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Sample records for agr-1 started irradiation

  1. AGR-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    John T. Maki

    2009-10-01

    This document presents the current state of planning for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment will be irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The test will contain six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule will contain a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. The irradiation is planned for about 700 effective full power days (approximately 2.4 calendar years) with a time-averaged, volume-average temperature of approximately 1050 °C. Average fuel burnup, for the entire test, will be greater than 17.7 % FIMA, and the fuel will experience fast neutron fluences between 2.4 and 4.5 x 1025 n/m2 (E>0.18 MeV).

  2. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building

  3. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  4. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3×105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  5. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise P. Collin

    2012-06-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 ?1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). We’ll say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below 10-7 with only one

  6. Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn

    2012-05-01

    The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Five irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These five compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The five compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. Approximately 40 to 80 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to mid-plane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 830 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

  7. Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2012-09-01

    The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Six irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These six compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The six compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. From 36 to 79 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to midplane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 931 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

  8. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Ploger, Scott A.; Morris, Robert N.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Harp, Jason M.; Winston, Philip L.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; van Rooyen, Isabella J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Silva, Chinthaka M.

    2015-10-23

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.6% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuel including the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructures was evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that it was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocarbon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 1 × 10–4 to 5 × 10–4 for 154Eu and 8 × 10–7 to 3 × 10–5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs fractional release from compacts was <3 × 10–6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98 × 105 in the experiment experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs fractional release in two capsules to approximately 10–5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that

  9. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Charles A. Baldwin; Philip L. Winston; Jason M. Harp; Scott A. Ploger; Tyler Gerczak; Isabella J. van Rooyen; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva

    2014-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.5% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuel–including the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructures–was evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that it was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocrabon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 1×10 4 to 5×10 4 for 154Eu and 8×10 7 to 3×10 5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs release from compacts was <3×10 6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98×105 experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs release in two capsules to approximately 10 5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that released cesium during irradiation, where SiC corrosion was found adjacent to IPyC cracks. Palladium, silver, and uranium were found in the SiC layer of irradiated particles, and characterization

  10. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Ploger, Scott A.; Morris, Robert N.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Harp, Jason M.; Winston, Philip L.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; van Rooyen, Isabella J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; et al

    2015-10-23

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.6% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuel including the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructures was evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that itmore » was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocarbon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 1 × 10–4 to 5 × 10–4 for 154Eu and 8 × 10–7 to 3 × 10–5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs fractional release from compacts was <3 × 10–6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98 × 105 in the experiment experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs fractional release in two capsules to approximately 10–5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that released cesium during irradiation, where SiC corrosion was found adjacent to IPyC cracks. In conclusion, palladium, silver, and

  11. Post-irradiation Examination and Fission Product Inventory Analysis of AGR-1 Irradiation Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    J M Harp; P D Demkowicz; S A Ploger

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments designed to test TRISO fuel under High Temperature Gas Reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post-irradiation examination (PIE) at INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). The inventory and distribution of fission products, especially Ag-110m, was assessed and analyzed for all the components of the AGR-1 capsules. This data should help inform the study of fission product migration in coated particle fuel. Gamma spectrometry was used to measure the activity of various different fission products in the different components of the AGR-1 test train. Each capsule contained: 12 fuel compacts, a graphite holder that kept the fuel compacts in place, graphite spacers that were above and below the graphite holders and fuel compacts, gas lines through which a helium neon gas mixture flowed in and out of each capsule, and the stainless steel shell that contained the experiment. Gamma spectrometry results and the experimental techniques used to capture these results will be presented for all the capsule components. The components were assayed to determine the total activity of different fission products present in or on them. These totals are compared to the total expected activity of a particular fission product in the capsule based on predictions from physics simulation. Based on this metric, a significant fraction of the Ag-110m was detected outside the fuel compacts, but the amount varied highly between the 6 capsules. Very small fractions of Cs-137 (<2E-5), Cs-134 (<1e-5), and Eu-154 (<4e-4) were detected outside of the fuel compacts. Additionally, the distribution of select fission products in some of the components including the fuel compacts and the graphite holders were measured and will be discussed.

  12. Post-irradiation Examination of the AGR-1 Experiment: Plans and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz

    2001-10-01

    Abstract – The AGR-1 irradiation experiment contains seventy-two individual cylindrical fuel compacts (25 mm long x 12.5 mm diameter) each containing approximately 4100 TRISO-coated uranium oxycarbide fuel particles. The experiment accumulated 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory with peak burnups exceeding 19% FIMA. An extensive post-irradiation examination campaign will be performed on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature accident testing. PIE experiments will include dimensional measurements of fuel and irradiated graphite, burnup measurements, assessment of fission metals release during irradiation, evaluation of coating integrity using the leach-burn-leach technique, microscopic examination of kernel and coating microstructures, and accident testing of the fuel in helium at temperatures up to 1800°C. Activities completed to date include opening of the irradiated capsules, measurement of fuel dimensions, and gamma spectrometry of selected fuel compacts.

  13. Validation of the Physics Analysis used to Characterize the AGR-1 TRISO Fuel Irradiation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James W.; Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Chang, Gray S.

    2015-05-01

    The results of a detailed physics depletion calculation used to characterize the AGR-1 TRISO-coated particle fuel test irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory are compared to measured data for the purpose of validation. The particle fuel was irradiated for 13 ATR power cycles over three calendar years. The physics analysis predicts compact burnups ranging from 11.30-19.56% FIMA and cumulative neutron fast fluence from 2.21?4.39E+25 n/m2 under simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor conditions in the ATR. The physics depletion calculation can provide a full characterization of all 72 irradiated TRISO-coated particle compacts during and post-irradiation, so validation of this physics calculation was a top priority. The validation of the physics analysis was done through comparisons with available measured experimental data which included: 1) high-resolution gamma scans for compact activity and burnup, 2) mass spectrometry for compact burnup, 3) flux wires for cumulative fast fluence, and 4) mass spectrometry for individual actinide and fission product concentrations. The measured data are generally in very good agreement with the calculated results, and therefore provide an adequate validation of the physics analysis and the results used to characterize the irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel.

  14. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 x 1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). We’ll say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below

  15. Completion of the first NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiment, AGR-1, in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover; John Maki; David Petti

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and completed a very successful irradiation in early November 2009. The design of AGR-1 test train and support systems used to monitor and control the experiment during

  16. AGR-1 Fuel Compact 6-3-2 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    SciTech Connect

    Paul demkowicz; jason Harp; Scott Ploger

    2012-12-01

    Destructive post-irradiation examination was performed on fuel Compact 6-3-2, which was irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment to a final compact average burnup of 11.3% FIMA and a time-average, volume-average temperature of 1070°C. The analysis of this compact was focused on characterizing the extent of fission product release from the particles and examining particles to determine the condition of the kernels and coating layers. The work included deconsolidation of the compact and leach-burn-leach analysis, visual inspection and gamma counting of individual particles, measurement of fuel burnup by several methods, metallurgical preparation of selected particles, and examination of particle cross-sections with optical microscopy. A single particle with a defective SiC layer was identified during deconsolidation-leach-burn-leach analysis, which is in agreement with previous measurements showing elevated cesium in the Capsule 6 graphite fuel holder associated with this fuel compact. The fraction of the compact europium inventory released from the particles and retained in the matrix was relatively high (approximately 6E-3), indicating release from intact particle coatings. The Ag-110m inventory in individual particles exhibited a very broad distribution, with some particles retaining =80% of the predicted inventory and others retaining less than 25%. The average degree of Ag-110m retention in 60 gamma counted particles was approximately 50%. This elevated silver release is in agreement with analysis of silver on the Capsule 6 components, which indicated an average release of 38% of the Capsule 6 inventory from the fuel compacts. In spite of the relatively high degree of silver release from the particles, virtually none of the Ag-110m released was found in the compact matrix, and presumably migrated out of the compact and was deposited on the irradiation capsule components. Release of all other fission products from the particles appears to be less than a single

  17. Preliminary results of post-irradiation examination of the AGR-1 TRISO fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris; Jason Harp; Philip Winston; Charles Baldwin; Fred Montgomery; Scott Ploger; Isabella van Rooyen

    2012-10-01

    Five irradiated fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment have been examined in detail in order to assess in-pile fission product release behavior. Compacts were electrolytically deconsolidated and analyzed using the leach-burn-leach technique to measure fission product inventory in the compact matrix and identify any particles with a defective SiC layer. Loose particles were then gamma counted to measure the fission product inventory. One particle with a defective SiC layer was found in the five compacts examined. The fractional release of Ag 110m from the particles was significant. The total fraction of silver released from all the particles within a compact ranged from 0-0.63 and individual particles within a single compact often exhibited a very wide range of silver release. The average fractional release of Eu-154 from all particles in a compact was 2.4×10-4—1.3×10-2, which is indicative of release through intact coatings. The fractional Cs-134 inventory in the compact matrix was <2×10-5 when all coatings remained intact, indicating good cesium retention. Approximately 1% of the palladium inventory was found in the compact matrix for two of the compacts, indicating significant release through intact coatings.

  18. Identification of Silver and Palladium in Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles of the AGR-1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    van Rooyen, Y. J.; Lillo, T. M.; Wu, Y. Q.

    2014-03-01

    Evidence of the release of certain metallic fission product through intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles has been seen for decades around the world, as well as in the recent AGR-1 experiment at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). However, understanding the basic mechanism of transport is still lacking. This understanding is important because the TRISO coating is part of the high temperature gas reactor functional containment and critical for the safety strategy for licensing purposes. Our approach to identify fission products in irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM), has led to first-of-a-kind data at the nano-scale indicating the presence of silver at triple points and grain boundaries of the SiC layer in the TRISO particle. Cadmium was also found in the triple junctions. In this initial study, the silver was only identified in SiC grain boundaries and triple points on the edge of the SiC-IPyC interface up to a depth of approximately 0.5 um. Palladium was identified as the main constituent of micron-sized precipitates present at the SiC grain boundaries. Additionally spherical nano-sized palladium rich precipitates were found inside the SiC grains. These nano-sized Pd precipitates were distributed up to a depth of 5 um away from the SiC-IPyC interlayer. No silver was found in the center of the micron-sized fission product precipitates using these techniques, although silver was found on the outer edge of one of the Pd-U-Si containing precipitates which was facing the IPyC layer. Only Pd-U containing precipitates were identified in the IPyC layer and no silver was identified in the IPyC layer. The identification of silver alongside the grain boundaries and the findings of Pd alongside grain boundaries as well as inside the grains, provide significant knowledge for understanding silver and palladium transport in TIRSO fuel, which has been

  19. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    This report documents comparisons between post-irradiation examination measurements and model predictions of silver (Ag), cesium (Cs), and strontium (Sr) release from selected tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation test of the Advanced Gas Reactor program that occurred from December 2006 to November 2009 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The modeling was performed using the particle fuel model computer code PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) developed at INL. PARFUME is an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel performance modeling and analysis code (Miller 2009). It has been developed as an integrated mechanistic code that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation to determine the failure probability of a population of fuel particles given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise from the fuel fabrication process, accounting for all viable mechanisms that can lead to particle failure. The code also determines the diffusion of fission products from the fuel through the particle coating layers, and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. The subsequent release of fission products is calculated at the compact level (release of fission products from the compact) but it can be assessed at the particle level by adjusting the diffusivity in the fuel matrix to very high values. Furthermore, the diffusivity of each layer can be individually set to a high value (typically 10-6 m2/s) to simulate a failed layer with no capability of fission product retention. In this study, the comparison to PIE focused on fission product release and because of the lack of failure in the irradiation, the probability of particle failure was not calculated. During the AGR-1 irradiation campaign, the fuel kernel produced and released fission products, which migrated through the successive

  20. Performance of AGR-1 high-temperature reactor fuel during post-irradiation heating tests

    DOE PAGES

    Morris, Robert N.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Reber, Edward L.

    2016-05-18

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel compacts from the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor 1 (AGR-1) experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600–1800 °C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4% to 19.1% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium,more » and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 °C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 × 10–6 after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 °C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with failed SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 °C in one compact. As a result, post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers

  1. Performance of AGR-1 High-Temperature Reactor Fuel During Post-Irradiation Heating Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hunn, John D; Demkowicz, Paul; Reber, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600 1800 C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4 to 19.1% FIMA have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 10-6 after 300 h at 1600 C or 100 h at 1800 C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with breached SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 C in one compact. Post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers to understand particle behavior.

  2. AGR-1 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Lance Cole; Scott Ploger; Philip Winston; Binh Pham; Michael Abbott

    2011-01-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment ended on November 6, 2009, after 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor, achieving a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in March 2010 for post-irradiation examination. The first PIE activities included non-destructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and the graphite fuel holders. Dimensional measurements of the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsules shells were performed using a custom vision measurement system (for outer diameters and lengths) and conventional bore gauges (for inner diameters). Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Neutron radiography of the intact Capsule 2 showed a high degree of detail of interior components and confirmed the observation that there was no major damage to the capsule. Disassembly of the capsules was initiated using procedures qualified during out-of-cell mockup testing. Difficulties were encountered during capsule disassembly due to irradiation-induced changes in some of the capsule components’ properties, including embrittled niobium and molybdenum parts that were susceptible to fracture and swelling of the graphite fuel holders that affected their removal from the capsule shells. This required various improvised modifications to the disassembly procedure to avoid damage to the fuel compacts. Ultimately the capsule disassembly was successful and only one compact from Capsule 4 (out of 72 total in the test train) sustained damage during the disassembly process, along with the associated graphite holder. The compacts were generally in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor

  3. First elevated-temperature performance testing of coated particle fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Baldwin; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-05-01

    In the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, 72 coated-particle fuel compacts were taken to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures. This paper discusses the first post-irradiation test of these mixed uranium oxide/uranium carbide fuel compacts at elevated temperature to examine the fuel performance under a simulated depressurized conduction cooldown event. A compact was heated for 400 h at 1600 degrees C. Release of 85Kr was monitored throughout the furnace test as an indicator of coating failure, while other fission product releases from the compact were periodically measured by capturing them on exchangeable, water-cooled deposition cups. No coating failure was detected during the furnace test, and this result was verified by subsequent electrolytic deconsolidation and acid leaching of the compact, which showed that all SiC layers were still intact. However, the deposition cups recovered significant quantities of silver, europium, and strontium. Based on comparison of calculated compact inventories at the end of irradiation versus analysis of these fission products released to the deposition cups and furnace internals, the minimum estimated fractional losses from the compact during the furnace test were 1.9 x 10-2 for silver, 1.4 x 10-3 for europium, and 1.1 x 10-5 for strontium. Other post-irradiation examination of AGR-1 compacts indicates that similar fractions of europium and silver may have already been released by the intact coated particles during irradiation, and it is therefore likely that the detected fission products released from the compact in this 1600 degrees C furnace test were from residual fission products in the matrix. Gamma analysis of coated particles deconsolidated from the compact after the heating test revealed that silver content within each particle varied considerably; a result that is probably not related to the furnace test, because it has also been observed in other as-irradiated AGR-1 compacts. X

  4. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from

  5. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts andmore » fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  6. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  7. HTR-2014 Paper Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2001-10-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict fission product release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of fission products in the compacts outside of the SiC layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of these fission products was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed silicon carbide (SiC) layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of about two, corresponding to an over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of about 100. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by an average of about an order of magnitude, which could additionally be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 30%. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-estimated by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from intact particles varied considerably from compact to compact, making it difficult to assess the effective over-estimation of the diffusivities. Furthermore, the release of strontium from particles with failed SiC is difficult to observe experimentally due to the release from intact particles, preventing any conclusions to be made on the accuracy or validity of the

  8. Electron Microscopic Evaluation and Fission Product Identification of Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles from the AGR-1 Experiment: A Preliminary Review

    SciTech Connect

    IJ van Rooyen; DE Janney; BD Miller; PA DEmkowicz; J Riesterer

    2014-05-01

    Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this paper a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objectives of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. Microstructural characterization focused on fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, the SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer. The results provide significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. An initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations were observed and no debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation was observed for the samples investigated. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  9. Electron microscopic evaluation and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment: A preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    I J van Rooyen; D E Janney; B D Miller; J L Riesterer; P A Demkowicz

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this presentation a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objective of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. The characterization emphasized fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer, and provided significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentration Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of contain Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. Possible microstructural differences between particles with high and low releases of Ag particles are also briefly discussed, and an initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations or debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation were observed. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  10. Advanced electron microscopic techniques applied to the characterization of irradiation effects and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Lillo, T.M.; Trowbridge, T.L.; Madden, J.M.; Wu, Y.Q.; Goran, D.

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary electron microscopy of coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment was conducted using characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates was performed. Although numerous micro- and nano-sized precipitates observed in the coating layers during initial SEM characterization of the cross-sections, and in subsequent TEM diffraction patterns, were indexed as UPd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, no Ag was conclusively found. Additionally, characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. The electron microscopy team followed a multi-directional and phased approach in the identification of fission products in irradiated TRISO fuel. The advanced electron microscopy techniques discussed in this paper, not only demonstrate the usefulness of the equipment (methods) as relevant research tools, but also provide relevant scientific results which increase the knowledge about TRISO fuel particles microstructure and fission products transport.

  11. AGR-1 Thermocouple Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Einerson

    2012-05-01

    This report documents an effort to analyze measured and simulated data obtained in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel irradiation test program conducted in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) R&D program. The work follows up on a previous study (Pham and Einerson, 2010), in which statistical analysis methods were applied for AGR-1 thermocouple data qualification. The present work exercises the idea that, while recognizing uncertainties inherent in physics and thermal simulations of the AGR-1 test, results of the numerical simulations can be used in combination with the statistical analysis methods to further improve qualification of measured data. Additionally, the combined analysis of measured and simulation data can generate insights about simulation model uncertainty that can be useful for model improvement. This report also describes an experimental control procedure to maintain fuel target temperature in the future AGR tests using regression relationships that include simulation results. The report is organized into four chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification program, AGR-1 test configuration and test procedure, overview of AGR-1 measured data, and overview of physics and thermal simulation, including modeling assumptions and uncertainties. A brief summary of statistical analysis methods developed in (Pham and Einerson 2010) for AGR-1 measured data qualification within NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is also included for completeness. Chapters 2-3 describe and discuss cases, in which the combined use of experimental and simulation data is realized. A set of issues associated with measurement and modeling uncertainties resulted from the combined analysis are identified. This includes demonstration that such a combined analysis led to important insights for reducing uncertainty in presentation of AGR-1 measured data (Chapter 2) and interpretation of

  12. AGR-1 Data Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Abbott

    2010-03-01

    ABSTRACT Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the data streams associated with the first Advanced Gas Reactor experiment (AGR-1), the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. They include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing, to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documentation that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent quality assurance program. The NDMAS database processing and qualification status of the following five data streams is reported in this document: 1. Fuel fabrication data. All data have been processed into the NDMAS database and qualified (1,819 records). 2. Fuel irradiation data. Data from all 13 AGR-1 reactor cycles have been processed into the NDMAS database and tested. Of these, 85% have been qualified and 15% have failed NDMAS accuracy testing. 3. FPMS data. Reprocessed (January 2010) data from all 13 AGR-1 reactor cycles have been processed into the database and capture tested. Final qualification of these data will be recorded after QA approval of an Engineering Calculations and Analysis Report

  13. AGR-1 Safety Test Predictions using the PARFUME code

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2012-05-01

    The PARFUME modeling code was used to predict failure probability of TRISO-coated fuel particles and diffusion of fission products through these particles during safety tests following the first irradiation test of the Advanced Gas Reactor program (AGR-1). These calculations support the AGR-1 Safety Testing Experiment, which is part of the PIE effort on AGR-1. Modeling of the AGR-1 Safety Test Predictions includes a 620-day irradiation followed by a 300-hour heat-up phase of selected AGR-1 compacts. Results include fuel failure probability, palladium penetration, and fractional release of fission products. Results show that no particle failure is predicted during irradiation or heat-up, and that fractional release of fission products is limited during irradiation but that it significantly increases during heat-up.

  14. STEM-EDS analysis of fission products in neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particles from AGR-1 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, B.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Wu, Y. Q.; Szlufarska, I.; Sridharan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Historic and recent post-irradiation-examination from the German AVR and Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Project have shown that 110 m Ag is released from intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. Although TRISO fuel particle research has been performed over the last few decades, little is known about how metallic fission products are transported through the SiC layer, and it was not until March 2013 that Ag was first identified in the SiC layer of a neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particle. The existence of Pd- and Ag-rich grain boundary precipitates, triple junction precipitates, and Pd nano-sized intragranular precipitates in neutron-irradiated TRISO particle coatings was investigated using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analysis to obtain more information on the chemical composition of the fission product precipitates. A U-rich fission product honeycomb shape precipitate network was found near a micron-sized precipitate in a SiC grain about ∼5 μm from the SiC-inner pyrolytic carbon interlayer, indicating a possible intragranular transport path for uranium. A single Ag-Pd nano-sized precipitate was found inside a SiC grain, and this is the first research showing such finding in irradiated SiC. This finding may possibly suggest a possible Pd-assisted intragranular transport mechanism for Ag and may be related to void or dislocation networks inside SiC grains. Preliminary semi-quantitative analysis indicated the micron-sized precipitates to be Pd2Si2U with carbon existing inside these precipitates. However, the results of such analysis for nano-sized precipitates may be influenced by the SiC matrix. The results reported in this paper confirm the co-existence of Cd with Ag in triple points reported previously.

  15. AGR-1 Data Qualification Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Machael Abbott

    2009-08-01

    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the data streams associated with the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) experiment, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY09 qualification status of the AGR-1 data to date. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category, which is assigned by the data generator, and include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing, to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documentation that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent QA program. The interim qualification status of the following four data streams is reported in this document: (1) fuel fabrication data, (2) fuel irradiation data, (3) fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data, and (4) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) operating conditions data. A final report giving the NDMAS qualification status of all AGR-1 data (including cycle 145A) is planned for February 2010.

  16. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR-1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Jeffrey J. Einerson; Grant L. Hawkes

    2012-04-01

    This report documents an effort to quantify the uncertainty of the calculated temperature data for the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) fuel irradiation experiment conducted in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) R&D program. Recognizing uncertainties inherent in physics and thermal simulations of the AGR-1 test, the results of the numerical simulations can be used in combination with the statistical analysis methods to improve qualification of measured data. Additionally, the temperature simulation data for AGR tests can be used for validation of the fuel transport and fuel performance simulation models. The crucial roles of the calculated fuel temperatures in ensuring achievement of the AGR experimental program objectives require accurate determination of the model temperature uncertainties. The report is organized into three chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification program and provides overviews of AGR-1 measured data, AGR-1 test configuration and test procedure, and thermal simulation. Chapters 2 describes the uncertainty quantification procedure for temperature simulation data of the AGR-1 experiment, namely, (i) identify and quantify uncertainty sources; (ii) perform sensitivity analysis for several thermal test conditions; (iii) use uncertainty propagation to quantify overall response temperature uncertainty. A set of issues associated with modeling uncertainties resulting from the expert assessments are identified. This also includes the experimental design to estimate the main effects and interactions of the important thermal model parameters. Chapter 3 presents the overall uncertainty results for the six AGR-1 capsules. This includes uncertainties for the daily volume-average and peak fuel temperatures, daily average temperatures at TC locations, and time-average volume-average and time-average peak fuel temperatures.

