Science.gov

Sample records for agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire

  1. Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Emmanuelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),1 relating to “Anomalous Perceptions” and “Threatening Events” themes. Method: Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. Results: The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Conclusions: Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas. PMID:23413104

  2. Internet Administration of Three Commonly Used Questionnaires in Panic Research: Equivalence to Paper Administration in Australian and Swedish Samples of People With Panic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David W.; Carlbring, Per; Richards, Jeffrey C.; Andersson, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the degree of equivalence between paper and Internet administration of three measures of panic and agoraphobia-related cognition and behavior: Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ), Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), and Mobility Inventory (MI). Participants were 110 people with panic disorder who had registered for an…

  3. Group exposure for agoraphobics: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, J D; Walsh, P A; Lancashire, M; Mathews, A M

    1977-02-01

    A replication study was conducted of the treatment of agoraphobics by exposure in cohesive groups, as described by Hand, Lamantagne and Marks (1974). The continuing improvement during follow-up, with consequent large overall improvement, reported in the original study was not replicated. However, the present study confirmed the usefulness of this procedure as a highly cost-efficient treatment. The assumed equivalence of the Gelder and Marks (1966) phobic rating scale and its modification by Watson and Marks (1971) was examined. Large discrepancies between the scales were obtained for initial assessments and change scores. It is suggested that there is a need for workers in this field to agree on methods of measurement. PMID:837039

  4. Safety-signal therapy in agoraphobics: a preliminary test.

    PubMed

    Sartory, G; Master, D; Rachman, S

    1989-01-01

    It has been argued that persistent avoidance behaviour is strongly influenced by safety signals, and that agoraphobic avoidance behaviour is a clinical example of this influence. It was proposed that agoraphobic avoidance can be reduced by the judicious use of safety signals, and specifically, by training patients to travel towards rather than away from safety. A safety-signal technique in which the patient travelled towards the therapist at the most fear-inducing situations was compared with conventional therapist-assisted exposure. In the second part of the treatment programme, both groups of agoraphobics were given homework assignments. The safety-signal technique resulted in slightly better clinical gains than those achieved by therapist assisted exposure, but after these relatively brief programmes, the improvements in both groups were weak. Global clinical outcome was influenced by age, chronicity and long-term benzodiazepine use.

  5. [Cognitive interviewing - a tool to develop and validate questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Pohontsch, N; Meyer, T

    2015-02-01

    Questionnaires concerning subjective health status are an important element of rehabilitation research. The appraisal of the quality of these instruments mostly relies on quantitative psychometric analyses. However, these analyses do not explicitly reveal whether or how respondents understand questionnaire content. Over the past few years cognitive interviewing has been increasingly used in questionnaire design and validation. It serves to identify potentially problematic questions, ambiguities and difficulties which could lead to unintended answers. It analyses whether the answers given by respondents represent the intended meaning of the question. Findings derived from cognitive interviewing serve to improve new and further validate well-established questionnaires.The 4-stage model of the survey response process by Tourangeau provides a conceptual basis for cognitive interviewing. The 2 most prominent methods of cognitive interviewing are think aloud and verbal probing. Various authors give recommendations on executing cognitive interviews but almost no recommendations exist on the -indications of the different methods.Potential applications of cognitive interviewing go beyond questionnaire design and improvement. Due to its origin in cognitive science it can also be used to resolve substantive questions, e. g. concerning reasons for discrepancies between the results of 2 different methods of measuring change.

  6. Norming Clinical Questionnaires with Multiple Regression: The Pain Cognition List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2005-01-01

    Questionnaires for measuring patients' feelings or beliefs are commonly used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or treatment evaluation. Raw scores of a patient can be evaluated by comparing them with norms based on a reference population. Using the Pain Cognition List (PCL-2003) as an example, this article…

  7. Turkish Version of the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Yuncu, Ozgur Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are interrelated with all layers of cognitions, and they may be part of the treatment once they are accessed, identified, labeled, and changed. From both a research and a clinical perspective, it is of utmost importance to disentangle cognitive distortions from similar constructs. Recently, the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest), a brief and comprehensive measure, was developed to assess both the frequency and the intensity of cognitive distortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CD-Quest in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Demographic and clinical data of the participants were analyzed by descriptive statistics. For group comparisons, Student's t-test was applied. An exploratory principal components factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. To assess the internal consistency of the scale Cronbach's α was computed. The correlation coefficient was calculated for test-retest reliability over a 4-week period. For concurrent validity, bivariate Pearson correlation analyses were conducted with the measures of mood severity and negatively biased cognitions. The results revealed that the scale had excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, unidimensional factor structure, and evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity.

  8. Cognitive Processing and Acrophobia: Validating the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Shari A.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale: the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire (HIQ). This scale was designed to measure height fear-relevant interpretation bias to help assess the relationship between biased interpretations and acrophobia symptoms. Studies 1 (N = 553) and 2 (N = 308) established the scale’s factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity among two large undergraduate samples. Study 3 (N = 48) evaluated the predictive validity of the HIQ by examining how well the scale predicted subjective distress and avoidance on actual heights. Factor analysis resulted in four distinct factors, and results suggest that each of the factors, along with the full HIQ, have good reliability and validity. Additionally, the scale predicts subjective distress and avoidance on heights beyond self-reported acrophobia symptoms. Overall, the HIQ shows promise as a new tool to investigate cognitive processing biases in acrophobia. PMID:21641766

  9. Cognitive processing and acrophobia: validating the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Shari A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2011-10-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale: the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire (HIQ). This scale was designed to measure height fear-relevant interpretation bias to help assess the relationship between biased interpretations and acrophobia symptoms. Studies 1 (N=553) and 2 (N=308) established the scale's factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity among two large undergraduate samples. Study 3 (N=48) evaluated the predictive validity of the HIQ by examining how well the scale predicted subjective distress and avoidance on actual heights. Factor analysis resulted in four distinct factors, and results suggest that each of the factors, along with the full HIQ, have good reliability and validity. Additionally, the scale predicts subjective distress and avoidance on heights beyond self-reported acrophobia symptoms. Overall, the HIQ shows promise as a new tool to investigate cognitive processing biases in acrophobia.

  10. States-of-Mind Model: Cognitive Balance in the Treatment of Agoraphobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert M.; Michelson, Larry

    1987-01-01

    Used states-of-mind model to track therapeutic changes in cognitive balance of 39 agoraphobics. Descriptive and statistical analyses from an outcome study of graduated exposure, relaxation training, and paradoxical intention supported the model. Agoraphobics evinced negative dialogue at pretreatment, positive dialogue at mid and posttreatment, and…

  11. Cognitive Interviewing: A Qualitative Tool for Improving Questionnaires in Sport Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Hanno; Ehrlenspiel, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive models postulate that respondents to a questionnaire follow a four-stage process when answering a question: comprehension, memory retrieval, decision, and response. Cognitive interviewing is a qualitative tool to gain insight into this process by means of letting respondents think aloud or asking them specific questions (Willis, 2005).…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Lasa-Aristu, Amaia; Amor, Pedro J.; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-S), originally developed by Garnefski, Kraaij, and Spinhoven. To date, it is the only available instrument that permits a conceptually pure quantification of cognitive strategies of emotional regulation. A sample of 615 students (25…

  13. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe; Zimprich, Daniel; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jellemer

    2009-01-01

    The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is designed to assess a person's proneness to committing cognitive slips and errors in the completion of everyday tasks. Although the CFQ is a widely used instrument, its factor structure remains an issue of scientific debate. The present study used data of a representative sample (N = 1,303, 24-83 years…

  14. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS)

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Erin; Fodor-Wynne, Lucy; Hamburg, Sarah; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55) and test retest (n = 36) intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in addition to

  15. Cognitive bias and irrational belief as predictors of avoidance.

    PubMed

    Warren, R; Zgourides, G; Jones, A

    1989-01-01

    Cognitive bias, i.e. overestimates of subjective probability and cost of catastrophic events, and irrational belief were explored as predictors of avoidance. Three groups-anxiety disordered clients, a mixed group of clinic outpatients, and normals--were administered several self-report inventories. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate a modified version of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, the Belief Scale, and the Body Sensations Questionnaire as predictors of avoidance, as measured by the Mobility Inventory. It was hypothesized that frequency x probability x cost of catastrophic cognitions (and the occurrence of the events they represent) would be a better predictor of avoidance than frequency alone. It was also hypothesized that irrational thinking would be a significant predictor of avoidance. The results generally supported the hypotheses, with subjective probability emerging as a particularly potent predictor of avoidance. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:2930444

  16. German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D)

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Renz, Daniel; Petzschner, Frederike; Berwian, Isabel; Stoppel, Christian; Haker, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations. Methods The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects. Results The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D) including only 27 of the 72 items. Conclusions The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers. PMID:26934499

  17. Cognitive interviewing methods for questionnaire pre-testing in homeless persons with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adair, Carol E; Holland, Anna C; Patterson, Michelle L; Mason, Kate S; Goering, Paula N; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    In this study, cognitive interviewing methods were used to test targeted questionnaire items from a battery of quantitative instruments selected for a large multisite trial of supported housing interventions for homeless individuals with mental disorders. Most of the instruments had no published psychometrics in this population. Participants were 30 homeless adults with mental disorders (including substance use disorders) recruited from service agencies in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto, Canada. Six interviewers, trained in cognitive interviewing methods and using standard interview schedules, conducted the interviews. Questions and, in some cases, instructions, for testing were selected from existing instruments according to a priori criteria. Items on physical and mental health status, housing quality and living situation, substance use, health and justice system service use, and community integration were tested. The focus of testing was on relevance, comprehension, and recall, and on sensitivity/acceptability for this population. Findings were collated across items by site and conclusions validated by interviewers. There was both variation and similarity of responses for identified topics of interest. With respect to relevance, many items on the questionnaires were not applicable to homeless people. Comprehension varied considerably; thus, both checks on understanding and methods to assist comprehension and recall are recommended, particularly for participants with acute symptoms of mental illness and those with cognitive impairment. The acceptability of items ranged widely across the sample, but findings were consistent with previous literature, which indicates that "how you ask" is as important as "what you ask." Cognitive interviewing methods worked well and elicited information crucial to effective measurement in this unique population. Pretesting study instruments, including standard instruments, for use in special populations such as homeless

  18. How Is Impulsivity Related to Depression in Adolescence? Evidence from a French Validation of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu.; Van der Linden, Martial

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P., 2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. "Personality and Individual Differences, 30," 1311-1327) and to explore its relationships with impulsivity and…

  19. Mega-doses of behaviour therapy for treatment-resistant agoraphobics.

    PubMed

    Rapp, M S; Thomas, M R; Reyes, E C

    1983-03-01

    This was a pilot project set up to test the feasibility of effectively and inexpensively treating agoraphobic patients who had not responded to adequate trials of behaviour therapy (and other therapy) in the past. We employed a quantitatively intensive program of exposure therapy, calisthenics and muscular relaxation, and have explained the rationales for the choice of each treatment. The results were gratifying in four of the five patients, with follow-up to three years. This pilot project enabled us to set up a cost-effective treatment for all forms of agoraphobia which is as efficient as other programs described. It has also highlighted the fact that some patients exist who may do poorly on schedules of behaviour therapy which are adequate for some patients, and yet may do well if the amount of treatment is drastically increased. PMID:6340818

  20. Do you believe in brain training? A questionnaire about expectations of computerised cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Rabipour, Sheida; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2015-12-15

    "Brain training" (i.e., enhancing, rehabilitating, or simply maintaining cognitive function through deliberate cognitive exercise) is growing rapidly in popularity, yet remains highly controversial. Among the greatest problems in current research is the lack of a measure of participants' expectations, which can influence the degree to which they improve over training (i.e., the placebo effect). Here we created a questionnaire to measure the perceived effectiveness of brain-training software. Given the growth in advertising of these programmes, we sought to determine whether even a brief positive (or negative) message about brain training would increase (or decrease) the reported optimism of participants. We measured participants' expectations at baseline, and then following exposure to separate, brief messages that such programmes have either high or low effectiveness. Based on the knowledge they have gleaned from advertising and other real-world sources, people are relatively optimistic about brain training. However, brief messages can influence reported expectations about brain-training results: Reading a brief positive message can increase reported optimism, whereas reading a brief negative message can decrease it. Older adults appear more optimistic about brain training than young adults, especially when they report being knowledgeable about brain training and computers. These data indicate that perceptions of brain training are malleable to at least some extent, and may vary depending on age and other factors. Our questionnaire can serve as a simple, easily-incorporated tool to assess the face validity of brain training interventions and to create a covariate to account for expectations in statistical analyses. PMID:25591472

  1. Do you believe in brain training? A questionnaire about expectations of computerised cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Rabipour, Sheida; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2015-12-15

    "Brain training" (i.e., enhancing, rehabilitating, or simply maintaining cognitive function through deliberate cognitive exercise) is growing rapidly in popularity, yet remains highly controversial. Among the greatest problems in current research is the lack of a measure of participants' expectations, which can influence the degree to which they improve over training (i.e., the placebo effect). Here we created a questionnaire to measure the perceived effectiveness of brain-training software. Given the growth in advertising of these programmes, we sought to determine whether even a brief positive (or negative) message about brain training would increase (or decrease) the reported optimism of participants. We measured participants' expectations at baseline, and then following exposure to separate, brief messages that such programmes have either high or low effectiveness. Based on the knowledge they have gleaned from advertising and other real-world sources, people are relatively optimistic about brain training. However, brief messages can influence reported expectations about brain-training results: Reading a brief positive message can increase reported optimism, whereas reading a brief negative message can decrease it. Older adults appear more optimistic about brain training than young adults, especially when they report being knowledgeable about brain training and computers. These data indicate that perceptions of brain training are malleable to at least some extent, and may vary depending on age and other factors. Our questionnaire can serve as a simple, easily-incorporated tool to assess the face validity of brain training interventions and to create a covariate to account for expectations in statistical analyses.

  2. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Blue, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a Chinese's adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck). This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker-Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044). A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test-retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01) over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76). In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children's Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015). Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods. PMID:26925586

  3. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Blue, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a Chinese’s adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck). This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker–Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044). A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test–retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01) over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76). In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children’s Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015). Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods. PMID:26925586

  4. The Construction of a Questionnaire to Evaluate the Science Orientedness of Students' Identities as Learners from a Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taconis, Ruurd; de Putter-Smits, Lesley G. M.; Henry, Steven; den Brok, Perry J.; Beijaard, Douwe

    2010-01-01

    Forming a science-oriented identity is considered a process underlying both interest and achievement in science education. A questionnaire is developed for describing "identities as learners" and evaluating their science orientedness. The instrument (k = 65) focuses on cognitive aspects. An internal coherence of .88 was found. Five subscales were…

  5. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire with a Clinically Depressed Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Kepley, Hayden O.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Walkup, John T.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire (CNCEQ) were examined with 427 adolescents ages 12 to 18 (193 boys) with current major depressive disorder. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor model comprised of three content area factors (i.e., social, academic,…

  6. Psychometric evidence of the Brazilian version of Driving Cognitions Questionnaire (DCQ).

    PubMed

    OliSan, George Oliveira Santos; Almeida Cantini, Jessye; de Carvalho, Marcele Regine; Cardoso, Adriana

    2015-07-01

    This paper examined the psychometric data obtained by the Brazilian version DCQ (Driving Cognitions Questionnaire) and its convergence with DBS (Driving Behavior Survey). The research included 187 participants of both genders, aged between 19 and 79years (mean 34years), with driving license in category 'B' (cars). The internal consistency obtained by research (Cronbach's alpha) was α=0.96 for full DCQ; α=0.89 for the subscale panic in the direction, α=0.91 for the subscale of concern in causing accidents and α=0.92 for the subscale of social concern. Psychometrically the results are positive and confirm the relevance of using the instrument. The survey also found positive convergence (although less pronounced) with the DBS, which is another instrument that comes to difficulties when driving or dealing with traffic or driving a car. Thus, this article demonstrates psychometric results that point to the profitable use of the Brazilian version of DCQ as an adjunct in the diagnosis of difficulty in driving. PMID:25799464

  7. Psychometric evidence of the Brazilian version of Driving Cognitions Questionnaire (DCQ).

    PubMed

    OliSan, George Oliveira Santos; Almeida Cantini, Jessye; de Carvalho, Marcele Regine; Cardoso, Adriana

    2015-07-01

    This paper examined the psychometric data obtained by the Brazilian version DCQ (Driving Cognitions Questionnaire) and its convergence with DBS (Driving Behavior Survey). The research included 187 participants of both genders, aged between 19 and 79years (mean 34years), with driving license in category 'B' (cars). The internal consistency obtained by research (Cronbach's alpha) was α=0.96 for full DCQ; α=0.89 for the subscale panic in the direction, α=0.91 for the subscale of concern in causing accidents and α=0.92 for the subscale of social concern. Psychometrically the results are positive and confirm the relevance of using the instrument. The survey also found positive convergence (although less pronounced) with the DBS, which is another instrument that comes to difficulties when driving or dealing with traffic or driving a car. Thus, this article demonstrates psychometric results that point to the profitable use of the Brazilian version of DCQ as an adjunct in the diagnosis of difficulty in driving.

  8. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Walvoort, Serge JW; van der Heijden, Paul T; Kessels, Roy PC; Egger, Jos IM

    2016-01-01

    Aim Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73). The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27445476

  9. Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.

    2011-01-01

    Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…

  10. Mexican Immigrants and the Use of Cognitive Assessment Techniques in Questionnaire Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agans, Robert P.; Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Kalsbeek, William

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the measurement challenges involved in obtaining sensitive health outcomes from Mexican women in both settled and unsettled segments of the United States population and to suggest how cognitive assessment techniques might be better employed to construct culturally and linguistically appropriate survey…

  11. How is impulsivity related to depression in adolescence? Evidence from a French validation of the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire.

    PubMed

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P., 2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311-1327) and to explore its relationships with impulsivity and depression. Teenagers from a junior secondary (n=107, 13-16 years) and a secondary school (n=110, 15-19 years) completed the CERQ, which assesses regulation strategies in response to negative events. The secondary school adolescents also completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (Whiteside, S. P., & Lynam, D. R., 2001. The five factor model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 669-689) and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (Reynolds, W. M., 1987. Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Factor analysis for the CERQ confirmed the presence of the nine original regulation strategies. In the secondary school students, impulsivity was related to depression. A path analysis revealed that regulation strategies mediated this relationship. The role of emotion regulation in the development of adolescent psychopathology is discussed. PMID:16600359

  12. Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments of Agoraphobia: Clinical, Behavioral, and Psychophysiological Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Larry; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Agoraphobics (N=37) were randomly assigned to one of three cognitive-behavioral treatments: paradoxical intention, graduated exposure, or progressive deep muscle relaxation training. Results of follow-up analyses revealed statistically significant differences across treatments, tripartite response systems, and assessment phases. (Author/BL)

  13. The Structure of Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions: A Validation of the "How I Think" Questionnaire in a Sample of Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchini, Dario; De Angelis, Grazia; Affuso, Gaetana; Brugman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the structure of self-serving cognitive distortions (CD), evaluating the psychometric properties of the How I Think Questionnaire in a sample of Italian adolescents. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the distinction between four categories of CD and the use of a single second-order dimension of CD. Reliability…

  14. Psychometric properties of the Social Cognitive Theory questionnaire for physical activity in a sample of Iranian adolescent girl students.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, M S; Niknami, S; Hidarnia, A; Hajizadeh, E

    2016-05-01

    This research examined the validity and reliability of a researcher-developed questionnaire based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to assess the physical activity behaviour of Iranian adolescent girls (SCT-PAIAGS). Psychometric properties of the SCT-PAIAGS were assessed by determining its face validity, content and construct validity as well as its reliability. In order to evaluate factor structure, cross-sectional research was conducted on 400 high-school girls in Tehran. Content validity index, content validity ratio and impact score for the SCT-PAIAGS varied between 0.97-1, 0.91-1 and 4.6-4.9 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis approved a six-factor structure comprising self-efficacy, self-regulation, family support, friend support, outcome expectancy and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments. Factor loadings, t-values and fit indices showed that the SCT model was fitted to the data. Cronbach's α-coefficient ranged from 0.78 to 0.85 and intraclass correlation coefficient from 0.73 to 0.90. PMID:27553398

  15. Functional Activities Questionnaire items that best discriminate and predict progression from clinically normal to mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Zoller, Amy S.; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) emerges in the transition from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. Some IADL scales are sensitive to early deficits in MCI, but none have been validated for detecting subtle functional changes in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD. Methods Data from 624 subjects participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and 524 subjects participating in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, which are two large cohorts including CN elderly and MCI subjects, were used to determine which Functional Activities Questionnaire items best discriminate between and predict progression from CN to MCI. Results We found that “Remembering appointments” and “assembling tax records” best discriminated between CN and MCI subjects, while worse performance on “paying attention and understanding a TV program”, “paying bills/balancing checkbook”, and “heating water and turning off the stove” predicted greater hazard of progressing from a diagnosis of CN to MCI. Conclusions These results demonstrate that certain questions are especially sensitive in detecting the earliest functional changes in CN elderly at risk for AD. As the field moves toward earlier intervention in preclinical AD, it is important to determine which IADL changes can be detected at that stage and track decline over time. PMID:26017560

  16. Psychometric properties of the Social Cognitive Theory questionnaire for physical activity in a sample of Iranian adolescent girl students.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, M S; Niknami, S; Hidarnia, A; Hajizadeh, E

    2016-08-18

    This research examined the validity and reliability of a researcher-developed questionnaire based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to assess the physical activity behaviour of Iranian adolescent girls (SCT-PAIAGS). Psychometric properties of the SCT-PAIAGS were assessed by determining its face validity, content and construct validity as well as its reliability. In order to evaluate factor structure, cross-sectional research was conducted on 400 high-school girls in Tehran. Content validity index, content validity ratio and impact score for the SCT-PAIAGS varied between 0.97-1, 0.91-1 and 4.6-4.9 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis approved a six-factor structure comprising self-efficacy, self-regulation, family support, friend support, outcome expectancy and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments. Factor loadings, t-values and fit indices showed that the SCT model was fitted to the data. Cronbach's α-coefficient ranged from 0.78 to 0.85 and intraclass correlation coefficient from 0.73 to 0.90.

  17. What the Resident Meant to Say: Use of Cognitive Interviewing Techniques to Develop Questionnaires for Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Patricia; Shannon, George R.; Simon, Barbara; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Cadogan, Mary P.; Sohn, Linda; Jones, Malia; Buchanan, Joan L.; Saliba, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Emphasis on consumer-centered care for frail and institutionalized older adults has increased the development and adaptation of surveys for this population. Conventional methods used to pretest survey items fail to investigate underlying sources of measurement error. However, the use of the cognitive interview (CI), a method for studying…

  18. Cognitive Style Predicts Entry into Physical Sciences and Humanities: Questionnaire and Performance Tests of Empathy and Systemizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Jac; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is often questioned as to why fewer women enter science. This study assesses whether a cognitive style characterized by systemizing being at a higher level than empathizing (S greater than E) is better than sex in predicating entry into the physical sciences compared to humanities. 415 students in both types of discipline (203 males, 212…

  19. Cognitive Correlates of Functional Abilities in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of Questionnaire, Direct Observation and Performance-based Measures

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between and the cognitive correlates of several proxy measures of functional status were studied in a population with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants were 51 individuals diagnosed with MCI and 51 cognitively healthy older adults (OA). Participants completed performance-based functional status tests, standardized neuropsychological tests, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., watered plants, filled medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. An informant interview about everyday functioning was also conducted. Compared to the OA control group, the MCI group performed more poorly on all proxy measures of everyday functioning. The informant-report of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) did not correlate with the two performance-based measures; however, both the informant-report IADL and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test correlated with the direct observation measure. After controlling for age and education, cognitive predictors did not explain a significant amount of variance in the performance-based measures; however, performance on a delayed memory task was a unique predictor for the informant-report IADL, and processing speed predicted unique variance for the direct observation score. These findings indicate that differing methods for evaluating functional status are not assessing completely overlapping aspects of everyday functioning in the MCI population. PMID:24766574

  20. The Perceived Deficits Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Allison; Nikelshpur, Olga M.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction affects approximately 43% to 70% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is an important determinant of several functional outcomes in MS and quality of life. Brief neuropsychological test batteries have been developed specifically for use in MS and are widely used to aid clinicians in assessing levels of cognitive impairment in MS. Neuropsychologists and neurologists also frequently use briefer screening measures, such as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), to assist in determining whether a more extensive neuropsychological evaluation is warranted. However, despite the ease of such measures, the relationship between self-report and objective cognitive impairment has been inconsistent, at best. Moreover, factors such as depression, fatigue, anxiety, and personality have been found to be more related to reports of cognitive difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between subjective cognitive concerns and objective cognitive impairment while accounting for related symptoms. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported cognitive concerns on the PDQ with objective cognitive measures, as well as depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Results: There was no relationship between self-reported cognitive concerns and objective performance. Rather, reports on the PDQ were more correlated with reports of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Depression and poor self-efficacy can contribute to reports of cognitive difficulties. Effective treatment to improve these factors seems warranted given the impact of perceived cognitive impairment on outcomes in MS and the potential for more accurate self-reports. PMID:27551243

  1. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: Assessing Moderators of Basic Social-Cognitive Phenomena Including Spontaneous Trait Inference, the Fundamental Attribution Error, and Moral Blame

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michael J.; Andreychik, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions—social explanations—have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1–3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4–6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles—perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ—will be

  2. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: assessing moderators of basic social-cognitive phenomena including spontaneous trait inference, the fundamental attribution error, and moral blame.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michael J; Andreychik, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ--will be

  3. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire-Adolescent Version (MCQ-A) in non-clinical adolescents and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Lidewij H; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Oudega, Michiel; Vervoort, Leentje; de Haan, Else; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits

    2012-03-01

    Although the meta-cognitive model (Wells, 1997, 2000) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has clearly influenced research and treatment of OCD, little research has been performed in youth samples. In the present study the psychometric properties of the Dutch Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire-Adolescent Version (MCQ-A; Cartwright-Hatton et al., 2004) were examined in a clinical sample of adolescents with OCD (N = 40, 12-18 years) and a non-clinical sample (N = 317; 12-18 years). Results provided support for the 5-factor structure, and showed fair to good internal consistency and generally good retest reliability. Overall, adolescents with OCD reported more meta-cognitive beliefs than non-clinical adolescents. Several subscales were associated with self-reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression, but not with clinician-rated OCD severity. In conclusion, results suggest that the Dutch MCQ-A is a reliable and valid questionnaire to examine meta-cognitive beliefs in adolescents.

  4. Teacher Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Questionnaire was designed to provide demographic information about the teacher, information on the school organizational climate, information about instructional and classroom management practices, and a measure of the teacher's verbal facility. Section 1 contains 23 items identifying specific teacher traits and characteristics (sex,…

  5. A psychometric reanalysis of the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy A; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H

    2005-03-01

    The psychometric properties of the 27-item Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ) were evaluated in 1930 outpatients with DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders. Although prior findings of a 3-factor latent structure were upheld in several replications (Social Phobia, Agoraphobia, Interoceptive), three items failed to load on their predicted factor (Interoceptive). Multiple-groups CFAs indicated that the measurement properties of the APPQ were invariant in male and female patients, with the exception of an intercept of one item from the Agoraphobia scale which evidenced bias against females. The three APPQ dimensions were consistently associated with high levels of scale reliability and factor determinacy. Strong evidence of concurrent validity of the Social Phobia and Agoraphobia factors was obtained in relation to interview and questionnaire measures. Although the Interoceptive factor was more strongly related to criterion measures of anxiety sensitivity and fear of panic than Social Phobia, the Agoraphobia factor had the strongest relationships with these validity indices. The results are discussed in regard to psychometric implications for the APPQ and conceptual issues pertaining to the discriminant validity of fear of agoraphobic situations and fear of sensation-producing activities.

  6. The Believability of Anxious Feelings and Thoughts Questionnaire (BAFT): A Psychometric Evaluation of Cognitive Fusion in a Nonclinical and Highly Anxious Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Kristin N.; Sheppard, Sean C.; Forsyth, John P.; Crede, Marcus; Earleywine, Mitch; Eifert, Georg H.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive fusion--or the tendency to buy into the literal meaning of thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations--plays an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders and figures prominently in third-generation behavior therapies such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, there is a lack of validated…

  7. The Survey Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  8. Examining the Factor Structure of the 39-Item and 15-Item Versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Before and After Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for People With Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) requires reliable and valid measures of mindfulness. The 39-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-39) is a measure of mindfulness commonly used to assess change before and after MBIs. However, the stability and invariance of the FFMQ factor structure have not yet been tested before and after an MBI; pre to post comparisons may not be valid if the structure changes over this period. Our primary aim was to examine the factor structure of the FFMQ-39 before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in adults with recurrent depression in remission using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, we examined whether the factor structure of the 15-item version (FFMQ-15) was consistent with that of the FFMQ-39, and whether it was stable over MBCT. Our secondary aim was to assess the general psychometric properties of both versions. CFAs showed that pre-MBCT, a 4-factor hierarchical model (excluding the “observing” facet) best fit the FFMQ-39 and FFMQ-15 data, whereas post-MBCT, a 5-factor hierarchical model best fit the data for both versions. Configural invariance across the time points was not supported for both versions. Internal consistency and sensitivity to change were adequate for both versions. Both FFMQ versions did not differ significantly from each other in terms of convergent validity. Researchers should consider excluding the Observing subscale from comparisons of total scale/subscale scores before and after mindfulness interventions. Current findings support the use of the FFMQ-15 as an alternative measure in research where briefer forms are needed. PMID:27078186

  9. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  10. Adaptation of Panic-Related Psychopathology Measures to Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotov, Roman; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vinogradov, Alexander; Antipova, Anna V.

    2005-01-01

    The study reports results of adaptation of panic-related psychopathology measures to Russian, including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA). Psychometric properties (e.g., reliability, factor structure, endorsement) and external validity of the…

  11. Change in interpersonal problems after cognitive agoraphobia and schema-focused therapy versus psychodynamic treatment as usual of inpatients with agoraphobia and Cluster C personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Gude, Tore; Hoffart, Asle

    2008-04-01

    The aim was to study whether patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and co-occurring Cluster C traits would respond differently regarding change in interpersonal problems as part of their personality functioning when receiving two different treatment modalities. Two cohorts of patients were followed through three months' in-patient treatment programs and assessed at follow-up one year after end of treatment. The one cohort comprised 18 patients treated with "treatment as usual" according to psychodynamic principles, the second comprised 24 patients treated in a cognitive agoraphobia and schema-focused therapy program. Patients in the cognitive condition showed greater improvement in interpersonal problems than patients in the treatment as usual condition. Although this quasi-experimental study has serious limitations, the results may indicate that agoraphobic patients with Cluster C traits should be treated in cognitive agoraphobia and schema-focused programs rather than in psychodynamic treatment as usual programs in order to reduce their level of interpersonal problems.

  12. Follow-Up Research on Agoraphobics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Dianne L.

    In vivo exposure is the most commonly used and generally the most effective behavioral treatment for agoraphobia. Follow-up studies are difficult to interpret because additional treatment does not necessarily indicate relapse and non-treatment does not necessarily indicate non-relapse. Relapse rates are difficult to estimate because of lack of…

  13. Construct Validity of Self-Concept in TIMSS's Student Background Questionnaire: A Test of Separation and Conflation of Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Self-Concept among Saudi Eighth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hilal, Maher M.; Abdelfattah, Faisal A.; Alshumrani, Saleh A.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to: (a) assess if cognitive self-concept (competence) and affective self-concept in mathematics and science are different constructs, (b) evaluate the construct validity of self-concept in the context of conflation and separation, and (c) test if the relationships among cognitive and affective variables are invariant…

  14. Validity of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes determined by interviewer-administrated food frequency questionnaire among older adults with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment or dementia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological research is increasingly focused on elderly populations, many of whom exhibit mild to moderate cognitive impairments. This presents a challenge for collection and interpretation of self-reported dietary data. There are few reports on the impact of cognitive function and dementia o...

  15. Wesleyan University Student Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haagen, C. Hess

    This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…

  16. Questionnaire for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The 116-item parent questionnaire is designed for parents of elementary school children. It is intended to be used with the child's mother, or the person acting as the child's mother. The questionnaire consists of a section devoted to demographic variables and scales measuring 14 parent variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the…

  17. Write Your Own Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David I.

    1975-01-01

    Contends that student evaluative questionnaires should be designed by instructors themselves to help improve their classroom performance and therefore should contain only questions that students are capable of answering objectively and not, for instance, questions about the relevancy of the course. Contains a sample questionnaire. (GH)

  18. Parental authority questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  19. Parental authority questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

  20. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  1. The menstrual attitude questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Ruble, D N

    1980-09-01

    In order to examine the relationship of attitudes about menstruation to self-reports of menstrual-related symptomatology as well as to other aspects of behavior, an instrument to measure attitudes concerning menstruation was developed. After constructing the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), the factor analytic structure of the original MAQ sample was replicated on a second sample. Summary statistics are presented for college women, college men, and adolescent girls, and the relationship between menstrual-related attitudes, expectations, and experience is examined.

