ones as positive allosteric modulators

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changho; Chatterjee, Arindam; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Panarese, Joseph D.; Niswender, Colleen; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a 2012 high-throughput screen of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) against the human muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1) for positive allosteric modulators is reported. A content-rich screen utilizing an intracellular calcium mobilization triple-addition protocol allowed for assessment of all three modes of pharmacology at M1, including agonist, positive allosteric modulator, and antagonist activities in a single screening platform. We disclose a dibenzyl-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-one hit (DBPQ, CID 915409) and examine N-benzyl pharmacophore/SAR relationships versus previously reported quinolin-3(5H)-ones and isatins, including ML137. SAR and consideration of recently reported crystal structures, homology modeling, and structure-function relationships using point mutations suggests a shared binding mode orientation at the putative common allosteric binding site directed by the pendant N-benzyl substructure. PMID:25435150

  15. The Poly-γ-d-Glutamic Acid Capsule Surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis Capsule Is a Novel Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonist.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jun Ho; Lee, Hae-Ri; Cho, Min-Hee; Park, Ok-Kyu; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-eun

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium that causes a highly lethal infectious disease, anthrax. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule is one of the major virulence factors of B. anthracis, along with exotoxins. PGA enables B. anthracis to escape phagocytosis and immune surveillance. Our previous study showed that PGA activates the human macrophage cell line THP-1 and human dendritic cells, resulting in the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (M. H. Cho et al., Infect Immun 78:387-392, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00956-09). Here, we investigated PGA-induced cytokine responses and related signaling pathways in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) using Bacillus licheniformis PGA as a surrogate for B. anthracis PGA. Upon exposure to PGA, BMDMs produced proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-12p40, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in a concentration-dependent manner. PGA stimulated Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing either TLR2 or TLR4. The ability of PGA to induce TNF-α and IL-6 was retained in TLR4(-/-) but not TLR2(-/-) BMDMs. Blocking experiments with specific neutralizing antibodies for TLR1, TLR6, and CD14 showed that TLR6 and CD14 also were necessary for PGA-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, PGA enhanced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which are responsible for expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, PGA-induced TNF-α production was abrogated not only in MyD88(-/-) BMDMs but also in BMDMs pretreated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and NF-κB. These results suggest that immune responses induced by PGA occur via TLR2, TLR6, CD14, and MyD88 through activation of MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways. PMID:26195551

  16. The Poly-γ-d-Glutamic Acid Capsule Surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis Capsule Is a Novel Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jun Ho; Lee, Hae-Ri; Cho, Min-Hee; Park, Ok-Kyu; Park, Jungchan

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium that causes a highly lethal infectious disease, anthrax. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule is one of the major virulence factors of B. anthracis, along with exotoxins. PGA enables B. anthracis to escape phagocytosis and immune surveillance. Our previous study showed that PGA activates the human macrophage cell line THP-1 and human dendritic cells, resulting in the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (M. H. Cho et al., Infect Immun 78:387–392, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00956-09). Here, we investigated PGA-induced cytokine responses and related signaling pathways in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) using Bacillus licheniformis PGA as a surrogate for B. anthracis PGA. Upon exposure to PGA, BMDMs produced proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-12p40, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in a concentration-dependent manner. PGA stimulated Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing either TLR2 or TLR4. The ability of PGA to induce TNF-α and IL-6 was retained in TLR4−/− but not TLR2−/− BMDMs. Blocking experiments with specific neutralizing antibodies for TLR1, TLR6, and CD14 showed that TLR6 and CD14 also were necessary for PGA-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, PGA enhanced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which are responsible for expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, PGA-induced TNF-α production was abrogated not only in MyD88−/− BMDMs but also in BMDMs pretreated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and NF-κB. These results suggest that immune responses induced by PGA occur via TLR2, TLR6, CD14, and MyD88 through activation of MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways. PMID:26195551

  17. Synthesis of quinoxalines or quinolin-8-amines from N-propargyl aniline derivatives employing tin and indium chlorides.

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Stefan; Himmelsbach, Markus; Schöfberger, Wolfgang

    2015-09-28

    Pyrazino compounds such as quinoxalines are 1,4-diazines with widespread occurrence in nature. Quinolin-8-amines are isomerically related and valuable scaffolds in organic synthesis. Herein, we present intramolecular main group metal Lewis acid catalyzed formal hydroamination as well as hydroarylation methodology using mono-propargylated aromatic ortho-diamines. The annulations can be conducted utilizing equal aerobic conditions with either stannic chloride or indium(iii) chloride and represent primary examples for main group metal catalyzed 6-exo-dig and 6-endo-dig, respectively, cyclizations in such settings. Both types of reactions can also be utilized in a one-pot manner starting from ortho-nitro N-propargyl anilines using stoichiometric amounts SnCl2·2H2O or In powder. Mechanistic considerations are presented regarding the substituent-depending regioselectivity. PMID:26280508

  18. Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 may protect against cognitive impairment in rats of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yue-Qing; Wu, Yi-Fang; Wang, Da-Peng; Lin, Qi; Hai, Jian

    2016-10-15

    The present study further investigated the protective effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (URB) on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Spatial learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze and by measuring Long-term potentiation. The expression of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP)-2, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP)-43, synaptophysin, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), FAAH, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D(NAPE-PLD) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MGL) as well as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway molecules and downstream targets including AKT, phosphorylated (p-)AKT, cyclic AMP response element- binding protein (CREB), p-CREB, Bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD), p-BAD, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, p-GSK-3β, forkhead box protein (FOXO) 3A and p-FOXO3A was determined by western blotting. WIN and URB treatment improved learning and memory performance, effects that were abolished by co-administration of the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, WIN and URB reversed the decreases in MAP-2 and synaptophysin expression resulting from CCH, and stimulated BDNF and CB1 expression as well as CREB, FOXO3A, GSK-3β, and BAD phosphorylation, confirming that WIN and URB mediate neuroprotection by preventing neuronal apoptosis and improving cognition via PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings suggest that WIN and URB are promising agents for therapeutic management of CCH. PMID:27424778

  19. PPAR dual agonists: are they opening Pandora's Box?

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Rose, Madhankumar; Ganti, Subrahmanya S; Krishan, Pawan; Singh, Manjeet

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the major cause of mortality in patients of diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily comprising of three subtypes such as PPARalpha, PPARgamma and PPARdelta/beta. Activation of PPARalpha reduces triglycerides and involves in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARgamma causes insulin sensitization and enhances glucose metabolism, whereas activation of PPARdelta enhances fatty acid metabolism. Current therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of diabetes do not inhibit the associated secondary cardiovascular complications. Hence, the development of multimodal drugs which can reduce hyperglycemia and concomitantly inhibit the progression of secondary cardiovascular complications may offer valuable therapeutic option. Several basic and clinical studies have exemplified the beneficial effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma ligands in preventing the cardiovascular risks. The PPARalpha/gamma dual agonists are developed to increase insulin sensitivity and simultaneously prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. Such compounds are under clinical trials and proposed for treatment of Type II diabetes with secondary cardiovascular complications. However, PPARalpha/gamma dual agonists such as muraglitazar, tesaglitazar and ragaglitazar have been noted to produce several cardiovascular risks and carcinogenicity, which raised number of questions about the clinical applications of dual agonists in diabetes and its associated complications. The ongoing basic studies have elucidated the cardio protective role of PPARdelta. Therefore, further studies are on the track to develop PPARalpha/delta and PPAR gamma/delta dual agonists and PPARalpha/gamma/delta pan agonists for the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications. The present review critically analyzes the protective and detrimental effect of PPAR agonists in

  20. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects of novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Humeniuk, Rita; Kaczmarek, Lukasz; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Cellular effects of novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were studied. These compounds are synthetic analogs of plant alkaloid neocryptolepine (5-methyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) present in extracts from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. They are traditionally used in natural medicine in Central and West Africa. Previous molecular and computational studies indicated that these compounds were DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II. We have extended our studies on their mode of action to the cellular level. Past experiments have shown that these compounds were active in vitro against cell lines derived from solid tumors, so for the present studies we selected leukemic cell lines. Jurkat acute T cell, CCRF-CEM T lymphoblastoid, THP-1 acute monocytic, HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemias, and HL-60/MX2 subline with reduced expression of topoisomerase II were used. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects of the indolo[2,3-b]quinoline compounds. We also tested if these compounds were able to induce apoptosis in the cells. Our studies revealed that novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were more cytotoxic to all cell lines than etoposide (used as a reference topoisomerase II inhibitor), and that their cytotoxicity depended on the substituents introduced to the indolo[2,3-b]quinoline core. Surprisingly, our studies have shown that HL-60/MX2 cell line and also THP-1 cell line, resistant to etoposide, were susceptible to methyl- and methoxy-substituted indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives. In parallel to the evaluation of cytotoxicity we studied cell cycle effects of these compounds. Treatment of HL-60 cells with etoposide in subcytotoxic concentrations resulted in a massive accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. When we used subcytotoxic concentrations of our novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells was not affected. Moreover, the cell cycle of HL-60/MX2 cells was not influenced by

  1. Discovery of 6-(4-{[5-Cyclopropyl-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazol-4-yl]methoxy}piperidin-1-yl)-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylic Acid: A Novel FXR Agonist for the Treatment of Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Genin, Michael J; Bueno, Ana B; Agejas Francisco, Javier; Manninen, Peter R; Bocchinfuso, Wayne P; Montrose-Rafizadeh, Chahrzad; Cannady, Ellen A; Jones, Timothy M; Stille, John R; Raddad, Eyas; Reidy, Charles; Cox, Amy; Michael, M Dodson; Michael, Laura F

    2015-12-24

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the "metabolic" subfamily of nuclear receptors. Several FXR agonists have been reported in the literature to have profound effects on plasma lipids in animal models. To discover novel and effective therapies for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, we have developed a series of potent FXR agonists that robustly lower plasma LDL and vLDL in LDLr-/- mice. To this end the novel piperidinylisoxazole system LY2562175 was discovered. This molecule is a potent and selective FXR agonist in vitro and has robust lipid modulating properties, lowering LDL and triglycerides while raising HDL in preclinical species. The preclinical ADME properties of LY2562175 were consistent with enabling once daily dosing in humans, and it was ultimately advanced to the clinic for evaluation in humans. The synthesis and biological profile of this molecule is discussed. PMID:26568144

  2. Zero Kinetic Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Benzo[h]quinoline.

    PubMed

    Harthcock, Colin; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2015-12-17

    We report zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy of benzo[h]quinoline (BhQ) via resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) through the first electronically excited state S1. From the simulated REMPI spectra with and without Herzberg-Teller coupling, we conclude that vibronic coupling plays a minor but observable role in the electronic excitation to the S1 state. We further compare the S1 state of BhQ with the first two electronically excited states of phenanthrene, noticing a similarity of the S1 state of BhQ with the second electronically excited state S2 of phenanthrene. In the ZEKE spectra of BhQ, the vibrational frequencies of the cationic state D0 are consistently higher than those of the intermediate neutral state, indicating enhanced bonding upon ionization. The sparse ZEKE spectra, compared with the spectrum of phenanthrene containing rich vibronic activities, further imply that the nitrogen atom has attenuated the structural change between S1 and D0 states. We speculate that the nitrogen atom can withdraw an electron in the S1 state and donate an electron in the D0 state, thereby minimizing the structural change during ionization. The origin of the first electronically excited state is determined to be 29,410 ± 5 cm(-1), and the adiabatic ionization potential is determined to be 65,064 ± 7 cm(-1). PMID:26039927

  3. UV action spectroscopy of protonated PAH derivatives. Methyl substituted quinolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klærke, B.; Holm, A. I. S.; Andersen, L. H.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the production of molecular photofragments upon UV excitation of PAH derivatives, relevant for the interstellar medium. Methods: The action absorption spectra of protonated gas-phase methyl-substituted quinolines (CH3 - C9H7NH+) have been recorded in the 215-338 nm spectral range using the electrostatic storage ring ELISA, an electrospray ion source and 3 ns UV laser pulses. Results: It is shown that the absorption profile is both redshifted and broadened when moving the methyl group from the heterocycle containing nitrogen to the homoatomic ring. The absorption profiles are explained by TD-DFT calculations. The dissociation time of the studied molecules is found to be of several milliseconds at 230 nm and it is shown that after redistribution of the absorbed energy the molecules dissociate in several channels. The dissociation time found is an order of magnitude faster than the estimated IR relaxation time. Photophysical properties of both nitrogen containing and methyl-substituted PAHs are interesting in an astrophysical context in connection with identifying the aromatic component of the interstellar medium.

  4. Regioselective demethylation of quinoline derivatives. A DFT rationalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belferdi, Fatiha; Merabet, Naima; Belkhiri, Lotfi; Douara, Bachir

    2016-08-01

    Demethylation of compound 2,7-dimethoxyquinoline-3-carbaldehyde 1, is carried out using BBr3. However, all attempts led, either to the starting material or to the regioselective demethylation at position 2 affording the product 4a. The nature (donor or acceptor) and the position of the R (CHO or CN) group is likely to play a role in the preventing the demethylation at position 7. To address this phenomena, the demethylation of 2-chloro-7-methoxyquinoline-3-carbaldehyde 2 and 2,7-dimethoxyquinoline-3-carbaldehyde 3 has been carried out. To support the results obtained, theoretical computations at DFT level (vide infra) have been carried out upon compound 1. The exploration of how the gas-phase demethylation process on Quinoline can be affected at a position 7 center by stepwise substation effects using different electro-donor and attractor groups, show that demethylation process seems to be more favorable when substituent is an electro-donor. This is sustained by bond energy and thermodynamic analyses (vide infra).

  5. Synthesis of quinoline-3-carboxylates by a Rh(II)-catalyzed cyclopropanation-ring expansion reaction of indoles with halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this letter, we report a novel synthesis of ethyl quinoline-3-carboxylates from reactions between a series of indoles and halodiazoacetates. The formation of the quinoline structure is probably the result of a cyclopropanation at the 2- and 3-positions of the indole followed by ring-opening of the cyclopropane and elimination of H–X. PMID:26664614

  6. Antiglycation activity of quinoline derivatives- a new therapeutic class for the management of type 2 diabetes complications.

    PubMed

    Bano, Bilquees; Abbasi, Sanaullah; Khan, Jalaluddin A J; Hussain, Shafqat; Rasheed, Saima; Perveen, Shahnaz; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    We report here a new class of compounds, quinoline derivatives, as potential inhibitors of in vitro bovine serum albumin-methylglyoxal glycation. Among compounds 1-19, compound 14 was found to be the most active analog with IC₅₀ of 282.98 ± 8.4 µM. Compounds 12 (IC₅₀ = 661.78 ± 8.7 µM) and 15 (IC₅₀ = 629.43 ± 7.85 7 µM) were also identified as modest inhibitors, in comparison to the standard inhibitor, rutin (IC₅₀ = 294.50 ± 1.5 µM). When evaluated for antioxidant activity through in vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay, compounds 3 (IC₅₀ = 2.19 ± 0.27 µM), 6 (IC₅₀ = 7.35 ± 2.27 µM), 11 (IC₅₀ = 8.96 ± 0.56 µM), and 12 (IC₅₀ = 10.11 ± 2.03 µM), and 15 (IC₅₀ = 7.01 ± 3.87 µM) were found to be more active than the standard i.e. gallic acid (IC₅₀ = 23.34 ± 0.43 µM). These compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxicity against rat fibroblast cell line (3T3 cell line). All compounds were found to be non-toxic in cellular model. This study identifies quinoline derivatives as a new class of inhibitors of protein glycation in vitro, along with antioxidant and non-toxic nature. These properties make them interesting leads for further studies as potential anti-diabetic agents. PMID:24875825

  7. Piperidine derivatives as nonprostanoid IP receptor agonists 2.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Hiroaki; Ishigaki, Takeshi; Morita, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Isogaya, Masafumi

    2016-06-15

    We searched for a strong and selective nonprostanoid IP agonist bearing piperidine and benzanilide moieties. Through optimization of substituents on the benzanilide moiety, the crucial part of the agonist, 43 (2-((1-(2-(N-(4-tolyl)benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamido)ethyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)acetic acid monohydrate monohydrochloride) was discovered and exhibited strong platelet aggregation inhibition (IC50=21nM) and 100-fold selectivity for IP receptor over other PG receptors. The systemic exposure level and bioavailability after oral administration of 43 were also good in dog. PMID:27133594

  8. Novel quinolines carrying pyridine, thienopyridine, isoquinoline, thiazolidine, thiazole and thiophene moieties as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Alsaid, Mansour S; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S; Ragab, Fatma A; Al-Mishari, Abdullah A; Almoqbil, Abdulaziz N

    2016-06-01

    As a part of ongoing studies in developing new anticancer agents, novel 1,2-dihydropyridine 4, thienopyridine 5, isoquinolines 6-20, acrylamide 21, thiazolidine 22, thiazoles 23-29 and thiophenes 33-35 bearing a biologically active quinoline nucleus were synthesized. The structure of newly synthesized compounds was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses and spectral data. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against the breast cancer cell line MCF7. 2,3-Dihydrothiazole-5-carboxamides 27, 25, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (34), 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (7), 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-cyclohepta[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (35), 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (6), 2-cyano-3-(dimethylamino)-N-(quinolin-3-yl)acrylamide (21), 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitriles (11) and (8) exhibited higher activity (IC50 values of 27-45 μmol L-1) compared to doxorubicin (IC50 47.9 μmol L-1). LQ quinolin-3-yl)-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (12), 2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxamide (28) and quinolin-3-yl)-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (15) show activity comparable to doxorubicin, while (quinolin-3-yl)-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (9), 2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxamide (24), thieno [3,4-c] pyridine-4(5H)-one (5), cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (33) and (quinolin-3-yl)-6-stryl-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (10) exhibited moderate activity, lower than doxorubicin. PMID:27279061

  9. Lowest energy vibrational modes of some naphthalene derivatives: Azulene, quinoline, isoquinoline - Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Pirali, O.; Loquais, Y.; Falvo, C.; Bréchignac, Ph.

    2013-02-01

    Far infrared (FIR) gas phase absorption spectra of azulene, quinoline and isoquinoline have been recorded using a Fourier transform Bruker IFS125 interferometer at medium resolution (0.5 cm-1). Assignments of these weak vibrational bands were performed using density-functional theory calculations carried out at the harmonic and anharmonic levels. Agreement between observed and calculated band positions is better than 5% for azulene and 1% for quinoline and isoquinoline. The relative band intensities are also correctly predicted. Molecular structure dependence of the FIR spectra is discussed based on the comparative study of three selected FIR modes.

  10. Synthesis of substituted quinolines via allylic amination and intramolecular Heck-coupling.

    PubMed

    Murru, Siva; McGough, Brandon; Srivastava, Radhey S

    2014-12-01

    A new catalytic approach for the synthesis of substituted quinolines via C-N and C-C bond formation using 2-haloaryl hydroxylamines and allylic C-H substrates is described. Fe-catalyzed allylic C-H amination followed by Pd-catalyzed intramolecular Heck-coupling and aerobic dehydrogenation deliver the valuable quinoline and naphthyridine heterocycles in good to excellent overall yields. In this process, Pd(OAc)2 plays a dual role in catalyzing Heck coupling as well as aerobic dehydrogenation of dihydroquinolines. PMID:25247637

  11. Convergent Synthesis of 2-Aryl-Substituted Quinolines by Gold-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Minami; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Gold-catalyzed auto-tandem catalysis has been developed for synthesizing 2-aryl-substituted quinolines. The reaction of an aniline bearing an acetal moiety with an aryl alkyne proceeded via formal [4+2]-cycloaddition, which involved the addition of gold acetylide to an oxonium ion to give amino alkyne intermediate and sequential 6-endo-dig cyclization of amino alkyne intermediate by attacking of nitrogen to alkyne moiety activated by gold catalyst. The cationic gold catalyst promoted two different processes by enhancing the nucleophilicity and electrophilicity of alkyne. This convergent synthetic methodology enabled the synthesis of a variety of 2-aryl-substituted quinolines. PMID:27373638

  12. Vibronic Spectroscopy of a Structural Isomer of Quinoline: -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta-Hurt, Deepali N.; Korn, Joseph A.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2013-06-01

    This talk will present results of a gas phase, jet-cooled vibronic spectroscopy study of (Z)-phenylvinylnitrile ((Z)-C_6H_5-CH=CH-C=N, (Z)-PVN). With a substituent locked into a cis conformation with respect to the aromatic ring, (Z)-PVN is postulated to be a molecule with an ideal functionality to isomerize to quinoline upon photoexcitation. As such, (Z)-PVN is particularly relevant to Titan's nitrile-containing atmosphere, where much of the chemistry is photochemically driven. As a first step towards such photochemical studies, a fluorescence excitation spectrum of a mixture of (E)- and (Z)-PVN was collected spanning the range 33,300-35,580 cm^{-1} (300.0-281.0 nm). Previous investigations in the Zwier group pertaining to the vibronic spectroscopy of (E)-PVN allowed for the identification of peaks in the (E)- and (Z)-PVN composite spectrum that were solely due to (Z)-PVN, and the S_0-S_1 origin of (Z)-PVN was identified as a dominant band that occurs at 33,706 cm^{-1}. For additional confirmation, ultraviolet depletion spectroscopy (UVD) was used to obtain an isomer specific spectrum of (Z)-PVN as well as search for non-radiative transitions. Dispersed fluorescence spectra that characterize the vibronic activity have also been acquired. A comparison between the vibronic spectroscopy of (Z)-PVN with both (E)-PVN and (Z)-phenylvinylacetylene ((Z)-PVA), the hydrocarbon analog of (Z)-PVN, will be made in this talk.

  13. Synthesis and structure of interaction products of quinoline-2(1H)-thione with molecular iodine.

    PubMed

    Chernov'yants, Margarita S; Starikova, Zoya A; Kolesnikova, Tatiana S; Karginova, Anastasia O; Lyanguzov, Nikolay V

    2015-03-15

    The behavior of quinoline-2(1H)-thione, which is a potential antithyroid drug toward molecular iodine, was investigated. The ability of quinoline-2(1H)-thione to form the outer-sphere charge-transfer complex C9H7NS·I2 with iodine molecular in dilute chloroform solution has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy (lgβ=3.85). The crystal structure of the new salt 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium triiodide - product of irreversible oxidation of quinoline-2(1H)-thione was determined by X-ray diffraction. The 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium cations form dimers through π-π-stacking interaction between quinoline rings. Strong intramolecular interactions are observed between iodine - sulfur atoms and iodine - hydrogen atoms with shortened contacts (less of sum of van der Waals contacts). It is noteworthy that two perfectly centrosymmetrical anions I3(-) form a very short contact I(3)⋯I(3') 3.7550(5) so we can state the formation of the dianion I(6)(2-). Therefore the formation and topology of polyiodide species depend on the characteristics, such as shape, size and charge, etc., of the counter cation, 2-(quinoline-2-yldisulfanyl)quinolinium, which is considered as templating agent. PMID:25579655

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Intermolecular Aerobic Annulation of o-Alkenylanilines and Alkynes for Quinoline Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Li, Zun; Huang, Liangbin; Wu, Wanqing; Li, Jianxiao; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to construct 2,3-disubstituted quinolines is described via Pd-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of o-vinylanilines and alkynes with molecular oxygen. This transformation is supposed to undergo intermolecular amination of alkyne, insertion of the olefin, and oxidative cleavage of C-C bond sequence. PMID:27418021

  15. A Review on the Synthesis and Anti-cancer Activity of 2-substituted Quinolines.

    PubMed

    Gopaul, Kaalin; Shintre, Suhas A; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    Quinolines substituted at C-2 on the quinoline scaffold have shown interesting anticancer activity in a number of anticancer assays such as breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231), human cervical epithelioid (HeLa), oral squamous cell carcinoma (SAS), human stomach adenocarcinoma (AGS, MKN45), hepatocellular (SKHep, HepG-2, Hep-3B), prostate (PC-3, DU145), lung (A549, H-460), gastric (HGC, MNK-74), leukemia (K562, U937, REH, NALM6, CEM/ADR 5000), colon (Colo-205, HCT 116, SW620, Caco-2, HT29), neuroblastoma (IMR32), CNS (SF-268), oesophageal (EAC) and melanoma (A-375). They have been synthesised by a number of strategies starting with isatin, anilines, nitrobenzenes and benzamides and some even with cyclohexanone and cyclohexa-1,3-diones with ammonium acetate. Many of the synthetic strategies employ the derivatisation of quinoline precursors itself. We review here the synthesis of 145 bioactive anticancer quinolines substituted at the 2-position and their anticancer activity. PMID:25511516

  16. Synthesis of aza-fused polycyclic quinolines via double C-H bond activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji-Rong; Dong, Lin; Han, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2012-07-16

    Simple but efficient: Aza-fused polycyclic quinolines were efficiently assembled through rhodium(III)-based direct double C-H activation of N-aryl azoles followed by cyclization with alkynes without heteroatom-assisted chelation. Copper(II) acetate, aside from acting as an oxidant, could also play an important role in the C-H activation process. PMID:22715023

  17. 4-Chloro-6-methyl-N-(4-methyl­phen­yl)quinolin-2-amine

    PubMed Central

    Vennila, K. N.; Prabha, K.; Manoj, M.; Prasad, K. J. Rajendra; Velmurugan, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound C17H15ClN2, the dihedral angle between the quinoline ring system and the phenyl ring is 50.18 (6)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains running along the c axis by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:21523146

  18. Self-Assembly of a Library of Polyborate Chiral Anions for Asymmetric Catalytic Quinoline Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Aman A.; Guan, Yong; Odom, Aaron L.; Majumder, Supriyo; Wulff, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘template’ polyborate BOROX catalysts are shown to mediate the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 2-quinolines. The rapid and simple generation of a large family of BOROX catalysts with significantly altered asymmetric pockets is described. A transition state model that explains the enantioselectivity is proposed. PMID:26034335

  19. Microbial hydroxylation of quinoline in contaminated groundwater: evidence for incorporation of the oxygen atom of water.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in an aquifer contaminated by creosote suggest that quinoline is converted to 2(1H)quinolinone by an indigenous consortium of microorganisms. Laboratory microbial experiments using H218O indicate that water is the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  20. Microbial hydroxylation of quinoline in contaminated groundwater: evidence for incorporation of the oxygen atom of water.

    PubMed

    Pereira, W E; Rostad, C E; Leiker, T J; Updegraff, D M; Bennett, J L

    1988-03-01

    Studies conducted in an aquifer contaminated by creosote suggest that quinoline is converted to 2(1H)quinolinone by an indigenous consortium of microorganisms. Laboratory microbial experiments using H218O indicate that water is the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:3377494

  1. Catalyst-Driven Scaffold Diversity: Selective Synthesis of Spirocycles, Carbazoles and Quinolines from Indolyl Ynones.

    PubMed

    Liddon, John T R; James, Michael J; Clarke, Aimee K; O'Brien, Peter; Taylor, Richard J K; Unsworth, William P

    2016-06-20

    Medicinally relevant spirocyclic indolenines, carbazoles and quinolines can each be directly synthesised selectively from common indolyl ynone starting materials by catalyst variation. The high yielding, divergent reactions all proceed by an initial dearomatising spirocyclisation reaction to generate an intermediate vinyl-metal species, which then rearranges selectively by careful choice of catalyst and reaction conditions. PMID:27124236

  2. Solvent-free Povarov reaction for synthesizing ferrocenyl quinolines: antioxidant abilities deriving from ferrocene moiety.

    PubMed

    Xi, Gao-Lei; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2014-10-30

    Twenty-two 2-phenyl-4-ferrocenylquinolines are synthesized by Povarov three-component-reaction (3CR) among the substituted anilines, benzaldehydes, and ferrocenylacetylene with Ce(OTf)3 being catalyst in the absence of solvents. The antioxidative effects of the obtained quinolines are estimated by quenching 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical (ABTS(+·)), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and galvinoxyl radicals, and by inhibiting Cu(2+)/glutathione (GSH)-, hydroxyl radical (·OH)-, and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH)-induced oxidations of DNA. It is found that the ferrocenyl group instead of hydroxyl group generates the antioxidative effect for quinoline to quench radicals and to protect DNA against radical-induced oxidations. The antioxidative effect generated by ferrocenyl group can be further increased by the electron-donating moieties such as furan, -N(CH3)2, -OCH3, and ferrocenyl group, while the electron-withdrawing groups such as -NO2 and -Cl are not beneficial for quinolines to be antioxidants. The ferrocenyl group in quinoline exhibits higher antioxidant activity than hydroxyl group in Trolox. PMID:25238174

  3. Idiosyncratic quinoline central nervous system toxicity: Historical insights into the chronic neurological sequelae of mefloquine☆

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, Remington L.

    2014-01-01

    Mefloquine is a quinoline derivative antimalarial which demonstrates promise for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Traditionally employed in prophylaxis and treatment of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, recent changes to the approved European and U.S. product labeling for mefloquine now warn of a risk of permanent and irreversible neurological sequelae including vertigo, loss of balance and symptoms of polyneuropathy. The newly described permanent nature of certain of these neurological effects challenges the conventional belief that they are due merely to the long half-life of mefloquine and its continued presence in the body, and raises new considerations for the rational use of the drug against parasitic disease. In this opinion, it is proposed that many of the reported lasting adverse neurological effects of mefloquine are consistent with the chronic sequelae of a well characterized but idiosyncratic central nervous system (CNS) toxicity syndrome (or toxidrome) common to certain historical antimalarial and antiparasitic quinolines and associated with a risk of permanent neuronal degeneration within specific CNS regions including the brainstem. Issues in the development and licensing of mefloquine are then considered in the context of historical awareness of the idiosyncratic CNS toxicity of related quinoline drugs. It is anticipated that the information presented in this opinion will aid in the future clinical recognition of the mefloquine toxidrome and its chronic sequelae, and in informing improved regulatory evaluation of mefloquine and related quinoline drugs as they are explored for expanded antiparasitic use and for other indications. PMID:25057461

  4. Inhaled beta agonists.

    PubMed

    Op't Holt, Timothy B

    2007-07-01

    The beta(2) adrenoreceptor is a large molecule of some 413 amino acids. The duration of stimulation of this receptor depends on where and for how long a beta(2) adrenergic drug attaches itself to the beta(2) adrenoreceptor. beta(2) adrenergic drugs have been used for over 5,000 years, but only recently have we had the advantage of adrenergic drugs specific to the beta(2) adrenoreceptor. The short-acting beta(2) adrenergic drugs most frequently used include albuterol, pirbuterol, and levalbuterol. Levalbuterol, the R enantiomer of albuterol, has been described by some as a more effective bronchodilator than racemic albuterol, because it contains none of the S enantiomer. Some contend that the S isomer has pro-inflammatory properties. The 2 long-acting beta(2) adrenergic drugs are salmeterol and formoterol. These drugs have a duration of 12 h and reportedly improve forced expiratory volume in the first second, quality of life, and symptoms. Some recent reports indicate that these drugs are associated with higher mortality, but several authors have registered the opinion that it is not the bronchodilator that should be questioned, but instead that the fault lies in the patient recruitment in those studies. Regardless, if these long-acting drugs are effective for a given patient, it would seem inadvisable to withdraw them, given the current state of evidence. Arformoterol tartrate, the R enantiomer of formoterol, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 2006; it is available as a nebulizer solution, to be administered every 12 h. Several other long-acting R isomers and RR isomers are in the approval pipeline. PMID:17594727

  5. Classical and atypical agonists activate M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors through common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, Esam E; Jakubík, Jan

    2015-07-01

    We mutated key amino acids of the human variant of the M1 muscarinic receptor that target ligand binding, receptor activation, and receptor-G protein interaction. We compared the effects of these mutations on the action of two atypical M1 functionally preferring agonists (N-desmethylclozapine and xanomeline) and two classical non-selective orthosteric agonists (carbachol and oxotremorine). Mutations of D105 in the orthosteric binding site and mutation of D99 located out of the orthosteric binding site decreased affinity of all tested agonists that was translated as a decrease in potency in accumulation of inositol phosphates and intracellular calcium mobilization. Mutation of D105 decreased the potency of the atypical agonist xanomeline more than that of the classical agonists carbachol and oxotremorine. Mutation of the residues involved in receptor activation (D71) and coupling to G-proteins (R123) completely abolished the functional responses to both classical and atypical agonists. Our data show that both classical and atypical agonists activate hM1 receptors by the same molecular switch that involves D71 in the second transmembrane helix. The principal difference among the studied agonists is rather in the way they interact with D105 in the orthosteric binding site. Furthermore, our data demonstrate a key role of D105 in xanomeline wash-resistant binding and persistent activation of hM1 by wash-resistant xanomeline. PMID:25882246

  6. Hydrogen-bis[2-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-quinoline-1-oxide]dichlorocuprate (I) from X-ray study

    SciTech Connect

    Ekimova, T. A.; Tafeenko, V. A.; Aleshina, L. A.; Basalaev, R. S.; Andreev, V. P.; Nizhnik, Ya. P.

    2013-03-15

    X-ray diffraction data on powder and single-crystal samples were used to determine the crystal structure of hydrogen-bis[2-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-quinoline-1-oxide]dichlorocuprate (I): monoclinic system, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/n, and Z = 2. Two molecules of N oxide of 2-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)quinoline are bound through a hydrogen atom located at the center of symmetry, thus forming a complex cation.