  17. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR-1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Jeffrey J. Einerson; Grant L. Hawkes

    2013-03-01

    This report documents an effort to quantify the uncertainty of the calculated temperature data for the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) fuel irradiation experiment conducted in the INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) R&D program. Recognizing uncertainties inherent in physics and thermal simulations of the AGR-1 test, the results of the numerical simulations can be used in combination with the statistical analysis methods to improve qualification of measured data. Additionally, the temperature simulation data for AGR tests can be used for validation of the fuel transport and fuel performance simulation models. The crucial roles of the calculated fuel temperatures in ensuring achievement of the AGR experimental program objectives require accurate determination of the model temperature uncertainties. The report is organized into three chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification program and provides overviews of AGR-1 measured data, AGR-1 test configuration and test procedure, and thermal simulation. Chapters 2 describes the uncertainty quantification procedure for temperature simulation data of the AGR-1 experiment, namely, (i) identify and quantify uncertainty sources; (ii) perform sensitivity analysis for several thermal test conditions; (iii) use uncertainty propagation to quantify overall response temperature uncertainty. A set of issues associated with modeling uncertainties resulting from the expert assessments are identified. This also includes the experimental design to estimate the main effects and interactions of the important thermal model parameters. Chapter 3 presents the overall uncertainty results for the six AGR-1 capsules. This includes uncertainties for the daily volume-average and peak fuel temperatures, daily average temperatures at TC locations, and time-average volume-average and time-average peak fuel temperatures.

  18. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Gerczak, Tyler J.

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  19. Data Compilation for AGR-1 Variant 3 Compact Lot LEU01-49T-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Montgomery, Fred C; Pappano, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data for the AGR-1 vriant 3 fuel compact lot LEU01-49T-Z. The compacts were produced by ORNL for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program for the first AGR irradiation test train (AGR-1). This compact lot was fabricated using particle composite LEU01-49T, which was a composite of three batches of TRISO-coated 350 {micro}m diameter 19.7% low enrichment uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (LEUCO). The AGR-1 TRISO-coated particles consist of a spherical kernel coated with an {approx} 50% dense carbon buffer layer (100 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a dense inner pyrocarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a SiC layer (35 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by another dense outer pyrocarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness). The kernels were obtained from BWXT and identified as composite G73D-20-69302. The BWXT kernel lot G73D-20-69302 was riffled into sublots for characterization and coating by ORNL and identified as LEU01-?? (where ?? is a series of integers beginning with 01). A data compilation for the AGR-1 variant 3 coated particle composite LEU01-49t CAN BE FOUND IN ornl/tm-2006/022.

  20. Data Compilation for AGR-1 Variant 1 Compact Lot LEU01-47T-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Montgomery, Fred C; Pappano, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data for the AGR-1 variant 1 compact lot LEU01-47T-Z. The compacts were produced by ORNL for the ADvanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program for the first AGR irradiation test train (AGR-1). This compact lot was fabricated using particle composite LEU01-47T, which was a composite of three batches of TRISO-coated 350 {micro}m diameter 19.7% low enrichment uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (LEUCO). The AGR-1 TRISO-coated particles consist of a spherical kernel coated with an {approx} 50% dense carbon buffer layer (100 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a dense inner pyrocarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a SiC layer (35 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by another dense outer pyrcoarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness). The kernels were obtained from BWXT and identified as composite G73D-20-69302. The BWXT kernel lot G73D-20-69302 was riffled into sublots for characterization and coating by ORNL and identified at LEU01-?? (where ?? is a series of integers beginning with 01). A data compilation for the AGR-1 variant 1 coated particle composite LEU01-47T can be found in ORNL/TM-2006/020. The AGR-1 Fuel Product Specification and Characterization Guidance (INL EDF-4380) provides the requirements necessary for acceptance of the fuel manufactured for the AGR-1 irradiation test. Section 6.2 of EDF-4380 provides the property requirements for the heat treated compacts. The Statistical Sampling Plan for AGR Fuel Materials (INL EDF-4542) provides additional guidance regarding statistical methods for product acceptance and recommended sample sizes. The procedures for characterizing and qualifying the compacts are outlined in ORNL product inspection plan AGR-CHAR-PIP-05. The inspection report forms generated by this product inspection plan document the product acceptance for the property requirements listed in section 6.2 of EDF-4380.

  1. Data Compilation for AGR-1 Variant 2 Compact Lot LEU01-48T-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Montgomery, Fred C; Pappano, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data for the AGR-1 variant 2 compact lot LEU01-48T-Z. The compacts were produced by ORNL for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program for the first AGR irradiation test train (AGR-1). This compact lot was fabricated using particle composite LEU01-48T, which was a composite of three batches of TRISO-coated 350 {micro}m diameter 19.7% low enrichment uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (LEUCO). The AGR-1 TRISO-coated particles consist of a spherical kernel coated with an {approx} 50% dense carbon buffer layer (100 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a dense inner pyrocarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a SiC layer (35 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by another dense outer pyrocarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness). The kernels were obtained from BWXT and identified as composite G73D-20-69302. The BWXT kernel lot G73D-20-69302 was riffled into sublots for characterization and coating by ORNL and identified as LEU01-?? (where ?? is a series of integers beginning with 01). A data compilation for the AGR-1 variant 2 coated particle composite LEU01-48T can be found in ORNL/TM-2006/021. The AGR-1 Fuel Product Specification and Characterization Guidance (INL EDF-4380) provides the requirements necessary for acceptance of the fuel manufactured for the AGR-1 irradiation test. Section 6.2 of EDF-4380 provides the property requirements for the heat treated compacts. The Statistical Sampling Plan for AGR Fuel materials (INL EDF-4542) provides additional guidance regarding statistical methods for product acceptance and recommended sample sizes. The procedures for characterizing and qualifying the compacts are outlined in ORNL product inspection plan AGR-CHAR-PIP-05. The inspection report forms generated by this product inspection plan document the product acceptance for the property requirements listed in section 6.2 of EDF-4380.

  2. Data Compilation for AGR-1 Baseline Compact Lot LEU01-46T-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Montgomery, Fred C; Pappano, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data for the AGR-1 baseline compact lot LEU01-46T-Z. The compacts were produced by ORNL for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program for the first AGR irradiation test train (AGR-1). This compact lot was fabricated using particle composite LEU01-46T, which was a composite of four batches of TRISO-coated 350 {micro}m diameter 19.7% low enrichment uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (LEUCO). The AGR-1 TRISO-coated particles consist of a spherical kernel coated with an {approx} 50% dense carbon buffer layer (100 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a dense inner pyrocarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by a SiC layer (35 {micro}m nominal thickness), followed by another dense outer pyrocarbon layer (40 {micro}m nominal thickness). The kernels were obtained from BWXT and identified as composite G73D-20-69302. The BWXT kernel lot G73D-20-69302 was riffled into sublots for characterization and coating by ORNL and identified as LEU01-?? (where ?? is a series of integers beginning with 01). A data compilation for the AGR-1 baseline coated particle composite LEU01-46T can be found in ORNL/TM-2006/019. The AGR-1 Fuel product Specification and Characterization Guidance (INL EDF-4380) provides the requirements necessary for acceptance of the fuel manufactured for the AGR-1 irradiation test. Section 6.2 of EDF-4380 provides the property requirements for the heat treated compacts. The Statistical Sampling Plan for AGR Fuel materials (INL EDF-4542) provides additional guidance regarding statistical methods for product acceptance and recommended sample sizes. The procedures for characterizing and qualifying the compacts are outlined in ORNL product inspection plan AGR-CHAR-PIP-05. the inspection report forms generated by this product inspection plan document the product acceptance for the property requirements listed in section 6.2 of EDF-4380.

  3. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  4. Data Compilation for AGR-1 Pre-Production Test: NUCO350-75T-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Lowden, Richard Andrew; Pappano, Peter J

    2006-03-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data for compact lot NUCO350-75T-Z. This compact lot was fabricated using particle composite NUCO350-75T, which was a composite of three batches of TRISO-coated 350 m natural uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (NUCO). The compacts and coated particles were produced as part of a development effort at ORNL for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. The kernels were obtained from BWXT and were identified as composite G73B-NU-69300. The BWXT kernel lot G73B-NU-69300 was riffled into sublots for characterization and coating. The ORNL identification for these kernel sublots was NUCO350-## (where ## were a series of integers beginning with 01). NUCO350-75T-Z was produced as part of the ORNL AGR development effort and is not fully representative of a final product. This compact lot was the first run through of the entire ORNL AGR-1 irradiation test fuel production process involving coating, characterization, and compacting of TRISO-coated 350 m NUCO. The results of this exercise were used to fine tune the irradiation test fuel production process and as a basis for the decision to proceed with the production of the baseline fuel for the AGR-1 irradiation test.

  5. The effect of birthrate granularity on the release-to-birth ratio for the AGR-1 in-core experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Scates; J. B. Walter; J. T. Maki; J. W. Sterbentz; J. R. Parry

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) tristructural-isotropic-particle fuel experiment underwent 13 irradiation intervals from December 2006 until November 2009 within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant program. During this multi-year experiment, release-to-birth rate ratios were computed at the end of each operating interval to provide information about fuel performance. Fission products released during irradiation were tracked daily by the Fission Product Monitoring System using 8-h measurements. Birth rate calculated by MCNP with ORIGEN for as-run conditions were computed at the end of each irradiation interval. Each time step in MCNP provided neutron flux, reaction rates and AGR-1 compact composition, which were used to determine birth rate using ORIGEN. The initial birth-rate data, consisting of four values for each irradiation interval at the beginning, end, and two intermediate times, were interpolated to obtain values for each 8-h activity. The problem with this method is that any daily changes in heat rates or perturbations, such as shim control movement or core/lobe power fluctuations, would not be reflected in the interpolated data and a true picture of the system would not be presented. At the conclusion of the AGR-1 experiment, great efforts were put forth to compute daily birthrates, which were reprocessed with the 8-h release activity. The results of this study are presented in this paper.

  6. The Effect of Birthrate Granularity on the Release- to- Birth Ratio for the AGR-1 In-core Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn Scates; John Walter

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) tristructural-isotropic-particle fuel experiment underwent 13 irradiation intervals from December 2006 until November 2009 within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant program. During this multi-year experiment, release-to-birth rate ratios were computed at the end of each operating interval to provide information about fuel performance. Fission products released during irradiation were tracked daily by the Fission Product Monitoring System using 8-hour measurements. Birth rates calculated by MCNP with ORIGEN for as-run conditions were computed at the end of each irradiation interval. Each time step in MCNP provided neutron flux, reaction rates and AGR-1 compact composition, which were used to determine birth rates using ORIGEN. The initial birth-rate data, consisting of four values for each irradiation interval at the beginning, end, and two intermediate times, were interpolated to obtain values for each 8-hour activity. The problem with this method is that any daily changes in heat rates or perturbations, such as shim control movement or core/lobe power fluctuations, would not be reflected in the interpolated data and a true picture of the system would not be presented. At the conclusion of the AGR-1 experiment, great efforts were put forth to compute daily birthrates, which were reprocessed with the 8-hour release activity. The results of this study are presented in this paper.

  7. Design and Expected Performance of the AGR-1 Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS)

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Hartwell; Dawn M. Scates

    2005-09-01

    The effluent from each test capsule of the AGR-1 experiment will be monitored by a detector system consisting of a gamma-ray spectrometer and a gross radiation detector. This collection of radiation measurement systems will be known as the AGR-1 Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). Proper design and functioning of the FPMS is critical to the success of the AGR-1 fuel test experiment.This document describes the AGR-1 FPMS and presents calculations indicating that this design will meet the pertinent test requirements.

  8. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 safety tests

    DOE PAGES

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2016-04-07

    Safety tests were conducted on fuel compacts from AGR-1, the first irradiation experiment of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program, at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 1800 °C to determine fission product release at temperatures that bound reactor accident conditions. The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, strontium, and krypton from fuel compacts containing tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles during 15 of these safety tests. Comparisons between PARFUME predictions and post-irradiation examination results of the safety tests were conducted on two types of AGR-1 compacts: compactsmore » containing only intact particles and compacts containing one or more particles whose SiC layers failed during safety testing. In both cases, PARFUME globally over-predicted the experimental release fractions by several orders of magnitude: more than three (intact) and two (failed SiC) orders of magnitude for silver, more than three and up to two orders of magnitude for strontium, and up to two and more than one orders of magnitude for krypton. The release of cesium from intact particles was also largely over-predicted (by up to five orders of magnitude) but its release from particles with failed SiC was only over-predicted by a factor of about 3. These over-predictions can be largely attributed to an over-estimation of the diffusivities used in the modeling of fission product transport in TRISO-coated particles. The integral release nature of the data makes it difficult to estimate the individual over-estimations in the kernel or each coating layer. Nevertheless, a tentative assessment of correction factors to these diffusivities was performed to enable a better match between the modeling predictions and the safety testing results. The method could only be successfully applied to silver and cesium. In the case of strontium, correction factors could not be assessed

  9. SiC layer microstructure in AGR-1 and AGR-2 TRISO fuel particles and the influence of its variation on the effective diffusion of key fission products

    DOE PAGES

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Hunn, John D.; Lowden, Richard A.; Allen, Todd R.

    2016-08-15

    Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel is a promising fuel form for advanced reactor concepts such as high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and is being developed domestically under the US Department of Energy’s Nuclear Reactor Technologies Initiative in support of Advanced Reactor Technologies. The fuel development and qualification plan includes a series of fuel irradiations to demonstrate fuel performance from the laboratory to commercial scale. The first irradiation campaign, AGR-1, included four separate TRISO fuel variants composed of multiple, laboratory-scale coater batches. The second irradiation campaign, AGR-2, included TRISO fuel particles fabricated by BWX Technologies with a larger coater representativemore » of an industrial-scale system. The SiC layers of as-fabricated particles from the AGR-1 and AGR-2 irradiation campaigns have been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to provide key information about the microstructural features relevant to fuel performance. The results of a comprehensive study of multiple particles from all constituent batches are reported. The observations indicate that there were microstructural differences between variants and among constituent batches in a single variant. Finally, insights on the influence of microstructure on the effective diffusivity of key fission products in the SiC layer are also discussed.« less

  10. SiC layer microstructure in AGR-1 and AGR-2 TRISO fuel particles and the influence of its variation on the effective diffusion of key fission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Hunn, John D.; Lowden, Richard A.; Allen, Todd R.

    2016-11-01

    Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel is a promising fuel form for advanced reactor concepts such as high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and is being developed domestically under the US Department of Energy's Nuclear Reactor Technologies Initiative in support of Advanced Reactor Technologies. The fuel development and qualification plan includes a series of fuel irradiations to demonstrate fuel performance from the laboratory to commercial scale. The first irradiation campaign, AGR-1, included four separate TRISO fuel variants composed of multiple, laboratory-scale coater batches. The second irradiation campaign, AGR-2, included TRISO fuel particles fabricated by BWX Technologies with a larger coater representative of an industrial-scale system. The SiC layers of as-fabricated particles from the AGR-1 and AGR-2 irradiation campaigns have been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to provide key information about the microstructural features relevant to fuel performance. The results of a comprehensive study of multiple particles from all constituent batches are reported. The observations indicate that there were microstructural differences between variants and among constituent batches in a single variant. Insights on the influence of microstructure on the effective diffusivity of key fission products in the SiC layer are also discussed.

  11. HTR 2014 Paper - Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 safety tests

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise P. Collin

    2001-10-01

    Safety tests were conducted on fourteen fuel compacts from AGR-1, the first irradiation experiment of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program, at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 1800°C to determine fission product release at temperatures that bound reactor accident conditions. The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, strontium, and krypton from fuel compacts containing tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles during the safety tests, and the predicted values were compared with experimental results. Preliminary comparisons between PARFUME predictions and post-irradiation examination (PIE) results of the safety tests show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of these fission products, which is largely attributed to an over-estimation of the diffusivities used in the modeling of fission product transport in TRISO-coated particles. Correction factors to these diffusivities were assessed for silver and cesium in order to enable a better match between the modeling predictions and the safety testing results. In the case of strontium, correction factors could not be assessed because potential release during the safety tests could not be distinguished from matrix content released during irradiation. In the case of krypton, all the coating layers are partly retentive and the available data did not allow to determine their respective retention powers, hence preventing to derive any correction factors.

  12. An analysis of nuclear fuel burnup in the AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment using gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometry, and computational simulation techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Winston, Philip L.; Sterbentz, James W.

    2014-09-03

    AGR 1 was the first in a series of experiments designed to test US TRISO fuel under high temperature gas-cooled reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post irradiation examination (PIE) at INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One component of the AGR 1 PIE is the experimental evaluation of the burnup of the fuel by two separate techniques. Gamma spectrometry was used to non destructively evaluate the burnup of all 72 of the TRISO fuel compacts that comprised the AGR 1 experiment. Two methodsmore » for evaluating burnup by gamma spectrometry were developed, one based on the Cs 137 activity and the other based on the ratio of Cs 134 and Cs 137 activities. Burnup values determined from both methods compared well with the values predicted from simulations. The highest measured burnup was 20.1% FIMA for the direct method and 20.0% FIMA for the ratio method (compared to 19.56% FIMA from simulations). An advantage of the ratio method is that the burnup of the cylindrical fuel compacts can determined in small (2.5 mm) axial increments and an axial burnup profile can be produced. Destructive chemical analysis by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was then performed on selected compacts that were representative of the expected range of fuel burnups in the experiment to compare with the burnup values determined by gamma spectrometry. The compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry had a burnup range of 19.3% FIMA to 10.7% FIMA. The mass spectrometry evaluation of burnup for the four compacts agreed well with the gamma spectrometry burnup evaluations and the expected burnup from simulation. For all four compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry, the maximum range in the three experimentally determined values and the predicted value was 6% or less. Furthermore, the results confirm the accuracy of the nondestructive burnup evaluation from gamma

  13. An analysis of nuclear fuel burnup in the AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment using gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometry, and computational simulation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Winston, Philip L.; Sterbentz, James W.

    2014-09-03

    AGR 1 was the first in a series of experiments designed to test US TRISO fuel under high temperature gas-cooled reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post irradiation examination (PIE) at INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One component of the AGR 1 PIE is the experimental evaluation of the burnup of the fuel by two separate techniques. Gamma spectrometry was used to non destructively evaluate the burnup of all 72 of the TRISO fuel compacts that comprised the AGR 1 experiment. Two methods for evaluating burnup by gamma spectrometry were developed, one based on the Cs 137 activity and the other based on the ratio of Cs 134 and Cs 137 activities. Burnup values determined from both methods compared well with the values predicted from simulations. The highest measured burnup was 20.1% FIMA for the direct method and 20.0% FIMA for the ratio method (compared to 19.56% FIMA from simulations). An advantage of the ratio method is that the burnup of the cylindrical fuel compacts can determined in small (2.5 mm) axial increments and an axial burnup profile can be produced. Destructive chemical analysis by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was then performed on selected compacts that were representative of the expected range of fuel burnups in the experiment to compare with the burnup values determined by gamma spectrometry. The compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry had a burnup range of 19.3% FIMA to 10.7% FIMA. The mass spectrometry evaluation of burnup for the four compacts agreed well with the gamma spectrometry burnup evaluations and the expected burnup from simulation. For all four compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry, the maximum range in the three experimentally determined values and the predicted value was 6% or less. Furthermore, the results confirm the accuracy of the nondestructive burnup evaluation from gamma spectrometry

  14. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 safety tests

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    Safety tests were conducted on fourteen fuel compacts from AGR-1, the first irradiation experiment of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program, at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 1800°C to determine fission product release at temperatures that bound reactor accident conditions. The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, strontium, and krypton from fuel compacts containing tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles during the safety tests, and the predicted values were compared with experimental results. Preliminary comparisons between PARFUME predictions and post-irradiation examination (PIE) results of the safety tests show different trends in the prediction of the fractional release depending on the species, and it leads to different conclusions regarding the diffusivities used in the modeling of fission product transport in TRISO-coated particles: • For silver, the diffusivity in silicon carbide (SiC) might be over-estimated by a factor of at least 102 to 103 at 1600°C and 1700°C, and at least 10 to 102 at 1800°C. The diffusivity of silver in uranium oxy-carbide (UCO) might also be over-estimated, but the available data are insufficient to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn. • For cesium, the diffusivity in UCO might be over-estimated by a factor of at least 102 to 103 at 1600°C, 105 at 1700°C, and 103 at 1800°C. The diffusivity of cesium in SiC might also over-estimated, by a factor of 10 at 1600°C and 103 at 1700°C, based upon the comparisons between calculated and measured release fractions from intact particles. There is no available estimate at 1800°C since all the compacts heated up at 1800°C contain particles with failed SiC layers whose release dominates the release from intact particles. • For strontium, the diffusivity in SiC might be over-estimated by a factor of 10 to 102 at 1600 and 1700°C, and 102 to 103 at 1800°C. These

  15. Enalapril Mitigates Radiation-Induced Pneumonitis and Pulmonary Fibrosis if Started 35 Days after Whole-Thorax Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Fish, Brian L.; Moulder, John E.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Medhora, Meetha

    2014-01-01

    Victims of a radiological attack or nuclear accident may receive high-dose, heterogeneous exposures from radiation to the chest that lead to lung damage. Our goal is to develop countermeasures to mitigate such injuries. We used WAG/RijCmcr rats receiving 13 Gy to the whole thorax to induce pulmonary fibrosis within 210 days. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril was evaluated as a mitigator of these injuries at two doses (18 and 36 mg/m2/day) and 8 schedules: starting at 7, 35, 70, 105 and 140 days and continuing to 210 days or starting at 7 days and stopping at 30, 60 or 90 days after whole-thorax irradiation. The earliest start date at 7 days after irradiation would provide an adequate window of time for triage and dosimetry. Survival after 35 days, as permitted by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) was also recorded as a primary end point of pneumonitis. Pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated using the Sircol biochemical assay to measure lung collagen. Our results indicated that a short course of either dose of enalapril from 7–90 days improved survival. However, pulmonary fibrosis was only mitigated by the higher dose of enalapril (36 mg/m2/day). The latest effective start date for the drug was 35 days after irradiation. These results indicate that ACE inhibitors can be started at least a month after irradiation for mitigation of pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24131041

  16. Microstructure of TRISO Coated Particles from the AGR-1 Experiment I: SiC Grain Size and Grain Boundary Character

    SciTech Connect

    Rita Kirchhofer; John D, Hunn; Paul A. Demkowicz; James I. Cole; Brian P. Gorman

    2013-01-01

    Pre-irradiation SiC microstructures in TRISO coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment were quantitatively characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From EBSD it was determined that only the cubic polymorph of as-deposited SiC was present and the SiC had a high fraction of CSL S3 grain boundaries. Additionally, the local area misorientation (LAM), which is a qualitative measurement of strain in the SiC lattice, was mapped for each fuel variant. The morphology of the SiC / IPyC interfaces were characterized by TEM following site-specific focused ion beam (FIB) specimen preparation. It was determined that the SiC layer had a heavily faulted microstructure typical of CVD deposited SiC and that the average grain diameter increased from the SiC/IPyC interface for all the fuel variants, except V3 that showed a constant grain size across the layer.

  17. First high temperature safety tests of AGR-1 TRISO fuel with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Reber, Edward L.; Scates, Dawn M.; Scott, Les; Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-09-01

    Three TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment were subjected to safety tests at 1600 and 1800 °C for approximately 300 h to evaluate the fission product retention characteristics. Silver behavior was dominated by rapid release of an appreciable fraction of the compact inventory (3–34%) at the beginning of the tests, believed to be from inventory residing in the compact matrix and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) prior to the safety test. Measurable release of silver from intact particles appears to become apparent only after ~60 h at 1800 °C. The release rate for europium and strontium was nearly constant for 300 h at 1600 °C (reaching maximum values of approximately 2×10⁻³ and 8×10⁻⁴ respectively), and at this temperature the release may be mostly limited to inventory in the compact matrix and OPyC prior to the safety test. The release rate for both elements increased after approximately 120 h at 1800 °C, possibly indicating additional measurable release through the intact particle coatings. Cesium fractional release from particles with intact coatings was <10⁻⁶ after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C, but release from the rare particles that experienced SiC failure during the test could be significant. However, Kr release was still very low for 300 h 1600 °C (<2 × 10⁻⁶). At 1800 °C, krypton release increased noticeably after SiC failure, reflecting transport through the intact outer pyrocarbon layer. Nonetheless, the krypton and cesium release fractions remained less than approximately 10⁻³ after 277 h at 1800 °C.