  2. Food frequency questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Aranceta, Javier; Salvador, Gemma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-02-26

    Food Frequency Questionnaires are dietary assessment tools widely used in epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between dietary intake and disease or risk factors since the early '90s. The three main components of these questionnaires are the list of foods, frequency of consumption and the portion size consumed. The food list should reflect the food habits of the study population at the time the data is collected. The frequency of consumption may be asked by open ended questions or by presenting frequency categories. Qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaires do not ask about the consumed portions; semi-quantitative include standard portions and quantitative questionnaires ask respondents to estimate the portion size consumed either in household measures or grams. The latter implies a greater participant burden. Some versions include only close-ended questions in a standardized format, while others add an open section with questions about some specific food habits and practices and admit additions to the food list for foods and beverages consumed which are not included. The method can be self-administered, on paper or web-based, or interview administered either face-to-face or by telephone. Due to the standard format, especially closed-ended versions, and method of administration, FFQs are highly cost-effective thus encouraging its widespread use in large scale epidemiological cohort studies and also in other study designs. Coding and processing data collected is also less costly and requires less nutrition expertise compared to other dietary intake assessment methods. However, the main limitations are systematic errors and biases in estimates. Important efforts are being developed to improve the quality of the information. It has been recommended the use of FFQs with other methods thus enabling the adjustments required.

  3. Cognitive and somatic anxiety.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Kearsley, N

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and forty adults (including sports players, recreational exercisers, mediators and sedentary controls) completed three inventories purporting to measure cognitive and somatic aspects of anxiety. These were the Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ) devised by Schwartz, Davidson & Goleman (Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 321-328, 1978), the Worry-Emotionality Scale (WES, Morris, Davis & Hutchens, Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 541-555, 1981) and the Lehrer-Woolfolk (1982) Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ). Factor analysis of the CSAQ and WES identified distinct cognitive and somatic anxiety factors in both inventories. Higher somatic than cognitive ratings were recorded on the CSAQ and WES, while the pattern was reversed on the LWASQ. The CSAQ can tentatively be recommended as a useful measure of these two anxiety components. We were unable to confirm an observation made previously in the literature that practice of meditation is associated with reduced cognitive anxiety, or that exercise is linked with lower somatic anxiety.

  4. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  6. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  7. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  8. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire for Children (SIQ-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…

  9. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  10. Combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gelder, M G

    1998-12-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been combined with pharmacotherapy in the treatment of panic disorder in three ways: (1) to treat agoraphobic symptoms in the condition of panic with agoraphobia; (2) to reduce withdrawal effects during drug taper; and (3) to treat panic attacks. Exposure treatment and pharmacotherapy have a modest additive effect, although more patients drop out of exposure therapy combined with imipramine treatment compared with exposure therapy alone. CBT reduces symptoms of withdrawal from alprazolam and other benzodiazepines and improves the outcome of drug treatment. At present, sufficient data are not available to determine whether the effects of CBT combined with drug therapy are additive in treating panic disorder. The results of a large trial are awaited. Current CBT consists of 12 sessions and is not widely offered to patients because of cost considerations. Efforts are being made to decrease the number of sessions necessary by improving cognitive techniques. One of these models is the subject of an ongoing trial. Finally, efforts to educate and counsel patients in the clinical setting regarding the psychopathology of panic attacks may improve the outcome of pharmacotherapy. PMID:9872706

  11. Fundamental issues in questionnaire design.

    PubMed

    Murray, P

    1999-07-01

    The questionnaire is probably the most common form of data collection tool used in nursing research. There is a misconception that anyone with a clear grasp of English and a modicum of common sense can design an effective questionnaire. Contrary to such common belief, this article will demonstrate that questionnaire design is a complex and time consuming process, but a necessary labour to ensure valid and reliable data is collected. In addition, meticulous construction is more likely to yield data that can be utilized in the pursuit of objective, quantitative and generalizable truths, upon which practice and policy decisions can be formulated. This article examines a myriad of fundamental issues surrounding questionnaire design, which encompass question wording, question order, presentation, administration and data collection, amongst other issues.

  12. A General Questionnaire Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R.

    1978-01-01

    A general FORTRAN computer program for analyzing categorical or frequency data obtained from questionnaires is described. A variety of descriptive statistics, chi square, Kendall's tau and Cramer's statistic are provided. (Author/JKS)

  13. Development and validity of the Outdoor Falls Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chippendale, Tracy

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and examine the content and face validity of the Outdoor Falls Questionnaire. The initial questionnaire was developed by the primary investigator on the basis of the existing literature on outdoor falls. A rating scale was used to obtain feedback from content experts to ascertain the validity of each question and the questionnaire as a whole. Cognitive interviewing of community-dwelling seniors was performed to ensure accurate interpretation of each question. An expert in questionnaire design reviewed the questions for language and structure. Content experts rated the questionnaire as a whole as 'quite relevant' or 'very relevant' to outdoor falls. The majority of individual questions (22 of 32) were rated by experts as either quite relevant or very relevant. Feedback from reviewers and older adults on specific questions were incorporated into the revised questionnaire. Preliminary testing demonstrates that the Outdoor Falls Questionnaire has good content and face validity. Further testing is needed to examine factor structure, to establish reliability, internal consistency, and interclass correlations.

  14. The MPC&A Questionnaire

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.

  15. Psychometric Validation of the "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" with Mexican University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Dorantes, Maria del Carmen; Canto y Rodriguez, Jose Enrique; Bueno-Alvarez, Jose Antonio; Echazarreta-Moreno, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ) is a self-report instrument designed to assess students' motivation and learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and resource management). In the present study, we focused on translate, adapt and validate the MSLQ to Mexican educational context.…

  16. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  17. Narcotics Center Questionnaire (Spring 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, John B.; And Others

    This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 115 items (multiple choice, yes/no, agree/disagree, or completion) deal with personal and demographic data, general attitudes, attitudes toward institutions (police, American business, Army, etc.),…

  18. Parent Questionnaire on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vineland School District, NJ.

    This document provides a questionnaire to be used to determine the attitudes and influence of parents who have children in bilingual education programs. Thirty seven questions are listed, covering such factors as family background, language usage at home, and aspirations for the education of the children. Techniques for administering the…

  19. Questionnaire Research in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the survey as a research method based on three questionnaire surveys developed and administered in educational settings: (1) a survey exploring the status aspiration and gender awareness of undergraduate women completed by 62 respondents; (2) a survey of computer-assisted instruction completed by 111…

  20. College Student Services Accreditation Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1979-01-01

    This questionnaire is intended for use as one aspect in accrediting the "Student Personnel Services" which an institution of higher learning provides for students. Areas in question include personal development, health fostering, vocational preparation, effective personalized learning, economic viability, transpersonal offerings, and satisfactory…

  1. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  2. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Christos A.; Siegling, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed. PMID:25814967

  3. Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

  4. Grounded cognition.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  5. Subjective cognitive complaints contribute to misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emily C; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2014-09-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a "robust" normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline.

  6. Development of a "Steps Questionnaire".

    PubMed

    Gilbert, F S

    1991-07-01

    Thousands of men and women have begun their recovery from alcoholism through the support of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its well-known "12-Step" program. The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale to measure alcoholics' levels of agreement with the first three of AA's 12 Steps and to test the relationship between sobriety and belief in these three steps. Using both factor analysis and Rasch analysis, two versions of a "Steps Questionnaire" were developed. A 96-member subset of the original subject pool was assessed quarterly for 1 year following inpatient treatment to determine the predictive validity of the questionnaire. The results of this study suggested that agreement with AA's first three steps can be measured and that agreement with AA's first step correlates with number of sober days posttreatment. The dichotomization of Steps Questionnaire scores into total agreement versus partial agreement with Step 1, and from this the reduction of uncertainty in the prediction of abstention over a lengthy follow-up period, provides support for AA's contention that total surrender to one's powerlessness over alcohol is part of the process of achieving abstention.

  7. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Spilsbury, James C.; Drotar, Dennis; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Developed the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a brief, self-completed instrument to measure excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Participants: A subsample of 411 adolescents 11–17 years of age recruited from area schools, churches, and “control” participants in a sleep disordered breathing cohort study; a second subsample of 62 adolescents with diagnosed sleep disordered breathing also participating in the sleep disordered breathing study. Measurements: Participants completed the CASQ along with two other available measures of daytime sleepiness and other sleep parameters (sleep duration on school nights, sleep duration on non-school nights, and sleep debt, defined as non-school night sleep duration minus school-night sleep duration). Demographic information was obtained from a caregiver-completed questionnaire. The CASQ was developed using exploratory factor analysis, followed by confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling techniques. Results: Goodness-of-fit measures for the final 16-item scale structure ranged from good to excellent. The CASQ's internal consistency was good (α = 0.89). Correlations between the CASQ, two other measures of daytime sleepiness, and sleep parameters gave preliminary evidence of the CASQ's construct validity. Conclusion: The CASQ shows promise as a valid measure of daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Citation: Spilsbury JC; Drotar D; Rosen CL et al. The cleveland adolescent sleepiness questionnaire: a new measure to assess excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. PMID:17993042

  8. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  9. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25989367

  10. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  11. Cognitive Coping Strategies and Stress in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse…

  12. Relationships between the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ) and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ).

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Bunting, Jane; Hammersley, Richard

    2005-10-01

    The outcome expectancies of 250 respondents were examined using the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ), comparing expectancies about four different foods: fruit, vegetables, chocolate and sweets and plain biscuits. These expectancies were related to diet as assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. As with alcohol expectancies [Jones, B. T., Corbin, W. & Fromme, K. (2001). A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction, 96, 57-72], on which this research was modelled, positive and negative outcomes were the main factors for all foods, accounting jointly for between 33 and 40% of expectancy variance in factor analysis and predicting as much as 16% of the variance in relevant food intake measures by linear regression. Expected positive and negative outcomes of eating were predominantly immediate psychological after-effects, rather than including orosensory experiences, or longer-term effects on health or well-being. Other expectancies varied from food to food. FEQ expectancies for different foods have similar factor structure and were related to self-reported diet, the FEQ therefore shows promise as a means of modelling cognitions about eating.

  13. Relationships between the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ) and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ).

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Bunting, Jane; Hammersley, Richard

    2005-10-01

    The outcome expectancies of 250 respondents were examined using the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ), comparing expectancies about four different foods: fruit, vegetables, chocolate and sweets and plain biscuits. These expectancies were related to diet as assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. As with alcohol expectancies [Jones, B. T., Corbin, W. & Fromme, K. (2001). A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction, 96, 57-72], on which this research was modelled, positive and negative outcomes were the main factors for all foods, accounting jointly for between 33 and 40% of expectancy variance in factor analysis and predicting as much as 16% of the variance in relevant food intake measures by linear regression. Expected positive and negative outcomes of eating were predominantly immediate psychological after-effects, rather than including orosensory experiences, or longer-term effects on health or well-being. Other expectancies varied from food to food. FEQ expectancies for different foods have similar factor structure and were related to self-reported diet, the FEQ therefore shows promise as a means of modelling cognitions about eating. PMID:15949872

  14. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style.

  15. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style. PMID:25812714

  16. Cognitive Distortion in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relation to Depression and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined the relation between cognitive distortion, as measured by the Cognitive Error Questionnaire, and both self-reported and interview-rated depression and disability in 92 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Found cognitive distortion significantly associated with depression, and also related to physical disability. Discusses the results,…

  17. Cognitive ecology.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  18. Development and Initial Testing of the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura; Siderowf, Andrew; Rubright, Jonathan D.; Rick, Jacqueline; Dahodwala, Nabila; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard; Stern, Matthew; Xie, Sharon X.; Rennert, Lior; Karlawish, Jason; Shea, Judy A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to describe the development and psychometric analysis of the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire. The questionnaire is an item response theory-based tool for rating cognitive instrumental activities of daily living in PD. Methods Candidate items for the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire were developed through literature review and focus groups of patients and knowledgeable informants. Item selection and calibration of item-response theory parameters were performed using responses from a cohort of PD patients and knowledgeable informants (n = 388). In independent cohorts of PD patients and knowledgeable informants, assessments of test-retest reliability (n = 50), and construct validity (n = 68) of the questionnaire were subsequently performed. Construct validity was assessed by correlating questionnaire scores with measures of motor function, cognition, an existing activities of daily living measure, and directly observed daily function. Results Fifty items were retained in the final questionnaire item bank. Items were excluded owing to redundancy, difficult reading level, and when item-response theory parameters could not be calculated. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97; P < 0.001). The questionnaire correlated strongly with cognition (r = 0.68; P < 0.001) and directly observed daily function (r = 0.87; P < 0.001), but not with motor impairment (r = 0.08; P = 0.53). The questionnaire score accurately discriminated between PD patients with and without dementia (receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.85–0.97). Conclusions The Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire shows strong evidence of reliability and validity. Item response theory-based psychometric analysis suggests that this questionnaire can discriminate across a range of daily functions. PMID:26249849

  19. Changes in cerebral blood flow after cognitive behavior therapy in patients with panic disorder: a SPECT study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ho-Jun; Choi, Young Hee; Chung, Yong-An; Rho, Wangku; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Aim Inconsistent results continue to be reported in studies that examine the neural correlates of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder. We examined the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with the alleviation of anxiety by CBT in panic patients. Methods The change in rCBF and clinical symptoms before and after CBT were assessed using single photon emission computed tomography and various clinical measures were analyzed. Results Fourteen subjects who completed CBT showed significant improvements in symptoms on clinical measures, including the Panic and Agoraphobic Scale and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised. After CBT, increased rCBF was detected in the left postcentral gyrus (BA 43), left precentral gyrus (BA 4), and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9 and BA 47), whereas decreased rCBF was detected in the left pons. Correlation analysis of the association between the changes in rCBF and changes in each clinical measure did not show significant results. Conclusion We found changes in the rCBF associated with the successful completion of CBT. The present findings may help clarify the effects of CBT on changes in brain activity in panic disorder. PMID:24790449

  20. The role of treatment delivery factors in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Kordt, Anne; Hamm, Alfons O; Gerlach, Alexander L; Alpers, Georg W; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Pauli, Paul; Rief, Winfried; Lang, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Treatment delivery factors (i.e., therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance) are considered to be important for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In the current study, four independent raters conducted process evaluations based on 168 two-hour videotapes of 84 patients with PD/AG treated with exposure-based CBT. Two raters evaluated patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1. Two raters evaluated treatment delivery factors in Session 6, in which therapists provided the rationale for conducting exposure exercises. At the 6-month follow-up, therapists' adherence (r=0.54) and therapeutic alliance (r=0.31) were significant predictors of changes in agoraphobic avoidance behavior; therapist competence was not associated with treatment outcomes. Patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1 was a significant predictor of the therapeutic alliance in Session 6 (r=0.17). The findings demonstrate that treatment delivery factors, particularly therapist adherence, are relevant to the long-term success of CBT for PD/AG. PMID:27235836

  1. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  2. Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling

    Cancer.gov

    This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.

  3. Surveys and questionnaires in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Fiona

    2015-06-17

    Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires.

  4. The Stages of Mailed Questionnaire Returning Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Daniel C.

    1984-01-01

    Six stages are hypothesized that define the behavior of returning mailed questionnaires: receiving the questionnaire, opening the mail, forming an overall impression, answering the questions, returning the questionnaire, and dealing with nonrespondents. The researcher must provide incentives at each stage if potential respondents are to complete a…

  5. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.105 Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires...

  6. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs... Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires to potential producers/suppliers of the product to determine whether it is in short supply....

  7. Cognitive Reserve in Dementia: Implications for Cognitive Training

    PubMed Central

    Mondini, Sara; Madella, Ileana; Zangrossi, Andrea; Bigolin, Angela; Tomasi, Claudia; Michieletto, Marta; Villani, Daniele; Di Giovanni, Giuseppina; Mapelli, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CR on a cognitive training (CT) in a group of patients with dementia. Eighty six participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the CR Index questionnaire (CRIq) and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition mini mental state examination (MMSE) was obtained before (T0) and after (T1) the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia. PMID:27199734

  8. Visual cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  9. Development and Validation of the Eyelash Satisfaction Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jeff; Cole, Jason C.; Burgess, Somali M.; Yang, Min; Daniels, Selena R.; Walt, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures have been used to assess treatment benefit in a variety of therapeutic areas and are now becoming increasingly important in aesthetic research. Objectives The objective of the current study was to develop and validate a new PRO measure (Eyelash Satisfaction Questionnaire [ESQ]) to assess satisfaction with eyelash prominence. Methods The content of the questionnaire (including conceptual framework and questionnaire items) was generated by review of literature, participant interviews, and expert opinion. Cognitive interviews were conducted to pilot test the questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined in a combined sample of participants (n = 970) completing Internet- (n = 909) and paper-based (n = 61) versions. Item- and domain-level properties were examined using modern and classical psychometrics. Results Content-based analysis of qualitative data demonstrated the presence of 3 distinct domains (Length, Fullness, Overall Satisfaction; Confidence, Attractiveness, and Professionalism; and Daily Routine). Initial confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results of 23 items revealed insufficient model-data fit (comparative fit index [CFI] of 0.86 and a non-normed fit index [NNFI] of 0.82). A revised model using 9 items (3 per domain) achieved appropriate fit (CFI of 0.99 and NNFI of 0.97). Analyses revealed measurement equivalence across the Internet- and paper-based versions. The 3 ESQ domains had strong internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α [range] = 0.919-0.976) and adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusions The ESQ was found to be a reliable and valid PRO measure for assessing satisfaction with eyelash prominence. Level of Evidence: 3 Therapeutic PMID:26691738

  10. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Joe; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  11. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  12. The Essential Properties of Yoga Questionnaire: Development and Methods.

    PubMed

    Groessl, Erik J; Maiya, Meghan; Elwy, A Rani; Riley, Kristen E; Sarkin, Andrew J; Eisen, Susan V; Braun, Tosca; Gutierrez, Ian; Kidane, Luwam; Park, Crystal L

    2015-01-01

    Yoga interventions have considerable heterogeneity, are multi-dimensional, and may impact health in different ways. However, most research reports regarding the effects of yoga on health and wellbeing do not adequately describe the components of the yoga interventions being used. Thus, drawing comparisons across studies or understanding the relative effects of specific aspects of a yoga intervention are rarely possible. To address this problem, we created the Essential Properties of Yoga Questionnaire (EPYQ) Project, an NCCAM-funded set of studies to develop a translational tool for yoga researchers. Here we describe the methods and developmental processes used in the EPYQ Project in detail. The project consists of four main phases. Phase I was designed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the relevant aspects of yoga by conducting a comprehensive systematic literature review and conducting focus groups with stakeholders including a wide variety of yoga teachers and students. In Phase II, a pool of potential questionnaire items was developed for the prototypic questionnaire using information from Phase I. Cognitive interviews were conducted with the preliminary EPYQ items to assess the perceived clarity, meaning, and importance of each item. In Phase III, the prototypic questionnaire was administered to two large samples of yoga students and instructors. Military personnel and veterans who practiced or taught yoga (n = 329) were recruited to participate. Factor analysis and item response theory were used to identify factors and select the final questionnaire items. Phase IV is ongoing and will collect reliability and validity data on the final instrument. Results are expected to be available in 2016. The EPYQ will provide an objective tool for describing the amount of various components of yoga interventions, eventually allowing researchers to link specific yoga components to health benefits, and facilitating the design of yoga interventions for specific health

  13. 78 FR 45259 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of Labor Relations, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is... Standards Questionnaire; Complaint Intake Form. OMB Approval Number: 2501-0018. Type of Request: Extension... 4730SP, Federal Labor Standards Questionnaires, will be used by HUD and agencies administering...

  14. 75 FR 41876 - Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of the...: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form. OMB Approval Number: 2501-0018....

  15. Time Diary and Questionnaire Assessment of Factors Associated with Academic and Personal Success among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. Methods: The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA),…

  16. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  17. An Analysis of Questionnaire Survey on Online Evaluation of Teaching by University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Dongyun

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes into consideration of the problems discovered in the teaching evaluation data statistics over the years in Changchun University of Science and Technology and cooperates with related departments to conduct a questionnaire survey on an online evaluation of teaching, with the purpose of detecting cognition of students in evaluation…

  18. Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Kyle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

  19. The Psychometric Properties of the Short and Long Versions of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sophie Xin; Jowett, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive, and behavioral aspects, represented by the interpersonal constructs of closeness, commitment, and complementarity, of the quality of the relationship within the context of sport coaching. The current study sought to determine the internal…

  20. Generalization of Therapeutic Changes in Agoraphobia: The Role of Perceived Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, S. Lloyd; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated extent and mechanisms of therapeutic generalization across distinct areas of agoraphobic dysfunction among 27 severe agoraphobics. Analysis of possible cognitive mechanisms revealed that perceived self-efficacy accurately predicted treatment and transfer effects even when alternative factors were held constant. Agoraphobia appears to…

  1. Experienced Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Richard A.

    This book describes a theoretical framework, "experienced cognition," for understanding cognition at the level of conscious mental states that make up a person's stream of awareness. The central idea is a cospecification hypothesis that an experienced self and experienced objects are simultaneously specified in the information available to…

  2. Geriatrics in medical students’ curricula: questionnaire-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Demographic development is accompanied by an increasingly aging society. Concerning medical education, the treatment of older people as well as the scientific research and exploration of ageing aspects in the coming years need to be considered. Aim of the study was to ascertain medical students’ knowledge, interest, and attitudes regarding older patients and geriatric medicine. Methods Each participant completed a self-designed questionnaire. This questionnaire was based on three validated internationally recognised questionnaires (“Facts on Aging Quiz – FAQ”, “Expectations Regarding Aging – ERA” and the “Aging Semantic Differential – ASD”). The inquiry and survey were performed at the beginning of the summer term in 2012 at the University of Regensburg Medical School. Results A total of n = 184/253 (72.7%) students participated in this survey. The results of the FAQ 25+ showed that respondents were able to answer an average of M = 20.4 of 36 questions (56.7%) correctly (Median, Md = 21; SD ±6.1). The personal attitudes and expectations of ageing averaged M = 41.2 points on the Likert-scale that ranged from 0 to 100 (Md = 40.4; SD ±13.7). Respondents’ attitudes towards the elderly (ASD 24) averaged M = 3.5 points on the Likert-scale (range 1–7, Md 3.6, SD ±0.8). Conclusions In our investigation, medical students’ knowledge of ageing was comparable to previous surveys. Attitudes and expectations of ageing were more positive compared to previous studies. Overall, medical students expect markedly high cognitive capacities towards older people that can actively prevent cognitive impairment. However, medical students’ personal interest in medicine of ageing and older people seems to be rather slight. PMID:25062568

  3. Visual cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  4. Development and validation of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Tracy A.; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a measure of antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects in children with a variety of seizure types, treatments, and therapy durations. Methods: Content for an initial 44-item measure was developed using the previously published Hague Scale and expert opinion from recognized pediatric epileptologists (n = 12) and caregivers of children with epilepsy (n = 21). The measure was completed by caregivers during routine clinic visits. Demographic and medical data were collected through chart reviews. Factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Results: Questionnaires were analyzed from 495 children with epilepsy (Mage = 10.1 years; range 2–21 years; 42% female; 14% African American; 32% new onset vs 68% chronic epilepsy). The final questionnaire, the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ), is a 19-item measure with 5 subscales (i.e., cognitive, motor, behavioral, general neurological, and weight) that accounts for 99% of the variance. Internal consistency coefficients and test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.72 to 0.93 and 0.74 to 0.97, respectively. Construct validity was demonstrated by increasing side effects as the number of drugs increased. Participants on valproic acid had significantly higher scores on the Weight Scale compared to those on carbamazepine. Conclusions: The PESQ is a reliable and valid measure of AED side effects in children across the epilepsy spectrum that can be used in both clinical and research settings. PMID:22875082

  5. Japanese Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Listening to Mothers II Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Rieko; McElmurry, Beverly; Vonderheid, Susan; Altfeld, Susan; McFarlin, Barbara; Tashiro, Junko

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire used for the U.S. Listening to Mothers II survey was translated and culturally adapted to measure Japanese women’s experience during the period of pregnancy planning through early postpartum. Methods included expert panels and two phases of cognitive interviews with 20 postpartum Japanese adult women. The number of problems with the translated questionnaire effectively decreased in the iterative process. Most problems were found in the question–interpretation stage of cognitive processing, such as wording/tone. Culture-specific concepts and unclear items were adapted to prevent erroneous interpretations in future studies. The future use of this questionnaire to generate data sets will be useful for professionals interested in developing evidence-based practices. The knowledge from this study can be helpful in improving health-care services and education for women with diverse languages and cultural backgrounds. PMID:22211056

  6. The Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ): A Parental Report Measure of Early Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Klaus; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Children's early motor skills are critical for development across language, social, and cognitive domains, and warrant close examination. However, examiner-administered motor assessments are time consuming and expensive. Parent-report questionnaires offer an efficient alternative, but validity of parent report is unclear and only few motor questionnaires exist. In this report, we use cross-sectional and longitudinal data to investigate the validity of parent report in comparison to two examiner-administered measures (Mullen Scales of Early Learning, MSEL; Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, PDMS-2), and introduce a new parent-report measure called the Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ). Results indicate strong correlations between parent report on the EMQ and a child's age, robust concurrent and predictive validity of parent report with both the MSEL and PDMS-2, and good test-re-test reliability of parent report on the EMQ. Together, our findings support the conclusion that parents provide dependable accounts of early motor and cognitive development. PMID:24140841

  7. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  8. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish.

  9. "Undecided" responses on the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    Domino's Suicide Opinion Questionnaire was administered to 288 students, along with measures of attitudes and personality traits. The number of "undecided" responses was positively associated with death anxiety scores, suggesting this questionnaire might be improved by eliminating the "undecided" response option. The meaning of this response might be studied.

  10. Applying Learning Strategy Questionnaires: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…

  11. A practical guide to surveys and questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Eric L; Voelker, Courtney C J; Nussenbaum, Brian; Rich, Jason T; Paniello, Randal C; Neely, J Gail

    2011-06-01

    Surveys with questionnaires play a vital role in decision and policy making in society. Within medicine, including otolaryngology, surveys with questionnaires may be the only method for gathering data on rare or unusual events. In addition, questionnaires can be developed and validated to be used as outcome measures in clinical trials and other clinical research architecture. Consequently, it is fundamentally important that such tools be properly developed and validated. Just asking questions that have not gone through rigorous design and development may be misleading and unfair at best; at worst, they can result in under- or overtreatment and unnecessary expense. Furthermore, it is important that consumers of the data produced by these instruments understand the principles of questionnaire design to interpret results in an optimal and meaningful way. This article presents a practical guide for understanding the methodologies of survey and questionnaire design, including the concepts of validity and reliability, how surveys are administered and implemented, and, finally, biases and pitfalls of surveys.

  12. Spatial cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  13. Increasing Honest Responding on Cognitive Distortions in Child Molesters: The Bogus Pipeline Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Theresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Professionals conclude that child molesters (CMs) hold offense-supportive beliefs (or cognitive distortions) from CMs' questionnaire responses. Because questionnaires are easily faked, we asked 32 CMs to complete a cognitive distortion scale under standard conditions (Time 1). A week later (Time 2), the same CMs completed the scale again. This…

  14. Disembodying cognition

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The idea that concepts are embodied by our motor and sensory systems is popular in current theorizing about cognition. Embodied cognition accounts come in different versions and are often contrasted with a purely symbolic amodal view of cognition. Simulation, or the hypothesis that concepts simulate the sensory and motor experience of real world encounters with instances of those concepts, has been prominent in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Here, with a focus on spatial thought and language, I review some of the evidence cited in support of simulation versions of embodied cognition accounts. While these data are extremely interesting and many of the experiments are elegant, knowing how to best interpret the results is often far from clear. I point out that a quick acceptance of embodied accounts runs the danger of ignoring alternate hypotheses and not scrutinizing neuroscience data critically. I also review recent work from my lab that raises questions about the nature of sensory motor grounding in spatial thought and language. In my view, the question of whether or not cognition is grounded is more fruitfully replaced by questions about gradations in this grounding. A focus on disembodying cognition, or on graded grounding, opens the way to think about how humans abstract. Within neuroscience, I propose that three functional anatomic axes help frame questions about the graded nature of grounded cognition. First, are questions of laterality differences. Do association cortices in both hemispheres instantiate the same kind of sensory or motor information? Second, are questions about ventral dorsal axes. Do neuronal ensembles along this axis shift from conceptual representations of objects to the relationships between objects? Third, are questions about gradients centripetally from sensory and motor cortices towards and within perisylvian cortices. How does sensory and perceptual information become more language-like and then get transformed into language

  15. Teacher stress and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Borg, M G; Riding, R J

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the teacher's cognitive style and occupational stress. A sample of 212 teachers in Maltese secondary schools completed a questionnaire surveying both the level of overall stress and the severity of four major areas of job stress. They were also given the Cognitive Styles Analysis which assesses two fundamental dimensions of cognitive style, wholist-analytic and verbal-imagery. For the top and bottom 25 per cent of the sample with extreme style characteristics, self-reported teacher stress was not related to style in a simple manner. However, style interacted significantly with teacher age. With regard to the four major areas of occupational stress, significant variations in the levels of stress were observed with style: whereas Analytics reported greater stress than Wholists for 'pupil misbehaviour' and 'poor working conditions', the converse was true for 'poor staff relations' and 'time pressures'.

  16. Diet History Questionnaire II and Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Coding Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    A questionnaire data file is an ASCII text file containing data from completed Diet History Questionnaires. If using paper forms, this file can be created by a scanner or a data entry system. If using DHQ*Web, the questionnaire data file is created automatically.

  17. Student Perceptions of Student Perception of Module Questionnaires: Questionnaire Completion as Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Ian S.

    2004-01-01

    A sample of 202 students filling in a student evaluation of teaching (SET) questionnaire were asked to complete another questionnaire asking about the specific reasons for awarding a score to the specific SET questionnaire items. The aim was to find out what influenced students' judgements on those items. It was found that students' interpretation…

  18. An informant questionnaire for detecting Alzheimer's disease: are some items better than others?

    PubMed

    Sikkes, Sietske A M; Knol, Dirk L; van den Berg, Mark T; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S M; Scheltens, Philip; Klein, Martin; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2011-07-01

    A decline in everyday cognitive functioning is important for diagnosing dementia. Informant questionnaires, such as the informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE), are used to measure this. Previously, conflicting results on the IQCODEs ability to discriminate between Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitively healthy elderly were found. We aim to investigate whether specific groups of items are more useful than others in discriminating between these patient groups. Informants of 180 AD, 59 MCI, and 89 patients with subjective memory complaints (SMC) completed the IQCODE. To investigate the grouping of questionnaire items, we used a two-dimensional graded response model (GRM).The association between IQCODE, age, gender, education, and diagnosis was modeled using structural equation modeling. The GRM with two groups of items fitted better than the unidimensional model. However, the high correlation between the dimensions (r=.90) suggested unidimensionality. The structural model showed that the IQCODE was able to differentiate between all patient groups. The IQCODE can be considered as unidimensional and as a useful addition to diagnostic screening in a memory clinic setting, as it was able to distinguish between AD, MCI, and SMC and was not influenced by gender or education. PMID:22882809

  19. Decreased Self-Reported Cognitive Failures after Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiss, Marek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Steinova, Dana

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, attention has been focused on investigating the effectiveness of composite memory intervention programs with different age and diagnostics groups. The goal of this study was to measure changes in cognitive lapses by Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) in a large trained, dementia free group (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]…

  20. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  1. Visual cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  2. Embodied cognition.

    PubMed

    Foglia, Lucia; Wilson, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Traditional views in philosophy of mind and cognitive science depict the mind as an information processor, one whose connections with the body and the world are of little theoretical importance. On the contrary, mounting empirical evidence shows that bodily states and modality-specific systems for perception and action underlie information processing, and that embodiment contributes to various aspects and effects of mental phenomena. This article will briefly review and discuss some of this evidence and what it implies. By challenging mainstream accounts of mind and cognition, embodiment views offer new ways of conceptualizing knowledge and suggest novel perspectives on cognitive variation and mind-body reductionism. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:319-325. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1226 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304209

  3. Cognitive linguistics.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  5. The Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire: Establishing clinically meaningful change.