  7. A long-acting and highly selective prostacyclin receptor agonist prodrug, 2-{4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N-(methylsulfonyl)acetamide (NS-304), ameliorates rat pulmonary hypertension with unique relaxant responses of its active form, {4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}acetic acid (MRE-269), on rat pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Keiichi; Hashino, Asami; Noda, Kumiko; Kosugi, Keiji; Kuwabara, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    2-{4-[(5,6-Diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N-(methylsulfonyl)acetamide (NS-304) is an orally available, long-acting nonprostanoid prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonist prodrug. In a rat model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline (MCT), NS-304 ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary arterial wall hypertrophy, and right ventricular hypertrophy, and it elevated right ventricular systolic pressure and improved survival. {4-[(5,6-Diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}acetic acid (MRE-269), the active form of NS-304, is much more selective for the IP receptor than are the prostacyclin analogs beraprost and iloprost, which also have high affinity for the EP(3) receptor. To investigate the effect of receptor selectivity on vasodilation of the pulmonary artery, we assessed the relaxant response to these IP agonists in rats. MRE-269 induced vasodilation equally in large pulmonary arteries (LPA) and small pulmonary arteries (SPA), whereas beraprost and iloprost induced less vasodilation in SPA than in LPA. An EP(3) agonist, sulprostone, induced SPA and LPA vasoconstriction, and an EP(3) antagonist attenuated the vasoconstriction. Beraprost showed EP(3) agonism and induced LPA and SPA vasoconstriction, whereas the EP(3) antagonist inhibited this vasoconstriction and enhanced beraprost- and iloprost-induced SPA vasodilation. These findings suggest that the EP(3) agonism of beraprost and iloprost interfered with the SPA vasodilation resulting from their IP receptor agonism. Endothelium removal markedly attenuated the vasodilation induced by beraprost, but not that induced by MRE-269 or iloprost. Moreover, the vasodilation induced by beraprost and iloprost, but not that induced by MRE-269, was more strongly attenuated in LPA from MCT-treated rats than from normal rats. NS-304 is a promising alternative medication for pulmonary arterial hypertension with prospects for good patient compliance. PMID:18552131

  8. A molecular characterization of the agonist binding site of a nematode cys-loop GABA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Mark D; Kwaka, Ariel; Callanan, Micah K; Nusrat, Humza; Desaulniers, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Sean G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cys-loop GABA receptors represent important targets for human chemotherapeutics and insecticides and are potential targets for novel anthelmintics (nematicides). However, compared with insect and mammalian receptors, little is known regarding the pharmacological characteristics of nematode Cys-loop GABA receptors. Here we have investigated the agonist binding site of the Cys-loop GABA receptor UNC-49 (Hco-UNC-49) from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Experimental Approach We used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology to measure channel activation by classical GABA receptor agonists on Hco-UNC-49 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with site-directed mutagenesis and in silico homology modelling. Key Results The sulphonated molecules P4S and taurine had no effect on Hco-UNC-49. Other classical Cys-loop GABAA receptor agonists tested on the Hco-UNC-49B/C heteromeric channel had a rank order efficacy of GABA > trans-4-aminocrotonic acid > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid (IMA) > (R)-(−)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [R(−)-GABOB] > (S)-(+)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [S(+)-GABOB] > guanidinoacetic acid > isonipecotic acid > 5-aminovaleric acid (DAVA) (partial agonist) > β-alanine (partial agonist). In silico ligand docking revealed some variation in binding between agonists. Mutagenesis of a key serine residue in binding loop C to threonine had minimal effects on GABA and IMA but significantly increased the maximal response to DAVA and decreased twofold the EC50 for R(−)- and S(+)-GABOB. Conclusions and Implications The pharmacological profile of Hco-UNC-49 differed from that of vertebrate Cys-loop GABA receptors and insect resistance to dieldrin receptors, suggesting differences in the agonist binding pocket. These findings could be exploited to develop new drugs that specifically target GABA receptors of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25850584

  9. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of 2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine- and quinoline-substituted 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Zentella, Alejandro; Martínez-Urbina, Miguel Angel; Guzmán, Angel; Vargas, Omar; Ramírez Apan, María Teresa; Ventura Gallegos, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    A series of 2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine- and quinoline-substituted 2-aminopyrimidines derivatives were synthesized using a convenient synthetic route. We evaluate the isosteric replacement of methyl groups in 4-(2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl)-N-p-tolylpyrimidin-2-amine (compound 1) by trifluoromethyl groups and the isosteric substitution of the 2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl scaffold by quinolin-4-yl or quinolin-3-yl moieties. The replacement of hydrogen by fluorine does not affect notably the cytotoxic activity and CDK inhibitor activity in this series. Quinolin-4-yl-substituted compound, 8, presents cytotoxic activity and is most effective and selective against CDK1/CycA than against CDK2/CycB. Compound 11, which has a quinolin-3-yl moiety is CDK inhibitor but presents null cytotoxic activity. Quinolin-4-yl-substituted compounds constitute a new lead of cytotoxic and CDK inhibitor compounds from which more compelling and selective inhibitors can be designed. PMID:19879023

  10. Modulation of PPAR subtype selectivity. Part 2: Transforming PPARα/γ dual agonist into α selective PPAR agonist through bioisosteric modification.

    PubMed

    Zaware, Pandurang; Shah, Shailesh R; Pingali, Harikishore; Makadia, Pankaj; Thube, Baban; Pola, Suresh; Patel, Darshit; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Suthar, Dinesh; Shah, Maanan; Jamili, Jeevankumar; Sairam, Kalapatapu V V M; Giri, Suresh; Patel, Lala; Patel, Harilal; Sudani, Hareshkumar; Patel, Hiren; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj; Bahekar, Rajesh

    2011-01-15

    A novel series of oxime containing benzyl-1,3-dioxane-r-2-carboxylic acid derivatives (6a-k) were designed as selective PPARα agonists, through bioisosteric modification in the lipophilic tail region of PPARα/γ dual agonist. Some of the test compounds (6a, 6b, 6c and 6f) showed high selectivity towards PPARα over PPARγ in vitro. Further, highly potent and selective PPARα agonist 6c exhibited significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity in vivo, along with its improved pharmacokinetic profile. Favorable in-silico interaction of 6c with PPARα binding pocket correlate its in vitro selectivity profile toward PPARα over PPARγ. Together, these results confirm discovery of novel series of oxime based selective PPARα agonists for the safe and effective treatment of various metabolic disorders. PMID:21195611

  11. Conopeptide-Derived κ-Opioid Agonists (Conorphins): Potent, Selective, and Metabolic Stable Dynorphin A Mimetics with Antinociceptive Properties.

    PubMed

    Brust, Andreas; Croker, Daniel E; Colless, Barbara; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Andersson, Åsa; Jain, Kapil; Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia; Castro, Joel; Brierley, Stuart M; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J

    2016-03-24

    Opioid receptor screening of a conopeptide library led to a novel selective κ-opioid agonist peptide (conorphin T). Intensive medicinal chemistry, guided by potency, selectivity, and stability assays generated a pharmacophore model supporting rational design of highly potent and selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists (conorphins) with exceptional plasma stability. Conorphins are defined by a hydrophobic benzoprolyl moiety, a double arginine sequence, a spacer amino acid followed by a hydrophobic residue and a C-terminal vicinal disulfide moiety. The pharmacophore model was supported by computational docking studies, revealing receptor-ligand interactions similar to KOR agonist dynorphin A (1-8). A conorphin agonist inhibited colonic nociceptors in a mouse tissue model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity, suggesting the potential of KOR agonists for the treatment of chronic abdominal pain. This new conorphine KOR agonist class and pharmacophore model provide opportunities for future rational drug development and probes for exploring the role of the κ-opioid receptor. PMID:26859603

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Lemonades and Lemon Sauces by HPLC Using Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Dinç Zor, Şule; Aşçı, Bürge; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem; Yıldırım Küçükkaraca, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    In this study, development and validation of a HPLC method was described for simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, quinoline yellow and sunset yellow. A Box-Behnken design using three variables at three levels was employed to determine the optimum conditions of chromatographic separation: pH of mobile phase, 6.0-7.0; flow rate, 0.8-1.2 mL min(-1) and the ratio of mobile phase composed of a 0.025 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer, 80-90%. Resolution was chosen as a response. The optimized method was validated for linearity, the limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and stability. All the validation parameters were within the acceptance range. The applicability of the developed method to the determination of these food additives in commercial lemonade and lemon sauce samples was successfully demonstrated. PMID:26951541

  13. Series of coordination polymers based on 4-(5-sulfo-quinolin-8-yloxy) phthalate and bipyridinyl coligands: Structure diversity and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xun; Liu, Jing; Li, Jin; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya; Ng, Seik-Weng; Qin, Guo-Zhan

    2015-10-01

    Reactions between later metal salts and conjugational N-hetrocyclic sulfonate/ carboxylic acid under the presence of bipyridyl auxiliary ligands afforded a series of manganese, nickel, zinc, silver, cadmium coordination polymers bearing with phenyl pendant arm attached to quinoline skeletons, and they have been characterized by elements analysis, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studying. The series of polymers show interesting structural diversity in coordination environment, dimensions and topologies. They are all built from 2-D networks constructed from metal cluster through sulfonate or carboxylate groups, as the secondary building unit (SBU). The thermalgravimetric analyses show that they display framework stabilities in solid state. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies reveal the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent Mn (II) ions in 1, and ferromagnetic interactions between Ni(II) ions for 2, respectively. The photo-luminescence properties of 3-5 have also been investigated systemically.

  14. Geometric, electronic and intrinsic chemical reactivity properties of mono- and bi-substituted quinoline derivatives for the ground state in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira Bueno, O. L.; Hincapié H, L.; García Madrid, C.

    2016-02-01

    The study of geometric, electronic properties and intrinsic chemical reactivity is presented for the case of Quinoline and three-derived molecules (4-Amino-Quinoline, 3- Phenyl-Quinoline, 4-Amino-3-phenylquinoline). The study was carried for the ground state in gas phase in the context of the functional theory density using B3LYP/6 31+G (d) model. The purpose of the study is aimed for identifying a compound derived from quinoline, on based to mono- or bi-substitution, using the amino fragment and the phenyl group.

  15. Indolo[3,2-b]quinolines: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure Activity-Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Eyunni V.K. Suresh; Etukala, Jagan R.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

    2013-01-01

    The tetracyclic indolo[3,2-b]quinoline ring system constitutes an important structural moiety in natural products exhibiting numerous biological activities. In particular, indolo [3, 2-b]quinoline, commonly known as linear quindo-line is of particular interest, because of its rigid structure and scope of derivatization. Although the core linear quindoline skeleton shows little or no activity in several biological systems, introduction of a methyl group on the N-5 atom leading to cryptolepine induces remarkable activity against a broad spectrum of biological targets. A number of analogs of quindoline and cryptolepine have been synthesized, incorporating various functional groups on the core quindoline skeleton leading to improved biological activities. In this review, we describe various synthetic methodologies leading to the quindoline scaffold, the biological activities and the structure activity relationships (SAR) of quindoline derivatives toward different disease states to give a better picture of the importance of this moiety in medicinal chemistry. PMID:18537709

  16. 4,5-Bis(dimethylamino)quinolines: proton sponge versus azine behavior.

    PubMed

    Dyablo, Olga V; Shmoilova, Elena A; Pozharskii, Alexander F; Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Burov, Oleg N; Starikova, Zoya A

    2012-08-17

    Two first representatives, 5 and 6, of the still unknown 4,5-bis(dimethylamino)quinoline have been synthesized and studied. While the former, being protonated either at the peri-NMe(2) groups or at the ring nitrogen, has been shown to display properties of both a proton sponge and azine, its counterpart 6 behaves exclusively as azine giving only a quinolinium salt. PMID:22860688

  17. Synthesis of oxazolo[4,5-c]quinoline TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Voight, Eric A; Daanen, Jerome F; Kort, Michael E

    2010-12-17

    An efficient synthesis of 2-amino-oxazolo[4,5-c]quinoline TRPV1 antagonists is described via a thiourea formation/carbodiimide cyclization sequence. Synthetic route optimization eliminates intermediate isolations and facilitates the rapid preparation of a series of novel pentacyclic TRPV1 antagonists. From this series, compound (S)-4 was identified as a potent and selective ligand for the TRPV1 ion channel. PMID:21090730

  18. Bis(1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-quinoline-1-thio-carbon-yl) disulfide.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, N; Thirumaran, S; Selvanayagam, S

    2012-12-01

    In the title compound, C20H20N2S4, the N-containing six-membered rings of the two tetra-hydro-quinoline moieties adopt half-chair conformations. Intra-molecular C-H⋯S hydrogen bonding stabilizes the mol-ecular structure. In the crystal, mol-ecules associate via weak C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:23476260

  19. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  20. Proton reduction by a nickel complex with an internal quinoline moiety for proton relay.

    PubMed

    Majee, Karunamay; Patel, Jully; Rai, Surabhi; Das, Babulal; Panda, Binata; Padhi, Sumanta Kumar

    2016-08-21

    The complex Ni(DQPD) (where DQPD = deprotonated N(2),N(6)-di(quinolin-8-yl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (DQPDH2)) behaves as a visible light driven active catalyst to reduce protons from water when employed with the photosensitizer fluorescein (Fl) and triethylamine (TEA) as the sacrificial electron donor. The photocatalytic system shows very high activity, attaining 2160 turnovers and an initial turnover rate of 0.032 s(-1) with respect to the catalyst. The proposed electrocatalytic mechanism is of the CECE type (C is a chemical step protonation and E is the electrochemical step reduction), where the Ni(DQPD) catalyst undergoes rapid protonation at the non-coordinating nitrogen atom of the quinoline before undergoing reduction. The location of the pendant base is a key factor such that the N-H resulting from the protonation of the non-coordinating nitrogen atom of the quinoline is properly located to interact with the Ni-H hydride leading to heterocoupling between protons and hydrides. Theoretical calculations for the catalytic system were carried out using the density functional level of theory (DFT) and are consistent with a mechanism for catalysis in a polypyridine nickel system. This is the first report of a polypyridine based nickel catalyst where the pendant base is responsible for the internal proton relay towards the metal center through the heterocoupling between protons and hydrides to generate hydrogen. PMID:27432223

  1. Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays for quinoline in rats.

    PubMed

    Uno, Fuyumi; Tanaka, Jin; Ueda, Maya; Nagai, Miho; Fukumuro, Masahito; Natsume, Masakatsu; Oba, Michiyo; Akahori, Ayaka; Masumori, Shoji; Takami, Shigeaki; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kougo, Yuriko; Ohyama, Wakako; Narumi, Kazunori; Fujiishi, Yohei; Okada, Emiko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-dose liver, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays that use young adult rats were evaluated in a collaborative study that was organized by the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group. A genotoxic hepatocarcinogen quinoline was orally administered to independent groups of five Crl:CD (SD) male rats at doses of 30, 60 and 120mg/kg for 14 days and at doses of 15, 30 and 60mg/kg for 28 days. After treatment, the livers were harvested and hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase treatment. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) increased significantly in both the 14- and 28-day repeated dose studies. However, the frequency of micronucleated cells did not increase in the bone marrow, stomach or colon cells, which were not quinoline-induced carcinogenic target organs in the rats. These results indicate that a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats is capable of detecting the genotoxicity of quinoline at the target organ of carcinogenicity. The protocol may also permit the integration of the genotoxic endpoint into general repeated-dose toxicity studies. Furthermore, we elucidated that conducting the micronucleus assay in multiple organs could potentially assess organ specificity. PMID:25892622

  2. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Triketone-Quinoline Hybrids as Novel 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Yan; Cao, Run-Jie; Chen, Tao; Wu, Feng-Xu; Hao, Ge-Fei; Chen, Qiong; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2015-06-17

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.27, HPPD) is one of the most important targets for herbicide discovery. In the search for new HPPD inhibitors with novel scaffolds, triketone-quinoline hybrids were designed and subsequently optimized on the basis of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed potent inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD (AtHPPD), and some of them exhibited broad-spectrum and promising herbicidal activity at the rate of 150 g ai/ha by postemergence application. Most promisingly, compound III-l, 3-hydroxy-2-(2-methoxy-7-(methylthio)quinoline-3-carbonyl)cyclohex-2-enone (Ki = 0.009 μM, AtHPPD), had broader spectrum of weed control than mesotrione. Furthermore, compound III-l was much safer to maize at the rate of 150 g ai/ha than mesotrione, demonstrating its great potential as herbicide for weed control in maize fields. Therefore, triketone-quinoline hybrids may serve as new lead structures for novel herbicide discovery. PMID:26006257

  3. Active-site models for complexes of quinolinate synthase with substrates and intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, Erika V.; Zhang, Yang; Colabroy, Keri L.; Sanders, Jennie M.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2013-09-01

    Structural studies of quinolinate synthase suggest a model for the enzyme–substrate complex and an enzyme–intermediate complex with a [4Fe–4S] cluster. Quinolinate synthase (QS) catalyzes the condensation of iminoaspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form quinolinate, the universal precursor for the de novo biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QS has been difficult to characterize owing either to instability or lack of activity when it is overexpressed and purified. Here, the structure of QS from Pyrococcus furiosus has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure is a homodimer consisting of three domains per protomer. Each domain shows the same topology with a four-stranded parallel β-sheet flanked by four α-helices, suggesting that the domains are the result of gene triplication. Biochemical studies of QS indicate that the enzyme requires a [4Fe–4S] cluster, which is lacking in this crystal structure, for full activity. The organization of domains in the protomer is distinctly different from that of a monomeric structure of QS from P. horikoshii [Sakuraba et al. (2005 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.280, 26645–26648]. The domain arrangement in P. furiosus QS may be related to protection of cysteine side chains, which are required to chelate the [4Fe–4S] cluster, prior to cluster assembly.

  4. A tetranuclear cadmium(II) complex based on the 2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetonitrile ligand.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Liang; Ye, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of 2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetonitrile and Cd(ClO(4))(2) yielded the noncentrosymmetric coordination complex tetrakis[μ-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetato]tetrakis[μ-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetonitrile]tetracadmium tetrakis(perchlorate) dihydrate, [Cd(4)(C(11)H(8)NO(3))(4)(C(11)H(8)N(2)O)(4)](ClO(4))(4)·2H(2)O. The local coordination environment around the Cd(II) cation can be best described as a capped octahedron defined by two N atoms and five O atoms from three ligands. The Cd(II) cations are linked by the ligands with Cd-O-Cd and Cd-O-C-C-O-Cd bridges, forming tetranuclear units, there being two independent tertranuclear units in the structure. The fourfold rotoinversion centre sits at the centre of each Cd(4) core. The two perchlorate anions in the asymmetric unit are linked by the water molecule through O-H...O hydrogen bonds. PMID:23282905

  5. Characterization of the Antiallergic Drugs 3-[2-(2-Phenylethyl) benzoimidazole-4-yl]-3-hydroxypropanoic Acid and Ethyl 3-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2-phenylethyl)benzoimidazol-4-yl]propanoate as Full Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Morales, José Luis; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Perdew, Gary H.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates most of the toxic effects of numerous chlorinated (e.g., TCDD) and nonchlorinated polycyclic aromatic compounds (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). Studies in AhR null mice suggested that this receptor may also play a role in the modulation of immune responses. Recently, two drugs, namely, M50354 and M50367 (ethyl ester derivative of M50354), were described as AhR ligands with high efficacy toward reducing atopic allergic symptoms in an AhR-dependent manner by skewing T helper cell differentiation toward a TH1 phenotype [Negishi et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 175 (11), 7348–7356]. Surprisingly, these drugs were shown to have minimal activity toward inducing classical dioxin responsive element-driven AhR-mediated CYP1A1 transcription. We synthesized and reevaluated the ability of these drugs to regulate AhR activity. In contrast to previously published data, both M50354 and M50367 were found to be potent inducers of several AhR target genes, namely, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A2. M50367 was a more effective agonist than M50354, perhaps accounting for its higher bioavailability in vivo. However, M50354 was capable of displacing an AhR-specific radioligand more effectively than M50367. This is consistent with M50354 being the active metabolite of M50367. In conclusion, two selective inhibitors of TH2 differentiation are full AhR agonists. PMID:18179178

  6. Effects of μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists in Assays of Acute Pain-Stimulated and Pain-Depressed Behavior in Male Rats: Role of μ-Agonist Efficacy and Noxious Stimulus Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kenner C.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Pain is associated with stimulation of some behaviors and depression of others, and μ-opioid receptor agonists are among the most widely used analgesics. This study used parallel assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats to compare antinociception profiles for six μ-agonists that varied in efficacy at μ-opioid receptors (from highest to lowest: methadone, fentanyl, morphine, hydrocodone, buprenorphine, and nalbuphine). Intraperitoneal injection of diluted lactic acid served as an acute noxious stimulus to either stimulate stretching or depress operant responding maintained by electrical stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). All μ-agonists blocked both stimulation of stretching and depression of ICSS produced by 1.8% lactic acid. The high-efficacy agonists methadone and fentanyl were more potent at blocking acid-induced depression of ICSS than acid-stimulated stretching, whereas lower-efficacy agonists displayed similar potency across assays. All μ-agonists except morphine also facilitated ICSS in the absence of the noxious stimulus at doses similar to those that blocked acid-induced depression of ICSS. The potency of the low-efficacy μ-agonist nalbuphine, but not the high-efficacy μ-agonist methadone, to block acid-induced depression of ICSS was significantly reduced by increasing the intensity of the noxious stimulus to 5.6% acid. These results demonstrate sensitivity of acid-induced depression of ICSS to a range of clinically effective μ-opioid analgesics and reveal distinctions between opioids based on efficacy at the μ-receptor. These results also support the use of parallel assays of pain-stimulated and -depressed behaviors to evaluate analgesic efficacy of candidate drugs. PMID:25406170

  7. Lepidozenolide from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana acts as a farnesoid X receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Lepidozenolide is a sesquiterpenoid isolated from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana and its possible bioactivity is unclear. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for chronic liver disease and hyperglycemia. In this study, whether lepidozenolide may act as a FXR agonist was determined. Indeed, in mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, lepidozenolide transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in a dose-dependent manner, while it exhibited slightly less agonistic activity than chenodeoxycholic acid, an endogenous FXR agonist. Through the molecular modeling docking studies lepidozenolide was shown to bind to FXR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that lepidozenolide acts as a FXR agonist. PMID:25315435

  8. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  9. Kinetic determinants of agonist action at the recombinant human glycine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Trevor M; Schofield, Peter R; McClellan, Annette M L

    2003-01-01

    The amino acids glycine, β-alanine and taurine are all endogenous agonists of the glycine receptor. In this study, a combination of rapid agonist application onto macropatches and steady-state single-channel recordings was used to compare the actions of glycine, β-alanine and taurine upon homomeric α1 human glycine receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. The 10–90 % rise times determined from rapid application of 100 μm of each agonist were indistinguishable, indicating each agonist has a similar association rate. At saturating concentrations (30 mm) the rise time for glycine (0.26 ms) was 1.8-fold faster than that for β-alanine (0.47 ms) and 3.9-fold faster than that for taurine (1.01 ms), indicating clear differences in the maximum opening rate between agonists. The relaxation following rapid removal of agonist was fitted with a single exponential for β-alanine (3.0 ms) and taurine (2.2 ms), and two exponential components for glycine with a weighted mean time constant of 27.1 ms. This was consistent with differences in dissociation rates estimated from analysis of bursts, with taurine > β-alanine > glycine. Exponential fits to the open period distributions gave time constants that did not differ between agonists and the geometric distribution for the number of openings per burst indicated that all three agonists had a significant component of single-opening bursts. Based upon these data, we propose a kinetic scheme with three independent open states, where the opening rates are dependent upon the activating agonist, while the closing rates are an intrinsic characteristic of the receptor. PMID:12679369

  10. Access to Structurally Diverse Quinoline-Fused Heterocycles via Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-C/C-N Coupling of Bifunctional Substrates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songjie; Li, Yunyun; Zhou, Xukai; Wang, He; Kong, Lingheng; Li, Xingwei

    2016-06-17

    Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation of heteroarenes and functionalization with bifunctional substrates such as anthranils allows facile construction of quinoline-fused heterocycles under redox-neutral conditions. The couplings feature broad substrate scope and provide step-economical access to two classes of quinoline-fused condensed heterocycles. PMID:27267178

  11. Copper-Promoted Tandem Reaction of Azobenzenes with Allyl Bromides via N═N Bond Cleavage for the Regioselective Synthesis of Quinolines.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiangli; Xi, Chanjuan

    2015-12-01

    A copper-promoted tandem reaction of a variety of azobenzenes and allyl bromides via N═N bond cleavage to regioselectively construct quinoline derivatives has been developed. The azobenzenes act as not only construction units but also an oxidant for quinoline formation. PMID:26580318

  12. Discovery of an Oxybenzylglycine Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor [alpha] Selective Agonist 2-((3-((2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-5-methyloxazol-4-yl)methoxy)benzyl)(methoxycarbonyl)amino)acetic Acid (BMS-687453)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Kennedy, Lawrence J.; Shi, Yan; Tao, Shiwei; Ye, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Stephanie Y.; Wang, Ying; Hernndez, Andrs S.; Wang, Wei; Devasthale, Pratik V.; Chen, Sean; Lai, Zhi; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shung; Smirk, Rebecca A.; Bolton, Scott A.; Ryono, Denis E.; Zhang, Huiping; Lim, Ngiap-Kie; Chen, Bang-Chi; Locke, Kenneth T.; O’Malley, Kevin M.; Zhang, Litao; Srivastava, Rai Ajit; Miao, Bowman; Meyers, Daniel S.; Monshizadegan, Hossain; Search, Debra; Grimm, Denise; Zhang, Rongan; Harrity, Thomas; Kunselman, Lori K.; Cap, Michael; Kadiyala, Pathanjali; Hosagrahara, Vinayak; Zhang, Lisa; Xu, Carrie; Li, Yi-Xin; Muckelbauer, Jodi K.; Chang, Chiehying; An, Yongmi; Krystek, Stanley R.; Blanar, Michael A.; Zahler, Robert; Mukherjee, Ranjan; Cheng, Peter T.W.; Tino, Joseph A.

    2010-04-12

    An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, with an EC{sub 50} of 10 nM for human PPAR{alpha} and 410-fold selectivity vs human PPAR{gamma} in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPAR{delta}. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPAR{alpha} ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPAR{alpha} in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.

  13. Development of docking-based 3D QSAR models for the design of substituted quinoline derivatives as human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vyas, V K; Ghate, M

    2013-08-01

    This study has investigated docking-based 3D quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for a range of quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). A docking study has shown that most of the compounds formed H-bonds with Arg136 and Gln47, which have already been shown to be essential for the binding of ligands at the active site of the hydroorotate dehydrogenase adenovirus (hDHODH). Bioactive conformations of all the molecules obtained from the docking study were used for the 3D QSAR study. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained for the training set and were found to be statistically significant, with cross-validated coefficients (q²) of 0.672 and 0.613, r² cv of 0.635 and 0.598 and coefficients of determination (r²) of 0.963 and 0.896, respectively. Both models were validated by a test set of 15 compounds, giving satisfactory predicted correlation coefficients (r² pred) of 0.824 and 0.793 for the CoMFA and CoMSIA models, respectively. From the docking-based 3D QSAR study we designed 34 novel quinoline-based compounds and performed structure-based virtual screening. Finally, in silico pharmacokinetics and toxicities were predicted for 24 of the best docked molecules. The study provides valuable information for the understanding of interactions between hDHODH and the novel compounds. PMID:23714018

  14. β2-agonist therapy in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive P; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, M Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    β2-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to relax airway smooth muscle (ASM). They exert their effects via their binding to the active site of β2-adrenoceptors on ASM, which triggers a signaling cascade that results in a number of events, all of which contribute to relaxation of ASM. There are some differences between β2-agonists. Traditional inhaled short-acting β2-agonists albuterol, fenoterol, and terbutaline provide rapid as-needed symptom relief and short-term prophylactic protection against bronchoconstriction induced by exercise or other stimuli. The twice-daily β2-agonists formoterol and salmeterol represent important advances. Their effective bronchodilating properties and long-term improvement in lung function offer considerable clinical benefits to patients. More recently, a newer β2-agonist (indacaterol) with a longer pharmacodynamic half-life has been discovered, with the hopes of achieving once-daily dosing. In general, β2-agonists have an acceptable safety profile, although there is still controversy as to whether long-acting β2-agonists may increase the risk of asthma mortality. In any case, they can induce adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, palpitations, transient decrease in PaO2, and tremor. Desensitization of β2-adrenoceptors that occurs during the first few days of regular use of β2-agonist treatment may account for the commonly observed resolution of the majority of these adverse events after the first few doses. Nevertheless, it can also induce tolerance to bronchoprotective effects of β2-agonists and has the potential to reduce bronchodilator sensitivity to them. Some novel once-daily β2-agonists (olodaterol, vilanterol, abediterol) are under development, mainly in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid or a long-acting antimuscarinic agent. PMID:23348973

  15. Identification of a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist, 2-methyl-2-(4-{3-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]propyl}phenoxy)propanoic acid (LY518674), that produces marked changes in serum lipids and apolipoprotein A-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jai Pal; Kauffman, Raymond; Bensch, William; Wang, Guoming; McClelland, Pam; Bean, James; Montrose, Chahrzad; Mantlo, Nathan; Wagle, Asavari

    2005-09-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) is an important risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Optimum therapy for raising HDL-c is still not available. Identification of novel HDL-raising agents would produce a major impact on CAD. In this study, we have identified a potent (IC50 approximately 24 nM) and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, 2-methyl-2-(4-{3-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]propyl}phenoxy)propanoic acid (LY518674). In human apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) transgenic mice, LY518674 produced a dose-dependent increase in serum HDL-c, resulting in 208 +/- 15% elevation at optimum dose. A new synthesis of apoA-1 contributed to the increase in HDL-c. LY518674 increased apoA-1 mRNA levels in liver. Moreover, liver slices from animals treated with LY518674 secreted 3- to 6-fold more apoA-1 than control liver slices. In cultured hepatocytes, LY518674 produced 50% higher apoA-1 secretion, which was associated with increase in radiolabeled methionine incorporation in apoA-1. Thus, LY518674 is a potent and selective PPARalpha agonist that produced a much greater increase in serum HDL-c than the known fibrate drugs. The increase in HDL-c was associated with de novo synthesis of apoA-1. PMID:15933217

  16. Polyamine quinoline rhodium complexes: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation as antiparasitic agents against Plasmodium falciparum and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Tameryn; Taylor, Dale; Guzgay, Hajira; Shokar, Ajit; Au, Aaron; Smith, Peter J; Hendricks, Denver T; Land, Kirkwood M; Egan, Timothy J; Smith, Gregory S

    2015-09-01

    A series of mono- and bis-salicylaldimine ligands and their corresponding Rh(i) complexes were prepared. The compounds were characterised using standard spectroscopic techniques including NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The salicylaldimine ligands and complexes were screened for antiparasitic activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum i.e. the NF54 CQ-sensitive and K1 CQ-resistant strain as well as against the G3 isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis. The monomeric salicylaldimine quinolines exhibited good activity against the NF54 strain and the dimeric salicylaldimine quinolines exhibited no cross resistance across the two strains. The binuclear 5-chloro Rh(i) complex displayed the best activity against the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite, possibly a consequence of its enhanced lipophilicity. The compounds were also screened for cytotoxicity in vitro against WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells. The monomeric salicylaldimine quinolines exhibited high selectivity towards malaria parasites compared to cancer cells, while the dimeric compounds were less selective. PMID:26226082

  17. Gas Phase Synthesis of (Iso)Quinoline and Its Role in the Formation of Nucleobases in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Kaiser, Ralf. I.; Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Mebel, Alexander M.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) have been proposed to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, yet the formation mechanisms of even their simplest prototypes—quinoline and isoquinoline—remain elusive. Here, we reveal a novel concept that under high temperature conditions representing circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars, (iso)quinoline can be synthesized via the reaction of pyridyl radicals with two acetylene molecules. The facile gas phase formation of (iso)quinoline in circumstellar envelopes defines a hitherto elusive reaction class synthesizing aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms that are essential building blocks in contemporary biological-structural motifs. Once ejected from circumstellar shells and incorporated into icy interstellar grains in cold molecular clouds, these NPAHs can be functionalized by photo processing forming nucleobase-type structures as sampled in the Murchison meteorite.

  18. In vitro evaluation of imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2-ones as gametocytocidal antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Paresma R; Sun, Wei; Kim, Myunghoon; Huang, Xiuli; Sanderson, Philip E; Tanaka, Takeshi Q; McKew, John C; Simeonov, Anton; Williamson, Kim C; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Wenwei

    2016-06-15

    Novel imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2-ones were synthesized and evaluated in asexual blood stage and late stage gametocyte assays of Plasmodium falciparum, a major causative agent of malaria. The design of these compounds is based on a recently identified lead compound from a high throughput screen. A concise synthesis was developed that allowed for generation of analogues with substitution around both the quinoline and imidazolidinone rings. Through structure-activity relationship studies, a number of potent compounds were identified that possessed excellent antimalarial activity against both the asexual and sexual stages with minimal cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. This is the first Letter describing SAR and gametocytocidal activity of imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-2-ones, a new lead series for malaria treatment and prevention. PMID:27156776

  19. Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Qinghua; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2011-05-01

    The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. PMID:21327410

  20. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(3,5-di-fluoro-phen-yl)quinoline-4-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, V M; Naveen, S; Manjunath, H R; Benaka Prasad, S B; Manivannan, V; Lokanath, N K

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, C18H13F2NO2, the two rings of the quinoline system are fused almost coaxially, with a dihedral angle between their planes of 2.28 (8)°. The plane of the attached benzene ring is inclined to the plane of the quinoline system by 7.65 (7)°. The carboxyl-ate group attached to the quinoline system is in an anti-periplanar conformation. There is a short intra-molecular C-H⋯O contact involving the carbonyl group. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains lying in the (1-10) plane. PMID:25995938

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinoline derivatives as potential anti-prostate cancer agents and Pim-1 kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Ying; Zhou, Di; Fan, Yinbo; Guo, Hongye; Ma, Tianyi; Wen, Jiachen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Linxiang

    2016-04-15

    In this work, a series of quinoline derivatives were designed and synthesized as antitumor agents. Most quinolines showed potent anti-proliferative activity against human prostatic cancer PC-3 cell line. Among which, 9d, 9f and 9g were the most effective compounds with GI50 values of 2.60, 2.81 and 1.29μM, respectively. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that the secondary amine linked quinoline and pyridine ring played an important role in the anti-proliferative effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that 9g was a potential Pim-1 kinase inhibitor with abilities of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. Considering of the increased activity of Pim-1 in prostate cancer, such compounds have potential to be developed as anti-prostate cancer agents. PMID:26979485

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists modify the pyloric output of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L; Krenz, Wulf D

    2005-11-16

    We have studied the effects of groups I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists and antagonists on pyloric activity in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We have found that agonists for all three groups of mGluRs modify the pyloric output. The group I agonist, l-quisqualic acid (l-QA), activated the pyloric central pattern generator (CPG). When the pyloric rhythm was partially suppressed by sucrose-block of input fibers in the stomatogastric nerve (stn), l-QA accelerated the rhythmic activity. In addition, the number of spike discharges was increased in pyloric motoneurons: pyloric (PY), and lateral pyloric (LP). In completely blocked preparations, a slow pyloric rhythm was initiated by l-QA. Groups II and III agonists exerted an inhibitory effect on pyloric activity. The group II agonist, (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I), decreased both the frequency of the pyloric rhythm and the number of spike discharges in the motoneurons: ventricular dilator (VD), PY, and LP. The effects of L-CCG-I were dose-dependent. The group III agonist, l-(+)-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (l-AP4), slightly decreased the frequency of the pyloric rhythm and suppressed spike discharges in the VD neuron. All effects of mGluR agonists were reversible. The effect of l-QA was blocked by the broad spectrum mGluR antagonist (S)-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). The inhibitory effect of L-CCG-I was prevented by MCPG and by the group II/III mGluR antagonist (RS)-alpha-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG), and was partially blocked by the group II mGluR antagonist (RS)-1-amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid (APICA). The inhibitory effect of l-AP4 was blocked by MPPG and partially blocked by APICA. PMID:16256086

  3. Enantioselective hydrogenation. IV. Hydrogen isotope exchange in 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine and in quinoline catalyzed by platinum group metals

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.; Wells, P.B.