  18. First high temperature safety tests of AGR-1 TRISO fuel with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Reber, Edward L.; Scates, Dawn M.; Scott, Les; Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-09-01

    Three TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment were subjected to safety tests at 1600 and 1800 °C for approximately 300 h to evaluate the fission product retention characteristics. Silver behavior was dominated by rapid release of an appreciable fraction of the compact inventory (3-34%) at the beginning of the tests, believed to be from inventory residing in the compact matrix and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) prior to the safety test. Measurable release of silver from intact particles appears to become apparent only after ∼60 h at 1800 °C. The release rate for europium and strontium was nearly constant for 300 h at 1600 °C (reaching maximum values of approximately 2 × 10-3 and 8 × 10-4 respectively), and at this temperature the release may be mostly limited to inventory in the compact matrix and OPyC prior to the safety test. The release rate for both elements increased after approximately 120 h at 1800 °C, possibly indicating additional measurable release through the intact particle coatings. Cesium fractional release from particles with intact coatings was <10-6 after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C, but release from the rare particles that experienced SiC failure during the test could be significant. However, Kr release was still very low for 300 h 1600 °C (<2 × 10-6). At 1800 °C, krypton release increased noticeably after SiC failure, reflecting transport through the intact outer pyrocarbon layer. Nonetheless, the krypton and cesium release fractions remained less than approximately 10-3 after 277 h at 1800 °C.

  19. Status of the NGNP fuel experiment AGR-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also undergo on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and sup

  20. Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

  1. Complex regulation of Arabidopsis AGR1/PIN2-mediated root gravitropic response and basipetal auxin transport by cantharidin-sensitive protein phosphatases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Heungsop; Shin, Hwa-Soo; Guo, Zibiao; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Masson, Patrick H.; Chen, Rujin

    2005-01-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by two distinct plasma membrane-localized auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins/complexes, plays an important role in many plant growth and developmental processes including tropic responses to gravity and light, development of lateral roots and patterning in embryogenesis. We have previously shown that the Arabidopsis AGRAVITROPIC 1/PIN2 gene encodes an auxin efflux component regulating root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the function of AGR1/PIN2 is largely unknown. Recently, protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, have been implicated in regulating polar auxin transport and root gravitropism. Here, we examined the effects of chemical inhibitors of protein phosphatases on root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport, as well as the expression pattern of AGR1/PIN2 gene and the localization of AGR1/PIN2 protein. We also examined the effects of inhibitors of vesicle trafficking and protein kinases. Our data suggest that protein phosphatases, sensitive to cantharidin and okadaic acid, are likely involved in regulating AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and gravitropism, as well as auxin response in the root central elongation zone (CEZ). BFA-sensitive vesicle trafficking may be required for the cycling of AGR1/PIN2 between plasma membrane and the BFA compartment, but not for the AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and auxin response in CEZ cells.

  2. Detection and analysis of particles with failed SiC in AGR-1 fuel compacts

    DOE PAGES

    Hunn, John D.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Morris, Robert N.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Harp, Jason M.; Ploger, Scott A.

    2016-04-06

    As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of 134Cs and 137Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compactmore » containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during irradiation testing or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600–1800 °C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, all three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were related to either fabrication defects or showed extensive Pd corrosion through the SiC where it had been exposed by similar IPyC cracking.« less

  3. Daily thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B.

    2012-07-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)

  4. Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

    2012-06-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

  5. Sensitivity Evaluation of the Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki

    2011-05-01

    A temperature sensitivity evaluation has been performed for the AGR-1 fuel experiment on an individual capsule. A series of cases were compared to a base case by varying different input parameters into the ABAQUS finite element thermal model. These input parameters were varied by ±10% to show the temperature sensitivity to each parameter. The most sensitive parameters are the outer control gap distance, heat rate in the fuel compacts, and neon gas fraction. Thermal conductivity of the compacts and graphite holder were in the middle of the list for sensitivity. The smallest effects were for the emissivities of the stainless steel, graphite, and thru tubes. Sensitivity calculations were also performed varying with fluence. These calculations showed a general temperature rise with an increase in fluence. This is a result of the thermal conductivity of the fuel compacts and graphite holder decreasing with fluence.

  6. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  7. Fabrication and Comparison of Fuels for Advanced Gas Reactor Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Phillips; Charles Barnes; John Hunn

    2010-10-01

    As part of the program to demonstrate TRISO-coated fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a series of irradiation tests of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel are being performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. In the first test, called “AGR-1,” graphite compacts containing approximately 300,000 coated particles were irradiated from December 2006 until November 2009. Development of AGR-1 fuel sought to replicate the properties of German TRISO-coated particles. No particle failures were seen in the nearly 3-year irradiation to a burn up of 19%. The AGR-1 particles were coated in a two-inch diameter coater. Following fabrication of AGR-1 fuel, process improvements and changes were made in each of the fabrication processes. Changes in the kernel fabrication process included replacing the carbon black powder feed with a surface-modified carbon slurry and shortening the sintering schedule. AGR-2 TRISO particles were produced in a six-inch diameter coater using a change size about twenty-one times that of the two-inch diameter coater used to coat AGR-1 particles. Changes were also made in the compacting process, including increasing the temperature and pressure of pressing and using a different type of press. Irradiation of AGR-2 fuel began in late spring 2010. Properties of AGR-2 fuel compare favorably with AGR-1 and historic German fuel. Kernels are more homogeneous in shape, chemistry and density. TRISO-particle sphericity, layer thickness standard deviations, and defect fractions are also comparable. In a sample of 317,000 particles from deconsolidated AGR-2 compacts, 3 exposed kernels were found in a leach test. No SiC defects were found in a sample of 250,000 deconsolidated particles, and no IPyC defects in a sample of 64,000 particles. The primary difference in properties between AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacts is that AGR-2 compacts have a higher matrix density, 1.6 g/cm3 compared to about 1.3 g/cm3 for AGR-1 compacts. Based on

  8. Status of the Combined Third and Fourth NGNP Fuel Irradiations In the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti; Michael E. Davenport

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is irradiating up to seven low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The experiments will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of several independent capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in September 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated (AGR-3/4), which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. Since the purpose of this combined experiment is to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment is

  9. Design and Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-3/4 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in November 2013. Since the purpose of this experiment is to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment is

  10. The Start of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the Head Start program occurred at break-neck speed with many dramatic turns and many colorful players. No one tells the story better than Edward Zigler in "Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment"--a detailed and personal, behind the scenes look at the program's inception. From this…

  11. Start Young!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Penni

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of early interest in science and how effective it is on career choice in adult stages of life. Recommends starting mathematics and science activities in preschool and kindergarten. Describes how to create a career-oriented learning center in the classroom with examples of kitchen chemistry, nutrition/botany, zoology,…

  12. Press Start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  13. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  14. Head Start Facilities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    A quality Head Start facility should provide a physical environment responsive both to the needs of the children and families served and to the needs of staff, volunteers, and community agencies that share space with Head Start. This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making…

  15. AGR-2 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Ploger, Scott; Demkowciz, Paul; Harp, Jason

    2015-05-01

    The AGR 2 irradiation experiment began in June 2010 and was completed in October 2013. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in July 2014 for post-irradiation examination (PIE). The first PIE activities included nondestructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and their graphite fuel holders. Dimensional metrology was then performed on the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsule shells. AGR 2 disassembly and metrology were performed with the same equipment used successfully on AGR 1 test train components. Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Disassembly of the AGR 2 test train and its capsules was conducted rapidly and efficiently by employing techniques refined during the AGR 1 disassembly campaign. Only one major difficulty was encountered while separating the test train into capsules when thermocouples (of larger diameter than used in AGR 1) and gas lines jammed inside the through tubes of the upper capsules, which required new tooling for extraction. Disassembly of individual capsules was straightforward with only a few minor complications. On the whole, AGR 2 capsule structural components appeared less embrittled than their AGR 1 counterparts. Compacts from AGR 2 Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6 were in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor damage or markings were visible using high resolution photographic inspection. Compact dimensional measurements indicated radial shrinkage between 0.8 to 1.7%, with the greatest shrinkage observed on Capsule 2 compacts that were irradiated at higher temperature. Length shrinkage ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%, with by far the lowest axial shrinkage on Capsule 3 compacts

  16. Starting School in August

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the controversial decision of the school board from the Broward County, Florida to start the school year on August 9. School boards across the country that are grappling with the idea of starting school earlier in the year are increasingly running up against strong opposition from parents. In many districts,…

  17. Improving Thermal Model Prediction Through Statistical Analysis of Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Data from AGR Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Binh T. Pham; Grant L. Hawkes; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2012-10-01

    As part of the Research and Development program for Next Generation High Temperature Reactors (HTR), a series of irradiation tests, designated as Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR), have been defined to support development and qualification of fuel design, fabrication process, and fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The AGR tests employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule and instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in graphite blocks enabling temperature control. The data representing the crucial test fuel conditions (e.g., temperature, neutron fast fluence, and burnup) while impossible to obtain from direct measurements are calculated by physics and thermal models. The irradiation and post-irradiation examination (PIE) experimental data are used in model calibration effort to reduce the inherent uncertainty of simulation results. This paper is focused on fuel temperature predicted by the ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal models. The work follows up on a previous study, in which several statistical analysis methods were adapted, implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS), and applied for improving qualification of AGR-1 thermocouple data. The present work exercises the idea that the abnormal trends of measured data observed from statistical analysis may be caused by either measuring instrument deterioration or physical mechanisms in capsules that may have shifted the system thermal response. As an example, the uneven reduction of the control gas gap in Capsule 5 revealed by the capsule metrology measurements in PIE helps justify the reduction in TC readings instead of TC drift. This in turn prompts modification of thermal model to better fit with experimental data, thus help increase confidence, and in other word reduce model uncertainties in thermal simulation results of the AGR-1 test.

  18. Starting an aphasia center?

    PubMed

    Elman, Roberta J

    2011-08-01

    Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided.

  19. Starting in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Through its signature initiative, Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP), the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) is promoting a vision for learning that begins in school: Starting in School . . . Rigorous and rich curriculum focused on the essential learning outcomes; comprehensive, individualized, and…

  20. TARCOG Home Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of Alabama Regional Council of Governments, Huntsville. Human Resources Program.

    This report describes the Top of Alabama Regional Council of Governments (TARCOG) Home Start Program. Five aspects of the program are presented. (1) The nutrition component is aimed at helping parents make the best use of food resources through good planning, buying, and cooking. (2) The health program involves provision of medical and dental…

  1. When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. What conditions increase the need to start ART? HIV-infected people with the following conditions should ... consider starting ART immediately. Once a person starts ART, why is medication adherence important? ART is a ...

  2. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  3. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: 1. Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. 2. Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. 3. Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tristructural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S.-produced fuel.

  4. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel.

  5. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  6. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  7. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  8. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. PMID:26628666

  9. Quantity of 135I released from the AGR-1, AGR-2, and AGR-3/4 experiments and discovery of 131I at the FPMS traps during the AGR-3/4 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, Dawn M.

    2014-09-01

    A series of three Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2006 through 2014, these experiments supported the development and qualification of the new U.S. tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Each AGR experiment consisted of multiple fueled capsules, each plumbed for independent temperature control using a mix of helium and neon gases. The gas leaving a capsule was routed to individual Fission Product Monitor (FPM) detectors. For intact fuel particles, the TRISO particle coatings provide a substantial barrier to fission product release. However, particles with failed coatings, whether because of a minute percentage of initially defective particles, those which fail during irradiation, or those designed to fail (DTF) particles, can release fission products to the flowing gas stream. Because reactive fission product elements like iodine and cesium quickly deposit on cooler capsule components and piping structures as the effluent gas leaves the reactor core, only the noble fission gas isotopes of Kr and Xe tend to reach FPM detectors. The FPM system utilizes High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors coupled with a thallium activated sodium iodide NaI(Tl) scintillator. The HPGe detector provides individual isotopic information, while the NaI(Tl) scintillator is used as a gross count rate meter. During irradiation, the 135mXe concentration reaching the FPM detectors is from both direct fission and by decay of the accumulated 135I. About 2.5 hours after irradiation (ten 15.3 minute 135mXe half lives) the directly produced 135mXe has decayed and only the longer lived 135I remains as a source. Decay systematics dictate that 135mXe will be in secular equilibrium with its 135I parent, such that its production rate very nearly equals the decay rate of the

  10. Distribution of Pd, Ag & U in the SiC Layer of an Irradiated TRISO Fuel Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas M. Lillo; Isabella J. van Rooyen

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of silver, uranium and palladium in the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of an irradiated TRISO fuel particle was studied using samples extracted from the SiC layer using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. Transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to identify the presence of the specific elements of interest at grain boundaries, triple junctions and precipitates in the interior of SiC grains. Details on sample fabrication, errors associated with measurements of elemental migration distances and the distances migrated by silver, palladium and uranium in the SiC layer of an irradiated TRISO particle from the AGR-1 program are reported.

  11. Maryland Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, Maryland has provided state supplemental funds to Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) programs to improve access. Local EHS programs may use funds, through child care partnerships, to extend the EHS day or year. Maryland's approach to building on EHS includes: (1) Increase the capacity of existing Head Start and EHS programs to…

  12. Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight particle fuel tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the next generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The final design phase has just been completed on the first experiment (AGR-1) in this series and the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation. This paper discusses the development of the experimental hardware and support system designs and the status of the experiment.

  13. Irradiation and food processing.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  14. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  15. Nebraska: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…

  16. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  17. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  18. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  19. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  20. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  1. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  2. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  3. MAKING WAVES, DENVER HEAD START.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Opportunity, CO.

    THIS DOCUMENT PROVIDES A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY OF PROJECT HEAD START ACTIVITIES IN DENVER, COLORADO. THE PRIMARY EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM ARE CITED AS (1) CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH EXPERIENCES IN AN ENLARGED ENVIRONMENT, (2) SELF-CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SUCCESSFUL INTERACTION WITH TEACHERS AND WITH PEERS, AND (3) THE DEVELOPMENT OF…

  4. Start Where Your Students Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robyn R.

    2010-01-01

    Starting where your students are means understanding how currencies are negotiated and traded in the classroom. Any behavior that students use to acquire the knowledge and skills needed in the classroom functions as currency. Teachers communicate the kinds of currencies they accept in their classrooms, such as getting good grades; students do…

  5. Head Start Dental Health Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This curriculum for Head Start programs provides preschool learning experiences that teach about dental health. The majority of the curriculum guide is devoted to the following lesson plans: (1) "Introduction of 'Smiley the Super Pup'," an optional puppet character which may be used to review the concepts covered in each lesson; (2) "Visiting the…

  6. Math Club Starting in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Starting a math club as early as kindergarten and having a range of grade levels in attendance can be successful. With the help of the older students, the varied age groups are entertained and excited about attending math club. The purpose of the club is to enrich the classroom mathematics curriculum with hands-on activities and to have members…

  7. Rigor Made Easy: Getting Started

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Bestselling author and noted rigor expert Barbara Blackburn shares the secrets to getting started, maintaining momentum, and reaching your goals. Learn what rigor looks like in the classroom, understand what it means for your students, and get the keys to successful implementation. Learn how to use rigor to raise expectations, provide appropriate…

  8. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  9. Immune reactivity after high-dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gassmann, W.; Wottge, H.U.; von Kolzynski, M.; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W.

    1986-03-01

    Immune reactivity after total-body irradiation was investigated in rats using skin graft rejection as the indicator system. After sublethal irradiation with 10.5 Gy (approximately 50% lethality/6 weeks) the rejection of major histocompatibility complex allogeneic skin grafts was delayed significantly compared with nonirradiated control animals (28 versus 6.5 days). In contrast, skin grafts were rejected after 7.5 days in sublethally irradiated animals and 7 days in lethally irradiated animals if additional skin donor type alloantigens--namely, irradiated bone marrow cells--were given i.v. either simultaneously or with a delay of not more than 24 hr after the above conditioning regimen. These reactions were alloantigen-specific. They were observed in six different strain combinations with varying donors and recipients. Starting on day 2 after irradiation, i.v. injection of bone marrow gradually lost its effectivity and skin grafts were no longer rejected with uniform rapidity; skin donor marrow given on days 4 or 8 did not accelerate skin graft rejection at all. These data show that for approximately 1-2 days after high-dose total-body irradiation rats are still capable of starting a vigorous immune reaction against i.v.-injected alloantigens. The phenomenon of impaired rejection of skin grafted immediately after high-dose irradiation appears to result from the poor accessibility of skin graft alloantigens during the early postirradiation phase when vascularization of the grafted skin is insufficient.

  10. School start times for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life. PMID:25156998

  11. School start times for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life.

  12. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  13. Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Lopez, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Congressionally-mandated Head Start Impact Study is being conducted across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies. Approximately 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year-old children applying for Head Start were randomly assigned to either a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or to a non-Head Start group…

  14. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Dyches, G.M.; Dudar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a patent description for a system to start an internal combustion engine. Remote starting and starting by hearing impaired persons are addressed. The system monitors the amount of current being drawn by the starter motor to determine when the engine is started. When the engine is started the system automatically deactivates the starter motor. Five figures are included.

  15. Irradiation of the First Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control for each capsule. The swept gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The design of the first experiment (designated AGR-1) was completed in 2005, and the fabrication and assembly of the test train as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that monitor and control the experiment during irradiation were completed in September 2006. The experiment was inserted in the ATR in December 2006, and is serving as a shakedown test of the multi-capsule experiment design that will be used in the subsequent irradiations as well as a test of the early variants of the fuel produced under this program. The experiment test train as well as the monitoring, control, and data collection systems are discussed and the status of the experiment is provided.

  16. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  17. Preventing obesity starts with breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Preventing obesity starts with breastfeeding. An infant's nutrition at birth affects not only short-term health outcomes but also the health of that person as a child, adolescent, and adult. This article examines major findings that all conclude that any breastfeeding will help protect an infant from obesity and overweight. Research supports that the more exclusive and longer a child is breastfed, the more protection from overweight and obesity is conferred. Mechanisms of action are explored in this article. It is of paramount importance to provide evidence-based lactation support and care to families to improve the incidence, exclusivity, and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is one concrete method to address the obesity epidemic that is growing worldwide.

  18. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  4. Influence of irradiation upon few-layered graphene using electron-beams and gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuqing; Feng, Yi Mo, Fei; Qian, Gang; Chen, Yangming; Yu, Dongbo; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuebin

    2014-07-14

    Few-layered graphene (FLG) is irradiated by electron beams and gamma rays. After 100 keV electron irradiation, the edges of FLG start bending, shrinking, and finally generate gaps and carbon onions due to sputtering and knock-on damage mechanism. When the electron beam energy is increased further to 200 keV, FLG suffers rapid and catastrophic destruction. Unlike electron irradiation, Compton effect is the dominant damage mechanism in gamma irradiation. The irradiation results indicate the crystallinity of FLG decreases first, then restores as increasing irradiation doses, additionally, the ratio (O/C) of FLG surface and the relative content of oxygen groups increases after irradiation.

  5. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1962

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-13

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

  6. Engine management during NTRE start up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulman, Mel; Saltzman, Dave

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: total engine system management critical to successful nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) start up; NERVA type engine start windows; reactor power control; heterogeneous reactor cooling; propellant feed system dynamics; integrated NTRE start sequence; moderator cooling loop and efficient NTRE starting; analytical simulation and low risk engine development; accurate simulation through dynamic coupling of physical processes; and integrated NTRE and mission performance.

  7. Alaska Head Start Annual Program Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education and Early Devolopment, Juneau. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    This annual report details the accomplishments of the Alaska Head Start Program for fiscal year 1999. The report begins with a description of the Head Start program and its core values, and delineates the administrative and program partners of Head Start, its service population, eligibility requirements, funding sources, service models, and…

  8. Alaska Head Start. Annual Report for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau.

    This annual report details the accomplishments of the Alaska Head Start Program for fiscal year 1998. The report begins with a graphic presentation of the locations of Alaska Head Start programs and a table delineating the administrative and program partners of Head Start, its service population, eligibility requirements, funding sources, service…

  9. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  10. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  11. Associations of Pd, U and Ag in the SiC layer of neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo, T. M.; van Rooyen, I. J.

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the associations and composition of fission products in the neutron irradiated SiC layer of high-temperature gas reactor TRISO fuel is important to the understanding of various aspects of fuel performance that presently are not well understood. Recently, advanced characterization techniques have been used to examine fuel particles from the Idaho National Laboratory's AGR-1 experiment. Nano-sized Ag and Pd precipitates were previously identified in grain boundaries and triple points in the SiC layer of irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel. Continuation of this initial research is reported in this paper and consists of the characterization of a relatively large number of nano-sized precipitates in three areas of the SiC layer of a single irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel particle using standardless EDS analysis on focused ion beam-prepared transmission electron microscopy samples. Composition and distribution analyses of these precipitates, which were located on grain boundaries, triple junctions and intragranular precipitates, revealed low levels, generally <10 atomic %, of palladium, silver and/or uranium with palladium being the most common element found. Palladium by itself, or associated with either silver or uranium, was found throughout the SiC layer. A small number of precipitates on grain boundaries and triple junctions were found to contain only silver or silver in association with palladium while uranium was always associated with palladium but never found by itself or in association with silver. Intergranular precipitates containing uranium were found to have migrated ∼23 μm along a radial direction through the 35 μm thick SiC coating during the AGR-1 experiment while silver-containing intergranular precipitates were found at depths up to ∼24 μm in the SiC layer. Also, Pd-rich, nano-precipitates (∼10 nm in diameter), without evidence for the presence of either Ag or U, were revealed in intragranular regions throughout the SiC layer. Because not

  12. Associations of Pd, U and Ag in the SiC layer of neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, Thomas; Rooyen, Isabella Van

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the associations and composition of fission products in the neutron irradiated SiC layer of high-temperature gas reactor TRISO fuel is important to the understanding of various aspects of fuel performance that presently are not well understood. Recently, advanced characterization techniques have been used to examine fuel particles from the Idaho National Laboratory’s AGR-1 experiment. Nano-sized Ag and Pd precipitates were previously identified in grain boundaries and triple points in the SiC layer of irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel. Continuation of this initial research is reported in this paper and consists of the characterization of a relatively large number of nano-sized precipitates in three areas of the SiC layer of a single irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel particle using standardless EDS analysis on focused ion beam-prepared transmission electron microscopy samples. Composition and distribution analyses of these precipitates, which were located on grain boundaries, triple junctions and intragranular precipitates, revealed low levels, generally <10 atomic %, of palladium, silver and/or uranium with palladium being the most common element found. Palladium by itself, or associated with either silver or uranium, was found throughout the SiC layer. A small number of precipitates on grain boundaries and triple junctions were found to contain only silver or silver in association with palladium while uranium was always associated with palladium but never found by itself or in association with silver. Intergranular precipitates containing uranium were found to have migrated ~23 μm along a radial direction through the 35 μm thick SiC coating during the AGR-1 experiment while silver-containing intergranular precipitates were found at depths up to ~24 μm in the SiC layer. Also, Pd-rich, nano-precipitates (~10 nm in diameter), without evidence for the presence of either Ag or U, were revealed in intragranular regions throughout the SiC layer. Because not all

  13. Biomechanical analysis of backstroke swimming starts.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, K; de Jesus, K; Figueiredo, P; Gonçalves, P; Pereira, S; Vilas-Boas, J P; Fernandes, R J

    2011-07-01

    The relationships between the start time and kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic data were examined in order to establish the common features of an effective backstroke swimming start. Complementarily, different starting positions were analysed to identify the parameters that account for the fastest backstroke start time under different constraints. 6 high-level swimmers performed 4×15 m maximal trials of each start variants with different feet position: parallel and entirely submerged (BSFI) and above water surface (BSFE), being monitored with synchronized dual-media image, underwater platform plus handgrip with a load cell, and eletromyographic signal of RECTUS FEMORIS and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS. Mean and SD values of start time for BSFI and BSFE were 2.03 ± 0.19 and 2.14 ± 0.36 s, respectively. In both starts, high associations (r > =0.75, p < 0.001) were observed between start time and centre of mass resultant average velocity at glide phase and horizontal impulse at take-off for BSFI, and centre of mass horizontal position at the start signal for BSFE. It was concluded that the greater impulse during the take-off and its transformation into a fast underwater movement are determinant to decrease the start time at BSFI. Regarding BSFE, a greater centre of mass pool-wall approximation might imply a flatter take-off angle, compromising underwater velocity and starting performance. PMID:21563041

  14. Microcomputer controlled soft start of motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Miao; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Shian

    2005-12-01

    Improving the starting characteristics of a motor is an important part of the motor control. An intelligent soft starting technique was adopted in the starter and used in the present study because of its many advantages compared with conventional starting processes. The core of the soft starter was a single chip (Atmel 8098), its soul was the software and its control object was a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). The starter achieved not only current-limit starting, but also closed-loop control with a stator current detection circuit. In conclusion, as a result of digital control, starting characteristic can be conveniently chosen according to the load. In addition the starter is of small size, and starting is smooth and reliable due to current feedback.