    PubMed

    Junger, Katherine W; Morita, Diego; Modi, Avani C

    2015-04-01

    The present study extends the utility of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ) by determining distribution-based minimally clinically important difference (MCID) scores. Participants (N=682) were youth (ages 2-25) with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy pooled from research and clinical data in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Caregivers completed the PESQ. Demographic and medical data were extracted from medical chart reviews or via a questionnaire. The MCIDs, which are the standard errors of measurement for each scale, for the entire sample were as follows: Cognitive=4.66, Motor=4.67, Behavior=8.05, General Neurological=7.41, Weight=9.58, and Total Side Effects=3.25. Additionally, MCIDs for patients with new-onset (<12months) epilepsy on monotherapy, new-onset epilepsy on polytherapy, chronic epilepsy on monotherapy (>12months), and chronic epilepsy on polytherapy were calculated. Results from the present study extend the utility of the PESQ by providing clinicians and researchers an enhanced understanding about clinically meaningful changes in side effect profiles across the pediatric epilepsy spectrum. These data can inform clinical decision-making for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25842203

  6. The Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire: Establishing clinically meaningful change

    PubMed Central

    Junger, Katherine W.; Morita, Diego; Modi, Avani C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the utility of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ) by determining distribution-based minimally clinically important difference (MCID) scores. Participants (N=682) were youth (ages 2–25) with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy pooled from research and clinical data in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Caregivers completed the PESQ. Demographic and medical data were extracted from medical chart reviews or via a questionnaire. The MCIDs, which are the standard errors of measurement for each scale, for the entire sample were: Cognitive = 4.66; Motor = 4.67; Behavior = 8.05; General Neurological = 7.41; Weight = 9.58; Total PESQ = 3.25. Additionally, MCIDs for patients with new-onset (<12 months) epilepsy on monotherapy, new-onset epilepsy on polytherapy, chronic epilepsy on monotherapy (>12 months), and chronic epilepsy on polytherapy were calculated. Results from the present study extend the utility of the PESQ by providing clinicians and researchers an enhanced understanding about clinically meaningful changes in side effect profiles across the pediatric epilepsy spectrum. These data can inform clinical decision making for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25842203

  7. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  8. Cognitive complaints correlate with depression rather than concurrent objective cognitive impairment in the SAGE baseline sample

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Palmer, Barton W.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Whether subjective cognitive complaints are suggestive of depression or concurrent cognitive impairment in older adults without dementia remains unclear. The current study examined this question in a large (N=1,000), randomly-selected community-based sample of adults ages 51-99 without a formal diagnosis of dementia (Successful AGing Evaluation study-SAGE). Methods The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) measured objective cognitive function, the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) measured subjective cognitive complaints, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) measured depression. Spearman rho correlations and linear regression models were conducted to examine the relationship among variables in the baseline SAGE sample. Results There was a weak association between TICS-m and CFQ scores (rho= -.12); however a moderate to large association was observed for CFQ and PHQ-9 (rho= .44). Scores on the CFQ were not associated with TICS-m scores (β=-.03, p=.42) after controlling for PHQ-9 and variables of interest, such as age, gender, ethnicity, and physical functioning, while PHQ-9 was significantly associated with CFQ scores (β=.46, p<.001) after controlling for variables of interest. Conclusions Subjective cognitive complaints are more likely related to symptoms of depression rather than concurrent cognitive impairment in a large cross-section of community-dwelling adults without a formal diagnosis of dementia. PMID:24614203

  9. Italian neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.

  10. Cognitive Distortion and Depression in Chronic Pain: Association with Diagnosed Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined association between depression and scores on Cognitive Errors Questionnaire. Depressed chronic pain patients (n=17) and depressed nonpain patients (n=15) reported more cognitive distortion than did nondepressed pain patients (n=12) and normal controls (n=19). Results support relevance of cognitive theory in explication of clinically…

  11. Assessment of cognition in mild cognitive impairment: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Peter J.; Jackson, Colleen E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Khachaturian, Ara S.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Albert, Marilyn S.; Weintraub, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The demand for rapidly administered, sensitive, and reliable cognitive assessments that are specifically designed for identifying individuals in the earliest stages of cognitive decline (and to measure subtle change over time) has escalated as the emphasis in Alzheimer’s disease clinical research has shifted from clinical diagnosis and treatment toward the goal of developing presymptomatic neuroprotective therapies. To meet these changing clinical requirements, cognitive measures or tailored batteries of tests must be validated and determined to be fit-for-use for the discrimination between cognitively healthy individuals and persons who are experiencing very subtle cognitive changes that likely signal the emergence of early mild cognitive impairment. We sought to collect and review data systematically from a wide variety of (mostly computer-administered) cognitive measures, all of which are currently marketed or distributed with the claims that these instruments are sensitive and reliable for the early identification of disease or, if untested for this purpose, are promising tools based on other variables. The survey responses for 16 measures/batteries are presented in brief in this review; full survey responses and summary tables are archived and publicly available on the Campaign to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease by 2020 Web site (http://pad2020.org). A decision tree diagram highlighting critical decision points for selecting measures to meet varying clinical trials requirements has also been provided. Ultimately, the survey questionnaire, framework, and decision guidelines provided in this review should remain as useful aids for the evaluation of any new or updated sets of instruments in the years to come. PMID:21575877

  12. Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kenneth R.; Summers, David A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses experiments which show difficulties in putting mastered skills to good effect arise through deficiencies of cognitive control: subjects knew what to do but couldn't" do it. Authors believe traditional response-oriented feedback impedes control, hence performance, and that subjects must see why errors are made to improve. (PD)

  13. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.; Carmichael, Ann G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue features five articles profiling Indiana University faculty whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about cognitive science. The articles in the journal are: "A Matter of Time" (Karen Grooms) which discusses the work of Robert F. Port; "Perceiving as a Complex System" (Tom Tierney) which profiles…

  14. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice Paradigm as a Means…

  15. Development of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ).

    PubMed

    Parmanto, Bambang; Lewis, Allen Nelson; Graham, Kristin M; Bertolet, Marnie H

    2016-01-01

    Current telehealth usability questionnaires are designed primarily for older technologies, where telehealth interaction is conducted over dedicated videoconferencing applications. However, telehealth services are increasingly conducted over computer-based systems that rely on commercial software and a user supplied computer interface. Therefore, a usability questionnaire that addresses the changes in telehealth service delivery and technology is needed. The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ) was developed to evaluate the usability of telehealth implementation and services. This paper addresses: (1) the need for a new measure of telehealth usability, (2) the development of the TUQ, (3) intended uses for the TUQ, and (4) the reliability of the TUQ. Analyses indicate that the TUQ is a solid, robust, and versatile measure that can be used to measure the quality of the computer-based user interface and the quality of the telehealth interaction and services. PMID:27563386

  16. Development of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ)

    PubMed Central

    PARMANTO, BAMBANG; LEWIS, ALLEN NELSON; GRAHAM, KRISTIN M.; BERTOLET, MARNIE H.

    2016-01-01

    Current telehealth usability questionnaires are designed primarily for older technologies, where telehealth interaction is conducted over dedicated videoconferencing applications. However, telehealth services are increasingly conducted over computer-based systems that rely on commercial software and a user supplied computer interface. Therefore, a usability questionnaire that addresses the changes in telehealth service delivery and technology is needed. The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ) was developed to evaluate the usability of telehealth implementation and services. This paper addresses: (1) the need for a new measure of telehealth usability, (2) the development of the TUQ, (3) intended uses for the TUQ, and (4) the reliability of the TUQ. Analyses indicate that the TUQ is a solid, robust, and versatile measure that can be used to measure the quality of the computer-based user interface and the quality of the telehealth interaction and services. PMID:27563386

  17. Questionnaire surveys of dentists on radiology

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, AM; Brunton, P; Horner, K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Survey by questionnaire is a widely used research method in dental radiology. A major concern in reviews of questionnaires is non-response. The objectives of this study were to review questionnaire studies in dental radiology with regard to potential survey errors and to develop recommendations to assist future researchers. Methods A literature search with the software search package PubMed was used to obtain internet-based access to Medline through the website www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. A search of the English language peer-reviewed literature was conducted of all published studies, with no restriction on date. The search strategy found articles with dates from 1983 to 2010. The medical subject heading terms used were “questionnaire”, “dental radiology” and “dental radiography”. The reference sections of articles retrieved by this method were hand-searched in order to identify further relevant papers. Reviews, commentaries and relevant studies from the wider literature were also included. Results 53 questionnaire studies were identified in the dental literature that concerned dental radiography and included a report of response rate. These were all published between 1983 and 2010. In total, 87 articles are referred to in this review, including the 53 dental radiology studies. Other cited articles include reviews, commentaries and examples of studies outside dental radiology where they are germane to the arguments presented. Conclusions Non-response is only one of four broad areas of error to which questionnaire surveys are subject. This review considers coverage, sampling and measurement, as well as non-response. Recommendations are made to assist future research that uses questionnaire surveys. PMID:22517994

  18. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  19. Statistics for the clinician: diagnostic questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Ross, Frederick J

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this column is to help working clinicians understand the statistical calculations involved in interpreting the results of diagnostic questionnaires. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as an example, the author explains how to determine the most appropriate cutoffs to choose, depending on the population involved, the probabilities of error (a and {), and the expected losses associated with each kind of error in the context in which the test is being administered. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2011;17:57-60). PMID:21266896

  20. Converting ODM Metadata to FHIR Questionnaire Resources.

    PubMed

    Doods, Justin; Neuhaus, Philipp; Dugas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Interoperability between systems and data sharing between domains is becoming more and more important. The portal medical-data-models.org offers more than 5.300 UMLS annotated forms in CDISC ODM format in order to support interoperability, but several additional export formats are available. CDISC's ODM and HL7's framework FHIR Questionnaire resource were analyzed, a mapping between elements created and a converter implemented. The developed converter was integrated into the portal with FHIR Questionnaire XML or JSON download options. New FHIR applications can now use this large library of forms. PMID:27577424

  1. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  2. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    PubMed

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics.

  3. Leicester Cough Questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Felisbino, Manuela Brisot; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Gonçalves-Tavares, Michelle; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To translate the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation of a quality of life questionnaire requires a translated version that is conceptually equivalent to the original version and culturally acceptable in the target country. The protocol used consisted of the translation of the LCQ to Portuguese by three Brazilian translators who were fluent in English and its back-translation to English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The back-translated version was evaluated by one of the authors of the original questionnaire in order to verify its equivalence. Later in the process, a provisional Portuguese-language version was thoroughly reviewed by an expert committee. In 10 patients with chronic cough, cognitive debriefing was carried out in order to test the understandability, clarity, and acceptability of the translated questionnaire in the target population. On that basis, the final Portuguese-language version of the LCQ was produced and approved by the committee. Results: Few items were questioned by the source author and revised by the committee of experts. During the cognitive debriefing phase, the Portuguese-language version of the LCQ proved to be well accepted and understood by all of the respondents, which demonstrates the robustness of the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. Conclusions: The final version of the LCQ adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied. PMID:25029643

  4. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338

  5. Construct Validity of the Social Coping Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…

  6. Assessing Caregiver Information Needs: A Brief Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Linda J.; Haugland, S. M.

    A diagnostic evaluation for a person with suspected Alzheimer's disease is usually initiated by family members whose concerns go beyond strictly medical issues. To determine precisely what questions families want answered, a 15-point questionnaire was developed at a multi-disciplinary geriatric assessment clinic. Caregivers were asked to rate each…

  7. Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.

  8. Outlier Detection in Test and Questionnaire Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlstra, Wobbe P.; Van Der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    Classical methods for detecting outliers deal with continuous variables. These methods are not readily applicable to categorical data, such as incorrect/correct scores (0/1) and ordered rating scale scores (e.g., 0,..., 4) typical of multi-item tests and questionnaires. This study proposes two definitions of outlier scores suited for categorical…

  9. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  10. Job Evaluation with the Position Analysis Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma F.; Matson, G. Albion

    1976-01-01

    Assessment of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) at a four-year state college with 8,000 students indicates that the PAQ job evaluation method is sufficiently valid and has enough unique advantages to warrant its serious consideration for use by college and university personnel administrators. (LBH)

  11. Caregivers feeding styles questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting l...

  12. Diet History Questionnaire Paper-based Forms

    Cancer.gov

    DHQ-1 is the standard version of the NCI's Diet History Questionnaire. It was originally printed in 1998, reprinted in 2002 with minor changes to the front page and the development of a Spanish translation, and reprinted again in 2007 with changes to the Today's Date field to include the years 2007-2011.

  13. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  14. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  15. Developing a Rail Ergonomics Questionnaire (REQUEST).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Brendan; Wilson, John R; Sharples, Sarah; Morrisroe, Ged; Clarke, Theresa

    2009-03-01

    In this first of two papers the development of a shortened version of the Rail Ergonomics Questionnaire (REQUEST) is described. REQUEST has been designed to survey attitudes and opinions of railway workers on a range of human factors issues, with scales based on those used and validated elsewhere or else specially developed on the basis of studies of rail workers. Important characteristics of different roles, especially signallers, are outlined. The longer version of the questionnaire has already been used on a number of occasions for samples of 100-150. The shortened version was developed for the most recent administration of the survey to a large population. An expert group reviewed question wording, and the findings from the principal components analysis and other analyses of data from previous administrations of the survey. Improvements were made to the design and layout of the questionnaire. The effectiveness of the process for the expert review of questions is discussed. The survey was administered to high proportions of the target groups during the company safety briefing programme and achieved a sample size of almost 4000 respondents at an overall response rate of 83%. Findings from the REQUEST national survey are presented in a companion paper [Ryan, B., Wilson, J.R., Sharples, S., Clarke, T., 2008. Attitudes and opinions of railway signallers and related staff, using the Rail Ergonomics Questionnaire (REQUEST). Appl. Ergon., in press. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2008.04.010]. PMID:18555974

  16. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  17. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  18. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  19. College Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSSQ) Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Ann M.; And Others

    This introductory manual for the College Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSSQ) includes a description of the test, tentative norms, a summary of findings to date regarding psychometric characteristics of the instrument, and suggestions for possible uses. The manual is intended to supply sufficient material for the practical needs of most test…

  20. Psychological Inflexibility in Childhood and Adolescence: Development and Evaluation of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Lambert, Warren; Baer, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and validation of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), a child-report measure of psychological inflexibility engendered by high levels of cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance. Consistent with the theory underlying acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), items converged into a…

  1. Cognitive complaint in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Clément, Francis; Belleville, Sylvie; Gauthier, Serge

    2008-03-01

    Whereas the presence of a subjective memory complaint is a central criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), little work has been done to empirically measure its nature and severity. The Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (QAM) assessed memory complaints relative to 10 domains of concrete activities of daily life in 68 persons with MCI, 26 persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 81 healthy older adults. In addition, a neuropsychological battery was administered to assess whether subjective complaints were linked to actual cognitive performance. The findings indicate that individuals with MCI report more memory complaints than controls for a range of specific materials/circumstances. MCI and AD individuals did not differ in their level of memory complaints. Correlational analyses indicated that a higher level of memory complaints relative to conversations and to movies and books were associated with a higher level of objective cognitive deficits in persons with MCI but not in AD. Furthermore, complaints increased in parallel with global cognitive deficits in MCI. These results suggest that persons with MCI report more memory complaints than healthy older controls, but only in specific domains and circumstances, and that anosognosia is more characteristic of the demented than of the MCI phase of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. 77 FR 39986 - Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... a currently approved information collection, Health Screening Questionnaire. DATES: Comments must be...: Title: Health Screening Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0164. Expiration Date of Approval: January...

  3. 78 FR 65608 - Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... with revision of a currently approved information collection, Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0207. Expiration Date of...

  4. Cognitive dissonance in tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    McMaster, C; Lee, C

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge and beliefs about smoking of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers were examined within a cognitive dissonance framework. The 186 respondents completed a questionnaire concerned with smoking habits, knowledge of the effects of smoking, beliefs about smoking, and estimates of risk of lung cancer to themselves and to the average Australian smoker. Smokers estimated their risk of contracting lung cancer as greater than the risk non-smokers or ex-smokers saw for themselves, but less than the risk for the average Australian smoker. No differences were found in the amount of factual knowledge about the effects of smoking. However, smokers endorsed significantly more rationalisations and distortions of logic regarding smoking than did non-smokers or ex-smokers. Smokers may experience cognitive dissonance as a result of using tobacco despite its well-publicised ill-effects, and it may be that interventions targeting rationalisations for smoking will be useful in smoking cessation.

  5. Impaired social cognition in anorexia nervosa patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamatani, Sayo; Tomotake, Masahito; Takeda, Tomoya; Kameoka, Naomi; Kawabata, Masashi; Kubo, Hiroko; Tada, Yukio; Tomioka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of social cognition in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Eighteen female patients with AN (mean age =35.4±8.6 years) and 18 female healthy controls (HC) (mean age =32.8±9.4 years) participated in the study. Their social cognition was assessed with the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). Results The results showed that total score of the SCSQ and scores of theory of mind and metacognition were significantly lower in AN group than those in HC group. Moreover, significant differences in theory of mind, metacognition, and total score of the SCSQ remained when the effects of depression, anxiety, and starvation were eliminated statistically. Conclusion These results suggest that patients with AN may have difficulty inferring other people’s intention and also monitoring and evaluating their own cognitive activities. Therefore, these features may explain some aspects of the pathology of AN. PMID:27785029

  6. A Physical Activity Questionnaire: Reproducibility and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E.; Vera, Jose A.; Perez, Wilson; Thalabard, Jean-Christophe; Rieu, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the Quantification de L’Activite Physique en Altitude chez les Enfants (QAPACE) supervised self-administered questionnaire reproducibility and validity on the estimation of the mean daily energy expenditure (DEE) on Bogotá’s schoolchildren. The comprehension was assessed on 324 students, whereas the reproducibility was studied on a different random sample of 162 who were exposed twice to it. Reproducibility was assessed using both the Bland-Altman plot and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity was studied in a sample of 18 girls and 18 boys randomly selected, which completed the test - re-test study. The DEE derived from the questionnaire was compared with the laboratory measurement results of the peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2) from ergo-spirometry and Leger Test. The reproducibility ICC was 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.95-0.97); by age categories 8-10, 0.94 (0.89-0. 97); 11-13, 0.98 (0.96- 0.99); 14-16, 0.95 (0.91-0.98). The ICC between mean TEE as estimated by the questionnaire and the direct and indirect Peak VO2 was 0.76 (0.66) (p<0.01); by age categories, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 were 0.89 (0.87), 0.76 (0.78) and 0.88 (0.80) respectively. The QAPACE questionnaire is reproducible and valid for estimating PA and showed a high correlation with the Peak VO2 uptake. Key pointsThe presence of a supervisor, the limited size of the group with the possibility of answering to their questions could explain the high reproducibility for this questionnaire.No study in the literature had directly addressed the issue of estimating a yearly average PA including school and vacation period.A two step procedure, in the population of schoolchildren of Bogotá, gives confidence in the use of the QAPACE questionnaire in a large epidemiological survey in related populations. PMID:24149485

  7. Questionnaire-based evaluation of everyday competence in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalisch, Tobias; Richter, Julia; Lenz, Melanie; Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kolankowska, Izabela; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gerontological research aims at understanding factors that are crucial for mediating “successful aging”. This term denotes the absence of significant disease and disabilities, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive function, and preservation of social and productive activities. Preservation of an active lifestyle is considered an effective means through which everyday competence can be attained. In this context, it is crucial to obtain ratings of modern day older adults’ everyday competence by means of appropriate assessments. Here, we introduce the Everyday Competence Questionnaire (ECQ), designed to assess healthy older adults’ everyday competence. Methods: The ECQ includes 17 items, covering housekeeping, leisure activities, sports, daily routines, manual skills, subjective well-being, and general linguistic usage. The ECQ was administered to a population of 158 healthy subjects aged 60–91 years, who were divided into groups on the basis of their physical activity. These groups were community-dwelling subjects, those living independently and having a sedentary lifestyle, those living independently but characterized by a general lifestyle without any noteworthy physical activity, and those living independently and exercising regularly. Age, gender, and education levels were balanced between the groups. Results: Using the ECQ, we could identify and distinguish different everyday competence levels between the groups tested: Subjects characterized by an active lifestyle outperformed all other groups. Subjects characterized by a general lifestyle showed higher everyday competence than those with a sedentary lifestyle or subjects who needed care. Furthermore, the ECQ data showed a significant positive correlation between individual physical activity and everyday competence. Conclusion: The ECQ is a novel tool for the questionnaire-based evaluation of everyday competence among healthy subjects. By including leisure activities, it

  8. Cognitive Enhancement and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement--augmenting normal cognitive capacities--is not new. Literacy, numeracy, computers, and the practices of science are all cognitive enhancements. Science is now making new cognitive enhancements possible. Biomedical cognitive enhancements (BCEs) include the administration of drugs, implants of genetically engineered or…

  9. [Efficient personality questionnaire for professional training].

    PubMed

    Martín Del Buey, Francisco de Asís; Fernández Zapico, Ana; Martín Palacio, Eugenia; Dapelo Pellerano, Blanca; Marcone Trigo, Rodolfo; Granados Urban, Pilar

    2008-05-01

    This study falls within the theoretical framework of the construct of the Efficient Personality. In this work, we present the study of validity and reliability of an original questionnaire made up of 60 items, applied to students from formative cycles of higher Professional Training. The questionnaire was reduced to 24 items, surpassing its initial .84 Cronbach alpha coefficient. Six first-order factors were obtained: Social Self-concept, Academic Self-concept, Solving Ability, Self-esteem, and Problem Coping. One second-order factor was obtained: Efficient Personality. The six-component factorial solution is similar both to the Spanish version for secondary school and to the Chilean versions for secondary and university populations, dividing the initial dimension of Self-concept into Self-concept and Self-esteem.

  10. Validation of questionnaires on physical function.

    PubMed

    Fortin, F; Kérouac, S

    1977-01-01

    Data-gathering instruments were used in a randomized controlled trial, designed to assess a structured preoperative educational program for elective surgical patients. The key dependent variable was the physical functional capacity of patients following surgery. Questionnaires were developed to measure physical functioning in the immediate postoperative period, after discharge from hospital, and 10 days and 33 days after surgery. Statistical techniques used to measure interobserver agreement and bias were worker's chi square, Cicchett's statistic, the contingency coefficient, Kendall's Taub, and Kendall's coefficient of concordance W. The standardized questionnaires permitted classification of patients's postoperative physical functions with results that agreed highly with the classification done by experienced clinicians who cared for the same patients.

  11. Validating the Street Survival Skills Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Janniro, F; Sapp, G L; Kohler, M P

    1994-02-01

    The utility of the Street Survival Skills Questionnaire was investigated using a sample of 18 trainable mentally retarded males attending public schools. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed among the total scores, four standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Survey Form, and three Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised IQs. The Street Skills scores correlated significantly with Vineland Daily Living scores and WISC-R Full Scale and Performance IQs; however, nonsignificant relationships were obtained with WISC-R Verbal IQs, Vineland Composite scores, Communication Domain scores, and Socialization Domain scores. The use of the questionnaire in assessment of adaptive behavior was supported but within a narrow scope, i.e., daily or functional living knowledge.

  12. Nephrology quiz and questionnaire: renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Golper, Thomas A; Glassock, Richard J; Bleyer, Anthony J

    2012-08-01

    Presentation of the Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire has become an annual "tradition" at the meetings of the American Society of Nephrology. It is a very popular session judged by consistently large attendance. Members of the audience test their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. They can also compare their answers in real time, using audience response devices, with those of program directors of nephrology training programs in the United States, acquired through an Internet-based questionnaire. Topics presented here include fluid and electrolyte disorders, transplantation, and ESRD and dialysis. Cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared by a panel of experts (Drs. Palmer, Hricik, and Golper, respectively). After the audience responses, the "correct" and "incorrect" answers then were briefly discussed and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. This article aims to recapitulate the session and reproduce its educational value for a larger audience-readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Have fun.

  13. Setting up a life course questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sampogna, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    In order to give a practical meaning to a concept, it is necessary to measure it. In this chapter, some guidelines for the creation of a life course questionnaire are given, starting from the concept of measurement and all the properties (validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability) that an instrument must have, to be defined as a measurement tool. The first step is to define the construct to be measured. Cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) assumes impairment over time of the life course of individuals; key concepts of CLCI are accumulation of risk as well as timing of risk exposure. CLCI is a longitudinal construct, and in order to measure it, it is imperative to take the role of time into account. Questionnaires administered at a certain moment during the patient's life will investigate the impact the disease had on his/her life from the beginning until that moment. Items to be assessed in patients suffering from chronic condition will be, among others, physical and psychological comorbidities, feelings of stigmatization and coping style. Together with the given personality, and other personal and clinical characteristics, they may contribute to changes in the life trajectory compared to a hypothetical 'unaffected average life course'. At the end of the chapter, an example of life course questionnaire is proposed.

  14. [Medical research using Internet questionnaire in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Ide, Hiroo; Imamura, Tomoaki; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    As the method for questionnaire studies, mail survey and interview survey are frequently used. The utility and validity of applying the Internet method to medical studies have yet to be fully evaluated. For the present investigation, we reviewed 36 Japanese original articles using Internet questionnaire reported through to April 2005. Although original papers using the Internet method have been increasing in recent years, they are still limited in number. There is comparatively much research on disease with many patients in youth and early manhood, such as allergic ailments (allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and hives). As compared with conventional methods, the advantages of the Internet approach are convenience for both investigators and respondents and the ability to quickly collect data. The disadvantage is that the user's age range is more concentrated. Since samples are extracted from individuals who are registered as monitors, a greater sampling error may occur as compared with a random sampling method. However, it is to be expected that continued explosive growth of the Internet would decrease the limitation in user's age. If more elderly people participate in questionnaire studies using the web, research into more illnesses should be facilitated. Considering the inherent advantage, it is thought that Internet method can become the leading tool for sociomedical and clinical research in the near future. PMID:16502854

  15. Social cognition.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Marc; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2010-08-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a novel field of interdisciplinary research that examines socio-emotional cognition and behavior by emphasizing the neural substrates of these processes. Insights from this biological perspective have established that socio-emotional processing does not happen in a sequential order but in a recursive and interlinked fashion; that individual brain regions are not associated with one, but multiple, distinct social functions; and that brain regions are organized into dynamically interacting networks. These factors explain why it is difficult to pinpoint the neural substrates of particular social deficits in patients with brain diseases. With that said, there are specific brain regions that are highly specialized for the perception, regulation, and modulation of emotion and behavior. This article will review key aspects of social processing beginning with their underlying neural substrates, including (1) perception of social signals, (2) social and emotional evaluation, and (3) behavioral response generation and selection. Case studies will be used to illustrate the real-life social deficits resulting from distinct patterns of neuroanatomic damage, highlighting the brain regions most critical for adequate social behavior. Continuum Lifelong Learning Neurol 2010;16(4):69-85. PMID:22810514

  16. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  17. Cognitive and dissociative manifestations in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Frank; Katz, Robert S; Mills, Megan; Heard, Amy R

    2002-04-01

    Memory decline and mental confusion frequently complicate the clinical presentation of fibromyalgia; however, formal cognitive examination often does not support deterioration. This paradox was examined in the context of dissociation, a condition with many cognitive similarities. Dissociation refers to the separation of parts of experience from the mainstream of consciousness. A common example is highway hypnosis. Eighty-nine fibromyalgia (FM) patients and 64 other rheumatic disease patients were screened for memory decline and mental confusion using a questionnaire format. Pain, dissociation, affective distress, fatigue, sleep difficulty, and mental confusion were also assessed. Cognitive complaints (76.4%-43.8%) and dissociative symptoms (37.1%-1.9%) were overrepresented in patients with FM. Among FM patients with high dissociation, cognitive difficulties were reported by 95%; 100% of these cases reported that both memory and mental clarity were affected, a condition referred to as fibrofog. Dissociation in combination with fibrofog was associated with higher levels of FM symptom intensity and decreased mental well being. These findings suggest that dissociation may play a role in FM symptom amplification and may aid in comprehending the regularity of cognitive symptoms. Separating cases of fibrofog from cognitive conditions with actual brain damage is important. It may be prudent to add a test of dissociation as an adjunct to the evaluation of FM patients in cases of suspected fibrofog. Otherwise, test results may prove normal even in patients with disabling cognitive symptoms.

  18. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised: psychometric replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Dallas A; Cohen, Alex S; Matthews, Russell A; Dinzeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric screening and detection of schizotypy through the use of concise self-report assessment instruments such as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR; Cohen, Matthews, Najolia, & Brown, 2010) enables an expeditious identification of individuals at putatively elevated risk to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Using 2 large, culturally diverse, independent samples, this study expanded the psychometric evaluation of this instrument by presenting a series of confirmatory factor analyses; reviewing internal consistency reliabilities; and evaluating the construct validity of the scale by way of examining group differences in SPQ-BR scores between individuals with and without self-reported family histories of schizophrenia. The results indicate a 2-tier factor solution of the measure and indicate strong internal reliability for the scale. Findings regarding construct validity of the SPQ-BR are more variable with the Cognitive-Perceptual Deficits superordinate factor receiving the strongest evidentiary support. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Cognitive distortions in obese patients with or without eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Volery, M; Carrard, I; Rouget, P; Archinard, M; Golay, A

    2006-12-01

    In the normal weight population, cognitive distortions are more often found in people with eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia than in a control population. With these cognitive distortions, weight and body image become central elements in self-esteem. This exploratory study investigated cognitive distortions in obese patients suffering from binge eating disorder or not. The hypothesis was that the patients suffering from binge eating disorder would have more cognitive distortions. Twenty-nine obese women (11 without and 18 with binge eating disorder) and 13 non-obese female controls were selected. To evaluate the cognitive distortions, subjects completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions-Revised (MAC-R) questionnaire. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no difference in evidence between the two obese groups with or without eating disorders. Possible perspectives for treatment are discussed.

  20. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  1. Further validation of the driving vengeance questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, D A; Wiesenthal, D L

    2001-10-01

    The present study further validated the Driving Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ), assessing the frequency of past acts of severe and dangerous violent driving behaviors, as well as milder driver aggression measured in actual driving conditions. DVQ scores were predicted by driver violence, where vengeful drivers reported greater acts of past violence. DVQ scores were also predicted by mild driver aggression measured in high traffic congestion, such that vengeful drivers were more likely to exhibit mild aggression in high congestion conditions. Finally, the DVQ demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = 0.81), demonstrating the DVQ to be a reliable and valid measure of driving vengeance. PMID:11688930

  2. [Is it possible to assess attachment in children between three and six years using a questionnaire?].

    PubMed

    Zweyer, Karen

    2007-01-01

    So far the measurement of attachment of three to six year old children is only possible using time consuming behaviour observation or semiprojective play procedures. The aim of this work was to develop a more easily manageable questionnaire for practitioners to assess attachment in kindergarten children and to validate it by already existing more time-consuming attachment measures. Kindergarten entry was chosen as a natural stress inducing and thus attachment behaviour provoking situation using the professional caregivers in kindergarten as observers. To validate the questionnaire a sample of 118 kindergarten children were recruited. Cluster analysis revealed three groups comparable to secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment classifications but failed to identify a disorganized attachment group. Comparisons with other attachment measures (reunion in kindergarten, the Strange Situation for Preschool Children and the Attachment Story Completion Task) revealed only partially significant concordances. With regard to additionally assessed domains of social-emotional and cognitive development the expected coherences where found for behaviour problems, cognitive development and problems during kindergarten entry but not for self concept. Over all it was not possible to assess attachment using the questionnaire. Explanations are discussed and the results are compared to other research findings.

  3. Psychometric Properties of a Valuations Scale for the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Welch, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Given that marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance, identification of the role of potentially malleable cognitive factors in marijuana-related behaviors remains an important goal. The Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991) assesses marijuana effect expectancies that are differentially related to marijuana use and use-related problems. Evaluation of the desirability of marijuana effect expectancies may provide additional information regarding cognitions related to marijuana use behaviors. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Valuations Scale (MEEQ-V) which was developed for this study to assess the desirability of marijuana effect expectancies. The sample was comprised of 925 (73.0% female) undergraduate participants, 41.9% of whom endorsed lifetime marijuana use and 24.7% of whom reported current (past three-month) use. The MEEQ-V scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Most (but not all) MEEQ-V scales were correlated with their corresponding MEEQ scale. There was some support for convergent validity. MEEQ-V scales were differentially related to frequency of marijuana use and use-related problems. Most MEEQ-V scales were related to frequency of marijuana use above and beyond variance attributable to corresponding MEEQ scales. Results suggest that assessment of desirability of marijuana’s effects could provide unique and important information about cognitions related to marijuana use behaviors. PMID:23254209

  4. [Creating a specific quality-of-life questionnaire in patients with glaucoma: item generation].