    1994-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope (H/D) exchange in the alkaloid 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine has been studied over 6.4% Pt/silica (EUROPT-1), 5% Ru/alumina, 5% Rh/alumina, and 5% Pd/alumina at 293 K using C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OD and D{sub 2} as solvent and deuterium source. Exchange was accompanied by hydrogenation. Over Pt, fast exchange occurred in the hydroxyl group followed by multiple exchange in which alkaloid molecules containing, 2, 3, 4 and 5 deuterium atoms were formed simultaneously. Mass spectrometry and {sup 1}H NMR showed that this multiple exchange occurred in the quinoline ring system and at C{sub 9}, but not in the quinuclidine ring system. The pattern of exchange in Ru was similar. Over Rh extensive hydrogenolysis of the quinuclidine ring system occurred, and over Pd the quinoline ring system was rapidly hydrogenated. Quinoline exchange and hydrogenation were also studied at 293 K; relatively rapid exchange occurred over Pt, Ru, and Rh, particularly at the 2- and 8-positions, whereas hydrogenation without significant exchange occurred over Pd. 10,11-Dihydrocinchonidine is adsorbed on Pt and Ru via the quinoline ring system and the multiple nature of the exchange indicates that the quinoline moiety is adsorbed approximately parallel to the metal surface by multicenter {pi}-bonding. An additional interaction of the alkaloid molecule with the surface occurs at carbon atom C{sub 9}, which may interpret the slower exchange in the alkaloid by comparison with that in quinoline. This study supports and enhances the model proposed to interpret the origin of enantioselectivity in pyruvate hydrogenation over Pt and Ir modified by cinchona alkaloids. The similarities of exchange over Pt and Ru suggest that enantioselective catalysis should be achievable over Ru. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cryptochinones from Cryptocarya chinensis act as farnesoid X receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Tsung-Hsien; Huang, Din-Wen; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Cryptochinones A-D are tetrahydroflavanones isolated from the leaves of Cryptocarya chinensis, an evergreen tree whose extracts are believed to have a variety of health benefits. The origin of their possible bioactivity is unclear. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for chronic liver disease and for hyperglycemia. We studied whether cryptochinones A-D, which are structurally similar to known FXR ligands, may act at this target. Indeed, in mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, cryptochinones A-D transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, SHP, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in dose-dependent manner, while they exhibited similar agonistic activity as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR agonist. Through molecular modeling docking studies we evaluated their ability to bind to the FXR ligand binding pocket. Our results indicate that cryptochinones A-D can behave as FXR agonists. PMID:25127166

  5. Potent Adjuvanticity of a Pure TLR7-Agonistic Imidazoquinoline Dendrimer

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Nikunj M.; Salunke, Deepak B.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Mutz, Cole A.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; David, Sunil A.

    2012-01-01

    Engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve to link innate immune responses with adaptive immunity and can be exploited as powerful vaccine adjuvants for eliciting both primary and anamnestic immune responses. TLR7 agonists are highly immunostimulatory without inducing dominant proinflammatory cytokine responses. We synthesized a dendrimeric molecule bearing six units of a potent TLR7/TLR8 dual-agonistic imidazoquinoline to explore if multimerization of TLR7/8 would result in altered activity profiles. A complete loss of TLR8-stimulatory activity with selective retention of the TLR7-agonistic activity was observed in the dendrimer. This was reflected by a complete absence of TLR8-driven proinflammatory cytokine and interferon (IFN)-γ induction in human PBMCs, with preservation of TLR7-driven IFN-α induction. The dendrimer was found to be superior to the imidazoquinoline monomer in inducing high titers of high-affinity antibodies to bovine α-lactalbumin. Additionally, epitope mapping experiments showed that the dendrimer induced immunoreactivity to more contiguous peptide epitopes along the amino acid sequence of the model antigen. PMID:22952720

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of potent antitumor active quinoline and naphthyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjay K; Jha, Amrita; Agarwal, Shiv K; Mukherjee, Rama; Burman, Anand C

    2007-11-01

    The disease of cancer has been ranked second after cardiovascular diseases and plant-derived molecules have played an important role for the treatment of cancer. Nine cytotoxic plant-derived molecules such as vinblastine, vincristine, navelbine, etoposide, teniposide, taxol, taxotere, topotecan and irinotecan have been approved as anticancer drugs. Recently, epothilones are being emerging as future potential anti-tumor agents. However, targeted cancer therapy has now been rapidly expanding and small organic molecules are being exploited for this purpose. Amongst target specific small organic molecules, quinazoline was found as one of the most successful chemical class in cancer chemotherapy as three drugs namely Gefitinib, Erlotinib and Canertinib belong to this series. Now, quinazoline related chemical classes such as quinolines and naphthyridines are being exploited in cancer chemotherapy and a number of molecules such as compounds EKB-569 (52), HKI-272 (78) and SNS-595 (127a) are in different phases of clinical trials. This review presents the synthesis of quinolines and naphthyridines derivatives, screened for anticancer activity since year 2000. The synthesis of most potent derivatives in each prototype has been delineated. A brief structure activity relationship for each prototype has also been discussed. It has been observed that aniline group at C-4, aminoacrylamide substituents at C-6, cyano group at C-3 and alkoxy groups at C-7 in the quinoline ring play an important role for optimal activity. While aminopyrrolidine functionality at C-7, 2'-thiazolyl at N-1 and carboxy group at C-3 in 1,8-naphthyridine ring are essential for eliciting the cytotoxicity. This review would help the medicinal chemist to design and synthesize molecules for targeted cancer chemotherapy. PMID:18045063

  7. Thermo-optical properties of 1H[3,4-b] quinoline films used in electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Kępińska, Mirosława; Sanetra, Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Electroluminescence cells with H[3,4-b] quinoline layers are promising devices for a blue light emitting EL diode. This work measured the optical reflectance as a function of temperature in copolymers PAQ layers deposited on Si crystalline substrate. Using the extended Cauchy dispersion model of the film refractive index we determined the thermo-optical coefficients for quinoline layers in the temperature range of 76-333 K from combined ellipsometric and spectrofotometric studies. The obtained values of thermo-optical coefficients of thin PAQ film, were negative and ranged in 5-10 × 10-4 [1/K].

  8. Synthesis of 1H-pyrrolo[3,2-h]quinoline-8-amine derivatives that target CTG trinucleotide repeats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Li, Jinxing; Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new molecular design, synthesis, and investigation of small molecules that bind to CTG trinucleotide repeats in DNA. 1H-Pyrrolo[3,2-h]quinoline-8-amine (PQA) has a tricyclic aromatic system with unique non-linear hydrogen-bonding surface complementary to thymine. We have synthesized a series of PQA derivatives with different alkylamino linkers. These PQAs showed binding to pyrimidine bulge DNAs and CNG (N=T and C) repeats depending on the linker structure, while quinoline derivatives lacking the pyrrole ring showed much lower binding affinity. PQA is a useful molecular unit for both CTG and CCG repeat binding. PMID:27287365

  9. 7-[(Morpholin-4-yl)(phen-yl)meth-yl]quinolin-8-ol.

    PubMed

    Novina, J Josephine; Vasuki, G; Muthukumar, C; Sabastiyan, A; Crochet, A; Fromm, K M

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H20N2O2, the quinoline ring system makes dihedral angles of 81.05 (4) and 61.16 (5)° with the mean planes of the benzene and morpholine rings, respectively; the mean planes of the latter two rings make a dihedral angle of 83.59 (4)°. In the crystal, pairs of O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link neighbouring mol-ecules related by a twofold rotation axis, generating R2(2)(10) motifs. PMID:23476429

  10. Optical Spectroscopic Studies on Methoxy Substituted 2-4, Diphenyl Quinoline Derivatives Dispersed in Polystyrene Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahirwar, B. M.; Gahane, D. H.; Atram, R. G.; Moharil, S. V.

    The electroactive and blue luminescent substituted diphenyl quinoline derivative OMe-DPQ and Cl -DPQ have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR. The optical properties are investigated by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The polymeric compounds show two absorption peaks and exhibits intense blue photoluminescence in solid-state crystalline powder, in chloroform solution and blended thin films. OMe-DPQ and Cl-DPQ show intense blue emitting emission in different solvents. A narrow full width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of PL spectra can be obtained, may be useful for developing organic luminescent devices, solar cell devices, or in chemical sensors.

  11. Quinoline-based two-photon fluorescent probe for nitric oxide in live cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaohu; Heo, Cheol Ho; Chen, Shiyu; Kim, Hwan Myung; Liu, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    A two-photon fluorescent probe (QNO) for nitric oxide is reported. The probe is designed with a photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) mechanism and shows 12-fold fluorescence enhancement toward NO. Adopting a quinoline derivative as the fluorophore, QNO has a large two-photon action cross section value of 52 GM and long-wavelength emission. It also features high selectivity, low cytotoxicity, and pH insensitivity. By utilizing two-photon microscopy (TPM), QNO can detect NO in live cells and live tissues at a depth of 90-180 μm. PMID:24341482

  12. Crystal structure of ethyl 2,4-di-chloro-quinoline-3-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alberto; Miranda, Luis D; Reyes, Héctor; Aguirre, Gerardo; Chávez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C12H9Cl2NO2, the mean planes through the quinoline and carboxyl-ate groups have r.m.s. deviations of 0.006 and 0.021 Å, respectively, and form a dihedral angle of 87.06 (19)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via very weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains, which propagate along the c-axis direction. PMID:26870538

  13. 3,4-Di­methyl­phenyl quinoline-2-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, E.; Kaur, Manpreet; Sudha, B. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Jasinski, Jerry P.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C18H15NO2, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the quinoline ring system and the phenyl ring is 48.1 (5)°. The mean plane of the carboxyl­ate group is twisted from the mean planes of the latter by 19.8 (8) and 64.9 (5)°, respectively. The crystal packing features weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, which form chains along [010]. PMID:24454268

  14. Octopaminergic agonists for the cockroach neuronal octopamine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2003-01-01

    The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor. Abbreviation: AEA arylethanolamine AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine APAT 2-(α-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline BPAT 2-(β-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline CAO 2-(3-chlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DCAO 2-(3,5-dichlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DET5 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)-5-methylthiazolidine DET6 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)thiazine EGTA ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid GFA genetic function approximation G/PLS genetic partial least squares IND 2-aminomethyl-2-indanol LAH lithium aluminum hydride MCSG maximum common subgroup MCT6 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenylimino)thiazine OA octopamine PLS partial least squares QSAR quantitative structure-activity relationship SBAT 2-(substituted benzylamino)-2-thiazoline SD the sum of squared deviations of the dependent variable values from their mean SPIT 3-(substituted phenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione THI 2-amino-1-(2-thiazoyl)ethanol TMS tetramethyl silane PMID:15841226

  15. The Effect of PPARα, PPARδ, PPARγ, and PPARpan Agonists on Body Weight, Body Mass, and Serum Lipid Profiles in Diet-Induced Obese AKR/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, W. Wallace; S. Britt, Christy; G. Wilson, Joan; O. Milliken, Naphtali; G. Binz, Jane; C. Lobe, David; R. Oliver, William; C. Lewis, Michael; M. Ignar, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, δ, and γ subtypes increases expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation and alters adiposity in animal models of obesity and type-2 diabetes. PPARpan agonists which activate all three receptor subtypes have antidiabetic activity in animal models without the weight gain associated with selective PPARγ agonists. Herein we report the effects of selective PPAR agonists (GW9578, a PPARα agonist, GW0742, a PPARδ agonist, GW7845, a PPARγ agonist), combination of PPARα and δ agonists, and PPARpan (PPARα/γ/δ) activators (GW4148 or GW9135) on body weight (BW), body composition, food consumption, fatty acid oxidation, and serum chemistry of diet-induced obese AKR/J mice. PPARα or PPARδ agonist treatment induced a slight decrease in fat mass (FM) while a PPARγ agonist increased BW and FM commensurate with increased food consumption. The reduction in BW and food intake after cotreatment with PPARα and δ agonists appeared to be synergistic. GW4148, a PPARpan agonist, induced a significant and sustained reduction in BW and FM similar to an efficacious dose of rimonabant, an antiobesity compound. GW9135, a PPARpan agonist with weak activity at PPARδ, induced weight loss initially followed by rebound weight gain reaching vehicle control levels by the end of the experiment. We conclude that PPARα and PPARδ activations are critical to effective weight loss induction. These results suggest that the PPARpan compounds may be expected to maintain the beneficial insulin sensitization effects of a PPARγ agonist while either maintaining weight or producing weight loss. PMID:17710237

  16. Proerectile effects of dopamine D2-like agonists are mediated by the D3 receptor in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Truccone, Andrew; Haji-Abdi, Faiza; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Rice, Kenner C; Husbands, Stephen M; Greedy, Benjamin M; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cecile; Gueiffier, Alain; Chen, Jianyong; Wang, Shaomeng; Katz, Jonathan L; Grandy, David K; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H

    2009-04-01

    Dopamine D(2)-like agonists induce penile erection (PE) and yawning in a variety of species, effects that have been suggested recently to be specifically mediated by the D(4) and D(3) receptors, respectively. The current studies were aimed at characterizing a series of D(2), D(3), and D(4) agonists with respect to their capacity to induce PE and yawning in the rat and the proerectile effects of apomorphine [(R)-(-)-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-6-methyl-4H-dibenzo-[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol hydrochloride] in wild-type and D(4) receptor (R) knockout (KO) mice. All D(3) agonists induced dose-dependent increases in PE and yawning over a similar range of doses, whereas significant increases in PE or yawning were not observed with any of the D(4) agonists. Likewise, D(2), D(3), and D(4) antagonists were assessed for their capacity to alter apomorphine- and pramipexole (N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride)-induced PE and yawning. The D(3) antagonist, PG01037 [N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride], inhibited the induction of PE and yawning, whereas the D(2) antagonist, L-741,626 [3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole], reversed the inhibition of PE and yawning observed at higher doses. The D(4) antagonist, L-745,870 [3-(4-[4-chlorophenyl]piperazin-1-yl)-methyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine trihydrochloride], did not alter apomorphine- or pramipexole-induced PE or yawning. A role for the D(3) receptor was further supported because apomorphine was equipotent at inducing PE in wild-type and D(4)RKO mice, effects that were inhibited by the D(3) antagonist, PG01037, in both wild-type and D(4)R KO mice. Together, these studies provide strong support that D(2)-like agonist-induced PE and yawning are differentially mediated by the D(3) (induction) and D(2) (inhibition) receptors. These studies fail to support a role for the D(4) receptor in the regulation of PE or

  17. RXR partial agonist produced by side chain repositioning of alkoxy RXR full agonist retains antitype 2 diabetes activity without the adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Kohei; Morishita, Ken-ichi; Nakayama, Mariko; Yamada, Shoya; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Furusawa, Yuki; Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Oohashi, Toshitaka; Makishima, Makoto; Naitou, Hirotaka; Ishitsubo, Erika; Tokiwa, Hiroaki; Tai, Akihiro; Kakuta, Hiroki

    2015-01-22

    We previously reported RXR partial agonist CBt-PMN (1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)-1H-benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid: 5, EC50 = 143 nM, Emax = 75%), which showed a potent glucose-lowering effect without causing serious adverse effects. However, it remains important to elucidate the structural requirements for RXR efficacy and the glucose-lowering effect because RXR-permissive heterodimers such as PPAR/RXR or LXR/RXR are reported to be activated differently depending upon the chemical structure of RXR agonists. In this work, we show that an RXR partial agonist, NEt-4IB (6-[ethyl-(4-isobutoxy-3-isopropylphenyl)amino]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid: 8b, EC50 = 169 nM, Emax = 55%), can be obtained simply by repositioning the side chains (interchanging the isobutoxy and isopropoxy groups) at the hydrophobic moiety of the RXR full agonist NEt-3IB (6-[ethyl-(3-isobutoxy-4-isopropylphenyl)amino]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid: 7b, EC50 = 19 nM). NEt-4IB (8b) showed antitype 2 diabetes activity without the above side effects upon repeated oral administration to mice at 10 mg/kg/day, similarly to 5. PMID:25486327

  18. Label-Free Cell Phenotypic Identification of D-Luciferin as an Agonist for GPR35.

    PubMed

    Hu, Heidi; Deng, Huayun; Fang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    D-Luciferin (also known as beetle or firefly luciferin) is one of the most widely used bioluminescent reporters for monitoring in vitro or in vivo luciferase activity. The identification of several natural phenols and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives as agonists for GPR35, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, had motivated us to examine the pharmacological activity of D-Luciferin, given that it also contains phenol and carboxylic acid moieties. Here, we describe label-free cell phenotypic assays that ascertain D-Luciferin as a partial agonist for GPR35. The agonistic activity of D-Luciferin at the GPR35 shall evoke careful interpretation of biological data when D-Luciferin or its analogues are used as probes. PMID:27424891

  19. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  20. The effect of ((-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268), an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist, on EEG power spectra and coherence in ketamine model of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fujáková, Michaela; Páleníček, Tomáš; Brunovský, Martin; Gorman, Ingmar; Tylš, Filip; Kubešová, Anna; Řípová, Daniela; Krajča, Vladimír; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-07-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential antipsychotic effects of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 on changes in EEG power spectra and coherence in the ketamine model of psychosis. In order to use behaviorally active drug doses, experiments detecting changes in locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating were also conducted. In EEG experiments, adult male Wistar rats were injected with ketamine 30 mg/kg i.p. and LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. Cortical EEG was recorded from twelve (2 × 6) electrodes placed homolaterally on each hemisphere. To avoid interference with the behavioral hyperactivity of ketamine challenge, the behavioral activity of animals was simultaneously registered at the time of recording. Subsequent power spectral and coherence analyses were assessed in epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity. Analysis of segments with behavioral activity compared to inactivity was also performed. The effects of LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. on the deficits in sensorimotor processing and on hyperlocomotion induced by ketamine were evaluated in the test of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR) and in the open field. LY379268 reversed the ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion but had no effect on ketamine-induced PPI deficits. In EEG epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity ketamine decreased the power in the delta band, induced a power increase in the high frequency bands and globally decreased EEG coherence. Pretreatment with the LY379268 completely reversed the ketamine-induced power increase in high frequency bands and had a partial effect on EEG coherence. LY379268 alone induced a decrease of beta, high beta and low-gamma power, and an increase in coherence in high frequency bands. Additional analysis revealed that behavioral activity increases power as well as coherence in most frequency bands. In conclusion, agonism of mGlu2/3 receptors was effective in reversing most of the changes induced by ketamine, however due to the lack of effectiveness

  1. Agouti signalling protein is an inverse agonist to the wildtype and agonist to the melanic variant of the melanocortin-1 receptor in the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McRobie, Helen R; King, Linda M; Fanutti, Cristina; Symmons, Martyn F; Coussons, Peter J

    2014-06-27

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a key regulator of mammalian pigmentation. Melanism in the grey squirrel is associated with an eight amino acid deletion in the mutant melanocortin-1 receptor with 24 base pair deletion (MC1RΔ24) variant. We demonstrate that the MC1RΔ24 exhibits a higher basal activity than the wildtype MC1R (MC1R-wt). We demonstrate that agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is an inverse agonist to the MC1R-wt but is an agonist to the MC1RΔ24. We conclude that the deletion in the MC1RΔ24 leads to a receptor with a high basal activity which is further activated by ASIP. This is the first report of ASIP acting as an agonist to MC1R. PMID:24879893

  2. Monoterpenoid agonists of TRPV3

    PubMed Central

    Vogt-Eisele, A K; Weber, K; Sherkheli, M A; Vielhaber, G; Panten, J; Gisselmann, G; Hatt, H

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transient receptor potential (TRP) V3 is a thermosensitive ion channel expressed predominantly in the skin and neural tissues. It is activated by warmth and the monoterpene camphor and has been hypothesized to be involved in skin sensitization. A selection of monoterpenoid compounds was tested for TRPV3 activation to establish a structure-function relationship. The related channel TRPM8 is activated by cool temperatures and a number of chemicals, among them the monoterpene (-)-menthol. The overlap of the receptor pharmacology between the two channels was investigated. Experimental approach: Transfected HEK293 cells were superfused with the test substances. Evoked currents were measured in whole cell patch clamp measurements. Dose-response curves for the most potent agonists were obtained in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Key results: Six monoterpenes significantly more potent than camphor were identified: 6-tert-butyl-m-cresol, carvacrol, dihydrocarveol, thymol, carveol and (+)-borneol. Their EC50 is up to 16 times lower than that of camphor. All of these compounds carry a ring-located hydroxyl group and neither activates TRPM8 to a major extent. Conclusions and implications: Terpenoids have long been recognized as medically and pharmacologically active compounds, although their molecular targets have only partially been identified. TRPV3 activation may be responsible for several of the described effects of terpenoids. We show here that TRPV3 is activated by a number of monoterpenes and that a secondary hydroxyl-group is a structural requirement. PMID:17420775

  3. One-pot Sequential Reactions Featuring a Copper-catalyzed Amination Leading to Pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines and Dihydropyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xue-Sen; Zhang, Ju; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xin-Ying

    2015-06-01

    Tetracyclic skeletons combining an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine moiety with a quinoline framework such as pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-b]quinoline are stimulating increasing interests since they are close isosteres of a series of powerful antiproliferative compounds. In this paper, we report a novel methodology for the synthesis of pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines through one-pot sequential reactions of commercially available or readily obtainable 2-aminopyridines, 2-bromophenacyl bromides, aqueous ammonia, and aldehydes. Moreover, dihydropyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines could also be obtained in a similar manner by using various ketones as the substrates in place of aldehydes. Notably, the whole procedure combines condensation/amination/cyclization reactions in one pot to give complex compounds in a simple and practical manner. Compared with literature methods, the synthetic strategy reported herein has the advantages of readily available starting materials, structural diversity of products, good functional group tolerance, and obviation of step-by-step operations. PMID:25865134

  4. Application of Porous Nickel-Coated TiO2 for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Aqueous Quinoline in an Internal Airlift Loop Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Suiyi; Yang, Xia; Yang, Wu; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Jian; Huo, Mingxin

    2012-01-01

    P25 film, prepared by a facile dip-coating method without any binder, was further developed in a recirculating reactor for quinoline removal from synthetic wastewater. Macroporous foam Ni, which has an open three-dimensional network structure, was utilized as a substrate to make good use of UV rays. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coated/calcinated P25 films consisted of two crystal phases, and had a number of uniform microcracks on the surface. The effects of initial quinoline concentration, light intensity, reaction temperature, aeration, and initial pH were studied. Increased reaction time, light intensity, environmental temperature, and gas aeration were found to significantly improve the quinoline removal efficiency. The aeration effect of oxygen dependency on the quinoline degradation had the trend pure oxygen > air > no gas > pure nitrogen with free O2. The solution pH crucially affected quinoline photodegradation; the high electrostatic adsorption of quinoline molecules on the TiO2 surface was strongly pH dependent. 2-Pyridine-carboxaldehyde, 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and 2(1H)-quinolinone were identified as the major intermediates of quinoline degradation. Based on these intermediates, a primary degradation mechanism was proposed. This reusable P25 film benefits the photodegradation of water contaminants and has potential in other various applications. PMID:22470309

  5. Application of porous nickel-coated TiO₂ for the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous quinoline in an internal airlift loop reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Suiyi; Yang, Xia; Yang, Wu; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Jian; Huo, Mingxin

    2012-02-01

    P25 film, prepared by a facile dip-coating method without any binder, was further developed in a recirculating reactor for quinoline removal from synthetic wastewater. Macroporous foam Ni, which has an open three-dimensional network structure, was utilized as a substrate to make good use of UV rays. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coated/calcinated P25 films consisted of two crystal phases, and had a number of uniform microcracks on the surface. The effects of initial quinoline concentration, light intensity, reaction temperature, aeration, and initial pH were studied. Increased reaction time, light intensity, environmental temperature, and gas aeration were found to significantly improve the quinoline removal efficiency. The aeration effect of oxygen dependency on the quinoline degradation had the trend pure oxygen > air > no gas > pure nitrogen with free O₂. The solution pH crucially affected quinoline photodegradation; the high electrostatic adsorption of quinoline molecules on the TiO₂ surface was strongly pH dependent. 2-Pyridine-carboxaldehyde, 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and 2(1H)-quinolinone were identified as the major intermediates of quinoline degradation. Based on these intermediates, a primary degradation mechanism was proposed. This reusable P25 film benefits the photodegradation of water contaminants and has potential in other various applications. PMID:22470309

  6. Evaluation of the electronic properties of perfluorophenyl functionalized quinolines and their hybrids with carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sygellou, Lambrini; Kakogianni, Sofia; Andreopoulou, Aikaterini K; Theodosiou, Krystallia; Leftheriotis, George; Kallitsis, Joannis K; Siokou, Angeliki

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid materials based on perfluorophenyl functionalized quinolines directly attached onto the sp(2) hybridized surface of carbon nanostructures have been prepared and studied herein along with their precursor semiconducting small molecules. Tails of different polarities have been used so that the molecules would present improved solubility and controllable affinity for the selected substrates. These materials were evaluated for their electronic and electrochemical properties for potential application in organic photovoltaic solar cells (OPVs), using UPS, XPS and CV measurements after deposition onto oxygen plasma cleaned Si wafers or solvent treated ITO coated glass. A weak interaction between the fluorine atoms and both the Si and the ITO substrates was observed by XPS. The extent of this interfacial interaction was found to be related to the orientation of the quinoline moieties on the organic layer. Moreover, the combination of XPS and UPS analyses showed that the absolute energy value of the HOMO level increased as the amount of surface fluorine atoms increased. CV measurements revealed that hybridisation of the small molecules with carbon nanostructures decreases the materials' energy gap and increases the absolute energy value of the LUMO level. These features prove the efficiency of the proposed method to produce materials with controlled energy levels for solar cell devices. PMID:26781962

  7. Benzanilide–Biphenyl Replacement: A Bioisosteric Approach to Quinoline Carboxamide-Type ABCG2 Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently reported compounds such as UR-COP78 (6) are among the most potent and selective ABCG2 modulators known so far but are prone to rapid enzymatic cleavage at the central benzanilide moiety. In search for more stable analogues, according to a bioisosteric approach, a series of N-(biphenyl-3-yl)quinoline carboxamides was prepared by solid phase and solution phase synthesis. The biphenyl moiety was constructed by Suzuki coupling. Inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 was determined in a calcein-AM and a Hoechst 33342 microplate assay, respectively. Most synthesized compounds selectively inhibited the ABCG2 transporter at submicromolar concentrations with a maximal inhibitory effect (Imax) over 90% (e.g., UR-COP228 (22a), IC50 591 nM, Imax 109%; UR-COP258 (31), IC50 544 nM, Imax 112%), though with lower potency and selectivity than 6. The biphenyl analogues are considerably more stable and demonstrate that the benzanilide core is not a crucial structural feature of quinoline carboxamide-type ABCG2 modulators. PMID:24900683

  8. Derivatization of (quinolin-8-yl)phosphinimidic amides via ortho-lithiation revisited.

    PubMed

    Fernández Sáez, Nerea; García López, Jesús; Iglesias, María José; López Ortiz, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    5The direct ortho-lithiation of N-H containing (quinolin-8-yl)phosphinimidic amides by reaction with 1 equiv. of n-BuLi described by Wang and co-workers has been re-examined. The multinuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H, (2)H, (7)Li, (13)C, (15)N and (31)P) study of the species formed in the monolithiation of N-(tert-butyl)-P,P-diphenyl-N'-(quinolin-8-yl)phosphinimidic amide 5 with n-BuLi in THF showed that proton abstraction occurred exclusively and quantitatively at the NH. The combination of the NMR results with a DFT study made it possible to describe the structure of the N-lithiated species 9 as a dimer consisting of an eight-membered ring showing two lithium ions triply coordinated to nitrogen atoms corresponding to the deprotonated amine and aminoquinoline moieties of different monomers. The formation of a polymer featuring the same coordination mode couldn't be excluded. In addition, optimized conditions for the efficient derivatization of 5 via ortho-lithiation were realised. The reaction of 5 with 2.4 equiv. of t-BuLi in THF in the temperature range of -80 °C to 25 °C for 3 h afforded a N,C(ortho)-dilithiated species that was trapped with a series of electrophiles leading to new functionalized ortho derivatives of 5 in good yields. PMID:26030882

  9. Rotational spectra of quinoline and of isoquinoline: spectroscopic constants and electric dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Z.; Desyatnyk, O.; Pszczółkowski, L.; Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2003-01-01

    Rotational spectra of quinoline and of isoquinoline have been observed in the centimeter- and millimeter-wave regions. The spectra were assigned on the basis of bands formed by high- J transitions, which were measured up to J″⩽128 and ν⩽234 GHz. Complementary measurements were also made on low- J, centimeter-wave spectra observed in supersonic expansion and with fully resolved nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure. Accurate rotational, centrifugal distortion and hyperfine splitting constants for the ground states of both molecules are reported. The electric dipole moments for the two molecules were also determined from Stark effect measurements and are μa=0.14355(19), μb=2.0146(17), μtot=2.0197(17) D for quinoline, and μa=2.3602(21), μb=0.9051(14), μtot=2.5278(20) D for isoquinoline. The experimental observables were found to be rather accurately predicted by MP2/6-31G** ab initio calculations, and corresponding molecular geometries are also reported.

  10. Mono- and multimeric ferrocene congeners of quinoline-based polyamines as potential antiparasitics.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Tameryn; De Kock, Carmen; Guzgay, Hajira; Okombo, John; Liu, Jenny; Kanetake, Sierra; Kim, Jihwan; Tam, Christina; Cheng, Luisa W; Smith, Peter J; Hendricks, Denver T; Land, Kirkwood M; Egan, Timothy J; Smith, Gregory S

    2016-09-14

    A series of mono- and multimeric polyamine-containing ferrocenyl complexes containing a quinoline motif were prepared. The complexes were characterised by standard techniques. The molecular structure of the monomeric salicylaldimine derivative was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction and was consistent with the proposed structure. The antiplasmodial activity of the compounds were evaluated in vitro against both the NF54 (chloroquine-sensitive) and K1 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The polyamine derivatives exhibit good resistance index values suggesting that these systems are beneficial in overcoming the resistance experienced by chloroquine. Mechanistic studies suggest that haemozoin formation may be the target of these quinoline complexes in the parasite. Some of the complexes exhibit moderate to high cytotoxicity against WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells in vitro. The monomeric ferrocenyl-amine complexes exhibit potent activity against this particular cell line. The complexes were also screened against the G3 strain of Trichomonas vaginalis and the salicylaldimine complexes demonstrated promising activity at the tested concentration. All of these compounds show no inhibitory effect on several common normal flora bacteria, indicative of their selectivity for eukaryotic pathogens and cancer. PMID:27485032

  11. Effect of the electronic structure of quinoline and its derivatives on the capacity for intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Privalova, N.Yu.; Sokolova, I.V.

    1985-05-01

    Calculations of the ground and excited states of quinoline and its 20H-, 70H-, 7NH2-, 7N(CH3)2-, and 7N(C2H5)2- substituted derivatives were undertaken by the INDO method, and the effect of intramolecular proton transfer (IPT) on their electronic structure was studied. The proton-accepting capacity of the compounds for intermolecular interactions was estimated by the molecular electrostatic potential method. It was shown that the proton-accepting capacity with respect to intermolecular interactions increases during the tautomeric transformation of the enolic form of 2-OH-quinoline to its keto form. The change in the basicity of the two forms of the molecules is affected by the orbital nature, and the multiplicity of the state is also important for the keto form. Substitution by electron-donating groups leads to increase in the proton-accepting capacity of both forms of the compounds in the S0, S/sub */, and T/sub */ states.

  12. Intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions in the synthesis of complex annelated quinolines, α-carbolines and coumarins.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Swarup; Borah, Pallabi; Bhuyan, Pulak J

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of several novel dihydroisoxazole-, tetrahydroisoxazole- and dihydropyrazole-fused pyrido[2,3-b]quinolines, α-carbolines, and pyrido[2,3-c]coumarins, respectively, from simple precursors and by exploring intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving nitrile oxides, nitrones, and nitrile imines as 1,3-dipoles. PMID:22374452

  13. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular dehydrogenative amidation/amination of quinoline N-oxides with lactams/cyclamines.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Jia, Chunqi; Sun, Kai

    2013-10-18

    C-H, N-H dehydrogenative coupling of quinoline N-oxides with lactams/cyclamines has been achieved in the presence of the Cu(OAc)2 catalyst to give good to excellent yields. This study provides a new strategy for the construction of a 2-aminoquinoline skeleton via direct functionalization of aryl C-H bonds. PMID:24093556

  14. Quinoline-Substituted 10-(naphthalene-7-yl)anthracene Derivatives for Blue Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanwoo; Park, Soo Na; Lee, Seul Bee; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we have designed and synthesized blue emitters based on quinoline-substituted 10-(naphthalene-7-yl)anthracene. Particularly, a material exhibited highly efficient blue electroluminescence with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.18). PMID:27433688

  15. Identification of novel IP receptor agonists using historical ligand biased chemical arrays.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Stephen C; Charlton, Steven J; Cox, Brian; Fitch, Helen; Howson, Christopher D; Leblanc, Catherine; Meyer, Arndt; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Stanley, Emily

    2014-05-15

    By considering published structural information we have designed high throughput biaryl lipophilic acid arrays leveraging facile chemistry to expedite their synthesis. We rapidly identified multiple hits which were of suitable IP agonist potency. These relatively simple and strategically undecorated molecules present an ideal opportunity for optimization towards our target candidate profile. PMID:24736116

  16. Enol ethers as carbonyl surrogates in a modification of the Povarov synthesis of 3-aryl quinolines and their anti-Toxoplasma activity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carla E; McNulty, James; Bordón, Claudia; Yolken, Robert; Jones-Brando, Lorraine

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for the preparation of 2-carboxyl-3-aryl quinoline derivatives from anilines, ethyl glyoxalate and enol ethers as phenylacetaldehyde surrogates is reported. The three-component coupling reaction occurs rapidly under mild conditions in dichloromethane catalysed by TFA. The method allows a more direct access to 3-aryl quinolines, sidestepping issues encountered with phenylacetaldehyde derivatives. This chemistry was used to prepare quinolines with 3-diarylether functionality that showed low micromolar efficacy (IC50 range: 5-26 μM) against in vitro Toxoplasma gondii coupled with little or no cytotoxicity (TD50≥ 320 μM) towards the host cells. PMID:27256871

  17. PPARγ agonist from Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man-Li; Irwin, Dianne; Li, Xiao-Ning; Sauriol, Françoise; Shi, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Yu-Fang; Huo, Chang-Hong; Li, Li-Geng; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shi, Qing-Wen

    2012-12-28

    A phytochemical investigation of Chromolaena odorata resulted in the isolation of five new compounds, 5aα,6,9,9aβ,10-pentahydro-10β-hydroxy-7-methylanthra[1,2-d][1,3]dioxol-5-one (1), 1,2-methylenedioxy-6-methylanthraquinone (2), 3-hydroxy-1,2,4-trimethoxy-6-methylanthraquinone (3), 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy-6-methylanthraquinone (4), and 7-methoxy-7-epi-medioresinol (5), together with 12 known compounds, odoratin (6), 3β-acetyloleanolic acid (7), ursolic acid (8), ombuin (9), 4,2'-dihydroxy-4',5',6'-trimethoxychalcone (10), (-)-pinoresinol (11), austrocortinin (12), tianshic acid (13), cleomiscosin D (14), (-)-medioresinol (15), (-)-syringaresinol (16), and cleomiscosin A (17). All the compounds were evaluated for their PPARγ transactivation activity, and compound 6 showed moderate activity with an EC(50) value of 3.10 μM. PMID:23186307

  18. The Benzenesulfoamide T0901317 [N-(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide] Is a Novel Retinoic Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor-α/γ Inverse Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Solt, Laura A.; Conkright, Juliana J.; Wang, Yongjun; Istrate, Monica A.; Busby, Scott A.; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) regulate a variety of physiological processes including hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, and immune function. Here we present the first high-affinity synthetic ligand for both RORα and RORγ. In a screen against all 48 human nuclear receptors, the benzenesulfonamide liver X receptor (LXR) agonist N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (T0901317) inhibited transactivation activity of RORα and RORγ but not RORβ. T0901317 was found to directly bind to RORα and RORγ with high affinity (Ki = 132 and 51 nM, respectively), resulting in the modulation of the receptor's ability to interact with transcriptional cofactor proteins. T0901317 repressed RORα/γ-dependent transactivation of ROR-responsive reporter genes and in HepG2 cells reduced recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator-2 by RORα at an endogenous ROR target gene (G6Pase). Using small interference RNA, we demonstrate that repression of the gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in HepG2 cells by T0901317 is ROR-dependent and is not due to the compound's LXR activity. In summary, T0901317 represents a novel chemical probe to examine RORα/γ function and an excellent starting point for the development of ROR selective modulators. More importantly, our results demonstrate that small molecules can be used to target the RORs for therapeutic intervention in metabolic and immune disorders. PMID:19887649

  19. Absence of association between pyronaridine in vitro responses and polymorphisms in genes involved in quinoline resistance in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present work was to assess the in vitro cross-resistance of pyronaridine with other quinoline drugs, artesunate and several other commonly used anti-malarials and to evaluate whether decreased susceptibility to pyronaridine could be associated with genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in reduced quinoline susceptibility, such as pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmrp and pfnhe. Methods The in vitro chemosusceptibility profiles of 23 strains of Plasmodium falciparum were analysed by the standard 42-hour 3H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition method for pyronaridine, artesunate, chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, pyrimethamine and doxycycline. Genotypes were assessed for pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfnhe-1 and pfmrp genes. Results The IC50 values for pyronaridine ranged from 15 to 49 nM (geometric mean = 23.1 nM). A significant positive correlation was found between responses to pyronaridine and responses to artesunate (r2 = 0.20; P = 0.0317) but too low to suggest cross-resistance. No significant correlation was found between pyronaridine IC50 and responses to other anti-malarials. Significant associations were not found between pyronaridine IC50 and polymorphisms in pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmrp or pfnhe-1. Conclusion There was an absence of cross-resistance between pyronaridine and quinolines, and the IC50 values for pyronaridine were found to be unrelated to mutations in the transport protein genes pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmrp or pfnhe-1, known to be involved in quinoline resistance. These results confirm the interest and the efficacy of the use of a combination of pyronaridine and artesunate in areas in which parasites are resistant to quinolines. PMID:21108786

  20. Series of coordination polymers based on 4-(5-sulfo-quinolin-8-yloxy) phthalate and bipyridinyl coligands: Structure diversity and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xun; Liu, Jing; Li, Jin; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya; Ng, Seik-Weng; Qin, Guo-Zhan

    2015-10-15

    Reactions between later metal salts and conjugational N-hetrocyclic sulfonate/ carboxylic acid under the presence of bipyridyl auxiliary ligands afforded a series of manganese, nickel, zinc, silver, cadmium coordination polymers bearing with phenyl pendant arm attached to quinoline skeletons, and they have been characterized by elements analysis, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studying. The series of polymers show interesting structural diversity in coordination environment, dimensions and topologies. They are all built from 2-D networks constructed from metal cluster through sulfonate or carboxylate groups, as the secondary building unit (SBU). The thermalgravimetric analyses show that they display framework stabilities in solid state. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies reveal the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent Mn (II) ions in 1, and ferromagnetic interactions between Ni(II) ions for 2, respectively. The photo-luminescence properties of 3-5 have also been investigated systemically. - Highlights: • A series of coordination polymers based on later transition metal ions have been obtained. • They contain conjugational N-hetrocyclic sulfonate-carboxylic acid and bipyridyl auxiliary ligands. • They have been characterized systemically. • They exhibit structure diversity and interesting properties.

  1. A Rhodium Nanoparticle-Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquid Catalyst for the Chemoselective Reduction of Heteroarenes.

    PubMed

    Karakulina, Alena; Gopakumar, Aswin; Akçok, İsmail; Roulier, Bastien L; LaGrange, Thomas; Katsyuba, Sergey A; Das, Shoubhik; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We describe a catalytic system composed of rhodium nanoparticles immobilized in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid. The combined system catalyzes the hydrogenation of quinolines, pyridines, benzofurans, and furan to access the corresponding heterocycles, important molecules present in fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The catalyst is highly selective, acting only on the heteroaromatic ring, and not interfering with other reducible functional groups. PMID:26577114

  2. Time and space profiling of NMDA receptor co-agonist functions.

    PubMed

    Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Le Bail, Matildé; Billard, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    The N-Methyl D-Aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (NMDAR) are key tetrameric ionotropic glutamate receptors that transduce glutamatergic signals throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord. Although NMDARs are diverse in their subunit composition, subcellular localization, and biophysical and pharmacological properties, their activation always requires the binding of a co-agonist that has long been thought to be glycine. However, intense research over the last decade has challenged this classical model by showing that another amino acid, d-serine, is the preferential co-agonist for a subset of synaptic NMDARs in many areas of the adult brain. Nowadays, a totally new picture of glutamatergic synapses at work is emerging where both glycine and d-serine are involved in a complex interplay to regulate NMDAR functions in the CNS following time and space constraints. The purpose of this review was to highlight the particular role of each co-agonist in modulating NMDAR-dependent activities in healthy and diseased brains. We have herein integrated our most advanced knowledge of how glycine and d-serine may orchestrate synapse dynamics and drive neuronal network activity in a time- and synapse-specific manner and how changes in synaptic availability of these amino acids may contribute to cognitive impairments such as those associated with healthy aging, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. The N-Methyl D-Aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors are central to many physiological functions and are linked to brain disorders. Their functions require glutamate and a co-agonist d-serine or glycine. After years of intense research and controversy on the identity of the amino acid that serves as the right co-agonist, we are just entering a new era of consensus where glycine and d-serine are teaming up to regulate the function of different subsets of NMDA receptors and at different synapses during different time windows of brain development. PMID:26088787

  3. Synthesis of 1,3-Disubstituted Imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines from Amino Acids via Catalytic Decarboxylative Intramolecular Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiqiao; Xu, Wentao; Xin, Lilan; Liu, Wenmin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-01

    A copper/iodine cocatalyzed decarboxylative cyclization of α-amino acids is described. Starting from the readily available amino acids and either 2-benzoylpyridines or 2-benzoylquinolines, 1,3-disubstituted imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines and 1,3-disubstituted imidazo[1,5-a]quinolines were prepared in excellent yields. PMID:27045422

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of BPC 157, a 15-amino acid peptide, on liver lesions induced by either restraint stress or bile duct and hepatic artery ligation or CCl4 administration. A comparative study with dopamine agonists and somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Rotkvic, I; Turkovic, B; Jagic, V; Mildner, B; Duvnjak, M

    1993-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of a newly synthesized 15 amino acid fragment code named BPC 157 was evaluated in comparison with the reference standards (bromocriptine, amantadine and somatostatin) in various experimental models of liver injury in rats: 24 h-bile duct+hepatic artery ligation 48 h-restraint stress and CCl4 administration. BPC 157 administered either intragastrically or intraperitoneally, significantly prevented the development of liver necrosis or fatty changes in rats subjected to 24 h bile duct + hepatic artery ligation, 48 h-restraint stress, CCl4 treatment (1 ml/kg i.p., sacrifice 48 h thereafter). The other reference drugs had either little or no protective actions in these models. Noteworthy, the laboratory test results for bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT fully correlated with the macro/microscopical findings. Thus, on the basis of consistent protective effect of BPC 157, possible clinical application in liver diseases is now warranted. PMID:7901724

  5. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?

    SciTech Connect

    Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender

    2007-08-01

    LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Behavioral and biochemical characterization of benzodiazepine receptor partial agonists in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Acri, J B; Wong, G; Gleeson, S; Barrett, J E

    1996-04-01

    The ability of benzodiazepine receptor partial agonists to exhibit full efficacy in preclinical anxiolytic tests, in conjunction with initial clinical results, has suggested the possibility of a reduced clinical side-effect profile compared to benzodiazepine receptor full agonists like diazepam. Because punished behavior of pigeons has been useful in detecting effects of novel anxiolytic drugs, effects of imidazobenzodiazepine and beta-carboline benzodiazepine receptor partial agonists and some related compounds were evaluated in this species. The abilities of these compounds to substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of the full agonists midazolam also was determined. Intrinsic efficacy was assessed by the degree to which gamma-aminobutyric acid increased ligand potency to displace [(3)H]Ro15-1788 (flumazinil) from membranes of pigeon cerebrum, and ranged from full agonist-like efficacy (Ro 19-5470; 7-(3-cyclopropyl-1,2,4-oxodiazol-5-yl)-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-4H- imidazo[1,5a]-thieno[3,2-f]diazin-4-one) to minimal gamma-aminobutyric acid potentiations close to that of the antagonist flumazenil (abecarnil and Ro 41-7812; 7-chloro-4,5-dihydro-3-(3-hydroxy-1-propynyl)-5-methyl-6H-imidazo[1,5-a] -[1,4 ]benzodiazepine-6-one). Punished responding was increased markedly by midazolam and by all partial agonists, except Ro 41-7812 and Ro 42-8773 (7-chloro-3-[3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-1-propynyl]-4,5-dihyro-5 -methyl-6H-imidaz o[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one), at doses that did not affect nonpunished responding. In contrast to the full substitution generally observed in mammals, all of the partial agonists produced incomplete substitution (40-70%) in the midazolam drug discrimination procedure in pigeons. A positive relationship was observed between the degree of substitution and intrinsic efficacy. The benzodiazepine antagonists, flumazenil and ZK 93,426 (ethyl-5-isopropoxy-4-methoxymethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate), neither increased punished responding nor

  7. Divergent teratogenicity of agonists of retinoid X receptors in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Shi, Huahong; Zhu, Pan; Sun, Zhi; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Liang

    2012-07-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were comparably exposed to seven known agonists of retinoid X receptors (RXRs) including two endogenous compounds (9-cis-retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), four man-made selective ligands (LGD1069, SR11237, fluorobexarotene and CD3254), and a biocide (triphenyltin). The dominant phenotypes of malformation were sharp mouths and small caudal fins in 1 mg/L SR11237-treated group after 5 days exposure. 9-cis-retinoic acid and LGD1069 induced multiple malformations including small eyes, bent notochords, reduced brain, enlarged proctodaems, absence of fins, short tails and edema after 5 days exposure. Fluorobexarotene and CD3254 induced similar phenotypes of malformations after 5 days exposure at low concentration (20 μg/L) to those after the 1st d exposure at high concentrations (50 and 100 μg/L). Triphenlytin induced multiple malformations including deformed eyes, bent notochords, bent tails, and edema in hearts after 5 days exposure at concentrations of 1-10 μg Sn/L. In contrast, no discernible malformations were observed in triphenlytin-treated groups after each separate day exposure. These agonists not only showed different ability of teratogenicity but also induced different phenotypes of malformation in zebrafish embryos. In addition, the sensitive stages of zebrafish embryos were different in response to these agonists. Therefore, our results suggest that the agonists of RXRs had divergent teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos. PMID:22526925

  8. [UV-spectrophotometry in drug control. 33. New drugs with benzene, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthrene chromophores in the molecule. 6. The effect of substitution and solvents].

    PubMed

    Krácmar, J; Krácmarová, J; Stejskal, Z

    1987-01-01

    UV-spectra of 14 new substances with benzene, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthrene chromophores as well as influences of substitutes and solvents on shifts of the bands E, K, B and R are discussed. PMID:2953035

  9. Agonist self-inhibition at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor a nonspecific action

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.; Firestone, L.L.; Miller, K.W.

    1987-05-19

    Agonist concentration-response relationships at nicotinic postsynaptic receptors were established by measuring /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from acetylcholine receptor rich native Torpedo membrane vesicles under three different conditions: (1) integrated net ion efflux (in 10 s) from untreated vesicles, (2) integrated net efflux from vesicles in which most acetylcholine sites were irreversibly blocked with ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, and (3) initial rates of efflux (5-100 ms) from vesicles that were partially blocked with ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin. Exposure to acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, suberyldicholine, phenyltrimethylammonium, or (-)-nicotine over 10/sup 8/-fold concentration ranges results in bell-shaped ion flux response curves due to stimulation of acetylcholine receptor channel opening at low concentrations and inhibition of channel function at 60-2000 times higher concentrations. Concentrations of agonists that inhibit their own maximum /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux by 50% (K/sub B/ values) are 110, 211, 3.0, 39, and 8.9 mM, respectively, for the agonists listed above. For acetylcholine and carbamylcholine, K/sub B/ values determined from both 10-s and 15-ms efflux measurements are the same, indicating that the rate of agonist-induced desensitization increases to maximum at concentrations lower than those causing self-inhibition. For all partial and full agonists studied, Hill coefficients for self-inhibition are close to 1.0. Concentrations of agonists up to 8 times K/sub B/ did not change the order parameter reported by a spin-labeled fatty acid incorporated in Torpedo membranes. The authors conclude that agonist self-inhibition cannot be attributed to a general nonspecific membrane perturbation. Instead, these results are consistent with a saturable site of action either at the lipid-protein interface or on the acetylcholine receptor protein itself.

  10. Crystal Structures and Phase Relationships of 2 Polymorphs of 1,4-Diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-4-Carboxylic Acid 4-Bromophenyl Ester Fumarate, A Selective α-7 Nicotinic Receptor Partial Agonist.

    PubMed

    Robert, Benoît; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Barrio, Maria; Tamarit, Josep-Lluis; Coquerel, Gérard; Ceolin, René; Rietveld, Ivo B

    2016-01-01

    Two polymorphs of the 1:1 fumarate salt of 1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-4-carboxylic acid 4-bromophenyl ester, developed for the treatment of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease, have been characterized. The 2 crystal structures have been solved, and their phase relationships have been established. The space group of form I is P2₁/c with a unit-cell volume of 1811.6 (5) Å(3) with Z = 4. The crystals of form I were 2-component nonmerohedral twins. The space group of form II is P2₁/n with a unit-cell volume of 1818.6 (3) Å(3) with Z = 4. Relative stabilities have been inferred from experimental and topological P-T diagrams exhibiting an overall enantiotropic relationship between forms I and II although the solid-solid transition has never been observed. The slope of the I-II equilibrium in the P-T diagram is negative, form II is the stable phase below the solid-solid transition temperature of 371 K, and form I exhibits a stable melting equilibrium. The I-II transition temperature has been obtained from the intersection of the sublimation curves of the 2 solid forms. PMID:26852840

  11. Search for new type of PPARγ agonist-like anti-diabetic compounds from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Potent ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) such as thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone, troglitazone, etc.) improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the levels of adiponectin, an important adipocytokine associated with insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Several constituents from medicinal plants were recently reported to show PPARγ agonist-like activity in 3T3-L1 cells, but did not show agonistic activity at the receptor site different from thiazolidinediones. Our recent studies on PPARγ agonist-like constituents, such as hydrangenol and hydrangeic acid from the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii, piperlonguminine and retrofractamide A from the fruit of Piper chaba, and tetramethylkaempferol and pentamethylquercetin from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora, are reviewed. PMID:24882400

  12. Discovery of DS-1558: A Potent and Orally Bioavailable GPR40 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    GPR40 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. GPR40 agonists stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of high glucose concentration. On the basis of this mechanism, GPR40 agonists are possible novel insulin secretagogues with reduced or no risk of hypoglycemia. The improvement of in vitro activity and metabolic stability of compound 1 led to the discovery of 13, (3S)-3-ethoxy-3-(4-{[(1R)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl]oxy}phenyl)propanoic acid, as a potent and orally available GPR40 agonist. Compound 13 (DS-1558) was found to have potent glucose lowering effects during an oral glucose tolerance test in ZDF rats. PMID:25815144

  13. Pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines promising photosensitizing agents in the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Virginia; Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Montalbano, Alessandra; Salvador, Alessia; Brun, Paola; Vedaldi, Daniela; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Barraja, Paola

    2015-09-18

    A new series of pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines, heteroanalogues of angelicin was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular photocytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI50 values reaching the nanomolar level (14.52-0.04 μM). Selected compounds were able to photoinduce a massive cell death with the involvement of mitochondria. Their photodamage cellular targets were proteins and lipids and they did not cause any kind of DNA photodamage. This latter event is of considerable importance in the modulation of long term side effects, generally associated with the use of classical furocoumarins. PMID:26295175

  14. Fluorescence in complexes based on quinolines-derivatives: a search for better fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Mecca, Carolina Z P; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Bagatin, Izilda A

    2016-11-01

    Quinoline-derived fluorescent complexes were designed; synthesized by the reaction of 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline and 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline with Al(3+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+) salts (1-8); and characterized. The (1)H NMR spectra of complexes 1 and 5, containing Al(3+), were consistent with an octahedral structure having approximate D3 symmetry, and the results supported the favored facial isomer (fac). Data for complexes 2-4 and 6-8 supported the formation of tetrahedral structures. Intense luminescence was detected for complexes 5-8, even with the naked eye, as indicated by quantum yield values of 0.087, 0.094, 0.051, and 0.021, respectively. Furthermore, in contrast to 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline, the 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline ligand exhibited bands at different energies depending on the coordinated metal, which supported its potential application in ionic and biological probes, as well as in cell imaging. PMID:27288961

  15. Fluorescence in complexes based on quinolines-derivatives: a search for better fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecca, Carolina Z. P.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.; Bagatin, Izilda A.

    2016-11-01

    Quinoline-derived fluorescent complexes were designed; synthesized by the reaction of 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline and 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline with Al3+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ salts (1-8); and characterized. The 1H NMR spectra of complexes 1 and 5, containing Al3+, were consistent with an octahedral structure having approximate D3 symmetry, and the results supported the favored facial isomer (fac). Data for complexes 2-4 and 6-8 supported the formation of tetrahedral structures. Intense luminescence was detected for complexes 5-8, even with the naked eye, as indicated by quantum yield values of 0.087, 0.094, 0.051, and 0.021, respectively. Furthermore, in contrast to 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline, the 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline ligand exhibited bands at different energies depending on the coordinated metal, which supported its potential application in ionic and biological probes, as well as in cell imaging.

  16. Dichlorido[2-(phenyl­imino­meth­yl)quinoline-N,N′]palladium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Motswainyana, William M.; Onani, Martin O.; Madiehe, Abram M.

    2012-01-01

    In the title complex, [PdCl2(C16H12N2)], the PdII ion is coordinated by two N atoms [Pd—N 2.039 (2), 2.073 (2) Å] from a bidentate ligand and two chloride anions [Pd—Cl 2.2655 (7), 2.2991 (7) Å] in a distorted square-planar geometry. In the crystal, π–π inter­actions between the six-membered rings of the quinoline fragments [centroid–centroid distances = 3.815 (5), 3.824 (5) Å] link two mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers. PMID:22589771

  17. Second-order optical effects in several pyrazolo-quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowska-Janusik, M.; Gondek, E.; Kityk, I. V.; Wisła, J.; Sanetra, J.; Danel, A.

    2004-11-01

    Using optical poling of several pyazolo-quinoline (PAQ) derivatives we have found an existence of sufficiently high second order optical susceptibility at wavelength 1.76 μm varying in the range 0.9-2.8 pm/V. The performed quantum chemical simulations of the UV-absorption for isolated, solvated and incorporated into the polymethacrylate (PMMA) polymer films have shown that the PM3 method is the best among the semi-empirical ones to simulate the optical properties. The calculations of the hyperpolarizabilites have shown a good correlation with experimentally measured susceptibilities obtained from the optical poling. We have found that experimental susceptibility depends on linear molecular polarizability and photoinducing changes of the molecular dipole moment. It is clearly seen for the PAQ4-PAQ6 molecules possessing halogen atoms with relatively large polarizabilities.

  18. 6,7-Dimeth­oxy-2,4-di­phenyl­quinoline

    PubMed Central

    Prabhuswamy, M.; Madan Kumar, S.; Swaroop, T. R.; Rangappa, K. S.; Lokanath, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    In the title structure of the title compound, C23H19NO2, two conformationally similar mol­ecules (A and B) comprise the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angle between phenyl rings bridged by the quinoline moiety are 76.25 (8)° in mol­ecule A and 70.39 (9)° in mol­ecule B. In the crystal, the independent mol­ecules are connected by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and the resulting dimeric aggregates are linked by π–π [inter-centroid distance = 3.7370 (8) Å] and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:24764883

  19. Identification of a novel class of quinoline-oxadiazole hybrids as anti-tuberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Puneet P; Degani, Mariam S; Raju, Archana; Anantram, Aarti; Seervi, Madhav; Sathaye, Sadhana; Ray, Muktikanta; Rajan, M G R

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel quinoline-oxadiazole hybrid compounds was designed based on stepwise rational modification of the lead molecules reported previously, in order to enhance bioactivity and improve druglikeness. The hybrid compounds synthesized were screened for biological activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and for cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line. Several of the hits exhibited good to excellent anti-tuberculosis activity and selectivity, especially compounds 12m, 12o and 12p, showed minimum inhibitory concentration values<0.5μM and selectivity index>500. The results of this study open up a promising avenue that may lead to the discovery of a new class of anti-tuberculosis agents. PMID:26675440

  20. A fluorescence turn-on chemosensor for hydrogen sulfate anion based on quinoline and naphthalimide.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaoli; Yin, Kai; Yu, Zhu; Chen, Mengxue; Li, Yan; Ren, Jun

    2016-12-01

    A new fluorescence turn-on chemosensor 1 based on quinoline and naphthalimide was prepared and its anion sensing toward various anions behavior was explored in this paper. Sensor 1 exhibited a highly selective fluorescent response toward HSO4(-) with an 8-fold fluorescence intensity enhancement in the presence of 10equiv. of HSO4(-) in DMSO-H2O (1/1, v/v) solution. The sensor also displayed high sensitivity to hydrogen sulfate and the detection limit was calculated to be 7.79×10(-7)M. The sensing mechanism has been suggested to proceed via a hydrolysis process of the Schiff base group. The hydrolysis product has been isolated and further identified by (1)H NMR and MS. PMID:27323316

  1. Iodine-Mediated Intramolecular Dehydrogenative Coupling: Synthesis of N-Alkylindolo[3,2-c]- and -[2,3-c]quinoline Iodides.

    PubMed

    Volvoikar, Prajesh S; Tilve, Santosh G

    2016-03-01

    An I2/TBHP-mediated intramolecular dehydrogenative coupling reaction is developed for the synthesis of a library of medicinally important 5,11-dialkylindolo[3,2-c]quinoline salts and 5,7-dimethylindolo[2,3-c]quinoline salts. The annulation reaction is followed by aromatization to yield tetracycles in good yield. This protocol is also demonstrated for the synthesis of the naturally occurring isocryptolepine in salt form. PMID:26866309

  2. beta2-Agonists at the Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2006-01-01

    The different approaches that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) had adopted to beta2-agonists and the implications for athletes are reviewed by a former Olympic team physician who later became a member of the Medical Commission of the IOC (IOC-MC). Steadily increasing knowledge of the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on health, is concerned with the fact that oral beta2-agonists may be anabolic, and rapid increased use of inhaled beta2-agonists by elite athletes has contributed to the changes to the IOC rules. Since 2001, the necessity for athletes to meet IOC criteria (i.e., that they have asthma and/or exercise-induced asthma [EIA]) has resulted in improved management of athletes. The prevalence of beta2-agonist use by athletes mirrors the known prevalence of asthma symptoms in each country, although athletes in endurance events have the highest prevalence. The age-of-onset of asthma/EIA in elite winter athletes may be atypical. Of the 193 athletes at the 2006 Winter Olympics who met th IOC's criteria, only 32.1% had childhood asthma and 48.7% of athletes reported onset at age 20 yr or older. These findings lead to speculation that years of intense endurance training may be a causative factor in bronchial hyperreactivity. The distinction between oral (prohibited in sports) and inhaled salbutamol is possible, but athletes must be warned that excessive use of inhaled salbutamol can lead to urinary concentrations similar to those observed after oral administration. This article provides justification that athletes should provide evidence of asthma or EIA before being permitted to use inhaled beta2-agonists. PMID:17085798

  3. Identification of dual PPARα/γ agonists and their effects on lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Quanqing; Hanh, Jacky; Váradi, Linda; Cairns, Rose; Sjöström, Helena; Liao, Vivian W Y; Wood, Peta; Balaban, Seher; Ong, Jennifer Ai; Lin, Hsuan-Yu Jennifer; Lai, Felcia; Hoy, Andrew J; Grewal, Thomas; Groundwater, Paul W; Hibbs, David E

    2015-12-15

    The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms; PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ, play central roles in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Dual PPARα/γ agonists, which stimulate both PPARα and PPARγ isoforms to similar extents, are gaining popularity as it is believed that they are able to ameliorate the unwanted side effects of selective PPARα and PPARγ agonists; and may also be used to treat dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus simultaneously. In this study, virtual screening of natural product libraries, using both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery approaches, identified ten potential dual PPARα/γ agonist lead compounds (9-13 and 16-20). In vitro assays confirmed these compounds to show no statistically significant toxicity to cells, with the exception of compound 12 which inhibited cell growth to 74.5%±3.5 and 54.1%±3.7 at 50μM and 100μM, respectively. In support of their potential as dual PPARα/γ agonists, all ten compounds upregulated the expression of cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in THP-1 macrophages, with indoline derivative 16 producing the greatest elevation (2.3-fold; 3.3-fold, respectively). Furthermore, comparable to the activity of established PPARα and PPARγ agonists, compound 16 stimulated triacylglycerol accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation as well as fatty acid β-oxidation in HuH7 hepatocytes. PMID:26616289

  4. A combined ligand and structure based approach to design potent PPAR-alpha agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhoke, Gaurao V.; Gangwal, Rahul P.; Sangamwar, Abhay T.

    2012-11-01

    A combined ligand and structure based pharmacophore modeling approach was employed to reveal structural and chemical features necessary for PPAR-alpha agonistic activity. The best HypoGen pharmacophore model Hypo1 for PPAR-alpha agonists contains two hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA), two general hydrophobic (H), and one negative ionizable (NI) feature. In addition, one structure based pharmacophore model was developed using LigandScout3.0, which has identified additional three hydrophobic features. Further, molecular docking studies of all agonists showed hydrogen bond interactions with important amino acids (Ser280, Tyr314 and Tyr464) and these interactions were compared with Hypo1, which shows that the Hypo1 has a good predictive ability. The screened virtual hits from Hypo1 were subjected to the Lipinski's rule of five, structure based pharmacophore screening and molecular docking analysis. Finally, three novel compounds with diverse scaffolds were selected as possible candidates for the designing of potent PPAR-alpha agonists. Combination of these two approaches results in designing an ideal pharmacophore model, which provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel PPAR-alpha agonists.

  5. Introduction of a single isomer beta agonist.

    PubMed

    Rau, J L

    2000-08-01

    The release of levalbuterol offers the first approved single-isomer beta agonist for oral inhalation. Data from in vitro studies support the concept that S albuterol is not inactive and may have properties antagonistic to bronchodilation. There is some variability in the results of clinical studies with the separate isomers of albuterol, which suggests the need for further study. The introduction of levalbuterol into general clinical use in managing asthma and chronic obstructive disease should begin to offer additional information on the effects of a single isomer beta agonist in comparison to previous racemic mixtures. PMID:10963321

  6. Recent advances in the development of farnesoid X receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Elizabeth J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in high amounts in body tissues that participate in bilirubin metabolism including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. Bile acids (BAs) are the natural ligands of the FXRs. FXRs regulate the expression of the gene encoding for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis. In addition, FXRs play a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin sensitivity. FXRs also modulate live growth and regeneration during liver injury. Preclinical studies have shown that FXR activation protects against cholestasis-induced liver injury. Moreover, FXR activation protects against fatty liver injury in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and improved hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a 6α-ethyl derivative of the natural human BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the first-in-class selective FXR agonist that is ~100-fold more potent than CDCA. Preliminary human clinical trials have shown that OCA is safe and effective. In a phase II clinical trial, administration of OCA was well-tolerated, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In two clinical trials of OCA in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive cholestatic liver disease, OCA significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, an important disease marker that correlates well with clinical outcomes of patients with PBC. Together, these studies suggest that FXR agonists could potentially be used as therapeutic tools in patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty and cholestatic liver diseases. Larger and Longer-term studies are currently ongoing. PMID:25705637

  7. Recent advances in the development of farnesoid X receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad H; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in high amounts in body tissues that participate in bilirubin metabolism including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. Bile acids (BAs) are the natural ligands of the FXRs. FXRs regulate the expression of the gene encoding for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis. In addition, FXRs play a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin sensitivity. FXRs also modulate live growth and regeneration during liver injury. Preclinical studies have shown that FXR activation protects against cholestasis-induced liver injury. Moreover, FXR activation protects against fatty liver injury in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and improved hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a 6α-ethyl derivative of the natural human BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the first-in-class selective FXR agonist that is ~100-fold more potent than CDCA. Preliminary human clinical trials have shown that OCA is safe and effective. In a phase II clinical trial, administration of OCA was well-tolerated, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In two clinical trials of OCA in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive cholestatic liver disease, OCA significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, an important disease marker that correlates well with clinical outcomes of patients with PBC. Together, these studies suggest that FXR agonists could potentially be used as therapeutic tools in patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty and cholestatic liver diseases. Larger and Longer-term studies are currently ongoing. PMID:25705637

  8. Serotonergic agonists stimulate inositol lipid metabolism in rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schaechter, M.; Godfrey, P.P.; Minchin, M.C.W.; McClue, S.J.; Young, M.M.

    1985-10-28

    The metabolism of inositol phospholipids in response to serotonergic agonists was investigated in rabbit platelets. In platelets prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)-inositol, in a medium containing 10 mM LiCl which blocks the enzyme inositol-1-phosphatase, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) caused a dose-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP). This suggests a phospholipase-C-mediated breakdown of phosphoinositides. Ketanserin, a selective 5-HT/sub 2/ antagonist, was a potent inhibitor of the 5-HT response, with a Ki of 28 nM, indicating that 5-HT is activating receptors of the 5-HT/sub 2/ type in the platelet. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and quipazine also caused dose-related increases in inositol phosphate levels, though these were considerably less than those produced by 5-HT. These results show that relatively small changes in phosphoinositide metabolism induced by serotonergic agonists can be investigated in the rabbit platelet, and this cell may therefore be a useful model for the study of some 5-HT receptors. 30 references, 4 figures.

  9. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus genes involved in biosynthesis of the coenzyme pyrrolo-quinoline-quinone: nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Goosen, N; Horsman, H P; Huinen, R G; van de Putte, P

    1989-01-01

    Synthesis of the coenzyme pyrrolo-quinoline-quinone (PQQ) from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus requires the products of at least four different genes. In this paper we present the nucleotide sequence of a 5,085-base-pair DNA fragment containing these four genes. Within the DNA fragment three reading frames are present, coding for proteins of Mr 10,800, 29,700, and 43,600 and corresponding to three of the PQQ genes. In the DNA region where the fourth PQQ gene was mapped the largest possible reading frame encodes for a polypeptide of only 24 amino acids. Still, the expression of this region is essential for the biosynthesis of PQQ. A possible role for this DNA region is discussed. Sandwiched between two PQQ genes an additional reading frame is present, coding for a protein of Mr 33,600. This gene, which is probably transcribed in the same operon as three of the PQQ genes, seems not required for PQQ synthesis. Expression of the PQQ genes in Acinetobacter lwoffi and Escherichia coli K-12 led to the synthesis of the coenzyme in these organisms. Images PMID:2536663

  10. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim’s likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals. PMID:22298910

  11. Small molecule TSHR agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Neumann, S; Gershengorn, M C

    2011-04-01

    TSH activates the TSH receptor (TSHR) thereby stimulating the function of thyroid follicular cells (thyrocytes) leading to biosynthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Because TSHR is involved in several thyroid pathologies, there is a strong rationale for the design of small molecule "drug-like" ligands. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen(®)) has been used in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer to increase the sensitivity for detection of recurrence or metastasis. rhTSH is difficult to produce and must be administered by injection. A small molecule TSHR agonist could produce the same beneficial effects as rhTSH but with greater ease of oral administration. We developed a small molecule ligand that is a full agonist at TSHR. Importantly for its clinical potential, this agonist elevated serum thyroxine and stimulated thyroidal radioiodide uptake in mice after its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration. Graves' disease (GD) is caused by persistent, unregulated stimulation of thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate TSHR. We identified the first small molecule TSHR antagonists that inhibited TSH- and TSAb-stimulated signalling in primary cultures of human thyrocytes. Our results provide proof-of-principle for effectiveness of small molecule agonists and antagonists for TSHR. We suggest that these small molecule ligands are lead compounds for the development of higher potency ligands that can be used as probes of TSHR biology with therapeutic potential. PMID:21511239

  12. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim's likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals. PMID:22298910

  13. 8-Methly-4-(3-diethylaminopropylamino) pyrimido [4',5';4,5] thieno (2,3-b) quinoline (MDPTQ), a quinoline derivate that causes ROS-mediated apoptosis in leukemia cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, Sudheer; Vasania, Viraf S.; Gopal, M.; Mehta, Ashish . E-mail: ashish_mehta@relbio.com

    2007-07-01

    The present study reports the biological activity of 8-methly-4-(3-diethylamino-propylamino) pyrimido [4';5';4,5] thieno (2,3-b) quinoline (MDPTQ), a quinoline derivative structurally related to ellipticine and suggests a possible mechanism through which the compound induces apoptosis in carcinoma cell lines. Out of the 8 cell lines used in the study as representatives of different types of cancer, MDPTQ was found to be effective only against leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and K-562) whereas it had no effect on normal human bone marrow cells (BMC) which were used as controls. Fall mitochondrial membrane potential and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) were mainly responsible for inducing apoptosis in the two cell lines. Cell death was demonstrated by increase in caspase 3 activity as well as phosphatidyl serine exposure. Pre-incubation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced the increased ROS and caspase 3 activity as well as phosphatidyl serine exposure. MDPTQ also caused cell cycle arrest in these cell lines. The above study for the first time reports the mode of action of a quinoline derivative, which could be a possible future candidate for leukemia therapy. However, there are lot of questions that need to be answered in terms of signalling pathways and its effects on animal models.

  14. Crystal structure of 2-(1,3-dioxoindan-2-yl)iso­quinoline-1,3,4-trione

    PubMed Central

    Ghalib, Raza Murad; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    In the title iso­quinoline-1,3,4-trione derivative, C18H9NO5, the five-membered ring of the indane fragment adopts an envelope conformation with the nitro­gen-substituted C atom being the flap. The planes of the indane benzene ring and the iso­quinoline-1,3,4-trione ring make a dihedral angle of 82.06 (6)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains extending along the bc plane via C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, enclosing R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(10) loops. The chains are further connected by π–π stacking inter­ations, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.9050 (7) Å, forming layers parallel to the b axis. PMID:25705509

  15. Discovery of Novel 3-Quinoline Carboxamides as Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Kinase.

    PubMed

    Degorce, Sébastien L; Barlaam, Bernard; Cadogan, Elaine; Dishington, Allan; Ducray, Richard; Glossop, Steven C; Hassall, Lorraine A; Lach, Franck; Lau, Alan; McGuire, Thomas M; Nowak, Thorsten; Ouvry, Gilles; Pike, Kurt G; Thomason, Andrew G

    2016-07-14

    A novel series of 3-quinoline carboxamides has been discovered and optimized as selective inhibitors of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. From a modestly potent HTS hit (4), we identified molecules such as 6-[6-(methoxymethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-{[(1R)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)ethyl]amino}-3-quinolinecarboxamide (72) and 7-fluoro-6-[6-(methoxymethyl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-{[(1S)-1-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)ethyl]amino}quinoline-3-carboxamide (74) as potent and highly selective ATM inhibitors with overall ADME properties suitable for oral administration. 72 and 74 constitute excellent oral tools to probe ATM inhibition in vivo. Efficacy in combination with the DSB-inducing agent irinotecan was observed in a disease relevant model. PMID:27259031

  16. Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of 1,4-disubstituted imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Thigulla, Yadagiri; Akula, Mahesh; Trivedi, Prakruti; Ghosh, Balaram; Jha, Mukund; Bhattacharya, Anupam

    2016-01-21

    The synthesis and anti-cancer activity evaluation of fused imidazoquinoline compounds is reported in this paper. Yb(OTf)3 has been utilized as a catalyst for the synthesis of 1,4-diaryl substituted imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines via a modified Pictet-Spengler approach. The desired imidazole ring was synthesized from imines using TosMIC (toluenesulfonylmethyl isocyanide) and subsequently functionalized at the C-4 position yielding an imidazoquinoline skeleton. Importantly, the final step was carried out without the aid of any prefunctionalization to obtain the resultant compounds in good yields. The synthesized compounds, when screened for anti-cancer activity, revealed the highest activity with 4-(2-bromophenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline (IC50: 103.3 μM). PMID:26592542

  17. 2-(Quinolin-4-yloxy)acetamides Are Active against Drug-Susceptible and Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains.

    PubMed

    Pissinate, Kenia; Villela, Anne Drumond; Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês; Giacobbo, Bruno Couto; Grams, Estêvão Silveira; Abbadi, Bruno Lopes; Trindade, Rogério Valim; Roesler Nery, Laura; Bonan, Carla Denise; Back, Davi Fernando; Campos, Maria Martha; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; Machado, Pablo

    2016-03-10

    2-(Quinolin-4-yloxy)acetamides have been described as potent in vitro inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Herein, additional chemical modifications of lead compounds were carried out, yielding highly potent antitubercular agents with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.05 μM. Further, the synthesized compounds were active against drug-resistant strains and were devoid of apparent toxicity to Vero and HaCat cells (IC50s ≥ 20 μM). In addition, the 2-(quinolin-4-yloxy)acetamides showed intracellular activity against the bacilli in infected macrophages with action similar to rifampin, low risk of drug-drug interactions, and no sign of cardiac toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) at 1 and 5 μM. Therefore, these data indicate that this class of compounds may furnish candidates for future development to, hopefully, provide drug alternatives for tuberculosis treatment. PMID:26985307

  18. Regioselective Synthesis of C-3-Functionalized Quinolines via Hetero-Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Azadienes with Terminal Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Saunthwal, Rakesh K; Patel, Monika; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2016-08-01

    A highly efficient metal and protection-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of C-3-functionalized quinolines from azadienes (in situ generated from 2-aminobenzyl alcohol) and terminal alkynes through [4 + 2] cycloaddition has been developed. An unprecedented reaction of 2-aminobenzyl alcohol with 1,3- and 1,4-diethynylbenzene provided the C-3 tolylquinolines via [4 + 2] HDA and oxidative decarboxylation. The -NH2 group directed mechanistic approach was well supported by the control experiments and deuterium-labeling studies and by isolating the azadiene intermediate. The reactivity and selectivity of unprotected azadiene in metal-free base-assisted hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is exploited to quickly assemble an important class of C-3-functionalized quinolines, which are difficult to access. PMID:27380814

  19. Crystal structure of (pyridine-κN)bis(quinolin-2-olato-κ(2) N,O)copper(II) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Benjamin; Yan, Jingjing; Basa, Prem; Burdette, Shawn

    2015-02-01

    The title complex, [Cu(C9H6NO)2(C5H4N)]·H2O, adopts a slightly distorted square-pyramidal geometry in which the axial pyridine ligand exhibits a long Cu-N bond of 2.305 (3) Å. The pyridine ligand forms dihedral angles of 79.5 (5) and 88.0 (1)° with the planes of the two quinolin-2-olate ligands, while the dihedral angle between the quinoline groups of 9.0 (3)° indicates near planarity. The water mol-ecule connects adjacent copper complexes through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to phenolate O atoms, forming a network inter-connecting all the complexes in the crystal lattice. PMID:25878845

  20. In vitro phenotypic screening of 7-chloro-4-amino(oxy)quinoline derivatives as putative anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Berzal, Cristina; Rojas Ruiz, Fernando A; Escario, José A; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia

    2014-02-15

    In this study, a series of 22 pre-synthesized 7-chloro-4-amino(oxy)quinoline derivatives was assayed in vitro as potential antichagasic agents. A primary screening against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes and a non-specific cytotoxicity assay on murine fibroblasts were simultaneously performed, resulting quinolines 3, 7 and 12 with great selectivity (SI) on the extracellular parasite (SI7, SI3, SI12 and SIBZ >9.44). Therefore, the activity of these derivatives was evaluated on intracellular amastigotes, achieving derivative 7 the best SI (SI=12.73). These results, supported by the in silico prediction of a good oral bioavailability and a suitable risk profile, propose the 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline scaffold as a potential template for designing trypanocidal prototypes. PMID:24461296

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta agonist ameliorated inflammasome activation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Yeon, Jong Eun; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoon, Eileen L; Suh, Sang Jun; Kang, Keunhee; Kim, Hae Rim; Kang, Seoung Hee; Yoo, Yang Jae; Je, Jihye; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inflammasome activation and the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-δ agonist treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were classified according to control or high fat diet (HFD) with or without PPAR-δ agonist (GW) over period of 12 wk [control, HFD, HFD + lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HFD + LPS + GW group]. HepG2 cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) and/or LPS in the absence or presence of GW. RESULTS: HFD caused glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. In mice fed an HFD with LPS, caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1β in the liver were significantly increased. Treatment with GW ameliorated the steatosis and inhibited overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In HepG2 cells, PA and LPS treatment markedly increased mRNA of several nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family members (NLRP3, NLRP6, and NLRP10), caspase-1 and IL-1β. PA and LPS also exaggerated reactive oxygen species production. All of the above effects of PA and LPS were reduced by GW. GW also enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK-α. CONCLUSION: PPAR-δ agonist reduces fatty acid-induced inflammation and steatosis by suppressing inflammasome activation. Targeting the inflammasome by the PPAR-δ agonist may have therapeutic implication for NAFLD. PMID:26668503

  2. Copper-catalyzed direct amination of quinoline N-oxides via C-H bond activation under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chongwei; Yi, Meiling; Wei, Donghui; Chen, Xuan; Wu, Yangjie; Cui, Xiuling

    2014-04-01

    A highly efficient and concise one-pot strategy for the direct amination of quinoline N-oxides via copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative C-N coupling has been developed. The desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields for 22 examples starting from the parent aliphatic amines. This methodology provides a practical pathway to 2-aminoquinolines and features a simple system, high efficiency, environmental friendliness, low reaction temperature, and ligand, additives, base, and external oxidant free conditions. PMID:24628081

  3. "One-Pot" Approach to 8-Acylated 2-Quinolinones via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie

    2016-05-20

    A "one-pot" facile and efficient protocol for 8-acylated 2-quinolinones has been developed through palladium-catalyzed acylation of quinoline N-oxides, which proceeds with high selectivity at the C8-position. The desired products were isolated in up to 95% yield and good functional group tolerance. A palladacycle was isolated from the catalytic process and proposed as a key intermediate. PMID:27153298

  4. A novel inhibitor of human telomerase derived from 10H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoline.

    PubMed

    Caprio, V; Guyen, B; Opoku-Boahen, Y; Mann, J; Gowan, S M; Kelland, L M; Read, M A; Neidle, S

    2000-09-18

    The bis-dimethylaminoethyl derivative of quindoline (10H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoline), an alkaloid from the West African shrub Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, has been synthesised. This has been shown to have modest cytotoxicity, as well as inhibitory activity against the telomerase enzyme. It is hypothesised that the latter activity is due to stabilisation of an intermediate guanine-quadruplex complex, in accordance with computer modelling. PMID:10999471

  5. A photoluminescent interpenetrating metal-organic frame work based on Cu4I4 and novel azino-quinoline ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Pankaj K.; Mukherjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Anindya; Patra, Goutam K.

    2014-02-01

    Synthesis of a novel, triply-interpenetrating metal-organic framework 1.H2O is described here. The coordination polymer was synthesized by simple reaction of Cu2I2 with an azino-quinoline ligand (L1). The X-ray crystal structure analysis reveals that the complex 1.H2O is a 2-D coordination polymer having (4,4‧) grid network architecture. The ligand L1 possesses quinoline group and the 2-D structure of 1.H2O contains distorted cubane type Cu4I4 SBU unit. Each of the four Cu(I) ions posses tetrahedral coordination environment. Metal-organic framework in 1.H2O shows strong photoluminescence property at room temperature in solid state and emission spectra shows a blue shift of the peak in comparison to the free azino-quinoline ligand (L1). The coordination polymer 1.H2O was found to be stable up to 290 °C.

  6. HERG1 Channel Agonists and Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG1) potassium channels are a key determinant of normal repolarization of cardiac action potentials. Loss of function mutations in hERG1 channels cause inherited long QT syndrome and increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. Many common medications that block hERG1 channels as an unintended side effect also increase arrhythmic risk. Routine preclinical screening for hERG1 block led to the discovery of agonists that shorten action potential duration and QT interval. Agonists have the potential to be used as pharmacotherapy for long QT syndrome, but can also be proarrhythmic. Recent studies have elucidated multiple mechanisms of action for these compounds and the structural basis for their binding to the pore domain of the hERG1 channel. PMID:24721650

  7. HERG1 channel agonists and cardiac arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    Type 1 human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG1) potassium channels are a key determinant of normal repolarization of cardiac action potentials. Loss of function mutations in hERG1 channels cause inherited long QT syndrome and increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. Many common medications that block hERG1 channels as an unintended side effect also increase arrhythmic risk. Routine preclinical screening for hERG1 block led to the discovery of agonists that shorten action potential duration and QT interval. Agonists have the potential to be used as pharmacotherapy for long QT syndrome, but can also be proarrhythmic. Recent studies have elucidated multiple mechanisms of action for these compounds and the structural basis for their binding to the pore domain of the hERG1 channel. PMID:24721650

  8. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist and other constituents from Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Dat, Nguyen Tien; Lee, Kyeong; Hong, Young-Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Minh, Chau Van; Lee, Jung Joon

    2009-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism and have become important therapeutic targets for various diseases. The phytochemical investigation of the chloroform-soluble extract of Chromolaena odorata led to the isolation of a PPAR-gamma agonist, (9 S,13 R)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1), together with 12 other compounds. The structures of chromomoric acid G (2), a new dehydrogenated derivative of 1, and chromolanone (3) were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed a significant effect on PPAR-gamma activation in comparison with rosiglitazone. However, compound 2 was inactive, suggesting that the dehydrogenation of the prostaglandin-like structure in 1 abrogates its PPAR-gamma agonistic activity. PMID:19242902

  9. The Effect of Glutamate Receptor Agonists on Mouse Retinal Astrocyte [Ca2+]i

    PubMed Central

    Blandford, Stephanie N.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-imaging techniques were used to determine if mouse retinal astrocytes in situ respond to agonists of ionotropic (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA; N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA) and metabotropic (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG; trans-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid, ACPD) glutamate receptors. In most cases we found no evidence that retinal astrocyte intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) increased in response to these glutamate agonists. The one exception was AMPA that increased [Ca2+]i in some, but not all, mouse retinal astrocytes in situ. However, AMPA did not increase [Ca2+]i in mouse retinal astrocytes in vitro, suggesting that the effect of AMPA in situ may be indirect. PMID:27413752

  10. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPARγ are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPARγ agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPARγ-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPARγ-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPARγ ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPARα (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPARγ-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPARγ (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPARγ activation by dietary interventions or food supplements. PMID:25083916

  11. Lipid metabolome-wide effects of the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Steven M; Reifsnyder, Peter R; Pan, Huei-ju; German, J Bruce; Leiter, Edward H

    2002-11-01

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases must normalize a targeted aspect of metabolism without disrupting the regulation of other metabolic pathways essential for maintaining health. Use of a limited number of single molecule surrogates for disease, or biomarkers, to monitor the efficacy of a therapy may fail to predict undesirable side effects. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomic assessment of lipid metabolites was employed to determine the specific effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist rosiglitazone on structural lipid metabolism in a new mouse model of Type 2 diabetes. Dietary supplementation with rosiglitazone (200 mg/kg diet) suppressed Type 2 diabetes in obese (NZO x NON)F1 male mice, but chronic treatment markedly exacerbated hepatic steatosis. The metabolomic data revealed that rosiglitazone i) induced hypolipidemia (by dysregulating liver-plasma lipid exchange), ii) induced de novo fatty acid synthesis, iii) decreased the biosynthesis of lipids within the peroxisome, iv) substantially altered free fatty acid and cardiolipin metabolism in heart, and v) elicited an unusual accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids within adipose tissue. These observations suggest that the phenotypes induced by rosiglitazone are mediated by multiple tissue-specific metabolic variables. Because many of the effects of rosiglitazone on tissue metabolism were reflected in the plasma lipid metabolome, metabolomics has excellent potential for developing clinical assessments of metabolic response to drug therapy. PMID:12401879

  12. Signal Use by Octopuses in Agonistic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Scheel, David; Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Lawrence, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Cephalopods show behavioral parallels to birds and mammals despite considerable evolutionary distance [1, 2]. Many cephalopods produce complex body patterns and visual signals, documented especially in cuttlefish and squid, where they are used both in camouflage and a range of interspecific interactions [1, 3-5]. Octopuses, in contrast, are usually seen as solitary and asocial [6, 7]; their body patterns and color changes have primarily been interpreted as camouflage and anti-predator tactics [8-12], though the familiar view of the solitary octopus faces a growing list of exceptions. Here, we show by field observation that in a shallow-water octopus, Octopus tetricus, a range of visible displays are produced during agonistic interactions, and these displays correlate with the outcome of those interactions. Interactions in which dark body color by an approaching octopus was matched by similar color in the reacting octopus were more likely to escalate to grappling. Darkness in an approaching octopus met by paler color in the reacting octopus accompanied retreat of the paler octopus. Octopuses also displayed on high ground and stood with spread web and elevated mantle, often producing these behaviors in combinations. This study is the first to document the systematic use of signals during agonistic interactions among octopuses. We show prima facie conformity of our results to an influential model of agonistic signaling [13]. These results suggest that interactions have a greater influence on octopus evolution than has been recognized and show the importance of convergent evolution in behavioral traits. PMID:26832440

  13. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Agonists Reduce Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Ebefors, Kerstin; Johansson, Martin E.; Stefánsson, Bergur; Granqvist, Anna; Arnadottir, Margret; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nyström, Jenny; Haraldsson, Börje

    2010-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Recent reports suggest that treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) reduces proteinuria, but the mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we identified gene expression of the melanocortin receptor MC1R in podocytes, glomerular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and tubular epithelial cells. Podocytes expressed most MC1R protein, which colocalized with synaptopodin but not with an endothelial-specific lectin. We treated rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) with MS05, a specific MC1R agonist, which significantly reduced proteinuria compared with untreated PHN rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, treatment with MC1R agonists improved podocyte morphology and reduced oxidative stress. In summary, podocytes express MC1R, and MC1R agonism reduces proteinuria, improves glomerular morphology, and reduces oxidative stress in nephrotic rats with PHN. These data may explain the proteinuria-reducing effects of ACTH observed in patients with membranous nephropathy, and MC1R agonists may provide a new therapeutic option for these patients. PMID:20507942

  14. Cytochrome P450 2C9 Type II Binding Studies on Quinoline-4-carboxamide Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chi-Chi; Cape, Jonathan L.; Rushmore, Tom; Crouch, Gregory J.; Jones, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    CYP2C9 is a significant P450 protein responsible for drug metabolism. With the increased use of heterocyclic compounds in drug design, a rapid and efficient pre-drug screening of these potential type II binding compounds is essential to avoid adverse drug reactions. To understand binding modes, we use quinoline-4-carboxamide analogs to study the factors that determine the structure-activity relationships. The results of this study suggest that the more accessible pyridine with the nitrogen para to the linkage can coordinate directly with the ferric heme iron, but this is not seen for the meta or ortho isomers. The π-cation interaction of the naphthalene moiety and Arg 108 residue may also assist in stabilizing substrate binding within the active-site cavity. The type II substrate binding affinity is determined by the combination of steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobicity factors; meanwhile, it is enhanced by the strength of lone pair electrons coordination with the heme iron. PMID:19053752

  15. β2 Agonists enhance the efficacy of simultaneous enzyme replacement therapy in murine Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Li, Songtao; Dai, Jian; Thurberg, Beth L; Bali, Deeksha; Kishnani, Priya S

    2012-02-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) has improved clinical outcomes in patients with Pompe disease; however, the response of skeletal muscle and the central nervous system to ERT has been attenuated. The poor response of skeletal muscle to ERT has been attributed to the low abundance of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), which mediates receptor-mediated uptake of rhGAA. Hence the ability of adjunctive therapy with β2-agonists to increase CI-MPR expression in skeletal muscle was evaluated during ERT in murine Pompe disease with regard to reversal of neuromuscular involvement. Mice with Pompe disease were treated with weekly rhGAA injections (20 mg/kg) and a selective β2-agonist, either albuterol (30 mg/l in drinking water) or low-dose clenbuterol (6 mg/l in drinking water). Biochemical correction was enhanced by β2-agonist treatment in both muscle and the cerebellum, indicating that adjunctive therapy could enhance efficacy from ERT in Pompe disease with regard to neuromuscular involvement. Intriguingly, clenbuterol slightly reduced muscle glycogen content independent of CI-MPR expression, as demonstrated in CI-MPR knockout/GAA knockout mice that were otherwise resistant to ERT. Thus, adjunctive therapy with β2 agonists might improve the efficacy of ERT in Pompe disease and possibly other lysosomal storage disorders through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of recombinant lysosomal enzymes. PMID:22154081

  16. β2 Agonists Enhance the Efficacy of Simultaneous Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Murine Pompe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koeberl, Dwight D.; Li, Songtao; Dai, Jian; Thurberg, Beth L.; Bali, Deeksha; Kishnani, Priya S.

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) has improved clinical outcomes in patients with Pompe disease; however, the response of skeletal muscle and the central nervous system to ERT has been attenuated. The poor response of skeletal muscle to ERT has been attributed to the low abundance of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), which mediates receptor-mediated uptake of rhGAA. Hence the ability of adjunctive therapy with β2-agonists to increase CI-MPR expression in skeletal muscle was evaluated during ERT in murine Pompe disease with regard to reversal of neuromuscular involvement. Mice with Pompe disease were treated with weekly rhGAA injections (20 mg/kg) and a selective β2-agonist, either albuterol (30 mg/l in drinking water) or low-dose clenbuterol (6 mg/l in drinking water). Biochemical correction was enhanced by β2-agonist treatment in both muscle and the cerebellum, indicating that adjunctive therapy could enhance efficacy from ERT in Pompe disease with regard to neuromuscular involvement. Intriguingly, clenbuterol slightly reduced muscle glycogen content independent of CI-MPR expression, as demonstrated in CI-MPR knockout/GAA knockout mice that were otherwise resistant to ERT. Thus, adjunctive therapy with β2 agonists might improve the efficacy of ERT in Pompe disease and possibly other lysosomal storage disorders through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of recombinant lysosomal enzymes. PMID:22154081

  17. Mead ethanolamide, a novel eicosanoid, is an agonist for the central (CB1) and peripheral (CB2) cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Priller, J; Briley, E M; Mansouri, J; Devane, W A; Mackie, K; Felder, C C

    1995-08-01

    The recently discovered endogenous agonist for the cannabinoid receptor, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), can be formed enzymatically by the condensation of arachidonic acid with ethanolamine. 5Z,8Z,11Z-Eicosatrienoic acid (mead acid) has been found to substitute for arachidonic acid in the sn-2 position of phospholipids and accumulate during periods of dietary fatty acid deprivation in rats. In the present study, the chemically synthesized ethanolamide of mead acid was evaluated as a potential agonist at the two known subtypes of cannabinoid receptor: CB1 (central) and CB2 (peripheral). This compound was equipotent to anandamide in competing with [3H]CP55,940 binding to plasma membranes prepared from L cells expressing the human CB1 receptor and from ATt-20 cells expressing the human CB2 receptor. Mead ethanolamide was also equipotent to anandamide in inhibiting forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in cells expressing the CB1 receptor. It inhibited N-type calcium currents with a lower potency than anandamide. Mead and arachidonic acid were equally efficacious as substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of their respective ethanolamides in rat and adult human hippocampal P2 membranes. Palmitic acid was not an effective substrate for the enzymatic synthesis of palmitoyl ethanolamide. Mead ethanolamide exhibits several characteristics of a novel agonist to CB1 and CB2 receptors and may represent another candidate endogenous ligand for the CB1 receptor. Due to the anticonvulsant properties of GABA and the positional similarity of L-serine to ethanolamine in membrane phospholipids, these compounds were synthetically coupled to arachidonic acid, and their resulting arachidonamides were tested as potential cannabinoid agonists. The arachidonamides of GABA and L-serine were inactive in both binding and functional assays at the CB1 receptor. PMID:7651362

  18. Structure of pyridine and quinoline vinyl ethers according to data from /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectra and quantum-chemical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Afonin, A.V.; Voronov, V.K.; Andriankov, M.A.; Danovich, D.K.

    1987-08-10

    A systematic investigation of the structure of the vinyl ethers of heterocyclic compounds has not been undertaken. The present work was devoted to investigation of the stereochemical and electronic structure of the vinyl ethers of pyridine and quinoline. The PMR spectra of the samples were recorded for 5% solutions in deuterochloroform on a Tesla BS-497 spectrometer at 100 MHz. The /sup 13/C NMR spectra were recorded on a Tesla BS-567A spectrometer at 25.1 MHz in deuterochloroform with the samples at concentrations of 30%. The internal standard was HMDS. The vinyl ethers of pyridine and quinoline exist preferentially in the nonplanar S-trans conformation. In the vinyl esters of pyridine and quinoline the p-..pi.. conjugation is concurrent in nature and depends on the position of the vinyloxy group in the heterocycle.

  19. Identification of potential dual agonists of FXR and TGR5 using e-pharmacophore based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Thangaraj; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2015-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor and Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor-5 are well known bile acid receptors and act as promising targets for the drug development and treatment of diabetes. Agonists of both the bile acid receptors increase insulin sensitivity and control glucose, lipids and bile acid homeostasis. The current study deals with the identification of novel dual agonists using ligand and structure-based virtual screening. Initially, an experimentally proven well-known dual agonist of FXR and TGR5, namely INT-767, was docked into the binding sites of FXR and TGR5 to determine the protein residues important for ligand binding. The docked complexes FXRINT-767 and TGR5INT-767 were used to generate e-pharmacophore hypotheses. Ligand-based virtual screening was carried out using the hypothetical e-pharmacophore model against the ChemBridge database. Further, structure-based virtual screening was performed with screened hits to find potential agonists of FXR and TGR5. A total of four best agonists were identified based on their affinity and mode of interactions with the receptors. The binding mode of these compounds with both receptors was analyzed in detail. Furthermore, molecular dynamics, ADME toxicity prediction, density functional theory and binding free energy calculations were carried out to rank the compounds. Based on the above analyses, the most potent compound, ChemBridge_9149693, was selected for further in vitro studies. The results of in vitro assays suggested that ChemBridge_9149693 is a potent and promising drug for the treatment of type II diabetes. Thus, the compound could be used for further drug design and development of dual agonists of FXR and TGR5. PMID:25787676

  20. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Unravels Biased Phosphorylation of Serotonin 2A Receptor at Ser280 by Hallucinogenic versus Nonhallucinogenic Agonists*

    PubMed Central

    Karaki, Samah; Becamel, Carine; Murat, Samy; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J.; Prézeau, Laurent; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is a primary target of psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamine, mescaline, and psilocybin, which reproduce some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. An incompletely resolved paradox is that only some 5-HT2A receptor agonists exhibit hallucinogenic activity, whereas structurally related agonists with comparable affinity and activity lack such a psychoactive activity. Using a strategy combining stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with enrichment in phosphorylated peptides by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, we compared the phosphoproteome in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing the 5-HT2A receptor and exposed to either vehicle or the synthetic hallucinogen 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) or the nonhallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonist lisuride. Among the 5995 identified phosphorylated peptides, 16 sites were differentially phosphorylated upon exposure of cells to DOI versus lisuride. These include a serine (Ser280) located in the third intracellular loop of the 5-HT2A receptor, a region important for its desensitization. The specific phosphorylation of Ser280 by hallucinogens was further validated by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of immunopurified receptor digests and by Western blotting using a phosphosite specific antibody. The administration of DOI, but not of lisuride, to mice, enhanced the phosphorylation of 5-HT2A receptors at Ser280 in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, hallucinogens induced a less pronounced desensitization of receptor-operated signaling in HEK-293 cells and neurons than did nonhallucinogenic agonists. The mutation of Ser280 to aspartic acid (to mimic phosphorylation) reduced receptor desensitization by nonhallucinogenic agonists, whereas its mutation to alanine increased the ability of hallucinogens to desensitize the receptor. This study reveals a biased phosphorylation of

  1. Quantitative phosphoproteomics unravels biased phosphorylation of serotonin 2A receptor at Ser280 by hallucinogenic versus nonhallucinogenic agonists.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Samah; Becamel, Carine; Murat, Samy; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J; Prézeau, Laurent; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck

    2014-05-01

    The serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor is a primary target of psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamine, mescaline, and psilocybin, which reproduce some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. An incompletely resolved paradox is that only some 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists exhibit hallucinogenic activity, whereas structurally related agonists with comparable affinity and activity lack such a psychoactive activity. Using a strategy combining stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with enrichment in phosphorylated peptides by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, we compared the phosphoproteome in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing the 5-HT(2A) receptor and exposed to either vehicle or the synthetic hallucinogen 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) or the nonhallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonist lisuride. Among the 5995 identified phosphorylated peptides, 16 sites were differentially phosphorylated upon exposure of cells to DOI versus lisuride. These include a serine (Ser(280)) located in the third intracellular loop of the 5-HT(2A) receptor, a region important for its desensitization. The specific phosphorylation of Ser(280) by hallucinogens was further validated by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of immunopurified receptor digests and by Western blotting using a phosphosite specific antibody. The administration of DOI, but not of lisuride, to mice, enhanced the phosphorylation of 5-HT(2A) receptors at Ser(280) in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, hallucinogens induced a less pronounced desensitization of receptor-operated signaling in HEK-293 cells and neurons than did nonhallucinogenic agonists. The mutation of Ser(280) to aspartic acid (to mimic phosphorylation) reduced receptor desensitization by nonhallucinogenic agonists, whereas its mutation to alanine increased the ability of hallucinogens to desensitize the receptor. This study reveals a biased

  2. Antitussive activity of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Claire; Fezoui, Malika; Selig, William M; Schwartz, Carl E; Ellis, James L

    2003-01-01

    Current antitussive medications have limited efficacy and often contain the opiate-like agent dextromethorphan (DEX). The mechanism whereby DEX inhibits cough is ill defined. DEX displays affinity at both NMDA and sigma receptors, suggesting that the antitussive activity may involve central or peripheral activity at either of these receptors. This study examined and compared the antitussive activity of DEX and various putative sigma receptor agonists in the guinea-pig citric-acid cough model. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DEX (30 mg kg−1) and the sigma-1 agonists SKF-10,047 (1–5 mg kg−1), Pre-084 (5 mg kg−1), and carbetapentane (1–5 mg kg−1) inhibited citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. Intraperitoneal administration of a sigma-1 antagonist, BD 1047 (1–5 mg kg−1), reversed the inhibition of cough elicited by SKF-10,047. In addition, two structurally dissimilar sigma agonists SKF-10,047 (1 mg ml−1) and Pre-084 (1 mg ml−1) inhibited cough when administered by aerosol. Aerosolized BD 1047 (1 mg ml−1, 30 min) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 (5 mg kg−1) or DEX (30 mg kg−1) given by i.p. administration and, likewise, i.p. administration of BD 1047 (5 mg kg−1) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 given by aerosol (1 mg ml−1). These results therefore support the argument that antitussive effects of DEX may be mediated via sigma receptors, since both systemic and aerosol administration of sigma-1 receptor agonists inhibit citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. While significant systemic exposure is possible with aerosol administration, the very low doses administered (estimated <0.3 mg kg−1) suggest that there may be a peripheral component to the antitussive effect. PMID:14691051

  3. SYNTHESIS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF NEW 5H-INDOLO[2,3-B]QUINOLINE O-AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

    PubMed

    Badowska-Rosłonek, Katarzyna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Switalska, Marta; Piskozub, Małgorzata; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Novel 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline O-aminoglycosides were synthesized in order to check the hypothesis that the construction of hybrids composed of the active 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline chromophore and daunosaminyl or acosaminyl moiety may result in the cytotoxic activity of the obtained derivatives that is much higher than the one of the parent DIMIQ (5,11-dimethyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) and 6H-indoloquinoline analogs. Actually, 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides showed the anti-proliferative activity in vitro against human lung adenocarcinoma A549, breast cancer MCF-7, melanoma Hs294T, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60, uterine sarcoma MES-SA and colon cancer LoVo cell lines, which was 10 times higher than that of the 6H-analogs and comparable to the one of the referential DIMIQ. Unexpectedly, it appeared that except for HL-60/MX2 (P-gp-independent and topoisomerase II-dependent resistance), other MDR tumor cell lines (LoVo/DX. P-gp-dependent, MRP-, LRP-dependent multidrug resistance) and MES-SA/DX5 (P-gp-dependent resistance to doxorubicin) are also resistant to the 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides tested. This is surprising because 6H-analogs, in general, 10 times less active against non-MDR tumor cell lines, as well as the DIMIQ itself, are able to overcome drug resistance in all MDR cell lines examined. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds against tumor cell lines and against normal cells (mice fibroblasts BALB/3T3) was comparable. PMID:27476287

  4. Dopamine agonist: pathological gambling and hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    (1) Pathological gambling and increased sexual activity can occur in patients taking dopaminergic drugs. Detailed case reports and small case series mention serious familial and social consequences. The frequency is poorly documented; (2) Most affected patients are being treated for Parkinson's disease, but cases have been reported among patients prescribed a dopamine agonist for restless legs syndrome or pituitary adenoma; (3) Patients treated with this type of drug, and their relatives, should be informed of these risks so that they can watch for changes in behaviour. If such disorders occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose or to withdraw the drug or replace it with another medication. PMID:19536937

  5. Structure-Activity Relationships in a Novel Series of 7-Substituted-Aryl Quinolines and 5-Substituted-Aryl Benzothiazoles at the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zou, Mu-Fa; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2010-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders including addiction. We have discovered that the rigid diaryl alkyne template, derived from the potent and selective noncompetitive mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), can serve to guide the design of novel quinoline analogues and pharmacophore optimization has resulted in potent mGluR5 noncompetitive antagonists (EC50 range 60–100 nM) in the quinoline series. PMID:20382541

  6. Ligand-free Cu-catalyzed [3 + 2] cyclization for the synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines with ambient air as a terminal oxidant.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Aoxia; Xie, Hexin; Li, Hao; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-21

    A ligand-free Cu-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of ethyl 2-(quinolin-2-yl)acetates, ethyl 2-(isoquinolin-1-yl)acetates, and ethyl 2-(pyridin-2-yl)acetates with (E)-chalcones for a "one-pot" synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines, pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines and indolizines has been developed. The annulation products were isolated in moderate to good yields with air as the sole oxidant under mild conditions. PMID:27452813

  7. Modulation of Innate Immune Responses via Covalently Linked TLR Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis of novel adjuvants for vaccine development using multivalent scaffolds and bioconjugation chemistry to spatially manipulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. TLRs are primary receptors for activation of the innate immune system during vaccination. Vaccines that contain a combination of small and macromolecule TLR agonists elicit more directed immune responses and prolong responses against foreign pathogens. In addition, immune activation is enhanced upon stimulation of two distinct TLRs. Here, we synthesized combinations of TLR agonists as spatially defined tri- and di-agonists to understand how specific TLR agonist combinations contribute to the overall immune response. We covalently conjugated three TLR agonists (TLR4, 7, and 9) to a small molecule core to probe the spatial arrangement of the agonists. Treating immune cells with the linked agonists increased activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and enhanced and directed immune related cytokine production and gene expression beyond cells treated with an unconjugated mixture of the same three agonists. The use of TLR signaling inhibitors and knockout studies confirmed that the tri-agonist molecule activated multiple signaling pathways leading to the observed higher activity. To validate that the TLR4, 7, and 9 agonist combination would activate the immune response to a greater extent, we performed in vivo studies using a vaccinia vaccination model. Mice vaccinated with the linked TLR agonists showed an increase in antibody depth and breadth compared to mice vaccinated with the unconjugated mixture. These studies demonstrate how activation of multiple TLRs through chemically and spatially defined organization assists in guiding immune responses, providing the potential to use chemical tools to design and develop more effective vaccines. PMID:26640818

  8. Mechanisms of agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Lin, Hong; Strange, Philip G

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms of agonist action at the G protein-coupled D2 dopamine receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Stimulation of guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding by full and partial agonists was determined at different concentrations of [35S]GTPgammaS (0.1 and 10 nM) and in the presence of different concentrations of GDP. At both concentrations of [35S]GTPgammaS, increasing GDP decreased the [35S]GTPgammaS binding observed with maximally stimulating concentrations of agonist, with partial agonists exhibiting greater sensitivity to the effects of GDP than full agonists. The relative efficacy of partial agonists was greater at the lower GDP concentrations. Concentration-response experiments were performed for a range of agonists at the two [35S]GTPgammaS concentrations and with different concentrations of GDP. At 0.1 nM [35S]GTPgammaS, the potency of both full and partial agonists was dependent on the GDP concentration in the assays. At 10 nM [35S]GTPgammaS, the potency of full agonists exhibited a greater dependence on the GDP concentration, whereas the potency of partial agonists was virtually independent of GDP. We concluded that at the lower [35S]GTPgammaS concentration, the rate-determining step in G protein activation is the binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to the G protein. At the higher [35S]GTPgammaS concentration, for full agonists, [35S]GTPgammaS binding remains the slowest step, whereas for partial agonists, another (GDP-independent) step, probably ternary complex breakdown, becomes rate-determining. PMID:15340043

  9. Effects of organized media on the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.L.; Alexander, T.A.; Agbaria, R.A.; Warner, I.M.; Chou, P.T.

    1995-04-13

    Absorbance and fluorescence characteristics of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (HBQ) are studied in the presence of {alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-cyclodextrins, and the surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and polyoxyethylene(23) lauryl ether (Brij 35). Fluorescence measurements are used to investigate the effect of organized media on the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of HBQ by monitoring the large Stokes-shifted tautomer emission. Absorbance measurements are used to further characterize the interactions of HBQ with the various media. 38 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Heterocycle-to-Heterocycle Route to Quinoline-4-amines: Reductive Heterocyclization of 3-(2-Nitrophenyl)isoxazoles

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Keith C.; Duong, Vy; Bagdasarian, Alex L.; Fettinger, James C.; Haddadin, Makhlouf J.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of quinoline-4-amines were synthesized from substituted 3-(2-nitrophenyl)isoxazoles utilizing Zn0 or Fe0 dust and HOAc via a reductive heterocyclization process. The starting isoxazoles were synthesized from readily available starting materials. A brief survey of functional groups tolerated in this reductive heterocyclization was performed and several 10-amino-3,4-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridin-1(2H)-one and 9-amino-3,4-dihydroacridin-1(2H)-one examples were synthesized. PMID:26257574

  11. Multicomponent reaction-based synthesis and biological evaluation of tricyclic heterofused quinolines with multi-trypanosomatid activity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietro, Ornella; Vicente-García, Esther; Taylor, Martin C.; Berenguer, Diana; Viayna, Elisabet; Lanzoni, Anna; Sola, Irene; Sayago, Helena; Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser; Clos, M. Victòria; Pérez, Belén; Kelly, John M.; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, which are caused by the trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species, are among the most deadly neglected tropical diseases. The development of drugs that are active against several trypanosomatids is appealing from a clinical and economic viewpoint, and seems feasible, as these parasites share metabolic pathways and hence might be treatable by common drugs. From benzonapthyridine 1, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for which we have found a remarkable trypanocidal activity, we have designed and synthesized novel benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridines, pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinolines, azepino[3,2-c]quinolines, and pyrano[3,2-c]quinolines through 2–4-step sequences featuring an initial multicomponent Povarov reaction as the key step. To assess the therapeutic potential of the novel compounds, we have evaluated their in vitro activity against T. brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania infantum, as well as their brain permeability, which is of specific interest for the treatment of late-stage HAT. To assess their potential toxicity, we have determined their cytotoxicity against rat myoblast L6 cells and their AChE inhibitory activity. Several tricyclic heterofused quinoline derivatives were found to display an interesting multi-trypanosomatid profile, with one-digit micromolar potencies against two of these parasites and two-digit micromolar potency against the other. Pyranoquinoline 39, which displays IC50 values of 1.5 μM, 6.1 μM and 29.2 μM against T. brucei, L. infantum and T. cruzi, respectively, brain permeability, better drug-like properties (lower lipophilicity and molecular weight and higher CNS MPO desirability score) than hit 1, and the lowest AChE inhibitory activity of the series (IC50 > 30 μM), emerges as an interesting multi-trypanosomatid lead, amenable to further optimization particularly in terms of its selectivity index over mammalian cells

  12. Crystal structure of ethyl 2,4-di­chloro­quinoline-3-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Alberto; Miranda, Luis D.; Reyes, Héctor; Aguirre, Gerardo; Chávez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C12H9Cl2NO2, the mean planes through the quinoline and carboxyl­ate groups have r.m.s. deviations of 0.006 and 0.021 Å, respectively, and form a dihedral angle of 87.06 (19)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via very weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains, which propagate along the c-axis direction. PMID:26870538

  13. Quinolines as a novel structural class of potent and selective PDE4 inhibitors. Optimisation for inhaled administration.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Michael D; Ballantine, Stuart P; Barker, Michael D; Clarke, Beth J; Dawson, John; Dean, Tony W; Delves, Christopher J; Evans, Brian; Gough, Sharon L; Guntrip, Steven B; Holman, Stuart; Holmes, Duncan S; Kranz, Michael; Lindvaal, Mika K; Lucas, Fiona S; Neu, Margarete; Ranshaw, Lisa E; Solanke, Yemisi E; Somers, Don O; Ward, Peter; Wiseman, Joanne O

    2009-09-01

    Crystallography driven optimisation of a lead derived from similarity searching of the GSK compound collection resulted in the discovery of quinoline-3-carboxamides as highly potent and selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4B. This series has been optimized to GSK256066, a potent PDE4B inhibitor which also inhibits LPS induced production of TNF-alpha from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a pIC(50) of 11.1. GSK256066 also has a suitable profile for inhaled dosing. PMID:19656678

  14. Vapor-liquid equilibria in the systems of toluene/aniline, aniline/naphthalene, and naphthalene/quinoline

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Mohamed, R.S.; Holder, G.D. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports on vapor-liquid equilibria for the aniline/naphthalene, toluene/aniline, and naphthalene/quinoline systems that have been determined at 0-1500 kPa and 490-623 K by using a static equilibrium cell. The data can be accurately correlated with the modified Peng-Robinson equation of state by using density-dependent mixing rules. The binary interaction parameters and correction factors for the equation of state are reported at each isotherm. The presence of coal-derived solids in these binary systems did not influence any of the binary bubble pressures.

  15. Interference with Hemozoin Formation Represents an Important Mechanism of Schistosomicidal Action of Antimalarial Quinoline Methanols

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa Soares, Juliana B. R.; Menezes, Diego; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Venancio, Thiago M.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zishiri, Vincent K.; Kuter, David; Hunter, Roger; Egan, Timothy J.; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2009-01-01

    Background The parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni is one of the major causative agents of human schistosomiasis, which afflicts 200 million people worldwide. Praziquantel remains the main drug used for schistosomiasis treatment, and reliance on the single therapy has been prompting the search for new therapeutic compounds against this disease. Our group has demonstrated that heme crystallization into hemozoin (Hz) within the S. mansoni gut is a major heme detoxification route with lipid droplets involved in this process and acting as a potential chemotherapeutical target. In the present work, we investigated the effects of three antimalarial compounds, quinine (QN), quinidine (QND) and quinacrine (QCR) in a murine schistosomiasis model by using a combination of biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment of S. mansoni-infected female Swiss mice with daily intraperitoneal injections of QN, and QND (75 mg/kg/day) from the 11th to 17th day after infection caused significant decreases in worm burden (39%–61%) and egg production (42%–98%). Hz formation was significantly inhibited (40%–65%) in female worms recovered from QN- and QND-treated mice and correlated with reduction in the female worm burden. We also observed that QN treatment promoted remarkable ultrastructural changes in male and female worms, particularly in the gut epithelium and reduced the granulomatous reaction to parasite eggs trapped in the liver. Microarray gene expression analysis indicated that QN treatment increased the expression of transcripts related to musculature, protein synthesis and repair mechanisms. Conclusions The overall significant reduction in several disease burden parameters by the antimalarial quinoline methanols indicates that interference with Hz formation in S. mansoni represents an important mechanism of schistosomicidal action of these compounds and points out the heme crystallization process as a valid

  16. Computational modeling toward understanding agonist binding on dopamine 3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaxue; Lu, Xuefeng; Yang, Chao-Yie; Huang, Zhimin; Fu, Wei; Hou, Tingjun; Zhang, Jian

    2010-09-27

    The dopamine 3 (D3) receptor is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and current research interests primarily focus on the discovery/design of potent D3 agonists. Herein, a well-designed computational protocol, which combines pharmacophore identification, homology modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was employed to understand the agonist binding on D3 aiming to provide insights into the development of novel potent D3 agonists. We (1) identified the chemical features required in effective D3 agonists by pharmacophore modeling based upon 18 known diverse D3 agonists; (2) constructed the three-dimensional (3D) structure of D3 based on homology modeling and the pharmacophore hypothesis; (3) identified the binding modes of the agonists to D3 by the correlation between the predicted binding free energies and the experimental values; and (4) investigated the induced fit of D3 upon agonist binding through MD simulations. The pharmacophore models of the D3 agonists and the 3D structure of D3 can be used for either ligand- or receptor-based drug design. Furthermore, the MD simulations further give the insight that the long and flexible EL2 acts as a "door" for agonist binding, and the "ionic lock" at the bottom of TM3 and TM6 is essential to transduce the activation signal. PMID:20695484

  17. Extrinsic factors regulate partial agonist efficacy of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Farroni, Jeffrey S; McCool, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    Background Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in many adult forebrain regions consist of alpha2 + beta heteromeric channels. This subunit composition is distinct from the alpha1 + beta channels found throughout the adult spinal cord. Unfortunately, the pharmacology of forebrain alpha2beta receptors are poorly defined compared to 'neonatal' alpha2 homomeric channels or 'spinal' alpha1beta heteromers. In addition, the pharmacologic properties of native alpha2beta glycine receptors have been generally distinct from receptors produced by heterologous expression. To identify subtype-specific pharmacologic tools for the forebrain alpha2beta receptors, it is important to identify a heterologous expression system that closely resembles these native glycine-gated chloride channels. Results While exploring pharmacological properties of alpha2beta glycine receptors compared to alpha2-homomers, we found that distinct heterologous expression systems appeared to differentially influence partial agonist pharmacology. The β-amino acid taurine possessed 30–50% efficacy for alpha2-containing receptor isoforms when expressed in HEK 293 cells. However, taurine efficacy was dramatically reduced in L-cell fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained for β-alanine. The efficacy of these partial agonists was also strongly reduced by the beta subunit. There were no significant differences in apparent strychnine affinity values calculated from concentration-response data between expression systems or subunit combinations. Nor did relative levels of expression correlate with partial agonist efficacy when compared within or between several different expression systems. Finally, disruption of the tubulin cytoskeleton reduced the efficacy of partial agonists in a subunit-dependent, but system-independent, fashion. Conclusions Our results suggest that different heterologous expression systems can dramatically influence the agonist pharmacology of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. In

  18. Strategies for designing synthetic immune agonists.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tom Y-H

    2016-08-01

    Enhancing the immune system is a validated strategy to combat infectious disease, cancer and allergy. Nevertheless, the development of immune adjuvants has been hampered by safety concerns. Agents that can stimulate the immune system often bear structural similarities with pathogen-associated molecular patterns found in bacteria or viruses and are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Activation of these PRRs results in the immediate release of inflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and recruitment of innate immune cells. The distribution and duration of these early inflammatory events are crucial in the development of antigen-specific adaptive immunity in the forms of antibody and/or T cells capable of searching for and destroying the infectious pathogens or cancer cells. However, systemic activation of these PRRs is often poorly tolerated. Hence, different strategies have been employed to modify or deliver immune agonists in an attempt to control the early innate receptor activation through temporal or spatial restriction. These approaches include physicochemical manipulation, covalent conjugation, formulation and conditional activation/deactivation. This review will describe recent examples of discovery and optimization of synthetic immune agonists towards clinical application. PMID:27213842

  19. Proglumide exhibits delta opioid agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A; Stokes, K B; Rhoads, D L; Way, E L

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that proglumide, a cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist, potentiates the analgetic effects of morphine and endogenous opioid peptides and reverses morphine tolerance by antagonizing the CCK system in the central nervous system of the rat. In order to provide additional insight into the mode of action of this agent, we assessed the effect of proglumide in the isolated guinea pig ileum and the mouse, rat and rabbit vas deferens. Furthermore, we studied the in vitro binding affinity of this substance to mouse brain synaptosomes. Our results show that proglumide inhibits, dose dependently, the electrically stimulated twitches in the mouse vas deferens and guinea pig ileum, but not in the rat or rabbit vas deferens. The inhibitory action of proglumide on the mouse vas deferens, but not on the guinea pig ileum, is antagonized by naloxone and by the selective delta-antagonist, ICI 174,864, in a competitive fashion. Other CCK antagonists were found to be devoid of such activity on the mouse vas deferens. In vitro binding studies showed that proglumide displaces D-ala-D-[leucine]5-enkephalin (DADLE), a delta agonist, but not ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), a preferentially selective kappa agonist. The effect of proglumide appeared to be elicited presynaptically since it did not alter the norepinephrine-induced contractions of the mouse vas deferens. Our results suggest that proglumide might exert its opiate-like effects by activation of delta-opioid receptors. PMID:3030338

  20. Chimpanzees Extract Social Information from Agonistic Screams

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, Katie E.; Kaller, Tanja; Call, Josep; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) agonistic screams are graded vocal signals that are produced in a context-specific manner. Screams given by aggressors and victims can be discriminated based on their acoustic structure but the mechanisms of listener comprehension of these calls are currently unknown. In this study, we show that chimpanzees extract social information from these vocal signals that, combined with their more general social knowledge, enables them to understand the nature of out-of-sight social interactions. In playback experiments, we broadcast congruent and incongruent sequences of agonistic calls and monitored the response of bystanders. Congruent sequences were in accordance with existing social dominance relations; incongruent ones violated them. Subjects looked significantly longer at incongruent sequences, despite them being acoustically less salient (fewer call types from fewer individuals) than congruent ones. We concluded that chimpanzees categorised an apparently simple acoustic signal into victim and aggressor screams and used pragmatics to form inferences about third-party interactions they could not see. PMID:20644722

  1. Treating enhanced GABAergic inhibition in Down syndrome: use of GABA α5-selective inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Delatour, Benoît; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2014-10-01

    Excess inhibition in the brain of individuals carrying an extra copy of chromosome 21 could be responsible for cognitive deficits observed throughout their lives. A change in the excitatory/inhibitory balance in adulthood would alter synaptic plasticity, potentially triggering learning and memory deficits. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system and binds to GABAA receptors, opens a chloride channel, and reduces neuronal excitability. In this review we discuss methods to alleviate neuronal inhibition in a mouse model of Down syndrome, the Ts65Dn mouse, using either an antagonist (pentylenetetrazol) or two different inverse agonists selective for the α5-subunit containing receptor. Both inverse agonists, which reduce inhibitory GABAergic transmission, could rescue learning and memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. We also discuss safety issues since modulation of the excitatory-inhibitory balance to improve cognition without inducing seizures remains particularly difficult when using GABA antagonists. PMID:24412222

  2. [Pyridazino(3,4-c)quinolines and pyridazino(4,5-c)quinolines--synthesis and investigation of lipoxygenase inhibition].

    PubMed

    Görlitzer, K; Fabian, J; Jones, P G; Frohberg, P; Drutkowski, G

    2002-06-01

    The cyclic hemiketone acetal 6 reacts with hydrazine in tert-butanol to yield the 1-amino-2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxy-pyrrole 7, while in acetic acid a mixture of the 1-amino-pyrrole 8 and the 1,4-dihydropyridazine 9 is obtained. The X-ray crystal structure of 9 shows a boat conformation flattened about N-1 with respect to nifedipine. Removing the boc-group of 9 gives the tautomeric 2,5-dihydropyridazine 13. The lactams 15 and 17 and the cyclic hydroxamic acids 16 and 18, respectively, are synthesized from 13 or from its oxidation product 14 using reductive conditions. The cyclic hemiacetal 21 reacts with hydrazine in a different manner from 6. In acetic acid the 1-aminopyrrole 22 is formed, while ethanol yields the 1,4-dihydropyridazine 23. The pyridazine 24, obtained by dehydrogenation of 23, gives the lactam 25 and the hydroxamic acid 26, respectively, when the nitro-group is reduced. The dihydropyridazines 9, 11 and 23 are transformed photochemically to give the nitrosophenyl-pyridazines 19, 20 and 27. The chloro-substituted hydroxamic acid 28 is isolated after treatment of 27 with hydrochloric acid. The stability of the partially saturated pyridazine compounds is discussed on the basis of half wave potentials measured by anodic oxidation by means of differential pulse voltammetry. The tricyclic hydroxamic acids 18 and 28 show only a weak inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). PMID:12116871

  3. Adaptability and selectivity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pan agonists revealed from crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Takuji; Toyota, Kenji; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Hirakawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Naoko; Kasuga, Jun-ichi; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-08-01

    The structures of the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ) in complexes with a pan agonist, an α/δ dual agonist and a PPARδ-specific agonist were determined. The results explain how each ligand is recognized by the PPAR LBDs at an atomic level. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family, which is defined as transcriptional factors that are activated by the binding of ligands to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Although the three PPAR subtypes display different tissue distribution patterns and distinct pharmacological profiles, they all are essentially related to fatty-acid and glucose metabolism. Since the PPARs share similar three-dimensional structures within the LBDs, synthetic ligands which simultaneously activate two or all of the PPARs could be potent candidates in terms of drugs for the treatment of abnormal metabolic homeostasis. The structures of several PPAR LBDs were determined in complex with synthetic ligands, derivatives of 3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)propanoic acid, which exhibit unique agonistic activities. The PPARα and PPARγ LBDs were complexed with the same pan agonist, TIPP-703, which activates all three PPARs and their crystal structures were determined. The two LBD–ligand complex structures revealed how the pan agonist is adapted to the similar, but significantly different, ligand-binding pockets of the PPARs. The structures of the PPARδ LBD in complex with an α/δ-selective ligand, TIPP-401, and with a related δ-specific ligand, TIPP-204, were also determined. The comparison between the two PPARδ complexes revealed how each ligand exhibits either a ‘dual selective’ or ‘single specific’ binding mode.

  4. Design, synthesis, pharmacological characterization of a fluorescent agonist of the P2Y₁₄ receptor.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Evgeny; Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; Uliassi, Elisa; Brown, Kyle A; Trujillo, Kevin; Katritch, Vsevolod; Hammes, Eva; Stevens, Raymond C; Harden, T Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2015-11-01

    The P2Y14R is a G(i/o)-coupled receptor of the P2Y family of purinergic receptors that is activated by extracellular UDP and UDP-glucose (UDPG). In an earlier report we described a P2Y14R fluorescent probe, MRS4174, based on the potent and selective antagonist PPTN, a naphthoic acid derivative. Here, we report the design, preparation, and activity of an agonist-based fluorescent probe MRS4183 (11) and a shorter P2Y14R agonist congener, which contain a UDP-glucuronic acid pharmacophore and BODIPY fluorophores conjugated through diaminoalkyl linkers. The design relied on both docking in a P2Y14R homology model and established structure activity relationship (SAR) of nucleotide analogs. 11 retained P2Y14R potency with EC50 value of 0.96 nM (inhibition of adenylyl cyclase), compared to parent UDPG (EC50 47 nM) and served as a tracer for microscopy and flow cytometry, displaying minimal nonspecific binding. Binding saturation analysis gave an apparent binding constant for 11 in whole cells of 21.4±1.1 nM, with a t1/2 of association at 50 nM 11 of 23.9 min. Known P2Y14R agonists and PPTN inhibited cell binding of 11 with the expected rank order of potency. The success in the identification of a new P2Y14R fluorescent agonist with low nonspecific binding illustrates the advantages of rational design based on recently determined GPCR X-ray structures. Such conjugates will be useful tools in expanding the SAR of this receptor, which still lacks chemical diversity in its collective ligands. PMID:26303895

  5. Molecular structure and protonation trends in 6-methoxy- and 8-methoxy-2,4,5-tris(dimethylamino)quinolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyablo, O. V.; Pozharskii, A. F.; Shmoilova, E. A.; Ozeryanskii, V. A.; Fedik, N. S.; Suponitsky, K. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Molecular structure and protonation trends of 6-methoxy- 7 and 8-methoxy- 8 derivatives of 2,4,5-tris(dimethylamino)quinoline were studied using X-ray measurements, NMR spectra and theoretical calculations. It has been found that while 8 in the solid state forms protic salts of a quinolinium type, its isomer 7 behaves as a typical proton sponge giving the anilinium cation with a proton chelated by peri-NMe2 groups. In solution, both compounds are simultaneously monoprotonated at two possible centers but again a tendency of 7 to form anilinium cation is much higher if compared to 8. It has been also shown that basicity of 7 is the largest among all known derivatives of 4,5-bis(dimethylamino)quinoline and even slightly exceeds that of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (parent proton sponge). This was attributed to the "buttressing effect" exhibited by the 6-MeO group. Stable double salts of 7 with picrate and perchlorate anions unprecedented for azines with conjugated aza and NMe2 groups were obtained and thoroughly studied.

  6. Molecular reorganization of selected quinoline derivatives in the ground and excited states—Investigations via static DFT

    SciTech Connect

    Błaziak, Kacper; Panek, Jarosław J.; Jezierska, Aneta

    2015-07-21

    Quinoline derivatives are interesting objects to study internal reorganizations due to the observed excited-state-induced intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Here, we report on computations for selected 12 quinoline derivatives possessing three kinds of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Density functional theory was employed for the current investigations. The metric and electronic structure simulations were performed for the ground state and first excited singlet and triplet states. The computed potential energy profiles do not show a spontaneous proton transfer in the ground state, whereas excited states exhibit this phenomenon. Atoms in Molecules (AIM) theory was applied to study the nature of hydrogen bonding, whereas Harmonic Oscillator Model of aromaticity index (HOMA) provided data of aromaticity evolution as a derivative of the bridge proton position. The AIM-based topological analysis confirmed the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding. In addition, using the theory, we were able to provide a quantitative illustration of bonding transformation: from covalent to the hydrogen. On the basis of HOMA analysis, we showed that the aromaticity of both rings is dependent on the location of the bridge proton. Further, the computed results were compared with experimental data available. Finally, ESIPT occurrence was compared for the three investigated kinds of hydrogen bridges, and competition between two bridges in one molecule was studied.

  7. Effect of substitution group on dielectric properties of 4H-pyrano [3, 2-c] quinoline derivatives thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, M. Zeyada; F, M. El-Taweel; M, M. El-Nahass; M, M. El-Shabaan

    2016-07-01

    The AC electrical conductivity and dielectrical properties of 2-amino-6-ethyl-5-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrano[3, 2-c]quinoline-3-carbonitrile (Ph-HPQ) and 2-amino-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-5-oxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrano [3, 2-c] quinoline-3-carbonitrile (Ch-HPQ) thin films were determined in the frequency range of 0.5 kHz–5 MHz and the temperature range of 290–443 K. The AC electrical conduction of both compounds in thin film form is governed by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism. Some parameters such as the barrier height, the maximum barrier height, the density of charges, and the hopping distance were determined as functions of temperature and frequency. The phenoxyphenyl group has a greater influence on those parameters than the chlorophenyl group. The AC activation energies were determined at different frequencies and temperatures. The dielectric behaviors of Ph-HPQ and Ch-HPQ were investigated using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The impedance data are presented in Nyquist diagrams for different temperatures. The Ch-HPQ films have higher impedance than the Ph-HPQ films. The real dielectric constant and dielectric loss show a remarkable dependence on the frequency and temperature. The Ph-HPQ has higher dielectric constants than the Ch-HPQ.

  8. Tetra­kis(quinolin-8-olato-κ2 N,O)hafnium(IV) toluene disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, J. Augustinus; Visser, Hendrik G.; Roodt, Andreas; Steyn, Maryke

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Hf(C9H6NO)4]·2C7H8, the hafnium metal centre is coordinated by four N,O-donating bidentate quinolin-8-olate ligands arranged to give a square-anti­prismatic coordination polyhedron with a slightly distorted dodeca­hedral geometry. The average Hf—O and Hf—N distances are 2.096 (3) and 2.398 (3) Å, respectively, and the average O—Hf—N bite angle is 70.99 (11)°. The crystal packing is controlled by π–π inter­actions between quinoline ligands of neighbouring mol­ecules and hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The inter­planar distances vary between 3.138 (1) and 3.208 (2) Å, while the centroid–centroid distances range from 3.576 (1) to 4.074 (1) Å. PMID:21578562

  9. A Comprehensive Study of Copper Guanidine Quinoline Complexes: Predicting the Activity of Catalysts in ATRP with DFT.

    PubMed

    Rösener, Thomas; Bienemann, Olga; Sigl, Kerstin; Schopp, Nora; Schnitter, Fabian; Flörke, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Alexander; Döring, Artjom; Kuckling, Dirk; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja

    2016-09-12

    Copper complexes of the hybrid guanidine ligands 1,3-dimethyl-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-imidazolidin-2-imine (DMEGqu) and 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2-(quinolin-8-yl)-guanidine (TMGqu) have been studied comprehensively with regard to their structural and electrochemical properties and their activity in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A simple analysis of the molecular structures of the complexes gives no indication about their activity in ATRP; however, with the help of DFT and NBO analysis the influence of particular coordinating donors on the electrochemical properties could be fully elucidated. With an adequate DFT methodology and newly applied theoretical isodesmic reactions it was possible to predict the relative position of the redox potentials of copper complexes containing DMEGqu and TMGqu ligands. In addition, predictions could be made as to whether the complexes of DMEGqu or TMGqu are more active in ATRP. Four new Cu(I) complexes were tested in standard ATRP reactions and kinetically investigated both in bulk and in solution. It could be proven that complexes featuring DMEGqu possess a lower redox potential and are more active in ATRP, although the tetramethylguanidine moiety represents the stronger donor. PMID:27505859

  10. Molecular reorganization of selected quinoline derivatives in the ground and excited states—Investigations via static DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaziak, Kacper; Panek, Jarosław J.; Jezierska, Aneta

    2015-07-01

    Quinoline derivatives are interesting objects to study internal reorganizations due to the observed excited-state-induced intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Here, we report on computations for selected 12 quinoline derivatives possessing three kinds of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Density functional theory was employed for the current investigations. The metric and electronic structure simulations were performed for the ground state and first excited singlet and triplet states. The computed potential energy profiles do not show a spontaneous proton transfer in the ground state, whereas excited states exhibit this phenomenon. Atoms in Molecules (AIM) theory was applied to study the nature of hydrogen bonding, whereas Harmonic Oscillator Model of aromaticity index (HOMA) provided data of aromaticity evolution as a derivative of the bridge proton position. The AIM-based topological analysis confirmed the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding. In addition, using the theory, we were able to provide a quantitative illustration of bonding transformation: from covalent to the hydrogen. On the basis of HOMA analysis, we showed that the aromaticity of both rings is dependent on the location of the bridge proton. Further, the computed results were compared with experimental data available. Finally, ESIPT occurrence was compared for the three investigated kinds of hydrogen bridges, and competition between two bridges in one molecule was studied.

  11. Laboratory Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles: Quinoline, and Phenanthridine in Solid Argon and H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Mattioda, A. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe. Their detection and identification are based on telescopic infrared (IR) spectra compared with laboratory data. Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs) are heterocyclic aromatics i.e., PAHs with carbon atoms replaced by a nitrogen atom. These molecules should be present in the interstellar medium, but have received relatively little attention. We present mid-IR spectra of two PANHs, quinoline (C9H7N), and phenanthridine (C13H9N) isolated in solid argon and frozen in solid H2O at 12 K, conditions yielding data directly comparable to astronomical observations. In contrast to simple PAHs, that do not interact strongly with solid H2O, the nitrogen atoms in PANHs are potentially capable of hydrogen bonding with H2O. Whereas the IR spectrum of phenanthridine in H2O is similar to that of the same compound isolated in an argon matrix, quinoline absorptions shift up to 16 cm(sup -1) (0.072 mm) between argon and H2O. Thus, astronomers will not always be able to rely on IR band positions of matrix isolated PANHs to correctly interpret the absorptions of PANHs frozen in H2O ice grains. Furthermore, our data suggest that relative band areas also vary, so determining column densities to better than a factor of 3 will require knowledge of the matrix in which the PANH is embedded and laboratory studies of relevant samples.

  12. Synthetically Tuning the 2-Position of Halogenated Quinolines: Optimizing Antibacterial and Biofilm Eradication Activities via Alkylation and Reductive Amination Pathways.

    PubMed

    Basak, Akash; Abouelhassan, Yasmeen; Norwood, Verrill M; Bai, Fang; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Jin, Shouguang; Huigens, Robert W

    2016-06-27

    Agents capable of eradicating bacterial biofilms are of great importance to human health as biofilm-associated infections are tolerant to our current antibiotic therapies. We have recently discovered that halogenated quinoline (HQ) small molecules are: 1) capable of eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) biofilms, and 2) synthetic tuning of the 2-position of the HQ scaffold has a significant impact on antibacterial and antibiofilm activities. Here, we report the chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of 39 HQ analogues that have a high degree of structural diversity at the 2-position. We identified diverse analogues that are alkylated and aminated at the 2-position of the HQ scaffold and demonstrate potent antibacterial (MIC≤0.39 μm) and biofilm eradication (MBEC 1.0-93.8 μm) activities against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium strains while demonstrating <5 % haemolysis activity against human red blood cells (RBCs) at 200 μm. In addition, these HQs demonstrated low cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. Halogenated quinolines are a promising class of antibiofilm agents against Gram-positive pathogens that could lead to useful treatments against persistent bacterial infections. PMID:27245927

  13. Thiacalix[4]arene-tetra-(quinoline-8- sulfonate): a Sensitive and Selective Fluorescent Sensor for Co (II).

    PubMed

    Modi, Krunal; Panchal, Urvi; Dey, Shuvankar; Patel, Chirag; Kongor, Anita; Pandya, Himanshu A; Jain, V K

    2016-09-01

    A novel fluorescent thiacalix[4]arene-tetra-(quinoline-8-sulfonate) (TCTQ8S) was synthesized by condensation of thiacalix[4]arene (TCA) and 8-quinoline sulfonyl chloride(8QSC). TCTQ8S was characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic methods. TCTQ8S was found to be an efficient "turn-off" fluorescent sensor for the selective and sensitive recognition of Co(II) ions. The Job's plot measurement reveals a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. The designed chemosensor exhibited high selectivity toward Co(II) ions vs. other tested metal ions, with a detection limit of up to 1.038 × 10(-9) M. The binding constant and quantum yield for the complex were also determined. Molecular docking studies have been successfully performed to support 1:1 binding of TCTQ8S with the Co(II) metal ion. TCTQ8S was evaluated for real sample analysis on water sample for the detection of Co(II). Graphical Abstract Thiacalix derivatized fluorescent sensor for the selective detection of Co(II). PMID:27392975

  14. Amino substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines: Antiproliferative potency, 3D QSAR study and DNA binding properties.

    PubMed

    Perin, Nataša; Nhili, Raja; Cindrić, Maja; Bertoša, Branimir; Vušak, Darko; Martin-Kleiner, Irena; Laine, William; Karminski-Zamola, Grace; Kralj, Marijeta; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène; Hranjec, Marijana

    2016-10-21

    We describe the synthesis, 3D-derived quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), antiproliferative activity and DNA binding properties of a series of 2-amino, 5-amino and 2,5-diamino substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines prepared by environmentally friendly uncatalyzed microwave assisted amination. The antiproliferative activities were assessed in vitro against colon, lung and breast carcinoma cell lines; activities ranged from submicromolar to micromolar. The strongest antiproliferative activity was demonstrated by 2-amino-substituted analogues, whereas 5-amino and or 2,5-diamino substituted derivatives resulted in much less activity. Derivatives bearing 4-methyl- or 3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl substituents emerged as the most active. DNA binding properties and the mode of interaction of chosen substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines prepared herein were studied using melting temperature studies, a series of spectroscopic studies (UV/Visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism), and biochemical experiments (topoisomerase I-mediated DNA relaxation and DNase I footprinting experiments). Both compound 36 and its bis-quaternary iodide salt 37 intercalate between adjacent base pairs of the DNA helix while compound 33 presented a very weak topoisomerase I poisoning activity. A 3D-QSAR analysis was performed to identify hydrogen bonding properties, hydrophobicity, molecular flexibility and distribution of hydrophobic regions as these molecular properties had the highest impact on the antiproliferative activity against the three cell lines. PMID:27448912

  15. Determination of mercury(II) in aquatic plants using quinoline-thiourea conjugates as a fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guodong; Ding, Yuanyuan; Gong, Zhiyong; Dai, Yanna; Fei, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a quinoline-thiourea conjugate (1-phenyl-3-(quinoline-8-yl) thiourea, PQT) was synthesized and used as a fluorescence sensor to detect mercury ion. The observation is coincident with the well-documented phenomenon that a thiocarbonyl-containing group on a fluorochrome quenches the fluorescence due to the heavy atom effect of the S atom. The large fluorescence enhancement of PQT in the buffered MeCN-water mixture (1/1 v/v; HEPES 100 mM; pH 8.0) was caused by the Hg(2+) induced transformation of the thiourea function into a urea group. As such, protic solvents can be ascribed to hydrogen bond formation on the carbonyl oxygen to reduce the internal conversion rate. The fluorescence intensity of PQT was enhanced quantitatively with an increase in the concentration of mercury ion. The limit of detection of Hg(2+) was 7.5 nM. The coexistence of other metal ions with mercury had no obvious influence on the detection of mercury. A quinolone-thiourea conjugate was used as a fluorescent probe to detect Hg(2+) in aquatic plants and the experimental results were satisfactory. PMID:23842417

  16. Design and synthesis of novel anti-Alzheimer's agents: Acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Zahra; Saeedi, Mina; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tehrani, Maliheh Barazandeh; Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Edraki, Najmeh; Karimpor-Razkenari, Elahe; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh

    2016-08-01

    A novel series of acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as anti-Alzheimer's agents. All synthesized compounds were evaluated as cholinesterases (ChEs) inhibitors and among them, 7-(4-(6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinolin-9-ylamino)phenoxy)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (8e) exhibited the most potent anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (IC50=16.17μM) comparing with rivastigmine (IC50=11.07μM) as the reference drug. Also, compound 8e was assessed for its β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory and neuroprotective activities which demonstrated satisfactory results. It should be noted that both kinetic study on the inhibition of AChE and molecular modeling revealed that compound 8e interacted simultaneously with both the catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. PMID:27289559

  17. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  18. Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researches suggest that two agonists can bind to the same binding site of an important transmembrane protein and elicit a biological response through strikingly different binding interactions. Evidence is provided which suggests two possible types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist binding like acetlycholine (cholinergic) or like nicotine…

  19. Aerobic synthesis of substituted quinoline from aldehyde and aniline: copper-catalyzed intermolecular C-H active and C-C formative cyclization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rulong; Liu, Xingxing; Pan, Congming; Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xiaoni; Kang, Xing; Huang, Guosheng

    2013-09-20

    An efficient method for the direct synthesis of substituted quinolines from anilines and aldehydes through C-H functionalization, C-C/C-N bond formation, and C-C bond cleavage has been developed. The method is simple and practical and employs air as an oxidant. PMID:24024912

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Imidazo[1,5-a]quinoline as Highly Potent Ligands of Central Benzodiazepine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Andrea; Anzini, Maurizio; Castriconi, Federica; Grisci, Giorgio; Paolino, Marco; Braile, Carlo; Valenti, Salvatore; Giuliani, Germano; Vomero, Salvatore; Di Capua, Angela; Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Lucacchini, Antonio; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Frosini, Maria; Ricci, Lorenzo; Giorgi, Gianluca; Mascia, Maria Paola; Biggio, Giovanni

    2016-04-14

    A series of imidazo[1,5-a]quinoline derivatives was designed and synthesized as central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) ligands. Most of the compounds showed high CBR affinity with Ki values within the submicromolar and subnanomolar ranges with interesting modulations in their structure-affinity relationships. In particular, fluoroderivative 7w (Ki = 0.44 nM) resulted in the most potent ligand among the imidazo[1,5-a]quinoline derivatives described so far. Overall, these observations confirmed the assumption concerning the presence of a large though apparently saturable lipophilic pocket in the CBR binding site region interacting with positions 4 and 5 of the imidazo[1,5-a]quinoline nucleus. The in vivo biological characterization revealed that compounds 7a,c,d,l,m,q,r,w show anxiolytic and antiamnestic activities without the unpleasant myorelaxant side effects of the classical 1,4-BDZ. Furthermore, the effect of 7l,q,r, and 8i in lowering lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by ischemia-like conditions in rat brain slices suggested neuroprotective properties for these imidazo[1,5-a]quinoline derivatives. PMID:26982523

  1. Visible-Light-Mediated 1,7-Enyne Bicyclizations for Synthesis of Cyclopenta[c]quinolines and Benzo[j]phenanthridines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Yang, Chao; Ma, Na; Gao, Guo-Lin; Li, Dazhi; Xia, Wujiong

    2016-02-01

    A photocatalytic process for 1,7-enyne bicyclizations with α-bromo diethyl malonate has been established via synergistic domino bicyclizations. This protocol provides an efficient and practical method for the synthesis of various cyclopenta[c]quinolines and benzo[j]phenanthridines under operational simplicity and mild reaction conditions. PMID:26789846

  2. Combined experimental and quantum chemical studies on spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, and NMR) and structural characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumru, Mustafa; Altun, Ahmet; Kocademir, Mustafa; Küçük, Vesile; Bardakçı, Tayyibe; Şaşmaz, İbrahim

    2016-12-01

    Comparative experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the structure and spectral (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis and NMR) features of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out at Hartree-Fock and density functional B3LYP levels with the triple-zeta 6-311++G** basis set. Two stable conformers of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde arising from the orientation of the carboxaldehyde moiety have been located at the room temperature. The energetic separation of these conformers is as small as 2.5 kcal/mol with a low transition barrier (around 9 kcal/mol). Therefore, these conformers are expected to coexist at the room temperature. Several molecular characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde obtained through B3LYP and time-dependent B3LYP calculations, such as conformational stability, key geometry parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities, UV-Vis vertical excitation energies and the corresponding oscillator strengths have been analyzed. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde were also investigated.

  3. Estrogen receptor beta agonists in neurobehavioral investigations.

    PubMed

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Kavaliers, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Neurobehavioral investigations into the functions of estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta have utilized 'knockout' mice, phytoestrogens and, more recently, ER-specific agonists. Feeding, sexual, aggressive and social behavior, anxiety, depression, drug abuse, pain perception, and learning (and associated synaptic plasticity) are affected by ERalpha and ERbeta in a manner that is dependent upon the specific behavior studied, gender and developmental stage. Overall, ERalpha and ERbeta appear to function together to foster sociosexual behavior while inhibiting behaviors that, if occurring at the time of behavioral estrous, may compete with reproduction (eg, feeding). Recently developed pharmacological tools have limited selectivity and availability to the research community at large, as they are not commercially available. The development of highly selective, commercially available ERbeta-specific antagonists would greatly benefit preclinical and applied research. PMID:18600582

  4. Non-Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists for Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Becker, Philip M; Somiah, Manya

    2015-03-01

    Because of proven efficacy, reduced side effects, and less concern about addiction, non-benzodiazepine receptor agonists (non-BzRA) have become the most commonly prescribed hypnotic agents to treat onset and maintenance insomnia. First-line treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy. When pharmacologic treatment is indicated, non-BzRA are first-line agents for the short-term and long-term management of transient and chronic insomnia related to adjustment, psychophysiologic, primary, and secondary causation. In this article, the benefits and risks of non-BzRA are reviewed, and the selection of a hypnotic agent is defined, based on efficacy, pharmacologic profile, and adverse events. PMID:26055674

  5. Copper(I)-Y Zeolite-Catalyzed Regio- and Stereoselective [2 + 2 + 2] Cyclotrimerization Cascade: An Atom- and Step-Economical Synthesis of Pyrimido[1,6-a]quinoline.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Devenderan; Pitchumani, Kasi

    2015-10-16

    An elegant copper(I)-Y zeolite-catalyzed tandem process, involving ketenimine-based termolecular [2 + 2 + 2]/[NC + CC + NC] cycloaddition, using sulfonyl azide, alkyne, and quinoline, to prepare pyrimido[1,6-a]quinolines is reported. In this straightforward, highly atom- and step-economical protocol, copper(I) promotes for azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition which is followed by ring-rearrangement/ketenimine formation/regio- and stereoselective [2 + 2 + 2] termolecular cycloaddition and dehydrogenation cascade to yield selectively the E-isomer of pyrimido[1,6-a]quinoline. PMID:26390020

  6. CYP2C8- and CYP3A-mediated C-demethylation of (3-{[(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (CP-533,536), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist: characterization of metabolites by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Wang, Weiwei; O'Connell, Thomas; Johnson, Kim A

    2008-10-01

    CP-533,536, (3-{[(4-tert-butyl-benzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (1), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist, is being developed to aid in the healing of bone fractures. To support the development of this program, in vitro metabolism of 1 was investigated in human liver microsomes and major recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms. 1 was metabolized in vitro by at least three recombinant human P450s: CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C8. The turnover of 1 was NADPH-dependent and was completely inhibited by ketoconazole and quercetin in the CYP3A4/5 and CYP2C8 incubations, respectively. The major metabolic pathways were caused by oxidation of the tert-butyl moiety to form the omega-hydroxy metabolite (M4), oxidation of the pyridine moiety, and/or N-dealkylation of the methylphenoxy acetic acid moiety. The alcohol metabolite M4 was further oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid M3. In addition to these pathways, three unusual metabolites (M22, M23, and M26) resulting from C-demethylation of the tert-butyl group were identified using high-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/NMR. The C-demethylated metabolites were not detected on incubation of carboxylic acid metabolite M3 with either human liver microsomes or CYP3A/2C8 isoforms, suggesting that these metabolites were not derived from decarboxylation of M3. A possible mechanism for C-demethylation may involve the oxidation of M4 to form an aldehyde metabolite (M24), followed by P450-mediated deformylation, to give an unstable carbon-centered radical and formic acid. The carbon-centered radical intermediate then undergoes either oxygen rebound to form an alcohol metabolite M23 or hydrogen abstraction leading to an olefin metabolite M26. PMID:18653741

  7. Synthesis, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activity of quinoline-hydrazone hybrids.

    PubMed

    Coa, Juan Carlos; Castrillón, Wilson; Cardona, Wilson; Carda, Miguel; Ospina, Victoria; Muñoz, July Andrea; Vélez, Iván D; Robledo, Sara M

    2015-08-28

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are vector-borne parasitic disease causing serious risks to million people living in poverty-stricken areas. Both diseases are a major health problem in Latin America, and currently drugs for the effective treatment of these diseases have important concerns related with efficacy or toxicity than need to be addressed. We report herein the synthesis and biological activities (cytotoxicity, leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities) of ten quinolone-hydrazone hybrids. The structure of the products was elucidated by spectrometric analyses. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against amastigotes forms of L. (V) panamensis which is the most prevalent Leishmania species in Colombia and Trypanosoma cruzi that is the major pathogenic species to humans; in turn, cytotoxicity was evaluated against human U-937 macrophages. Compounds 6b, 6c and 8 showed activity against L. (V) panamensis with EC50 of 6.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL (21.2 μM), 0.8 ± 0.0 μg/mL (2.6 μM) and 3.4 ± 0.6 μg/mL (11.1 μM), respectively, while compounds 6a and 6c had activity against T. cruzi. with EC50 values of 1.4 ± 0.3 μg/mL (4.8 μM) and 6.6 ± 0.3 μg/mL (4.6 μM), respectively. Even compound 6a showed better activity against T. cruzi than the standard drug benznidazole with EC50 = 10.5 ± 1.8 μg/mL (40.3 μM). Analysis of the results obtained against leishmaniasis indicates that antiparasite activity is related to the presence of 2-substituted quinoline (isoquinolinic core) and the hydroxyl group in positions 3 and 4 of the aromatic ring. Although the majority of these compounds were highly cytotoxic, the antiparasite activity was higher than cytotoxicity and therefore, they still have potential to be considered as hit molecules for leishmanicidal and trypanocidal drug development. PMID:26218652

  8. Interactions between cannabinoid receptor agonists and mu opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys discriminating fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) enhance some (antinociceptive) but not other (positive reinforcing) effects of mu opioid receptor agonists, suggesting that cannabinoids might be combined with opioids to treat pain without increasing, and possibly decreasing, abuse. The degree to which cannabinoids enhance antinociceptive effects of opioids varies across drugs insofar as Δ(9)-THC and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 increase the potency of some mu opioid receptor agonists (e.g., fentanyl) more than others (e.g., nalbuphine). It is not known whether interactions between cannabinoids and opioids vary similarly for other (abuse-related) effects. This study examined whether Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 differentially impact the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine in monkeys (n=4) discriminating 0.01mg/kg of fentanyl (s.c.) from saline. Fentanyl (0.00178-0.0178mg/kg) and nalbuphine (0.01-0.32mg/kg) dose-dependently increased drug-lever responding. Neither Δ(9)-THC (0.032-1.0mg/kg) nor CP55940 (0.0032-0.032mg/kg) enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl or nalbuphine; however, doses of Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 that shifted the nalbuphine dose-effect curve markedly to the right and/or down were less effective or ineffective in shifting the fentanyl dose-effect curve. The mu opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.032mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine similarly. These data indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine are more sensitive to attenuation by cannabinoids than those of fentanyl. That the discriminative stimulus effects of some opioids are more susceptible to modification by drugs from other classes has implications for developing maximally effective therapeutic drug mixtures with reduced abuse liability. PMID:27184925

  9. Farnesyl pyrophosphate regulates adipocyte functions as an endogenous PPARγ agonist

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Kahori; Kim, Young-Il; Kato, Sota; Taimatsu, Aki; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Ebisu, Shogo; Hohsaka, Takahiro; Miyagawa, Hiroh; Murakami, Shigeru; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway produces not only sterols but also non-sterol mevalonate metabolites involved in isoprenoid synthesis. Mevalonate metabolites affect transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that in turn affect various biological processes including energy metabolism. In the present study, we examine whether mevalonate metabolites activate PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ), a ligand-dependent transcription factor playing a central role in adipocyte differentiation. In the luciferase reporter assay using both GAL4 chimaera and full-length PPARγ systems, a mevalonate metabolite, FPP (farnesyl pyrophosphate), which is the precursor of almost all isoprenoids and is positioned at branch points leading to the synthesis of other longer-chain isoprenoids, activated PPARγ in a dose-dependent manner. FPP induced the in vitro binding of a co-activator, SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1), to GST (glutathione transferase)–PPARγ. Direct binding of FPP to PPARγ was also indicated by docking simulation studies. Moreover, the addition of FPP up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of PPARγ target genes during adipocyte differentiation induction. In the presence of lovastatin, an HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitor, both intracellular FPP levels and PPARγ-target gene expressions were decreased. In contrast, the increase in intracellular FPP level after the addition of zaragozic acid, a squalene synthase inhibitor, induced PPARγ-target gene expression. The addition of FPP and zaragozic acid promotes lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. These findings indicated that FPP might function as an endogenous PPARγ agonist and regulate gene expression in adipocytes. PMID:21605082

  10. Farnesyl pyrophosphate regulates adipocyte functions as an endogenous PPARγ agonist.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Kahori; Kim, Young-Il; Kato, Sota; Taimatsu, Aki; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Ebisu, Shogo; Hohsaka, Takahiro; Miyagawa, Hiroh; Murakami, Shigeru; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-08-15

    The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway produces not only sterols but also non-sterol mevalonate metabolites involved in isoprenoid synthesis. Mevalonate metabolites affect transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that in turn affect various biological processes including energy metabolism. In the present study, we examine whether mevalonate metabolites activate PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ), a ligand-dependent transcription factor playing a central role in adipocyte differentiation. In the luciferase reporter assay using both GAL4 chimaera and full-length PPARγ systems, a mevalonate metabolite, FPP (farnesyl pyrophosphate), which is the precursor of almost all isoprenoids and is positioned at branch points leading to the synthesis of other longer-chain isoprenoids, activated PPARγ in a dose-dependent manner. FPP induced the in vitro binding of a co-activator, SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1), to GST (glutathione transferase)-PPARγ. Direct binding of FPP to PPARγ was also indicated by docking simulation studies. Moreover, the addition of FPP up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of PPARγ target genes during adipocyte differentiation induction. In the presence of lovastatin, an HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitor, both intracellular FPP levels and PPARγ-target gene expressions were decreased. In contrast, the increase in intracellular FPP level after the addition of zaragozic acid, a squalene synthase inhibitor, induced PPARγ-target gene expression. The addition of FPP and zaragozic acid promotes lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. These findings indicated that FPP might function as an endogenous PPARγ agonist and regulate gene expression in adipocytes. PMID:21605082

  11. E17110 promotes reverse cholesterol transport with liver X receptor β agonist activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Ni; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Peng; Lu, Duo; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Yanni; Si, Shuyi

    2016-05-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and activation of LXR could reduce atherosclerosis. In the present study we used a cell-based screening method to identify new potential LXRβ agonists. A novel benzofuran-2-carboxylate derivative was identified with LXRβ agonist activity: E17110 showed a significant activation effect on LXRβ with an EC50 value of 0.72 μmol/L. E17110 also increased the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, E17110 significantly reduced cellular lipid accumulation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, we found that the key amino acids in the LXRβ ligand-binding domain had distinct interactions with E17110 as compared to TO901317. These results suggest that E17110 was identified as a novel compound with LXRβ agonist activity in vitro via screening, and could be developed as a potential anti-atherosclerotic lead compound. PMID:27175330

  12. E17110 promotes reverse cholesterol transport with liver X receptor β agonist activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ni; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Peng; Lu, Duo; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Yanni; Si, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and activation of LXR could reduce atherosclerosis. In the present study we used a cell-based screening method to identify new potential LXRβ agonists. A novel benzofuran-2-carboxylate derivative was identified with LXRβ agonist activity: E17110 showed a significant activation effect on LXRβ with an EC50 value of 0.72 μmol/L. E17110 also increased the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, E17110 significantly reduced cellular lipid accumulation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, we found that the key amino acids in the LXRβ ligand-binding domain had distinct interactions with E17110 as compared to TO901317. These results suggest that E17110 was identified as a novel compound with LXRβ agonist activity in vitro via screening, and could be developed as a potential anti-atherosclerotic lead compound. PMID:27175330

  13. Identification of SR3335 (ML176): a Synthetic RORα Selective Inverse Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Solt, Laura A.; Kumar, K. Ganesh; Nuhant, Philippe; Duckett, Derek R.; Cameron, Michael D.; Butler, Andrew A.; Roush, William R.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors (NRs) are still characterized as orphan receptors since ligands have not yet been identified for these proteins. The retinoic acid receptor-related receptors (RORs) have no well-defined physiological ligands. Here, we describe the identification of a selective RORα synthetic ligand, SR3335 (ML-176). SR3335 directly binds to RORα, but not other RORs, and functions as a selective partial inverse agonist of RORα in cell-based assays. Furthermore, SR3335 suppresses the expression of endogenous RORα target genes in HepG2 involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis including glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that SR3335 displays reasonable exposure following an i.p. injection into mice. We assess the ability of SR3335 to suppress gluconeogenesis in vivo using a diet induced obesity (DIO) mouse model where the mice where treated with 15 mg/kg b.i.d., i.p. for 6-days followed by a pyruvate tolerance test. SR3335 treated mice displayed lower plasma glucose levels following the pyruvate challenge consistent with suppression of gluconeogenesis. Thus, we have identified the first selective synthetic RORα inverse agonist and this compound can be utilized as a chemical tool to probe the function of this receptor both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, our data suggests that RORα inverse agonists may hold utility for suppression of elevated hepatic glucose production in type 2 diabetics. PMID:21090593

  14. N-terminal galanin-(1-16) fragment is an agonist at the hippocampal galanin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisone, G.; Berthold, M.; Bedecs, K.; Unden, A.; Bartfai, T.; Bertorelli, R.; Consolo, S.; Crawley, J.; Martin, B.; Nilsson, S.; )

    1989-12-01

    The galanin N-terminal fragment (galanin-(1-16)) has been prepared by solid-phase synthesis and by enzymic cleavage of galanin by endoproteinase Asp-N. This peptide fragment displaced {sup 125}I-labeled galanin in receptor autoradiography experiments on rat forebrain and spinal cord and in equilibrium binding experiments from high-affinity binding sites in the ventral hippocampus with an IC50 of approximately 3 nM. In tissue slices of the same brain area, galanin-(1-16), similarly to galanin, inhibited the muscarinic agonist-stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids. Upon intracerebroventricular administration, galanin-(1-16) (10 micrograms/15 microliters) also inhibited the scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.)-evoked release of acetylcholine, as studied in vivo by microdialysis. Substitution of (L-Trp2) for (D-Trp2) resulted in a 500-fold loss in affinity as compared with galanin-(1-16). It is concluded that, in the ventral hippocampus, the N-terminal galanin fragment (galanin-(1-16)) is recognized by the galanin receptors controlling acetylcholine release and muscarinic agonist-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown as a high-affinity agonist and that amino acid residue (Trp2) plays an important role in the receptor-ligand interactions.

  15. The combination of ISCOMATRIX adjuvant and TLR agonists induces regression of established solid tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anabel; Mount, Adele; Krstevska, Karoline; Pejoski, David; Hardy, Matthew P; Owczarek, Catherine; Scotney, Pierre; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Baz Morelli, Adriana

    2015-03-01

    The development of therapeutic vaccines for treatment of established cancer has proven challenging. Cancer vaccines not only need to induce a robust tumor Ag-specific immune response but also need to overcome the tolerogenic and immunosuppressive microenvironments that exist within many solid cancers. ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (ISCOMATRIX) is able to induce both tumor Ag-specific cellular and Ab responses to protect mice against tumor challenge, but this is insufficient to result in regression of established solid tumors. In the current study, we have used B16-OVA melanoma, Panc-OVA pancreatic, and TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer mouse tumor models to test therapeutic efficacy of ISCOMATRIX vaccines combined with other immune modulators. The coadministration of an ISCOMATRIX vaccine with the TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and TLR9 agonist, CpG, reduced tumor growth in all tumor models and the presence of ISCOMATRIX in the formulation was critical for the therapeutic efficacy of the vaccine. This vaccine combination induced a robust and multifunctional CD8(+) T cell response. Therapeutic protection required IFN-γ and CD8(+) T cells, whereas NK and CD4(+) T cells were found to be redundant. ISCOMATRIX vaccines combined with TLR3 and TLR9 agonists represent a promising cancer immunotherapy strategy. PMID:25646304

  16. Biochemical and functional interactions of a selective kappa opioid agonist with calcium

    SciTech Connect

    VonVoigtlander, P.F.; Ochoa, M.C.; Lewis, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of the selective kappa opioid receptor agonist, U-50488H, has provided a tool for the study of the mechanisms and function of the kappa receptor-effector. We have investigated the interactions of this compound with calcium in several biochemical and functional studies to assess the involvement of calcium mechanisms in the kappa receptor-linked effector. In rat brain synaptosomes, U-50488H attenuated the uptake of /sup 45/Ca++ induced by K+ (40 mM) depolarization. This effect was concentration-related (U-50488H 10(-5) to 10(-7) M), was apparent in short (8-second) but not longer (1-minute) term incubations, and did not occur in the presence of a non-polarizing concentration (5.6 mM) of K+. Naloxone (10(-7) M) did not block this effect of U-50488H (10(-6) M), and higher concentrations (10(-5) M) alone blocked calcium uptake. We have found that the binding of the depolarizing amino acid analog, kainic acid, is enhanced by CaCl2. U-50488H (10(-4) to 10(-6) M) blocks this enhancement of /sup 3/H-kainic acid binding in vitro and also blocks the in vivo effects of kainic acid. In mice, intravenous injection of kainic acid causes scratching, convulsions, and death, depending on the dose administered. U-50488H blocks all of these effects (ED50 = 4.5 mg/kg for antagonism of convulsions induced by 27.5 mg/kg kainic acid). The convulsions induced by intracerebroventricularly administered kainic acid are also blocked by U-50488H as are those induced by similarly administered Bay K 8644, a calcium channel activator. All of these anticonvulsant effects of U-50488H were antagonized by naltrexone. Together these data indicate that the kappa agonist U-50488H has functionally relevant interactions with depolarization-related Ca++ mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  17. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  18. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation. PMID:22269613

  19. [PPAR receptors and insulin sensitivity: new agonists in development].

    PubMed

    Pégorier, J-P

    2005-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (or glitazones) are synthetic PPARgamma (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gamma) ligands with well recognized effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The clinical use of these PPARgamma agonists in type 2 diabetic patients leads to an improved glycemic control and an inhanced insulin sensitivity, and at least in animal models, to a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cell function. However, they can produce adverse effects, generally mild or moderate, but some of them (mainly peripheral edema and weight gain) may conduct to treatment cessation. Several pharmacological classes are currently in pre-clinical or clinical development, with the objective to retain the beneficial metabolic properties of PPARgamma agonists, either alone or in association with the PPARalpha agonists (fibrates) benefit on lipid profile, but devoid of the side-effects on weight gain and fluid retention. These new pharmacological classes: partial PPARgamma agonists, PPARgamma antagonists, dual PPARalpha/PPARgamma agonists, pan PPARalpha/beta(delta)/gamma agonists, RXR receptor agonists (rexinoids), are presented in this review. Main results from in vitro cell experiments and animal model studies are discussed, as well as the few published short-term studies in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:15959400

  20. Risk versus benefit considerations for the beta(2)-agonists.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H William

    2006-09-01

    Short-acting beta(2)-agonists are the mainstay of therapy for acute bronchospasm associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, whereas long-acting beta(2)-agonists are used in maintaining disease control in these respiratory disorders. This review describes and compares the pharmacology of the beta(2)-agonists and explains how these differences translate into differences in efficacy and beta(2)-adrenergic-mediated adverse effects. Questions commonly asked by clinicians regarding the efficacy and safety of short- and long-acting beta(2)-agonists include issues about cardiovascular effects, tolerance to their bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effects, blunting of albuterol response by long-acting beta(2)-agonists, potential masking of worsening asthma control, and the role of long-acting beta(2)-agonists as adjunctive therapy with inhaled corticosteroids in maintaining asthma control. Pharmacogenetics may play a role in determining which patients may be at risk for a reduced response to a beta(2)-agonist. The continued use of racemic albuterol, which contains a mixture of R-albuterol and S-albuterol, has been questioned because of data from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that S-albuterol causes proinflammatory effects and may increase bronchial hyperreactivity. The preclinical and clinical effects of these two stereoisomers are reviewed. Data describing the efficacy and safety of levalbuterol (R-albuterol) and racemic albuterol are presented. PMID:16945063

  1. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine agonists are effective treatments for a variety of indications, including Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, but may have serious side effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations, and impulse control disorders (including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping/buying, and hypersexuality). The most effective way to alleviate these side effects is to taper or discontinue dopamine agonist therapy. A subset of patients who taper a dopamine agonist, however, develop dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS), which has been defined as a severe, stereotyped cluster of physical and psychological symptoms that correlate with dopamine agonist withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner, cause clinically significant distress or social/occupational dysfunction, are refractory to levodopa and other dopaminergic medications, and cannot be accounted for by other clinical factors. The symptoms of DAWS include anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. The severity and prognosis of DAWS is highly variable. While some patients have transient symptoms and make a full recovery, others have a protracted withdrawal syndrome lasting for months to years, and therefore may be unwilling or unable to discontinue DA therapy. Impulse control disorders appear to be a major risk factor for DAWS, and are present in virtually all affected patients. Thus, patients who are unable to discontinue dopamine agonist therapy may experience chronic impulse control disorders. At the current time, there are no known effective treatments for DAWS. For this reason, providers are urged to use dopamine agonists judiciously, warn patients about the risks of DAWS prior to the initiation of dopamine agonist therapy, and follow patients closely for withdrawal symptoms during dopamine agonist taper. PMID:23686524

  2. Estradiol and isotype-selective estrogen receptor agonists modulate the mesocortical dopaminergic system in gonadectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Sárvári, Miklós; Deli, Levente; Kocsis, Pál; Márk, László; Maász, Gábor; Hrabovszky, Erik; Kalló, Imre; Gajári, Dávid; Vastagh, Csaba; Sümegi, Balázs; Tihanyi, Károly; Liposits, Zsolt

    2014-10-01

    The mesocortical dopaminergic pathway projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to the processing of reward signals. This pathway is regulated by gonadal steroids including estradiol. To address the putative role of estradiol and isotype-selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in the regulation of the rodent mesocortical system, we combined fMRI, HPLC-MS and qRT-PCR techniques. In fMRI experiments adult, chronically ovariectomized rats, treated with either vehicle, estradiol, ERα agonist 16α-lactone-estradiol (LE2) or ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN), received a single dose of d-amphetamine-sulphate (10mg/kg, i.p.) and BOLD responses were monitored in the VTA and the PFC. Ovariectomized rats showed no significant response to amphetamine. In contrast, the VTA of ER agonist-substituted ovariectomized rats showed robust amphetamine-evoked BOLD increases. The PFC of estradiol-replaced animals was also responsive to amphetamine. Mass spectroscopic analysis of dopamine and its metabolites revealed a two-fold increase in both dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid content of the PFC in estradiol-replaced animals compared to ovariectomized controls. qRT-PCR studies revealed upregulation of dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor in the VTA and PFC, respectively, of ER agonist-treated ovariectomized animals. Collectively, the results indicate that E2 and isotype-selective ER agonists can powerfully modulate the responsiveness of the mesocortical dopaminergic system, increase the expression of key genes related to dopaminergic neurotransmission and augment the dopamine content of the PFC. In a broader sense, the findings support the concept that the manifestation of reward signals in the PFC is dependent on the actual estrogen milieu of the brain. PMID:24976584

  3. Antitussive effects of GABAB agonists in the cat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, D. C.; Aziz, S. M.; DeGennaro, F. C.; Kreutner, W.; Egan, R. W.; Siegel, M. I.; Chapman, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. GABAB agonists inhibit neuronal processes which are important in the pathogenesis of airway disease, such as bronchospasm. Cough is a prominent symptom of pulmonary disease, but the effects of GABAB agonists on this airway reflex are unknown. Experiments were conducted to determine the antitussive effect of GABAB receptor agonists in comparison to the known antitussive agents, codeine and dextromethorphan. 2. Unanaesthetized guinea-pigs were exposed to aerosols of 0.3 mM capsaicin to elicit coughing, which was detected with a microphone and counted. Cough also was produced in anaesthetized cats by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic trachea and was recorded from electromyograms of respiratory muscle activity. 3. In guinea-pigs, the GABAB agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl-phosphinic acid (3-APPi) produced dose-dependent inhibition of capsaicin-induced cough when administered by subcutaneous or inhaled routes. The potencies of baclofen and 3-APPi compared favourably with codeine and dextromethorphan. 4. The GABAB antagonist, CGP 35348 (0.3- 30 mg kg-1, s.c.) inhibited the antitussive effect of baclofen (3.0 mg kg-1, s.c.). However, CGP 35348 (10 mg kg-1, s.c.) had no effect on the antitussive activity of codeine (30 mg kg-1, s.c.). The antitussive effect of baclofen was not influenced by the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline (3 mg kg-1, s.c.) or naloxone (0.3 mg kg-1, s.c.). 5. In the cat, baclofen (0.3-3.0 mg kg-1, i.v.) decreased mechanically-induced cough in a dose-dependent manner. In this model, baclofen (ED50 = 0.63 mg kg-1) was less potent than either codeine or dextromethorphan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220912

  4. Agonist-mediated changes in intracellular pH: role in vascular smooth muscle cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, B.C.; Canessa, M.; Vallega, G.; Alexander, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in intracellular pH (pHi) are likely to play an important role in regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. In most blood vessels, acidification is associated with decreased contractile tone and alkalinization with increased tone. However, the nature of agonist-mediated alterations in pHi and the role of pHi in other VSMC responses has been little studied. We have used the pH sensitive dye, BCECF, to study pHi in cultured rat aortic VSMC. Basal pHi at 37 degrees C in physiologic saline buffer (pH 7.3) was 7.08 in suspended VSMC and 7.26 in substrate-attached VSMC. An amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger mediated pHi recovery following an acid load. Angiotensin II- and platelet-derived growth factor typified one class of VSMC agonists, causing an initial transient (less than 5 min) acidification followed by a sustained (greater than 20 min) alkalinization. The acidification phase was associated with increased Ca2+ mobilization as demonstrated by increases in intracellular Ca2+ and 45Ca2+ efflux. The alkalinization was associated with Na+ influx and H+ efflux consistent with Na+/H+ exchange. Epidermal growth factor and phorbol esters typified another class of agonists which stimulated only a sustained alkalinization. Alterations in regulation of VSMC pHi may play an important role in VSMC hypertrophy and/or proliferation as suggested by the finding of increased cell growth and Na+/H+ exchange in spontaneously hypertensive rat VSMC compared to Wistar-Kyoto VSMC. Although no functional correlate for initial acidification has been identified, cytoplasmic alkalinization appears to be required for the sustained formation of diacylglycerol following angiotensin II stimulation. These findings suggest that alterations in pHi may regulate several VSMC functions such as agonist-mediated signal transduction, excitation-response coupling, and growth.

  5. Facilitation of amphetamine-induced hypothermia in mice by GABA agonists and CCK-8.

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, G.; Launay, N.; Rips, R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Amphetamine-induced hypothermia in mice is facilitated by dopaminergic stimulation and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic inhibition. The present study was designed to investigate: (a) the involvement of other neuronal systems, such as the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the opioid and the cholecystokinin (CCK-8) systems; (b) the possible contribution of hydroxylated metabolites of amphetamine to the hypothermia; (c) the capacity of dopamine itself to induce hypothermia and its mechanisms, in order to clarify the resistance of amphetamine-induced hypothermia to certain neuroleptics. 2. Pretreatment with the GABA antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, did not inhibit amphetamine-induced hypothermia. The GABAB agonist, baclofen (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) potentiated this hypothermia, whereas the GABAA agonist, muscimol, did not. gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) (40 mg kg-1, i.p.) and the neuropeptide CCK-8 (0.04 mg kg-1, i.p.) also induced potentiation. The opioid antagonist, naloxone, was without effect. 3. Dopamine itself (3, 9, 16 and 27 micrograms, i.c.v.) induced less hypothermia than the same doses of amphetamine. Sulpiride did not block dopamine-induced hypothermia, but pimozide (4 mg kg-1, i.p.), cis(z)flupentixol (0.25 mg kg-1, i.p.) and haloperidol (5 micrograms, i.c.v.) did. The direct dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, did not alter the hypothermia. Neither the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor blocker, cyproheptadine, nor the inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), modified dopamine-induced hypothermia. Fluoxetine, an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, had no effect, whereas quipazine (6 mg kg-1, i.p.), a 5-HT agonist, totally prevented the hypothermia. Hypothermia was unaffected by pretreatment with CCK-8.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1855128

  6. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  7. Supra-physiological efficacy at GPCRs: superstition or super agonists?

    PubMed

    Langmead, Christopher J; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2013-05-01

    The concept of 'super agonism' has been described since the discovery of peptide hormone analogues that yielded greater functional responses than the endogenous agonists, in the early 1980s. It has remained an area of debate as to whether such compounds can really display greater efficacy than an endogenous agonist. However, recent pharmacological data, combined with crystal structures of different GPCR conformations and improved analytical methods for quantifying drug action, are starting to shed light on this phenomenon and indicate that super agonists may be more than superstition. PMID:23441648

  8. Serum stability of selected decapeptide agonists of KISS1R using pseudopeptides.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Nishibori, Kimiko; Nakayama, Masaharu; Horikoshi, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Tarui, Naoki; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2012-10-15

    Metastin/kisspeptin, a 54-amino acid peptide, is the ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor KISS1R which plays a key role in pathways that regulate reproduction and cell migration in many endocrine and gonadal tissues. The N-terminally truncated decapeptide, metastin(45-54), has 3-10 times higher receptor affinity and intracellular calcium ion-mobilizing activity but is rapidly inactivated in serum. In this study we designed and synthesized stable KISS1R agonistic decapeptide analogs with selected substitutions at positions 47, 50, and 51. Replacement of glycine with azaglycine (azaGly) in which the α-carbon is replaced with a nitrogen atom at position 51 improved the stability of amide bonds between Phe(50)-Gly(51) and Gly(51)-Leu(52) as determined by in vitro mouse serum stability studies. Substitution for tryptophan at position 47 with other amino acids such as serine, threonine, β-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and D-tryptophan (D-Trp), produced analogs that were highly stable in mouse serum. D-Trp(47) analog 13 showed not only high metabolic stability but also excellent KISS1R agonistic activity. Other labile peptides may have increased serum stability using amino acid substitution. PMID:22975302

  9. Discovery of acylurea isosteres of 2-acylaminothiadiazole in the azaxanthene series of glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Yang, Michael; Xiao, Zili; Doweyko, Arthur M; Cunningham, Mark; Wang, Jinhong; Habte, Sium; Holloway, Deborah; Burke, Christine; Shuster, David; Gao, Ling; Carman, Julie; Somerville, John E; Nadler, Steven G; Salter-Cid, Luisa; Barrish, Joel C; Weinstein, David S

    2014-08-01

    Acylureas and acyclic imides are found to be excellent isosteres for 2-acylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole in the azaxanthene-based series of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists. The results reported herein show that primary acylureas maintain high affinity and selectivity for GR while providing improved CYP450 inhibition and pharmacokinetic profile over 2-acylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles. General methods for synthesis of a variety of acylureas and acyclic imides from a carboxylic acid were utilized and are described. PMID:24980053

  10. Spectral properties of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline substituted with N,N-diethylamine moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbus, Anna; Grabka, Danuta; Danel, Andrzej; Szary, Karol

    2016-07-01

    Photophysical properties of 6-N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol[3,4-b]quinoline (DEPQ), a potential material for electroluminescent applications, were investigated. The absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes were recorded in a great number of solvents with different polarity. The red shifts in absorption and fluorescence maxima with the solvent's polarity were observed. Different trends in values of quantum yield for non-polar and polar solvents suggest two different deactivation ways of the excited state, depending on solvent polarity. DEPQ in non-polar solvents emits from locally excited states while deactivation DEPQ in polar solvents indicates charge transfer (CT) fluorescence. Several electro-optical parameters were also calculated.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, theoretical, anti-bacterial and molecular docking studies of quinoline based chalcones as a DNA gyrase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad Imran; Mahmood, Asif; Madni, Murtaza; Masood, Sara; Kashif, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    A series of fourteen (A1-A14) new qunioline based chalcones were synthesized by condensing 2,7-dichloro-8-methyl-3-formyl quinoline with acetophenone and acetylthiophenes, and subsequently characterized by IR, NMR and Mass spectroscopy. All the compounds were screened for antibacterial activities and found potentially active antibacterial agents. Bioassay, theoretical and dockings studies with DNA gyrase (the enzyme required for super coiling of DNA of bacteria) results showed that the type and positions of the substituents seemed to be critical for their antibacterial activities. The bromo and chloro substituted chalcone displayed high anti-bacterial activity. The A4 and A6 showed high interaction with DNA gyrase, contributing high free binding energy (ΔG -8.18 and -8.88 kcal). PMID:24747187

  12. A novel cobalt (I) coordination polymer with mixed thiocyanate and quinoline ligands: crystal structure, magnetism and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Chen, Shuai; Zhou, Rui-Min; Bai, Yan; Dang, Dong-Bin

    2014-01-01

    A new Co(I) one-dimensional coordination polymer [Co(SCN)(ql)]n (ql=quinoline) (1) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, TG technique and X-ray crystallography. Co(I) atom has a distorted trigonal pyramidal N2S2 (1) environment with two S atoms and one N atom from three μ-1,1,3-thiocyanate bridge ligands and one N atom from ql ligand. Two S atoms from two μ-1,1,3-SCN- bridging ligands bridge two centers to obtain bimetallic 4-membered ring. Adjacent 4-membered rings are linked by a pair of μ-1,1,3-SCN- bridging ligands to form a 1D stair-case like chain. The luminescent properties and magnetic properties of the polymer 1 were investigated in the solid state. PMID:24211622

  13. Fluorescence reaction of 5-(p-methoxyphenylazo)-8-(p-tolylsulfonamido)quinoline with cobalt(II) and its analytical application

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Zuotao ) Xu Qiheng )

    1992-08-01

    5-(p-Methoxyphenylazo)-8-(p-tolylsulfonamido)quinoline(MTAQ) has been synthesized. The product was checked by IR, thermogravimetry, NMR and elemental analysis. A highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of cobalt(II) based on the formation of a complex with MTAQ in slightly basic medium aqueous solution and in the presence of nonionic surfactant, tween-80. The complex shows two excitation maxima at 304 nm and 338 nm, its emission maximum is centered at 402nm. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to cobalt(II) concentration in the range of 0-85 ppb. The method has good selectivity and has been applied to the direct fluorimetric determination of trace cobalt(II) in pig's liver, Dianchi shrimp and celery.

  14. Sensitive determination of quinoline yellow using poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized reduced graphene oxide modified grassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Zheng, Yuhong; Wang, Aiwu; Cai, Wen; Lin, Haitao

    2015-08-15

    A novel poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PDDA-RGO) nanocomposite modified electrode was fabricated, and applied for the electrochemical determination of quinoline yellow (QY). The formation of PDDA-RGO nanocomposite was confirmed by SEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of PDDA-RGO nanocomposite to the oxidation of QY was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical performance towards detection of QY. The linear range is from 0.01 to 10 μM, and the detection limit is down to 0.002 μM (S/N=3). The proposed sensor also exhibited excellent anti-interference property, repeatability and stability. In addition, the proposed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determination of QY in soft drink. PMID:25794730

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a new photoluminescent material tris (2-methyl-8-hydroxy quinoline) lanthanum La(mq)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bhargava, Parag

    2016-05-01

    A new photoluminescence material, tris (2-methyl-8-hydroxy quinoline) lanthanum has been synthesized and characterized by different techniques. The prepared material La(mq)3 was characterized for structural, thermal and photoluminescence analysis. Structural analysis of this material was done by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of this material was done by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows the thermal stability up to 400°C. Absorption and emission spectra of the material was measured by UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Solution of this material La(mq)3 in ethanol showed absorption peak at 385nm respectively which may be attributed due to (π - π*) transitions. The photoluminescence spectra of La(mq)3 in ethanol solution showed intense peak at 430 nm.

  16. Electrochemical and DFT studies of quinoline derivatives on corrosion inhibition of AA5052 aluminium alloy in NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Daquan; Li, Kang; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Two quinoline derivatives, 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ) and 8-nitroquinoline (8-NQ), have been used as inhibitors to examine their corrosion protection effect on AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3% NaCl solution. The weight-loss and electrochemical measurement have indicated that 8-AQ and 8-NQ play as anodic inhibitor to retard the anodic electrochemical process. SEM/EDS analysis clearly shows that 8-AQ and 8-NQ form a protective film on the AA5052 alloy surface. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation confirmed the formation of strong hybridization between the p-orbital of reactive sites in the inhibitor molecules and the sp-orbital of the Al atom. 8-aminoquinoline and 8-nitroquinoline may be useful as effective corrosion inhibitors for aluminium alloys.

  17. Synthesis and spectral luminescent properties of certain pyridine and quinoline analogs of isomeric distyrylnaphthalenes and styryl- and distrylanthracenes

    SciTech Connect

    Vernigor, E.M.; Koz'menko, M.V; Lebedev, S.A.; Luk'yanets, E.A.; Savvina, L.P.; Shalaev, V.K.

    1987-12-01

    A series of pyridine and quinoline analogs of isomeric distyrylnaphthalenes and styryl- and distyrylanthracenes has been synthesized. Their spectral-luminescent properties were studied. Compounds whose structures are sterically hindered in the ground state have the highest Stokes' shift. The compounds synthesized have a trans-configuration; in their IR spectra there are absorption bands in the 970-990 cm/sup -1/ region, characteristic for trans-disubstituted alkenes. In the PMR spectrum of 9,10-di(..beta..-(4-pyridyl)vinyl)anthracene, two doublets of the AB spin system are observed with chemical shifts of 6.91 and 7.37 ppm, belonging to the vinyl protons. The SSCC (J = 16.5 Hz) indicates a trans-configuration of this compound.

  18. Photoelectric and electrical properties of soluble polyphenylquinolines containing an oxygen or phenylamine bridge group between quinoline moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrova, E. L.; Svetlychnyi, V. M. Miagkova, L. A.; Nekrasova, T. N.; Tameev, A. R.; Vannikov, A. V.; Kudryavtsev, V. V.

    2009-03-15

    Photoelectric and electrical properties of polyphenylquinolines differing in the structure of donor bridge groups between quinoline moieties have been studied. It is demonstrated that films of the polymers synthesized exhibit a photosensitivity at the level of 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2} J{sup -1} (integrated sensitivity 5 x 10{sup -4} lx{sup -1} . s{sup -1}), with a quantum yield of carrier photogeneration of 0.07 and a carrier drift mobility on the order of 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The fact that the electron and hole drift mobilities in polyphenylquinoline with a phenylamine bridge group are balanced makes the polymer promising for development of film-type devices based on the bipolar conductivity of a material (e.g., single-layer light-emitting diode)

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Isosteres of N-Methyl Indolo[3, 2-b]-quinoline (Cryptolepine) as New Antiinfective Agents.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xue Y.; Mardenborough, Leroy G.; Li, Shouming; Khan, Abdul; Zhang, Wang; Fan, Pincheng; Jacob, Melissa; Khan, Shabana; Walker, Larry; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

    2007-01-01

    Isosteres of cryptolepine (1) were synthesized and evaluated for their antiinfective activities. Overall, the sulfur isostere, 5-methyl benzothieno[3,2-b]quinoline (5b) was equipotent to 1 and has shown no cytotoxicity at 23.8 μg/ml. Compound 5b was also found to have a broad spectrum of activity. Both the carbon and oxygen isosteres were less potent than cryptolepine. A limited library of 2-substituted analogs of 5b has been synthesized and evaluated in antifungal screens but did not show increase in potency compared to the unsubstituted 5b. Similarly, evaluation of tricyclic benzothieno[3,2-b]pyridines while showing promise in individual screens did not produce an overall increase in potency. Overall, the evaluation of the activities of 5b compared with standard antifungal/anti-protozoal agents suggests that the benzothienoquinoline scaffold could serve as a lead for optimization. PMID:17134906

  20. Sensitive detection of β-agonists in pork tissue with novel molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peilong; Liu, Ximeng; Su, Xiaoou; Zhu, Ruohua

    2015-10-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer micro-spheres (MIPMs) with phenylethanolamine A as the template and the p-vinylbenzoic acid as the functional monomer were synthesized for the selective absorption of clenbuterol and other β-agonists including brombuterol, bromchlorbuterol, clorprenaline and ractopamine. The absorption performances of the MIPMs were studied and the experimental results demonstrated that the extraction capacities of five β-agonists with MIPMs were about from 2.7 to 3.4 times as much as that with non-imprinted polymer micro-spheres. Based on the clean-up of five β-agonists in pork tissues with MIPMs, a sensitive determination method for five β-agonists coupled with ultra performance chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry detection has been developed. The limits of detection for five β-agonists were <0.02 μg/kg. The mean recoveries and repeatability of five β-agonists in pork tissues varied from 70.0% to 116.0% and from 2.5% to 10.4%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to analysis of 22 real pork tissues samples. PMID:25872428

  1. Metabolomic analysis of swine urine treated with β2-agonists by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuping; Bi, Yanfeng; Bingga, Gali; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Suxia; Li, Jiancheng; Li, Hui; Ding, Shuangyang; Xia, Xi

    2015-06-26

    The illegal use of β2-agonists in livestock production was previously detected by efficient methods based on mass spectrometry to control the residues of these drugs. Nevertheless, such methods still remain a challenging task for authorities who monitor these residues because the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention of illegal use of growth-promoting agents. Here, we outlined a metabolomics-based strategy for detecting the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of three β2-agonists via urine profiling. Urine profiles of controls and swine treated with mixture of low amounts of three substances (clenbuterol, salbutamol, and ractopamine) were analyzed with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolic differences between controls and β2-agonists-treated groups were compared using multivariate data analysis. Fourteen metabolites were identified related with the β2-agonists treatment, while two co-biomarkers, 2-indolecarboxylic acid and fluorometholone acetate, either in single or "cocktails" of low-dose mixture of clenbuterol, salbutamol, and ractopamine, could be considered as diagnostic markers for the detection of illegal use of β2-agonists. The results of depletion study demonstrated that it is practical to use the markers for monitoring of β2-agonists. PMID:25980694

  2. Relamorelin: A Novel Gastrocolokinetic Synthetic Ghrelin Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic ghrelin agonists, predominantly small molecules, are being developed as prokinetic agents that may prove useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders. Relamorelin (RM-131) is a pentapeptide synthetic ghrelin analog that activates the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS)-1a (also called the ghrelin) receptor with approximately 6-fold greater potency than natural ghrelin. The ability of relamorelin to stimulate growth hormone (GH) release is comparable to that of native ghrelin. Relamorelin has enhanced efficacy and plasma stability compared to native ghrelin. In this review, we discuss the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and potential indications for relamorelin. Relamorelin is administered subcutaneously, dosed daily or twice daily. Relamorelin is being studied for the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders. Phase IIA pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated acceleration of gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. In a phase IIA study in patients with diabetic gastroparesis, relamorelin accelerated gastric emptying and significantly improved vomiting frequency compared to placebo and improved other symptoms of gastroparesis in a pre-specified subgroup of patients with vomiting at baseline. In patients with chronic idiopathic constipation with defined transit profile at baseline, relamorelin relieved constipation and accelerated colonic transit compared to placebo. These characteristics suggest that this new ghrelin analog shows great promise to relieve patients with upper or lower gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:25545036

  3. Rotation-vibration interactions in the spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Quinoline as a test-case species

    SciTech Connect

    Pirali, O.; Gruet, S.; Kisiel, Z.; Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-03-14

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly relevant for astrophysics as possible, though controversial, carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in a number of different astronomical objects. In support of radio-astronomical observations, high resolution laboratory spectroscopy has already provided the rotational spectra in the vibrational ground state of several molecules of this type, although the rotational study of their dense infrared (IR) bands has only recently become possible using a limited number of experimental set-ups. To date, all of the rotationally resolved data have concerned unperturbed spectra. We presently report the results of a high resolution study of the three lowest vibrational states of quinoline C{sub 9}H{sub 7}N, an N-bearing naphthalene derivative. While the pure rotational ground state spectrum of quinoline is unperturbed, severe complications appear in the spectra of the ν{sub 45} and ν{sub 44} vibrational modes (located at about 168 cm{sup −1} and 178 cm{sup −1}, respectively). In order to study these effects in detail, we employed three different and complementary experimental techniques: Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. Due to the high density of states in the IR spectra of molecules as large as PAHs, perturbations in the rotational spectra of excited states should be ubiquitous. Our study identifies for the first time this effect and provides some insights into an appropriate treatment of such perturbations.

  4. Design, synthesis, in-vitro antiproliferative activity and kinase profile of new picolinamide based 2-amido and ureido quinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    El-Damasy, Ashraf Kareem; Seo, Seon Hee; Cho, Nam-Chul; Kang, Soon Bang; Pae, Ae Nim; Kim, Key-Sun; Keum, Gyochang

    2015-08-28

    New 2-amido and ureido quinoline derivatives substituted with 2-N-methylamido-pyridin-4-yloxy group at the 5-position of quinoline (18 final compounds) have been designed and synthesized as anticancer sorafenib congeners. Among the synthesized derivatives, fourteen compounds were selected for evaluation of their antiproliferative activity over a panel of 60 cancer cell lines at a single dose concentration of 10 μM at National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). Four compounds, 9b-d and 9f showed promising mean growth inhibitions and thus were further tested at five-dose testing mode to determine their IC50 values. The data revealed that 2,4-difluorophenyl (9b) and 4-chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl (9d) urea compounds are the most active derivatives with significant efficacies and superior potencies than sorafenib in 36 and 12 cancer cell lines, respectively, belonging particularly to renal carcinoma cell (RCC), ovarian, and non small cell lung cancer (NSCL). Compound 9b and 9d were found to be six and two times more potent than sorafenib against A498 RCC line, with IC50 values of 0.42 μM and 1.36 μM, respectively. Accordingly, compound 9d was screened over a panel of 41 oncogenic kinases at a single dose concentration of 10 μM to profile its kinase inhibitory activity. Interestingly, the compound showed highly selective inhibitory activities ( 81.8% and 96.3%) against BRAF(V600E) and C-RAF kinases with IC50 values of 316 nM and 61 nM, respectively. In addition, molecular docking, cell cycle analysis, compliance to Lipinski's rule of five, and in silico toxicity assessment have been reported. PMID:26218653

  5. Selecting agonists from single cells infected with combinatorial antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkai; Yea, Kyungmoo; Xie, Jia; Ruiz, Diana; Wilson, Ian A; Lerner, Richard A

    2013-05-23

    We describe a system for direct selection of antibodies that are receptor agonists. Combinatorial antibody libraries in lentiviruses are used to infect eukaryotic cells that contain a fluorescent reporter system coupled to the receptor for which receptor agonist antibodies are sought. In this embodiment of the method, very large numbers of candidate antibodies expressing lentivirus and eukaryotic reporter cells are packaged together in a format where each is capable of replication, thereby forging a direct link between genotype and phenotype. Following infection, cells that fluoresce are sorted and the integrated genes encoding the agonist antibodies recovered. We validated the system by illustrating its ability to generate rapidly potent antibody agonists that are complete thrombopoietin phenocopies. The system should be generalizable to any pathway where its activation can be linked to production of a selectable phenotype. PMID:23706638

  6. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT6 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Karila, Delphine; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine; Boulouard, Michel; Dallemagne, Patrick; Rochais, Christophe

    2015-10-22

    Given its predominant expression in the central nervous system (CNS), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: serotonin) subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has been considered as a valuable target for the development of CNS drugs with limited side effects. After 2 decades of intense research, numerous selective ligands have been developed to target this receptor; this holds potential interest for the treatment of neuropathological disorders. In fact, some agents (mainly antagonists) are currently undergoing clinical trial. More recently, a series of potent and selective agonists have been developed, and preclinical studies have been conducted that suggest the therapeutic interest of 5-HT6R agonists. This review details the medicinal chemistry of these agonists, highlights their activities, and discusses their potential for treating cognitive issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, or obesity. Surprisingly, some studies have shown that both 5-HT6R agonists and antagonists exert similar procognitive activities. This article summarizes the hypotheses that could explain this paradox. PMID:26099069

  7. Partial agonist therapy in schizophrenia: relevance to diminished criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Gavaudan, Gilles; Magalon, David; Cohen, Julien; Lançon, Christophe; Léonetti, Georges; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2010-11-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), classified in the DSM-IV among impulse control disorders, is defined as inappropriate, persistent gaming for money with serious personal, family, and social consequences. Offenses are frequently committed to obtain money for gambling. Pathological gambling, a planned and structured behavioral disorder, has often been described as a complication of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. It has never been described in patients with schizophrenia receiving dopamine agonists. We present two patients with schizophrenia, previously treated with antipsychotic drugs without any suggestion of PG, who a short time after starting aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, developed PG and criminal behavior, which totally resolved when aripiprazole was discontinued. Based on recent advances in research on PG and adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease, we postulate a link between aripiprazole and PG in both our patients with schizophrenia and raise the question of criminal responsibility. PMID:20579229

  8. Selective 5-HT2C agonists as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Leysen, D C

    1999-02-01

    The antidepressants currently used need improvement, especially in terms of efficacy, relapse rate and onset of action. In this review the clinical and experimental data which support the rationale for 5-HT2C agonists in the treatment of depression are listed. Next, the results obtained with the non-selective 5-HT2C agonists on the market and in clinical development are described. Finally, the preclinical data on the more selective 5-HT2C agonists are summarized. These recent preclinical results reveal a greater potency and effect size compared to fluoxetine, good tolerability and no evidence of tolerance development. Selective 5-HT2C agonists might become innovative drugs for the treatment of depression, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), some forms of aggression and eating disorders. PMID:16160946

  9. Identification and Pharmacological Characterization of Multiple Allosteric Binding Sites on the Free Fatty Acid 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel C.-H.; Guo, Qi; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jane; Nguyen, Kathy; Chen, Michael; Tran, Thanh; Dransfield, Paul J.; Brown, Sean P.; Houze, Jonathan; Vimolratana, Marc; Jiao, Xian Yun; Wang, Yingcai; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of FFA1 (GPR40), a member of G protein-coupling receptor family A, is mediated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids and leads to amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting a potential role for free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) as a target for type 2 diabetes. It was assumed previously that there is a single binding site for fatty acids and synthetic FFA1 agonists. However, using members of two chemical series of partial and full agonists that have been identified, radioligand binding interaction studies revealed that the full agonists do not bind to the same site as the partial agonists but exhibit positive heterotropic cooperativity. Analysis of functional data reveals positive functional cooperativity between the full agonists and partial agonists in various functional assays (in vitro and ex vivo) and also in vivo. Furthermore, the endogenous fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows negative or neutral cooperativity with members of both series of agonists in binding assays but displays positive cooperativity in functional assays. Another synthetic agonist is allosteric with members of both agonist series, but apparently competitive with DHA. Therefore, there appear to be three allosterically linked binding sites on FFA1 with agonists specific for each of these sites. Activation of free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFAR1) by each of these agonists is differentially affected by mutations of two arginine residues, previously found to be important for FFAR1 binding and activation. These ligands with their high potencies and strong positive functional cooperativity with endogenous fatty acids, demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, have the potential to deliver therapeutic benefits. PMID:22859723

  10. Identification and pharmacological characterization of multiple allosteric binding sites on the free fatty acid 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daniel C-H; Guo, Qi; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jane; Nguyen, Kathy; Chen, Michael; Tran, Thanh; Dransfield, Paul J; Brown, Sean P; Houze, Jonathan; Vimolratana, Marc; Jiao, Xian Yun; Wang, Yingcai; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Swaminath, Gayathri

    2012-11-01

    Activation of FFA1 (GPR40), a member of G protein-coupling receptor family A, is mediated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids and leads to amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting a potential role for free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) as a target for type 2 diabetes. It was assumed previously that there is a single binding site for fatty acids and synthetic FFA1 agonists. However, using members of two chemical series of partial and full agonists that have been identified, radioligand binding interaction studies revealed that the full agonists do not bind to the same site as the partial agonists but exhibit positive heterotropic cooperativity. Analysis of functional data reveals positive functional cooperativity between the full agonists and partial agonists in various functional assays (in vitro and ex vivo) and also in vivo. Furthermore, the endogenous fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows negative or neutral cooperativity with members of both series of agonists in binding assays but displays positive cooperativity in functional assays. Another synthetic agonist is allosteric with members of both agonist series, but apparently competitive with DHA. Therefore, there appear to be three allosterically linked binding sites on FFA1 with agonists specific for each of these sites. Activation of free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFAR1) by each of these agonists is differentially affected by mutations of two arginine residues, previously found to be important for FFAR1 binding and activation. These ligands with their high potencies and strong positive functional cooperativity with endogenous fatty acids, demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, have the potential to deliver therapeutic benefits. PMID:22859723

  11. Normal aging in rats and pathological aging in human Alzheimer's disease decrease FAAH activity: modulation by cannabinoid agonists.

    PubMed

    Pascual, A C; Martín-Moreno, A M; Giusto, N M; de Ceballos, M L; Pasquaré, S J

    2014-12-01

    Anandamide is an endocannabinoid involved in several physiological functions including neuroprotection. Anandamide is synthesized on demand and its endogenous level is regulated through its degradation, where fatty acid amide hydrolase plays a major role. The aim of this study was to characterize anandamide breakdown in physiological and pathological aging and its regulation by CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists. Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity was analyzed in an independent cohort of human cortical membrane samples from control and Alzheimer's disease patients, and in membrane and synaptosomes from adult and aged rat cerebral cortex. Our results demonstrate that fatty acid amide hydrolase activity decreases in the frontal cortex from human patients with Alzheimer's disease and this effect is mimicked by Aβ(1-40) peptide. This activity increases and decreases in aged rat cerebrocortical membranes and synaptosomes, respectively. Also, while the presence of JWH-133, a CB2 selective agonist, slightly increases anandamide hydrolysis in human controls, it decreases this activity in adults and aged rat cerebrocortical membranes and synaptosomes. In the presence of WIN55,212-2, a mixed CB1/CB2 agonist, anandamide hydrolysis increases in Alzheimer's disease patients but decreases in human controls as well as in adult and aged rat cerebrocortical membranes and synaptosomes. Although a similar profile is observed in fatty acid amide hydrolase activity between aged rat synaptic endings and human Alzheimer's disease brains, it is differently modulated by CB1/CB2 agonists. This modulation leads to a reduced availability of anandamide in Alzheimer's disease and to an increased availability of this endocannabinoid in aging. PMID:25456842

  12. Sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists: review

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Carl Nikolaus; Wenzel, Karoline; Suppan, Klaudia; Ivanic, Gerd; Kriechbaum, Norbert; Crevenna, Richard; Ott, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assess the evidence for the existence and prevalence of sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease, the type of drugs implicated, and strategies for prevention and treatment. Design Review of publications between July 1999 and May 2001 in which sleep attacks or narcoleptic-like attacks were discussed in patients with Parkinson's disease. Results 124 patients with sleep events were found in 20 publications. Overall, 6.6% of patients taking dopamine agonists who attended movement disorder centres had sleep events. Men were over-represented. Sleep events occurred at both high and low doses of the drugs, with different durations of treatment (0-20 years), and with or without preceding signs of tiredness. Sleep attacks are a class effect, having been found in patients taking the following dopamine agonists: levodopa (monotherapy in 8 patients), ergot agonists (apomorphine in 2 patients, bromocriptine in 13, cabergoline in 1, lisuride or piribedil in 23, pergolide in 5,) and non-ergot agonists (pramipexole in 32, ropinirole in 38). Reports suggest two distinct types of events: those of sudden onset without warning and those of slow onset with prodrome drowsiness. Conclusion Insufficient data are available to provide effective guidelines for prevention and treatment of sleep events in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease. Prospective population based studies are needed to provide this information. What is already known on this topicCar crashes in patients with Parkinson's disease have been associated with sleep attacks caused by the dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropiniroleWhether sleep attacks exist, their connection with certain agonists, prevention or treatment, and the justification of legal actions are controversialWhat this study addsSleep attacks as a phenomenon distinct from normal somnolence really do existThey are a class effect of all dopamine drugsEffective prevention and treatment

  13. Identification of M-CSF agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan; Jancarik, Jarmila; Kim, Sung-Hou; Koths, Kirston; Halenbeck, Robert; Fear, Anna Lisa; Taylor, Eric; Yamamoto, Ralph; Bohm, Andrew

    2000-02-15

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  14. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25326839

  15. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25437461

  16. Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Strange, Philip G

    2005-05-01

    Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at the D2(short) dopamine receptor have been examined. Discrimination of G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled forms of the receptor by inverse agonists was examined in competition ligand-binding studies versus the agonist [3H]NPA at a concentration labelling both G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled receptors. Competition of inverse agonists versus [3H]NPA gave data that were fitted best by a two-binding site model in the absence of GTP but by a one-binding site model in the presence of GTP. K(i) values were derived from the competition data for binding of the inverse agonists to G-protein-uncoupled and -coupled receptors. K(coupled) and K(uncoupled) were statistically different for the set of compounds tested (ANOVA) but the individual values were different in a post hoc test only for (+)-butaclamol. These observations were supported by simulations of these competition experiments according to the extended ternary complex model. Inverse agonist efficacy of the ligands was assessed from their ability to reduce agonist-independent [35S]GTP gamma S binding to varying degrees in concentration-response curves. Inverse agonism by (+)-butaclamol and spiperone occurred at higher potency when GDP was added to assays, whereas the potency of (-)-sulpiride was unaffected. These data show that some inverse agonists ((+)-butaclamol, spiperone) achieve inverse agonism by stabilising the uncoupled form of the receptor at the expense of the coupled form. For other compounds tested, we were unable to define the mechanism. PMID:15735658

  17. Differential effects of AMPK agonists on cell growth and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Emma E.; Coelho, Paula P.; Blagih, Julianna; Griss, Takla; Viollet, Benoit; Jones, Russell G.

    2016-01-01

    As a sensor of cellular energy status, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is believed to act in opposition to the metabolic phenotypes favored by proliferating tumor cells. Consequently, compounds known to activate AMPK have been proposed as cancer therapeutics. However, the extent to which the anti-neoplastic properties of these agonists are mediated by AMPK is unclear. Here we examined the AMPK-dependence of six commonly used AMPK agonists (metformin, phenformin, AICAR, 2DG, salicylate and A-769662) and their influence on cellular processes often deregulated in tumor cells. We demonstrate that the majority of these agonists display AMPK-independent effects on cell proliferation and metabolism with only the synthetic activator, A-769662, exerting AMPK-dependent effects on these processes. We find that A-769662 promotes an AMPK-dependent increase in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity (SRC). Finally, contrary to the view of AMPK activity being tumor suppressive, we find A-769662 confers a selective proliferative advantage to tumor cells growing under nutrient deprivation. Our results indicate that many of the anti-growth properties of these agonists cannot be attributed to AMPK activity in cells, and thus any observed effects using these agonists should be confirmed using AMPK-deficient cells. Ultimately, our data urge caution, not only regarding the type of AMPK agonist proposed for cancer treatment, but also the context in which they are used. PMID:25241895

  18. Melanocortin receptor agonist ACTH 1-39 protects rat forebrain neurons from apoptotic, excitotoxic and inflammation-related damage.

    PubMed

    Lisak, Robert P; Nedelkoska, Liljana; Bealmear, Beverly; Benjamins, Joyce A

    2015-11-01

    Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are commonly treated with high doses of intravenous corticosteroids (CS). ACTH 1-39, a member of the melanocortin family, stimulates production of CS by the adrenals, but melanocortin receptors are also found in the central nervous system (CNS) and on immune cells. ACTH is produced within the CNS and may have direct protective effects on glia and neurons independent of CS. We previously reported that ACTH 1-39 protected oligodendroglia (OL) and their progenitors (OPC) from a panel of excitotoxic and inflammation-related agents. Neurons are the most vulnerable cells in the CNS. They are terminally differentiated, and sensitive to inflammatory and excitotoxic insults. For potential therapeutic protection of gray matter, it is important to investigate the direct effects of ACTH on neurons. Cultures highly enriched in neurons were isolated from 2-3 day old rat brain. After 4-7 days in culture, the neurons were treated for 24h with selected toxic agents with or without ACTH 1-39. ACTH 1-39 protected neurons from death induced by staurosporine, glutamate, NMDA, AMPA, kainate, quinolinic acid, reactive oxygen species and, to a modest extent, from rapidly released NO, but did not protect against kynurenic acid or slowly released nitric oxide. Our results show that ACTH 1-39 protects neurons in vitro from several apoptotic, excitotoxic and inflammation-related insults. PMID:26300474

  19. Novel Small Molecule Agonist of TGR5 Possesses Anti-Diabetic Effects but Causes Gallbladder Filling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Briere, Daniel A.; Ruan, Xiaoping; Cheng, Christine C.; Siesky, Angela M.; Fitch, Thomas E.; Dominguez, Carmen; Sanfeliciano, Sonia Gutierrez; Montero, Carlos; Suen, Chen S.; Xu, Yanping; Coskun, Tamer; Michael, M. Dodson

    2015-01-01

    Activation of TGR5 via bile acids or bile acid analogs leads to the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from intestine, increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue, and increases gallbladder filling with bile. Here, we present compound 18, a non-bile acid agonist of TGR5 that demonstrates robust GLP-1 secretion in a mouse enteroendocrine cell line yet weak GLP-1 secretion in a human enteroendocrine cell line. Acute administration of compound 18 to mice increased GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) secretion, leading to a lowering of the glucose excursion in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), while chronic administration led to weight loss. In addition, compound 18 showed a dose-dependent increase in gallbladder filling. Lastly, compound 18 failed to show similar pharmacological effects on GLP-1, PYY, and gallbladder filling in Tgr5 knockout mice. Together, these results demonstrate that compound 18 is a mouse-selective TGR5 agonist that induces GLP-1 and PYY secretion, and lowers the glucose excursion in an OGTT, but only at doses that simultaneously induce gallbladder filling. Overall, these data highlight the benefits and potential risks of using TGR5 agonists to treat diabetes and metabolic diseases. PMID:26312995

  20. Perception of specific trigeminal chemosensory agonists

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, J; Albrecht, J; Bryant, B; Lundström, JN

    2011-01-01

    The intranasal trigeminal system is a third chemical sense in addition to olfaction and gustation. As opposed to smell and taste, we still lack knowledge on the relationship between receptor binding and perception for the trigeminal system. We therefore investigated the sensitivity of the intranasal trigeminal system towards agonists of the trigeminal receptors TRPM8 and TRPA1 by assessing subjects’ ability to identify which nostril has been stimulated in a monorhinal stimulation design. We summed the number of correct identifications resulting in a lateralization score. Stimuli were menthol (activating TRPM8 receptors), eucalyptol (TRPM8), mustard oil (TRPA1) and two mixtures thereof (menthol/eucalyptol and menthol/mustard oil). In addition, we examined the relationship between intensity and lateralization scores and investigated whether intensity evaluation and lateralization scores of the mixtures show additive effects. All stimuli were correctly lateralized significantly above chance. Across subjects the lateralization scores for single compounds activating the same receptor showed a stronger correlation than stimuli activating different receptors. Although single compounds were isointense, the mixture of menthol and eucalyptol (activating only TRPM8) was perceived as weaker and was lateralized less accurately than the mixture of menthol and mustard oil (activating both TRPM8 and TRPA1) suggesting suppression effects in the former mixture. In conclusion, sensitivity of different subpopulations of trigeminal sensory neurons seems to be related, but only to a certain degree. The large coherence in sensitivity between various intranasal trigeminal stimuli suggests that measuring sensitivity to one single trigeminal chemical stimulus may be sufficient to generally assess the trigeminal system’s chemosensitivity. Further, for stimuli activating the same receptor a mixture suppression effect appears to occur similar to that observed in the other chemosensory