  15. Family Connections: Helping Early Head Start/Head Start Staff and Parents Address Mental Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, William R.; Avery, Mary Watson; Ayoub, Catherine; Watts, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Early Head Start/Head Start teachers and staff encounter parents who have wrestled with depression and other adversities every day. This article describes an innovative program of trainings for and consultation to Early Head Start/Head Start staff to help them effectively deal with mental heath challenges faced by parents and children. The program…

  16. Wireless "Jump" Starts for Partly Disabled Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment activated when normal remote starting does not work Beam from nearby station first carries raw energy and then subsystemactivating signals to equipment crippled by discharged storage batteries. Operators start up equipment without approaching it under hazardous conditions. Potential terrestrial applications for scheme include starting of robots on such remotely-controlled hazardous tasks as handling of explosives or retrieval or deposition of objects in hostile environments.

  17. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    SciTech Connect

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-04-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty.

  18. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated {approximately}400 C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Eiholzer, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    Three ferritic alloys were irradiated in two fast reactors to doses of 50 dpa or more at temperatures near 400 C. One martensitic alloy, HT9, was irradiated in both the FFTF and PFR reactors. PFR is the Prototype Fast Reactor in Dourneay, Scotland, and FFTF is the Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, WA. D57 is a developmental alloy that was irradiated in PFR only, and MA957 is a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy that was irradiated only in FFTF. These alloys exhibited little or no void swelling at {approximately}400 C. Depending on the alloy starting condition, these steels develop a variety of non-creep strains early in the irradiation that are associated with phase changes. Each of these alloys creeps at a rate that is significantly lower than that of austenitic steels irradiated in the same experiments. The creep compliance for ferritic alloys in general appears to be {approximately}0.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}, independent of both composition and starting state. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersoid does not appear to change the creep behavior.

  19. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  20. Using Music with Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Louise

    This pamphlet describes the function of music in Head Start programs. Suggestions are made to help children sense motion and develop their self-concepts and motor coordination skills through rhythmic songs and activities. The construction and use of rhythm instruments are suggested as a means of involving mothers in Head Start programs. Certain…

  1. Head Start Impact Study. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed to provide technical detail to support the analysis and findings presented in the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2010). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Head Start Impact Study and its findings. Chapter 2 provides technical information on the…

  2. Head Start Impact Study. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This report addresses the following four questions by reporting on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years: (1) What difference does Head Start make to key outcomes of development and learning (and in particular, the multiple domains of school readiness) for low-income…

  3. Administration for Children and Families: Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Head Start program. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act), $1 billion will be provided to the Office of Head Start to promote the school readiness of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, by enhancing…

  4. Delivering Sure Start in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willan, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores and questions some of the evidence used to support early childhood interventions in the UK, and reports on discussions with three rural Mini Sure Start project leaders in Devon. Sure Start funding in the UK has been repeatedly increased to provide more centres for 0-3-year-olds and their parents. It is increasingly linked to…

  5. When Do Start-Ups Make Sense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemeyer, Clement J.

    2005-01-01

    The start-up has received considerable attention in the last few years. While the National Research Council of Canada has generated many start-ups over its 88-year history, the creation of a formal entrepreneurship programme in the mid-1990s dramatically accelerated the pace at which they were created. Many factors come into play in the decision…

  6. The Texas Head Start Metro Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mary Tom, Ed.; Flores, Alfredo R., Ed.

    The Texas Metro Network (TMN) is an informal group of Head Start Directors and Executive Directors organized for the purposes of improving the delivery of training and technical assistance and for assisting communication between large scale Head Start programs in the metropolitan areas of Texas. In pursuit of these aims, each member unit of the…

  7. Head Start's Broken Promise. On the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    2005-01-01

    In this short essay, Douglas J. Besharov argues that Congress should mandate an honest assessment of Head Start's strengths and weaknesses to enable the program to more effectively enhance early childhood education. He discusses evidence of Head Start's limited effectiveness and proposes that it begin operating based on research.

  8. Head Start. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Head Start" is a national, federally funded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly low-income families. Based on a review of the research, the WWC found "Head Start" to have potentially positive effects on general reading achievement and no discernible…

  9. JobStart: The Road to Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Family Friends is an intergenerational program that brings senior volunteers into the lives of children with disabilities or chronic illnesses. JobStart is a training program in which volunteers help children with disabilities who are 10 years of age or older prepare to enter the world of work. A JobStart team is formed for each child in the…

  10. Historical Perspectives on Project Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    Historical changes in the emphasis and focus of Project Head Start from 1965 to the present are briefly reviewed in this paper. Head Start was conceived of as primary prevention designed to enable children from lower income families to obtain educational prerequisites to formal schooling. The early years of the project were also characterized by…

  11. The biomechanical structure of swim start performance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sebastian; Kibele, Armin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the significance of various biomechanical parameters in swim start performance for the grab and track start techniques. To do so, structural equation models were analysed, incorporating measurements for the take-off phase, flight phase and entry phase. Forty-six elite German swimmers (18 female and 28 male; age: 20.1 ± 4.2 yrs; PB (100 m Freestyle): 53.6 ± 2.9 s) participated in the study. Their swim start performance was examined within a 25-m sprint test. Structural equation modelling was conducted in separate models for the block time, flight time and water time and in a combined model for swim start time. Our main finding was that swim start time is predominantly related to water time and determined to a lesser extent by block time and flight time. We conclude that more emphasis should be given to the water immersion behaviour and the gliding phase when analysing swim start performance. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the grab start and track techniques as regards the biomechanical parameters representing the take-off phase and water phase. PMID:27239685

  12. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  13. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  14. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  15. Physiologic consequences of local heart irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, B.J.; Lauk, S.; Bornhausen, M.; Trott, K.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Noninvasive methods have been used to study the long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary functional changes at rest and after exercise in adult rats following local heart irradiation with single x-ray doses of 15, 17.5 or 20 Gy, and in non-irradiated control animals. Rats that had undergone a chronic exercise program were compared with untrained cohorts. The earliest dysfunction detected was an increased respiratory rate (f) at 10 weeks after irradiation in the highest dose group. In contrast, both telemetric heart-rate (HR) and rhythm and indirect systolic blood pressure measurements performed at rest only revealed changes starting at 43 weeks after irradiation with 20 Gy, up to which point the rats showed no clinical signs of heart failure. However, the number of minutes required for the recovery of the HR to pre-exercise levels following the implementation of a standardized exercise challenge was elevated in untrained rats compared with their trained cohorts at 18 weeks after irradiation with 20 Gy. Increases in recovery times were required in the two lowest dose groups, starting at 26 weeks after irradiation. It was concluded that the reserve capacity of the cardiopulmonary system masks functional decrements at rest for many months following local heart irradiation, necessitating the use of techniques which reveal reductions in reserve capacities. Further, the influence of local irradiation to the heart and lungs deserves closer scrutiny due to mutual interactions.

  16. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  17. Head Start 2010: Fulfilling the Promise. Report of the Head Start 2010 National Advisory Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Head Start Association, Alexandria, VA.

    In anticipation of the 35th anniversary of Project Head Start, the National Head Start Association (NHSA) launched a national initiative to discover how Head Start can best serve children and families in the new millennium. A series of hearings and open forums were conducted throughout the country in 1999, along with a special session featuring…

  18. Mid South Middle Start: Studies of Three Middle Start Schools in the Mid South Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lea Williams; Cheney, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    These three case studies highlight the implementation and impact of Mid South Middle Start by: (1) contributing toward an in-depth understanding of what it means to be a school implementing Middle Start; (2) describing a holistic portrait of the schools' participation in Mid South Middle Start; and (3) assisting the Academy for Educational…

  19. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  20. Training Head Start Coordinators for Workplace Preparedness. NCCU Head Start Monograph, October 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Central Univ., Durham.

    This monograph summarizes results from academic capstone activities of graduate students and faculty advisors regarding issues consistent with Head Start national priorities and practice needs. The following theses are summarized: (1) "Multicultural Education in Head Start Programs in North Carolina" (S.K. Gant); (2) "The Impact of Head Start on…

  1. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  2. The physics of tokamak start-up

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.

    2013-05-15

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases, inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection, and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current.

  3. Doctors' Group Backs Later School Start Times

    MedlinePlus

    ... School Start Times New policy aims to tackle sleep deprivation among teens To use the sharing features on ... June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- To help ease sleep deprivation among teens, the American Medical Association recommends that ...

  4. The physics of tokamak start-upa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.

    2013-05-01

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases, inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection, and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current.

  5. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  6. The Physics of Tokamak Start-up

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller

    2012-11-13

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. ITER, the National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current.

  7. Progress Against Heart Deaths Starting to Wane

    MedlinePlus

    ... Against Heart Deaths Starting to Wane, Report Warns Obesity, diabetes epidemics may be to blame, doctors say To ... It is likely that the dual epidemics of obesity and diabetes, which began around 1985, are the major contributors ...

  8. A new start from ground zero?

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is pointed out that one of the main reasons of lack of real conceptual progress in the field may lie in the fact that questions concerning the biogenesis of macromolecules have never been asked or addressed in a proper way. We should start again research on the origin of life starting from "ground zero" and focusing on the prebiotic synthesis of ordered sequences of proteins and nucleic acids. PMID:25618540

  9. A New Start from Ground Zero?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is pointed out that one of the main reasons of lack of real conceptual progress in the field may lie in the fact that questions concerning the biogenesis of macromolecules have never been asked or addressed in a proper way. We should start again research on the origin of life starting from "ground zero" and focusing on the prebiotic synthesis of ordered sequences of proteins and nucleic acids.

  10. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev 2

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a

  11. Preference for starting and finishing behavior patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Shimp, C P; Sabulsky, S L; Childers, L J

    1989-01-01

    Pigeon's key pecking was reinforced with food in two experiments in which the correspondence between preference for starting one of two reinforced behavior patterns and the likelihood of finishing it subsequently was examined. Reinforcers were scheduled according to concurrent schedules for two classes of interresponse times, modified such that reinforcers followed a center-key peck terminating either a shorter interresponse time started by a left-key peck or a longer interresponse time started by a right-key peck. In Experiment 1, the times when reinforcers potentially were available were not discriminated, whereas in Experiment 2 they were. Absolute reinforced pattern durations were varied. The relative frequency of starting a particular pattern was highly correlated with relative frequency of that completed pattern in both experiments. Other relations between starting and finishing a pattern depended on whether reinforced interresponse times were discriminated. For instance, preference for starting a pattern sometimes correlated negatively with the likelihood of subsequently completing it. The present experiments are described as capturing part of the ordinary language meaning of "intention," according to which an organism's behavior at one moment sets the occasion for an observer to say that the organism "intends" in the future to engage in one behavior rather than another. PMID:2584918

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  13. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  14. Alcohol cold starting - A theoretical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two theoretical computer models have been developed to study cold starting problems with alcohol fuels. The first model, a droplet fall-out and sling-out model, shows that droplets must be smaller than 50 microns to enter the cylinder under cranking conditions without being slung-out in the intake manifold. The second model, which examines the fate of droplets during the compression process, shows that the heat of compression can be used to vaporize small droplets (less than 50 microns) producing flammable mixtures below freezing ambient temperatures. While droplet size has the greater effect on startability, a very high compression ratio can also aid cold starting.

  15. Investigation of the Feasibility of Utilizing Gamma Emission Computed Tomography in Evaluating Fission Product Migration in Irradiated TRISO Fuel Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-10-01

    In the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) the TRISO particle fuel serves as the primary fission product containment. However the large number of TRISO particles present in proposed HTGRs dictates that there will be a small fraction (~10-4 to 10-5) of as manufactured and in-pile particle failures that will lead to some fission product release. The matrix material surrounding the TRISO particles in fuel compacts and the structural graphite holding the TRISO particles in place can also serve as sinks for containing any released fission products. However data on the migration of solid fission products through these materials is lacking. One of the primary goals of the AGR-3/4 experiment is to study fission product migration from failed TRISO particles in prototypic HTGR components such as structural graphite and compact matrix material. In this work, the potential for a Gamma Emission Computed Tomography (GECT) technique to non-destructively examine the fission product distribution in AGR-3/4 components and other irradiation experiments is explored. Specifically, the feasibility of using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS) system for this GECT application is considered. To test the feasibility, the response of the PGS system to idealized fission product distributions has been simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Previous work that applied similar techniques during the AGR-1 experiment will also be discussed as well as planned uses for the GECT technique during the post irradiation examination of the AGR-2 experiment. The GECT technique has also been applied to other irradiated nuclear fuel systems that were currently available in the HFEF hot cell including oxide fuel pins, metallic fuel pins, and monolithic plate fuel.

  16. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  17. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  18. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  19. 34 CFR 200.16 - Starting points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting points. 200.16 Section 200.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  20. How to Start Intergenerational Programs in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document is designed for use by community organizers in creating, developing and maintaining an intergenerational program. Starting with a brief overview of the Maryland Intergenerational Coalition, the document describes (in short, bulleted entries) the activities and accomplishments of various intergenerational programs in Maryland, such as…

  1. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  2. Starting Salary Outcomes of Cooperative Education Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of 370 engineering co-op graduates with 1,037 nonco-op engineering graduates showed that co-op participants had higher starting salaries; 5 or fewer terms of co-op had better effects. Women, especially electrical, mechanical, or chemical majors, had substantially better salaries with co-op experience. (SK)

  3. Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorvine, Benjamin J.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, fathers have been underexamined relative to mothers in research on parenting. Fathers in poverty, as well as stepfathers and nonresidential fathers, have been a particularly understudied group. This study explores Head Start fathers' involvement with their children. Fathers are defined to include stepfathers as well as…

  4. How To Start a Child Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Phylis M., Comp.; Hollestelle, Kay, Comp.

    This paper is addressed to those who want to start their own child care center, and provides guidelines for doing so. It identifies the first things to be considered--planning and conducting a community needs assessment to analyze the competition in the area and make the decision of opening a day care center, and gathering information from a…

  5. Promoting Reading and Writing in Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister

    1997-01-01

    Notes Head Start's obligation to promote literacy skills; presents pertinent strategies: (1) encourage families to talk with and read to children; (2) read to children every day; (3) create a print-rich environment; and (4) infuse reading and writing activities throughout the curriculum. Discusses importance of focusing on language and literacy…

  6. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  7. Effects of sled towing on sprint starts.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Casey A; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Sled towing is a popular method of sprint training. Researchers have struggled to identify a loading scheme that is most appropriate to improve sprint performance in the acceleration phase. The purpose of this study was to determine if loads of 10% body weight (BWT) or 20% BWT produced significantly greater propulsive ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, peak propulsive GRF, or a greater propulsive rate of force development (RFD) than an unweighted sprint start. Seventeen healthy court and field athletes (10 men, 7 women; 20.9 ± 1.1 years) completed 5 starts of each condition (unweighted, 10% BWT, 20% BWT). Participants began each start in an upright staggered stance. Propulsive GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT condition than the unweighted condition in both limbs and greater in the 20% BWT condition than the 10% BWT condition in the front leg only, and vertical GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT than the unweighted condition. In summary, our results suggest that a 10% BWT load is not sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. A loading scheme of 20% BWT is sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. Coaches seeking to improve sprint starts may observe improvements using a load of 20% BWT during training while towing a sled.

  8. Verifying the INF and START treaties

    SciTech Connect

    Ifft, Edward

    2014-05-09

    The INF and START Treaties form the basis for constraints on nuclear weapons. Their verification provisions are one of the great success stories of modern arms control and will be an important part of the foundation upon which the verification regime for further constraints on nuclear weapons will be constructed.

  9. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne K.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Fuddy, Loretta; Sia, Calvin; Young, Elizabeth

    This conference paper discusses the results of a study that investigated the characteristics and needs of mothers participating in Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HSP). The HSP is a screening and outreach program with two components: (1) the early identification component, which consists of community-based screening to identify newborns at…

  11. Evaluation of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne K.; McFarlane, Elizabeth C.; Windham, Amy M.; Rohde, Charles A.; Salkever, David S.; Fuddy, Loretta; Rosenberg, Leon A.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Sia, Calvin C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HST), its ongoing evaluation study, and evaluation findings at the end of two of a planned three years of family-program participation and follow-up. HST uses home visitors to help prevent abusive and neglectful parenting. Found significant differences in program implementation among the three…

  12. How to Start a Day Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day Care and Child Development Council of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This publication describes the necessary steps a day care planner should follow from his or her initial thoughts of starting a day care center through to opening the door to care for children. The following steps are suggested: (1) consult appropriate offices to obtain licensing regulations, and zoning codes, as well as information on major…

  13. Verifying the INF and START treaties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifft, Edward

    2014-05-01

    The INF and START Treaties form the basis for constraints on nuclear weapons. Their verification provisions are one of the great success stories of modern arms control and will be an important part of the foundation upon which the verification regime for further constraints on nuclear weapons will be constructed.

  14. Head Start and Private/Public Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Maggie

    1994-01-01

    Describes educational partnerships between Head Start programs and the Whirlpool Corporation, Johnson and Johnson, the Girl Scouts, Palmolive Corporation, and Children's World Learning Centers. Also provides advice and specific strategies for educators seeking to initiate partnerships with public and private organizations. (MDM)

  15. Start the New Year in the Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Vernon B.; Smith, Steven H.

    1994-01-01

    Most schools need to review and revise disciplinary rules each year, but good administrator never publishes list of rules that have not been endorsed by "significant others" on staff or in community. By starting process in April or May, instead of August, the principal has several months to secure the necessary endorsements and involve parents.…

  16. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  17. Arcjet power supply and start circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Robert P. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A dc power supply for spacecraft arcjet thrusters has an integral automatic starting circuit and an output averaging inductor. The output averaging inductor, in series with the load, provides instantaneous current control, and ignition pulse and an isolated signal proportional to the arc voltage. A pulse width modulated converter, close loop configured, is also incorporated to give fast response output current control.

  18. Getting-Started Strategies and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Offers several strategies for implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. Suggests sample exercises including (1) a scavenger hunt; (2) a reaction wheel; (3) cooperative brainstorming and classification; (4) a "pair of pairs" exercise; and (5) a three-step interview. Explains that the examples are starting points that have been used in…

  19. 34 CFR 200.16 - Starting points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting points. 200.16 Section 200.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  20. Starting a Business in the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Danny

    The business and economic development center of Midland College provides assistance to small businesses. Written for use by future and current small business owners and entrepreneurs living in a 17-county area of the Permian Basin of Texas, this guidebook describes the procedures for developing a business plan and for successfully starting and…

  1. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  2. Start-Up Success: Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awe, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    All those who dream of working for themselves and being their own boss, whether they are fresh college graduates, recently unemployed, or newly retired from one career, have a thousand questions about where and how to begin. New entrepreneurs especially will need professional, expert help to start and run a small business effectively and…

  3. A climate change simulation starting from 1935

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubasch, U.; Hegerl, G. C.; Hellbach, A.; Höck, H.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Santer, B. D.; Voss, R.

    1995-03-01

    Due to restrictions in the available computing resources and a lack of suitable observational data, transient climate change experiments with global coupled ocean-atmosphere models have been started from an initial state at equilibrium with the present day forcing. The historical development of greenhouse gas forcing from the onset of industrialization until the present has therefore been neglected. Studies with simplified models have shown that this “cold start” error leads to a serious underestimation of the anthropogenic global warming. In the present study, a 150-year integration has been carried out with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model starting from the greenhouse gas concentration observed in 1935, i.e., at an early time of industrialization. The model was forced with observed greenhouse gas concentrations up to 1985, and with the equivalent C02 concentrations stipulated in Scenario A (“Business as Usual”) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change from 1985 to 2085. The early starting date alleviates some of the cold start problems. The global mean near surface temperature change in 2085 is about 0.3 K (ca. 10%) higher in the early industrialization experiment than in an integration with the same model and identical Scenario A greenhouse gas forcing, but with a start date in 1985. Comparisons between the experiments with early and late start dates show considerable differences in the amplitude of the regional climate change patterns, particularly for sea level. The early industrialization experiment can be used to obtain a first estimate of the detection time for a greenhouse-gas-induced near-surface temperature signal. Detection time estimates are obtained using globally and zonally averaged data from the experiment and a long control run, as well as principal component time series describing the evolution of the dominant signal and noise modes. The latter approach yields the earliest detection time (in the decade 1990 2000) for the

  4. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  5. 78 FR 2038 - Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts and Small Starts Policy Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Investment Projects published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register. Specifically, this proposed... capital investment projects each time the agency makes significant changes to the process and criteria... announcing the availability of proposed policy guidance to sponsors of New Starts and Small Starts...

  6. 77 FR 3838 - Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts/Small Starts Policy Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Major Capital Investment Projects by describing the detailed measures proposed for evaluation of projects seeking New Starts and Small Starts funding and the way these measures would be used in project ratings if adopted. The proposed regulations and appendix are intended...

  7. Special Analysis of Migrant Education Even Start Data. Even Start Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Fumiyo; Arriola, Christine

    This report analyzes data submitted by 11 of 14 state Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects operating in 1994-95. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. The data were drawn from the Even Start Information System (ESIS), which collected…

  8. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program: Report on Migrant Even Start Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Gamse, Beth; Swartz, Janet; Tao, Fumiyo; Tarr, Hope

    In fall 1994, 14 state Migrant Education Programs were receiving direct federal grants to administer Migrant Even Start projects. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. As part of the national evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program,…

  9. Start currents in an overmoded gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeddulla, M.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2003-11-01

    High-power long-pulse millimeter-wave gyrotrons operate in high-order modes. The spectral density of these modes is very high. Therefore, self-excitation conditions can be fulfilled for several modes simultaneously. Correspondingly, in order to determine which mode will be excited first in such a device, the starting currents of competing modes should be calculated much more accurately than in gyrotrons with a rarer spectrum. In the present paper, an existing linear theory is generalized to take into account effects of magnetic field tapering, cavity profile, finite beam thickness, velocity spread and axially dependent beam coupling to the fields of competing modes. Starting currents are calculated for the operating and the most dangerous competing mode in a 140 GHz gyrotron, which is under development at Communication and Power Industries. Calculations show that the radial position of the electron beam plays a critical role in deciding which mode dominates the mode competition.

  10. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Dyches, Gregory M.; Dudar, Aed M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  11. Verifying START: From satellites to suspect sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, D. )

    1990-10-01

    When applied together, NTM (national technical means), inspections, and cooperative measures will have a synergistic effect, giving the United States high confidence that it can detect any militarily significant START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) violation. Give the large strategic retaliatory capability both sides will retain under a START treaty, only large-scale cheating would be militarily significant, and there is little doubt such cheating could be easily detected. While counting mobile ICBMs (inter-continental ballistic missiles) will be more difficult than monitoring fixed silos, the web of verification provisions now agreed upon will answer the challenge. A large number of ICBMs cannot be maintained and operated without a massive supporting infrastructure, including command and control, deployment, maintenance, and testing facilities. The large covert infrastructure needed to deploy even a few hundred illegal mobile ICBM warheads would surely be detected. Further, the United States should be able to detect any recurring pattern of small violations.

  12. Test reactor irradiation coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Heartherly, D.W.; Siman Tov, I.I.; Sparks, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    This task was established to supply and coordinate irradiation services needed by NRC contractors other than ORNL. These services include the design and assembly of irradiation capsules as well as arranging for their exposure, disassembly, and return of specimens. During this period, the final design of the facility and specimen baskets was determined through an iterative process involving the designers and thermal analysts. The resulting design should permit the irradiation of all test specimens to within 5{degrees}C of their desired temperature. Detailing of all parts is ongoing and should be completed during the next reporting period. Procurement of the facility will also be initiated during the next review period.

  13. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  14. Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Lopez, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Congressionally-mandated Head Start Impact Study is being conducted across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies. Approximately 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year-old children applying for Head Start were randomly assigned to either a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or to a non-Head Start group…

  15. Nanoscale Morphology Evolution Under Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Michael J.

    2014-11-10

    We showed that the half-century-old paradigm of morphological instability under irradiation due to the curvature-dependence of the sputter yield, can account neither for the phase diagram nor the amplification or decay rates that we measure in the simplest possible experimental system -- an elemental semiconductor with an amorphous surface under noble-gas ion irradiation; We showed that a model of pattern formation based on the impact-induced redistribution of atoms that do not get sputtered away explains our experimental observations; We developed a first-principles, parameter-free approach for predicting morphology evolution, starting with molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts, lasting picoseconds, and upscaling through a rigorous crater-function formalism to develop a partial differential equation that predicts morphology evolution on time scales more than twelve orders of magnitude longer than can be covered by the molecular dynamics; We performed the first quantitative comparison of the contributions to morphological instability from sputter removal and from impact-induced redistribution of atoms that are removed, and showed that the former is negligible compared to the latter; We established a new paradigm for impact-induced morphology evolution based on crater functions that incorporate both redistribution and sputter effects; and We developed a model of nanopore closure by irradiation-induced stress and irradiationenhanced fluidity, for the near-surface irradiation regime in which nuclear stopping predominates, and showed that it explains many aspects of pore closure kinetics that we measure experimentally.

  16. Economics of food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed.

  17. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated at {approximately}400{degrees}C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Eiholzer, C.R.

    1997-04-01

    Three ferritic alloys were irradiated in two fast reactors to doses of 50 dpa or more at temperatures near 400{degrees}C. One martensitic alloy, HT9, was irradiated in both the FFTF and PFR reactors. PFR is the Prototype Fast Reactor in Dourneay, Scotland, and FFTF is the Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, WA. D57 is a developmental alloy that was irradiated in PFR only, and MA957 is a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy that was irradiated only in FFTF. These alloys exhibited little or no void swelling at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Depending on the alloy starting condition, these steels develop a variety of non-creep strains early in the irradiation that are associated with phase changes. Each of these alloys creeps at a rate that is significantly lower than that of austenitic steels irradiated in the same experiments. The creep compliance for ferritic alloys in general appears to be {approximately}0.5 x 10{sup {minus}6} MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}, independent of both composition and starting state. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersoid does not appear to change the creep behavior.

  18. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts... policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation process and criteria...) published by FTA in June 2010, which sought public comment on the New Starts and Small Starts...

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  20. Alternative starting materials for industrial processes.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J W

    1992-01-01

    In the manufacture of chemical feedstocks and subsequent processing into derivatives and materials, the U.S. chemical industry sets the current standard of excellence for technological competitiveness. This world-class leadership is attributed to the innovation and advancement of chemical engineering process technology. Whether this status is sustained over the next decade depends strongly on meeting increasingly demanding challenges stimulated by growing concerns about the safe production and use of chemicals without harmful impacts on the environment. To comply with stringent environmental regulations while remaining economically competitive, industry must exploit alternative benign starting materials and develop environmentally neutral industrial processes. Opportunities are described for development of environmentally compatible alternatives and substitutes for some of the most abundantly produced, potentially hazardous industrial chemicals now labeled as "high-priority toxic chemicals." For several other uniquely important commodity chemicals where no economically competitive, environmentally satisfactory, nontoxic alternative starting material exists, we advocate the development of new dynamic processes for the on-demand generation of toxic chemicals. In this general concept, which obviates mass storage and transportation of chemicals, toxic raw materials are produced in real time, where possible, from less-hazardous starting materials and then chemically transformed immediately into the final product. As a selected example for semiconductor technology, recent progress is reviewed for the on-demand production of arsine in turnkey electrochemical generators. Innovation of on-demand chemical generators and alternative processes provide rich areas for environmentally responsive chemical engineering processing research and development for next-generation technology. Images PMID:11607260

  1. Turbojet-engine Starting and Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Cafferty, R. J.; Straight, D. M.

    1956-01-01

    From considerations of safety and reliability in performance of gas-turbine aircraft, it is clear that engine starting and acceleration are of utmost importance. For this reason extensive efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the factors involved in the starting and acceleration of engines. In chapter III it is shown that certain basic combustion requirements must be met before ignition can occur; consequently, the design and operation of an engine must be tailored to provide these basic requirements in the combustion zone of the engine, particularly in the vicinity of the ignition source. It is pointed out in chapter III that ignition by electrical discharges is aided by high pressure, high temperature, low gas velocity and turbulence, gaseous fuel-air mixture, proper mixture strength, and-an optimum spark. duration. The simultaneous achievement of all these requirements in an actual turbojet-engine combustor is obviously impossible, yet any attempt to satisfy as many requirements as possible will result in lower ignition energies, lower-weight ignition systems, and greater reliability. These factors together with size and cost considerations determine the acceptability of the final ignition system. It is further shown in chapter III that the problem of wall quenching affects engine starting. For example, the dimensions of the volume to be burned must be larger than the quenching distance at the lowest pressure and the most adverse fuel-air ratio encountered. This fact affects the design of cross-fire tubes between adjacent combustion chambers in a tubular-combustor turbojet engine. Only two chambers in these engines contain spark plugs; therefore, the flame must propagate through small connecting tubes between the chambers. The quenching studies indicate that if the cross-fire tubes are too narrow the flame will not propagate from one chamber to another. In order to better understand the role of the basic factors in actual engine operation, many

  2. Getting started in academic cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Verrier, E D

    2000-04-01

    Preparing to begin a career in academic cardiothoracic surgery requires forethought and desire. Success mandates honesty, discipline, opportunity, and support. This article will attempt to review some fundamental concepts important in starting such an academic career. The thoughts are somewhat personal and not meant to be inclusive. The article will briefly discuss the following issues: choosing the first job, transitions, effective time management, developing clinical confidence, the continued need for mentorship, developing educational value, developing a philosophy of academic growth, intellectual and emotional honesty, myths, mental and physical health, and keys to success. PMID:10727955

  3. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    PubMed

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P < .01). Net horizontal impulse (taking into account both positive and negative impulses) 5-10 m after the start was lower during DP than during DIA and FREE (both P < .05). All subjects skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  4. Locality Aware Concurrent Start for Stencil Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Gao, Guang R.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.

    2015-02-10

    Stencil computations are at the heart of many physical simulations used in scientific codes. Thus, there exists a plethora of optimization efforts for this family of computations. Among these techniques, tiling techniques that allow concurrent start have proven to be very efficient in providing better performance for these critical kernels. Nevertheless, with many core designs being the norm, these optimization techniques might not be able to fully exploit locality (both spatial and temporal) on multiple levels of the memory hierarchy without compromising parallelism. It is no longer true that the machine can be seen as a homogeneous collection of nodes with caches, main memory and an interconnect network. New architectural designs exhibit complex grouping of nodes, cores, threads, caches and memory connected by an ever evolving network-on-chip design. These new designs may benefit greatly from carefully crafted schedules and groupings that encourage parallel actors (i.e. threads, cores or nodes) to be aware of the computational history of other actors in close proximity. In this paper, we provide an efficient tiling technique that allows hierarchical concurrent start for memory hierarchy aware tile groups. Each execution schedule and tile shape exploit the available parallelism, load balance and locality present in the given applications. We demonstrate our technique on the Intel Xeon Phi architecture with selected and representative stencil kernels. We show improvement ranging from 5.58% to 31.17% over existing state-of-the-art techniques.

  5. The GlueX Start Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llodra, Anthony; Pooser, Eric; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The GlueX experiment, which is online as of October of 2014, will study meson photo production with unprecedented precision. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H2 target kept at a few degrees Kelvin. A Start Counter detector has been fabricated to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 nanoseconds apart, and to provide accurate timing information. This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 γ/s in the coherent peak and provide a timing resolution of less than 350 picoseconds so as to provide successful identification of the electron beam buckets. It consists of a cylindrical array of 30 scintillators with pointed ends that bend towards the beam at the downstream end. The EJ-200 scintillator is best suited for the Start Counter due to its fast decay time on the order of 2 nanoseconds and long attenuation length. Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM) detectors have been selected as the readout system and are to be placed as close as possible, less than 300 micron, to the upstream end of each scintillator. The methods/details of the assembly and the optimization of the surface quality of scintillator paddles are discussed. This work was supported in part by DoE Contracts DE-FG02-99ER41065 and DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  6. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  7. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawlor, Shawn P

    2013-08-06

    A supersonic gas compressor with bleed gas collectors, and a method of starting the compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated for rotary movement in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. A convergent inlet is provided adjacent to a bleed gas collector, and during startup of the compressor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via the bleed gas collector, to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is effectively eliminated.

  8. Getting started in medical education scholarship.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A

    2010-01-01

    Education scholarship and research are critically important in extending our ability to teach and assess effectively. Those considering a scholarly project in medical education should consider the following tips, learned from personal experience and supported by literature: 1) get some training, 2) find a mentor, 3) ask important questions, 4) start small and grow, 5) aim high, 6) don't wait for the perfect study, 7) plan for adequate time and other resources, 8) attend to ethical issues, 9) network with others in the field, and 10) recognize that this is hard work. By following these steps and planning ahead, scholars will be better poised to make meaningful contributions to the art and science of medical education.

  9. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  10. Move signals the 'start of new era'.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-one years after its establishment in a small office in Wigan, independent life safety equipment manufacturer, C-TEC, has moved into a new 75,000 ft2 factory, 'the size of three football pitches', marking the start of what founder and MD, Andrew Foster, dubs 'the next phase in our exciting development'. The past year has also seen the firm busy on the new product front, with the launch of a 'revolutionary' new range of touchscreen-controlled analogue addressable fire alarms panels which the company claims will put it 'way ahead of the competition', and, in response to demand from nursing and care home operator customers, the introduction of a range of components designed to facilitate dementia care as an extension to its well-established Quantec addressable call system. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports.

  11. Choosing Wisely? Let's Start with Working Wisely.

    PubMed

    Kurdyak, Paul; Wiesenfeld, Lesley; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing emphasis on quality and, relatedly, cost-effectiveness as it relates to the delivery of health care. Choosing Wisely is an initiative adopted by numerous specialties with the goal of starting a dialogue about efficient use of health care resources. People need to be able to access care to have an opportunity to choose wisely. There is a considerable amount of evidence that access to care is poor for specialty mental health care, particularly access to psychiatrists. Consequently, we suggest that psychiatrists and the broader mental health system need to consider working wisely, and in our paper outline key issues (for example, implementation of wait times and objective measures of need in a centralized referral management system; incorporation of performance indicators with longitudinal monitoring for continuous quality improvement) that need to be addressed to develop a mental health system that would allow people to access care to choose wisely. PMID:27582450

  12. Re-starting an Arnoldi iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Arnoldi iteration is an efficient procedure for approximating a subset of the eigensystem of a large sparse n x n matrix A. The iteration produces a partial orthogonal reduction of A into an upper Hessenberg matrix H{sub m} of order m. The eigenvalues of this small matrix H{sub m} are used to approximate a subset of the eigenvalues of the large matrix A. The eigenvalues of H{sub m} improve as estimates to those of A as m increases. Unfortunately, so does the cost and storage of the reduction. The idea of re-starting the Arnoldi iteration is motivated by the prohibitive cost associated with building a large factorization.

  13. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  14. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  15. 46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed air starting. 112.50-7 Section 112.50-7... air starting. A compressed air starting system must meet the following: (a) The starting, charging... air compressors addressed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. (b) The compressed air...

  16. Head Start Celebrates 20th Anniversary and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfredo; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this serial publication highlight the past, present, and possible future of Project Head Start and celebrate the project's 20th birthday. "Head Start: Today and Yesterday" (Alfred Flores) emphasizes the goals of Head Start. "Why Head Start Is a Winner" (Mary Tom Riley and Jamie Tucker) reports the results of longitudinal studies of the…

  17. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  18. Economics of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.

    1993-07-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.

  19. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  20. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  1. Pushed or Pulled? Exploring the Factors Underpinning Graduate Start-Ups and Non-Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, G.; Walmsley, A.; Holden, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the nature and mixture of push--pull factors in the journey from higher education into graduate entrepreneurship. Using longitudinal data from 15 graduates of a British university, it compares graduates who started their own business with graduates that did not. Importantly, both groups had initially indicated a strong desire to…

  2. Early Head Start Research: Pathways to Quality and Full Implementation in Early Head Start Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Paulsell, Diane; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen

    As part of a multi-faceted effort, the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project examined the nature and extent of implementation in key program areas and the quality of crucial child development services in 17 research programs funded early in the initiative. Implementation data were collected through three rounds of site visits,…

  3. A Comparison of Written Compositions of Head-Start Pupils with Non-Head-Start Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, David Ree

    This study--a follow-up to one conducted by Giles in 1965-- compared the written compositions of fourth grade pupils who had been in Project Head Start in the summer of 1965 with those of comparable pupils not in the program to determine possible differences in their written language development. Seventy Negro students were divided by sex and…

  4. National Head Start Association Position Paper: Why Conservatives Should Support Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ben; Greene, Sarah; McGrady, Michael; Boel, Bridget; Ryan, Joel; Whitehead, Diane; Smith, Angela; Kane, Elizabeth; Qualls, Brocklin; Wahid, Kahree

    Head Start is a comprehensive federal preschool program, serving children prenatal through age 5 and their families with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Noting that the program has typically garnered strong support from political liberals and moderates, this position paper of the…

  5. Enhancing Health in the Head Start Workplace. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This training guide is intended to increase the understanding and skills of Head Start managers and directors to: (1) identify the ways in which employee health affects the organization's effectiveness; (2) design training programs that encourage employees to improve their own health; (3) understand how the organization contributes to the overall…

  6. Photodynamic therapy with laser scanning mode of tumor irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurna, Oksana; Shton, Irina; Kholin, Vladimir; Voytsehovich, Valerii; Popov, Viacheslav; Pavlov, Sergii; Gamaleia, Nikolai; Wójcik, Waldemar; Zhassandykyzy, Maral

    2015-12-01

    In this study we propose a new version of photodynamic therapy performed by laser scanning. The method consists in tumor treatment by a light beam of a small cross section which incrementally moves through the chosen area with a defined delay at each point and repetitively re-scans a zone starting from the initial position. Experimental evaluation of the method in vitro on murine tumor model showed that despite the dose, applied by scanning irradiation mode, was 400 times lower, the tumor inhibition rate conceded to attained with continuous irradiation mode by only 20%.

  7. The effect of entrainment on starting vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Giuseppe; Rival, David

    2015-11-01

    Recent work shows that vortex detachment behind accelerating plates coincides with when streamlines enclosing the starting vortex (SV) form a full saddle. In the case of a linearly accelerating plate, it can be shown that vorticity-containing mass, and thus the SV's development scale with only dimensionless towed distance, while the SV's circulation scales with the acceleration rate. This results in shear-layer instabilities whose structure is Reynold-number independent, but whose strength scale with Reynolds number. It is hypothesized that the increased strength of the instabilities promotes entrainment, which causes the formation of the full saddle and thereby detachment to occur at an earlier dimensionless towed distance. To test this hypothesis, a circular plate is linearly accelerated from rest to pinch-off with chord-based Reynolds numbers of 103, 104, and 105 at the midpoint of the motion. Planar PIV data is acquired, from which FTLE and enstrophy fields are calculated. Vortex detachment is identified from the dynamics of the FTLE saddles, while the enstrophy fields are used to calculate both the vorticity-containing mass entering from the shear layer and the mass entrained from the quiescent surroundings.

  8. A Head Start to a Healthy Heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Cambridge Heart, Inc., has licensed the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared tool to identify those at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The Microvolt T-Wave Alternans Test(TM) was invented by Dr. Richard J. Cohen, a professor at the Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology, with developmental support and funding from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) in Houston, Texas. In 1993, MIT licensed the technology to Cambridge Heart, Inc., a start-up company that Dr. Cohen helped to establish. Cambridge Heart's non-invasive technology measures T-wave alternans, a change from one heartbeat to the next that is too minute to be detected by a standard electrocardiogram. Cardiac patients with such a change in heartbeat regulation are faced with a much greater risk of ventricular arrhythmia and SCD than those without it. The company's ability to measure electrical alternans on a microvolt level has been clinically proven to be just as accurate as - and in some studies, more accurate than - more costly and somewhat risky, invasive procedures, such as electrophysiological testing.

  9. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  10. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  11. Kyrgyzstan starts up its first refinery

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, G.

    1997-05-05

    The Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan started up its first oil refinery in October 1996. The 10,000 b/d plant is designed to produce gasoline, diesel, and mazut (heavy fuel oil) from local Kyrgyz crude. Before construction of the Jalalabad refinery, all finished petroleum products were imported from neighboring countries. Kyrgyzstan`s demand for finished products is about 40,000 b/d. The new refinery was designed and constructed by Petrofac of Tyler, Texas, on behalf of Kyrgoil Corp., Calgary. Kyrgoil is a partner with the Kyrgyz state oil company, Kyrgyzsneft, in a venture called Kyrzgyz Petroleum Co. (KPC). KPC has undertaken restoration and continued development of the oil fields in Kyrgyzstan`s Fergana basin, in addition to the refinery project. The company also has marketing rights for finished products within Kyrgyzstan. The refinery comprises: a hydroskimming (atmospheric distillation) section, diesel steam stripping, gasoline blending, and utilities and off-sites, including steam generation, power generation, tank farm, truck and rail tank-car loading and unloading facilities, crude inlet pipeline, high-voltage power line, substation, air compression, laboratory, and maintenance facilities.

  12. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  13. [Indications for starting kidney replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Tornero Molina, F; Remón Rodríguez, C

    2008-01-01

    In view of the lack of scientific evidence to support the initiation of KRT from a specific filtration rate, certain conclusions can be drawn whose application in clinical practice may be useful. The recommendations we could make are: - Scheduled initiation of KRT is associated with a better patient prognosis (Strength of Recommendation B). - KRT should be planned in advance so that the patient can freely choose the technique for KRT (Strength of Recommendation B). - If the patient starts HD with a permanent vascular access, his/her course will be better (Strength of Recommendation B). - When the patient has any clinical indication for initiating KRT, this should not be postponed (Strength of Recommendation A). - Glomerular filtration rate is the best way to assess kidney function (Strength of Recommendation B). - Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 15 ml/min and any symptom associated with uremia not correctable by conventional treatment should be assessed for the initiation of KRT (Strength of Recommendation C). - Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 6-8 ml/min should initiate KRT even if they are minimally symptomatic (Strength of Recommendation C). - Patients with more comorbidities or more extreme ages (children, elderly, diabetics, heart disease patients,...) could benefit from the initiation of KRT before other types of patients (Strength of Recommendation C). - Some patients with associated comorbid conditions could even benefit from the initiation of KRT with glomerular filtration rates above 15 ml/min (Strength of Recommendation C). PMID:19018746

  14. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  15. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  16. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  17. Investigation of the feasibility of in-situ dielectric property measurements on neutron-irradiated ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, R.H.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Computer modeling and experimental benchtop tests have demonstrated that a capacitively loaded resonant coaxial cavity can produce accurate in-situ measurements of the loss tangent and dielectric constant of ceramic insulators at a frequency of {approx}80 MHZ during fission reactor irradiation. The start of the reactor irradiations has been postponed indefinitely due to budgetary constraints.

  18. Shift mechanism for engine starting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J.A.; Colvill, R.G.; Smock, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a shift lever mechanism for translating axial movement of the plunger of a starter solenoid into axial movement of a pinion of an engine starting apparatus. This apparatus consists of, a starter solenoid having an axially shiftable plunger and a coil winding, a spring opposing pull-in movement of the plunger and a solenoid switch operated to a closed condition when the plunger is completely pulled-in, a shift lever actuator carried by the plunger for axial movement therewith. The actuator has a pair of spaced surfaces, a pivotally mounted shift lever one end of which is adapted to be coupled to the pinion. The opposite end of the shift lever has a pair of opposed shift lever surfaces that respectively engage the surfaces on the actuator. The actuator surfaces and the shift lever surfaces are substantially engaged when the shift lever is in an at rest postion. The surfaces on the shift lever are at different radial distances from the pivot point of the shift lever and are arranged relative to the surfaces on the actuator such that when the solenoid plunger pulls-in the surface on the shift lever that is at the greater radial distance from the pivot point is moved by a surface of the actuator and the other surface on the shift lever becomes separated by a predetermined amount from its cooperating surface on the actuator. The amount of separation is sufficient to allow the solenoid switch to be actuated to an open condition when the solenoid coil winding is deenergized and the spring shifts and plunger to reengage the separated surfaces.

  19. Life's Starting Materials Found in Dusty Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Full Image of Graph

    This graph, or spectrum, from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope tells astronomers that some of the most basic ingredients of DNA and protein are concentrated in a dusty planet-forming disk circling a young sun-like star called IRS 46. These data also indicate that the ingredients -- molecular gases called acetylene and hydrogen cyanide -- are located in the star's terrestrial planet zone, the region where scientists believe Earth-like planets would be most likely to form.

    The data were acquired by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which split light from the star's disk into distinct features characteristic of a particular chemical. The features, seen here as bumps and squiggles, are like bar codes used in supermarkets to identify different products. In this case, the products are the two DNA and protein precursors, acetylene and hydrogen cyanide, as well as carbon dioxide gas. All three gases are termed 'organic' because they contain the element carbon.

    The shapes of the features in this spectrum helped pinpoint the location of the gases in the star's disk. A feature's shape reflects the temperature of the gas. By comparison with model spectra, astronomers were able to deduce that the gases are present in regions where the temperature ranges from approximately the boiling point of water on Earth (212 degrees Fahrenheit), to nearly a thousand degrees Fahrenheit. Such hot temperatures place the gases in the star's terrestrial planet zone, which is sometimes referred to as the 'Goldilocks' zone because it is just right for Earths.

    Acetylene and hydrogen cyanide are some of life's most basic starting materials. If you mix them together in a test tube with water, and give them some kind of surface on which to be concentrated and react, you'll get a slew of organic compounds, including many of the 20 essential amino acids and one of the four chemical units, called bases, that make up

  20. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  1. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  2. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  3. 40 CFR 1065.930 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... otherwise, start, restart, and shut down the test engine for field testing as follows: (a) Start or restart... continue testing. (d) Shut down and restart the engine according to the manufacturer's specifications,...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.930 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... otherwise, start, restart, and shut down the test engine for field testing as follows: (a) Start or restart... continue testing. (d) Shut down and restart the engine according to the manufacturer's specifications,...

  5. Starting Monday, FDA Banning E-Cigarette Sales to Minors

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160310.html Starting Monday, FDA Banning E-Cigarette Sales to Minors Agency also details other ... Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The sale of e-cigarettes to minors will be banned starting Monday, ...

  6. Thalidomide Ameliorates Inflammation and Vascular Injury but Aggravates Tubular Damage in the Irradiated Mouse Kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Floot, Ben; Russell, Nicola S.; Coppes, Rob P.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: The late side effects of kidney irradiation include vascular damage and fibrosis, which are promoted by an irradiation-induced inflammatory response. We therefore treated kidney-irradiated mice with the anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating drug thalidomide in an attempt to prevent the development of late normal tissue damage and radiation nephropathy in the mouse kidney. Methods and Materials: Kidneys of C57Bl/6 mice were irradiated with a single dose of 14 Gy. Starting from week 16 after irradiation, the mice were fed with thalidomide-containing chow (100 mg/kg body weight/day). Gene expression and kidney histology were analyzed at 40 weeks and blood samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40 weeks after irradiation. Results: Thalidomide improved the vascular structure and vessel perfusion after irradiation, associated with a normalization of pericyte coverage. The drug also reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells but could not suppress the development of fibrosis. Irradiation-induced changes in hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen levels were not rescued by thalidomide. Moreover, thalidomide worsened tubular damage after irradiation and also negatively affected basal tubular function. Conclusions: Thalidomide improved the inflammatory and vascular side effects of kidney irradiation but could not reverse tubular toxicity, which probably prevented preservation of kidney function.

  7. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  8. The Role of Classroom Quality in Explaining Head Start Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Maia C.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Morris, Pamela A.; Page, Lindsay C.; Feller, Avi

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to answer the following question: Are impacts on Head Start classroom quality associated with impacts of Head Start on children's learning and development? This study employs a variety of descriptive and quasi-experimental methods to explore the role of classroom quality as a mediator or mechanism of Head Start impacts. This…

  9. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  10. Making a Simple Self-Starting Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seok-In; Choi, Jung-In; Hong, Seok-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    A simple electric motor has a problem in that the current applied to the motor per se can rarely trigger its rotation. Usually such motors begin to rotate after the rotor is slightly turned by hand (i.e., manual starting). In a "self-starting" motor, the rotor starts to rotate spontaneously as soon as the current is applied. This paper describes…

  11. Later Education Start Times in Adolescence: Time for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Paul; Lee, Clark

    2015-01-01

    School start times for adolescents in the United States are typically too early to be healthy for this age group. There is significant evidence from the research literature that early starts have serious negative impacts on students. In particular, early education start times in adolescence cause chronic sleep deprivation, which damages both…

  12. School Start Time, Sleepiness and Functioning in Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedaa, Oystein; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate how school start time affects sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian 10th grade students (N = 106). The intervention school started at 0930 hours on Mondays and 0830 hours the rest of the week. A control school started at 0830 hours all schooldays. The students were assessed on a reaction time test as well as…

  13. Head Start Instructional Professionals' Inclusion Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…

  14. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Head Start programs provide poor children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Each year, programs are required to submit a Program Information Report (PIR) to the Office of Head Start on participating children, pregnant women, and families, as well as the staff serving the Head Start population. In 2013, the…

  15. Do Head Start Impacts Vary by Neighborhood Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela A.; Connors, Maia C.; McCoy, Dana Charles; Gomez, Celia J.; Yoshikawa, Hiro; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    This paper capitalizes on the addition of geocodes for Head Start centers in which children were randomly assigned to address questions about the role of neighborhood characteristics in moderating impacts of assignment to the Head Start program. Researchers explore the extent to which impacts of assignment to Head Start on outcomes for children…

  16. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of discretionary selection of New Starts projects for Funding....

  17. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Start of operational period. 26.11 Section 26.11... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of operational period. (a) The operational period shall start at the end of the transition period and its...

  18. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Start of operational period. 26.11 Section 26.11... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of operational period. (a) The operational period shall start at the end of the transition period and its...

  19. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Start of operational period. 26.11 Section 26.11... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of operational period. (a) The operational period shall start at the end of the transition period and its...

  20. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Start of operational period. 26.11 Section 26.11... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of operational period. (a) The operational period shall start at the end of the transition period and its...

  1. United States Head Start by the Numbers: 2009 PIR Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet is based on the 2009 Program Information Report (PIR) data, which all Head Start programs are required to complete on an annual basis. The total number of grantees/delegates for 2009 was 2,574 of which 727 were Early Head Start grantees/delegates, 1,787 Head Start (preschool) grantees/delegates and 60 migrant/seasonal…

  2. 49 CFR 611.207 - Overall New Starts project ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Overall New Starts project ratings. 611.207... Starts project ratings. (a) (b) FTA will assign overall project ratings to each proposed project of “high... will indicate the overall merit of a proposed New Starts project at the time of evaluation. (2)...

  3. 49 CFR 611.307 - Overall Small Starts project ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overall Small Starts project ratings. 611.307 Section 611.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS Small Starts § 611.307 Overall Small Starts project ratings. (a)...

  4. 49 CFR 611.207 - Overall New Starts project ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overall New Starts project ratings. 611.207 Section 611.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS New Starts § 611.207 Overall New Starts project ratings. (a) (b) FTA...

  5. Adjusting Computer Adaptive Test Starting Points To Conserve Item Pool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Daming; Fan, Meichu

    The convention for selecting starting points (that is, initial items) on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) is to choose as starting points items of medium difficulty for all examinees. Selecting a starting point based on prior information about an individual's ability was first suggested many years ago, but has been believed unimportant provided…

  6. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  7. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  8. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  9. Hyperparathyroidism after neck irradiation.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Noble, J G; Milroy, E J; Cowie, A G

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective review of 1550 cases of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) treated surgically over a 30-year period reveals a past history of exposure to neck irradiation in 10 cases (0.7 per cent). The indication for radiotherapy was benign disease in nine and papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. The mean interval between radiation exposure and the detection of HPT was 32 years (range 3-63 years). Patients treated with radioactive iodine alone developed HPT after a mean of 5 years while the interval for those treated with external beam therapy alone was a mean of 44 years. The parathyroid histology was adenoma in six cases, carcinoma in three cases and nodular hyperplasia in one case. All patients had coincident benign thyroid disease apart from one that had previously had papillary carcinoma and another with follicular carcinoma. Neck irradiation has been shown to confer an increased risk of HPT due to parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Radiotherapy for benign disease has generally been abandoned and these cases demonstrate a further contra-indication for the use of neck irradiation.

  10. Does local X-irradiation of a tumor increase the incidence of metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Elkon, D.; Lim, M.L.; Constable, W.; Wanebo, H.

    1981-12-01

    KHT sarcomas were implanted into the right rear legs of C3H mice. Animals receiving no treatment died at 32 days with a 67% incidence of metastatic tumors. A dose of 6000 rads in ten fractions over 12 days, starting ten days after implant, delivered to the primary tumor (with the remainder of the body shielded) produced 55% local tumor control. However, 83% of the mice with local tumor control, subsequently developed metastatic lesions. Amputation of the tumor-bearing leg either prior to the start of radiation treatment, at the end of treatment or at intervals during treatment or sham treatment, indicated that 1) metastases occurred predominantly during the initial three radiation fractions and 2) the increased incidence of metastases following irradiation was a result of the manipulations associated with the irradiation and not the irradiation per se. Irradiation did not change the distribution of organ sites involved with metastic tumors compared to untreated or sham-treated tumors.

  11. Does local x-irradiation of a tumor increase the incidence of metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Elkon, D.; Lim, M.L.; Constable, W.; Wanebo, H.

    1981-12-01

    KHT sarcomas were implanted into the right rear legs of C3H mice. Animals receiving no treatment died at 32 days with a 67% incidence of metastatic tumors. A dose of 6000 rads in ten fractions over 12 days, starting ten days after implant, delivered to the primary tumor (with the remainder of the body shielded) produced 55% local tumor control. However, 83% of the mice with local tumor control, subsequently developed metastatic lesions. Amputation of the tumor-bearing leg either prior to the start of radiation treatment, at the end of treatment or at intervals during treatment or sham treatment, indicated that 1) metastases occurred predominantly during the initial three radiation fractions and 2) the increased incidence of metastases following irradiation was a result of the manipulations associated with the irradiation and not the irradiation per se. Irradiation did not change the distribution of organ sites involved with metastatic tumors compared to untreated or sham-treated tumors.

  12. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Parent Involvement...

  13. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Parent Involvement...

  14. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Parent Involvement...

  15. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Parent Involvement...

  16. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Parent Involvement...

  17. Flow transients in un-started and started modes of vacuum ejector operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, R.; Rajesh, G.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the nature of transients in vacuum ejector flows during start-up and the dynamics in flow characteristics. The results show that the secondary stream induction progresses with non-uniform rates with the ramping primary jet pressure during start-up. The initial evacuation period is subjected to gradual and highly perturbed secondary fluid entrainment. In this phase, the secondary stream induction by the shear layer is asymmetric leading to an un-even vacuum generation in the secondary chamber. In the second phase, the secondary pressure fluctuations are found to be ceased for a critical primary jet pressure followed by a rapid induction of the secondary fluid till the primary jet expands to the diffuser wall. The transition from the first phase to the second phase is caused by the secondary stream flow choking in the diffuser. Following the second phase, a stable stage exists in the third phase in which the vacuum pressure decreases only marginally. Any further attempt to increase the secondary chamber vacuum level beyond the third phase, by increasing the primary jet total pressure, results in flow reversal into the secondary chamber, spoiling the already achieved vacuum level. In the fourth phase of start-up, a complicated shock interaction transformation from a Mach reflection (MR) to regular reflection (RR) occurs within the diffuser. It is also observed that the primary jet pressures for the minimum secondary chamber pressure, the minimum secondary pressure, and the primary pressure for MR-RR transformation decrease initially with increase in diffuser length and then increase. It is found that the decreasing and increasing trends are caused by the pressure recovery and Fanno effects, respectively.

  18. Head Start On-Site Program Review Instrument (OSPRI) = Instrumento de revision en terreno del programa head start (OSPRI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This Head Start On-Site Program Review Instrument (OSPRI) is used to monitor and evaluate Head Start Programs to verify basic compliance with program standards. OSPRI contains Head Start Performance Standards, Performance Standards on Services to Children with Disabilities, and specific program regulations in the areas of recruitment,…

  19. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program. Report on Even Start Projects for Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Moss, Marc; Swartz, Janet; Khan, Sherry; Tarr, Hope

    The tribal Even Start program is one of the set-aside components of the U.S. Department of Education's Even Start Family Literacy Program. Even Start combines adult literacy, early childhood education, and parenting education services for parents eligible for adult education and their children from birth to age 7. In 1994-95, nine Indian tribes…

  20. Effect of starting stance on initial sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John B; Green, Jonathon P; Levin, Gregory T; Brughelli, Matt E; Frost, David M

    2007-08-01

    The effect of different starting stances from a standing position on short sprint times and the subsequent variability in times was investigated in this study. A dual-beam timing light system was used to measure 5- and 10-m times for 3 different standing starts commonly found in the sporting environment: parallel (feet parallel to the start line), split (lead left foot on start line, right leg back), and false (initial parallel start, right leg drops back to split start when movement initiated). The parallel start was found to be significantly (alpha < 0.05) slower than the other 2 stances for both the 5- ( approximately 8.3%) and the 10-m (approximately 5.9%) distances. Within the trial, variation of the different starting stances was equally consistent; however, there was less variability for the 10-m distance (CV = 1.16-1.67%) than the 5-m distance (CV = 1.43-2.15%) for each start for both men and women. The split and false start seem to offer the best option as a movement strategy for minimizing short-distance sprint times. However, the benefits of these 2 starts are less clear if total movement time is the variable of interest.

  1. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  2. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  3. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  4. Post-irradiation effects in polyethylenes irradiated under various atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suljovrujic, E.

    2013-08-01

    If a large amount of polymer free radicals remain trapped after irradiation of polymers, the post-irradiation effects may result in a significant alteration of physical properties during long-term shelf storage and use. In the case of polyethylenes (PEs) some failures are attributed to the post-irradiation oxidative degradation initiated by the reaction of residual free radicals (mainly trapped in crystal phase) with oxygen. Oxidation products such as carbonyl groups act as deep traps and introduce changes in carrier mobility and significant deterioration in the PEs electrical insulating properties. The post-irradiation behaviour of three different PEs, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied; previously, the post-irradiation behaviour of the PEs was investigated after the irradiation in air (Suljovrujic, 2010). In this paper, in order to investigate the influence of different irradiation media on the post-irradiation behaviour, the samples were irradiated in air and nitrogen gas, to an absorbed dose of 300 kGy. The annealing treatment of irradiated PEs, which can substantially reduce the concentration of free radicals, is used in this study, too. Dielectric relaxation behaviour is related to the difference in the initial structure of PEs (such as branching, crystallinity etc.), to the changes induced by irradiation in different media and to the post-irradiation changes induced by storage of the samples in air. Electron spin resonance (ESR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and gel measurements were used to determine the changes in the free radical concentration, crystal fraction, oxidation and degree of network formation, respectively.

  5. Are the new starting block facilities beneficial for backstroke start performance?

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Abraldes, J Arturo; Medeiros, Alexandre Igor Araripe; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the handgrip positioning and the wedge effects on the backstroke start performance and technique. Ten swimmers completed randomly eight 15 m backstroke starts (four with hands on highest horizontal and four on vertical handgrip) performed with and without wedge. One surface and one underwater camera recorded kinematic data. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used. Handgrip positioning did not affect kinematics with and without wedge use. Handgrips horizontally positioned and feet over wedge displayed greater knee angular velocity than without it (SMD = -0.82; 95% CI: -1.56, -0.08). Hands vertically positioned and feet over wedge presented greater take-off angle (SMD = -0.81; 95% CI: -1.55, -0.07), centre of mass (CM) vertical positioning at first water contact (SMD = -0.97; 95% CI: -1.87, -0.07) and CM vertical velocity at CM immersion (SMD = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.08, 1.98) when comparing without wedge use. Swimmers extended the hip previous to the knee and ankle joints, except for the variant with hands vertically positioned without wedge (SMD = 0.75; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.53). Swimmers should preserve biomechanical advantages achieved during flight with variant with hands vertically positioned and wedge throughout entry and underwater phase.

  6. Are the new starting block facilities beneficial for backstroke start performance?

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Abraldes, J Arturo; Medeiros, Alexandre Igor Araripe; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the handgrip positioning and the wedge effects on the backstroke start performance and technique. Ten swimmers completed randomly eight 15 m backstroke starts (four with hands on highest horizontal and four on vertical handgrip) performed with and without wedge. One surface and one underwater camera recorded kinematic data. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used. Handgrip positioning did not affect kinematics with and without wedge use. Handgrips horizontally positioned and feet over wedge displayed greater knee angular velocity than without it (SMD = -0.82; 95% CI: -1.56, -0.08). Hands vertically positioned and feet over wedge presented greater take-off angle (SMD = -0.81; 95% CI: -1.55, -0.07), centre of mass (CM) vertical positioning at first water contact (SMD = -0.97; 95% CI: -1.87, -0.07) and CM vertical velocity at CM immersion (SMD = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.08, 1.98) when comparing without wedge use. Swimmers extended the hip previous to the knee and ankle joints, except for the variant with hands vertically positioned without wedge (SMD = 0.75; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.53). Swimmers should preserve biomechanical advantages achieved during flight with variant with hands vertically positioned and wedge throughout entry and underwater phase. PMID:26252647

  7. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  8. Start-up control system and vessel for LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Durrant, Oliver W.; Kakarala, Chandrasekhara R.; Mandel, Sheldon W.

    1987-01-01

    A reflux condensing start-up system comprises a steam generator, a start-up vessel connected parallel to the steam generator, a main steam line connecting steam outlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel to a steam turbine, a condenser connected to an outlet of the turbine and a feedwater return line connected between the condenser and inlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel. The start-up vessel has one or more heaters at the bottom thereof for heating feedwater which is supplied over a start-up line to the start-up vessel. Steam is thus generated to pressurize the steam generator before the steam generator is supplied with a heat transfer medium, for example liquid sodium, in the case of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The start-up vessel includes upper and lower bulbs with a smaller diameter mid-section to act as water and steam reservoirs. The start-up vessel can thus be used not only in a start-up operation but as a mixing tank, a water storage tank and a level control at low loads for controlling feedwater flow.

  9. Start-up control system and vessel for LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Durrant, Oliver W.; Kakarala, Chandrasekhara R.; Mandel, Sheldon W.

    1987-01-01

    A reflux condensing start-up system includes a steam generator, a start-up vessel connected parallel to the steam generator, a main steam line connecting steam outlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel to a steam turbine, a condenser connected to an outlet of the turbine and a feedwater return line connected between the condenser and inlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel. The start-up vessel has one or more heaters at the bottom thereof for heating feedwater which is supplied over a start-up line to the start-up vessel. Steam is thus generated to pressurize the steam generator before the steam generator is supplied with a heat transfer medium, for example liquid sodium, in the case of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The start-up vessel includes upper and lower bulbs with a smaller diameter mid-section to act as water and steam reservoirs. The start-up vessel can thus be used not only in a start-up operation but as a mixing tank, a water storage tank and a level control at low loads for controlling feedwater flow.

  10. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  11. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana; Virag, Vasile; Avram, Calin N.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  12. Crosslinking of metallocenic α-olefin propylene copolymers by vacuum gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, A. J.; Andreucetti, N. A.; Quijada, R.; Vallés, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Metallocenic polypropylene and copolymers with 3.7, and 9.2 mol% of hexene and 3.0 mol% of octadecene comonomer content were synthesized without the presence of additives and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation under vacuum at room temperature. Size Exclusion Cromatography and gel extraction data showed that scission reactions predominate over crosslinking in the homopolymer and that there is a dose from where crosslinking started to increase considerably, in the irradiated copolymers. Rheology also showed evidence of chain-enlargements on the copolymers by means of an increase in the viscoelastic properties of the irradiated material.

  13. Thermal annealing of GaAs concentrator solar cells. [during electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.; Brinker, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal annealing of GaAs concentrator cells after electron irradiation is reported. Results are given for cells annealed at 150, 200, and 250 C. Isochronal annealing was done for 20 min intervals up to 350 C. For cells irradiated with electrons of energies between 0.7 and 2.3 MeV, the recovery decreases with increasing electron energy. Isothermal and isochronal annealing produce the same recovery. Cells irradiated to 3 x 10 to the 15th or 1 x 10 to the 16th e/sq cm recover to similar unannealed fractions. Significant annealing is seen starting at 150 C, although very long times are required.

  14. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  15. Model of defect reactions and the influence of clustering in pulse-neutron-irradiated Si

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. M.; Cooper, P. J.; Wampler, W. R.

    2008-08-15

    Transient reactions among irradiation defects, dopants, impurities, and carriers in pulse-neutron-irradiated Si were modeled taking into account the clustering of the primal defects in recoil cascades. Continuum equations describing the diffusion, field drift, and reactions of relevant species were numerically solved for a submicrometer spherical volume, within which the starting radial distributions of defects could be varied in accord with the degree of clustering. The radial profiles corresponding to neutron irradiation were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of vacancy and interstitial distributions obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using a spectrum of primary recoil energies computed for a fast-burst fission reactor. Model predictions of transient behavior were compared with a variety of experimental results from irradiated bulk Si, solar cells, and bipolar-junction transistors. The influence of defect clustering during neutron bombardment was further distinguished through contrast with electron irradiation, where the primal point defects are more uniformly dispersed.

  16. Temporal Onset of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress After Pulmonary Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleckenstein, Katharina; Zgonjanin, Larisa; Chen Liguang; Rabbani, Zahid; Jackson, Isabel L.; Thrasher, Bradley; Kirkpatrick, John; Foster, W. Michael; Vujaskovic, Zeljko . E-mail: vujas@radonc.duke.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the temporal onset of hypoxia following irradiation, and to show how it relates to pulmonary vascular damage, macrophage accumulation, and the production of reactive oxygen species and cytokines. Our previous studies showed that tissue hypoxia in the lung after irradiation contributed to radiation-induced injury. Methods and Materials: Female Fisher 344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a single dose of 28 Gy. Serial studies were performed up to 20 weeks following irradiation. Radionuclide lung-perfusion studies were performed to detect changes in pulmonary vasculature. Immunohistochemical studies were conducted to study macrophages, tissue hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase-9 marker), oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), and the expression of profibrogenic (transforming growth factor-{beta} [TGF-{beta}]) and proangiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) cytokines. Results: Significant changes in lung perfusion along with tissue hypoxia were observed 3 days after irradiation. Significant oxidative stress was detected 1 week after radiation, whereas macrophages started to accumulate at 4 weeks. A significant increase in TGF-{beta} expression was seen within 1 day after radiation, and for VEGF at 2 weeks after radiation. Levels of hypoxia, oxidative stress, and both cytokines continued to rise with time after irradiation. The steepest increase correlated with vast macrophage accumulation. Conclusions: Early changes in lung perfusion, among other factors initiate, the development of hypoxia and chronic oxidative stress after irradiation. Tissue hypoxia is associated with a significant increase in the activation of macrophages and their continuous production of reactive oxygen species, stimulating the production of fibrogenic and angiogenic cytokines, and maintaining the development of chronic radiation-induced lung injury.

  17. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  18. [Dosimetry of total skin electron irradiation

    PubMed

    Kontra, Gábor; Horváth, Akos; Bajcsay, András; Németh, György

    2000-07-01

    Elaboration of such a simple technique for total skin electron irradiation which ensures good dose homogeneity and minimal x-ray background dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We started large electron field irradiations with the Neptun 10p linear accelerator in the National Institute of Oncology -Budapest in 1986. After the installation of the Siemens Mevatron KD linear accelerator it was possible to introduce the modified Stanford technique. This technique satisfies better the requirements given in the objective. The required field size of 200x75 cm is produced as a result of two fields with 30 degrees angular separation (dual field) at a source skin distance of 465 cm. The patient's body is exposed to six dual electron fields. The electron energy is 6 MeV. Despite the long source skin distance the treatment time is relatively short due to the high dose rate (940 mu/min) capability of our Mevatron KD. The in air dose profiles were measured in miniphantom with semiconductor detector. Depth dose curves were measured in water and in polystyrene phantom with semiconductor detector and with films. RESULTS: The measured dose homogeneity of the 6 MeV energy dual field with 30 degrees angular separation is within +/- 5%in a 200x75cm plane field. The depth of dose maximum of the resulting dose distribution of six dual field irradiation is between 2 mm and 5 mm, while the depth of 80% isodose curve is about 8 mm. The total body x-ray background dose is less than 1% of the skin dose. CONCLUSION: The modified Stanford technique adapted to our Mevatron KD linear accelerator is suitable for total skin electron beam therapy. PMID:12050758

  19. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-11-01

    Pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90-850 °C to 0.03-2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relatively modest dose (>0.6 dpa). The precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.

  20. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    PubMed

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  1. Biomechanical Analysis of the Swim-Start: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer’s chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and

  2. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    PubMed

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  3. Phytosanitary irradiation in south Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation has the potential to solve phytosanitary problems related to trade in south Asia. In general, it is the phytosanitary treatment most tolerated by fresh agricultural commodities. Irradiation technology is available in some countries of the region but is only used for phytosanitary purpos...

  4. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  5. Irradiated mandibular autografts

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaker, R.C.; Singer, M.I.; Shockley, W.W.; Pugh, N.; Shidnia, H.

    1983-09-15

    The cosmetic and functional disability associated with mandibular resection has been a major problem to the patient with direct invasion of the mandible by oral cancer. Marginal resections with combined postoperative radiation therapy have frequently been substituted for the more preferred segmental resections and resultant deformities. Presented are 15 cases of oral cavity cancer involving resection of the mandible, immediate radiation to 10,000 rad, and primary reconstruction as irradiated mandibular autografts. The longest following is 4 years and 3 months, with a success rate of 66%. Morbidity is minimal as compared to autogenous bone grafting. Tumor size, previous radiation, or use of regional flaps have not been a factor in the success of this method in reconstruction of the mandible primarily.

  6. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  7. Running Start Annual Progress Report, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Ron

    The Running Start program was created by the 1990 Washington State Legislature to expand educational options for public school students. Running Start allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college-level courses, tuition-free, at the 32 community and technical colleges in Washington. This annual progress report for 1996-97…

  8. Beyond Intentions--What Makes a Student Start a Firm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joensuu-Salo, Sanna; Varamäki, Elina; Viljamaa, Anmari

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurial intentions have been extensively studied in student populations, with results suggesting that higher education does not promote formation of entrepreneurial intentions (e.g. Varamäki et al., 2013). However, the gap between intending to start a business and actually doing something to start one remains. The purpose of this…

  9. A comparison of soft start mechanisms for mining belt conveyors

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Belt Conveyors are an important method for transportation of bulk material in the mining industry. The control of the application of the starting torque from the belt drive system to the belt fabric effects the performance, life cost, and reliability of the conveyor. This paper examines application of each starting method within the coal mining industry.

  10. New Start Program 1993: Eighth-Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Anne; Schwartz, Charles P.

    In 1985, Kingsborough Community College (KCC), in Brooklyn, established the New Start Program to assist students who began their postsecondary education at senior colleges, but encountered academic difficulties there. New Start applicants are admitted to KCC as matriculants in good academic standing. They take regular courses and are expected to…

  11. Head Start Teachers' Beliefs about Language and Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of Head Start teachers' beliefs about early literacy and the teacher background factors that relate to these beliefs. Twenty-eight Head Start teachers were given the Preschool Teacher Literacy Beliefs Questionnaire (TBQ) and a background questionnaire. Reliable belief subscales reflecting code, oral language,…

  12. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  13. Assessing Head Start at 20: an invited commentary.