    PubMed

    Rouland, J F; Denis, P; Béchetoille, A; Rigeade, M C; Brouquet, Y; Arnould, B; Baudouin, C; Renard, J P; Bron, A; Nordmann, J P; Sellem, E

    2002-10-01

    The methods for developing Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) measures and their application in medical research have demonstrated their utility in various chronic, progressive, or life-threatening diseases. The efforts made to allow the patient's perspective to be included in the methodological framework of evidence-based medicine have been successful. The assumption of a strong relationship between clinical status and daily life is certainly valid in ophthalmology. However, there is a lack of specific HRQoL measures dedicated to ophthalmic diseases. Our work aimed at creating the first Glaucoma-specific Quality of Life scale - the Glau-QoL questionnaire - to provide researchers and physicians with a comprehensive, practical, and validated tool. This article describes the first stage of the process, which consisted in generating items and formatting them in order to create a questionnaire that exhaustively covers the relevant concepts. The whole process was conducted by an expert committee including clinicians and methodologists. The standard recommendations in the development of a HRQoL questionnaire were followed: we first identified existing tools and performed a preliminary collection of concepts from the published literature; we then designed an interview guide with the help of clinicians; a trained psychologist interviewed 22 patients at various disease severity stages (from isolated hypertonic to severely impaired); the interviews were tape-recorded and scripted; general domains and related detailed concepts were identified from the script; they were then analyzed and organized; the format of the questionnaire was set up; and questions were derived from the patient's verbatim to capture the identified detailed concepts. The test questionnaire was applied to seven patients for cognitive debriefing. We finally amended the test questionnaire and designed the pilot questionnaire according to the patients' tests and the clinician's review. The test

  5. Thurstonian Scaling of Compositional Questionnaire Data.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To prevent response bias, personality questionnaires may use comparative response formats. These include forced choice, where respondents choose among a number of items, and quantitative comparisons, where respondents indicate the extent to which items are preferred to each other. The present article extends Thurstonian modeling of binary choice data to "proportion-of-total" (compositional) formats. Following the seminal work of Aitchison, compositional item data are transformed into log ratios, conceptualized as differences of latent item utilities. The mean and covariance structure of the log ratios is modeled using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), where the item utilities are first-order factors, and personal attributes measured by a questionnaire are second-order factors. A simulation study with two sample sizes, N = 300 and N = 1,000, shows that the method provides very good recovery of true parameters and near-nominal rejection rates. The approach is illustrated with empirical data from N = 317 students, comparing model parameters obtained with compositional and Likert-scale versions of a Big Five measure. The results show that the proposed model successfully captures the latent structures and person scores on the measured traits. PMID:27054408

  6. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported. PMID:24063082

  7. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported.

  8. Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables.

    PubMed

    Veas, Alejandro; Castejón, Juan-Luis; Gilar, Raquel; Miñano, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the predictive effects of intellectual ability, self-concept, goal orientations, learning strategies, popularity and parent involvement on academic achievement. Hierarchical regression analysis and path analysis were performed among a sample of 1398 high school students (mean age = 12.5; SD =.67) from eight education centers from the province of Alicante (Spain). Cognitive and non-cognitive variables were measured using validated questionnaires, whereas academic achievement was assessed using end-of-term grades obtained by students in nine subjects. The results revealed significant predictive effects of all of the variables. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all of the hypothesized relationships were significant. These findings support the importance of including non-cognitive variables along with cognitive variables when predicting a model of academic achievement.

  9. Describing Cognitive Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard T.

    This paper discusses questions pertinent to a definition of cognitive structure as the knowledge one possesses and the manner in which it is arranged, and considers how to select or devise methods of describing cognitive structure. The main purpose in describing cognitive structure is to see whether differences in memory (or cognitive structure)…

  10. Facial Attractiveness Assessment using Illustrated Questionnairers

    PubMed Central

    MESAROS, ANCA; CORNEA, DANIELA; CIOARA, LIVIU; DUDEA, DIANA; MESAROS, MICHAELA; BADEA, MINDRA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. An attractive facial appearance is considered nowadays to be a decisive factor in establishing successful interactions between humans. In relation to this topic, scientific literature states that some of the facial features have more impact then others, and important authors revealed that certain proportions between different anthropometrical landmarks are mandatory for an attractive facial appearance. Aim. Our study aims to assess if certain facial features count differently in people’s opinion while assessing facial attractiveness in correlation with factors such as age, gender, specific training and culture. Material and methods. A 5-item multiple choice illustrated questionnaire was presented to 236 dental students. The Photoshop CS3 software was used in order to obtain the sets of images for the illustrated questions. The original image was handpicked from the internet by a panel of young dentists from a series of 15 pictures of people considered to have attractive faces. For each of the questions, the images presented were simulating deviations from the ideally symmetric and proportionate face. The sets of images consisted in multiple variations of deviations mixed with the original photo. Junior and sophomore year students from our dental medical school, having different nationalities were required to participate in our questionnaire. Simple descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Results. Assessing the results obtained from the questionnaire it was observed that a majority of students considered as unattractive the overdevelopment of the lower third, while the initial image with perfect symmetry and proportion was considered as the most attractive by only 38.9% of the subjects. Likewise, regarding the symmetry 36.86% considered unattractive the canting of the inter-commissural line. The interviewed subjects considered that for a face to be attractive it needs to have harmonious proportions between the different facial

  11. Analysis of Test Takers' Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Multi-Sample SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Limei; Goh, Christine C. M.; Kunnan, Antony John

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between test takers' metacognitive and cognitive strategy use through a questionnaire and their test performance on an English as a Foreign Language reading test. A total of 593 Chinese college test takers responded to a 38-item metacognitive and cognitive strategy questionnaire and a 50-item reading…

  12. The ARSQ: the athletes' received support questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support. PMID:24686955

  13. A questionnaire to assess social stigma.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Tavormina, Romina; Nemoianni, Eugenio; Tavormina, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Psychiatric patients often suffer for two reasons: due to the illness and due to the social stigma of mental illness, that increases the uneasiness and psychic pain of the person suffering from serious psychiatric disorder. This unwell person is often the object of stigma because he is "different" from others, and he also can be margenalised by society. In this study we intend to assess whether these margenalising attitudes might be also present among mental health professionals who have presented psychic problems in a previous period of their life, against sick persons suffering of the same illness even if he is a mental health professional. Two questionnaires have been developed, one for professionals and another for the patients, with the aim of identifying these marginalising attitudes. We intend that this study shall be a multicenter, observational and international study, promoted by the Mental Health Dept. of Naples (ASL Naples 3 South, Italy).

  14. STOP-Bang questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Lorena Barbosa de Moraes; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Lima, Nathalia Meireles; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (STOP-Bang) questionnaire so that it can be used as a screening tool for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in Brazil. Methods: Based on the principles of good practice for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of such instruments, the protocol included the following steps: acquisition of authorization from the lead author of the original questionnaire; translation of the instrument to Brazilian Portuguese, carried out by two translators; reconciliation; back-translation to English, carried out by two English teachers who are fluent in Portuguese; review of the back-translation; harmonization; review and approval of the questionnaire by the original author; cognitive debriefing involving 14 patients who completed the questionnaire; analysis of the results; and review and preparation of the final version of the instrument approved by the review committee. Results: The final version of the STOP-Bang questionnaire for use in Brazil showed a clarity score > 9 (on a scale of 1-10) for all of the questions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.62, demonstrating the internal consistency of the instrument. The means and standard deviations of the age, body mass index, and neck circumference of the patients studied were 46.8 ± 11.2 years, 43.7 ± 8.5 kg/m2, and 41.3 ± 3.6 cm, respectively. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang questionnaire proved to be understandable, clear, and applicable. The original instrument and the translated version, cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, were consistently equivalent. Therefore, it can become a widely used screening tool for patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the multifactorial memory questionnaire for adults and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Raimo, S; Trojano, L; Siciliano, M; Cuoco, S; D'Iorio, A; Santangelo, F; Abbamonte, L; Grossi, D; Santangelo, G

    2016-05-01

    Reliable and valid metamemory measures are needed to assess subjective memory complaints that can be distinct from objective memory performance. The Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) evaluates dimensions of subjective memory functioning such as frequency of memory problems (Ability), affect related to memory abilities (Contentment), and strategy use in everyday life (Strategy). To examine the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the MMQ, six hundred Italian healthy individuals (aged 25-91 years) completed MMQ, a questionnaire assessing metacognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, CFQ) and two batteries assessing cognitive global status (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA; Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE). MMQ was easy to administer, acceptable, and had good test-retest reliability (r for the total MMQ score 0.95), and internal consistency (Cronbach's α for the total MMQ score = 0.83). An exploratory factor analysis provided a four-factor solution: "Ability" (α = 0.99), "Contentment" (α = 0.91), "External Strategies" (α = 0.85) and "Internal Strategies" (α = 0.78) factors. MMQ total score and MMQ-Ability factor score showed good convergent validity when compared to CFQ score (r rho ≥ 0.51), whereas MMQ total score and the four MMQ factors showed good divergent validity when compared to MoCA and MMSE score (r rho ≤ 0.27). Demographic variables significantly influenced MMQ total score and most subscale scores. From the derived linear equations, we computed correction factors for raw scores and percentile distribution of adjusted scores. The Italian version of MMQ is reliable and valid to assess dimensions of metamemory in adult and elderly subjects. PMID:27032401

  16. Systematic review: questionnaires for assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Bolier, E A; Kessing, B F; Smout, A J; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-01-01

    Numerous questionnaires with a wide variety of characteristics have been developed for the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Four well-defined dimensions are noticeable in these GERD questionnaires, which are symptoms, response to treatment, diagnosis, and burden on the quality of life of GERD patients. The aim of this review is to develop a complete overview of all available questionnaires, categorized per dimension of the assessment of GERD. A systematic search of the literature up to January 2013 using the Pubmed database and the Embase database, and search of references and conference abstract books were conducted. A total number of 65 questionnaires were extracted and evaluated. Thirty-nine questionnaires were found applicable for the assessment of GERD symptoms, three of which are generic gastrointestinal questionnaires. For the assessment of response to treatment, 14 questionnaires were considered applicable. Seven questionnaires with diagnostic purposes were found. In the assessment of quality of life in GERD patients, 18 questionnaires were found and evaluated. Twenty questionnaires were found to be used for more than one assessment dimension, and eight questionnaires were found for GERD assessment in infants and/or children. A wide variety of GERD questionnaires is available, of which the majority is used for assessment of GERD symptoms. Questionnaires differ in aspects such as design, validation and translations. Also, numerous multidimensional questionnaires are available, of which the Reflux Disease Questionnaire is widely applicable. We provided an overview of GERD questionnaires to aid investigators and clinicians in their search for the most appropriate questionnaire for their specific purposes.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44).

    PubMed

    Bortoncello, Cristiane Flôres; Braga, Daniela Tusi; Gomes, Juliana Braga; Souza, Fernanda Pasquoto de; Cordioli, Aristides Volpato

    2012-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) in 104 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The secondary objective was to ascertain whether a decline in OBQ-44 scores occurs after cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT). Factor analysis identified three dysfunctional belief domains from the original scale. Internal consistency and reproducibility were very good and good, respectively. Sensitivity to treatment change (cognitive-behavioral group therapy) was good, and pre-post intervention standardized effect sizes (Cohen's d) were strong. The OBQ-44 plays an important role in this setting; as a user-friendly, self-administered instrument that lists the most common dysfunctional beliefs of OCD patients, it enables healthcare providers to assess whether their patients' beliefs change after treatment.

  18. Diet History Questionnaire II & Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Web-based DHQ

    Cancer.gov

    The Web-based versions of DHQ II and C-DHQ II are identical in content to the paper forms. By automating the DHQ II and providing versions on the Web for public use, researchers have another tool to collect and analyze food frequency questionnaire data.

  19. An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:25071632

  20. Clinical Relevance of Specific Cognitive Complaints in Determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a Study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-Villanueva, Marina; Rebollo-Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M.; Valentí, Meritxell; Medina, Miguel; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI. Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely Forgetfulness of Immediate Information (FII), Executive Functions (EF) and Prospective Memory (PM) proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10). Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to use the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints. PMID:27757082

  1. The Development and Use of the Behavioral Pediatrics Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Nancy H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The development and use of a questionnaire assessing interpersonal attitudes relevant to pediatric practice are described. The Behavioral Pediatrics Questionnaire measures a wide array of beliefs ranging from attitudes toward physical disabilities to parenting and empathy. (TJH)

  2. Usual Dietary Intakes: NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)

    Cancer.gov

    NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

  3. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. PMID:23060125

  4. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments.

  5. Walking on the Borders: A Measure of Epistemic Cognition in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggioni, Liliana; VanSledright, Bruce; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors build on literature related to the development of epistemic cognition, research on historical thinking, and studies of individuals' epistemic beliefs. They designed this study to explore, develop, and test a measure of epistemic cognition in history. They administered the Beliefs about Learning and Teaching History Questionnaire to…

  6. Individual Cognitive Styles of University Students and Acquisition of Spanish as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokanson, Sonja G.

    2000-01-01

    Varying methodological conditions changed the emphasis of Spanish instruction for 212 English-speaking university students. Evaluation of the cognitive style preferences of first semester students via the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, Learning Styles Inventory, and a specially-designed questionnaire produced a single cognitive preference score.…

  7. Student Teacher Challenges: Using the Cognitive Load Theory as an Explanatory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Pitton, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) can explain the challenges faced by student teachers. This study, guided by the CLT, included 26 pre-service teachers. Participants completed a cognitive load self-report questionnaire and were interviewed at two points during their student teaching. Results revealed that student teachers decreased mental effort related…

  8. Everyday Cognitive Failures and Memory Problems in Parkinson's Patients without Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Ellen; Smith-Spark, James H.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that Parkinson's disease patients without dementia exhibit cognitive deficits in some executive, memory and selective attention tasks. However, the impact of these deficits on their everyday cognitive functioning remains largely unknown. This issue was explored using self-report questionnaires. Twenty-four Parkinson's…

  9. Cognitive and Emotional Components of Generalized Empathy Deficits in Child Molesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, W. L.; Maric, Alexandra

    1996-01-01

    Two scales were used to measure the cognitive (Hogan's Empathy Scale) and emotional (Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy) components of empathy. Results indicated that incarcerated child molesters (N=29) were, relative to nonoffenders, deficient in both the cognitive and emotional components of generalized empathy. Theoretical and treatment…

  10. Cultural Predictors of the Parenting Cognitions of Immigrant Chinese Mothers and Fathers in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, Catherine; Su, Tina F.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the predictors of parenting cognitions among 94 married immigrant Chinese couples with early-adolescent children in Canada. Mothers and fathers separately completed questionnaires assessing their culturally based parenting cognitions (interdependent childrearing goals, family obligation expectations and Chinese parent role…

  11. Associations between Private Speech, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…

  12. The Social Cognition of Gifted Adolescents in Schools: Managing the Stigma of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Coleman, Laurence J.; Terhaar-Yonkers, Marge

    2014-01-01

    A study of the effects of schooling on the social cognition of gifted adolescents is reported. A student attitude questionnaire (SAQ) exploring the cognitive behavioral strategies utilized to manage the stigma of giftedness was developed after conducting phenomenological interviews of fifteen gifted adolescents attending the Tennessee…

  13. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  14. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective Neuropsychological Performance in Manganese-Exposed Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical ...

  15. Questionnaire Surveys: Four Survey Instruments in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    This paper presents four questionnaire surveys administered in educational research. Each of the questionnaires is followed by a brief research report with an abstract and summary statistics. The first survey, "Guam Undergraduate Women Questionnaire," explores the status aspiration and gender awareness of undergraduate women in Guam. Responses of…

  16. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  17. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  18. How to avoid the pitfalls of questionnaire design.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, G

    This article discusses how questionnaires are constructed and used. Question choice and construction plus the allocation of codes to analyse answers are discussed. A second article on this subject, due to appear in Nursing Times on June 4, will examine questionnaire layout, issues of reliability and validity and questionnaire piloting. PMID:9188438

  19. 78 FR 47749 - Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... COMMISSION Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... request for approval of a questionnaire to the Office of Management and Budget for review. Purpose of Information Collection: The information requested by the questionnaire is for use by the Commission...

  20. 19 CFR 207.63 - Circulation of draft questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Circulation of draft questionnaires. 207.63... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Five-Year Reviews § 207.63 Circulation of draft questionnaires. (a) The Director shall circulate draft questionnaires to the parties for comment in each full review....

  1. Establishing the Validity and Reliability of Course Evaluation Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Leung, Doris Y. P.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the case of designing a new course questionnaire to discuss the issues of validity, reliability and diagnostic power in good questionnaire design. Validity is often not well addressed in course questionnaire design as there are no straightforward tests that can be applied to an individual instrument. The authors propose the…

  2. 75 FR 79009 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Questionnaire Cognitive Interview and Pretesting (NCI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget... institutions) and possibly, State, Local or Tribal Governments. The table below represents the burden over...

  3. 76 FR 12979 - Submission for OMB Review: Comment Request; Questionnaire Cognitive Interviewing and Pretesting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve the... Federal Register on December 17, 2010 (75 FR 79009) and allowed 60 days for public comment. No public..., focus groups, Pilot household interviews, and experimental research in laboratory and field...

  4. [The relationship between Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) and depression, anxiety: Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Ryota; Kitahara, Mizuho

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations between CERQ and depression, and anxiety and also aimed to reveal the characteristics of a Japanese sample through meta-analysis. The results showed that self-blame, acceptance, rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others had significantly positive correlations with both depression and anxiety, whereas positive refocusing, refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and putting into perspective had significantly negative correlations with both variables. Moreover, when comparing the correlation coefficients of the Japanese samples and the combined value, correlations between depression and positive reappraisal were significantly larger than the combined value. On the other hand, regarding the correlation coefficients of depression and putting into perspective, the combined value was larger than the value of Japanese samples. In addition, compared to the combined value, the Japanese sample's positive correlation between anxiety and rumination, and negative correlation between anxiety and positive reappraisal were larger. PMID:27476268

  5. Exploring Cognitive Diversity: Anthropological Perspectives on Cognition.

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive sciences currently maintain a troubled relationship (Beller, Bender, & Medin, ). What could rapprochement look like, and how could it be achieved? The seven main articles of this topic present anthropological or anthropologically inspired cross-cultural research on a diverse set of cognitive domains. They serve as an existence proof that not only do synergies abound across anthropology and the other cognitive sciences, but that they are worth achieving.

  6. Methamphetamine and paranoia: the methamphetamine experience questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Leamon, Martin H; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E; Nordahl, Thomas E; Kranzler, Henry R; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-01-01

    Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. Of the total subjects, 45% (123) first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia, respectively). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for MA-induced paranoia showed substantial agreement (kappa = .77, p < .05 and kappa = .80, p < .05, respectively). First episodes of paranoia occurred more often with intravenous use of MA, and subsequent episodes at higher doses. There was modest correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) paranoid ideation scale (rho = .27, p < .05). As expected, there was a poor correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI depression scale (rho = .14, p = .07). The MEQ provides useful information on drug use variables that contribute to paranoia commonly associated with MA use. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-14).

  7. Methamphetamine and Paranoia: The Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Leamon, Martin H.; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E.; Nordahl, Thomas E.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2011-01-01

    Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. METHODS: We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. RESULTS: 45% (123) subjects first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia, respectively). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for MA-induced paranoia showed substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77, p < 0.05 and kappa = 0.80, p < 0.05, respectively). First episodes of paranoia occurred more often with intravenous use of MA, and subsequent episodes at higher doses. There was modest correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI paranoid ideation scale (rho = 0.27, p < 0.05). As expected, there was a poor correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI depression scale (rho = 0.14, p = 0.07). The MEQ provides useful information on drug use variables that contribute to paranoia commonly associated with MA use. PMID:20163388

  8. Bisphosphonate use and health history questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Dao, Volong; Kraut, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    The health history form is a rapid, time-honored method used by practitioners to assess a patient's medical history before treatment. Because of increased reports of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ), we investigated the percentage of our patients taking oral bisphosphonates who actually reported taking the medication on our health history form. A questionnaire inquiring about bisphosphonate use was sent to 1,400 female patients who had undergone implant placement in the last five years. A total of 500 responses were received; of these, 112 reported they used bisphosphonates. We then reviewed the charts of the 112 patients to determine the percentage of patients who had included bisphosphonate use in their health history form. Only 35% of our patients who were using bisphosphonates had reported taking bisphosphonates on the health history form. With the difficulties in treating BRONJ, we strongly suggest including direct questions concerning bisphosphonate use in the medical history form so practitioners can identify the patient population that is at risk and can modify the treatment plan to avoid potentially disastrous clinical situations.

  9. Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: a study of cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; Cermáková, Radka; Cimermanová, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory. PMID:23717272

  10. [Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2010-01-01

    The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia

  11. Developing questionnaires for educational research: AMEE Guide No. 87

    PubMed Central

    La Rochelle, Jeffrey S.; Dezee, Kent J.; Gehlbach, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the design and development of self-administered surveys, commonly called questionnaires. Questionnaires are widely employed in medical education research. Unfortunately, the processes used to develop such questionnaires vary in quality and lack consistent, rigorous standards. Consequently, the quality of the questionnaires used in medical education research is highly variable. To address this problem, this AMEE Guide presents a systematic, seven-step process for designing high-quality questionnaires, with particular emphasis on developing survey scales. These seven steps do not address all aspects of survey design, nor do they represent the only way to develop a high-quality questionnaire. Instead, these steps synthesize multiple survey design techniques and organize them into a cohesive process for questionnaire developers of all levels. Addressing each of these steps systematically will improve the probabilities that survey designers will accurately measure what they intend to measure. PMID:24661014

  12. Developing questionnaires for educational research: AMEE Guide No. 87.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; La Rochelle, Jeffrey S; Dezee, Kent J; Gehlbach, Hunter

    2014-06-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the design and development of self-administered surveys, commonly called questionnaires. Questionnaires are widely employed in medical education research. Unfortunately, the processes used to develop such questionnaires vary in quality and lack consistent, rigorous standards. Consequently, the quality of the questionnaires used in medical education research is highly variable. To address this problem, this AMEE Guide presents a systematic, seven-step process for designing high-quality questionnaires, with particular emphasis on developing survey scales. These seven steps do not address all aspects of survey design, nor do they represent the only way to develop a high-quality questionnaire. Instead, these steps synthesize multiple survey design techniques and organize them into a cohesive process for questionnaire developers of all levels. Addressing each of these steps systematically will improve the probabilities that survey designers will accurately measure what they intend to measure.

  13. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age = 14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor…

  14. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

  15. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Aggression and Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Elizabeth; Perry, David G.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the social-cognitive functioning of aggressive and victimized elementary school children. A total of 149 fourth- through seventh-graders responded to a peer nomination inventory designed to assess children's tendencies toward aggression and victimization. Self-report questionnaires were then administered…

  16. Hemispheric Cognitive Style: A Comparison of Three Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovese, Jeremy E. C.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author tested the reliability, concurrent validity, and predictive validity of three hemispheric cognitive style instruments: (a) the Preference Test (PT; R. Zenhausern, 1978), (b) the Polarity Questionnaire (PQ; B. E. Morton, 2002), and (c) the Wagner Preference Inventory II (WAPI II; R. F. Wagner & K. A. Wells, 1985).…

  17. Cognitive Presence in a Virtual Learning Community: An EFL Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Mahboubeh

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the existence of cognitive presence as one of the elements of the Community of Inquiry framework in virtual centers for undergraduate students of science and technology. To achieve the purpose of this study, first a questionnaire was uniquely developed on the basis of the suggestions made in the literature reviewing…

  18. Measurement of Psychological Disorders Using Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Jonathan L.; Henson, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models are constrained (multiple classification) latent class models that characterize the relationship of questionnaire responses to a set of dichotomous latent variables. Having emanated from educational measurement, several aspects of such models seem well suited to use in psychological assessment and diagnosis. This article…

  19. Survey Measurement of Cognitive Activity during Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others

    One hundred seventy-one middle school students participated in a study to assess cognitive activity during television viewing. Students completed a questionnaire about their favorite programs, viewing habits, and social reality beliefs, then viewed a 17-minute professionally edited episode of a family drama and answered a multiple choice…

  20. Neural correlates of anosognosia for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Eric; Perani, Daniela; Herholz, Karl; Marique, Patricia; Kalbe, Elke; Holthoff, Vjera; Delbeuck, Xavier; Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Pelati, Oriana; Lespagnard, Solange; Collette, Fabienne; Garraux, Gaëtan

    2006-07-01

    We explored the neural substrate of anosognosia for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two hundred nine patients with mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers assessed patients' cognitive impairment by answering a structured questionnaire. Subjects rated 13 cognitive domains as not impaired or associated with mild, moderate, severe, or very severe difficulties, and a sum score was calculated. Two measures of anosognosia were derived. A patient's self assessment, unconfounded by objective measurements of cognitive deficits such as dementia severity and episodic memory impairment, provided an estimate of impaired self-evaluative judgment about cognition in AD. Impaired self-evaluation was related to a decrease in brain metabolism measured with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in orbital prefrontal cortex and in medial temporal structures. In a cognitive model of anosognosia, medial temporal dysfunction might impair a comparison mechanism between current information on cognition and personal knowledge. Hypoactivity in orbitofrontal cortex may not allow AD patients to update the qualitative judgment associated with their impaired cognitive abilities. Caregivers perceived greater cognitive impairments than patients did. The discrepancy score between caregiver's and patient's evaluations, an other measure of anosognosia, was negatively related to metabolic activity located in the temporoparietal junction, consistent with an impairment of self-referential processes and perspective taking in AD. PMID:16247783

  1. Personalizing Mortality Prediction With Psychosocial Questionnaire Data

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Weiss, Alexander; Fiscella, Kevin; Muennig, Peter; Kawachi, Ichiro; Duberstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting risk of premature death is one of the most basic tasks in medicine and public health, but has proven difficult over the long term even with the best prognostic models. One popular strategy has been to improve prognostic models with candidate genes and other novel biomarkers. However, the gains in predictive power have been modest and the costs have been high, leading to a demand for cost-effective alternatives. We conducted a proof-of-principle investigation to examine whether simple, cheap, and non-invasive paper-and-pencil measures of social class and personality phenotype could improve the performance of one of the most widely used prediction models for all-cause mortality, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Methods We used data from baseline and 25-year mortality follow-up of the UK Health and Lifestyle Study cohort. In a subset of the cohort, we first identified five psychosocial factors highly predictive of mortality: income, education, Type A personality, communalism (preference for the company of others), and “lie” scale (a measure of denial, putatively associated with ill-health). We then examined the predictive performance of the Charlson CCI with and without these measures in a validation subsample. Results Across 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25-year time horizons, the psychosocially augmented CCI showed substantially better discrimination (AUCs (95% CI) from .83 (.81, .85) to .84 (.83 .86)) than the CCI (AUCs from .74 (.71, .76) to .77 (.76 to .79)). These translated into net reclassification improvements from 27% (23%, 31%) to 35% (32%, 38%) of survivors and from 23% (17%, 30%) to 34% (17%, 30%) of decedents; and 23%–42% reductions in the Number Needed to Screen. Calibration improved at all time horizons except 25 years, where it was decreased. Conclusion Widespread attempts to improve prognostic models might consider not only novel biomarkers, but also psychosocial questionnaire measures. PMID:26421372

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Social Anxiety - Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Esmail; Bahrainian, Seyed Abdolmajid; Masjedi Arani, Abbas; Farhoudian, Ali; Gachkar, Latif

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder is often related to specific impairment or distress in different areas of life, including occupational, social and family settings. Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the persian version of the social anxiety-acceptance and action questionnaire (SA-AAQ) in university students. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 324 students from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences participated via the cluster sampling method during year 2015. Factor analysis by the principle component analysis method, internal consistency analysis, and convergent and divergent validity were conducted to examine the validity of the SA-AAQ. To calculate the reliability of the SA-AAQ, Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability were used. Results The results from factor analysis by principle component analysis method yielded three factors that were named acceptance, action and non-judging of experience. The three-factor solution explained 51.82% of the variance. Evidence for the internal consistency of SA-AAQ was obtained via calculating correlations between SA-AAQ and its subscales. Support for convergent and discriminant validity of the SA-AAQ via its correlations with the acceptance and action questionnaire - II, social interaction anxiety scale, cognitive fusion questionnaire, believability of anxious feelings and thoughts questionnaire, valued living questionnaire and WHOQOL- BREF was obtained. The reliability of the SA-AAQ via calculating Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest coefficients yielded values of 0.84 and 0.84, respectively. Conclusions The Iranian version of the SA-AAQ has acceptable levels of psychometric properties in university students. The SA-AAQ is a valid and reliable measure to be utilized in research investigations and therapeutic interventions. PMID:27803719

  3. Validation of a questionnaire to measure mastery motivation among Chinese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Further, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive sub-test of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed the task and effort motivation scales, as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Their teachers also completed the task and effort motivation scales. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales. The parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales correlated positively with the PDAS cognitive sub-test and the SDQ prosocial scale scores, and negatively with the SDQ total problem behavior scores. Children with developmental disabilities were assigned lower scores by their teachers and parents on the two motivation scales, compared with children with typical development. Reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales were above .70. The results suggested that the task and effort motivation scales were promising instruments for the assessment of motivation among Chinese preschool children.

  4. The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire: A Cross-national Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Bova, Nicoletta; De Jonge, Jan; Guglielmi, Dina

    2015-08-01

    The demand-induced strain compensation model is a theoretical job stress model that has been tested in different kinds of empirical study in several countries. To measure key concepts in the model (job demands and job resources), the demand-induced strain compensation questionnaire (DISQ) was developed and has been used in many empirical studies. However, most studies neither focused on the psychometric properties of the DISQ nor tested it cross-nationally. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the DISQ tested on Italian (n = 422) and Dutch (n = 1629) employees. Results indicated that the six-factor model, consisting of cognitive, emotional and physical job demands as well as cognitive, emotional and physical job resources, provided a better fit to the data than an alternative two-factor model (demands and resources only). Findings were invariant across Italian and Dutch samples. Internal consistencies were satisfactory. Additionally, the six dimensions of DISQ were found to be meaningfully related to employee active learning behaviour, emotional exhaustion and musculoskeletal disorders. Results suggest the DISQ questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the proposed dimensions of job demands and job resources in both Italian and Dutch work contexts. PMID:26252420

  5. What do people think about when they answer theory of planned behaviour questionnaires? A 'think aloud' study.

    PubMed

    French, David P; Cooke, Richard; McLean, Nikky; Williams, Merroney; Sutton, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    Two studies aiming to identify the nature and extent of problems that people have when completing theory of planned behaviour (TPB) questionnaires, using a cognitive interviewing approach are reported. Both studies required participants to 'think aloud' as they completed TPB questionnaires about: (a) increasing physical activity (six general public participants); and (b) binge drinking (13 students). Most people had no identifiable problems with the majority of questions. However, there were problems common to both studies, relating to information retrieval and to participants answering different questions from those intended by researchers. Questions about normative influence were particularly problematic. The standard procedure for developing TPB questionnaires may systematically produce problematic questions. Suggestions are made for improving this procedure.

  6. Measuring the effects of online health information for patients: Item generation for an e-health impact questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Ziebland, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective The internet is a valuable resource for accessing health information and support. We are developing an instrument to assess the effects of websites with experiential and factual health information. This study aimed to inform an item pool for the proposed questionnaire. Methods Items were informed through a review of relevant literature and secondary qualitative analysis of 99 narrative interviews relating to patient and carer experiences of health. Statements relating to identified themes were re-cast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n = 21) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results Eighty-two generic items were identified following secondary qualitative analysis and expert review. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, 62 items and the response options were acceptable to patients and carers. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 62 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. Practice implications The final questionnaire will initially be used in a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of online patient's experiences. This will inform recommendations on the best way to present patients’ experiences within health information websites. PMID:23598293

  7. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  8. Interactive Team Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  9. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize effective…

  10. Mapping Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Rosen, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. A unifying theme of this chapter is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies. PMID:17983964

  11. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  12. Translation into Portuguese of questionnaires to assess knee injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury. PMID:24453685

  13. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD - a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-09-07

    In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing.

  14. Cognitive styles and visual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik

    2013-03-01

    Assessors are the main measurement instruments in subjective quality evaluation studies. Although the perceptual abilities and constrains are influenced by multiple demographic and psychographic factors, they are typically disregarded as a part of quality assessment. Cognitive styles refer to individual's consistent approaches to organize and represent information. Goal of this study is to explore the impact of cognitive styles on visual quality requirements. The data collection is conducted using the Style of Processing (SOP) questionnaire in three video quality experiments with a total of 72 participants. All participants were categorized into four groups according to sensorial preferences in information processing (visual, verbal, bimodal - high processing, and bimodal - low processing). The experiments were conducted in controlled circumstances when varying depth in video quality with several content types on the mobile device. The results show variation in quality requirements between these groups. Finally, these results also indicate that sensorial processing styles are essential to explore for sample characterization in quality evaluation experiments and for exploring more user-aware quality adjustments in future services and products.

  15. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Dummett, Sarah; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Morley, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and to assess its psychometric properties. The final instrument is intended for use in clinical trials and interventions targeted at maintaining or improving activity and participation. PMID:26056503

  16. Utility of brief questionnaires of health-related quality of life (Airways Questionnaire 20 and Clinical COPD Questionnaire) to predict exacerbations in patients with asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is some evidence that quality of life measured by long disease-specific questionnaires may predict exacerbations in asthma and COPD, however brief quality of life tools, such as the Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20) or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), have not yet been evaluated as predictors of hospital exacerbations. Objectives To determine the ability of brief specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires (AQ20 and CCQ) to predict emergency department visits (ED) and hospitalizations in patients with asthma and COPD, and to compare them to longer disease-specific questionnaires, such as the St George´s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Methods We conducted a two-year prospective cohort study of 208 adult patients (108 asthma, 100 COPD). Baseline sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological variables were assessed. All patients completed the AQ20 and the SGRQ. COPD patients also completed the CCQ and the CRQ, while asthmatic patients completed the AQLQ. We registered all exacerbations that required ED or hospitalizations in the follow-up period. Differences between groups (zero ED visits or hospitalizations versus ≥ 1 ED visits or hospitalizations) were tested with Pearson´s X2 or Fisher´s exact test for categorical variables, ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables, and Mann–Whitney U test for non-normally distributed variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the predictive ability of each HRQoL questionnaire. Results In the first year of follow-up, the AQ20 scores predicted both ED visits (OR: 1.19; p = .004; AUC 0.723) and hospitalizations (OR: 1.21; p = .04; AUC 0.759) for asthma patients, and the CCQ emerged as independent predictor of ED visits in COPD patients (OR: 1.06; p = .036; AUC 0.651), after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and

  17. Development and testing of a questionnaire to measure patient satisfaction with intermediate care

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A; Hewitt, G; Matthews, R; Richards, S H; Shepperd, S

    2006-01-01

    Background Individual trials have suggested high levels of general patient satisfaction with intermediate care, but this topic has not been examined in detail. Aims To identify the key elements of patient satisfaction with intermediate care, and to see whether these can be validly measured using a questionnaire. Method A questionnaire was developed on the basis of a literature review and piloting with patients and staff on participating schemes (phase I). In phase II, the questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability in a group of patients recently discharged from two “hospital‐at‐home” intermediate‐care schemes. In phase III, a shortened version of the questionnaire was psychometrically tested in five sites taking part in a national evaluation of intermediate care. Results 96 patients with an average age of 76.5 years took part in phase II. Test–retest reliability was evaluated by repeating the questionnaire 2 weeks later in a subsample of 42 patients. This was “moderate” (κ 0.4–0.6) for 12 questions, “fair” (κ 0.2–0.4) for 6 questions and “poor” (κ 0.1–0.2) for 5 questions. Scores correlated well with the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (Spearman's r = 0.75, p<0.001). 843 patients (57% of those eligible) from five intermediate‐care schemes took part in phase III. Principal components analysis suggested six factors or subscales: general satisfaction, affective response, cognitive response, timing of discharge, coordination after discharge, and access to pain relief, although the last three factors comprised only one question each. The intraclass correlation coefficients in the first three subscales varied from 0.82 to 0.89. Scores for all subscales differed by scheme, suggesting construct validity. Only one question (on general satisfaction) was found to be redundant. Conclusion The questionnaire, with some minor amendments to improve performance, could be used as a validated tool for audit and research in

  18. Cannabis expectancies in substance misusers: French validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Guillem, Eric; Notides, Christine; Vorspan, Florence; Debray, Marcel; Nieto, Isabel; Leroux, Mayliss; Lépine, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (48 items) and study the cannabis expectancies according to the patterns of substance use and psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV). A sample of 263 subjects (average age 33.1 years [SD = 8.7], 56% men) consisting of cannabis users (n = 64), psychiatric inpatients (n = 175, most of whom were hospitalized for withdrawal), and a control group (n = 24) completed the questionnaire. Internal reliability was good (α= .87) and temporal reliability was satisfactory, with 24 of 48 items having a significant κ ≥ .41. Factor analysis showed four main factors that explained 42.1% of the total variance. The women feared Cognitive Impairment and Negative Effects, and Negative Behavioral Effects more than the men. The onset age of cannabis use, onset age of abuse, abuse and dependence were associated with fewer negative expectancies. Cannabis dependents differed from abusers by more Relaxation and Social Facilitation expectancies. Patients with major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder feared negative effects the most. Schizophrenic patients expected more Perceptual Enhancement and Craving. The French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and is valid to assess cannabis expectancies in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders.

  19. Factor analyses of two 'attitude toward gender role' questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Stevens, G; Gardner, S; Barton, E

    1984-06-01

    Two questionnaires which purport to assess attitudes toward gender role, the Maferr Inventory of Feminine Values and the Sex Stereotype Questionnaire, were submitted to a factor analysis. While each analysis of the five response set items yielded interpretable factors with unequivocal item scores, the obtained factors are not consistent with the a priori assignment of items to "groupings" suggested by the manuals for these instruments. The implications of using questionnaires with questionable psychometric properties is discussed.

  20. The tractable cognition thesis.

    PubMed

    Van Rooij, Iris

    2008-09-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories of cognition. To utilize this constraint, a precise and workable definition of "computational tractability" is needed. Following computer science tradition, many cognitive scientists and psychologists define computational tractability as polynomial-time computability, leading to the P-Cognition thesis. This article explains how and why the P-Cognition thesis may be overly restrictive, risking the exclusion of veridical computational-level theories from scientific investigation. An argument is made to replace the P-Cognition thesis by the FPT-Cognition thesis as an alternative formalization of the Tractable Cognition thesis (here, FPT stands for fixed-parameter tractable). Possible objections to the Tractable Cognition thesis, and its proposed formalization, are discussed, and existing misconceptions are clarified.

  1. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are pervasive, severe, and largely independent of the positive and negative symptoms of the illness. These deficits are increasingly considered to be core features of schizophrenia with evidence that the extent of cognitive impairment is the most salient predictor of daily functioning. Unfortunately, current schizophrenia treatment has been limited in addressing the cognitive deficits of the illness. Alterations in neuroplasticity are hypothesized to underpin these cognitive deficits, though preserved neuroplasticity may offer an avenue towards cognitive remediation. Key neuroplastic principles to consider in designing remediation interventions include ensuring sufficient intensity and duration of remediation programs, "bottom-up" training that proceeds from simple to complex cognitive processes, and individual tailoring of remediation regimens. We discuss several cognitive remediation programs, including cognitive enhancement therapy, which embrace these principles to target neurocognitive and social cognitive improvements and which havebeen demonstrated to be effective in schizophrenia. Future directions in cognitive remediation research include potential synergy with pharmacologic treatment, non-invasive stimulation techniques, and psychosocial interventions, identification of patient characteristics that predict outcome with cognitive remediation, and increasing the access to these interventions in front-line settings. PMID:23430145

  2. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  3. Predicting Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Subtypes Using Cognitive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Zahra; Mohammadi, Nourollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have emphasized the important role of cognitive beliefs in etiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD has different subtypes, but the specific role of cognitive beliefs in OCD symptomatology is not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the cognitive factors proposed by Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG) could specifically predict subtypes of OCD. Method: The question was investigated in a sample of 208 university students (mean age = 21, SD = 1.6). The target population was selected by cluster sampling. All participants completed two questionnaires including Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) and Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results: Regression analysis demonstrated that “responsibility/ threat over estimation” was a significant predictor of obsessive and compulsive behaviors and predicted washing, checking, obsessing, hoarding, and neutralizing subtypes of OCD. Furthermore, “perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty” was the most significant predictor of ordering and hoarding while “importance/ control of thought” predicted ordering only. Conclusion: This study found evidence in support of Salkovskis’ cognitive theory about the central role of inflated responsibility beliefs in developing different subtypes of OCD. Besides, the results revealed those other cognitive beliefs had less important role in the development of OCD symptoms. PMID:27437003

  4. Depression in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Laurel D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Marano, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer’s pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms. PMID:23933974

  5. Comparative cognition for conservationists

    PubMed Central

    Greggor, Alison L.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Phalan, Ben; Thornton, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Every animal occupies a unique cognitive world based on its sensory capacities, and attentional and learning biases. Behaviour results from the interaction of this cognitive world with the environment. As humans alter environments, cognitive processes ranging from perceptual processes to learned behaviour govern animals’ reactions. By harnessing animals’ perceptual biases and applying insights from cognitive theory, we can purposefully alter cues to reduce maladaptive responses and shape behaviour. Despite the fundamental connection between cognition and behaviour, the breadth of cognitive theory is underutilised in conservation practice. Bridging these disciplines could augment existing conservation efforts targeting animal behaviour. We outline relevant principles of perception and learning, and develop a step-by-step process for applying aspects of cognition towards specific conservation issues. PMID:25043737

  6. Cognition enhancement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bibb, James A; Mayford, Mark R; Tsien, Joe Z; Alberini, Cristina M

    2010-11-10

    Many mental disorders and neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases involve cognitive deficits. Remarkable advances and new technologies are providing a clearer picture of the molecular basis of cognition. In conjunction with an SFN2010 symposium, we provided here a brief overview of the molecular mechanisms of cognition, with emphasis on the development of treatments for cognitive disorders. Activity-dependent changes in gene expression and protein synthesis integrate with synapse selection to form memory circuits. A neuronal activity-dependent molecular tagging system that uses the gene expression program to record memory circuit formation represents one new tool to study cognition. Regulation of protein translation, protein degradation, cytoskeletal dynamics, extracellular matrix interactions, second messenger signaling, and neurotransmitter receptor trafficking and function are all components of synaptic remodeling essential for cognition. Selective targeting of specific effectors in these processes, such as NMDA receptors, may serve as an effective strategy to treat cognitive deficits.

  7. The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: short form.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Waters, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested. PMID:15826405

  8. Development and validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: a measure of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Killian, Kyle D

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to 1,406 undergraduate psychology students. The ESQ was reduced from 118 to 60 items via factor and reliability analyses, retaining 11 subscales and a normal score distribution with a reliability of .92. The ESQ had significant positive correlations with the Emotional Intelligence Test and positive affect, significant negative correlations with alexithymia and negative affect, and an insignificant correlation with cognitive ability. The ESQ accounted for 35% of the variance in life satisfaction over and above the Big Five, cognitive ability, and self-esteem, and demonstrated incremental validity in explaining GPA and leadership aspirations. The significance of emotional intelligence as a unique contributor to psychological well-being and performance, and applications for the ESQ in assessment and outcome research in couple and family therapy are discussed. PMID:22804468

  9. The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: short form.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Waters, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested.

  10. Using a structured questionnaire improves seizure description by medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Saher; Shah, Hemang; McNair, Nancy; Pruitt, J. Ned; Murro, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a structured questionnaire for improving a medical students’ ability to identify, describe and interpret a witnessed seizure. Methods Ninety two 3rd year medical students, blinded to seizure diagnosis, viewed videos of a primary generalized seizure and a complex partial seizure.  Students next completed an unstructured questionnaire that asked the students to describe the seizure video recordings. The students then completed a structured questionnaire that asked the student to respond to 17 questions regarding specific features occurring during the seizures.  We determined the number and types of correct responses for each questionnaire. Results Overall, the structured questionnaire was more effective in eliciting an average of 9.25 correct responses compared to the unstructured questionnaire eliciting an average of 5.30 correct responses (p < 0.001). Additionally, 10 of the 17 seizure features were identified more effectively with the structured questionnaire. Potentially confounding factors, prior knowledge of someone with epilepsy or a prior experience of viewing a seizure, did not predict the student’s ability to correctly identify any of the 17 features. Conclusions A structured questionnaire significantly improves a medical student’s ability to provide an accurate clinical description of primary generalized and complex partial witnessed seizures. Our analysis identified the 10 specific features improved by using the structured questionnaire. PMID:26752118

  11. Increasing honest responding on cognitive distortions in child molesters: the bogus pipeline revisited.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; Keown, Kirsten; Polaschek, Devon L L

    2007-03-01

    Questionnaires are relied upon by forensic psychologists, clinicians, researchers, and social services to assess child molesters' (CMs') offense-supportive beliefs (or cognitive distortions). In this study, we used an experimental procedure to evaluate whether extrafamilial CMs underreported their questionnaire-assessed beliefs. At time one, 41 CMs were questionnaire-assessed under standard conditions (i.e., they were free to impression manage). At time two, CMs were questionnaire-assessed again; 18 were randomly attached to a convincing fake lie detector (a bogus pipeline), the others were free to impression manage. The results showed that bogus pipeline CMs significantly increased cognitive distortion endorsements compared to their own previous endorsements, and their control counterparts' endorsements. The findings are the first experimental evidence showing that CMs consciously depress their scores on transparent questionnaires. PMID:17235701

  12. Increasing honest responding on cognitive distortions in child molesters: the bogus pipeline revisited.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; Keown, Kirsten; Polaschek, Devon L L

    2007-03-01

    Questionnaires are relied upon by forensic psychologists, clinicians, researchers, and social services to assess child molesters' (CMs') offense-supportive beliefs (or cognitive distortions). In this study, we used an experimental procedure to evaluate whether extrafamilial CMs underreported their questionnaire-assessed beliefs. At time one, 41 CMs were questionnaire-assessed under standard conditions (i.e., they were free to impression manage). At time two, CMs were questionnaire-assessed again; 18 were randomly attached to a convincing fake lie detector (a bogus pipeline), the others were free to impression manage. The results showed that bogus pipeline CMs significantly increased cognitive distortion endorsements compared to their own previous endorsements, and their control counterparts' endorsements. The findings are the first experimental evidence showing that CMs consciously depress their scores on transparent questionnaires.

  13. Syntax for calculation of discounting indices from the monetary choice questionnaire and probability discounting questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua C; Amlung, Michael T; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James

    2016-09-01

    The 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ; Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999) and 30-item Probability Discounting Questionnaire (PDQ; Madden, Petry, & Johnson, 2009) are widely used, validated measures of preferences for immediate versus delayed rewards and guaranteed versus risky rewards, respectively. The MCQ measures delayed discounting by asking individuals to choose between rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after a delay. The PDQ measures probability discounting by asking individuals to choose between guaranteed rewards and a chance at winning larger rewards. Numerous studies have implicated these measures in addiction and other health behaviors. Unlike typical self-report measures, the MCQ and PDQ generate inferred hyperbolic temporal and probability discounting functions by comparing choice preferences to arrays of functions to which the individual items are preconfigured. This article provides R and SPSS syntax for processing the MCQ and PDQ. Specifically, for the MCQ, the syntax generates k values, consistency of the inferred k, and immediate choice ratios; for the PDQ, the syntax generates h indices, consistency of the inferred h, and risky choice ratios. The syntax is intended to increase the accessibility of these measures, expedite the data processing, and reduce risk for error. PMID:27644448

  14. Syntax for calculation of discounting indices from the monetary choice questionnaire and probability discounting questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua C; Amlung, Michael T; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James

    2016-09-01

    The 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ; Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999) and 30-item Probability Discounting Questionnaire (PDQ; Madden, Petry, & Johnson, 2009) are widely used, validated measures of preferences for immediate versus delayed rewards and guaranteed versus risky rewards, respectively. The MCQ measures delayed discounting by asking individuals to choose between rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after a delay. The PDQ measures probability discounting by asking individuals to choose between guaranteed rewards and a chance at winning larger rewards. Numerous studies have implicated these measures in addiction and other health behaviors. Unlike typical self-report measures, the MCQ and PDQ generate inferred hyperbolic temporal and probability discounting functions by comparing choice preferences to arrays of functions to which the individual items are preconfigured. This article provides R and SPSS syntax for processing the MCQ and PDQ. Specifically, for the MCQ, the syntax generates k values, consistency of the inferred k, and immediate choice ratios; for the PDQ, the syntax generates h indices, consistency of the inferred h, and risky choice ratios. The syntax is intended to increase the accessibility of these measures, expedite the data processing, and reduce risk for error.

  15. The Latvian version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

    PubMed

    Rumba, I; Ruperto, N; Bikis, E; Remberga, S; Saulite, I; Plotkina, N; Viksna, A; Krauca, M; Breca, I; Vikmanis, U

    2001-01-01

    We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Latvian language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Latvian CHAQ CHQ were fully validated with 1 forward and 1 backward translations. A total of 141 subjects were enrolled: 80 patients with JIA (16% systemic onset, 32.5% polyarticular onset, 19% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 32.5% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 61 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic, polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Latvian version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA.

  16. Development of a questionnaire to assess medical competencies: Reliability and validity of the Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Giesler, Marianne; Forster, Johannes; Biller, Silke; Fabry, Götz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: While preparing a graduate survey for medical education in 2008 we realized that no instrument existed that would be suitable to evaluate whether the learning outcomes outlined in the Medical Licensure Act (ÄAppO) would be met. Therefore we developed the Freiburg Questionnaire to Assess Competencies in Medicine (Freiburger Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Kompetenzen in der Medizin, FKM)1 which has been revised and extended several times since then. Currently the FKM includes 45 items which are assigned to nine domains that correspond to the CanMEDS roles: medical expertise, communication, team-work, health and prevention, management, professionalism, learning, scholarship, and personal competencies. Methods: In order to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire we have repeatedly surveyed medical students and residents since May 2008. In this article we report on the results of a cross-sectional study with 698 medical students from the preclinical and clinical years. In addition, we report the results of a survey of 514 residents who were up to two years into their residency. Results and conclusions: In summary, results show that the scales of the FKM are reliable (Cronbach’s α between .68 and .97). Significant differences in means between selected groups of students support the measure’s construct validity. Furthermore, there is evidence that the FKM might be used as a screening tool e.g. in graduate surveys to identify weaknesses in the medical education curriculum. PMID:21818241

  17. Different Dimensions of Cognitive Style in Typical and Atypical Cognition: New Evidence and a New Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Mealor, Andy D.; Simner, Julia; Rothen, Nicolas; Carmichael, Duncan A.; Ward, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    We developed the Sussex Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (SCSQ) to investigate visual and verbal processing preferences and incorporate global/local processing orientations and systemising into a single, comprehensive measure. In Study 1 (N = 1542), factor analysis revealed six reliable subscales to the final 60 item questionnaire: Imagery Ability (relating to the use of visual mental imagery in everyday life); Technical/Spatial (relating to spatial mental imagery, and numerical and technical cognition); Language & Word Forms; Need for Organisation; Global Bias; and Systemising Tendency. Thus, we replicate previous findings that visual and verbal styles are separable, and that types of imagery can be subdivided. We extend previous research by showing that spatial imagery clusters with other abstract cognitive skills, and demonstrate that global/local bias can be separated from systemising. Study 2 validated the Technical/Spatial and Language & Word Forms factors by showing that they affect performance on memory tasks. In Study 3, we validated Imagery Ability, Technical/Spatial, Language & Word Forms, Global Bias, and Systemising Tendency by issuing the SCSQ to a sample of synaesthetes (N = 121) who report atypical cognitive profiles on these subscales. Thus, the SCSQ consolidates research from traditionally disparate areas of cognitive science into a comprehensive cognitive style measure, which can be used in the general population, and special populations. PMID:27191169

  18. Different Dimensions of Cognitive Style in Typical and Atypical Cognition: New Evidence and a New Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Mealor, Andy D; Simner, Julia; Rothen, Nicolas; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ward, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    We developed the Sussex Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (SCSQ) to investigate visual and verbal processing preferences and incorporate global/local processing orientations and systemising into a single, comprehensive measure. In Study 1 (N = 1542), factor analysis revealed six reliable subscales to the final 60 item questionnaire: Imagery Ability (relating to the use of visual mental imagery in everyday life); Technical/Spatial (relating to spatial mental imagery, and numerical and technical cognition); Language & Word Forms; Need for Organisation; Global Bias; and Systemising Tendency. Thus, we replicate previous findings that visual and verbal styles are separable, and that types of imagery can be subdivided. We extend previous research by showing that spatial imagery clusters with other abstract cognitive skills, and demonstrate that global/local bias can be separated from systemising. Study 2 validated the Technical/Spatial and Language & Word Forms factors by showing that they affect performance on memory tasks. In Study 3, we validated Imagery Ability, Technical/Spatial, Language & Word Forms, Global Bias, and Systemising Tendency by issuing the SCSQ to a sample of synaesthetes (N = 121) who report atypical cognitive profiles on these subscales. Thus, the SCSQ consolidates research from traditionally disparate areas of cognitive science into a comprehensive cognitive style measure, which can be used in the general population, and special populations. PMID:27191169

  19. Cognition as coordinated non-cognition.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W; Breazeal, Cynthia; Smith, Linda B

    2007-06-01

    We propose that cognition is more than a collection of independent processes operating in a modular cognitive system. Instead, we propose that cognition emerges from dependencies between all of the basic systems in the brain, including goal management, perception, action, memory, reward, affect, and learning. Furthermore, human cognition reflects its social evolution and context, as well as contributions from a developmental process. After presenting these themes, we illustrate their application to the process of anticipation. Specifically, we propose that anticipations occur extensively across domains (i.e., goal management, perception, action, reward, affect, and learning) in coordinated manners. We also propose that anticipation is central to situated action and to social interaction, and that many of its key features reflect the process of development.

  20. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Nursing Low Back Pain Predictor Questionnaire Focusing on Nurses Suffering from Chronic Low Back Pain in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyani, Leila; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Wagner, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Development and psychometric evaluation. Purpose Design and psychometric assessment of the Nursing Low Back Pain Predictor Questionnaire addressing nurses suffering from chronic low back pain in Iran. Overview of Literature Low back pain is the most prevalent behavior-related health problem among nurses, and it needs to be assessed through a validated multi-factorial questionnaire, using the premises of the social cognitive theory. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Tehran, Iran from April 17, 2014 to July 16, 2014. A 50-item questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory was generated. The questionnaire was distributed among 500 nurses working in hospitals located in different geographically areas in Tehran. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factors and their related items. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess reliability. Results The exploratory factor analysis loaded six factors, named observational learning, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-efficacy in overcoming impediments in the working environment and emotional coping. All factors were jointly accounted for 67.12% of behavior change variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.91). Test and retest analysis with 2-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the questionnaire (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.94). Conclusions According the results, the developed questionnaire is a reliable and validated theory-based instrument, which can be used to predict the work, related factors for low back pain among nurses. PMID:27559450

  1. Positive association between trait impulsivity and high gambling-related cognitive biases among college students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuping; Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Li, Hangui; Li, Mulei

    2016-09-30

    The present study examined whether people with high gambling-related cognitive bias are more likely to have higher levels of impulsivity than are those with low gambling-related cognitive bias. We used Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11, Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and the Iowa gambling task to explore differences in impulsivity between high and low gambling-related cognitive bias groups. Extreme group design was applied. 110 participants (high gambling related cognition group=58, low one=52) were recruited to complete the gambling related cognition scale, impulsivity self-rating scales and Iowa gambling task. Impulsivity self-rating scores were higher among subjects with high than among those with low gambling-related cognitive bias. Compared with individuals with low gambling-related cognitive bias, those with high levels of such bias showed greater degrees of trait impulsivity. We are unable to identify group differences on IGT. State and trait impulsivity may be dissociated.

  2. Evaluating an Online Cognitive Training Platform for Older Adults: User Experience and Implementation Requirements.

    PubMed

    Haesner, Marten; Steinert, Anika; O'Sullivan, Julie Lorraine; Weichenberger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Decline of cognitive function is a part of aging. However, intensive cognitive training can improve important cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Because existing systems are not older adult-friendly and are usually not based on scientific evidence, an online platform was developed for cognitive training with information and communication features and evaluated in an 8-week field test. In a randomized clinical trial with 80 older adults, findings from log data analysis and questionnaires revealed a good use of the online platform. Communication or assistive features were not used often. Good usability ratings were given to the cognitive exercises. Subjective improvements of cognitive functions due to the training were reported. The current article presents concrete requirements and recommendations for deploying cognitive training software in older adult residential homes.

  3. Positive association between trait impulsivity and high gambling-related cognitive biases among college students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuping; Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Li, Hangui; Li, Mulei

    2016-09-30

    The present study examined whether people with high gambling-related cognitive bias are more likely to have higher levels of impulsivity than are those with low gambling-related cognitive bias. We used Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11, Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and the Iowa gambling task to explore differences in impulsivity between high and low gambling-related cognitive bias groups. Extreme group design was applied. 110 participants (high gambling related cognition group=58, low one=52) were recruited to complete the gambling related cognition scale, impulsivity self-rating scales and Iowa gambling task. Impulsivity self-rating scores were higher among subjects with high than among those with low gambling-related cognitive bias. Compared with individuals with low gambling-related cognitive bias, those with high levels of such bias showed greater degrees of trait impulsivity. We are unable to identify group differences on IGT. State and trait impulsivity may be dissociated. PMID:27371802

  4. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  5. Applying the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to the analysis of cognitive and family influences on children's dental fear.

    PubMed

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Negative experiences, cognitions, and family variables are involved in the etiology of child dental fear, but previous research has frequently considered them separately. This study uses the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to explore the influence of negative dental experiences and family members on children's dental anxiety. The participants were 185 children who completed a questionnaire comprising measures of dental fear and cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions. Measures were obtained for 88 of the participants' fathers and for 97 of the participants' mothers. Cognitive vulnerability perceptions had the strongest association with children's dental fear (β = 0.40), explaining 14-21% of the variance in dental fear scores beyond that explained by other variables. Furthermore, vulnerability perceptions mediated the relationship between negative dental experiences and dental fear. Children's dental fear and cognitive vulnerability perceptions were significantly associated with those of their fathers (r = 0.23 and r = 0.40, respectively) and mothers (r = 0.28 and r = 0.35, respectively). Moreover, fathers' (β = 0.24) and mothers' (β = 0.31) levels of cognitive vulnerability significantly predicted the children's levels of dental fear. The Cognitive Vulnerability Model offers a framework to understand child dental fear. Furthermore, this cognitive approach may help explain why some children develop dental fear problems after suffering a negative dental experience and how dental anxiety is passed on from parents to children.

  6. Study Process Questionnaire Manual. Student Approaches to Learning and Studying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, John B.

    This manual describes the theory behind the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) and explains what the subscale and scale scores mean. The SPQ is a 42-item self-report questionnaire used in Australia to assess the extent to which a tertiary student at a college or university endorses different approaches to learning and the motives and strategies…

  7. Development and Validation of the Counselor Response Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph; Lautenschlager, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Reports the development and validation of a questionnaire designed to assess reflective skills, the Counselor Response Questionnaire (CRQ). CRQ, designed for measuring skills of beginning counselors, differentiates trainees with some reflective skills from those who have little. Internal consistency is good. Validity data are encouraging.…

  8. Evaluation of the Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire Using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Melia, B. Michele

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ) is a patient, proxy, and parental report of quality of life specific to children with intermittent exotropia. We refine the IXTQ using Rasch analysis to improve reliability and validity. OBSERVATION Rasch analysis was performed on responses of 575 patients with intermittent exotropia enrolled from May 15, 2008, through July 24, 2013, and their parents from each of the 4 IXTQ health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (child 5 through 7 years of age and child 8 through 17 years of age, proxy, and parent questionnaires). Questionnaire performance and structure were confirmed in a separate cohort of 379 patients with intermittent exotropia. One item was removed from the 12-item child and proxy questionnaires, and response options in the 8- to 17-year-old child IXTQ and proxy IXTQ were combined into 3 response options for both questionnaires. Targeting was relatively poor for the child and proxy questionnaires. For the parent questionnaire, 3 subscales (psychosocial, function, and surgery) were evident. One item was removed from the psychosocial subscale. Resulting subscales had appropriate targeting. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The Rasch-revised IXTQ may be a useful instrument for determining how intermittent exotropia affects health-related quality of life of children with intermittent exotropia and their parents, particularly for cohort studies. PMID:25634146

  9. A Mobile Platform for Administering Questionnaires and Synchronizing Their Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginardi, Maria Germana; Lanzola, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a platform for administering questionnaires on smart-phones and tablets. The project arises from the need of acquiring data for monitoring the outcomes of different homecare interventions. First a model has been defined for representing questionnaires, able to support adaptivity in the dialog with the user and enforce some…

  10. Development and Validation of an Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, Carmen; Cano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development and psychometric characteristics of a new version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; Seligman, Abramson, Semmell, & Von Baeyer, 1979)--a version called the Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (ASQ-A)--using 3 samples (Ns = 547, 438, and 240) of Spanish secondary school students. In Study 1, the…

  11. Electronic Bulletin Board Distributed Questionnaires for Exploratory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of electronic bulletin boards, compares it with other possible alternatives, and describes a questionnaire study conducted via Usenet and via traditional mail that investigated self-selection bias. The questionnaire on object-oriented systems is appended. (LRW)

  12. Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire. Assessment Report #92-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Central Community Coll., New Haven, CT.

    During 1991-92, South Central Community College (SCCC), in Connecticut, administered student experience questionnaires to 600 students who were to graduate in June 1991 or were enrolled in fall 1991 and spring 1992 credit courses. The questionnaire sought information on student background, program of study, courses taken, activities, perceptions…

  13. Development and Validation of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire: Test Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    Data are presented evaluating the validity and reliability of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ), a self-report questionnaire designed to elicit respondents' perceptions of themselves with respect to seven personality and behavioral dispositions: hostility and aggression, dependence, self-esteem, self-adequacy, emotional…

  14. UNESCO Questionnaire. Third International Conference on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division of Adult Educational Programs, BAVT.

    The U.S. response to a UNESCO Questionnaire issued in preparation for the 3rd World Conference on Adult Education, held in Tokyo, Japan, July 27 to August 8, 1972, is presented. The questionnaire consists of the following five parts: Part I. The Relation of Adult Education to Economic, Social and Political Objectives; Part II. Adult Education in…

  15. 7 CFR 550.31 - Questionnaires and survey plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Questionnaires and survey plans. 550.31 Section 550.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Agreements Program Management § 550.31 Questionnaires and survey plans. The Cooperator is required to...

  16. 7 CFR 550.31 - Questionnaires and survey plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Questionnaires and survey plans. 550.31 Section 550.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Agreements Program Management § 550.31 Questionnaires and survey plans. The Cooperator is required to...

  17. Construct Validity of the Children's Music-Related Behavior Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Wendy H.; Reynolds, Alison M.; Morgan, Grant B.; McNair, Anne A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the construct validity of the Children's Music-Related Behavior Questionnaire (CMRBQ), an instrument designed for parents to document music-related behaviors about their children and themselves. The research problem was to examine the hypothesized factorial structure of the questionnaire. From a…

  18. 7 CFR 550.31 - Questionnaires and survey plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 and 5 CFR part 1320. ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Questionnaires and survey plans. 550.31 Section 550.31... Agreements Program Management § 550.31 Questionnaires and survey plans. The Cooperator is required to...

  19. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

  20. 7 CFR 550.31 - Questionnaires and survey plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 and 5 CFR part 1320. ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Questionnaires and survey plans. 550.31 Section 550.31... Agreements Program Management § 550.31 Questionnaires and survey plans. The Cooperator is required to...