    PubMed

    Zigler, E

    1985-10-01

    In a critique of the preceding articles by Valora Washington and Ura Jean Oyemade, one of the originators of Head Start points up the accomplishments of the program over the past two decades, takes note of some of its limitations, and assesses the prospects for Head Start in the current era of conservative fiscal policy. PMID:4073231

  14. Early versus Late Start in Foreign Language Education: Documenting Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Rocio; Pessoa, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    This study compares 27 sixth grade students who have been learning Spanish since kindergarten with 5 who have had Spanish for only 1 year using a battery of Spanish oral and written tests. The students who started early out performed the new students in listening, speaking, and writing Spanish. Those who started early also displayed a positive…

  15. 30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting or moving drill equipment. 57.7054... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Starting or moving drill equipment. 57.7054... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Starting or moving drill equipment. 57.7054... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting or moving drill equipment. 57.7054... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting or moving drill equipment. 57.7054... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1236-85 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1236-85 Engine starting and restarting. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 86.136-90 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.136... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.136-90 Engine starting and restarting. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.536... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.536-78 Engine starting and restarting....

  3. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  4. 40 CFR 86.136-90 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.136... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.136-90 Engine starting and restarting. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.536... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.536-78 Engine starting and restarting....

  6. Cold-start, is it good or bad

    SciTech Connect

    Lanthier, G.

    1993-02-01

    An awful lot has been said on cold-starting a boiler, but from discussions I recently have had I am sure everybody understands what it really means, and from what I can see, that includes some manufacturers too. The reason I wonder is because of the so called horror stories' I hear about cold-start.

  7. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.536... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.536-78 Engine starting and restarting....

  8. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  9. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.536... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.536-78 Engine starting and restarting....

  10. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.536... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.536-78 Engine starting and restarting....

  11. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1236-85 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1236-85 Engine starting and restarting. (a)...

  13. Project Head Start, the Urban and Rural Challenge. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chertow, Doris S.

    An analysis of two rural and two urban Head Start centers in the state of New York during the school year 1966-67 attempted to find out if rural-urban variables affect the administration of Head Start programs. The four programs were compared in terms of (1) community socioeconomic characteristics, (2) administrative organization, (3) pupil…

  14. Children's Strategies for Making Friends when Starting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danby, Susan; Thompson, Catherine; Theobald, Maryanne; Thorpe, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Starting school is a critical and potentially stressful time for many young children, and having supportive relationships with parents, teachers and peers and friends offer better outcomes for school adjustment and social relationships. This paper explores matters of friendship when young children are starting school, and how they initiate…

  15. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  16. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  17. Working with a Head Start Population with Asthma: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Belinda W.; Clark, Noreen M.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Houle, Christy R.; Brown, Randall W.; Brown, Clive

    2006-01-01

    The Early Childhood Asthma Project involved asthma case identification in 35 Head Start centers in Detroit, MI, and attempted implementation of an intervention designed to help families manage a child's asthma more effectively. Surveys were distributed to the parents of all Head Start children (3408), and 2198 complete surveys were returned. Case…

  18. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  19. Self-Concepts of Head Start and Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Sara M.; Halsted, Georgia

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-concepts of Head Start children differed from self-concepts of nursery school children. A total of 90 children attending Head Start programs and 70 children attending proprietary nursery schools participated in the study. The preschool form of the Children's Self-Social Constructs Test, a…

  20. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was created almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services.…

  1. Head Start Impact Study. Final Report. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a study on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years. Its study goals were to: (1) Determine the impact of Head Start on children's school readiness, and on parental practices that support children's development; and to (2)…

  2. Head Start, 4 years After Completing the Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance,…

  3. United States Head Start by the Numbers: 2013 PIR Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is based on the 2013 Program Information Report (PIR) data, which all Head Start programs are required to complete on an annual basis. It provides statistical charts and tables on 2013 Head Start programs, participants, families, and staff. [For the 2012 PIR Profile, see ED547120.

  4. Characterizing Disability in Head Start Programs: Not so Clearcut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Lauren R.; Spiker, Donna; Williamson, Cyndi

    2012-01-01

    Head Start programs are required to set aside at least 10% of program slots for children with disabilities, but the percentage of children with disabilities served varies depending on the criteria used and source of the information. This study used the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2000 data for a nationally representative…

  5. Start-Up Costs in American Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Rizzo, Michael J.; Condie, Scott S.

    This report briefly summarizes findings from the 2002 Cornell Higher Education Research Institute survey of start-up costs at the over 220 universities classified as research and doctoral universities by the Carnegie Foundation in 1994. It reports the mean start-up cost packages across institutions for new assistant professors and senior faculty,…

  6. Running Start: 2000-01 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sally Zeiger

    This document is a report on Washington State's Running Start program, which allows eleventh- and twelfth-grade high school students to take college courses for free at any of the 34 state community and technical colleges or at Washington State, Eastern Washington, or Western Washington universities. The program, which was started in 1990, is…

  7. Early Head Start Participants, Program, Families and Staff in 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  8. Start-Up Training in Mississippi: Program Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kent; And Others

    Due to recent industrial growth in Mississippi and the shortage of trained manpower in numerous occupations, start-up training programs have originated to provide a pretrained work force for new or expanding industry in the State. Each start-up training program is a joint effort between a new or expanding industry and a public educational…

  9. Administration for Children and Families: Early Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Early Head Start program. The objective of the Early Head Start program is to enhance the cognitive, social and emotional development of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, through the provision of comprehensive health,…

  10. Starting Point: Pedagogic Resources for Teaching and Learning Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Mark H.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Simkins, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Starting Point: Teaching and Learning Economics, a Web-based portal that makes innovative pedagogic resources and effective teaching practices easily accessible to economists. Starting Point introduces economists to teaching innovations through 16 online modules, each containing a general description of a specific pedagogic…

  11. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  12. 40 CFR 1066.425 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... power from the rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). Unless we specify otherwise, engine starting throughout this part generally refers to this step of activating the system on hybrid vehicles, whether or... vehicles, this would generally involve activating vehicle systems such that the engine will start when...

  13. 40 CFR 1066.425 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... power from the rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). Unless we specify otherwise, engine starting throughout this part generally refers to this step of activating the system on hybrid vehicles, whether or... vehicles, this would generally involve activating vehicle systems such that the engine will start when...

  14. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  15. Mental Health in Head Start: Leave No Child Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.; Bishop-Josef, Sandra J.; Murphy, Michael; Zigler, Edward F.

    2005-01-01

    The original vision of Head Start called for a program that would "get kids ready so they would have a chance in school...a chance in life" (Sargent Shriver; quoted in Zigler and Valentine, 1997, p. 59). President George W. Bush's recent emphasis on literacy and school achievement in Head Start highlights the academic aspect of the Head Start…

  16. Beyond the Preschool Years: Children's Perceptions about Starting Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Berman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a research study that investigated three- and four-year-old Canadian preschool children's perceptions about starting kindergarten. Findings from 33 focus-group discussions suggest that children begin to formulate ideas about starting kindergarten prior to school entry. Children's responses were grouped according to three…

  17. Project Head Start: Evaluation and Research Summary 1965-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    Project Head Start has as its goal the improvement of the child's physical health, intellectual performance, social attitudes, and sense of self. The project involves over half a million children each year, including children in both summer and yearlong programs. About 40 percent of Head Start pupils are Negro, about 30 percent are white, and the…

  18. 49 CFR 611.307 - Overall Small Starts project ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Overall Small Starts project ratings. 611.307... Small Starts project ratings. (a) The summary ratings developed for project justification and local... project. (b) FTA will assign overall project ratings to each proposed project of “high,”...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  9. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  10. Effect of a Smart Start Playground Improvement Grant on Child Care Playground Hazards. Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Jonathan; Guthrie, Christine

    Smart Start (North Carolina) playground improvement grants were awarded to cover playground safety assessment, planning and evaluation, quality enhancements (such as fencing, surfacing, and new equipment), and safety programs. Visual inspections were conducted of the safety of child care home and center playgrounds after Smart Start-sponsored…

  11. Head Start Policy Manual 70.2: The Parents = El Papel de los Padres en Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    Noting that the gains made by children must be understood and supported by the family and community, Head Start gives parents and other family members many opportunities to develop an appreciation of the young child's needs and how to meet those needs. Successful parental involvement enters into every aspect of Head Start; therefore, Head Start…

  12. Creating a 21st Century Head Start. Final Report of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    The Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion was created by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in June 1993 to review the Head Start program and make recommendations for improvement and expansion. The report recommends that HHS: (1) develop new initiatives to utilize qualified "mentor teachers" to provide supervision…

  13. Still Going Strong: Head Start Children, Families, Staff, and Programs in 2004. CLASP Head Start Series. Brief No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Katie; Ewen, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the Head Start program has delivered early education and support services to 23 million low-income preschool children and their families. In addition to early education, Head Start programs must provide children and families with access to a range of comprehensive services, including parenting resources, health screenings…

  14. Comparison of grab start between elite and trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Vantorre, J; Seifert, L; Fernandes, R J; Boas, J P Vilas; Chollet, D

    2010-12-01

    This study analysed motor control during front crawl swimming starts by elite and trained swimmers, based on comparisons of: 1) kinematic and kinetic parameters of the start and 2) variability of these parameters across 3 trials per swimmer. Given that the start time to the 15-m mark is greatly influenced by the swimming phase, the study also compared the stroking and coordinative parameters from water entry to 25-m in the 2 skill groups. The swimmers performed 3 x 25-m at the 50-m race-pace and used their preferential start technique (grab start). The elite swimmers showed better start organization as reflected by higher impulse values in the direction of intended displacement despite similar block phase durations. They then spent more time in the water entry, gliding and leg kicking phases, with shorter swimming phase duration and 15-m start time than the trained swimmers (p<0.05). The trained swimmers showed significantly lower values for stroke length and velocity (p<0.05) during the swimming phase. Analysis revealed low intra-subject variability (across the 3 trials) but high inter-subject variability, indicating that both elite and trained swimmers had mastered distinct, though different, motor patterns.

  15. Precision of archerfish C-starts is fully temperature compensated.

    PubMed

    Krupczynski, Philipp; Schuster, Stefan

    2013-09-15

    Hunting archerfish precisely adapt their predictive C-starts to the initial movement of dislodged prey so that turn angle and initial speed are matched to the place and time of the later point of catch. The high accuracy and the known target point of the starts allow a sensitive straightforward assay of how temperature affects the underlying circuits. Furthermore, archerfish face rapid temperature fluctuations in their mangrove biotopes that could compromise performance. Here, we show that after a brief acclimation period the function of the C-starts was fully maintained over a range of operating temperatures: (i) full responsiveness was maintained at all temperatures, (ii) at all temperatures the fish selected accurate turns and were able to do so over the full angular range, (iii) at all temperatures speed attained immediately after the end of the C-start was matched - with equal accuracy - to 'virtual speed', i.e. the ratio of remaining distance to the future landing point and remaining time. While precision was fully temperature compensated, C-start latency was not and increased by about 4 ms per 1°C cooling. Also, kinematic aspects of the C-start were only partly temperature compensated. Above 26°C, the duration of the two major phases of the C-start were temperature compensated. At lower temperatures, however, durations increased similar to latency. Given the accessibility of the underlying networks, the archerfish predictive start should be an excellent model to assay the degree of plasticity and functional stability of C-start motor patterns. PMID:23737557

  16. Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuan-Yaun

    2009-01-27

    “Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation " was started on 09/01/03 and ended on 08/31/07. The primary objective of the project was to carry out mechanistic studies of the roles of the anti-oxidant SOD genes in mammalian cellular response to low dose ionizing radiation.

  17. Proton irradiation of simple gas mixtures: Influence of irradiation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Norbert J.; Schuster, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to get information about the influence of irradiation parameters on radiolysis processes of astrophysical interest, methane gas targets were irradiated with 6.5 MeV protons at a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature. Yields of higher hydrocarbons like ethane or propane were found by analysis of irradiated gas samples using gas chromatography. The handling of the proton beam was of great experimental importance for determining the irradiation parameters. In a series of experiments current density of the proton beam and total absorbed energy were shown to have a large influence on the yields of produced hydrocarbons. Mechanistic interpretations of the results are given and conclusions are drawn with regard to the chemistry and the simulation of various astrophysical systems.

  18. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  19. AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  20. AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  1. Start files in a multi-discipline environment

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to aid primarily new users to computer-aided design (CAD) techniques in structuring start files to be used in a multidiscipline environment. Some initial preparations made when it was decided to use CAD technology in several different design and drafting disciplines are noted. A possible approach for the creation of a collection of standard start files is outlined, and some techniques used to document changes and updates to standard start files are related. Finally, the fitting of a support and development staff into the CAD organization is discussed. 8 figures. (RWR)

  2. Evaluation of Swift Start TCP in Long-Delay Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawas-Grodek, Frances J.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the test results of the Swift Start algorithm in single-flow and multiple-flow testbeds under the effects of high propagation delays, various slow bottlenecks, and small queue sizes. Although this algorithm estimates capacity and implements packet pacing, the findings were that in a heavily congested link, the Swift Start algorithm will not be applicable. The reason is that the bottleneck estimation is falsely influenced by timeouts induced by retransmissions and the expiration of delayed acknowledgment (ACK) timers, thus causing the modified Swift Start code to fall back to regular transmission control protocol (TCP).

  3. "Size Matters": Women in High Tech Start-Ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackritz, Hilary

    2001-03-01

    For those who want constant excitement, change, and rapid opportunities to have an impact in the technical world, start-up companies offer wonderful challenges. This talk will focus realistically on rewards and risks in the start-up world. An outline of the differences between the high tech start-ups and the academic and consulting worlds from a personal viewpoint will be presented. Size usually does matter, and in this case, small size can equal independence, entrepreneurship, and other advantages that are hard to come by in Dilbert’s corporate world.

  4. The compositional dependence of irradiation creep of austenitic alloys irradiated in PFR at 420{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Munro, B.

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation creep data are expensive and often difficult to obtain, especially when compared to swelling data. This requires that maximum use be made of available data sources in order to elucidate the parametric dependencies of irradiation creep for application to new alloys and to new environments such as those of proposed fusion environments. One previously untapped source of creep data is that of a joint U.S./U.K. experiment conducted in the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) in Dounreay, Scotland. In this experiment, five austenitic steels were irradiated in a variety of starting conditions. In particular, these steels spanned a large range (15-40%) of nickel contents, and contained strong variations in Mo, Ti, Al, and Nb. Some alloys were solution-strengthened and some were precipitation-strengthened. Several were cold-worked. These previously unanalyzed data show that at 420{degrees}C all austenitic steels have a creep compliance that is roughly independent of the composition of the steel at 2{+-}1 x 10{sup {minus}6}MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}. The variation within this range may arise from the inability to completely separate the non-creep strains arising from precipitation reactions and the stress-enhancement of swelling. Each of these can be very sensitive to the composition and starting treatment of a steel.

  5. Smart Start and Local Inter-Organizational Collaboration: Local Collaboration for Children and the North Carolina Smart Start Initiative. UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthner, Dennis; Cole, George; Ehrlich, Roger

    A longitudinal assessment of interagency cooperation was conducted as part of a research project designed to monitor the implementation and development of the Smart Start collaboration process. Telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from organizations providing services to children, and the resulting qualitative, quantitative, and…

  6. Investigation of the Distribution of Fission Products Silver, Palladium and Cadmium in Neutron Irradiated SIC using a Cs Corrected HRTEM

    SciTech Connect

    I. J. van Rooyen; E. Olivier; J. H Neethlin

    2014-10-01

    Electron microscopy examinations of selected coated particles from the first advanced gas reactor experiment (AGR-1) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided important information on fission product distribution and chemical composition. Furthermore, recent research using STEM analysis led to the discovery of Ag at SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions. As these Ag precipitates were nano-sized, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination was used to provide more information at the atomic level. This paper describes some of the first HRTEM results obtained by examining a particle from Compact 4-1-1, which was irradiated to an average burnup of 19.26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA), a time average, volume-averaged temperature of 1072°C; a time average, peak temperature of 1182°C and an average fast fluence of 4.13 x 1021 n/cm2. Based on gamma analysis, it is estimated that this particle may have released as much as 10% of its available Ag-110m inventory during irradiation. The HRTEM investigation focused on Ag, Pd, Cd and U due to the interest in Ag transport mechanisms and possible correlation with Pd, Ag and U previously found. Additionally, Compact 4-1-1 contains fuel particles fabricated with a different fuel carrier gas composition and lower deposition temperatures for the SiC layer relative to the Baseline fabrication conditions, which are expected to reduce the concentration of SiC defects resulting from uranium dispersion. Pd, Ag, and Cd were found to co-exist in some of the SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions whilst U was found to be present in the micron-sized precipitates as well as separately in selected areas at grain boundaries. This study confirmed the presence of Pd both at inter- and intragranular positions; in the latter case specifically at stacking faults. Small Pd nodules were observed at a distance of about 6.5 micron from the inner PyC/SiC interface.

  7. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  8. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1236-85 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1236-85 Engine starting and restarting. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of...

  11. 21 CFR 26.40 - Start of the operational period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.40 Start of the operational period. (a)...

  12. Start current analysis of a 140 GHz CPI gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeddulla, M.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2003-12-01

    In a gyrotron, it is difficult to accurately predict in advance where the resonant interaction between the electrons and outgoing radiation stops. For accurately calculating the start currents for the interacting modes, the exit coordinate has to be fixed where the resonant interaction stops. This paper discusses the difficulty in fixing the exit coordinates for studying start currents in an overmoded gyrotron. Start currents are studied for the operating and the most dangerous parasitic mode of a 140 GHz gyrotron being developed by Communication and Power Industries (CPI). Calculations show that the start currents vary over considerably large values with varying exit coordinates that can cause difficulties in predicting which mode dominates the mode competition.

  13. GPM Sees Slow Start of India's 2015 Monsoon Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the GPM core observatory total rainfall that fell from June 1 to 8. 2015 at the start of India's Monsoon Season as calculated by Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (...

  14. Works starts on building world's largest digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2015-10-01

    The $473m Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has moved one step closer to completion after the US Department of Energy (DOE) approved the start of construction for the telescope's $168m 3.2-gigapixel camera.

  15. Investigation of starting transients in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, E. A.; Hinkey, J. B.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the starting transients of the thermally choked ram accelerator is presented in this paper. Construction of a highly instrumented tube section and instrumentation inserts provide high resolution experimental pressure, luminosity, and electromagnetic data of the starting transients. Data obtained prior to and following the entrance diaphragm show detailed development of shock systems in both combustible and inert mixtures. With an evacuated launch tube, starting the diffuser is possible at any Mach number above the Kantrowitz Mach number. The detrimental effects and possible solutions of higher launch tube pressures and excessive obturator leakage (blow-by) are discussed. Ignition of a combustible mixture is demonstrated with both perforated and solid obturators. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Data obtained from these starting experiments enhance the understanding of the ram accelerator, as well as assist in the validation of unsteady, chemically reacting CFD codes.

  16. Later Start, Finish to Menstruation May Extend Women's Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... And that's what started his interest in researching longevity. The new study included a racially and ethnically ... these factors might help explain the women's extended longevity, Shadyab suggested. The study also found that two ...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.525 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., activate the system such that the engine will start when its control algorithms determine that the engine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.525 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., activate the system such that the engine will start when its control algorithms determine that the engine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.525 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., activate the system such that the engine will start when its control algorithms determine that the engine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1236-85 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... continued. If the engine cannot be started soon enough to allow the vehicle to follow the next acceleration.... During acceleration to this point, shifting shall be performed in accordance with § 86.1228-85. (3)...

  1. 10 CFR 36.15 - Start of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... portion of the permanent irradiator structure on the site but does not include: Engineering and design... of warehouse or auxiliary structures, and other similar tasks. Any activities undertaken prior to the... license with respect to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and...

  2. 10 CFR 36.15 - Start of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... portion of the permanent irradiator structure on the site but does not include: Engineering and design... of warehouse or auxiliary structures, and other similar tasks. Any activities undertaken prior to the... license with respect to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and...

  3. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  4. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  5. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  6. Different Starting Distances Affect 5-m Sprint Times.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Stefan; Hoffmann, Marian; Kurz, Gunther; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Haertel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different starting distances on 5-m sprint time and the accuracy of the initial timing gate. A single-beam timing gate system (1 m high) was used to measure 5-m sprint time in 13 male sports students. Each subject performed 3 valid trials for 3 starting distances: 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m from the initial timing lights, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to track a reflective marker placed on the subjects' hip within a field of view around the initial timing gate. Accuracy of the initial timing gate was defined as the time between the initial timing light trigger and passing of the reflective marker by the initial timing gate. Sprint times were significantly faster for the 1.0-m starting distance (0.98 ± 0.06 seconds) than for the 0.5-m (1.05 ± 0.07 seconds) and the 0.3-m (1.09 ± 0.08 seconds) starting distances (p < 0.001). There were no differences in initial timing gate error between starting distances (p = 0.078). Hence, starting distance influenced sprint times but not the accuracy of the initial timing gate. Researchers and coaches should consider the effect of starting distance on 5-m sprint time and ensure consistent testing protocols. Based on the results of this study, we recommend a starting distance of 0.3 m that should be used for all sprint performance tests.

  7. Irradiation Induced Creep of Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Murty, Prof K.L.; Eapen, Dr. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The current status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and the major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and the need for improved creep models across multi-scales is highlighted.

  8. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  9. Consumer attitudes toward irradiated food

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, S.

    1994-12-31

    Throughout history, new methods of food preservation have been met with skepticism and fear. Such processes as pasteurization and canning were denounced as being dangerous, detrimental to nutrients, or an excuse for dirty products. Now comes irradiation, and activists argue against this new process for the same reasons. Publicly, the perception is that consumers, distrustful of nuclear power, will never buy or accept irradiated food.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of two standing sprint start techniques.

    PubMed

    LeDune, Jason A; Nesser, Thomas W; Finch, Alfred; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine any differences between the false step standing sprint start and a traditional forward step standing sprint start. Ten DI collegiate female soccer players performed 2 standing sprint starts (Forward step and False step). Each player was videotaped for the first 3 steps of each sprint start. Velocity, acceleration, and displacement were calculated at each of the 3 steps for both standing sprint start techniques. Velocity was significantly faster with the forward step for steps 1 and 2 but not with step 3. Displacement was significantly greater with the forward step for each of the 3 steps. Acceleration was greater with the false step for each step though differences were not significant. The results indicate the forward step outperforms the false step in both velocity and displacement. Even though the false step generates greater acceleration, the backward step drastically undercuts displacement nullifying acceleration. Controversy exists between these 2 standing sprint starts with proponents arguing for their favorite with no evidence to suggest one or the other. The results from this study suggest that the forward step is superior to the false step when the concern for an individual is to get from 1 point to the next as fast as possible.

  11. The backstroke swimming start: state of the art.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2014-09-29

    As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the 'state of the art' literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers' proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ∼5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances.

  12. The backstroke swimming start: state of the art.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2014-09-29

    As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the 'state of the art' literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers' proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ∼5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances. PMID:25414737

  13. The Backstroke Swimming Start: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Fernandes, Ricardo J.; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2014-01-01

    As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the ‘state of the art’ literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers’ proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ∼5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances. PMID:25414737

  14. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  15. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  16. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  17. Calculating Irradiance For Photosynthesis In The Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Donald J.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Booth, C. Rockwell; Kiefer, Dale A.; Stallings, Casson

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical model predicts available and usable irradiances. Yields estimates of irradiance available for photosynthesis (Epar) and irradiance usable for photosynthesis (Epur) as functions of depth in ocean. Describes Epur and Epar in terms of spectral parameters measured remotely (from satellites or airplanes). These irradiances useful in studies of photosynthetic productivity of phytoplankton in euphotic layer.