  1. Self-Rated Competences Questionnaires from a Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Edith; Woodley, Alan; Richardson, John T. E.; Leidner, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical review of self-rated competences questionnaires. This topic is influenced by the ongoing world-wide reform of higher education, which has led to a focus on the learner outcomes of higher education. Consequently, questionnaires on self-rated competences have increasingly been employed. However, self-ratings are…

  2. Assessing the Efficacy of a Student Expectations Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous…

  3. Questionnaire Construction Manual. Annex: Literature Survey and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Robert; And Others

    A literature review and bibliography on questionnaire construction are presented. The broad definition of questionnaire includes scales, structured interview forms, survey forms, and similar paper and pencil instruments used to elicit responses and collect information. A comprehensive literature search of journal articles, books, and reports in…

  4. Learning Probe: Benchmarking for Excellence. Questionnaire. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane; Yarrow, David; Appleby, Alex

    This document is a questionnaire designed for work-based learning providers. It is a diagnostic benchmarking tool developed to give organizations a snapshot of their current state. Following a brief introduction, there are instructions for filling in the questionnaire, which includes both open-ended response and scoring according to a…

  5. Visualizer cognitive style enhances visual creativity.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-02-26

    In the last two decades, interest towards creativity has increased significantly since it was recognized as a skill and as a cognitive reserve and is now always more frequently used in ageing training. Here, the relationships between visual creativity and Visualization-Verbalization cognitive style were investigated. Fifty college students were administered the Creative Synthesis Task aimed at measuring the ability to construct creative objects and the Visualization-Verbalization Questionnaire (VVQ) aimed at measuring the attitude to preferentially use either imagery or verbal strategy while processing information. Analyses showed that only the originality score of inventions was positively predicted by the VVQ score: higher VVQ score (indicating the preference to use imagery) predicted originality of inventions. These results showed that the visualization strategy is involved especially in the originality dimension of creative objects production. In light of neuroimaging results, the possibility that different strategies, such those that involve motor processes, affect visual creativity is also discussed.

  6. Development of the Sleep Quality Questionnaire in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2014-08-01

    The Sleep Quality Questionnaire was developed and its reliability and validity were estimated. Four samples involving approximately 1400 Japanese college students and employees were used to examine the factor structure, the test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and incremental validity. Sleep Quality Questionnaire scores were associated with well-being, such as general health states, depressive symptoms, chronic fatigue, and quality of life. Test-retest estimates indicated that Sleep Quality Questionnaire scores were stable over an 8-week period. The Sleep Quality Questionnaire incrementally contributes to well-being even beyond the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and to sleep duration. Overall, the data suggest that the Sleep Quality Questionnaire scale is both reliable and valid. PMID:23720542

  7. Prosthetic profile of the amputee questionnaire: validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Gagnon, C; Grisé, M C

    1994-12-01

    The Prosthetic Profile of the Amputee (PPA) is a clinical follow-up questionnaire that measures the factors potentially related to prosthetic use and the actual use of the prosthesis by people with a lower extremity amputation. This profile is a report on the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The PPA was administered, on two occasions, to 89 adults with lower extremity amputations. Test-retest data analysis demonstrated that the questionnaire was reliable in terms of repeatability. Strong test-retest agreements were obtained. When the PPA was assessed against the Reintegration to Normal Living (RNL) index, results supported the presence of construct validity. Data confirmed convergence of analogous constructs of the PPA questionnaire and the RNL index and showed evidence of discrimination between the more distantly related constructs. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that the PPA questionnaire is reliable and valid for clinical and research use. PMID:7993169

  8. Is playing video games related to cognitive abilities?

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies.

  9. Cognitive motivation correlates of coping style in decisional conflict.

    PubMed

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Vanderheyden, Karlien; Mestdagh, Steven; Van Laethem, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    Can personality traits account for the handling of internal conflicts? The authors explored how individual differences in information-processing style affect coping patterns displayed before making important decisions. Need for cognition and need for cognitive closure were linked to the major tendencies identified in the conflict theory of decision making: vigilance, hypervigilance, and defensive avoidance (buck passing and procrastination). A sample of 1,119 Belgian human resource professionals completed the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the 18-item short-form Need for Cognition Scale, and the Need for Closure Inventory. Ordinary least squares regression analysis indicated that significant relationships existed between need for cognition, need for closure, and conflict decision-making styles. The authors also found significant effects of gender and age.

  10. Relationships of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Ethical and Cognitive Developmental Levels, and Views of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…

  11. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  12. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  13. [Cognition and mobility].

    PubMed

    Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A

    2015-04-01

    Felix Platter Hospital, University Center for Medicine of Aging, Basel, Switzerland; There is a strong association between cognition and mobility. Older adults with gait deficits have an increased risk of developing cognitive deficits, even dementia. Cognitive deficits, on the other hand, are associated with worsening gait. Cognitive as well as mobility deficits are associated with an increased fall risk. Assessments of cognition, particularly the executive functions, and functional mobility should therefore be an integral part of every comprehensive geriatric assessment. Some quick screening tests for mobility disorders can be performed in a clinical praxis. If those assessments provide pathological results, then consider patient referral for an in-depth gait analysis. Gait analyses that utilize dual task paradigms (walking and simultaneously performing a second task) are particularly meaningful for early detection of mobility and cognitive deficits. Early detection permits timely implementation of targeted interventions to improve gait and brain function. PMID:25791044

  14. Emotional and cognitive adjustment in abused children.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, M A; Frias, D

    1994-11-01

    Research on the impact of maltreatment on children has increased in the last years, as there is a need to design appropriate treatment strategies. Social, cognitive, and emotional areas may be affected in these children. This research is aimed to study the psychological functioning of child victims, particularly in their emotional and cognitive adjustment. Nineteen children (10.3 years old) with case histories of at least 2 years of physical and emotional parental abuse and a group of 26 nonmaltreated children (9.4 years old) matched in socio-economic characteristics and coming from the same community area were compared in depressive symptomatology and attributional style by using the standardized measures from Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Kaslow's Children Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ). General and detailed statistical analyses on the emotional and cognitive areas assessed showed significant differences between groups. Child victims showed greater feelings of sadness, lower self-esteem and self-worth, and they perceived the aversive events in their lives as unpredictable which generated helplessness. This is a result of their lack of control of those aversive events. Results are contrasted with those obtained by other researchers who used similar methodology and are discussed in terms of the learned helplessness' model proposed and developed by Seligman, Kaslow, Alloy, Peterson, Tanenbaum, and Abramson (1984). Implications for the child abuse victims' emotional and cognitive rehabilitation are also analyzed and discussed. PMID:7850601

  15. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    PubMed

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  16. Cognitive predictors of balance in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Mendes, Andreia; Rocha, Nuno; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-06-01

    Postural instability is one of the most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and appears to be related to cognitive deficits. This study aims to determine the cognitive factors that can predict deficits in static and dynamic balance in individuals with PD. A sociodemographic questionnaire characterized 52 individuals with PD for this work. The Trail Making Test, Rule Shift Cards Test, and Digit Span Test assessed the executive functions. The static balance was assessed using a plantar pressure platform, and dynamic balance was based on the Timed Up and Go Test. The results were statistically analysed using SPSS Statistics software through linear regression analysis. The results show that a statistically significant model based on cognitive outcomes was able to explain the variance of motor variables. Also, the explanatory value of the model tended to increase with the addition of individual and clinical variables, although the resulting model was not statistically significant The model explained 25-29% of the variability of the Timed Up and Go Test, while for the anteroposterior displacement it was 23-34%, and for the mediolateral displacement it was 24-39%. From the findings, we conclude that the cognitive performance, especially the executive functions, is a predictor of balance deficit in individuals with PD. PMID:27147421

  17. Validation of the Italian Version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Adolescents by A. Lancry and Th. Arbault.

    PubMed

    Cavallera, Guido Maria; Boari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire for adolescents by Lancry and Arbault. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire by Lancry and Arbault was translated from French into Italian by using forward-backward translation. Students aged 11-15 years old were enrolled from two schools in Milan (Italia). Validation of the questionnaire was performed in subsequent phases. A pre-test was given to 66 students aged 11-15 years (males 57.4%, females 42.6%) from a convenience sample. Syntactic aspects of the pre-test were improved, and the questionnaire in a revised version was re-administered to 292 students of same age (males 43.8%, females 54.1%) from a convenience sample. Factor analysis was performed on pre-test data, using the principal component method accounting for Morningness-Eveningness. Problematic items possibly uncorrelated with the extracted factor were identified, and reliability produced a Cronbach's Alpha close to 0.7. In the test phase factor analysis was performed using the principal component method. Based on reliability analyses, we excluded a number of items because of their low performance, giving rise to a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.819. Pearson product-moment external correlations between Morningness-Eveningness disposition and temperament, behavioral, and cognitive aspects were evaluated. A factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and concurrent validity coefficients with disposition, behavior, and cognition, were performed, suggesting potential reliability and validity. The questionnaire is a useful and relevant tool for measuring Morningness-Eveningness disposition in adolescents, which has seldom been investigated with adequate psychometric instruments. PMID:26354147

  18. Validation of the Italian Version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Adolescents by A. Lancry and Th. Arbault

    PubMed Central

    Cavallera, Guido M.; Boari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire for adolescents by Lancry and Arbault. Material/Methods The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire by Lancry and Arbault was translated from French into Italian by using forward-backward translation. Students aged 11–15 years old were enrolled from two schools in Milan (Italia). Validation of the questionnaire was performed in subsequent phases. A pre-test was given to 66 students aged 11–15 years (males 57.4%, females 42.6%) from a convenience sample. Syntactic aspects of the pre-test were improved, and the questionnaire in a revised version was re-administered to 292 students of same age (males 43.8%, females 54.1%) from a convenience sample. Results Factor analysis was performed on pre-test data, using the principal component method accounting for Morningness-Eveningness. Problematic items possibly uncorrelated with the extracted factor were identified, and reliability produced a Cronbach’s Alpha close to 0.7. In the test phase factor analysis was performed using the principal component method. Based on reliability analyses, we excluded a number of items because of their low performance, giving rise to a Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.819. Pearson product-moment external correlations between Morningness-Eveningness disposition and temperament, behavioral, and cognitive aspects were evaluated. Conclusions A factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha and concurrent validity coefficients with disposition, behavior, and cognition, were performed, suggesting potential reliability and validity. The questionnaire is a useful and relevant tool for measuring Morningness-Eveningness disposition in adolescents, which has seldom been investigated with adequate psychometric instruments. PMID:26354147

  19. Validation of the Italian Version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Adolescents by A. Lancry and Th. Arbault.

    PubMed

    Cavallera, Guido Maria; Boari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire for adolescents by Lancry and Arbault. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire by Lancry and Arbault was translated from French into Italian by using forward-backward translation. Students aged 11-15 years old were enrolled from two schools in Milan (Italia). Validation of the questionnaire was performed in subsequent phases. A pre-test was given to 66 students aged 11-15 years (males 57.4%, females 42.6%) from a convenience sample. Syntactic aspects of the pre-test were improved, and the questionnaire in a revised version was re-administered to 292 students of same age (males 43.8%, females 54.1%) from a convenience sample. Factor analysis was performed on pre-test data, using the principal component method accounting for Morningness-Eveningness. Problematic items possibly uncorrelated with the extracted factor were identified, and reliability produced a Cronbach's Alpha close to 0.7. In the test phase factor analysis was performed using the principal component method. Based on reliability analyses, we excluded a number of items because of their low performance, giving rise to a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.819. Pearson product-moment external correlations between Morningness-Eveningness disposition and temperament, behavioral, and cognitive aspects were evaluated. A factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and concurrent validity coefficients with disposition, behavior, and cognition, were performed, suggesting potential reliability and validity. The questionnaire is a useful and relevant tool for measuring Morningness-Eveningness disposition in adolescents, which has seldom been investigated with adequate psychometric instruments.

  20. Hallucination proneness, schizotypy and meta-cognition.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John; Barkus, Emma; Lewis, Shon

    2007-06-01

    Disordered or maladaptive meta-cognitive processing appears to be a prominent feature for some individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. We sought to establish whether healthy individuals distinguished either in terms hallucination proneness (HP) or level of schizotypy could also be differentiated on the sub-scales of the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ), or a modified version of it in which items about worry were replaced with items specifically related to thinking. A total of 106 healthy volunteers completed the Oxford and Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and Launay-Slade hallucination scale, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and two versions of the MCQ: the original which assesses five domains of meta-cognition and an adapted version in which items relating to worry had been replaced by items relating to thinking or reflecting on thinking (MCQ-th). ANOVA indicated highly significant differences between three groups of individuals differentiated in terms of high, medium and low proneness to hallucinations on four of the five MCQ sub-scales, and three of the four MCQ-th factors. Regression analyses indicated that the MCQ factors encompassing (1) a sense of uncontrollability of thinking (and the perceived attendant dangers of this) and (2) negative beliefs about thinking related to suspicion and punishment were the strongest predictors of high schizotypy. Individuals who score higher on a measure of HP are more likely to display patterns of meta-cognitive processing that resemble, in certain respects, those reported in individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. High schizotypy predicts a negative appraisal about both the controllability and consequences of thinking. PMID:16934218

  1. Impact of Training on Cognitive Representation of Challenging Behaviour in Staff Working with Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; Hogg, James

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cognitive representations of challenging behaviour among staff may influence therapeutic outcomes. This study looked at how cognitive dimensions of Identity, Cause, Consequences, Emotional Reaction and Treatment/Control are affected by training. Materials and Methods: A theoretically derived questionnaire was used to measure the impact…

  2. Effects of Explicit Instruction in Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies on Iranian EFL Students' Reading Performance and Strategy Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaie, Reza; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of explicit teaching of reading strategies on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students' reading performance in Iran. The study employed a questionnaire adapted from Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) cognitive and metacognitive strategies framework. To test the effects of explicit teaching of cognitive and…

  3. Interrelations among University Students' Approaches to Learning, Regulation of Learning, and Cognitive and Attributional Strategies: A Person Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkila, Annamari; Niemivirta, Markku; Nieminen, Juha; Lonka, Kirsti

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among approaches to learning, regulation of learning, cognitive and attributional strategies, stress, exhaustion, and study success. University students (N = 437) from three faculties filled in a questionnaire concerning their self-reported study behaviour, cognitive strategies, and well-being. Their…

  4. Parents' Cognitions and Expectations about Their Pre-School Children: The Contribution of Parental Anxiety and Child Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatcroft, Rebecca; Creswell, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relative associations between parent and child anxiety and parents' cognitions about their children. One hundred and four parents of children aged 3-5 years completed questionnaires regarding their own anxiety level, their child's anxiety level and their cognitions about the child, specifically parents' expectations…

  5. An Analysis of the Relationships between Test Takers' Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use and Second Language Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, James Enos

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between test takers' strategy and their performance on second-language tests (SLTP) comprising an 80-item Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Questionnaire and a 70-item standardized language test. Results explain SLTP by grammar and reading ability; cognitive processing by comprehending, storing, and retrieval…

  6. Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review

  7. COgnitive-pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cleutjens, Fiona A H M; Janssen, Daisy J A; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) has been considered a disease of the lungs, often caused by smoking. Nowadays, COPD is regarded as a systemic disease. Both physical effects and effects on brains, including impaired psychological and cognitive functioning, have been demonstrated. Patients with COPD may have cognitive impairment, either globally or in single cognitive domains, such as information processing, attention and concentration, memory, executive functioning, and self-control. Possible causes are hypoxemia, hypercapnia, exacerbations, and decreased physical activity. Cognitive impairment in these patients may be related to structural brain abnormalities, such as gray-matter pathologic changes and the loss of white matter integrity which can be induced by smoking. Cognitive impairment can have a negative impact on health and daily life and may be associated with widespread consequences for disease management programs. It is important to assess cognitive functioning in patients with COPD in order to optimize patient-oriented treatment and to reduce personal discomfort, hospital admissions, and mortality. This paper will summarize the current knowledge about cognitive impairment as extrapulmonary feature of COPD. Hereby, the impact of smoking on cognitive functioning and the impact of cognitive impairment on smoking behaviour will be examined.

  8. Networks in cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2013-07-01

    Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in Cognitive Science, from artificial neural networks to spreading activation models of semantic memory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed, providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabolic reactions, and collaborations among scientists. Today, the inclusion of network theory into Cognitive Sciences, and the expansion of complex-systems science, promises to significantly change the way in which the organization and dynamics of cognitive and behavioral processes are understood. In this paper, we review recent contributions of network theory at different levels and domains within the Cognitive Sciences.

  9. Simulating motivated cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised and the Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised (PBFQ-R). These self-report parenting behavior assessment measures may be utilized as pre- and post-parent education program measures, with parents as well as…

  11. Developing Cognitive Skills Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley A.

    The recognition that children's cognitive skills are evident in visual as well as verbal conventions has led to the construction of the Silver Test of Cognitive and Creative Skills (STCCS) for the assessment and development of children's cognitive abilities. Research on cognition, the role of language in cognition, and left and right brain…

  12. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  13. PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the PIRLS 2011, Background Questionnaires and Curriculum Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The PIRLS 2011 international database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the PIRLS 2011 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the PIRLS 2011 background questionnaires and curriculum questionnaires in the following 5 sections: (1) Student Questionnaire; (2) Home Questionnaire (Learning to Read…

  14. Validation of two food frequency questionnaires for dietary calcium assessment

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Trina P.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2009-01-01

    Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health and a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared to dietary calcium intake measured by a three-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home, returning it by mail. The ethnicity of the 140 study participants was 102 Caucasian, 12 African American, 16 Asian, and 10 Latin women. The average age was 49 ± 15 years (mean ± SD) with a range of 22.7 to 89.9 years. Measures utilized included an online calcium quiz, a printed calcium food frequency questionnaire and one three-day diet record. Data analysis was conducted using Pearson correlation coefficients. Sub-analyses were conducted by ethnicity. The correlation between each questionnaire and the daily calcium intake from the diet records was 0.37, p<0.001. Among the ethnic subgroups, the correlations were highest for African American women, followed by Caucasian women. There was also a trend toward higher correlations in younger women. These simple calcium assessment tools, taking less than five minutes to complete, have correlation values with diet records similar to more complex food frequency questionnaires reported in the literature. These questionnaires may provide valuable tools to estimate calcium intake in research, clinical and community settings. PMID:19559142

  15. So you want to do research? 5: Questionnaire design.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Keith A

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the key aspects in the design, construction and adaptation of survey questionnaires. There are different types of questionnaire, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages. Aspects of constructing the questionnaire are discussed in detail; choosing the mode of administration; the objectives of the survey; availability of resources; characteristics of the target population; and quality of data. Issues concerning the identification of the questionnaire's content, wording and sequencing of the questions through to the overall appearance and layout of the questionnaire are also considered. Differences in the role of open-ended and closed questions, together with their strengths and weaknesses, are outlined, and the need to undertake pre-testing and piloting as an integral part of questionnaire development is highlighted. Finally, issues around the adaptation of existing questionnaires are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in different language and cultural groups, and the need to achieve conceptual, content, semantic, operational and functional equivalence is described. An overview of the translation process is provided. PMID:14688664

  16. So you want to do research? 5: Questionnaire design.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Keith A

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the key aspects in the design, construction and adaptation of survey questionnaires. There are different types of questionnaire, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages. Aspects of constructing the questionnaire are discussed in detail; choosing the mode of administration; the objectives of the survey; availability of resources; characteristics of the target population; and quality of data. Issues concerning the identification of the questionnaire's content, wording and sequencing of the questions through to the overall appearance and layout of the questionnaire are also considered. Differences in the role of open-ended and closed questions, together with their strengths and weaknesses, are outlined, and the need to undertake pre-testing and piloting as an integral part of questionnaire development is highlighted. Finally, issues around the adaptation of existing questionnaires are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in different language and cultural groups, and the need to achieve conceptual, content, semantic, operational and functional equivalence is described. An overview of the translation process is provided.

  17. Questionnaires Measuring Patients’ Spiritual Needs: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Seddigh, Ruohollah; Keshavarz-Akhlaghi, Amir-Abbas; Azarnik, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Context The objective of the present review was to collect published spiritual needs questionnaires and to present a clear image of the research condition of this domain. Evidence Acquisition First, an electronic search was conducted with no limits on time span (until June 2015) or language in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, ProQuest and Google Scholar. All derivations of the keywords religion and spiritual alongside need and its synonyms were included in the search. Researches that introduced new tools was then selected and included in the study. Due to the limited quantity of questionnaires in this domain and with no consideration given to the existence or lack of exact standardization information, all of the questionnaires were included in the final report. Results Eight questionnaires were found: patients spiritual needs assessment scale (PSNAS), spiritual needs inventory (SNI), spiritual interests related to illness tool (SpIRIT), spiritual needs questionnaire (SpNQ), spiritual needs assessment for patients (SNAP), spiritual needs scale (SNS), spiritual care needs inventory (SCNI), and spiritual needs questionnaire for palliative care. Conclusions These questionnaires have been designed from a limited medical perspective and often involve cultural concepts which complicate their cross-cultural applicability. PMID:27284281

  18. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Larissa J.; Wunderli, Michael D.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Römmelt, Andreas T.; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Seifritz, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH) use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits. PMID:26107846

  19. Development and Validation of the Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Dover, Geoffrey; Amar, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Context The fear-avoidance model was developed in an attempt to explain the process by which “pain experience” and “pain behavior” become dissociated from the actual pain sensation in individuals who manifest the phenomenon of exaggerated pain perception. High levels of fear avoidance can lead to chronic pain and disability and have successfully predicted rehabilitation time in the work-related–injury population. Existing fear-avoidance questionnaires have all been developed for the general population, but these questionnaires may not be specific enough to fully assess fear avoidance in an athletic population that copes with pain differently than the general population. Objective To develop and validate the Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire (AFAQ). Design Qualitative research to develop the AFAQ and a cross-sectional study to validate the scale. Patients or Other Participants For questionnaire development, a total of 8 experts in the fields of athletic therapy, sport psychology, and fear avoidance were called upon to generate and rate items for the AFAQ. For determining concurrent validity, 99 varsity athletes from various sports participated. Data Collection and Analysis A total of 99 varsity athletes completed the AFAQ, the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. We used Pearson correlations to establish concurrent validity. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between the AFAQ and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire-Physical Activity (r = 0.352, P > .001) as well as with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (r = 0.587, P > .001). High internal consistency of our questionnaire was established with a Cronbach α coefficient of 0.805. The final version of the questionnaire includes 10 items with good internal validity (P < .05). Conclusions We developed a questionnaire with good internal and external validity. The AFAQ is a scale that measures sport-injury–related fear avoidance in

  20. The Volitional Questionnaire: psychometric development and practical use.

    PubMed

    Chern, J S; Kielhofner, G; de las Heras, C G; Magalhaes, L C

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the Volitional Questionnaire and presents recent empirical efforts to develop and validate this instrument. The Volitional Questionnaire is an observational method of gathering data on motivation that is designed for persons who are unable to self-report their own motives. Studies to date suggest that the instrument can provide a valid measure of volition, though a number of limitations of the tool are noted. Implications for use of the Volitional Questionnaire in practice and for further refinement and future research are discussed.

  1. Convergent and discriminant validity of FIRO-B questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Salminen, S

    1991-12-01

    The Kramer-Froehle controversy about the construct validity of FIRO-B questionnaire was evaluated with a multitrait-multimethod design. 113 women and 26 men completed the FIRO-B questionnaire. After the examiner had given a lecture on the FIRO-dimensions, the subjects rated themselves on these dimensions. Only three out of six intercorrelations on the validity diagonal were statistically significant. Of the discriminant validity comparisons 80% met the required criterion. Our results confirmed Kramer's results about the construct validity of the FIRO-B questionnaire.

  2. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  3. Cognitive behavioural therapy and client-centred counselling.

    PubMed

    Collins, Findlay; Deady, David

    This article reviews the potential for combining cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and client-centred counselling (CCC) in nurse education and practice. Currently, CBT and CCC are practiced independently of one another within mental health care. This project attempted to bring together the unique qualities of each intervention while encouraging a synergistic approach. This was undertaken by developing and delivering a three-day pilot study workshop. The experiential workshops were evaluated using two sets of structured questionnaires and six semi-structured interviews with randomly selected participants. A follow-up questionnaire was used to review the combined approach in practice.

  4. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  5. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample.

    PubMed

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E; Hawley, Karri S; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-03-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  6. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Anita; Chan, Grace; Shiu, YY; Lam, Ko-Chuen; Young, Daniel; Ho, Daniel WH; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs). Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants’ cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001) and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014). Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active Mind cognitive-training program was effective in improving the cognitive function and QoL for community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. PMID:23440076

  7. The social life of cognition.

    PubMed

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics).

  8. Sex and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    This book describes the major differences between men and women in cognitive or problem-solving abilities and discusses the possible biological contributions to such differences. The book argues that sex differences in cognitive patterns and in motor skills arose out of complementary evolutionary histories of men and women and that evidence for…

  9. Comparative Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

  10. Cognitive Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert; And Others

    The Cognitive Education Project centered at the University of Alberta undertook a 3-year longitudinal evaluation of two cognitive education programs aimed at teaching thinking skills. The critical difference between the two experimental programs was that one, Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) method was taught out of curricular content,…

  11. Learning and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  12. Culture and cognition.

    PubMed

    Muggleton, Neil G; Banissy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area.

  13. Computerized Cognition Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, Michael A.; Wiegmann, Douglas A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a software package entitled the "Computerized Cognition Laboratory" that helps integrate the teaching of cognitive psychology and research methods. Allows students to explore short-term memory, long-term memory, and decision making. Can also be used to teach the application of several statistical procedures. (DSK)

  14. Attachment and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Riuter, Corine, Ed.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The five chapters and epilogue of this special issue present theoretical and empirical contributions on the relevance of attachment theory to cognitive development and education. A literature review is followed by explorations of attachment theory and emotions, cognitive development, literacy, and the communication effectiveness of the mother.…

  15. Bilingualism and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraballo, Jose N.

    Research on the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development is reviewed, and two complementary models of bilingualism are developed to account for research results. It is suggested that research since 1960 shows a positive relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, at least for some types of bilingualism. The advantage or…

  16. Cognition and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-05-01

    Animals exhibit species-typical adaptations of behavior and may suffer stress in captivity if they are prevented from performing these patterns of behavior. This article considers whether these particular 'needs' rely on cognitive processes or are performed without complex cognition despite their appearance of behavioral complexity. Emotion and cognition in animals are also discussed, particularly whether animals can feel emotions and, if so, what ranges of emotions they might feel. Cognitive capacities that would contribute to suffering include empathy with the suffering of others, memories of negative events and suffering in anticipation of future events. Cognitive bias of individual animals toward positive or negative feelings is related to dominance of the left or right hemisphere, respectively. These biases might be reflected in the animal's preferred limb to pick up food. Hence, limb preference could be a useful measure of cognitive bias. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a cognitive condition that, it is suggested, might involve dominance of the right hemisphere. This debilitating condition is experience-dependent and not infrequently seen in animals in captivity. In conclusion, it is argued that there is an obvious need for more research on cognition as it relates to animal welfare and as a basis for changing legislature to protect animals from suffering. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271384

  17. Facilitating Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwebel, Milton

    1985-01-01

    Human cognition research is shifting away from the importance of IQ and is emphasizing the stimulation and acceleration of a child's mental development. The emerging field of instructional psychology is trying to facilitate cognitive development. Current experimental programs--a university-school project in Belgium and a family project in…

  18. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  19. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2004-01-01

    New drugs that enhance cognition in cognitively healthy individuals present difficult public policy challenges. While their use is not inherently unethical, steps must be taken to ensure that they are safe, that they are widely available to promote equality of opportunity, and that individuals are free to decide whether or not to use them. PMID:15330974

  20. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  1. Harmony in Linguistic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolensky, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I survey the integrated connectionist/symbolic (ICS) cognitive architecture in which higher cognition must be formally characterized on two levels of description. At the microlevel, parallel distributed processing (PDP) characterizes mental processing; this PDP system has special organization in virtue of which it can be…

  2. Cognitive Network Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Medaglia, John D.; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience. PMID:25803596

  3. Situated clinical cognition.

    PubMed

    Timpka, T

    1995-10-01

    The features characterizing study of clinical cognition in situ are formulated as: Re-cognition of context, culture, history and affect. Socializing and phenomenalistic elements are again included in the research agenda. Interest for representations: an analysis level is reserved for the symbols, rules and images relevant to define in models of clinical cognition. De-emphasis on computer modeling: investigations focus on the 'functional systems' in which computers are involved. Rootedness in classical philosophical problems: issues concerning situated clinical cognition are connected to the width of available theoretical literature. Belief in interdisciplinary studies: productive interactions between the new and traditional disciplines is anticipated, implying that new shared methods have to be developed. When scientific perspectives are broadened, a new balance has to be found between the relevance of the subject of study and methodological rigor. The situated clinical cognition framework is to allow for moving between models, theories, and perspectives, as it does not presuppose a singular model of clinical thinking.

  4. Hydration and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Sécher, M; Ritz, P

    2012-04-01

    A clinical link exists between severe dehydration and cognitive performance. Using rapid and severe water loss induced either by intense exercise and/or heat stress, initial studies suggested there were alterations in short-term memory and cognitive function related to vision, but more recent studies have not all confirmed these data. Some studies argue that water loss is not responsible for the observations made, and studies compensating water losses have failed to prevent the symptoms. Studies in children have suggested that drinking extra water helps cognitive performance, but these data rely on a small number of children. In older adults (mean age around 60) the data are not strong enough to support a relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive function. Data on frail elderly and demented people are lacking. Methodological heterogeneity in these studies are such that the relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive performance cannot be supported.

  5. Chimpanzee Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control processes are a feature of human cognition. Recent comparative tests have shown that some nonhuman animals also might share aspects of cognitive control with humans. Two of the executive processes that constitute cognitive control are metacognition and self-control, and recent experiments with chimpanzees are described that demonstrate metacognitive monitoring and control when these animals engage in an information-seeking task. Chimpanzees also show strategic responding in a self-control task by exhibiting self-distraction as an aid to delay of gratification. These demonstrations indicate continuity with similar human cognitive capacities, and the performances of chimpanzees in these kinds of tests have implications for considering the nature of the intelligence of these animals. PMID:26478660

  6. Addiction and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained abstinence. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to the effects of drugs of abuse; prenatal, childhood, and adolescent exposures produce long-lasting changes in cognition. Patients with mental illness are at high risk for substance abuse, and the adverse impact on cognition may be particularly deleterious in combination with cognitive problems related to their mental disorders. PMID:22002448

  7. Estrogens, inflammation and cognition.

    PubMed

    Au, April; Feher, Anita; McPhee, Lucy; Jessa, Ailya; Oh, Soojin; Einstein, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The effects of estrogens are pleiotropic, affecting multiple bodily systems. Changes from the body's natural fluctuating levels of estrogens, through surgical removal of the ovaries, natural menopause, or the administration of exogenous estrogens to menopausal women have been independently linked to an altered immune profile, and changes to cognitive processes. Here, we propose that inflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and cognitive decline. In order to determine what is known about this connection, we review the literature on the cognitive effects of decreased estrogens due to oophorectomy or natural menopause, decreased estrogens' role on inflammation--both peripherally and in the brain--and the relationship between inflammation and cognition. While this review demonstrates that much is unknown about the intersection between estrogens, cognition, inflammation, we propose that there is an important interaction between these literatures.

  8. Uncertainty and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Bland, Amy R; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioral, and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1) There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2) There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3) The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the "need for control"; (4) Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  9. Cognition without Cortex.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Assumptions on the neural basis of cognition usually focus on cortical mechanisms. Birds have no cortex, but recent studies in parrots and corvids show that their cognitive skills are on par with primates. These cognitive findings are accompanied by neurobiological discoveries that reveal avian and mammalian forebrains are homologous, and show similarities in connectivity and function down to the cellular level. But because birds have a large pallium, but no cortex, a specific cortical architecture cannot be a requirement for advanced cognitive skills. During the long parallel evolution of mammals and birds, several neural mechanisms for cognition and complex behaviors may have converged despite an overall forebrain organization that is otherwise vastly different. PMID:26944218

  10. The Significance and Value of Questionnaires on Language Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Desmond

    1981-01-01

    Presents case urging caution in citing questionnaire findings which assess linguistic problems or evaluate courses as justification for recommendations or decisions. It agrees, however, that the exercise may motivate students and stimulate exchange of information. (BK)

  11. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paula; Fernandez Suarez, Marcos; Surace, Ezequiel I; Chrem Méndez, Patricio; Martín, María Eugenia; Clarens, María Florencia; Tapajóz, Fernanda; Russo, Maria Julieta; Campos, Jorge; Guinjoan, Salvador M; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ), and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA) as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve) have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. PMID:26504392

  12. [Straying in the methodology. II. Bias introduced by questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Pouwer, F; van der Ploeg, H M; Bramsen, I

    1998-07-01

    Some characteristics of self-report questionnaires can result in bias in responding. When a test item or a questionnaire is biased, the observed scores form an imprecise measurement of reality as a consequence of systematic errors of measurement. Causes of such bias are: unclear instructions, vague wording of the test items, culture-bound item content, suggestive questions, framing of questions, social desirability of certain answers, faking good, faking bad and the recall bias.

  13. Which kind of psychometrics is adequate for patient satisfaction questionnaires?

    PubMed Central

    Konerding, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The construction and psychometric analysis of patient satisfaction questionnaires are discussed. The discussion is based upon the classification of multi-item questionnaires into scales or indices. Scales consist of items that describe the effects of the latent psychological variable to be measured, and indices consist of items that describe the causes of this variable. Whether patient satisfaction questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as scales or as indices depends upon the purpose for which these questionnaires are required. If the final aim is improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then these questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as indices. This implies two requirements: 1) items for patient satisfaction questionnaires should be selected in such a way that the universe of possible causes of patient satisfaction is covered optimally and 2) Cronbach’s alpha, principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and analyses with models from item response theory, such as the Rasch Model, should not be applied for psychometric analyses. Instead, multivariate regression analyses with a direct rating of patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and the individual questionnaire items as independent variables should be performed. The coefficients produced by such an analysis can be applied for selecting the best items and for weighting the selected items when a sum score is determined. The lower boundaries of the validity of the unweighted and the weighted sum scores can be estimated by their correlations with the direct satisfaction rating. While the first requirement is fulfilled in the majority of the previous patient satisfaction questionnaires, the second one deviates from previous practice. Hence, if patient satisfaction is actually measured with the final aim of improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then future practice should be changed so that the second

  14. Construction and Validation of Attitudes Toward Plagiarism Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Aim To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Methods Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. Results The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I – positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II – negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III – subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach α was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I – α = 0.83; factor II – α = 0.79; and factor III – α = 0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Conclusion Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. PMID:20564761

  15. Quality Assessment of TPB-Based Questionnaires: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oluka, Obiageli Crystal; Nie, Shaofa; Sun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) change model. Methods A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal tools: one for the overall methodological quality of each study and the other developed for the appraisal of the questionnaire content and development process. Both appraisal tools consisted of items regarding the likelihood of bias in each study and were eventually combined to give the overall quality score for each included study. Results 8 of the 10 included studies showed low risk of bias in the overall quality assessment of each study, while 9 of the studies were of high quality based on the quality appraisal of questionnaire content and development process. Conclusion Quality appraisal of the questionnaires in the 10 reviewed studies was successfully conducted, highlighting the top problem areas (including: sample size estimation; inclusion of direct and indirect measures; and inclusion of questions on demographics) in the development of TPB-based questionnaires and the need for researchers to provide a more detailed account of their development process. PMID:24722323

  16. Psychometric evaluation of Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire: Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Wells, J N; Bush, H A; Marshall, D

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of a culturally sensitive and theory-based instrument: the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire. This instrument was translated into Spanish and back-translated at a third- to fourth-grade reading level. The pilot group consisted of 70 Hispanic women who attended a class at a local church. Subsequent to pilot testing, another 40 Hispanic women who attended a class at the local health department comprised the study sample. The participants responded to the 15-item questionnaire, which is formatted as a Likert scale. Content validity of the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire was determined by a panel of experts. A factor analysis of this instrument showed five separate dimensions accounting for 71.82% of the instrument's variance. The three major components of self-regulation theory (schema, coping, and appraisal criteria) were found clustered within the first three dimensions after three items were discarded. The Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire demonstrated an internal consistency reliability coefficient of .7172. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of this questionnaire warrant further research. The instrument may support a better understanding of the Hispanic woman's practice of breast health behavior. Eventually, the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire may assist nurses in the formulation of culturally grounded interventions. PMID:11502042

  17. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    borderline significant. Parents with a high level of education were less likely to use overly forms of controlling parenting (i.e., coercive control and overprotection) and more likely to have children with lower BMI. Based on several author review meetings and cognitive interviews the questionnaire was further modified to an 85-item questionnaire. Conclusions The GCPQ may facilitate research exploring how parenting influences children’s weight-related behaviors. The contextual influence of general parenting is likely to be more profound than its direct relationship with weight status. PMID:24512450

  18. Towards Tailored Patient's Management Approach: Integrating the Modified 2010 ACR Criteria for Fibromyalgia in Multidimensional Patient Reported Outcome Measures Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    El Miedany, Yasser; El Gaafary, Maha; Youssef, Sally; Ahmed, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change of a patient self-reported questionnaire combining the Widespread Pain Index and the Symptom Severity Score as well as construct outcome measures and comorbidities assessment in fibromyalgia patients. Methods. The PROMs-FM was conceptualized based on frameworks used by the WHO Quality of Life tool and the PROMIS. Initially, cognitive interviews were conducted to identify item pool of questions. Item selection and reduction were achieved based on patients as well as an interdisciplinary group of specialists. Rasch and internal consistency reliability analyses were implemented. The questionnaire included the modified ACR criteria main items (Symptom Severity Score and Widespread Pain Index), in addition to assessment of functional disability, quality of life (QoL), review of the systems, and comorbidities. Every patient completed HAQ and EQ-5D questionnaires. Results. A total of 146 fibromyalgia patients completed the questionnaire. The PROMs-FM questionnaire was reliable as demonstrated by a high standardized alpha (0.886–0.982). Content construct assessment of the functional disability and QoL revealed significant correlation (p < 0.01) with both HAQ and EQ-5D. Changes in functional disability and QoL showed significant (p < 0.01) variation with diseases activity status in response to therapy. There was higher prevalence of autonomic symptoms, CVS risk, sexual dysfunction, and falling. Conclusions. The developed PROMs-FM questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of fibromyalgia patients. A phased treatment regimen depending on the severity of FMS as well as preferences and comorbidities of the patient is the best approach to tailored patient management. PMID:27190648

  19. How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students' cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, J J; Walters, A S

    1997-11-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance psychological variables related to cognitive performance were studied in 44 college students. Participants completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal after either 24 hours of sleep deprivation or approximately 8 hours of sleep. After completing the cognitive task, the participants completed 2 questionnaires, one assessing self-reported effort, concentration, and estimated performance, the other assessing off-task cognitions. As expected, sleep-deprived participants performed significantly worse than the nondeprived participants on the cognitive task. However, the sleep-deprived participants rated their concentration and effort higher than the nondeprived participants did. In addition, the sleep-deprived participants rated their estimated performance significantly higher than the nondeprived participants did. The findings indicate that college students are not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks. PMID:9394089

  20. Similarities and differences between dreaming and waking cognition: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kahan, T L; LaBerge, S; Levitan, L; Zimbardo, P

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight "practiced" dreamers (Study 1) and 50 "novice" dreamers (Study 2) completed questionnaires assessing the cognitive, metacognitive, and emotional qualities of recent waking and dreaming experiences. The present findings suggest that dreaming cognition is more similar to waking cognition than previously assumed and that the differences between dreaming and waking cognition are more quantitative than qualitative. Results from the two studies were generally consistent, indicating that high-order cognition during dreaming is not restricted to individuals practiced in dream recall or self-observation. None of the measured features was absent or infrequent in reports of either dreaming or waking experiences. Recollections of dreaming and waking experiences were similar for some cognitive features (e.g., attentional processes, internal commentary, and public self-consciousness) and different for other features (e.g., choice, event-related self-reflection, and affect).

  1. The Busier the Better: Greater Busyness Is Associated with Better Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Festini, Sara B.; McDonough, Ian M.; Park, Denise C.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained engagement in mentally challenging activities has been shown to improve memory in older adults. We hypothesized that a busy schedule would be a proxy for an engaged lifestyle and would facilitate cognition. Here, we examined the relationship between busyness and cognition in adults aged 50–89. Participants (N = 330) from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study (DLBS) completed a cognitive battery and the Martin and Park Environmental Demands Questionnaire (MPED), an assessment of busyness. Results revealed that greater busyness was associated with better processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, reasoning, and crystallized knowledge. Hierarchical regressions also showed that, after controlling for age and education, busyness accounted for significant additional variance in all cognitive constructs—especially episodic memory. Finally, an interaction between age and busyness was not present while predicting cognitive performance, suggesting that busyness was similarly beneficial in adults aged 50–89. Although correlational, these data demonstrate that living a busy lifestyle is associated with better cognition. PMID:27242510

  2. Callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behavior among adolescents: the role of self-serving cognitions.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Nikki; Rodgers, Rachel F; Gibbs, John C; Chabrol, Henri

    2014-02-01

    Self-serving cognitions and callous-unemotional traits play important roles in adolescent antisocial behavior. The objective of this study was to cross-sectionally explore the mediating role of self-serving cognitions in the relationship between callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behavior. A sample of 972 high-school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing callous-unemotional traits, self-serving cognitive distortions and antisocial behavior. Two competing models exploring indirect effects accounting for the relationships between self-serving cognitive distortions, callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behaviors were tested. Both models revealed significant indirect effects, suggesting both pathways are possible. Gender was found to moderate these models. These findings suggest the importance of targeting self-serving cognitions in therapeutic interventions and increase our understanding of the role of self-serving cognitions in antisocial behavior. PMID:23884621

  3. Cognitive autonomy among adolescents with and without hearing loss: Associations with perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Michael, Rinat; Attias, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive autonomy is a skill which may help adolescents prepare for important decisions in adulthood. The current study examined the associations between cognitive autonomy and perceived social support among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Participants were 177 students: 55 were deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) and 122 were hearing. They completed the Cognitive Autonomy and Self-Evaluation Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and a demographic questionnaire. Significant positive correlations were found between some of the cognitive autonomy variables and some of the perceived social support variables. However, among the dhh group, they were fewer and weaker. Family support was found to be a significant predictor of three out of the five cognitive autonomy variables. In addition, significant differences were found between the dhh and hearing participants in some of the cognitive autonomy variables, but not in perceived social support. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  4. Motivational reserve: lifetime motivational abilities contribute to cognitive and emotional health in old age.

    PubMed

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The authors recently developed the concept of motivational reserve, which implies a set of motivational abilities that provide individuals with resilience to neuropathological damage. This study investigated how lifetime motivational abilities are associated with current cognitive status, mild cognitive impairment, and psychological well-being in old age. A community sample of 147 participants without dementia between 60 and 94 years of age, stratified for age group, sex, and education, completed motivation and well-being questionnaires and cognitive tests. A new procedure was used to estimate their midlife motivational and cognitive abilities on the basis of their main occupation using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) system. O*NET-estimated motivational abilities predicted cognitive status, psychological well-being, and odds of mild cognitive impairment, even when age, sex, education, and cognitive ability were controlled. Although O*NET-estimated cognitive abilities were not significant predictors, scores on a measure of crystallized intelligence were associated with current cognitive status and odds of mild cognitive impairment. Findings suggest that motivational reserve acts as a protective factor against the manifestation of cognitive impairment and emotional problems in later life.

  5. Altered Brain Connectivity in Early Postmenopausal Women with Subjective Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Albert, Kimberly; Melo, Alyssa; Boyd, Brian; Dumas, Julie; Woodward, Neil; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Park, Joon H.; Naylor, Magdalena; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive changes after menopause are a common complaint, especially as the loss of estradiol at menopause has been hypothesized to contribute to the higher rates of dementia in women. To explore the neural processes related to subjective cognitive complaints, this study examined resting state functional connectivity in 31 postmenopausal women (aged 50–60) in relationship to cognitive complaints following menopause. A cognitive complaint index was calculated using responses to a 120-item questionnaire. Seed regions were identified for resting state brain networks important for higher-order cognitive processes and for areas that have shown differences in volume and functional activity associated with cognitive complaints in prior studies. Results indicated a positive correlation between the executive control network and cognitive complaint score, weaker negative functional connectivity within the frontal cortex, and stronger positive connectivity within the right middle temporal gyrus in postmenopausal women who report more cognitive complaints. While longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, these data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that high levels of cognitive complaints may reflect changes in brain connectivity and may be a potential marker for the risk of late-life cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women with otherwise normal cognitive performance. PMID:27721740

  6. The relationship of observed maternal behavior to questionnaire measures of parenting knowledge, attitudes, and emotional state in adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Leresche, L; Strobino, D; Parks, P; Fischer, P; Smeriglio, V

    1983-02-01

    Although relationships have been found between maternal psychological characteristics and cognitive and emotional outcomes in children, the behaviors which may mediate these relationships are seldom examined. This is especially true for adolescent mothers, whose children are thought to be at high risk for adverse outcomes. In this study, adolescent mothers in two special programs completed questionnaires measuring perception of the newborn (Neonatal Perception Inventory), knowledge of influences on child development (Infant Caregiving Inventory), and emotional state (General Health Questionnaire); they were also systematically observed while interacting with their infants in a naturalistic situation. Specific maternal behaviors were found to vary with the age of the mother and of the baby. Mothers with neutral or negative perceptions of their infants touched them less than did mothers with positive perceptions. Degree of emotional disturbance was inversely related to the amount of time that the mother looked at her infant while in physical contact.

  7. Translation to Portuguese and cultural adaptation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF).

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Silva, D; Piedade, S; Borrego, Lm; Flokstra-de Blok, B; Dunn Galvin, A; Morais-Almeida, M

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is a health problem with significant negative impact in Quality of Life (QoL). We aimed to translate into Portuguese and culturally adapt to our population the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). Cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted in 3 steps: forward translation, backward translation and comprehensibility testing. A consensual version was obtained and tested in parents of food allergic children by cognitive debriefing. Twelve questionnaires were fulfilled, all completed in ≤ 15 min. No comments, doubts or suggestions were posed, except for 2 parents regarding a question about the number of food their children had to avoid. Two gave special positive feedback about the utility of FAQLQ-PF. Changes have been included after this pre-test in accordance to doubts and suggestions of participants, and the Portuguese version is now able to be used in clinics and research.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Persian language version of Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) in Iranian general population.

    PubMed

    Shams, Giti; Esmaili, Yaghoob; Karamghadiri, Narges; Ebrahimhkani, Narges; Yousefi, Youness; McKay, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44 (OBQ-44), a self-report measure, was developed by the Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG) to assess beliefs considered relevant in the etiology and maintenance of obsessions and compulsions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian language version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (POBQ-44). A sample of 222 medical students from an Iranian university was used to assess the reliability and validity of the POBQ-44. The results indicated five factors: 1) general, 2) perfectionism, certainty, 3) responsibility and threat estimation, 4) importance and control of thoughts, 5) complete performance. Each of these factors was found to have adequate test-retest and internal consistency reliability. Each of the factors was associated with O-C symptoms. In addition, adequate convergent validity was found with a measure of obsessive compulsive symptoms, and discriminate validity was found with measures of depression and anxiety.

  9. Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire: Psychometric analysis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeremy P.; Carson, Cody S.; Shrestha, Srijana; Kunik, Mark E.; Armento, Maria E.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Amspoker, Amber B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assist researchers and clinicians considering using the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) with older-adult samples, the current study analyzed the psychometrics of SCSRFQ scores in two older-adult samples. Method Adults age 55 or older who had formerly participated in studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety and/or depression were recruited to complete questionnaires. In Study 1 (N = 66), the authors assessed the relations between the SCSRFQ and other measures of religiousness/spirituality, mental health, and demographic variables, using bivariate correlations and nonparametric tests. In Study 2 (N = 223), the authors also conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the SCSRFQ, as well as an Item Response Theory analysis. Results The SCSRFQ was moderately to highly positively correlated with all measures of religiousness/spirituality. Relations with mental health were weak and differed across samples. Ethnic minorities scored higher than White participants on the SCSRFQ, but only in Study 2. Factor analyses showed that a single-factor model fit the SCSRFQ best. According to Item Response Theory analysis, SCSRFQ items discriminated well between participants with low-to-moderate levels of the construct but provided little information at higher levels. Conclusion Although the SCSRFQ scores had adequate psychometric characteristics, the measure’s usefulness may be limited in samples of older adults. PMID:24892461

  10. Development and Validation of a Personality Assessment Instrument for Traditional Korean Medicine: Sasang Personality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Han; Lee, Siwoo; Park, Soo Hyun; Jang, Eunsu; Lee, Soo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .817) and test-retest reliability (r = .837). Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (r = .462), harm avoidance (r = −.390), and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (r = .629). The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43 ± 4.93), Tae-Eum (27.33 ± 5.88), and So-Yang (30.90 ± 5.23) types were significantly different from each other (P < .01). Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective. PMID:22567034

  11. Functional Assessment and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaires: Measurement Invariance Across Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We tested the ethnic-group measurement invariance of 2 commonly used informant-report scales of patients’ dementia symptoms: the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), a measure of functional abilities, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), a measure of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Design and Methods: We conducted multigroup confirmatory factor analyses on 311 Hispanic and 10,863 non-Hispanic White (NHW) outpatients and their informants diagnosed with dementia or normal cognition at their initial Alzheimer’s Disease Center evaluations nationwide. Results: We confirmed our hypothesized one-factor FAQ and four-factor NPI-Q models for each ethnic group. We also found evidence for the configural (i.e., number of factors) and factorial (i.e., pattern of factor loadings) invariance of both scales and structural (i.e., factor covariances) invariance of the NPI-Q across groups. However, we did not obtain evidence for ethnic-group scalar (i.e., intercept) invariance for either scale. Implications: The FAQ and NPI-Q were operating similarly across Hispanics and NHWs, suggesting that they can be meaningfully used within and across these groups to measure informant-reported dementia symptomatology. However, their scalar noninvariance indicates that meaningful ethnic-group comparisons of their latent factor mean values cannot be made. PMID:23564287

  12. Evaluation of sleep disturbances in children with epilepsy: a questionnaire-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bosco; Cheong, Eric Yau Kin; Ng, Sui Fun Grace; Chan, Yick Chun; Lee, Qun Ui; Chan, Kwok Yin

    2011-08-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder accompanied by a wide range of comorbid conditions that can adversely affect the quality of life of children. Sleep disturbances not only predispose children to mood, cognitive, and behavioral impairments, but also have a significant impact on physical health. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep patterns among Chinese children with epilepsy and healthy subjects in Hong Kong, and examine the relationship between parent-reported sleep problems and specific epilepsy parameters. We conducted a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, case-control study and included 63 children with epilepsy and 169 healthy children aged between 4 and 12 years. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used as an assessment tool. Our results indicated that children with epilepsy have similar sleep patterns but greater sleep disturbances compared with healthy subjects. Sleep problems should not be overlooked, and a comprehensive review of the sleep habits of this group of patients should be conducted. PMID:21704566

  13. Development and initial validation of the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Macnamara, Áine; Collins, Dave

    2011-09-01

    The development of talent is a complex process mediated by a host of psychological, social, physical, and environmental variables. Unfortunately, the multiple processes involved in talent development are frequently ignored by the systems and protocols employed in sport. Modern approaches to talent development are beginning to stress the initial possession, then subsequent development, of generic psychological characteristics (e.g. psychological characteristics of developing excellence; MacNamara, Button, & Collins, 2010a , 2010b ) as the best way to realize latent potential. Accordingly, this paper describes the development and initial validation of the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire (PCDEQ). In the first phase, an initial list of 160 items was developed. A combination of expert panel reviews, cognitive interviews, and a pilot test was used to assess the relevance, representativeness, and validity of each item. Ninety-six items were retained following these steps. Exploratory factor analysis, with a sample of 363 athletes, revealed an interpretable 59-item, 6-factor solution with good internal consistency (0.870, 0.866, 0.847, 0.741, 0.749, and 0.701 respectively). The Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire would appear to hold promise as a useful tool to provide coaches and athletes with information about the psychological characteristics of developing excellence that are being properly addressed or neglected during different stages of development or in different contexts.

  14. The water balance questionnaire: design, reliability and validity of a questionnaire to evaluate water balance in the general population.

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2012-03-01

    There is a need to develop a questionnaire as a research tool for the evaluation of water balance in the general population. The water balance questionnaire (WBQ) was designed to evaluate water intake from fluid and solid foods and drinking water, and water loss from urine, faeces and sweat at sedentary conditions and physical activity. For validation purposes, the WBQ was administrated in 40 apparently healthy participants aged 22-57 years (37.5% males). Hydration indices in urine (24 h volume, osmolality, specific gravity, pH, colour) were measured through established procedures. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered twice to 175 subjects to evaluate its reliability. Kendall's τ-b and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the questionnaire's validity and reliability. The proposed WBQ to assess water balance in healthy individuals was found to be valid and reliable, and it could thus be a useful tool in future projects that aim to evaluate water balance.

  15. Development and psychometric testing of a breast cancer patient-profiling questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gandini, Sara; Munzone, Elisabetta; McVie, Gordon; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The advent of “personalized medicine” has been driven by technological advances in genomics. Concentration at the subcellular level of a patient’s cancer cells has meant inevitably that the “person” has been overlooked. For this reason, we think there is an urgent need to develop a truly personalized approach focusing on each patient as an individual, assessing his/her unique mental dimensions and tailoring interventions to his/her individual needs and preferences. The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the ALGA-Breast Cancer (ALGA-BC), a new multidimensional questionnaire that assesses the breast cancer patient’s physical and mental characteristics in order to provide physicians, prior to the consultation, with a patient’s profile that is supposed to facilitate subsequent communication, interaction, and information delivery between the doctor and the patient. Methods The specific validation processes used were: content and face validity, construct validity using factor analysis, reliability and internal consistency using test–retest reliability, and Cronbach’s alpha correlation coefficient. The exploratory analysis included 100 primary breast cancer patients and 730 healthy subjects. Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed eight key factors: global self-rated health, perceived physical health, anxiety, self-efficacy, cognitive closure, memory, body image, and sexual life. Test–retest reliability and internal consistency were good. Comparing patients with a sample of healthy subjects, we also observed a general ability of the ALGA-BC questionnaire to discriminate between the two. Conclusion The ALGA-BC questionnaire with 29 items is a valid instrument with which to obtain a patient’s profile that is supposed to help physicians achieve meaningful personalized care which supplements biological and genetic analyses. PMID:26064067

  16. Development of the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Rimmer, James H.; Kviz, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the widely known benefits of physical activity, people with disabilities are more likely to be inactive when compared to people without disabilities. Previous questionnaires that measure barriers physical activity for people with disabilities do not measure barriers from an ecological perspective. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments (BPAQ-MI) that measures barriers using an ecological framework. Methods This study consisted of two phases. In Phase one, developed the content validity by (a) developing an item bank, (b) identifying missing items and combining items using a Delphi panel, and (c) refine item wording via cognitive interviews. In Phase two, people with mobility impairments took part in in-person interviews to establish test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the BPAQ-MI. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed the BPAQ-MI was comprised of eight subscales or factors: health; beliefs and attitudes; family; friends; fitness center built environment; staff and policy; community built environment; and safety. The BPAQ-MI demonstrated very good test-retest reliability. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.792 to 0.935. The BPAQ-MI showed significant negative correlations with exercise (minutes/week) and significant positive correlations between BPAQ-MI subscales and inactivity (hours/day). Conclusions The BPAQ-MI is the first questionnaire that places greater equity at measuring barriers to physical activity across the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community domains. The BPAQ-MI has the potential to assist researchers in understanding the complex relationship between barriers and ultimately develop physical activity interventions that address these barriers. PMID:26087721

  17. Increasing honest responding on cognitive distortions in child molesters: the bogus pipeline procedure.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A

    2006-03-01

    Professionals conclude that child molesters (CMs) hold offense-supportive beliefs (or cognitive distortions) from CMs'questionnaire responses. Because questionnaires are easily faked, we asked 32 CMs to complete a cognitive distortion scale under standard conditions (Time 1). A week later (Time 2), the same CMs completed the scale again. This time, approximately one half of CMs were attached to a pseudo lie detector (a bogus pipeline), and the rest completed the scale again under standard conditions (controls). At Time 1, CMs showed low cognitive distortion scores, seeming to indicate that they were faking good. At Time 2, bogus pipeline CMs seemed to believe that the apparatus could detect lies. However, this did not encourage more distorted belief disclosure compared with (a) their own previous scores and (b) controls. Furthermore, the bogus pipeline appeared to reduce cognitive distortion endorsements. The results stand in marked contrast to the common view that most CMs hold distorted beliefs.

  18. Development and community-based validation of the IDEA study Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IDEA-IADL) questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Collingwood, Cecilia; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Kisoli, Aloyce; Dotchin, Catherine L.; Gray, William K.; Mbowe, Godfrey; Mkenda, Sarah; Urasa, Sarah; Mushi, Declare; Chaote, Paul; Walker, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The dementia diagnosis gap in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is large, partly due to difficulties in assessing function, an essential step in diagnosis. Objectives As part of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) study, to develop, pilot, and validate an Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) questionnaire for use in a rural Tanzanian population to assist in the identification of people with dementia alongside cognitive screening. Design The questionnaire was developed at a workshop for rural primary healthcare workers, based on culturally appropriate roles and usual activities of elderly people in this community. It was piloted in 52 individuals under follow-up from a dementia prevalence study. Validation subsequently took place during a community dementia-screening programme. Construct validation against gold standard clinical dementia diagnosis using DSM-IV criteria was carried out on a stratified sample of the cohort and validity assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis. Results An 11-item questionnaire (IDEA-IADL) was developed after pilot testing. During formal validation on 130 community-dwelling elderly people who presented for screening, the AUROC curve was 0.896 for DSM-IV dementia when used in isolation and 0.937 when used in conjunction with the IDEA cognitive screen, previously validated in Tanzania. The internal consistency was 0.959. Performance on the IDEA-IADL was not biased with regard to age, gender or education level. Conclusions The IDEA-IADL questionnaire appears to be a useful aid to dementia screening in this setting. Further validation in other healthcare settings in SSA is required. PMID:25537940

  19. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients.

  20. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. PMID:27423564

  1. Development of a Korean Version of the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire-Depression for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Min; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kang, Hee-Ju; Lee, Yong-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cognitive symptoms are an important component of depression and the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire-Depression is one of only a few instruments available for the subjective assessment of cognitive dysfunction in depression. Thus, the present study aimed to validate a Korean version of the PDQ-D (K-PDQ-D) using patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods This study included 128 MDD patients who were assessed at study entry and 86 of these patients were then completed 12 weeks of antidepressant monotherapy. All subjects were assessed with the K-PDQ-D, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), the EuroQol-5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D), and the number of sick leave days taken in the previous week. The internal consistency, Guttman’s split-half and test-retest reliabilities, factorial analyses, and concurrent and predictive validities of the K-PDQ-D were investigated. Results The K-PDQ-D exhibited excellent internal consistency and reliabilities, and was composed of four factors with high coefficients of determination. The concurrent validity analyses revealed that the K-PDQ-D scores were significantly correlated with the MADRS, SDS, and EQ-5D scores and the number of sick leave days taken. The K-PDQ-D scores at study entry significantly predicted changes in sick leave days and EQ-5D score from study entry to the 12-week endpoint. Conclusion The newly developed K-PDQ-D is a reliable and valid instrument for the evaluation of subjective cognitive symptoms in MDD patients. The K-PDQ-D may assist in the gathering of unique information regarding subjective cognitive complaints, which is important for the comprehensive evaluation of patients with MDD. PMID:26792037

  2. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  3. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael F; Leitman, David I

    2008-07-01

    Social cognition in schizophrenia is a rapidly emerging area of study. Because the number and diversity of studies in this area have increased, efforts have been made to better define terms and provide organizing frameworks. A key challenge confronting the study of social cognition in schizophrenia is building bridges between clinical scientists and social neuroscientists. The articles in this theme summarize data-based studies that have attempted to build or strengthen such bridges to better understand the neural bases of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  4. Assessing Patients’ Cognitive Therapy Skills: Initial Evaluation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale

    PubMed Central

    Strunk, Daniel R.; Hollars, Shannon N.; Adler, Abby D.; Goldstein, Lizabeth A.; Braun, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients’ skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions. PMID:25408560

  5. Assessing Patients' Cognitive Therapy Skills: Initial Evaluation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Daniel R; Hollars, Shannon N; Adler, Abby D; Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Braun, Justin D

    2014-10-01

    In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients' skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions.

  6. Cognitive functionality of older men in St. Catherine, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Charles, Christopher A.D.; Warren, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The scientific literature is replete with factors that influence the cognitive functionality of older men but no such study has been done in Jamaica. Aims: In this study we report our findings on the cognitive functionality of three cohorts of older men in a rural area. This is the first data published on the cognitive functionality of older men from Jamaica. Material and Method: The investigation was carried out with the administration of a 132-item questionnaire. The measure includes items on demographics, retirement and health status, the seeking and avoidance of medical care, health treatment, medication use, childhood illness, happiness and the mini-mental status examination. The measure was given to 2,000 men 55 years and older who were randomly selected from St. Catherine. Results: The multivariate analysis of the model revealed three significant determinants of cognitive functionality: Age (OR = 0.346, 95% CI = 0.206, 0.582), social support (OR = 0.683, 95% CI = 0.443, 1.053) and having children (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.130, 5.183). There is a negative relationship between age and cognitive functionality and a positive relationship between having children and cognitive functionality. Conclusions: Our main conclusions are that the two significant determinants of cognitive functionality of older men (age and having children) in Jamaica are unique given the many determinants of cognitive functioning cited in the scientific literature. The plethora of factors points to the need for further research to understand the range of factors that influence the cognitive functionality of older Jamaicans. PMID:22624131

  7. What Changes in Cognitive Therapy for Depression? An Examination of Cognitive Therapy Skills and Maladaptive Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Abby D.; Strunk, Daniel R.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined effortful cognitive skills and underlying maladaptive beliefs among patients treated with Cognitive Therapy for depression (CT). Depressed patients (n = 44) completed cognitive measures before and after 16 weeks of CT. Measures included: an assessment of CT skills (Ways of Responding Scale, WOR), an implicit test of maladaptive beliefs (Implicit Association Test, IAT), and a self-report questionnaire of maladaptive beliefs (Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, DAS). A matched sample of never-depressed participants (n = 44) also completed study measures. Prior to treatment, depressed patients endorsed significantly more undesirable cognitions on the WOR, IAT, and DAS compared to never-depressed participants. Patients displayed improvement on the WOR and DAS over the course of treatment, but showed no change on the IAT. Additionally, improvements on the WOR and DAS were each related to greater reductions in depressive symptoms. Results suggest that the degree of symptom reduction among patients participating in CT is related to changes in patients’ acquisition of coping skills requiring deliberate efforts and reflective thought, but not related to reduced endorsement of implicitly-assessed maladaptive beliefs. PMID:25526838

  8. Development and Validation of the Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Bajwa, Jasmine; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lalonde, Richard N.; Quon, Elizabeth C.; Safdar, Saba; Pike, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be included as a module in population surveys. Methods Questionnaires measuring acculturation in youth were identified in the literature. The importance of items from the existing questionnaires was determined using a Delphi process and this informed the development of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was then pilot tested using a sample of 248 Canadians aged 18–25 via an online system. Participants identified as East and South East Asian (27.8%), South Asian (17.7%) and Black (13.7%). The majority were 1st (33.5%) or 2nd generation immigrants (52.0%). After redundant items were eliminated, exploratory factor analysis grouped items into domains, and, for each domain, internal consistency, and convergent validity with immigrant generation then age at immigration estimated. A subset of participants re-completed the questionnaire for reliability estimation. Results The literature review yielded 117 articles that used 13 questionnaires with a total of 440 questions. The Delphi process reduced these to 32 questions. Pilot testing occurred in 248 Canadians aged 18–25. Following item reduction, 16 questions in three domains remained: dominant culture, heritage language, and heritage culture. All had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas > .75). The mean dominant domain score increased with immigrant generation (1st generation: 3.69 (95% CI: 3.49–3.89), 2nd: 4.13 (4.00–4.26), 3rd: 4.40 (4.19–4.61)), and mean heritage language score was higher among those who immigrated after age 12 than before (p = .0001), indicative of convergent validity. Conclusions This Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire has

  9. Examining the ecological validity of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Russell J J; Collins, Dave; Douglas, Carl; Whike, Ally

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that high class expertise and effective practice exists within many talent development environments across the world. However, there is also a general consensus that widespread evidence-based policy and practice is lacking. As such, it is crucial to develop solutions which can facilitate effective dissemination of knowledge and promotion of evidence-based talent development systems. While the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire (Martindale et al., 2010 ) provides a method through which this could be facilitated, its ecological validity has remained untested. As such, this study aimed to investigate the real world applicability of the questionnaire through discriminant function analysis. Athletes across ten distinct regional squads and academies were identified and separated into two broad levels, 'higher quality' (n = 48) and 'lower quality' (n = 51) environments, based on their process quality and productivity. Results revealed that the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was able to discriminate with 77.8% accuracy. Furthermore, in addition to the questionnaire as a whole, two individual features, 'quality preparation' (P < 0.01) and 'understanding the athlete' (P < 0.01), were found to be significant discriminators. In conclusion, the results indicate robust structural properties and sound ecological validity, allowing the questionnaire to be used with more confidence in applied and research settings.

  10. Questionnaire for low back pain in the garment industry workers.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Supreet; Sinha, A G K; Benjamin, A I

    2013-05-01

    Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world's population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study.