  18. Cancer following medical irradiation.

    PubMed

    Boice, J D

    1981-03-01

    Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: 1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later: 2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is not unique radiogenic cancer; 3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; 4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; 5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; 6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; 7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; 8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancer of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low "relative risks" and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high "relative risks;" 9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for "two ionizing events" for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of "wasted" dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease.

  19. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  20. Dragon Gene Start Finder: An Advanced System for Finding Approximate Locations of the Start of Gene Transcriptional Units

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Seah, Seng Hong

    2003-01-01

    We present an advanced system for recognition of gene starts in mammalian genomes. The system makes predictions of gene start location by combining information about CpG islands, transcription start sites (TSSs), and signals downstream of the predicted TSSs. The system aims at predicting a region that contains the gene start or is in its proximity. Evaluation on human chromosomes 4, 21, and 22 resulted in Se of over 65% and in a ppv of ∼78%. The system makes on average one prediction per 177,000 nucleotides on the human genome, as judged by the results on chromosome 21. Comparison of abilities to predict TSS with the two other systems on human chromosomes 4, 21, and 22 reveals that our system has superior accuracy and overall provides the most confident predictions. PMID:12869582

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVIII, I--CATERPILLAR STARTING (PONEY) ENGINE (PART II), II--UNDERSTANDING MORE ABOUT STARTING DEVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE STARTING ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) STARTING ENGINE MAGNETO (WICO), (2) MAGNETO MAINTENANCE, (3) SPARK PLUGS, (4) GENERAL DESCRIPTION (STARTING DEVICES), (5) OPERATING (STARTING DEVICES), (6) LUBRICATION (STARTING DEVICES), (7)…

  2. Prophylactic irradiation of the lungs to prevent development of pulmonary metastases in patients with osteosarcoma of the limbs

    SciTech Connect

    Breur, K.; Schweisguth, O.; Cohen, P.; Voute, P.A.

    1981-04-01

    A controlled clinical trial conducted by the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Radiotherapy Cooperative Group has shown that prophylactic lung irradiation is effective in preventing lung metastases in patients under 17 years of age. Recently, a new three-armed trial has started in which prophylactic chemotherapy and lung irradiation and chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to the lungs will be compared for their ability to prevent the development of lung metastases.

  3. Head Start at Ages 3 and 4 versus Head Start Followed by State Pre-K: Which is More Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2016-01-01

    As policymakers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund 2, rather than 1 year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer 1 year of Head Start followed by 1 year of pre-K. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma pre-K study…

  4. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  5. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    SciTech Connect

    Windover, Paul R.; Owens, Russell J.; Levinson, Terry M.; Laughlin, Michael; Gaines, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  6. START: An essential step in a new era

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, D.

    1991-11-01

    After more than nine years of negotiations, the US and the Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in Moscow on July 31, 1991. While the world has changed dramatically since 1982 when the START negotiations began, the treaty remains very much in the US interest. START exacts deep cuts in the most destabilizing and dangerous US and Soviet strategic weapons, and will lead to substantial overall reductions in the strategic nuclear forces of both sides. Moreover, the agreement will create a formal, structured, and predictable strategic environment. It will also impose on the Soviet Union or its successors a legally binding set of obligations that will be in effect for many years, regardless of changes in leadership or form of government. START, with its extensive series of intrusive, cooperative, and technical verification measures, will greatly enhance US knowledge about Soviet strategic nuclear forces and activities. The force reductions, predictability, and transparency that START will lock in will be especially valuable if the Soviet Union breaks into independent states or if there is a resurgence of hard-line political forces in Moscow. In addition, START will provide a framework for deeper reductions that could further reduce the risk of nuclear war, stimulate an increasingly cooperative relationship between the US and the Soviet Union or its successors, and save tens of billions of dollars. Finally, by demonstrating a US and Soviet commitment to reversing the arms race, START should reinforce efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear weapons among both newly independent Soviet republics and nuclear threshold states, and to ensure success at the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) extension conference in 1995.

  7. Necrostatin-1 rescues mice from lethal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhentai; Epperly, Michael; Watkins, Simon C; Greenberger, Joel S; Kagan, Valerian E; Bayır, Hülya

    2016-04-01

    There is an emerging need in new medical products that can mitigate and/or treat the short- and long-term consequences of radiation exposure after a radiological or nuclear terroristic event. The direct effects of ionizing radiation are realized primarily via apoptotic death pathways in rapidly proliferating cells within the initial 1-2days after the exposure. However later in the course of the radiation disease necrotic cell death may ensue via direct and indirect pathways from increased generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluated radiomitigative potential of necrostatin-1 after total body irradiation (TBI) and the contribution of necroptosis to cell death induced by radiation. Circulating TNFα levels were increased starting on d1 after TBI and associated with increased plasmalemma permeability in ileum of irradiated mice. Necrostatin-1 given iv. 48h after 9.5Gy TBI attenuated radiation-induced receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) serine phosphorylation in ileum and improved survival vs. vehicle. Utilizing apoptosis resistant cytochrome c(-/-) cells, we showed that radiation can induce necroptosis, which is attenuated by RNAi knock down of RIPK1 and RIPK3 or by treatment with necrostatin-1 or -1s whereas 1-methyl-L-tryptophan, an indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor, did not exhibit radiomitigative effect. This suggests that the beneficial effect of necrostatin-1 is likely through inhibition of RIPK1-mediated necroptotic pathway. Overall, our data indicate that necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis, may play a significant role in cell death contributing to radiation disease and mortality. This study provides a proof of principle that necrostatin-1 and perhaps other RIPK1 inhibitors are promising therapeutic agents for radiomitigation after TBI. PMID:26802452

  8. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relativelymore » modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.« less

  9. Mobility of edge dislocations in stressed iron crystals during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Korchuganov, A. V. Zolnikov, K. P.; Kryzhevich, D. S.; Chernov, V. M.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2015-10-27

    The behavior of a/2(111)(110) edge dislocations in iron in shear loading and irradiation conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Edge dislocations were exposed to shock waves formed by atomic displacement cascades of different energies. It was shown that starting from a certain threshold amplitude shock waves cause displacement of edge dislocations in the loaded samples. Calculations showed that the larger the shear load and the amplitude of the shock wave, the greater the displacement of dislocations in the crystallite.

  10. Improved Starting Materials for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An improved type of starting materials for the fabrication of silicon-based imaging integrated circuits that include back-illuminated photodetectors has been conceived, and a process for making these starting materials is undergoing development. These materials are intended to enable reductions in dark currents and increases in quantum efficiencies, relative to those of comparable imagers made from prior silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting materials. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the improved starting materials and process. A prior SOI starting material, depicted in the upper part the figure, includes: a) A device layer on the front side, typically between 2 and 20 m thick, made of p-doped silicon (that is, silicon lightly doped with an electron acceptor, which is typically boron); b) A buried oxide (BOX) layer (that is, a buried layer of oxidized silicon) between 0.2 and 0.5 m thick; and c) A silicon handle layer (also known as a handle wafer) on the back side, between about 600 and 650 m thick. After fabrication of the imager circuitry in and on the device layer, the handle wafer is etched away, the BOX layer acting as an etch stop. In subsequent operation of the imager, light enters from the back, through the BOX layer. The advantages of back illumination over front illumination have been discussed in prior NASA Tech Briefs articles.

  11. Control Scheme for Quickly Starting X-ray Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahama, Masayuki; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Ishitobi, Manabu; Ito, Tuyoshi; Hosoda, Kenichi

    A control scheme for quickly starting a portable X-ray generator used in the livestock industry is proposed in this paper. A portable X-ray generator used to take X-ray images of animals such as horses, sheep and dogs should be capable of starting quickly because it is difficult for veterinarians to take X-ray images of animals at their timing. In order to develop a scheme for starting the X-ray tube quickly, it is necessary to analysis the X-ray tube. However, such an analysis has not been discussed until now. First, the states of an X-ray tube are classified into the temperature-limited state and the space-charge-limited state. Furthermore, existence of “mixed state” that comprises both is newly proposed in this paper. From these analyses, a novel scheme for quickly starting an X-ray generator is proposed; this scheme is considered with the characteristics of the X-ray tube. The proposed X-ray system that is capable of starting quickly is evaluated on the basis of experimental results.

  12. Sprint starts and the minimum auditory reaction time.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew T G; Hibbs, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The simple auditory reaction time is one of the fastest reaction times and is thought to be rarely less than 100 ms. The current false start criterion in a sprint used by the International Association of Athletics Federations is based on this assumed auditory reaction time of 100 ms. However, there is evidence, both anecdotal and from reflex research, that simple auditory reaction times of less than 100 ms can be achieved. Reaction time in nine athletes performing sprint starts in four conditions was measured using starting blocks instrumented with piezoelectric force transducers in each footplate that were synchronized with the starting signal. Only three conditions were used to calculate reaction times. The pre-motor and pseudo-motor time for two athletes were also measured across 13 muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) synchronized with the rest of the system. Five of the athletes had mean reaction times of less than 100 ms in at least one condition and 20% of all starts in the first two conditions had a reaction time of less than 100 ms. The results demonstrate that the neuromuscular-physiological component of simple auditory reaction times can be under 85 ms and that EMG latencies can be under 60 ms. PMID:17127583

  13. STATUS OF HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR IRRADIATION OF SILICON CARBIDE/SILICON CARBIDE JOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kiggans, Jim; Cetiner, Nesrin; McDuffee, Joel

    2014-09-01

    Development of silicon carbide (SiC) joints that retain adequate structural and functional properties in the anticipated service conditions is a critical milestone toward establishment of advanced SiC composite technology for the accident-tolerant light water reactor (LWR) fuels and core structures. Neutron irradiation is among the most critical factors that define the harsh service condition of LWR fuel during the normal operation. The overarching goal of the present joining and irradiation studies is to establish technologies for joining SiC-based materials for use as the LWR fuel cladding. The purpose of this work is to fabricate SiC joint specimens, characterize those joints in an unirradiated condition, and prepare rabbit capsules for neutron irradiation study on the fabricated specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Torsional shear test specimens of chemically vapor-deposited SiC were prepared by seven different joining methods either at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or by industrial partners. The joint test specimens were characterized for shear strength and microstructures in an unirradiated condition. Rabbit irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated for neutron irradiation of these joint specimens at an LWR-relevant temperature. These rabbit capsules, already started irradiation in HFIR, are scheduled to complete irradiation to an LWR-relevant dose level in early 2015.

  14. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    SciTech Connect

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model.

  15. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.

    2015-03-01

    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  16. Irradiation and annealing of p-type silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Alexander A.; Bogdanova, Elena V.; Grigor'eva, Maria V.; Lebedev, Sergey P.; Kozlovski, Vitaly V.

    2014-02-21

    The development of the technology of semiconductor devices based on silicon carbide and the beginning of their industrial manufacture have made increasingly topical studies of the radiation hardness of this material on the one hand and of the proton irradiation to form high-receptivity regions on the other hand. This paper reports on a study of the carrier removal rate (V{sub d}) in p-6H-SiC under irradiation with 8 MeV protons and of the conductivity restoration in radiation- compensated epitaxial layers of various p-type silicon carbide polytypes. V{sub d} was determined by analysis of capacitance-voltage characteristics and from results of Hall effect measurements. It was found that the complete compensation of samples with the initial value of Na - Nd ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} occurs at an irradiation dose of ∼1.1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. It is shown that specific features of the sublimation layer SiC (compared to CVD layers) are clearly manifested upon the gamma and electron irradiation and are hardly noticeable under the proton and neutron irradiation. It was also found that the radiation-induced compensation of SiC is retained after its annealing at ≤1000°C. The conductivity is almost completely restored at T ≥ 1200°C. This character of annealing of the radiation compensation is independent of a silicon carbide polytype and the starting doping level of the epitaxial layer. The complete annealing temperatures considerably exceed the working temperatures of SiC-based devices. It is shown that the radiation compensation is a promising method in the technology of high-temperature devices based on SiC.

  17. [Start-up of full-scale UASB reactors].

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Sheng, F; Lu, Z

    2001-09-01

    The UASB reactors treating high-temperature citric acid wastewater could be started up in the alternation of mesophilic and thermophilic ranges because the local climate changed greatly by seasons. The reactors were started up in mesophilic range, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 77%-86%; when the temperature of reactors reached 44 degrees C-45 degrees C, the reactors were operated in thermophilic range, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 84%-93%; the reactors were re-operated in mesophilic range after closing about 38 days, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 82%-96%. The start-up in the alternation of mesophilic and thermophilic ranges of the full-scale UASB reactors and the characteristics of mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludge were reported in this paper.

  18. Starting characteristics of direct current motors powered by solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, S.; Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current motors are used in photovoltaic systems. Important characteristics of electric motors are the starting to rated current and torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of the solar cell array and are different for the various dc motor types. Discussed here is the calculation of the starting to rated current ratio and starting to rated torque ratio of the permanent magnet, and series and shunt excited motors when powered by solar cells for two cases: with and without a maximum-power-point-tracker (MPPT) included in the system. Comparing these two cases, one gets a torque magnification of about 3 for the permanent magnet motor and about 7 for other motor types. The calculation of the torques may assist the PV system designer to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system.

  19. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  20. A Data Scientist's Guide to Start-Ups.

    PubMed

    Provost, Foster; Webb, Geoffrey I; Bekkerman, Ron; Etzioni, Oren; Fayyad, Usama; Perlich, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    In August 2013, we held a panel discussion at the KDD 2013 conference in Chicago on the subject of data science, data scientists, and start-ups. KDD is the premier conference on data science research and practice. The panel discussed the pros and cons for top-notch data scientists of the hot data science start-up scene. In this article, we first present background on our panelists. Our four panelists have unquestionable pedigrees in data science and substantial experience with start-ups from multiple perspectives (founders, employees, chief scientists, venture capitalists). For the casual reader, we next present a brief summary of the experts' opinions on eight of the issues the panel discussed. The rest of the article presents a lightly edited transcription of the entire panel discussion.

  1. The start-up of the bi-provincial upgrader

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Bi-Provincial Upgrader is a $1.63 x 10{sup 9} Cdn grass-roots heavy oil upgrading facility located near Lloydminster, Saskatchewan. The facility, which started operation in August 1992, is designed to produce 7300 m{sup 3}/day of 34{degrees}API synthetic crude from 11-15{degrees}API heavy crude oils. The start-up and initial operation of the facility has been a technical success. The facility reached design capacity in a much shorter time than typically reported for the start-up of similar units and has operated reliably at better than design capacity. In this paper, the plant operating performance is reviewed in some detail. A review of the engineering and construction phases and a summary of regional benefits is also included.

  2. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

  3. A study of the effect of sequential injection of 5-androstenediol on irradiation-induced myelosuppression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Sun; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sunjoo; Son, Yeonghoon; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung Sook

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we aimed at examining the therapeutic effects of 5-androstenediol (5-AED), a natural hormone produced in the adrenal cortex, on radiation-induced myelosuppression in C3H/HeN mice. The mice were subjected to whole-body irradiation with a sublethal dose of 5 Gy gamma-irradiation to induce severe myelosuppression, and 5-AED (50 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously. 5-AED was administrated 1 day before irradiation (pre-treatment) or twice weekly for 3 weeks starting from 1 h after irradiation (post-treatment). Treatment with 5-AED significantly ameliorated the decrease in the peripheral blood neutrophil and platelet populations in irradiated myelosuppressive mice, but had no effect on the lymphocyte population. It also ameliorated hypocellularity and disruption of bone marrow induced by irradiation and led to rapid recovery of myeloid cells. Further, it attenuated the decrease in spleen weight and megakaryocyte and myeloid cell populations in the spleen and promoted multilineage hematopoietic recovery. We found that a single injection of 5-AED produced only a temporary therapeutic effect, while sequential injection of 5-AED after irradiation had a more pronounced and prolonged therapeutic effect and reduced myelosuppression by irradiation. Thus, sequential injection of 5-AED after irradiation has therapeutic potential for radiation-induced myelosuppression when administered continuously and can be a significant therapeutic candidate for the management of acute radiation syndrome, particularly in a mass casualty scenario where rapid and economic intervention is important. PMID:25234002

  4. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, T.; O'Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  5. Cold-start characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mishler, Jeff; Mukundan, Rangachary; Wang, Yun; Mishler, Jeff; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplitied analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during coldstart. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.

  6. 27. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST AT START OF POWERHOUSE RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST AT START OF POWERHOUSE RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of December 1906 photograph showing the start of reconstruction work on the powerhouse and car barn. View towards the southwest corner of the building. Note the winding sheaves under a partially completed protective shed on the left of the photograph. Also visible are the tension sheaves, and behind them the batteries of elephant boilers arrayed along the west wall of the building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Start-Up of FEL Oscillator from Shot Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Fawley, W.M.

    2007-01-25

    In free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators, as inself-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FELs, the buildup of cavitypower starts from shot noise resulting from the discreteness ofelectronic charge. It is important to do the start-up analysis for thebuild-up of cavity power in order to fix the macropulse width from theelectron accelerator such that the system reaches saturation. In thispaper, we use the time-dependent simulation code GINGER [1]toperformthis analysis. We present results of this analysis for theparameters of the Compact Ultrafast TErahertz FEL (CUTE-FEL) [2]beingbuilt atRRCAT.

  8. The start up as a phase of architectural design process.

    PubMed

    Castro, Iara Sousa; Lima, Francisco de Paula Antunes; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura

    2012-01-01

    Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the "moving phase", which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the "moving phase" or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage not usually included in the design process.

  9. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

    2016-01-01

    Homeschooled students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschooled students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n = 245) and homeschooled students (n = 162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschooled students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschooled students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

  10. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

    2016-01-01

    Homeschooled students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschooled students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n = 245) and homeschooled students (n = 162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschooled students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschooled students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health.

  11. Head Start at ages 3 and 4 versus Head Start followed by state pre-k: Which is more effective?

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2016-01-01

    As policy-makers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund two, rather than one year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer one year of Head Start followed by one year of pre-k. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma pre-k study to examine these two ‘pathways’ into kindergarten using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of each age-4 program, and propensity score weighting to address selection. We find that children attending Head Start at age 3 develop stronger pre-reading skills in a high quality pre-kindergarten at age 4 compared with attending Head Start at age 4. Pre-k and Head Start were not differentially linked to improvements in children’s pre-writing skills or pre-math skills. This suggests that some impacts of early learning programs may be related to the sequencing of learning experiences to more academic programming. PMID:27076692

  12. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  13. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  14. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  15. The Physical and Mental Health of Head Start Staff: The Pennsylvania Head Start Staff Wellness Survey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brandon D.; Herman, Allison N.; Gooze, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite attention to the health of low-income children in Head Start, little is known about the health of adults working for the program. The objective of our study was to compare the physical and mental health of women working in Pennsylvania Head Start programs with the health of US women who have similar sociodemographic characteristics. Methods We used data from a web-based survey in 2012 in which 2,199 of 3,375 (65.2%) staff in 66 Pennsylvania Head Start programs participated. For the 2,122 female respondents, we determined the prevalence of fair or poor health status, frequent (≥14 d/mo) unhealthy days, frequent (≥10 d/y) work absences due to illness, diagnosed depression, and 3 or more of 6 physical health conditions. We compared these prevalences with those found in 2 national samples of employed women of similar age, education, race/ethnicity, and marital status. Results Among Head Start staff, 85.7% were non-Hispanic white, 62.4% were married, and 60.3% had completed college. The prevalence (% [95% confidence interval]) of several health indicators was higher in Head Start staff than in the national samples: fair or poor health (14.6% [13.1%–16.1%] vs 5.1% [4.5%–5.6%]), frequent unhealthy days (28.3% [26.3%–30.2%] vs 14.5% [14.1%–14.9%]), diagnosed depression (23.5% [21.7%–25.3%] vs 17.6% [17.1%–18.0%]), and 3 or more physical health conditions (21.8% [20.0%–23.6%] vs 12.6% [11.7%–13.5%]). Conclusion Women working with children in Head Start programs have poorer physical and mental health than do US women who have similar sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24176085

  16. Good Start, Grow Smart: The Bush Administration's Early Childhood Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    In his State of the Union Address delivered January 2002, President Bush outlined the next critical step in education reform: to prepare children to read and succeed in school with improved Head Start and early childhood development programs. This report describes early childhood as a critical time for children to develop the physical, emotional,…

  17. 7 CFR 1430.205 - Selection of starting month.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.205 Selection of starting month. (a) A dairy operation that enters into a MILC contract... month selection must be made on the last business day preceding the weekend. A dairy operation...

  18. The Right to Own Quality Head Start Facilities. Facilities Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinckney, Shawna

    1995-01-01

    Notes that previously, Head Start programs were restricted to leasing space, which created renovation and rent difficulties. Examines critical issues confronted by programs since 1992 as they searched for suitable facilities to purchase, and efforts of NHSA to foster collaboration between local programs and community organizations that would…

  19. Running Start: 1995-96 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    Created in 1990 by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, the Running Start (RS) program allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college-level courses tuition-free. In 1992-93, the first full year of statewide implementation, approximately 3,508 students participated in the program, while that…

  20. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Manually Controlled Emergency Systems Having a Storage Battery or...

  1. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Manually Controlled Emergency Systems Having a Storage Battery or...

  2. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Manually Controlled Emergency Systems Having a Storage Battery or...

  3. 46 CFR 112.35-5 - Manually started emergency systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manually started emergency systems. 112.35-5 Section 112.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Manually Controlled Emergency Systems Having a Storage Battery or...

  4. Higher Education and the Starting Wages of Graduates in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FengLiang, Li; Xiaohao, Ding; Morgan, W. John

    2009-01-01

    In order to test two competitive theories, human capital theory and screening hypothesis, this article investigates the effects of minor, class rank and matched job on the starting wages of graduates using data sources from a nation-wide survey of university graduates in China undertaken in 2003 by the Graduate School of Education, Peking…

  5. Self-Perception of Children Starting School (SIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Swedish Board of Education, Stockholm.

    This is a preliminary report on the project titled "Self-Perception of Children Starting School." The project's main concern is to describe and analyze the type of personal development produced by everyday school life, in terms of such concepts as self-perception and self-evaluation. The purpose of the project is to: (1) describe the situation of…

  6. 25 CFR 213.30 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 213.30 Section 213.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.30 Permission to...

  7. 25 CFR 213.30 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 213.30 Section 213.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.30 Permission to...

  8. 25 CFR 213.30 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 213.30 Section 213.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.30 Permission to...

  9. 25 CFR 213.30 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Permission to start operations. 213.30 Section 213.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.30 Permission to...

  10. 25 CFR 213.30 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 213.30 Section 213.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.30 Permission to...

  11. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  13. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  14. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  15. Starting Solids: A Guide for Parents and Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    Most infants consume only breast milk or infant formula for the first 4 months, as their digestive systems and jaw and throat muscles are not ready for solid foods. Most healthcare professionals advise starting solid foods between 4 and 6 months of age, when infants can hold their heads up straight when sitting. The first solid food should be…

  16. Caveat Emptor: The Head Start Scam. Policy Analysis No. 187.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, John

    This report questions the efficacy and utility of the Head Start program by challenging the widely accepted belief that early intervention can prevent future dependence and delinquency. This belief assumes that: (1) sweeping conclusions can be drawn from the study of a few unique preschool programs; (2) children's futures are fundamentally…

  17. What State Leaders Should Know about Early Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Early Head Start (EHS) is a federally-funded, community-based program that provides comprehensive child and family development services to low-income pregnant women and families with children under the age of 3. The mission of EHS is to support healthy prenatal outcomes and enhance the intellectual, social, and emotional development of infants and…

  18. Children and Teachers in Two Types of Head Start Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    To compare the effectiveness of the traditional and the experimental approaches to Head Start classrooms, 68 children and six teachers in San Francisco participated in an educational experiment. The traditional approach emphasizes the children's internal motivation resulting from spontaneous free play and warm, accepting teachers, while the…

  19. Effects of Starting Moisture on Characteristics of Oil Roasted Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the moisture content of peanuts before dry roasting affects the quality of the finished product. This study demonstrates the effects of the starting moisture content of the raw product on peanuts that were oil roasted. Scanning Electron Microscope images taken befo...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9701.351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...