  11. Questionnaire for low back pain in the garment industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Bindra, Supreet; Sinha, A. G. K.; Benjamin, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world's population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study. PMID:24421591

  12. Development of A Questionnaire to Measure Attitude toward Oocyte Donation

    PubMed Central

    Omani Samani, Reza; Mounesan, Leila; Ezabadi, Zahra; Vesali, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no valid and comprehensive questionnaire that considers attitude toward oocyte donation (OD). Therefore this study has aimed to design and develop a tool entitled attitude toward donation-oocyte (ATOD-O) to measure attitude toward OD. Materials and Methods This methodological, qualitative research was undertaken on 15 infertile cases. In addition, we performed a literature review and search of various databases. Validity of this questionnaire was conducted by knowledgeable experts who determined indices such as relevancy, clarity, and comprehensiveness. Reliability of the questionnaire was assessed based on the opinions of experts and infertile couples referred to Royan Institute. Results ATOD-O was designed in 52 statements that covered various issues such as the OD process, donor and recipient characteristics, as well as family, emotional, psychological, legal, religious, and socio-economic dimensions. Results were scored as five points: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (somewhat), 4 (agree), and 5 (strongly agree). The overall relevancy of the questionnaire was 97% and clarity was 96%. Overall comprehensiveness was 100%. Conclusion The findings from this preliminary validation study have indicated that ATOD-O is a valid measure for measuring and assessing attitude toward donated oocytes. This questionnaire can be used in studies regarding different groups of a society. PMID:26644863

  13. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    PubMed

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. PMID:27615702

  14. Curriculum and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    Paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf held in Philadelphia, June 24-27, 1970. Discussed are concepts of curriculum development, cognitive development, and educational methods with implications for the handicapped. (CB)

  15. Cognition and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    1984-01-01

    The cognitive approach to education is briefly summarized, and its implications for learning disabilities considered. The approach, which includes the genetic epistemology espoused by J. Piaget and information processing theory, proposes the importance of active involvement and control processes. (CL)

  16. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedictis, Erik; Rothganger, Fredrick; Aimone, James Bradley; Marinella, Matthew; Evans, Brian Robert; Warrender, Christina E.; Mickel, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  17. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  18. Assessing Cognition in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hölter, Sabine M; Garrett, Lillian; Einicke, Jan; Sperling, Bettina; Dirscherl, Petra; Zimprich, Annemarie; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2015-12-02

    Genetically modified mouse models have proven useful to study learning and memory processes and the neurocircuitry and molecular mechanisms involved, as well as to develop therapies for diseases involving cognitive impairment. A variety of tests have been developed to measure cognition in mice, and here we present those established and regularly used in the German Mouse Clinic. The test paradigms have been carefully chosen according to reliability of results and disease relevance of the cognitive functions assessed. Further criteria were time efficiency and ease of application. All tests assess slightly different but also overlapping or interacting aspects of learning and memory so that they can be used to complement each other in a comprehensive assessment of cognitive function. The five protocols described are for spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, social discrimination, object recognition, automated assessment of learning and memory using the IntelliCage, and olfactory discrimination learning.

  19. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  20. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  1. On the paradoxical decrease of self-reported cognitive failures with age.

    PubMed

    de Winter, J C F; Dodou, D; Hancock, P A

    2015-01-01

    The science of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) often relies on self-report. This is a cause for concern because subjective methods are inherently susceptible to bias. Here, we present, examine and discuss a puzzling association between age and self-reported cognitive failures as assessed with Broadbent's Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). Despite many well-established age-associated forms of cognitive decline, older persons actually report almost equivalent, or even less, cognitive failures on the CFQ than younger persons. Our present analysis indicates that this paradox may be resolved through the fact that people show age-related learning/adaptation/compensation and by the observation that the CFQ measures peoples' beliefs with respect to an individually idiosyncratic reference. Yet, at the heart of the paradox may be the idea that people cannot remember their own cognitive failures, pointing to even greater concerns with all forms of subjective self-report and its use in HF/E. Practitioner Summary: Scientists and practitioners often try to understand and improve human performance with the help of self-report questionnaires. Our paper discusses the validity of self-reported errors measured with the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). We look to resolve the curious paradox that older persons tend to report fewer failures than younger persons do.

  2. Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis. PMID:16737523

  3. Perceptual, cognitive, and personality rigidity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Cao, Bo; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Norton, Daniel J; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with motor and non-motor rigidity symptoms (e.g., cognitive and personality). The question is raised as to whether rigidity in PD also extends to perception, and if so, whether perceptual, cognitive, and personality rigidities are correlated. Bistable stimuli were presented to 28 non-demented individuals with PD and 26 normal control adults (NC). Necker cube perception and binocular rivalry were examined during passive viewing, and the Necker cube was additionally used for two volitional-control conditions: Hold one percept in front, and Switch between the two percepts. Relative to passive viewing, PD were significantly less able than NC to reduce dominance durations in the Switch condition, indicating perceptual rigidity. Tests of cognitive flexibility and a personality questionnaire were administered to explore the association with perceptual rigidity. Cognitive flexibility was not correlated with perceptual rigidity for either group. Personality (novelty seeking) correlated with dominance durations on Necker passive viewing for PD but not NC. The results indicate the presence in mild-moderate PD of perceptual rigidity and suggest shared neural substrates with novelty seeking, but functional divergence from those supporting cognitive flexibility. The possibility is raised that perceptual rigidity may be a harbinger of cognitive inflexibility later in the disease course.

  4. [Parkinson disease and cognition].

    PubMed

    Kulisevsky, J; Pascual-Sedano, B

    1999-05-01

    Parkinson's Disease patients may have cognitive deficits, which may vary from mild focal specific deficits to global dementia. Executive functions, working memory, visuoespatial functions and internal control of attention are the main affected cognitive areas. The dopaminergic hypothesis suggests that dopaminergic transmission is involved in most altered cognitive processes. However, other neuronal systems are probably implicated, and the improvement of the cognitive function after dopaminergic replacement is incomplete and not seen in all cognitive tasks. The prevalence of dementia in Parkinson's disease is estimated in 15-25%. The pathologic hallmarks may be similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease. However, in Parkinson's disease patients pure subcortical alterations are able to produce a severe cognitive impairment, such as lost of dopaminergic neurones from substantia nigra to caudate nucleus and frontal areas. Comprehension of the relationship between depression and dementia in Parkinson's disease patients is incomplete. Parkinson's disease patients with depression show poor neuropsychological performance, especially in frontal tasks, but it is unclear whether depression can be considered a risk factor for the development of dementia in Parkinson's disease.

  5. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  6. [Schizophrenia, cognition and neuroimaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex illness whose mechanisms are still largely unknown. Functional brain imaging, by making the link between psyche and brain, has recently become an indispensable tool to study in vivo the neural bases underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disease. But despite the proliferation of data coming from this approach, the exact impact of functional imaging on our understanding of the disease remains blurry. In general, studies of the brain functioning of patients with schizophrenia found activation abnormalities which vary in nature and localization depending of the cognitive paradigm used. However, it appears that neurofunctional abnormalities observed in patients cannot be reduced to a simple well-localized deficit. It would be rather an alteration of the dynamics of the interactions between different brain regions that underlie the cognitive disturbances encountered in the disease. Functional brain imaging now offers new perspectives to clarify the dynamics of the brain networks, and particularly those involved in high-level cognitive functions, such as cognitive control or social cognition which seem to play a crucial role in the disease. The characterization of these features is an important issue not only to develop new hypotheses on the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also more pragmatically to identify potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22212841

  7. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  8. [Schizophrenia, cognition and neuroimaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex illness whose mechanisms are still largely unknown. Functional brain imaging, by making the link between psyche and brain, has recently become an indispensable tool to study in vivo the neural bases underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disease. But despite the proliferation of data coming from this approach, the exact impact of functional imaging on our understanding of the disease remains blurry. In general, studies of the brain functioning of patients with schizophrenia found activation abnormalities which vary in nature and localization depending of the cognitive paradigm used. However, it appears that neurofunctional abnormalities observed in patients cannot be reduced to a simple well-localized deficit. It would be rather an alteration of the dynamics of the interactions between different brain regions that underlie the cognitive disturbances encountered in the disease. Functional brain imaging now offers new perspectives to clarify the dynamics of the brain networks, and particularly those involved in high-level cognitive functions, such as cognitive control or social cognition which seem to play a crucial role in the disease. The characterization of these features is an important issue not only to develop new hypotheses on the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also more pragmatically to identify potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Haemangioma family burden: creation of a specific questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Olivia; Méni, Cecile; Léauté-Labreze, Christine; Bodemer, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Dufresne, Hélène; Brauchoux, Sébastien; Taieb, Charles

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a specific questionnaire to assess burden on families of children with infantile haemangioma (IH): the Haemangioma Family Burden questionnaire (HFB). Items were generated from a literature review and a verbatim report from parents. Subsequently, a study was implemented at the Necker Hospital and the Pellegrin Children's Hospital for psychometric analysis. The HFB was refined via item reduction according to inter-question correlations, consensus among experts and exploratory factor analysis. A 20-item questionnaire, grouped into 5 dimensions, was obtained. Construct validity was demonstrated and HFB showed good internal coherence (Cronbach's α: 0.93). The HFB was significantly correlated with the mental dimension of the Short-Form-12 (r = -0.75), and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (r = -0.61). HFB scores differed significantly according to the size and localization of the IH. A validated tool for assessing the burden on families of children with IH is now available.

  10. Use, misuse and abuse of questionnaires on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Joyce, C R

    1995-09-01

    Questionnaires quantify formal aspects of unidirectional communication. This definition indicates the major limitations of research based on such techniques: it will be unbalanced and restrictive, and therefore incomplete. The wide use of questionnaires is often unavoidable in medical and scientific research, yet they are often developed with insufficient attention to the needs that they are intended to meet. Their design may be imperfect even in relatively straightforward circumstances such as the reporting of laboratory observations, but inappropriate as well as imperfect in others, such as the study of individual quality of life. This concept and others related to it are defined, together with some major sources of error in questionnaire development and use. Steps that can be taken to improve the situation are also mentioned. PMID:7494744

  11. Investigating pristine inner experience: implications for experience sampling and questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We argue that inquiring about directly apprehended ("pristine") inner experience requires four overlapping methodological characteristics: effectively limiting investigation to specific, clearly identified moments; effectively limiting investigation to pristine experience; bracketing presuppositions; and iteratively acquiring skills. We compare and contrast Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES), other (non-DES) experience sampling methods, and questionnaires and conclude that whereas non-DES sampling methods and questionnaires appear to inquire about pristine inner experience, they fall short on all four methodological counts and therefore might be better understood as investigating an ill-defined mixture of presuppositions, judgments about experience, and pristine experience itself. Typical experience sampling studies and questionnaires can be valid and useful, but their validity and utility does not (or at least does not necessarily) arise from their phenomenological fidelity.

  12. Validation of a questionnaire measuring the regulation of autonomic function

    PubMed Central

    Kröz, M; Feder, G; von Laue, HB; Zerm, R; Reif, M; Girke, M; Matthes, H; Gutenbrunner, C; Heckmann, C

    2008-01-01

    Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR), i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (♀: N = 316, ♂: N = 124): 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ) and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-α: rα = 0.65 – 0.75) and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85). AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR) (0.49 – 0.13, all p < 0.05). Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance. PMID:18533043

  13. Validation of a Questionnaire to Screen for Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703. PMID:23204612

  14. [Diabetes mellitus and cognitive decline].

    PubMed

    Iglseder, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    From large epidemiological studies, it has been demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for cognitive decline: Compared to healthy controls, patients with diabetes perform worse on cognitive tests, they experience a pronounced cognitive decline over time and have a higher incidence of dementia. Mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline include vascular damage, negative consequences of hypo- and hyperglycemia, and various dysfunctions in insulin action, summarized as insulin resistance. Possible targets for prevention and treatment of cognitive decline have attracted scientific attention.

  15. Cognitive vulnerability in moderate, mild, and low seasonality.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Mahon, Jennifer N; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Sitnikov, Lilya; Haaga, David A F

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the association between cognitive vulnerability factors and seasonality. Students (N = 88), classified based on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire as experiencing moderate (n = 26) or mild (n = 32) seasonality, and nondepressed, low-seasonality controls (n = 30) completed explicit (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, automatic negative thoughts, seasonal attitudes, and rumination) and implicit (i.e., implicit associations test) measures of cognitive vulnerability at one winter and one nonwinter assessment. Relative to low- and mild-seasonality participants, moderate-seasonality participants endorsed more automatic thoughts and rumination in winter and more dysfunctional attitudes across both seasons. Moderate- and mild-seasonality participants endorsed more maladaptive seasonal attitudes than did low-seasonality participants. All groups demonstrated increased dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and rumination and stronger implicit associations about light and dark during the winter. The findings support a possible cognitive mechanism of winter depression onset and/or maintenance unique to individuals with moderate, as opposed to mild, seasonality.

  16. [Danish physicians' attitude to capital punishment. A questionnaire study].

    PubMed

    Tulinius, A C; Andersen, P M; Holm, S

    1989-09-01

    The attitudes of the Danish medical profession to capital punishment and participation in the procedure of capital punishment were illustrated by means of a questionnaire investigation. A total of 1,011 questionnaires were sent to a representative section of Danish doctors. Out of the 591 who replied, 474 considered that capital punishment is not an acceptable form of punishment while 76 considered that capital punishment is acceptable. Twenty doctors were willing to participate actively in executions although medical participation of this type has been condemned both by the Nordic Medical Associations and also by the World Medical Association.

  17. [Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ)].

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Kennedy, Robert S; Dziuda, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common methods for studying the simulator sickness issue is the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) (Kennedy et al., 1993). Despite the undoubted popularity of the SSQ, this questionnaire has not as yet been standardized and translated, which could allow us to use it in Poland for research purposes. The aim of our article is to introduce the SSQ to Polish readers, both researchers and practitioners. In the first part of this paper, the studies using the SSQ are discussed, whereas the second part consists of the description of the SSQ test procedure and the calculation method of sample results. Med Pr 2016;67(4):545-555. PMID:27623835

  18. Cognitive and motivational determinants of academic achievement and behaviour in third and fourth grade disadvantaged children.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, S; Zigler, E; Kagan, S; Olsen, D; Weissler, K; Kreitler, H

    1995-09-01

    While most studies on the determinants of learning deal with either cognition or motivation, there is a growing awareness that both should be considered. Our purpose was to examine the relative roles of cognitive and motivational factors for the scholastic achievement and behaviour of disadvantaged children. Cognition was conceptualised in terms of the psychosemantic theory that assesses cognitive processes by characteristics of the individual's meaning assignment (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1987a). Motivation was conceptualised in terms of the cognitive orientation (CO) theory which assumes that cognitive contents guide behaviour (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1982). Participants were 57 third and fourth graders of both genders, recommended for a remedial summer programme. They were administered the Meaning Test assessing cognitive abilities; the CO Questionnaire of Motivation for Learning assessing the disposition to learn; and the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the IOWA tests assessing verbal, mathematical and working skills. Teachers completed the Teacher-Child Rating Scale assessing six scholastic behaviours. Regression analyses showed that all dependent variables were predicted by the cognitive and motivational variables, better by specific than global predictors. Cognitive variables contributed more to the predictions, especially of academic achievements, and more in the case of verbal than mathematical abilities. In girls, motivational factors played a larger role than cognitive factors, absolutely and relative to boys. Implications for promoting scholastic achievements are discussed.

  19. VALIDITATION OF A LIGHT QUESTIONNAIRE WITH REAL-LIFE PHOTOPIC ILLUMINANCE MEASUREMENTS: THE HARVARD LIGHT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Archna; Rosner, Bernard; Lockley, Steven; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Light exposure at night is now considered a probable carcinogen. To study the effects of light on chronic diseases like cancer, methods to measure light exposure in large observational studies are needed. We aimed to investigate the validity of self-reported current light exposure. Methods We developed a self-administered semiquantitative light questionnaire, the Harvard Light Exposure Assessment (H-LEA) questionnaire, and compared photopic scores derived from this questionnaire with actual photopic and circadian measures obtained from a real-life 7-day light meter application among 132 women (85 rotating night shift workers and 47 day workers) participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Results After adjustment for age, BMI, collection day, and night work status, the overall partial Spearman correlation between self-report of light exposure and actual photopic light measurements was 0.72 (P<0.001; Kendall τ =0.57) and 0.73 (P<0.0001; Kendall τ =0.58) when correlating circadian light measurements. There were only minimal differences in accuracy of self-report of light exposure and photopic or circadian light measurement between day (r=0.77 and 0.78, respectively) and rotating night shift workers (r=0.68 and 0.69, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence of the criterion validity of self-reported light exposure using the H-LEA questionnaire. Impact: This questionnaire is a practical method of assessing light exposure in large scale epidemiologic studies. PMID:21737411

  20. Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID

  1. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD – a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing. PMID:20856608

  2. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  3. The metacognitions questionnaire for children: development and validation in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Bacow, Terri Landon; Pincus, Donna B; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Brody, Leslie R

    2009-08-01

    A self-report measure of metacognition for both children and adolescents (ages 7-17) (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children; MCQ-C) was adapted from a previous measure, the MCQ-A (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Adolescents) and was administered to a sample of 78 children and adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders and 20 non-clinical youth. The metacognitive processes included were (1) positive beliefs about worry (positive meta-worry); (2) negative beliefs about worry (negative meta-worry); (3) superstitious, punishment and responsibility beliefs (SPR beliefs) and (4) cognitive monitoring (awareness of one's own thoughts). The MCQ-C demonstrated good internal-consistency reliability, as well as concurrent and criterion validity, and four valid factors. In line with predictions, negative meta-worry was significantly associated with self-reports of internalizing symptoms (excessive worry and depression). Age-based differences on the MCQ-C were found for only one subscale, with adolescents reporting greater awareness of their thoughts than children. Adolescent girls scored higher on the total index of metacognitive processes than adolescent boys. Overall, these results provide preliminary support for the use of the MCQ-C with a broader age range as well as an association between metacognitive processes and anxiety symptomatology in both children and adolescents, with implications for cognitive behavioral interventions with anxious youth.

  4. A parentally administered cognitive development assessment for children from 10 to 24 months.

    PubMed

    Baker, Maryhan; Schafer, Graham; Alcock, Katherine J; Bartlett, Shelley

    2013-04-01

    The Cognitive Development Questionnaire (CDQ) allows accurate assessment of cognitive development of children from 10 to 24 months by parents and caregivers in the home. It takes between 1 and 2h to complete over about a week. Three phases of work are described, in which the instrument is progressively refined to improve its validity and reliability. This resulting version of the CDQ shows excellent correlation with age, and with the Mental Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley, 1993). The CDQ thus offers researchers and clinicians a useful alternative to professionally administered cognitive assessment in infancy.

  5. An attempt to improve the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ).

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    Domino's Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ) was administered in three different answer formats. The original answer format used by Domino produced the highest reliabilities for five subscales. Correlates with measures of religiosity and manic-depressive tendencies indicated that the original format and a full Likert-type format gave similar results.

  6. IRS Releases Tax Questionnaire that Asks Colleges to Disclose More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 400 colleges across the United States are about to be asked to disclose intimate financial details of their operations to the Internal Revenue Service. This article reports on a highly detailed financial questionnaire designed by the IRS for the first phase of its Colleges and Universities Compliance Project, which is part of a continuing…

  7. Coping with myocardial infarction: evaluation of a coping questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brink, Eva; Persson, Lars-Olof; Karlson, Björn W

    2009-12-01

    The negative effects of emotional distress on the recovery following myocardial infarction make it important to study coping strategies in this situation. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and the validity of a 10 dimensions questionnaire labelled The General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ). The structure of the questionnaire was based on a previous interview study with 26 persons with different diseases. The 10 dimensions are called self-trust, problem-reducing actions, change of values, social trust, minimization, fatalism, resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion. The present study comprised 114 first-time myocardial infarction patients (37 women, 77 men). Five months after myocardial infarction, they answered questions about health-related quality of life, health complaints, sense of coherence and the GCQ. A multi-trait/multi-item analysis showed good item-scale convergent and discriminatory validity when the GCQ was reduced from 47 to 40 items. In conclusion, the results showed that the 40-item GCQ is a well-structured and reliable questionnaire for measuring coping strategies in myocardial infarction patients. PMID:19804373

  8. Development of a Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Levesque, Lucie; Holden, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Q--SPACE) based on student perceptions. Twenty-eight items rated on 4-point Likert scales were administered to 244 middle school students in 9 schools. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the underlying structure of the items and 2…

  9. College Student Experiences Questionnaire: Norms for the Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonyea, Robert M.; Kish, Kelly A.; Kuh, George D.; Muthiah, Richard N.; Thomas, Auden D.

    2003-01-01

    The College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ) was developed by UCLA Professor Emeritus Dr. C. Robert Pace in the 1970s. First administered by Dr. Pace in 1979, the CSEQ Research Program formally moved its operations to Indiana University's Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning in 1994, under the direction of Chancellor's Professor…

  10. Refining the DCT: Comparing Open Questionnaires and Dialogue Completion Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.

    A study compared the influence of two forms of discourse completion test (DCT) on the elicitation of rejection of advice. An open questionnaire providing scenarios alone was compared with a classic dialogue completion task in which a conversational turn is provided. The tasks were given to 32 graduate students, 19 native and 13 non-native…

  11. Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrealday, O.; Stein, L. A. R.; Barnett, N.; Golembeske, C.; Lebeau, R.; Colby, S. M.; Monti, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a brief version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991). The original MEEQ was reduced to 6 items (MEEQ-B). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and two factors were identified (positive effects and negative effects) accounting for 52.3% of the variance.…

  12. Reliability and validity of Leicester Cough Questionnaire Korean version.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Jung, In-Chul; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung-Su; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in England and validated for reliability. We developed a Korean translation of this questionnaire by applying a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study is to validate the Korean version of the LCQ (LCQ-K) in Korean patients with chronic cough. A multicenter prospective study was undertaken with 100 chronic cough patients who consented to participate in the study. The LCQ-K includes eight physical items, seven psychological items, and four social items. Visual analog scale (VAS) of cough, Borg Cough Scale (BCS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as external comparators. Participants included 52 women and 48 men with ages ranging from 18 years to 69 years. The concurrent validity comparing LCQ-K to VAS, BCS, and SF-36 yielded statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients. The LCQ-K showed good reliability in three domains, with Cronbach's α coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.87 (total: 0.91). Test-retest reliability was investigated with single measure intraclass correlation coefficients, which were found to be practically and statistically significant (p = 0.005). Responsiveness was validated by effective size ranging from 1.16 to 1.40 in each domain. LCQ-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and quality of life of Korean patients with chronic cough. PMID:24906688

  13. Cultural Learning Environment: Validity and Application of a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrip, Bruce G.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    A study was conducted to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments, and to examine associations between these factors and students' attitudes. A measure of students' environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument was influenced by the four…

  14. Psychometric Characteristics of the Modified World Affairs Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    1988-01-01

    Subjected Modified World Affairs Questionnaire (MWAQ) to comparable common factor analysis which identified five factors: civil defense, escalation, nuclear war outcome, probability/worry, and patriotic. Alpha coefficients and test-retest reliability were determined to be adequate for the first four subscales. Acceptable discriminant validity and…

  15. Methods to Assess Measurement Error in Questionnaires of Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E; Freedman, Laurence; Carroll, Raymond J.; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior has already been associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Questionnaires are an affordable tool for measuring sedentary behavior in large epidemiological studies. Here, we introduce and evaluate two statistical methods for quantifying measurement error in questionnaires. Accurate estimates are needed for assessing questionnaire quality. The two methods would be applied to validation studies that measure a sedentary behavior by both questionnaire and accelerometer on multiple days. The first method fits a reduced model by assuming the accelerometer is without error, while the second method fits a more complete model that allows both measures to have error. Because accelerometers tend to be highly accurate, we show that ignoring the accelerometer’s measurement error, can result in more accurate estimates of measurement error in some scenarios. In this manuscript, we derive asymptotic approximations for the Mean-Squared Error of the estimated parameters from both methods, evaluate their dependence on study design and behavior characteristics, and offer an R package so investigators can make an informed choice between the two methods. We demonstrate the difference between the two methods in a recent validation study comparing Previous Day Recalls (PDR) to an accelerometer-based ActivPal. PMID:27340315

  16. Further Evaluation of the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Suh, Hanna; Ege, Engin

    2014-01-01

    Data from clinical and nonclinical samples ("Ns" = 2,096, 618) were used to evaluate and replicate the measurement structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2. Different measurement models and invariance tests were evaluated and the best psychometric support was found for a shortened measure of two factors: overall maladjustment and…

  17. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, R. Lindsey; Keller, Melody L.; Piacentini, John; Bergman, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on selective mutism (SM) has been limited by the absence of standardized, psychometrically sound assessment measures. The purpose of our investigation was to present two studies that examined the factor structure and initial reliability and validity of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a 17-item parent report measure of failure to…

  18. Development of the Dimensions of Adult Mastery Motivation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty-Bigara, Jacqueline; Gilmore, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Mastery motivation is an important developmental construct that has implications for development across the lifespan. Research to date has focused predominantly on infants and children, with the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) being the most widely used measure of mastery motivation. This article reports on the development and initial…

  19. Questionnaire of Executive Function for Dancers: An Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Alina; Rodriguez, Mabel; Quevedo, Liliana; de Cossio, Lourdes Fernandez; Borges, Ariel; Reyes, Alicia; Corral, Roberto; Blanco, Florentino; Alvarez, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    There is a current debate about the ecological validity of executive function (EF) tests. Consistent with the verisimilitude approach, this research proposes the Ballet Executive Scale (BES), a self-rating questionnaire that assimilates idiosyncratic executive behaviors of classical dance community. The BES was administrated to 149 adolescents,…

  20. A comprehensive Fabry-related pain questionnaire for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Magg, Barbara; Thomas, Phillip; Wiedmann, Silke; Heuschmann, Peter; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Pain may be the earliest symptom in Fabry disease and presents with a distinct phenotype including triggerable pain attacks, evoked pain, pain crises, and chronic pain. Current pain questionnaires do not reflect the special phenotype of Fabry disease-associated pain, which hampers its systematic evaluation as the basis of correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A questionnaire specifically designed to assess Fabry disease-associated pain is thus urgently needed. At the Würzburg Fabry Center for Interdisciplinary Therapy (FAZIT), Germany, we developed and validated the first face-to-face Fabry Pain Questionnaire (FPQ) for adult patients. The initial version of the FPQ was tested in a pilot study with 20 consecutive Fabry disease patients. The performance of the revised FPQ was assessed in a first (n=56) and second (n=20) validation phase in consecutive Fabry disease patients. For this, patients were interviewed at baseline and 2 weeks later. We determined the test-retest reliability and validity of the FPQ in comparison to data obtained with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. The FPQ contains 15 questions on the 4 pain phenotypes of Fabry disease (pain attacks, pain crises, evoked pain, chronic pain) in childhood and adulthood, on pain development during life with and without enzyme replacement therapy, and on everyday life impairment due to pain. This first disease-specific questionnaire is a valuable tool for baseline and follow-up assessment of pain in Fabry disease patients and may guide treatment in this distinct pain phenotype.

  1. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  2. Assessing Academic Potential for University Admission: The Biographical Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, P. A.; Button, A.; Chakane, M.; de Groot, M.; Dison, L.

    2006-01-01

    A Biographical Questionnaire (BQ) has been used in the Faculty of Humanities at the University of the Witwatersrand since the mid-80s, to identify potential to succeed at university among applicants who have not met the requirements for automatic admission. As the key instrument in a special admissions process, the BQ's history and assumptions are…

  3. Social Support Questionnaire for Children: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…

  4. Codification and Validation of Professional Development Questionnaire of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyoobi, Fatemah; Pourshafei, Hadi; Asgari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Teacher in the educational system and the teaching-learning process, as a main leading should need to knowledge and professional skills. Therefore, evaluation of professional development is important. This study aims to design and modify Construction and Validation of professional development questionnaire of teachers. This research based on…

  5. The Learning Activities Questionnaire: A Tool to Enhance Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the Learning Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) and how it can be employed to evaluate learning tasks not typically examined in course evaluation instruments such as readings and assignments. Drawing from behavioral theory in its focus on specific activities, this instrument is simple to interpret and provides clear direction…

  6. Construction and Initial Validation of the Chinese Reading Motivation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-Ling

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and initial validation of a Chinese reading motivation questionnaire (CRMQ) which was designed to assess Chinese students' reading motivation in Hong Kong. The development of the CRMQ consisted of two steps. In the first study, groups of items were constructed based on achievement motivation theories and…

  7. Development and Validation of an Instructional Willingness to Communicate Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Nourzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The current study was undertaken with the purpose of developing and validating a willingness to communicate (WTC) questionnaire for instructional language teaching and learning contexts. Six instructional WTC (IWTC) components were identified after (1) undertaking a comprehensive review of the literature on second language (L2) WTC and other…

  8. Validity and Reliability of the School Physical Activity Environment Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to establish the factor validity of the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Robertson-Wilson, Levesque, & Holden, 2007) using confirmatory factor analysis procedures. Another goal was to establish internal reliability and test-retest reliability. The confirmatory factor analysis results…

  9. Development of a Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Hannah E.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Moser, Richard P.; Scholl, Sarah; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women in the United States, yet a comprehensive and evidence-based heart disease knowledge assessment is currently not available. Purpose: This paper describes the two-phase development of a novel heart disease knowledge questionnaire. Methods: After review and critique of the…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Bornstein, Robert F.

    The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R) was examined. The PDQ-R and the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale (SD) were administered in the spring of 1989 to 45 undergraduates (26 females and 19 males) at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania. One month later, the Hopkins Symptom Check List (SCL-90) was…

  11. Development and Validation of a Decision-Making Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizarraga, Maria Luisa Sanz De Acedo; Baquedano, Maria Teresa Sanz De Acedo; Oliver, Maria Soria; Closas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The "Decision-Making Questionnaire" (DMQ) was developed and validated in order to examine the factors that affect decision making. The investigation was carried out with two samples, one of 170 participants and the other of 425 of both sexes. Each sample was divided into three age ranges: young students (18-25 years), adults (26-60 years), and…

  12. Is the Aggression Questionnaire Bias Free? A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.

    2007-01-01

    Buss and Perry (1992) developed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) to assess aggressiveness as a personality trait in high school and college samples. The AQ has been used by researchers in United States, Italy, Germany, Netherland, Japan, Canada, and Greece. The present study is reported on an Arabic adapted version of the AQ among a sample of 510…

  13. A Psychometric Investigation of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy L.; Lester, David; Rogers, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ) was investigated in 2 studies. In the first study, the SOQ was administered to 568 participants to investigate the relative strength of 3 competing latent structure models previously identified in the literature. Confirmatory factor analyses provided no support for any of the prior…

  14. The Bilevel Structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bludworth, Jamie L.; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Glidden-Tracey, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (Lambert et al., 2001) was examined in a sample of 1,100 university counseling center clients using confirmatory factor analysis. Specifically, the relative fit of 1-factor, 3-factor orthogonal, 3-factor oblique, 4-factor hierarchical, and 4-factor bilevel models were examined. Although the 3-factor…

  15. Science Motivation Questionnaire: Construct Validation with Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Brickman, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how 770 nonscience majors, enrolled in a core-curriculum science course, conceptualized their motivation to learn science. The students responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire, a 30-item Likert-type instrument designed to provide science education researchers and science instructors with information about students'…

  16. Reported Voice Difficulties in Student Teachers: A Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Carol; Richards, Brian

    2007-01-01

    As professional voice users, teachers are particularly at risk of abusing their voices and developing voice disorders during their career. In spite of this, attention paid to voice care in the initial training and further professional development of teachers is unevenly spread and insufficient. This article describes a questionnaire survey of 171…

  17. The Diagnostic Conference Planning Questionnaire for Speech-Language Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Gail Ruppert

    1990-01-01

    The article describes a tool to increase professional effectiveness in supervisory conferencing in speech-language pathology based on the dual areas of role expectations for clinicians and personal needs as derived from Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The conferencing questionnaire aids in recognizing the needs of the supervisee, stating problems,…

  18. Revisiting the Factor Structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toll, Benjamin A.; McKee, Sherry A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU), a commonly used assessment of cravings for cigarettes, with a sample of smokers presenting for treatment in a smoking cessation trial. On the basis of previous research, three confirmatory factor analytic models were tested. Model 1 hypothesized a 26-item,…

  19. Development of a Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges--Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio

    2004-01-01

    Using 2 different samples of smokers, the authors developed and cross-validated a Spanish, brief version of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU; S. T. Tiffany & D. J. Drobes, 1991). The smokers in Study 1 (N = 245) and Study 2 (N = 225) were from the province of Alicante, Spain. In both samples, a 2-factor model provided an excellent fit for a…

  20. Model Invariance across Genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L.; Meyer, J. Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates…