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Sample records for agree ii instrument

  1. Evaluation of the Quality of Guidelines for Myasthenia Gravis with the AGREE II Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenchang; Guo, Jia; Su, Gang; Li, Jiong; Wu, Hua; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners in making decisions about appropriate healthcare in specific clinical circumstances. The methodological quality of CPGs for myasthenia gravis (MG) are unclear. Objective To critically evaluate the methodological quality of CPGs for MG using AGREE II instrument. Method A systematical search strategy on PubMed, EMBASE, DynaMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) was performed on September 20th 2013. All guidelines related to MG were evaluated with AGREE II. The software used for analysis was SPSS 17.0. Results A total of 15 CPGs for MG met the inclusion criteria (12 CPGs in English, 3 CPGs in Chinese). The overall agreement among reviews was moderate or high (ICC >0.70). The mean scores (mean ± SD) for al six domains were presented as follows: scope and purpose (60.93% ±16.62%), stakeholder involvement (40.93% ±20.04%), rigor of development (37.22% ±30.46%), clarity of presentation (64.26% ±16.36%), applicability (28.19% ±20.56%) and editorial independence (27.78% ±28.28%). Compared with non-evidence-based CPGs, evidence-based CPGs had statistically significant higher quality scores for all AGREE II domains (P<0.05). All domain scores appear slightly higher for CPGs published after AGREE II instrument development and validation (P>0.05). The quality scores of CPGs developed by NGC/AAN were higher than the quality scores of CPGs developed by other organizations for all domains. The difference was statistically significant for all domains with the exception of clarity of presentation (P = 0.07). Conclusions The qualities of CPGs on MG were generally acceptable with several flaws. The AGREE II instrument should be adopted by guideline developers, particularly in China. PMID:25402504

  2. Clinical guidelines in pediatric headache: evaluation of quality using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool is a validated questionnaire used to assess the methodological quality of clinical guidelines (CGs). We used the AGREE II tool to assess the development process, the methodological quality, and the quality of reporting of available pediatric CGs for the management of headache in children. We also studied the variability in responses related to the characteristics of eleven Italian neuropediatric centers, showing similarities and differences in the main recommendations reported in CGs. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted from January 2002 to June 2013 on Mediline, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse website and the NHS evidence search tool, using the following terms: headache, cephalalgia, guidelines and children (MESH or text words). Six CGs providing information on the diagnosis and management of headache and specific recommendations for children were selected. Eleven neuropediatric centers assessed the overall quality and the appropriateness of all available CGs using of the AGREE II instrument. Results Six CGs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and assessed by 11 reviewers. Our study showed that the NICE CGs was “strongly recommended” while the French and Danish CGs were mainly “not recommended”. The comparison between the overall quality score of the French CGs and the NICE CGs was statistically significant (6.54 ± 0.69 vs 4.18 ± 1.08; p =0.001). The correlation analysis between quality domain score and guideline publication date showed a statistically significant association only for the “editorial independence” domain (r = 0.842 p = 0.035). The intra-class coefficients showed that the 11 reviewers had the highest agreement for the Lewis CGs (r = 0.857), and the lowest one for the NICE CGs (r = 0.656). Statistical analyses showed that professionals from outpatient services

  3. Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of acne vulgaris: a critical appraisal using the AGREE II instrument.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards.

  4. Application of Agree II Instrument for Appraisal of Postpartum Hemorrhage Clinical Practice Guidelines in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Ahmed; Subotic-popovic, Andreja; Strbac, Savka; Kandic, Alma; Horga, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Federal Minister of Health and Minister of Health and Social Welfare of the Republika Srpska as a Governmental health authorities in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Republika Srpska nominated/appointed health professionals as their representatives to a multidisciplinary Guidelines Adaptation Group (GAG). This group started with its work in September 2015. The main purpose of the guidelines development exercise is to develop guidelines with worldwide recognized methodology for clinical guidelines development and adaptation. At the end of this consultancy, GAG would have develop a clinical practice guideline on Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) through the adaptation method, starting from published international clinical guidelines and adapting it according to the country specific requirements. Methodology: During the process of identifying the best guideline for adaptation, the GAG had to pass several steps. One of the crucial steps was to identify the questions related to clinical practice and health policy for which answers are needed to be addressed by the guideline. These questions included relevant issues regarding the topic area such as diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, service delivery, and training. After that, six guidelines have been researched by the six members of the GAG to see if they answered the identified questions. Evaluating the methodological quality of the selected clinical guidelines was a second essential step before deciding which ones could best fit the needs and interests. AGREE II instrument has been chosen as methods for evaluating clinical guideline quality and appropriateness. Four appraisers conducted the assessment of each of the selected guidelines for PPH. All appraisers passed the training for the AGREE II instrument before conducting appraisals, as recommended by the AGREE collaboration. Each of the four guidelines was rated independently with the AGREE II tool by each appraiser. Results: The highest

  5. The quality of European dermatological guidelines: critical appraisal of the quality of EDF guidelines using the AGREE II instrument.

    PubMed

    Werner, R N; Marinović, B; Rosumeck, S; Strohal, R; Haering, N S; Weberschock, T; Dreher, A C; Nast, A

    2016-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed tools to assist clinicians and health policy makers in decision making for clearly defined clinical situations. In the light of the demand for evidence-based medicine and quality in health care and the increasing methodological requirements concerning guidelines development, it is important to evaluate existing practice guidelines to systematically identify strengths and weaknesses. Currently, the most accepted tool for the methodological evaluation of guidelines is the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument. Intention of this assessment is to identify and critically appraise clinical practice guidelines commissioned by the European Dermatology Forum (EDF). A quality assessment of a predefined set of guidelines, including all available clinical practice guidelines published on the EDF guidelines internet site, was performed using the AGREE II instrument. To assure an objective assessment, four independent assessments were performed by evaluators situated in different European countries. Twenty-five EDF guidelines covering different dermatological topics were identified and evaluated. The assessment included seven guidelines developed on the highest methodological standard (systematic literature search and structured consensus conference, S3). Eighteen guidelines were identified that were based on either a structured consensus process (S2k), a systematic literature assessment (S2e) or on informal consensus only (S1). The methodological and reporting quality among the evaluated guidelines was heterogeneous. S3 guidelines generally received the highest scores. The domains 'clarity of presentation' and 'scope and purpose' achieved the highest mean ratings within the different domains of assessment, whereas the domains of 'applicability', 'stakeholder involvement' and 'editorial independence' scored poorly. Considering the large variations in the achieved scores, there is need for

  6. Improving the reliability of clinical practice guideline appraisals: effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide.

    PubMed

    Oh, Moo-Kyung; Jo, Heuisug; Lee, You Kyoung

    2014-06-01

    The Korean translated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (Korean AGREE II) instrument was distributed into Korean medical societies in 2011. However, inter-rater disagreement issues still exist. The Korean AGREE II scoring guide was therefore developed to reduce inter-rater differences. This study examines the effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide to reduce inter-rater differences. Appraisers were randomly assigned to two groups (Scoring Guide group and Non-Scoring Guide group). The Korean AGREE II instrument was provided to both groups. However, the scoring guide was offered to Scoring Guide group only. Total 14 appraisers were participated and each guideline was assessed by 8 appraisers. To evaluate the reliability of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide, correlation of scores among appraisers and domain-specific intra-class correlation (ICC) were compared. Most scores of two groups were comparable. Scoring Guide group showed higher reliability at all guidelines. They showed higher correlation among appraisers and higher ICC values at almost all domains. The scoring guide reduces the inter-rater disagreement and improves the overall reliability of the Korean-AGREE II instrument.

  7. Guidelines of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies: an overview and quality appraisal using AGREE II

    PubMed Central

    Vande veegaete, Axel; Borra, Vere; De Buck, Emmy; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To appraise the quality of guidelines developed by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) between 2001 and 2015. Study design Cross-sectional. Methods 2 authors independently assessed the quality of IFRC guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. Average domain scores were calculated and overall quality scores and recommendation for use were determined. Results Out of 77 identified guidelines, 27 met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. The domains with the highest average scores across guidelines were ‘scope and purpose’, ‘clarity of presentation’ and ‘applicability’. The lowest scoring domains were ‘rigour of development’ and ‘editorial independence’. No guideline can be ‘recommended for immediate use’, 23 guidelines are ‘recommended with modifications’ and 4 guidelines are ‘not recommended’. Conclusions The IFRC produces guidelines that should be adhered to by millions of staff and volunteers in 190 countries. These guidelines should therefore be of high quality. Up until now, the IFRC had no uniform guideline development process. The results of the AGREE II appraisal indicate that the quality of the guidelines needs to be improved. PMID:27678534

  8. Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

    1923-01-01

    This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

  9. Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Guidelines on Medication Therapy for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with AGREE Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Linan; Zhang, Lingli; Hu, Zhiqiang; Ehle, Emily A.; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Lili; Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To summarize recommendations of existing guidelines on the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children, and to assess the methodological quality of these guidelines. Methods We searched seven databases and web sites of relevant academic agencies. Evidence-based guidelines on pediatric URTIs were included. AGREE II was used to assess the quality of these guidelines. Two researchers selected guidelines independently and extracted information on publication years, institutions, target populations, recommendations, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendations. We compared the similarities and differences of recommendations and their strength. We also analyzed the reasons for variation. Results Thirteen guidelines meeting our inclusion criteria were included. Huge differences existed among these 13 guidelines concerning the categorization of evidence and recommendations. Nearly all of these guidelines lacked the sufficient involvement of stake holders. Further, the applicability of these guidelines still needs to be improved. In terms of recommendations, penicillin and amoxicillin were suggested for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were recommended for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS). An observation of 2–3 days prior to antibiotic therapy initiation for mild acute otitis media (AOM) was recommended with amoxicillin as the suggested first choice agent. Direct evidence to support strong recommendations on the therapy for influenza is still lacking. In addition, the antimicrobial durations for pharyngitis and ABRS were still controversial. No consensus was reached for the onset of antibiotics for ABRS in children. Conclusions Future guidelines should use a consistent grading system for the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. More effort needs to be paid to seek the preference of stake holders and to improve the applicability of guidelines. Further, there are still

  10. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-09-29

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  12. LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect

    Baradaran, Samira; Bergmann, Uwe; Durr, Herrmann; Gaffney, Kelley; Goldstein, Julia; Guehr, Markus; Hastings, Jerome; Heimann, Philip; Lee, Richard; Seibert, Marvin; Stohr, Joachim; /SLAC

    2012-08-08

    The LCLS-II New Instruments workshops chaired by Phil Heimann and Jerry Hastings were held on March 19-22, 2012 at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The goal of the workshops was to identify the most exciting science and corresponding parameters which will help define the LCLS-II instrumentation. This report gives a synopsis of the proposed investigations and an account of the workshop. Scientists from around the world have provided short descriptions of the scientific opportunities they envision at LCLS-II. The workshops focused on four broadly defined science areas: biology, materials sciences, chemistry and atomic, molecular and optical physics (AMO). Below we summarize the identified science opportunities in the four areas. The frontiers of structural biology lie in solving the structures of large macromolecular biological systems. Most large protein assemblies are inherently difficult to crystallize due to their numerous degrees of freedom. Serial femtosecond protein nanocrystallography, using the 'diffraction-before-destruction' approach to outrun radiation damage has been very successfully pioneered at LCLS and diffraction patterns were obtained from some of the smallest protein crystals ever. The combination of femtosecond x-ray pulses of high intensity and nanosized protein crystals avoids the radiation damage encountered by conventional x-ray crystallography with focused beams and opens the door for atomic structure determinations of the previously largely inaccessible class of membrane proteins that are notoriously difficult to crystallize. The obtained structures will allow the identification of key protein functions and help in understanding the origin and control of diseases. Three dimensional coherent x-ray imaging at somewhat lower resolution may be used for larger objects such as viruses. The chemistry research areas of primary focus are the predictive understanding of catalytic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on photo- and

  13. Euthanasia: agreeing to disagree?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In discussions about the legalisation of active, voluntary euthanasia it is sometimes claimed that what should happen in a liberal society is that the two sides in the debate “agree to disagree”. This paper explores what is entailed by agreeing to disagree and shows that this is considerably more complicated than what is usually believed to be the case. Agreeing to disagree is philosophically problematic and will often lead to an unstable compromise. PMID:20676776

  14. Instrumentation and diagnostics for PEP-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Alan S.

    1998-12-01

    PEP-II is a 2.2 km-circumference collider with a 2.1 A, 3.1 GeV positron ring (the low-energy ring) 1 m above a 1 A, 9 GeV electron ring (the high-energy ring); both rings are designed to allow an upgrade to 3 A. Since June 1997, we have had three runs totaling 14 weeks to commission the full HER, reaching a current of 0.75 A. Positrons were transported through the first 90 m of the LER in January 1998, with full-ring tests planned for the summer. This workshop provides a timely opportunity to review the design of the beam diagnostics and their performance, with an emphasis on what works, what doesn't, and what we're doing to improve it. This paper discusses: the synchrotron-light monitor, including both transverse imaging onto a CCD camera and longitudinal measurements with a streak camera; beam position monitors, with processors capable of 1024-turn records, FFTs, and phase-advance measurements; tune measurements with a spectrum analyzer, including software for peak tracking; measurements of both the total ring current and the charge in each bucket, for real-time control of the fill; and beam loss monitors using small Cherenkov detectors for measuring losses from both stored and injected beam.

  15. Instrument Front-Ends at Fermilab During Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas; Slimmer, David; Voy, Duane; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  16. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  17. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: Choosing the Right Instrument: The Modular Approach. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobel, Howard A.

    1984-01-01

    In a modular approach, instruments are considered as systems composed of modules, each module performing a particular function. Examines process of relating specifications for instruments to those for particular modules, effect of microcomputers on modular approach, and extension of the approach to such devices as "hyphenated" or tandem…

  18. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  19. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I&C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I&C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I&C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  20. Planck 2015 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. For the first time, we present LFI maps in Stokes Q and U polarization. We refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions of the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

  1. The bone diagnostic instrument II: Indentation distance increase

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Turner, Patricia; Drake, Barney; Yurtsev, Eugene; Proctor, Alexander; Mathews, Phillip; Lelujian, Jason; Randall, Connor; Adams, Jonathan; Jungmann, Ralf; Garza-de-Leon, Federico; Fantner, Georg; Mkrtchyan, Haykaz; Pontin, Michael; Weaver, Aaron; Brown, Morton B.; Sahar, Nadder; Rossello, Ricardo; Kohn, David

    2008-01-01

    The bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) is being developed with the long-term goal of providing a way for researchers and clinicians to measure bone material properties of human bone in vivo. Such measurements could contribute to the overall assessment of bone fragility in the future. Here, we describe an improved BDI, the Osteoprobe II™. In the Osteoprobe II™, the probe assembly, which is designed to penetrate soft tissue, consists of a reference probe (a 22 gauge hypodermic needle) and a test probe (a small diameter, sharpened rod) which slides through the inside of the reference probe. The probe assembly is inserted through the skin to rest on the bone. The distance that the test probe is indented into the bone can be measured relative to the position of the reference probe. At this stage of development, the indentation distance increase (IDI) with repeated cycling to a fixed force appears to best distinguish bone that is more easily fractured from bone that is less easily fractured. Specifically, in three model systems, in which previous mechanical testing and∕or tests reported here found degraded mechanical properties such as toughness and postyield strain, the BDI found increased IDI. However, it must be emphasized that, at this time, neither the IDI nor any other mechanical measurement by any technique has been shown clinically to correlate with fracture risk. Further, we do not yet understand the mechanism responsible for determining IDI beyond noting that it is a measure of the continuing damage that results from repeated loading. As such, it is more a measure of plasticity than elasticity in the bone. PMID:18601422

  2. The bone diagnostic instrument II: Indentation distance increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Turner, Patricia; Drake, Barney; Yurtsev, Eugene; Proctor, Alexander; Mathews, Phillip; Lelujian, Jason; Randall, Connor; Adams, Jonathan; Jungmann, Ralf; Garza-de-Leon, Federico; Fantner, Georg; Mkrtchyan, Haykaz; Pontin, Michael; Weaver, Aaron; Brown, Morton B.; Sahar, Nadder; Rossello, Ricardo; Kohn, David

    2008-06-01

    The bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) is being developed with the long-term goal of providing a way for researchers and clinicians to measure bone material properties of human bone in vivo. Such measurements could contribute to the overall assessment of bone fragility in the future. Here, we describe an improved BDI, the Osteoprobe II™. In the Osteoprobe II™, the probe assembly, which is designed to penetrate soft tissue, consists of a reference probe (a 22 gauge hypodermic needle) and a test probe (a small diameter, sharpened rod) which slides through the inside of the reference probe. The probe assembly is inserted through the skin to rest on the bone. The distance that the test probe is indented into the bone can be measured relative to the position of the reference probe. At this stage of development, the indentation distance increase (IDI) with repeated cycling to a fixed force appears to best distinguish bone that is more easily fractured from bone that is less easily fractured. Specifically, in three model systems, in which previous mechanical testing and/or tests reported here found degraded mechanical properties such as toughness and postyield strain, the BDI found increased IDI. However, it must be emphasized that, at this time, neither the IDI nor any other mechanical measurement by any technique has been shown clinically to correlate with fracture risk. Further, we do not yet understand the mechanism responsible for determining IDI beyond noting that it is a measure of the continuing damage that results from repeated loading. As such, it is more a measure of plasticity than elasticity in the bone.

  3. A systematic critical appraisal for non-pharmacological management of osteoarthritis using the appraisal of guidelines research and evaluation II instrument.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Toupin-April, Karine; Poitras, Stéphane; King, Judy; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne; Casimiro, Lynn; Paterson, Gail; McEwan, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice CPGs (CPGs) have been developed to summarize evidence related to the management of osteoarthritis (OA). CPGs facilitate uptake of evidence-based knowledge by consumers, health professionals, health administrators and policy makers. The objectives of the present review were: 1) to assess the quality of the CPGs on non-pharmacological management of OA; using a standardized and validated instrument--the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool--by three pairs of trained appraisers; and 2) to summarize the recommendations based on only high-quality existing CPGs. Scientific literature databases from 2001 to 2013 were systematically searched for the state of evidence, with 17 CPGs for OA being identified. Most CPGs effectively addressed only a minority of AGREE II domains. Scope and purpose was effectively addressed in 10 CPGs on the management of OA, stakeholder involvement in 12 CPGs, rigour of development in 10 CPGs, clarity/presentation in 17 CPGs, editorial independence in 2 CPGs, and applicability in none of the OA CPGs. The overall quality of the included CPGs, according to the 7-point AGREE II scoring system, is 4.8 ± 0.41 for OA. Therapeutic exercises, patient education, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, acupuncture, orthoses and insoles, heat and cryotherapy, patellar tapping, and weight control are commonly recommended for the non-pharmacological management of OA by the high-quality CPGs. The general clinical management recommendations tended to be similar among high-quality CPGs, although interventions addressed varied. Non-pharmacological management interventions were superficially addressed in more than half of the selected CPGs. For CPGs to be standardized uniform creators should use the AGREE II criteria when developing CPGs. Innovative and effective methods of CPG implementation to users are needed to ultimately enhance the quality of life of arthritic individuals.

  4. Overview of Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.

    2008-05-04

    A new, ultra-bright 3rd generation light source, the NSLS-II Project, is planned to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The light source being developed will have unprecedently small beam horizontal emittance and will provide the radiation sources with a brightness of 3 x 10{sup 21} photons/sec/0.1%BW/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}. In this paper we present the detailed specifications and a comprehensive description of the planned beam instrumentation system and the first results of the ongoing instrumentation R&D activities on beyond state-of-the-art subsystems.

  5. Analysis of helium II thermal links for instrument cooling in low gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G. L.

    2001-11-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is a reusable, cryogenic facility that will accommodate a series of low temperature experiments to be conducted at the International Space Station. The facility will use a He II cryostat to cool the instruments. Some configurations of the science instruments in the cryostat will require an enhanced thermal link between the He II bath and parts of the instruments. Such an enhanced link can be made with plumbing filled with He II. This paper reports the results of analysis that was performed using the BATC proprietary helium flow software called SUPERFLO, on four different concepts for this link. The four concepts analyzed were: a simple tube with the heated end closed, a closed end tube with a porous plug at its entrance, a closed end tube filled with capillary tubes, and a porous plug driven flow loop. It was found that the concepts that used a porous plug were more robust since they were much less prone to boiling. This is due to the low gravity which causes all of the liquid in helium tank and plumbing to be very close to saturated conditions unless a porous plug is used to create a thermomechanical pressure. The effects of varying system parameters such as a acceleration, heat flux, pore size and tube size were also investigated and the results are reported.

  6. Detection of Instrumental Drifts in the PEP II LER BPM System

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmer, W.; Fisher, A.S.; Martin, D.J.; Sebek, J.J.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    During the last PEP-II run a major goal was to bring the Low-Energy Ring optics as close as possible to the design. A large number of BPMs exhibited sudden artificial jumps that interfered with this effort. The source of the majority of these jumps had been traced to the filter-isolator boxes (FIBs) near the BPM buttons. A systematic approach to find and repair the failing units had been developed and implemented. Despite this effort, the instrumental orbit jumps never completely disappeared. To trace the source of this behavior a test setup, using a spare Bergoz MX-BPM processor (kindly provided by SPEAR III at SSRL), was connected in parallel to various PEP-II BPM processors. In the course of these measurements a slow instrumental orbit drift was found which was clearly not induced by a moving positron beam. Based on the size of the system and the limited time before PEP-II closes in Oct.2008, an accelerator improvement project was initiated to install BERGOZ BPM-MX processors close to all sextupoles.

  7. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  8. Comparable flow cytometry data can be obtained with two types of instruments, Canto II, and Navios. A GEIL study.

    PubMed

    Solly, Françoise; Rigollet, Lauren; Baseggio, Lucille; Guy, Julien; Borgeot, Jessica; Guérin, Estelle; Debliquis, Agathe; Drenou, Bernard; Campos, Lydia; Lacombe, Francis; Béné, Marie C

    2013-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) instruments settings classically rely on local establishment of photomultipliers (PMT) voltages adapted to the measurements expected to be performed. In the era of multiparameter FC (MFC), it appears more and more desirable that comparable patterns of fluorescence are obtained in different settings. This relies on a harmonization of settings between instruments. Although this has been shown to be feasible within a given brand of flow cytometers, little information is available about broader comparisons in a given center or in a multicenter fashion. Here, we report a two-phase series of experiments first performed between a Canto II (BD Biosciences) and a Navios (Beckman Coulter) instruments in the same center. PMT values adjusted on the reference instrument (RI) Canto II were used to establish target values for PMT settings on the paired Navios practice instrument (PI). This allowed to show the good correlation of all but peaks 1 and 2 of Rainbow(®) beads between RI and PI. Using 4- or 8-color stained leukocytes, the similitude of the settings was further confirmed. A complex set of matrices was then established between five centers all equipped with both instruments. Using Bland & Altman difference comparisons for median fluorescence values, it was shown that using either Rainbow beads or CD16 stained polymorphonuclears to set-up target values on the RI CantoII, highly superimposable results could be obtained on all 9 PI. The latter were obtained using Rainbow beads or Compbeads(®) for comparisons. In summary, this two-phase study demonstrates the feasibility of different methods allowing for a robust harmonization of settings for MFC. PMID:24151234

  9. Comparable flow cytometry data can be obtained with two types of instruments, Canto II, and Navios. A GEIL study.

    PubMed

    Solly, Françoise; Rigollet, Lauren; Baseggio, Lucille; Guy, Julien; Borgeot, Jessica; Guérin, Estelle; Debliquis, Agathe; Drenou, Bernard; Campos, Lydia; Lacombe, Francis; Béné, Marie C

    2013-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) instruments settings classically rely on local establishment of photomultipliers (PMT) voltages adapted to the measurements expected to be performed. In the era of multiparameter FC (MFC), it appears more and more desirable that comparable patterns of fluorescence are obtained in different settings. This relies on a harmonization of settings between instruments. Although this has been shown to be feasible within a given brand of flow cytometers, little information is available about broader comparisons in a given center or in a multicenter fashion. Here, we report a two-phase series of experiments first performed between a Canto II (BD Biosciences) and a Navios (Beckman Coulter) instruments in the same center. PMT values adjusted on the reference instrument (RI) Canto II were used to establish target values for PMT settings on the paired Navios practice instrument (PI). This allowed to show the good correlation of all but peaks 1 and 2 of Rainbow(®) beads between RI and PI. Using 4- or 8-color stained leukocytes, the similitude of the settings was further confirmed. A complex set of matrices was then established between five centers all equipped with both instruments. Using Bland & Altman difference comparisons for median fluorescence values, it was shown that using either Rainbow beads or CD16 stained polymorphonuclears to set-up target values on the RI CantoII, highly superimposable results could be obtained on all 9 PI. The latter were obtained using Rainbow beads or Compbeads(®) for comparisons. In summary, this two-phase study demonstrates the feasibility of different methods allowing for a robust harmonization of settings for MFC.

  10. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a seamless

  11. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Thomas; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970’s vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE’s program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a

  12. Detector performances of the BESS-Polar II instrument during the second long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, T. Kumazawa1, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shikaze, Y.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.

    USA The new balloon-borne instrument was developed for the second long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica (BESS-Polar II) on the basis of the feed back from the results from the first flight in 2004 (BESS-Polar I). Most of the detector components had been redesigned and upgraded to improve their performances and to increase the data taking period and capacity. The BESS-Polar II flight was successfully carried out in December 2007-January 2008. We performed 24.5 days scientific observation just at the solar minimum and recorded about 4.7 billion cosmic-ray enents in the harddisk drives onboard. During the flight, the instrument worked well except for minor problems in some detector components. We have made careful post-flight calibration for all detectors by using cosmic-ray event and house-keeping data. Stable and better performance was obtained for the entire flight. In this presentatation, detector performances for the BESS-Polar II instrument will be presented.

  13. The Role of Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry, Part II: The Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Bluck, Les; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2013-01-01

    In the second instalment of this tutorial, the authors explain the instrumentation for measuring naturally occurring stable isotopes, specifically the magnetic sector mass spectrometer. This type of instrument remains unrivalled in its performance for isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and the reader is reminded of its operation and its technical advantages for isotope measurements. PMID:23772101

  14. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Category II operations. (c) Radio altimeter. A radio altimeter must meet the performance criteria of this... a marker beacon receiver providing aural and visual indications of the inner marker or a radio altimeter. (b) Group II. (1) Warning systems for immediate detection by the pilot of system faults in...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Category II operations. (c) Radio altimeter. A radio altimeter must meet the performance criteria of this... a marker beacon receiver providing aural and visual indications of the inner marker or a radio altimeter. (b) Group II. (1) Warning systems for immediate detection by the pilot of system faults in...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Category II operations. (c) Radio altimeter. A radio altimeter must meet the performance criteria of this... a marker beacon receiver providing aural and visual indications of the inner marker or a radio altimeter. (b) Group II. (1) Warning systems for immediate detection by the pilot of system faults in...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Category II operations. (c) Radio altimeter. A radio altimeter must meet the performance criteria of this... a marker beacon receiver providing aural and visual indications of the inner marker or a radio altimeter. (b) Group II. (1) Warning systems for immediate detection by the pilot of system faults in...

  18. Head-mounted spatial instruments II: Synthetic reality or impossible dream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur

    1989-01-01

    A spatial instrument is defined as a spatial display which has been either geometrically or symbolically enhanced to enable a user to accomplish a particular task. Research conducted over the past several years on 3-D spatial instruments has shown that perspective displays, even when viewed from the correct viewpoint, are subject to systematic viewer biases. These biases interfere with correct spatial judgements of the presented pictorial information. The design of spatial instruments may not only require the introduction of compensatory distortions to remove the naturally occurring biases but also may significantly benefit from the introduction of artificial distortions which enhance performance. However, these image manipulations can cause a loss of visual-vestibular coordination and induce motion sickness. Consequently, the design of head-mounted spatial instruments will require an understanding of the tolerable limits of visual-vestibular discord.

  19. The LPSP instrument on OSO 8. II - In-flight performance and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Lemaire, P.; Vial, J. C.; Artzner, G.; Gouttebroze, P.; Jouchoux, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Leibacher, J. W.; Skumanich, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the in-flight performance for the first 18 months of operation of the LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire) instrument incorporated in the OSO 8 launched June 1975. By means of the instrument, an absolute pointing accuracy of nearly one second was achieved in orbit during real-time operations. The instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope and a spectrometer simultaneously observing six wavelengths. In-flight performance is discussed with attention to angular resolution, spectral resolution, dispersion and grating mechanism (spectral scanner) stability, scattered light background and dark current, photometric standardization, and absolute calibration. Real-time operation and problems are considered with reference to pointing system problems, target acquisition, and L-alpha modulation. Preliminary results involving the observational program, quiet sun and chromospheric studies, quiet chromospheric oscillation and transients, sunspots and active regions, prominences, and aeronomy investigations are reported.

  20. [Historical Archives of Italian Nephrology. The history of instrumentation in nephrology. Part II: microscope and haemodialyzer].

    PubMed

    Timio, M

    2003-01-01

    Medicine in the technological era acquired many of the characteristics that concurrently marked other fields. So, by adopting procedures based on information obtained with instruments and devices, medicine developed an approach to illness that transformed it into a special form of technology. The collective effect of instrumentation deserves consideration and offers the historian opportunities for interpreting the interaction between physician and his patients in other than scientific and technological terms. The very construction of instruments and devices depends on the Author's ideas assembled with the basic theories of the time. For instance, at the end of the nineteenth century, when medical instruments became essential, the bacterial origin of diseases revolutionised their construction and application. In this context, the invention and use of the microscope became an outstanding feature of the clinical approach by disclosing the cellular universe. The microscope had become crucial in locating some major causes of physical suffering and death in man, and was considered the pre-eminent diagnostic instrument in medicine. In the nephrological field, the microscope drew the physician into a universe of physical changes that were concealed to the naked eye. The microscope made possible the verification of some of Bright's brilliant ideas, something that helped physicians classify glomerulonephritis. Many nephrologists confessed "how few things are established in this subject (nephrology) and how many more difficulties are established, we have learned by experience with the microscope". The modesty of this claim is striking. In nephrology, as in other fields, the admission of ignorance proved to be the beginning of wisdom. This wisdom, based on the admission of ignorance and assembled through the commitment and ingenuity of the pioneers of the dialysis treatment, led to the treatment of end-stage renal disease and the guarantee of success. The technique of

  1. [Historical Archives of Italian Nephrology. The history of instrumentation in nephrology. Part II: microscope and haemodialyzer].

    PubMed

    Timio, M

    2003-01-01

    Medicine in the technological era acquired many of the characteristics that concurrently marked other fields. So, by adopting procedures based on information obtained with instruments and devices, medicine developed an approach to illness that transformed it into a special form of technology. The collective effect of instrumentation deserves consideration and offers the historian opportunities for interpreting the interaction between physician and his patients in other than scientific and technological terms. The very construction of instruments and devices depends on the Author's ideas assembled with the basic theories of the time. For instance, at the end of the nineteenth century, when medical instruments became essential, the bacterial origin of diseases revolutionised their construction and application. In this context, the invention and use of the microscope became an outstanding feature of the clinical approach by disclosing the cellular universe. The microscope had become crucial in locating some major causes of physical suffering and death in man, and was considered the pre-eminent diagnostic instrument in medicine. In the nephrological field, the microscope drew the physician into a universe of physical changes that were concealed to the naked eye. The microscope made possible the verification of some of Bright's brilliant ideas, something that helped physicians classify glomerulonephritis. Many nephrologists confessed "how few things are established in this subject (nephrology) and how many more difficulties are established, we have learned by experience with the microscope". The modesty of this claim is striking. In nephrology, as in other fields, the admission of ignorance proved to be the beginning of wisdom. This wisdom, based on the admission of ignorance and assembled through the commitment and ingenuity of the pioneers of the dialysis treatment, led to the treatment of end-stage renal disease and the guarantee of success. The technique of

  2. Solar EUV/FUV line polarimetry. I - Observational parameters and theoretical considerations. II - Instruments and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Hoover, Richard B.; Fontenla, Juan M.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses theoretical considerations and presents the observational parameters for the development of reflective FUV coronagraph/polarimeter and EUV imaging polarimeter instruments. New EUV/FUV polarimeter instrument concepts for solar research are described. One of these is a new coronagraph/polarimeter operating at 1215.6 A, which could observe the neutral hydrogen Ly-alpha line in the near solar corona and lead to the first direct measurements of both the strength and the direction of coronal magnetic fields. The other is a new multilayer EUV imaging polarimeter, operating at the wavelengths of strong He emission lines, which could observe impact polarization phenomena and provide information concerning the relative importance of thermal and nonthermal processes in solar flares.

  3. Introduction for Instrumentation and Telescopes for Small College Observatories Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, my colleagues and I have increasingly found less and less organized content at AAS meetings that relates directly to telescopes and instrumentation for small college observatory (telescope apertures between 16 and 50 inches) users. This session is an effort to bring the small telescope user community together to share ideas and techniques as applied to small telescopes and instrumentation. It is hoped that this session will lead to an informal working group of small telescope users. The session will consist of five invited talks covering a range of small observatory issues, in addition to a parallel poster session to which all small college observatory users are encouraged to submit papers. The invited talks will be followed by a brief panel discussion where it is hoped a free form exchange of ideas will take place.

  4. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  5. Designing the CCD/Transit Instrument II (CTI-II) Data Pipeline for the Near Earth Space Surveillance Initiative (NESSI) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, P.; McGraw, J. T.; CTI-II Computing Collective Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    The University of New Mexico is currently implementing the CCD/Transit Instrument Version II (CTI-II), a 1.8m meridian-pointing telescope, and equipping it with a modern focal plane array and wide-field optics for deployment at McDonald Observatory. The current design of CTI-II is expected to generate over two hundred gigapixels of image data per night of operation from a one degree wide strip of the sky in five bandpasses. These data will feed both realtime and near-realtime analysis pipelines, the design of which is driven by the principle science projects of CTI-II. However, the goals of these analysis systems are common to many sky surveys: precision astrometry, precision photometry, and the ability to facilitate rapid follow-up observations. Given the potential of new optics and detectors coupled with a unique, dedicated observing mode, several key science projects have been chosen as drivers of the ultimate design of CTI-II: Red Star Astrometry -- The data pipeline must accurately and precisely measure stellar positions with respect to existing astrometric standards to well within the inherent systematic optical system errors (< 0.003 σ rms). AGN Reverberations -- The CTI-II data system must be able to recover the intensities of AGN cores across a wide dynamic range under varying seeing and background conditions to within the errors expected from the optical system and detectors. Supernova Detection -- A supernova candidate detected by CTI-II enters the cooperating Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) field-of-regard after approximately one hour. Therefore, the realtime portion of the data analysis pipeline must identify supernova candidates, characterize them, and alert the astronomer-on-call in less than fifteen minutes, with a very low false positive rate, under varying seeing and background conditions. We have established grassroots collaborations with the Computer Science and Electrical and Computer Engineering Departments at UNM to help address these

  6. Powered instrumentation in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. II: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Krouse, J H; Christmas, D A

    1996-01-01

    The present paper compares the use of the microdebrider as a form of powered instrumentation for endoscopic sinus surgery with traditional endoscopic surgical techniques. A group of 250 patients undergoing surgery with the microdebrider was compared with a group of 225 patients undergoing traditional procedures in order to evaluate their postoperative recovery, healing, and incidence of complications. The use of the microdebrider demonstrated faster healing with less crusting than standard techniques, as well as decreased bleeding, synechia formation, lateralization of the middle turbinate, and ostial reocclusion. The microdebrider offers excellent surgical results with fewer complications and faster healing than traditional techniques in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  7. Development and Test of a Neutron Imaging Setup at the PGAA Instrument at FRM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllradl, S.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Kudejova, P.; Türler, A.

    We report on the developments of a neutron tomography setup at the instrument for prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) at the Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum(MLZ). The recent developments are driven by the idea of combining the spatial information obtained with neutron tomography with the elemental information determined with PGAA, i.e. to further combine both techniques to an investigative technique called prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI).At the PGAA instrument, a cold neutron flux of up to 6 x 1010 cm-2 s-1 (thermal equivalent) is available in the focus of an elliptically tapered neutron guide. In the reported experiments, the divergence of the neutron beam was investigated, the resolution of the installed detector system tested, and a proof-of-principle tomography experiment performed. In our study a formerly used camera box was upgraded with a better camera and an optical resolution of 8 line pairs/mm was achieved. The divergence of the neutron beam was measured by a systematic scan along the beam axis. Based on the acquired data, a neutron imaging setup with a L/D ratio of 200 was installed. The resolution of the setup was testedin combination with a gadolinium test target and different scintillator screens. The test target was irradiated at two positions to determine the maximum resolution and the resolution at the actual sample position. The performance of the installed tomography setup was demonstrated bya tomography experiment of an electric amplifier tube.

  8. Optical and radiometric models of the NOMAD instrument part II: the infrared channels - SO and LNO.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I R; Vandaele, A C; Robert, S; Neefs, E; Drummond, R; Daerden, F; Delanoye, S; Ristic, B; Berkenbosch, S; Clairquin, R; Maes, J; Bonnewijn, S; Depiesse, C; Mahieux, A; Trompet, L; Neary, L; Willame, Y; Wilque, V; Nevejans, D; Aballea, L; Moelans, W; De Vos, L; Lesschaeve, S; Van Vooren, N; Lopez-Moreno, J-J; Patel, M R; Bellucci, G

    2016-02-22

    NOMAD is a suite of three spectrometers that will be launched in 2016 as part of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument contains three channels that cover the IR and UV spectral ranges and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations, to detect and map a wide variety of Martian atmospheric gases and trace species. Part I of this work described the models of the UVIS channel; in this second part, we present the optical models representing the two IR channels, SO (Solar Occultation) and LNO (Limb, Nadir and Occultation), and use them to determine signal to noise ratios (SNRs) for many expected observational cases. In solar occultation mode, both the SO and LNO channel exhibit very high SNRs >5000. SNRs of around 100 were found for the LNO channel in nadir mode, depending on the atmospheric conditions, Martian surface properties, and observation geometry. PMID:27333621

  9. Health survey instrument development through a community-based participatory research approach: Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) and Brazilian immigrants in Greater Boston.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Mansoureh; Galvão, Heloisa M; Eduardo Siqueira, C

    2010-06-01

    Brazilians are among the fastest growing segment of immigrant populations in several states of the United States. Culturally appropriate and validated health survey instruments do not exist to adequately assess the health needs of this population. Through a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, a cross-cultural pilot project was conducted to develop and test a culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese-version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP-II) instrument with a convenience sample of 60 bilingual and bicultural Brazilian immigrants using a combined quasi experimental and focus group design. The project evaluated HPLP-II instrument's psychometric properties of equivalency, reliability, and score distribution in Portuguese and English. This pilot test supports equivalency, consistency, and reliability of the English and culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese versions of the instrument. CBPR is an effective approach in health instrument development. This instrument is an important first step in designing other appropriate instruments to explore health conditions of Brazilian immigrants in the U.S.

  10. Will a perfect global model agree with perfect observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutgens, N.; Gryspeerdt, E.; Tsyro, S.; Weigum, N.; Partridge, D.; Goto, D.; Schulz, M.; Stier, P.

    2015-12-01

    Global aerosol models and observations differ strongly in their spatio-temporal sampling. Model results are typical of large gridboxes (200 by 200 km), while observations are made over much smaller areas (e.g. 10 by 10 km for MODIS, even smaller for ground sites). Model results are always available in contrast to observations that are intermittent due to orbital constraints, retrieval limitations and instrument failure/maintenance. These twin issues of temporal sampling and spatial aggregation are relevant for any observation, be it remotely sensed, or in-situ. We ask this question: will a perfect model agree with perfect observations? The short answer is: unlikely. Using two different modelling frame-works (year-long global model runs collocated with actual observations and month-long high resolution regional models runs) we show that significant errors can be introduced in a model to observation comparison due to different spatio-temporal sampling. These sampling errors are typically larger than observational errors and are of comparable size as true model errors. While the temporal sampling issue can be dealt with by properly resampling model data to observation times, the spatial aggregation issue introduces noise into the comparison. We propose and evaluate several strategies for mitigating this noise. The most succesfull strategy is further temporal averaging of the data. However, this seems to have a less benefical effect on surface in-situ observations than on remotely sensed column-integrated measurements. For instance, monthly averaged black carbon mass concentrations measured at ground sites still allow significant (~ 30%) noise into the comparison. Furthermore, flight campaign data, by its nature, are not open to long-term (monthly, yearly) averaging and allow sampling errors of 50% or more in black carbon mass concentrations. Other observables (AOT, extinction profiles, number densities, PM2.5, CCN) will also be discussed.

  11. The Impact II, a Very High-Resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Instrument (QTOF) for Deep Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beck, Scarlet; Michalski, Annette; Raether, Oliver; Lubeck, Markus; Kaspar, Stephanie; Goedecke, Niels; Baessmann, Carsten; Hornburg, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Paron, Igor; Kulak, Nils A; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry is one of the two major principles used in proteomics. Although based on simple fundamentals, it has over the last decades greatly evolved in terms of achievable resolution, mass accuracy, and dynamic range. The Bruker impact platform of QTOF instruments takes advantage of these developments and here we develop and evaluate the impact II for shotgun proteomics applications. Adaption of our heated liquid chromatography system achieved very narrow peptide elution peaks. The impact II is equipped with a new collision cell with both axial and radial ion ejection, more than doubling ion extraction at high tandem MS frequencies. The new reflectron and detector improve resolving power compared with the previous model up to 80%, i.e. to 40,000 at m/z 1222. We analyzed the ion current from the inlet capillary and found very high transmission (>80%) up to the collision cell. Simulation and measurement indicated 60% transfer into the flight tube. We adapted MaxQuant for QTOF data, improving absolute average mass deviations to better than 1.45 ppm. More than 4800 proteins can be identified in a single run of HeLa digest in a 90 min gradient. The workflow achieved high technical reproducibility (R2 > 0.99) and accurate fold change determination in spike-in experiments in complex mixtures. Using label-free quantification we rapidly quantified haploid against diploid yeast and characterized overall proteome differences in mouse cell lines originating from different tissues. Finally, after high pH reversed-phase fractionation we identified 9515 proteins in a triplicate measurement of HeLa peptide mixture and 11,257 proteins in single measurements of cerebellum-the highest proteome coverage reported with a QTOF instrument so far.

  12. A measurement of the TPMU - PROBA II Microsatellite Instrument and its comparison with the SWARM Langmuir Probes results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolska, Katerina; Hruska, Frantisek; Truhlik, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This contribution deals with the long-term measurement of the floating potential (FP) and the electron temperature (Te) provided by the Thermal Plasma Measurement Unit (TPMU) scientific instrument on-board the PROBA II microsatellite. The device is working with limitations of scientific measurements caused very probably by installed on-board software. This brings lower data volume as it was planned. Affected are the ion measurement and partially the electron temperature measurement. We present comparisons of the TPMU long-term measurement of the FP and the Te with the Te and the FP SWARM Langmuir Probes measured data. We implement the method of stochastic comparison of the probability distribution between measurements of FP and Te of both instruments to recognize seasonal and solar activity similarities. The analysis is performed for all seasons of the period from the years 2013 - 2015 for the Equatorial region, North and South hemisphere. The data are divided into the three groups by the geographical latitude to the Nothern hemisphere (lat>15'), the Southern hemisphere (lat<-5') and Equatorial zone (lat 15'- -15') and to four groups by season. This comparison confirms that the TPMU PROBAII Te and FP measurement statistically corresponds to the SWARM Te and FP measurement. The annual seasonal changes in the floating potential are observed in this analysis. Changes in the beginning, the end and duration of seasons over a period of years reflect also changes of the Kp index. Changes over the solar cycle are also visible. The main TPMU goal is the validation and testing of new design of the instrument which is necessary for possible applications of TPMU design for future scientific missions.

  13. Cosmic dust investigations II. Instruments for measurement of particle trajectory, velocity and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1989-07-01

    discuss the application of these instruments for distinguishing between interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin, and for measurements on a space station, from near-Earth trapped dust of artificial origin.

  14. Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

  15. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  16. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  17. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  18. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  19. Agree or Disagree? Cognitive Processes in Answering Contrastive Survey Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, Pim; Sanders, Ted; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2011-01-01

    Survey designers have long assumed that respondents who disagree with a negative question ("This policy is bad.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale) will agree with an equivalent positive question ("This policy is good.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale). However, experimental evidence has proven otherwise: Respondents are more likely to disagree with…

  20. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  1. 40 CFR 80.130 - Agreed upon procedures reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures performed in the findings in accordance with the attest engagement or internal audit performed in... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agreed upon procedures reports. 80.130 Section 80.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  2. 40 CFR 80.130 - Agreed upon procedures reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures performed in the findings in accordance with the attest engagement or internal audit performed in... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agreed upon procedures reports. 80.130 Section 80.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  3. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results in plant

  4. The Reliability, Validity and Practical Utility of Measuring Supports Using the I-CAN Instrument: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riches, Vivienne C.; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Hindmarsh, Gabrielle; Chan, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for developing reliable, valid and practical instruments that assess and classify the support needed by persons with disability to function in their chosen living, working and social environments. I-CAN is an instrument that addresses the frequency and level of support needed (not individual skills or deficits)…

  5. [The Belgian Nursing Minimum Data Set II (B-NMDS II) and its transfer to German hospitals: results of the first investigation phase, the translation and adaption process of the instrument].

    PubMed

    Eberl, Inge; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine

    2010-10-01

    The introduction of the DRG system in Germany showed again that there is a maintaining need in hospitals for a valid and reliable instrument that provides comparable data for necessary nursing care, costs, personnel requirements, and the quality of nursing care. The instrument should be suitable as well for nursing practice as for national health reports. It should provide founded statements for the different participants in the health system. The NMDS seems to be an instrument that could provide these complex data. Since 2006, a research project has been carried out to investigate the transfer of the Belgian B-NMDS II to German hospitals. The project is divided into two phases. The first phase comprises the translation and adaptation process of the B-NMDS II. In the second phase the data collection in the hospitals and the data analysis will be performed. In this article the methodical procedure of the first investigation phase is specified. The translation and adaptation process of the B-NMDS II is executed in a multi-level procedure.

  6. On being examined: do students and faculty agree?

    PubMed

    Perrella, Andrew; Koenig, Joshua; Kwon, Henry; Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P K

    2015-12-01

    Students measure out their lives, not with coffee spoons, but with grades on examinations. But what exams mean and whether or not they are a bane or a boon is moot. Senior undergraduates (A. Perrella, J. Koenig, and H. Kwon) designed and administered a 15-item survey that explored the contrasting perceptions of both students (n = 526) and faculty members (n = 33) in a 4-yr undergraduate health sciences program. A series of statements gauged the level of agreement on a 10-point scale. Students and faculty members agreed on the value of assessing student learning with a variety of methods, finding new information to solve problems, assessing conceptual understanding and logical reasoning, having assessments with no single correct answer, and having comments on exams. Clear differences emerged between students and faculty members on specific matters: rubrics, student choice of exam format, assessing creativity, and transfer of learning to novel situations. A followup questionnaire allowed participants to clarify their interpretation of select statements, with responses from 71 students and 17 faculty members. All parties strongly agreed that exams should provide a good learning experience that would help them prepare for the future (students: 8.64 ± 1.71 and faculty members: 8.03 ± 2.34). PMID:26628655

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. II. HIPPARCOS STARS OBSERVED IN 2010 JANUARY AND JUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Horch, Elliott P.; Gomez, Shamilia C.; Anderson, Lisa M.; Sherry, William H.; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Van Altena, William F. E-mail: shamilia.gomez@gmail.com E-mail: wsherry@noao.edu E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu

    2011-02-15

    The results of 497 speckle observations of Hipparcos stars and selected other targets are presented. Of these, 367 were resolved into components and 130 were unresolved. The data were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope. (The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.) Since the first paper in this series, the instrument has been upgraded so that it now uses two electron-multiplying CCD cameras. The measurement precision obtained when comparing to ephemeris positions of binaries with very well known orbits is approximately 1-2 mas in separation and better than 0.{sup 0}6 in position angle. Differential photometry is found to be in very good agreement with Hipparcos measures in cases where the comparison is most relevant. We derive preliminary orbits for two systems.

  8. Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation II: the multimode to single mode transition.

    PubMed

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Gross, Simon; Ireland, Michael J; Lawrence, Jon S; Withford, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    There are numerous advantages to exploiting diffraction-limited instrumentation at astronomical observatories, which include smaller footprints, less mechanical and thermal instabilities and high levels of performance. To realize such instrumentation it is imperative to convert the atmospheric seeing-limited signal that is captured by the telescope into a diffraction-limited signal. This process can be achieved photonically by using a mode reformatting device known as a photonic lantern that performs a multimode to single-mode transition. With the aim of developing an optimized integrated photonic lantern, we undertook a systematic parameter scan of devices fabricated by the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. The devices were designed for operation around 1.55 μm. The devices showed (coupling and transition) losses of less than 5% for F/# ≥ 12 injection and the total device throughput (including substrate absorption) as high as 75-80%. Such devices show great promise for future use in astronomy. PMID:24216943

  9. The Ma_Miss instrument performance, II: Band parameters of rocks powders spectra by Martian VNIR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Simone; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Carli, Cristian; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Altieri, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    The Ma_Miss instrument (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies, Coradini et al. (2001)) is a Visible and Near Infrared miniaturized spectrometer that will observe the Martian subsurface in the 0.4-2.2 μm spectral range. The instrument will be entirely hosted within the Drill of the ExoMars-2018 Pasteur Rover: it will allow analyzing the borehole wall excavated by the Drill, at different depths, down to 2 m. The aim will be to investigate and characterize the mineralogy and stratigraphy of the shallow Martian subsurface. A series of spectroscopic measurements have been performed in order to characterize the spectral performances of the laboratory model of the instrument (breadboard). A set of six samples have been analyzed. Each sample (four volcanic rocks, a micritic limestone and a calcite) has been reduced in particulate form, ground, sieved and divided into nine different grain sizes in the range d<0.02÷0.8 mm. Spectroscopic measurements have been performed on all samples using two distinct experimental setup: (a) the Ma_Miss breadboard, and (b) the Spectro-Goniometer setup, both in use in the laboratory at INAF - IAPS. In a previous paper spectral parameters such as the continuum slope and the reflectance level of the spectra have been discussed (De Angelis et al., 2014). In this work we focus our discussion on absorption band parameters (position, depth, area, band slope and asymmetry). We analyzed/investigated the absorption features at 1 μm for the volcanic samples and at 1.4, 1.9 and 2.2 μm for the two carbonate samples. Band parameters have been retrieved from spectra measured with both experimental setup and then compared. The comparison shows that band parameters are mutually consistent: band centers (for carbonate samples) are similar within few percent, and band depth and area values (for carbonates) show consistent trends vs. grain size (decreasing towards coarser grains) for most of samples.

  10. Does osteoporosis classification using heel BMD agree across manufacturers?

    PubMed

    Grigorian, M; Shepherd, J A; Cheng, X G; Njeh, C F; Toschke, J O; Genant, H K

    2002-08-01

    The lack of standardization in bone mineral density (BMD) measurements is known. Several studies have been carried out to cross-calibrate the axial dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices. Recently, a number of peripheral DXA (pDXA) densitometers have been introduced. In this study we evaluated the agreement between two heel DXA devices on BMD and T-scores. A total of 99 females aged 21-78 years (ca. 16 per decade) had their non-dominant heel BMD measured using the PIXI (Lunar Inc.) and the Apollo (Norland Medical) pDXA scanners. The mean BMD values were 0.492 and 0.607 g/cm(2) and the mean T-scores using manufacturers' specified reference data were -0.07 and -0.25 for the PIXI and Apollo, respectively. Both the BMD and T-score intermachine relationships were highly correlated but showed significant nonidentity slopes and non-zero offsets. The diagnostic comparison on T-scores resulted in 86% agreement between the instruments (weighted kappa score of 0.550). Normalizing the reference peaks and SDs using this study's young adult population BMD results removed the systematic T-score disagreement. We found that PIXI and Apollo are highly correlated. Differences in BMD values are mainly due to different region of interest (ROI) definitions and additional T-score disagreement reflects the difference in normative databases.

  11. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in situ image cloud particles in a well-defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  12. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in-situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in-situ image cloud particles in a well defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  13. 19 CFR 176.21 - Referral of statement of agreed facts for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Referral of statement of agreed facts for... of Agreed Facts § 176.21 Referral of statement of agreed facts for certification. Statements of agreed facts (also referred to as stipulations) to be used by the Department of Justice in...

  14. An instrumental and numerical method to determine the hydrogenic ratio in isotopic experiments in the TJ-II stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Baciero, A. Zurro, B.; Martínez, M.

    2014-11-15

    The isotope effect is an important topic that is relevant for future D-T fusion reactors, where the use of deuterium, rather than hydrogen, may lean to improved plasma confinement. An evaluation of the ratio of hydrogen/deuterium is needed for isotope effect studies in current isotopic experiments. Here, the spectral range around H{sub α} and D{sub α} lines, obtained with an intensified multi-channel detector mounted to a 1-m focal length spectrometer, is analyzed using a fit function that includes several Gaussian components. The isotopic ratio evolution for a single operational day of the TJ-II stellarator is presented. The role of injected hydrogen by Neutral Beam Injection heating is also studied.

  15. Stage I posterior osteotomy and instrumentation and stage II anterior debridement and bone grafting for lumbar spinal tuberculosis with severe kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qiang; Zhang, Yalou; Sheng, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of stage I posterior osteotomy and instrumentation followed by stage II anterior debridement and bone grafting in patients with lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) with severe kyphosis. The records of patients with lumbar spinal TB and severe kyphosis treated with 2-stage surgery at our hospital from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome measures were kyphosis correction rate, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) spinal cord injury and sensation function scores. A total of 53 patients (34 male, 19 female; mean age 32 years) were included. The number of involved kyphosis segments ranged from 7 to 14, and the average preoperative kyphosis angle was 107.3 ± 18.1°. All procedures were performed without serious complications. The average follow-up time was 42 months. Bone fusion occurred at a range of 6 to 9 months after surgery, and none of the patients had internal fixation failure, position change, or pseudoarthrosis. The mean postoperative kyphosis angle was 29.4 ± 12.4°, with a mean improvement of 77.9°, and the correction rate was 72.6% (P < 0.001). At final follow-up, average correction loss was 1.35°. The mean postoperative VAS pain score was 2.4 ± 0.8, and the change from the preoperative value was significant (P < 0.001). ASIA spinal injury scores were increased postoperatively. Stage I posterior osteotomy and instrumentation followed by stage II anterior debridement and bone grafting can achieve good results in patients with lumbar TB and severe kyphosis. PMID:26885015

  16. Tyre-road grip coefficient assessment - Part II: online estimation using instrumented vehicle, extended Kalman filter, and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, Pablo; Mántaras, Daniel A.; Fidalgo, Eloy; Álvarez, Javier; Riva, Paolo; Girón, Pablo; Compadre, Diego; Ferran, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the limit of safe driving conditions by identifying the maximal friction coefficient in a real vehicle. The study will focus on finding a method to determine this limit before reaching the skid, which is valuable information in the context of traffic safety. Since it is not possible to measure the friction coefficient directly, it will be estimated using the appropriate tools in order to get the most accurate information. A real vehicle is instrumented to collect information of general kinematics and steering tie-rod forces. A real-time algorithm is developed to estimate forces and aligning torque in the tyres using an extended Kalman filter and neural networks techniques. The methodology is based on determining the aligning torque; this variable allows evaluation of the behaviour of the tyre. It transmits interesting information from the tyre-road contact and can be used to predict the maximal tyre grip and safety margin. The maximal grip coefficient is estimated according to a knowledge base, extracted from computer simulation of a high detailed three-dimensional model, using Adams® software. The proposed methodology is validated and applied to real driving conditions, in which maximal grip and safety margin are properly estimated.

  17. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  18. Electrophilic Pt(II) complexes: precision instruments for the initiation of transformations mediated by the cation-olefin reaction.

    PubMed

    Felix, Ryan J; Munro-Leighton, Colleen; Gagné, Michel R

    2014-08-19

    A discontinuity exists between the importance of the cation-olefin reaction as the principal C-C bond forming reaction in terpene biosynthesis and the synthetic tools for mimicking this reaction under catalyst control; that is, having the product identity, stereochemistry, and functionality under the control of a catalyst. The main reason for this deficiency is that the cation-olefin reaction starts with a reactive intermediate (a carbocation) that reacts exothermically with an alkene to reform the reactive intermediate; not to mention that reactive intermediates can also react in nonproductive fashions. In this Account, we detail our efforts to realize catalyst control over this most fundamental of reactions and thereby access steroid like compounds. Our story is organized around our progress in each component of the cascade reaction: the metal controlled electrophilic initiation, the propagation and termination of the cyclization (the cyclase phase), and the turnover deplatinating events. Electrophilic Pt(II) complexes efficiently initiate the cation-olefin reaction by first coordinating to the alkene with selection rules that favor less substituted alkenes over more substituted alkenes. In complex substrates with multiple alkenes, this preference ensures that the least substituted alkene is always the better ligand for the Pt(II) initiator, and consequently the site at which all electrophilic chemistry is initiated. This control element is invariant. With a suitably electron deficient ligand set, the catalyst then activates the coordinated alkene to intramolecular addition by a second alkene, which initiates the cation-olefin reaction cascade and generates an organometallic Pt(II)-alkyl. Deplatination by a range of mechanisms (β-H elimination, single electron oxidation, two-electron oxidation, etc.) provides an additional level of control that ultimately enables A-ring functionalizations that are orthogonal to the cyclase cascade. We particularly focus on

  19. Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Part II. Diagnostics and instrumentation MHD channel combutor. Progres report. [Flow calculations for combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, M.H.; Lederman, S.; Sforza, P.; Matalon, M.

    1980-01-01

    This is Part II of the Technical Progress Report on Tasks II-IV of the subject contract. It deals sequentially with Diagnostics and Instrumentation, the MHD Channel and the Combustor. During this period, a significant effort has gone into establishing a schematic design of a laser diagnostic system which can be applied to the flow-train of the MHD system, and to acquiring, assembling and shaking down a laboratory set-up upon which a prototype can be based. With further reference to the MHD Channel, a model analysis has been initiated of the two-dimensional MHD boundary layer between two electrodes in the limit of small magnetic Reynolds numbers with negligible effect of the flow on the applied magnetic field. An objective of this model study is the assessment of variations in initial conditions on the boundary layer behavior. Finally, the problem of combustion modeling has been studied on an initial basis. The open reports on this subject depict a high degree of empiricism, centering attention on global behavior mainly. A quasi-one-dimensional model code has been set-up to check some of the existing estimates. Also a code for equilibrium combustion has been activated.

  20. AGREE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hanna, Richard L. [R-NY-24

    2011-11-18

    01/12/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree

  2. Coccidioides species determination: does sequence analysis agree with restriction fragment length polymorphism?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Suzanne M; Carlson, Erin L; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2015-06-01

    Fifteen Coccidioides isolates were previously examined for genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP); two fragment patterns were observed. Two isolates demonstrated one banding pattern (designated RFLP group I), while the remaining 13 isolates demonstrated a second pattern (designated RFLP group II). Recently, molecular studies supported the division of the genera Coccidioides into two species: Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. It has been assumed that the species division corresponds to the RFLP grouping. We tested this hypothesis by amplifying the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region as well as the dioxygenase, serine proteinase, and urease genes from 13 isolates previously examined by RFLP and then sequencing the PCR products. The appropriate species for each isolate was assigned using phylogenetically informative sites. The RFLP grouping agreed with the Coccidioides species assignment for all but one isolate, which may represent a hybrid. In addition, polymorphic sites among the four genes examined were in agreement for species assignment such that analysis of a single gene may be sufficient for species assignment.

  3. Agreeing to Agree: A Response to Dempsey's Commentary on the Reported Prevalence by Australian Special Educators of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer; Strnadova, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Dempsey has provided a commentary on our study (Carter, Stephenson, & Strnadova, 2011) examining the reported rates of use of instructional practices by Australian special educators. Examining this commentary, it is evident that on many issues we are on the same page and agree on many of the fundamental conclusions to be drawn from the study.…

  4. Including Secular Philosophies Such as Humanism in Locally Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The 2004 "National Framework for Religious Education" (NFRE) innovatively recommended that secular philosophies such as humanism, or secular worldviews, be included in locally agreed syllabuses for religious education (RE) in England. However, the NFRE is a non-statutory document, and Agreed Syllabus Conferences (ASCs) and Standing Advisory…

  5. Aeronautic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everling, E; Koppe, H

    1924-01-01

    The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

  6. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  7. Literacy Behaviors of Kindergarten-Primary Children in High Stimulus-Level Literacy Environments. Part I: The Instruments. Part II: Environments and Literacy Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Catherine E.; Ivener, Bonnie L.

    A study of patterns of literacy behaviors in high level literacy environments with varying levels of access to the environment began with a study of the instruments involved. Goals were to: (1) examine the reliability of the Survey of Displayed Literacy Stimuli; (2) study the correlation between scores from the Survey of Displayed Literacy Stimuli…

  8. Assessment Instruments for Preschool. AZ-TAS Themes & Issues: A Series of Topical Papers on Special Education. Section II.B.3., Preschool Special Education Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busenbark, Lynn, Ed.

    This resource book assists in selecting appropriate instruments to use in assessing preschool children suspected of having disabilities. For each of the 68 tests reviewed, the following information is provided: author, publisher, copyright date, price, purpose, description, range of children, testing time, scoring, examiner, standardization,…

  9. Surgeons and their tools: a history of surgical instruments and their innovators--Part II: The surgeon's wand-evolution from knife to scalpel to electrocautery.

    PubMed

    El-Sedfy, Abraham; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2014-12-01

    This is the second of five articles reviewing the historical origins of some of the more commonly used surgical instruments and takes "time out" to remind current surgeons about the surgical pioneers on whose shoulders they now stand and whose inventions they now use.

  10. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... time. 1900.33 Section 1900.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional Administrative Matters § 1900.33 Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time. (a) In general....

  11. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... time. 1900.33 Section 1900.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional Administrative Matters § 1900.33 Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time. (a) In general....

  12. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... time. 1900.33 Section 1900.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional Administrative Matters § 1900.33 Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time. (a) In general....

  13. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... time. 1900.33 Section 1900.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional Administrative Matters § 1900.33 Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time. (a) In general....

  14. 40 CFR 80.128 - Alternative agreed upon procedures for refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative agreed upon procedures for refiners and importers. 80.128 Section 80.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Attest Engagements §...

  15. 40 CFR 80.133 - Agreed-upon procedures for refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agreed-upon procedures for refiners and importers. 80.133 Section 80.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Attest Engagements §...

  16. Context, Complexity and Contestation: Birmingham's Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education since the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephen G.; Freathy, Rob J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present article offers an historical perspective on the 1975, 1995 and 2007 Birmingham Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education. It draws upon historical evidence uncovered as part of "The hidden history of curriculum change in religious education in English schools, 1969-1979" project, and curriculum history theories, especially David…

  17. Resourcing the National Goals for Schooling: An Agreed Framework of Principles for Funding Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Funding for school education in Australia should be on the basis of clear and agreed policy principles for achieving effectiveness, efficiency, equity and a socially and culturally cohesive society. On the basis of these principles a national framework for funding schools will be supported by complementary State and Commonwealth models for funding…

  18. Intrinsic angular momentum for radiating spacetimes which agrees with the Komar integral in the axisymmetric case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Emanuel; Moreschi, Osvaldo M.

    2014-04-01

    Here, we present a new definition of intrinsic angular momentum at future null infinity, based on the charge-integral approach. This definition is suitable for the general case of radiating spacetimes without symmetries, which does not suffer from supertranslation ambiguities. In the case of axial symmetry, this new definition agrees with the Komar integral.

  19. 40 CFR 80.128 - Alternative agreed upon procedures for refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Attest Engagements § 80.128... gasoline was produced or imported. Obtain the refiner's or importer's internal laboratory analyses for each... imported. Obtain refiner's or importer's internal lab analysis for each batch and agree the consistency...

  20. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  1. Accessible Genetics Research Ethics Education (AGREE): A Web-Based Program for IRBs and Investigators

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Lee, Linda

    2006-03-31

    The primary objective of this project was to design and evaluate a series of web-based educational modules on genetics research ethics for members of Institutional Review Boards and investigators to facilitate the development and oversight of important research that is sensitive to the relevant ethical, legal and social issues. After a needs assessment was completed in March of 2003, five online educational modules on the ethics of research in genetics were developed, tested, and made available through a host website for AGREE: http://agree.mc.duke.edu/index.html. The 5 modules are: (1) Ethics and Genetics Research in Populations; (2) Ethics in Behavioral Genetics Research; (3) Ethical Issues in Research on Gene-Environment Interactions; (4) Ethical Issues in Reproductive Genetics Research; and (5) Ethical Issues in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Research. The development process adopted a tested approach used at Duke University School of Medicine in providing education for researchers and IRB members, supplementing it with expert input and a rigorous evaluation. The host website also included a description of the AGREE; short bios on the AGREE Investigators and Expert Advisory Panel; streaming media of selected presentations from a conference, Working at the Frontiers of Law and Science: Applications of the Human Genome held October 2-3, 2003, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; and links to online resources in genomics, research ethics, ethics in genomics research, and related organizations. The web site was active beginning with the posting of the first module and was maintained throughout the project period. We have also secured agreement to keep the site active an additional year beyond the project period. AGREE met its primary objective of creating web-based educational modules related to the ethical issues in genetics research. The modules have been disseminated widely. While it is clearly easier to judge the quality of the educational experience

  2. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  3. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor. II. Concept validation with ZELDA on VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.

    2016-08-01

    Warm or massive gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars are now routinely observed by dedicated high-contrast imaging instruments that are mounted on large, ground-based observatories. These facilities include extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) and state-of-the-art coronagraphy to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for exoplanet detection and their spectral characterization. However, low spatial frequency differential aberrations between the ExAO sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the detection of giant planets with a contrast lower than a few 10-6 at very small separations (<0.3'') from their host star. In our previous work, we proposed a wavefront sensor based on Zernike phase-contrast methods to circumvent this problem and measure these quasi-static aberrations at a nanometric level. We present the design, manufacturing, and testing of ZELDA, a prototype that was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its reintegration in Chile. Using the internal light source of the instrument, we first performed measurements in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror. Our experimental results are consistent with the results in simulations, confirming the ability of our sensor to measure small aberrations (<50 nm rms) with nanometric accuracy. Following these results, we corrected the long-lived non-common path aberrations in SPHERE based on ZELDA measurements and estimated a contrast gain of 10 in the coronagraphic image at 0.2'', reaching the raw contrast limit set by the coronagraph in the instrument. In addition to this encouraging result, the simplicity of the design and its phase reconstruction algorithm makes ZELDA an excellent candidate for the online measurements of quasi-static aberrations during the observations. The implementation of a ZELDA-based sensing path on the current and future facilities (ELTs, future space missions) could facilitate the observation of cold gaseous

  4. Will patients agree to have their literacy skills assessed in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Ryan, John G; Leguen, Fermin; Weiss, Barry D; Albury, Sonya; Jennings, Terri; Velez, Fulton; Salibi, Nadia

    2008-08-01

    If health providers are aware of their patients' literacy skills, they can more appropriately tailor their communication with patients. Few providers, however, assess patient's literacy skills for fear of offending patients, but no research has ever determined if patients object to such assessments. Our objectives were to determine the percentage of patients seen for routine health care that would agree to undergo literacy assessment and if satisfaction of patients differs in practices that perform literacy assessments versus practices that do not. We randomized 20 private and public medical practices to an intervention group that implemented literacy assessments with the Newest Vital Sign and a control group that did not. For intervention practices, we noted the percentage of patients agreeing to undergo the assessment. For both intervention and control practices, we assessed patient satisfaction. Of 289 patients asked to undergo literacy assessment in the intervention practices, 284 (98.3%) agreed to do so, including 125 (46.1%) with low or possibly low literacy skills. There was no difference in satisfaction between the intervention group and the control group. We conclude that patients are willing to undergo literacy assessments during routine office visits and performing such assessments does not decrease patient satisfaction.

  5. Instrumentation '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

  6. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  7. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  8. Oceanographic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

  9. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  10. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  11. Geotechnical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, G. E.; Mikkelsen, P. E.; Mayne, P. W.; Frost, D. D.; Dowding, C. H.

    1988-12-01

    The 11 papers in the report deal with the following areas: deformation measurements with inclinometers; dilatometer experience in Washington, D.C., and vicinity; ground vibration monitoring instrumentation and computerized surveillance; instrumentation for tests of piles subjected to axial loading; use of the wave equation by the North Carolina Department of Transportation; NYSDOT's construction control of pile foundations with dynamic pile testing; discussion of procedures for the determination of pile capacity; modern specification of driven pile work; analysis of laterally loaded piles with nonlinear bending behavior; unified design of piles and pile groups, and LTBASE, a computer program for the analysis of laterally loaded piers including base and slope effects.

  12. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  13. Research priorities for non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal problems: nationally and internationally agreed recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nadine E; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Windt, Danielle AWM van der; Fritz, Julie M; Hay, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal problems such as low back pain, neck, knee and shoulder pain are leading causes of disability and activity limitation in adults and are most frequently managed within primary care. There is a clear trend towards large, high quality trials testing the effectiveness of common non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions showing, at best, small to moderate benefits. This paper summarises the main lessons learnt from recent trials of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions in primary care and provides agreed research priorities for future clinical trials. Methods Consensus development using nominal group techniques through national (UK) and international workshops. During a national Clinical Trials Thinktank workshop in April 2007 in the UK, a group of 30 senior researchers experienced in clinical trials for musculoskeletal conditions and 2 patient representatives debated the possible explanations for the findings of recent high quality trials of non-pharmacological interventions. Using the qualitative method of nominal group technique, these experts developed and ranked a set of priorities for future research, guided by the evidence from recent trials of treatments for common musculoskeletal problems. The recommendations from the national workshop were presented and further ranked at an international symposium (hosted in Canada) in June 2007. Results 22 recommended research priorities were developed, of which 12 reached consensus as priorities for future research from the UK workshop. The 12 recommendations were reduced to 7 agreed priorities at the international symposium. These were: to increase the focus on implementation (research into practice); to develop national musculoskeletal research networks in which large trials can be sited and smaller trials supported; to use more innovative trial designs such as those based on stepped care and subgrouping for targeted treatment models

  14. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  15. A Newton-Krylov solution to the porous medium equations in the agree code

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, A. M.; Seker, V.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T. J.

    2012-07-01

    In order to improve the convergence of the AGREE code for porous medium, a Newton-Krylov solver was developed for steady state problems. The current three-equation system was expanded and then coupled using Newton's Method. Theoretical behavior predicts second order convergence, while actual behavior was highly nonlinear. The discontinuous derivatives found in both closure and empirical relationships prevented true second order convergence. Agreement between the current solution and new Exact Newton solution was well below the convergence criteria. While convergence time did not dramatically decrease, the required number of outer iterations was reduced by approximately an order of magnitude. GMRES was also used to solve problem, where ILU without fill-in was used to precondition the iterative solver, and the performance was slightly slower than the direct solution. (authors)

  16. Co-phasing of a diluted aperture synthesis instrument for direct imaging. II. Experimental demonstration in the photon-counting regime with a temporal hypertelescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyeron, L.; Delage, L.; Baudoin, R.; Gomes, J. T.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Amongst the new techniques currently developed for high-resolution and high-dynamics imaging, the hypertelescope architecture is very promising for direct imaging of objects such as exoplanets. The performance of this instrument strongly depends on the co-phasing process accuracy. In a previous high-flux experimental study with an eight-telescope array, we successfully implemented a co-phasing system based on the joint use of a genetic algorithm and a sub-aperture piston phase diversity using the object itself as a source for metrology. Aims: To fit the astronomical context, we investigate the impact of photon noise on the co-phasing performance operating our laboratory prototype at low flux. This study provides experimental results on the sensitivity and the dynamics that could be reached for real astrophysical observations. Methods: Simulations were carried out to optimize the critical parameters to be applied in the co-phasing system running in the photon-counting regime. We used these parameters experimentally to acquire images with our temporal hypertelescope test bench for different photon flux levels. A data reduction method allows highly contrasted images to be extracted. Results: The optical path differences have been servo-controlled over one hour with an accuracy of 22.0 nm and 15.7 nm for 200 and 500 photons/frame, respectively. The data reduction greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and allows us to experimentally obtain highly contrasted images. The related normalized point spread function is characterized by a 1.1 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-5 intensity standard deviation over the dark field (for 15 000 snapshots with 200 and 500 photons/frame, respectively). Conclusions: This laboratory experiment demonstrates the potential of our hypertelescope concept, which could be directly transposed to a space-based telescope array. Assuming eight telescopes with a 30 cm diameter, the I-band limiting magnitude of the main star would be 7.3, allowing

  17. Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

    1992-10-01

    The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

  18. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-10

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  19. RHIC instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  20. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. 40 CFR 80.133 - Agreed-upon procedures for refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copy of the executed contract with the downstream oxygenate blender (or with an intermediate owner... (B) Allowed the company to sample and test the reformulated gasoline made by the blender. (ii) Obtain a listing of RBOB blended by downstream oxygenate blenders and the refinery's or...

  2. Phase II Fort Ord Landfill Demonstration Task 8 - Refinement of In-line Instrumental Analytical Tools to Evaluate their Operational Utility and Regulatory Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P F

    2006-04-03

    The overall objective of this project is the continued development, installation, and testing of continuous water sampling and analysis technologies for application to on-site monitoring of groundwater treatment systems and remediation sites. In a previous project, an on-line analytical system (OLAS) for multistream water sampling was installed at the Fort Ord Operable Unit 2 Groundwater Treatment System, with the objective of developing a simplified analytical method for detection of Compounds of Concern at that plant, and continuous sampling of up to twelve locations in the treatment system, from raw influent waters to treated effluent. Earlier implementations of the water sampling and processing system (Analytical Sampling and Analysis Platform, A A+RT, Milpitas, CA) depended on off-line integrators that produced paper plots of chromatograms, and sent summary tables to a host computer for archiving. We developed a basic LabVIEW (National Instruments, Inc., Austin, TX) based gas chromatography control and data acquisition system that was the foundation for further development and integration with the ASAP system. Advantages of this integration include electronic archiving of all raw chromatographic data, and a flexible programming environment to support development of improved ASAP operation and automated reporting. The initial goals of integrating the preexisting LabVIEW chromatography control system with the ASAP, and demonstration of a simplified, site-specific analytical method were successfully achieved. However, although the principal objective of this system was assembly of an analytical system that would allow plant operators an up-to-the-minute view of the plant's performance, several obstacles remained. Data reduction with the base LabVIEW system was limited to peak detection and simple tabular output, patterned after commercial chromatography integrators, with compound retention times and peak areas. Preparation of calibration curves, method detection

  3. Comparison of SBUV and SAGE II ozone profiles: Implications for ozone trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, R. D.; Miles, T.; Flynn, L. E.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Zawodny, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone profiles have been compared with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II profiles over the period October 1984 through June 1990, when data are available from both instruments. SBUV measurements were selected to closely match the SAGE II latitude/longitude measurement pattern. There are significant differences between the SAGE II sunrise and the sunset zonal mean ozone profiles in the equatorial zone, particularly in the upper stratosphere, that may be connected with extreme SAGE II solar azimuth angles for tropical sunrise measurements. Calculation of the average sunset bias between SBUV and SAGE II ozone profiles shows that allowing for diurnal variation in Umkehr layer 10, SBUV and SAGE II agree to within +/- 5% for the entire stratosphere in the northern midlatitude zone. The worst agreement is seen at southern midlatitudes near the ozone peak (disagreements of +/- 10%), apparently the result of the SBUV ozone profile peaking at a lower altitude than SAGE. The integrated ozone columns (cumulative above 15 km) agree very well, to within +/- 2.3% in all zones for both sunset and sunrise measurements. A comparison of the time dependence of SBUV and SAGE II shows that there was less than +/- 5% relative drift over the 5.5 years for all altitudes except below 25 km, where the SBUV vertical resolution is poor. The best agreement with SAGE is seen in the integrated column ozone (cumulative above 15 km), where SAGE II has a 1% negative trend relative to SBUV over the comparison period. There is a persistent disagreement of the two instruments in Umkehr layers 9 and 10 of +/- 4% over the 5.5-year comparison period. In the equatorial zone this disagreement may be caused in part by a large positive trend (0.8 K per year) in the National Meteorologica Center temperatures used to convert the SAGE II measurement of ozone density versus altitude to a pressure scale for comparison with SBUV. In the middle stratosphere (30

  4. 45 CFR 164.510 - Uses and disclosures requiring an opportunity for the individual to agree or to object.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the individual to agree or to object. 164.510 Section 164.510 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... individual to agree or to object. A covered entity may use or disclose protected health information, provided... persons who ask for the individual by name. (2) Opportunity to object. A covered health care provider...

  5. 22 CFR 1508.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the African Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1508.645 Section 1508.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to... Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter information regarding a voluntary...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the African Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1508.645 Section 1508.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to... Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter information regarding a voluntary...

  7. 22 CFR 1508.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the African Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1508.645 Section 1508.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to... Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter information regarding a voluntary...

  8. 22 CFR 1508.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the African Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1508.645 Section 1508.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to... Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter information regarding a voluntary...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the African Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Development Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1508.645 Section 1508.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to... Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter information regarding a voluntary...

  10. Mason Tenders agrees to pay $1 million to end ADA litigation.

    PubMed

    1995-12-29

    The [name removed] District Council Welfare Fund has agreed to pay $1 million to construction workers who have been denied medical coverage for AIDS-related care. The decision establishes self-insured health care benefits programs as covered entities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The settlement ends a three-year battle which began in 1992 between [name removed] and fourteen HIV-positive construction workers who were refused medical coverage. The first suit was filed by [name removed]., a construction worker who lost coverage for his HIV-related care in July 1991. At that time, the union fund decided to exclude care for HIV on the grounds that it was too expensive. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) filed an ADA lawsuit that challenged disability-based distinctions in health insurance. The U.S. Attorney's Office filed a complaint against the union under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute to end organized crime associated with the union. In late 1994, the government announced a consent decree, settling its racketeering suit against the union. Under the terms of the settlement, [name removed] was awarded $16,000 in damages. In the EEOC case, damages for plan members ranged as high as $50,000.

  11. [Plansalud: Decentralized and agreed sector plan for the capacity development in health, Peru 2010-2014].

    PubMed

    Huamán-Angulo, Lizardo; Liendo-Lucano, Lindaura; Nuñez-Vergara, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Human resources are the backbone of health sector actions; however, they are not necessarily the area with the greatest attention, therefore, the Ministry of Health of Peru (MINSA) together with regional governments, led the Decentralized and Agreed Sector Plan for the Capacity Development in Health 2010-2014 (PLANSALUD) with the aim of strengthening the capacities of Human Resources for Health (HRH) and contribute to health care efficient development, quality, relevance, equity and multiculturalism, in the context of descentralization, the Universal Health Insurance (AUS) and health policies. To achieve this goal, they have proposed three components (technical assistance, joint training and education - health articulation) that bring together an important set of interventions, which are planned and defined according to the national, regional and local levels, thus contributing to improve the government capacity, capability management and delivery of health services. This paper presents a first approach of PLANSALUD, including aspects related to planning, management, financing, structure and functioning, as well as monitoring and evaluation measures.

  12. [Plansalud: Decentralized and agreed sector plan for the capacity development in health, Peru 2010-2014].

    PubMed

    Huamán-Angulo, Lizardo; Liendo-Lucano, Lindaura; Nuñez-Vergara, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Human resources are the backbone of health sector actions; however, they are not necessarily the area with the greatest attention, therefore, the Ministry of Health of Peru (MINSA) together with regional governments, led the Decentralized and Agreed Sector Plan for the Capacity Development in Health 2010-2014 (PLANSALUD) with the aim of strengthening the capacities of Human Resources for Health (HRH) and contribute to health care efficient development, quality, relevance, equity and multiculturalism, in the context of descentralization, the Universal Health Insurance (AUS) and health policies. To achieve this goal, they have proposed three components (technical assistance, joint training and education - health articulation) that bring together an important set of interventions, which are planned and defined according to the national, regional and local levels, thus contributing to improve the government capacity, capability management and delivery of health services. This paper presents a first approach of PLANSALUD, including aspects related to planning, management, financing, structure and functioning, as well as monitoring and evaluation measures. PMID:21845319

  13. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  14. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder.

    PubMed

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call "variation level." We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research. PMID:27642281

  15. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R.; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call “variation level.” We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research. PMID:27642281

  16. Comparing socially disadvantaged smokers who agree and decline to participate in a randomised smoking cessation trial

    PubMed Central

    Bonevski, Billie; Twyman, Laura; Paul, Chris; D'Este, Catherine; West, Robert; Siahpush, Mohammad; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Palazzi, Kerrin; Bryant, Jamie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics associated with consent to participate in a smoking cessation trial for socially disadvantaged smokers. Design Baseline data were collected prior to seeking consent for the Call it Quits, a randomised controlled trial. Setting An Australian social and community service organisation. Sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics were compared between smokers who agreed or declined to participate. Participants Of the 584 smokers invited to participate, 431 (74%) consented and 153 (26%) declined. Results Logistic regression modelling indicates the ORs of participation were twice as high for those reporting ‘high’ motivation to quit compared to the ‘moderate’ motivation group, and five times higher than the ‘low’ motivation group (p=0.007). The ORs of consenting were higher for those with a preference for gradual reduction in cigarettes in quit attempts compared with ‘no preference’. The ORs were lower for those reporting ‘don't know’ regarding their enjoyment of smoking compared to ‘not at all’ enjoying smoking, and reporting that fewer of their family or friends smoked compared to ‘most or all’. Conclusions This study is the first to examine the characteristics of socially disadvantaged smokers who consent or decline to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Low-income smokers who are motivated to quit, are not enjoying smoking, had family or friends who smoked, and who are interested in gradual cessation approaches may be more likely to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN85202510. PMID:26369799

  17. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R.; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call “variation level.” We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  18. Corrigendum to "Gains from the upgrade of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX at the BER-II reactor" [Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 729 (2013) 220-226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, M. D.; Quintero-Castro, D. L.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Groitl, F.; Skoulatos, M.; Rule, K. C.; Habicht, K.

    2014-12-01

    It has been recently brought to our attention that there are two errors in Fig. 2 of the article, "Gains from the upgrade of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX at the BER-II reactor", published in volume 729, pages 220-226 of this journal in 2013. Firstly, the right hand vertical axis labels should read "Integrated Flux (107 n cm-2 s-1)" rather than "Integrated Flux (108 n cm-2s-1)". Secondly, the implicit comparison between the integrated peak area of a monochromator rocking scan and the neutron flux measured by gold foil activation in the figure is invalid. Rather, the peak height should be used as shown in corrected Fig. 1. These corrections, however, do not invalidate the conclusions of the paper, which is that up to an order of magnitude gain in count rate has been achieved from the upgrade of the primary spectrometer of the FLEXX instrument in Berlin. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.

  19. Spinal instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Spivak, J M; Balderston, R A

    1994-03-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of spinal instrumentation devices, enabling surgeons to treat a variety of spinal disorders with improved results and lower morbidity. In each anatomic region new fixation systems exist. Improvement in fusion rates with supplemental plate fixation following anterior cervical diskectomies and reconstructions has been demonstrated; these devices can now be applied more safely than ever before. Posterior occipitocervical plating to the C-2 pedicle and C3-6 lateral masses can provide stable fixation despite incompetent posterior arch bony structures. Newer, more rigid anterior thoracolumbar instrumentation allows for correction of thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis along fewer levels and with better maintenance of lordosis and is also useful following anterior decompression for tumor and trauma. Segmental hook fixation of the posterior thoracolumbar spine has allowed for improved correction of deformity without increased morbidity or the need for postoperative bracing in many cases. Finally, the use of transpedicular screw fixation of the lumbosacral spine allows for excellent segmental fixation without intact posterior elements, including facet joints, and has significantly improved the fusion rate in lumbosacral fusions. PMID:8024965

  20. Zach's instruments and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    The astronomically interested Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) hired Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) as court astronomer in 1786. Immediatedly Zach started to make plans for instrumentation for a new observatory. But first they travelled with their instruments (a 2-foot Ramsden transit instrument, the Sisson quadrant, three Hadley sextants, two achromatic refractors and chronometers) to southern France. In Hyàres a tower of the wall around the town was converted into an observatory in 1787. For the building of the new observatory Zach had chosen a place outside of Gotha on the top of the Seeberg. The three main instruments were an 8-foot transit instrument made by Ramsden, a northern and southern mural quadrant made by Sisson and a zenith sector made by Cary, in addition an 8-foot circle made by Ramsden. By analysing the whole instrumentation of Gotha observatory, we can see a change around 1800 in the kind of instruments, from quadrants and sextants to the full circles and from the transit instrument to the meridian circle. The decline of the Gotha observatory started with the early death of the Duke in 1804 and the subsequent departure of Zach in 1806.

  1. 36 CFR 63.3 - Procedures to be applied when the Agency and the State Historic Preservation Officer agree a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ELIGIBILITY FOR INCLUSION IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES § 63.3 Procedures to be applied when the... State Historic Preservation Officer agree that the property is eligible for inclusion in the...

  2. 36 CFR 63.3 - Procedures to be applied when the Agency and the State Historic Preservation Officer agree a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ELIGIBILITY FOR INCLUSION IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES § 63.3 Procedures to be applied when the... State Historic Preservation Officer agree that the property is eligible for inclusion in the...

  3. 36 CFR 63.3 - Procedures to be applied when the Agency and the State Historic Preservation Officer agree a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ELIGIBILITY FOR INCLUSION IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES § 63.3 Procedures to be applied when the... State Historic Preservation Officer agree that the property is eligible for inclusion in the...

  4. 36 CFR 63.3 - Procedures to be applied when the Agency and the State Historic Preservation Officer agree a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ELIGIBILITY FOR INCLUSION IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES § 63.3 Procedures to be applied when the... State Historic Preservation Officer agree that the property is eligible for inclusion in the...

  5. 36 CFR 63.3 - Procedures to be applied when the Agency and the State Historic Preservation Officer agree a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ELIGIBILITY FOR INCLUSION IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES § 63.3 Procedures to be applied when the... State Historic Preservation Officer agree that the property is eligible for inclusion in the...

  6. Applying neural networks to optimize instrumentation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Start, S.E.; Peters, G.G.

    1995-06-01

    Well calibrated instrumentation is essential in providing meaningful information about the status of a plant. Signals from plant instrumentation frequently have inherent non-linearities, may be affected by environmental conditions and can therefore cause calibration difficulties for the people who maintain them. Two neural network approaches are described in this paper for improving the accuracy of a non-linear, temperature sensitive level probe ised in Expermental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that was difficult to calibrate.

  7. Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. III - Comparison of measurements by SAM II, SAGE, dustsondes, filters, impactors and lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Swissler, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The SAM II and SAGE satellite sensors, dustsondes, impactors, a filter collector and an airborne lidar were used in a large satellite validation experiment on July 16-19, 1979, at Poker Flat, Alaska. Independent measurements of extinction profiles by SAM II and SAGE are noted to agree with each other and with those derived from the other instruments (within combined uncertainties). The wire impactor-derived results, while also consistent with the others, are coarse due to the relatively large uncertainties in impactor-derived mass, extinction, and number of particles/unit volume whose radius is greater than x microns.

  8. A new economic instrument for financing accelerated landfill aftercare.

    PubMed

    Beaven, R P; Knox, K; Gronow, J R; Hjelmar, O; Greedy, D; Scharff, H

    2014-07-01

    The key aspects of landfill operation that remain unresolved are the extended timescale and uncertain funding of the post-closure period. This paper reviews the topic and proposes an economic instrument to resolve the unsustainable nature of the current situation. Unsustainability arises from the sluggish degradation of organic material and also the slow flushing of potential pollutants that is exacerbated by low-permeability capping. A landfill tax or aftercare provision rebate is proposed as an economic instrument to encourage operators to actively advance the stabilization of landfilled waste. The rebate could be accommodated within existing regulatory and tax regimes and would be paid for: (i) every tonne of nitrogen (or other agreed leachate marker) whose removal is advanced via the accelerated production and extraction of leachate; (ii) every tonne of non-commercially viable carbon removed via landfill gas collection and treatment. The rebates would be set at a level that would make it financially attractive to operators and would encourage measures such as leachate recirculation, in situ aeration, and enhanced flushing. Illustrative calculations suggest that a maximum rebate of up to ∼€50/tonne MSW would provide an adequate incentive.

  9. A new economic instrument for financing accelerated landfill aftercare.

    PubMed

    Beaven, R P; Knox, K; Gronow, J R; Hjelmar, O; Greedy, D; Scharff, H

    2014-07-01

    The key aspects of landfill operation that remain unresolved are the extended timescale and uncertain funding of the post-closure period. This paper reviews the topic and proposes an economic instrument to resolve the unsustainable nature of the current situation. Unsustainability arises from the sluggish degradation of organic material and also the slow flushing of potential pollutants that is exacerbated by low-permeability capping. A landfill tax or aftercare provision rebate is proposed as an economic instrument to encourage operators to actively advance the stabilization of landfilled waste. The rebate could be accommodated within existing regulatory and tax regimes and would be paid for: (i) every tonne of nitrogen (or other agreed leachate marker) whose removal is advanced via the accelerated production and extraction of leachate; (ii) every tonne of non-commercially viable carbon removed via landfill gas collection and treatment. The rebates would be set at a level that would make it financially attractive to operators and would encourage measures such as leachate recirculation, in situ aeration, and enhanced flushing. Illustrative calculations suggest that a maximum rebate of up to ∼€50/tonne MSW would provide an adequate incentive. PMID:24768257

  10. Probing the donor side of photosystem II in spinach chloroplasts and algae using electron paramagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Boska, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    this work concerns electron transfer reactions in photosystem II (PS II). Investigations carried out in this work examine the redox reaction rates in PS II using EPR. In Tris-washed PS II preparations from spinach, it is observed that the oxidation kinetics of S II/sub f/, the EPR signal formed by Z/sup +/ after deactivation of oxygen evolution, mirror the reduction kinetics of P680/sup +/ seen by EPR in samples poised at a variety of pH's. These data agree with previous data on the optically measured reduction kinetics of P680/sup +/. The oxidation kinetics of S II/sub vf/, the EPR transient seen from Z/sup +/ in samples active in O/sub 2/ evolving samples, were instrument limited (t/sub 1/2/ less than 4 ..mu..s) and thus could not be directly measured. These results taken together support a model where Z donates electrons directly to P680/sup +/. The examination of the oxidation and reduction kinetics of S II in monovalent and divalent salt-washed PS II preparations from spinach correlated most of the change of Z oxidation and re-reduction kinetics seen upon Tris-treatment with the loss of a 33 kDa polypeptide associated with the donor side of PS II. These data coupled with observations of stead-state light-induced amplitude changes in S II give evidence for the existance of an electron carrier between the water-splitting enzyme and Z. Observation of S II amplitude and kinetics in highly resolved PS II protein complexes from Synechoccus sp., consisting of either a 5 polypeptide PS II core complex (E-1) or a 4 polypeptide PS II core complex (CP2b), localize Z and P680 within the 4 polypeptide complex. 187 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    After six months of investigations and analysis by a joint ESA/NASA Huygens Recovery Task Force (HRTF), senior management from the two space agencies and members of the Cassini-Huygens scientific community have endorsed several modifications to the mission. These will ensure a return close to 100% of the Huygens science data, with no impact on the nominal prime Cassini tour after the third Titan encounter. The modifications have been introduced because of a design flaw in the Huygens communication system. This problem meant that the Huygens receiver was unable to compensate for the frequency shift between the signal emitted by the Probe and the one received by the Orbiter, due to the Doppler shift (**). This would have resulted in the loss of most of the unique data returned from the Probe during its descent through Titan’s dense atmosphere. To ensure that as much data as possible is returned from the pioneering Probe, the HRTF proposed a new schedule for Cassini’s first orbits around Saturn. The agreed scenario involves shortening Cassini’s first two orbits around the ringed planet and adding a third which provides the required new geometry for the Huygens mission to Titan. In the new scenario, the arrival at Saturn on 1 July 2004 remains unchanged. However, Cassini’s first flyby of Titan will now occur on 26 October, followed by another on 13 December. The Huygens Probe will be released towards Titan on 25 December, for an entry into the moon’s atmosphere 22 days later, on 14 January 2005, seven weeks later than originally planned. To reduce the Doppler shift in the signal from Huygens, the Cassini Orbiter will fly over Titan’s cloud tops at a much higher altitude than originally planned - 65,000 km instead of 1,200 km. This higher orbit has the added advantage that Cassini will be able to preserve the four-year baseline tour through the Saturn system, by resuming its original orbital plan in mid-February 2005. “In any complex space mission problems

  12. Optical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  13. Europe Agrees on Common Strategy to Initiate Study of LSA/MMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    strong involvement in millimetre astronomy: the 5 x 15-m IRAM array on Plateau de Bure (France), the 30-m IRAM antenna (Spain), the 20-m at Onsala (Sweden), the 15-m Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST, La Silla), the 15-m JCMT (Mauna Kea, Hawaii), the 10-m HHT (Arizona), and others. Over 60 research institutes around Europe use these facilities. Many of them have developed technical expertise and leadership in this area together with European industry, so it is natural that a European collaboration should be looking to the future. The idea of a large European southern millimetre array has been discussed since 1991. In 1995, an LSA Project collaboration was established between ESO, the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), the Onsala Space Observatory, and the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA). This consortium of observatories agreed to pool resources to study critical technical areas and conduct site surveys in Chile. Details are available in a Messenger article (March 98). Possibilities of intercontinental collaboration An important step was taken in June 1997. A similar project is under study in the United States of America (the "Millimeter Array", MMA ). An agreement was entered into between ESO and the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) to explore the possibility of merging the two projects into one. Until then the emphasis in Europe had been on the large collecting area provided by 16-m antennas operating at purely millimetre wavelengths, while in the U.S. the concept was a smaller array of 8-m antennas with good submillimetre performance. However, as there is also considerable interest in Europe in submillimetre observations, and in the U.S. in a larger collecting area, a compromise seemed feasible. Several joint working groups formed under the ESO-NRAO agreement were set up to explore the possibility of a collaborative project. It was concluded that a homogeneous array of 64 x 12-m antennas, providing

  14. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  15. Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

  16. Short-term BOD (BODst) as a parameter for on-line monitoring of biological treatment process; Part II: instrumentation of integrated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for BODst estimation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Olsson, Gustaf; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-10-15

    An instrument with integrated flow injection analysis (FIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring a process for conversion of biomass under field condition. The instrument consists of a newly designed biosensor for easy renewal of the bio-receptor without disassembling the sensor, a FIA controller for controlling the analysis operations, and a computer-based data acquisition system for data recording and processing. The instrument performed a sequence operations automatically including preparation of sample in the desired concentration, sample loading, sample injection, signal recording, data processing, and self-cleaning of the system. This makes the instrument being an interesting and promising device for on-line process monitoring.

  17. 21 CFR 822.22 - What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision? 822.22 Section 822.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site....

  18. 21 CFR 822.22 - What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision? 822.22 Section 822.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site....

  19. 21 CFR 822.7 - What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate? 822.7 Section 822.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site...

  20. 21 CFR 822.7 - What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate? 822.7 Section 822.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site (http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ombudsman/dispute.html)....

  1. 21 CFR 822.22 - What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision? 822.22 Section 822.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site....

  2. 21 CFR 822.22 - What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision? 822.22 Section 822.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site....

  3. 21 CFR 822.22 - What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What recourse do I have if I do not agree with your decision? 822.22 Section 822.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site....

  4. 21 CFR 822.7 - What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate? 822.7 Section 822.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site (http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ombudsman/dispute.html)....

  5. 21 CFR 822.7 - What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate? 822.7 Section 822.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site...

  6. 21 CFR 822.7 - What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What should I do if I do not agree that postmarket surveillance is appropriate? 822.7 Section 822.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Radiological Health's (CDRH's) Web site (http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ombudsman/dispute.html)....

  7. A Metafunctional Analysis of the News "ROK, DPRK Agree to Defuse Tension after Talks" on China Daily

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the three metafunctions in Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL): experiential, interpersonal and textual, the paper makes an analysis of the current news "ROK, DPRK Agree to Defuse Tension after Talks" on China Daily. The paper finds out that the political news has unique features in terms of experiential, interpersonal…

  8. 7 CFR 3017.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Department of Agriculture agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do other Federal agencies know if the Department of Agriculture agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 3017.645 Section 3017.645 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  9. 40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline... Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. (a) Attest procedures for GTAB. The following...

  10. 40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline... Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. (a) Attest procedures for GTAB. The following...

  11. 40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline... Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. (a) Attest procedures for GTAB. The following...

  12. Which Lifelong Activities Are Held in Highest Regard by Physical Education Stakeholders in Michigan: Can Stakeholders Agree? A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Mackey, Marcia J.; Rollenhagen, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what lifelong activities stakeholders agree upon as most important to include in physical education programs. Little research has been conducted regarding which lifelong activities are most important to include in the curriculum and if there is consensus in priorities across program stakeholders. Consensus…

  13. 29 CFR 1471.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do other Federal agencies know if the Federal Mediation and... Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... agencies know if the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a)...

  14. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  15. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  16. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  17. FTIR instrumentation for atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuteson, Robert O.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Best, Fred A.; Smith, William L.

    1993-09-01

    During the last six years, extensive observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the spectral region from 3.6 - 20 micrometers with resolving powers of 1000 - 4000 have been made, both from the ground and nadir viewing from NASA high altitude aircraft. Two recent field experiments in which both instruments participated are the FIRE II/SPECTRE experiment Nov. - Dec. 1991 in Coffeyville, KS and the STORMFEST experiment Feb. - Mar. 1992 in Seneca, KS. Experience with these instruments has led to instrument designs for advanced sounders on geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. Applications include remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and water vapor for improved weather forecasting, measurement of cloud radiative impact for improvement of global climate modelling, and trace gas retrieval for climate and air pollution monitoring.

  18. BORE II

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  19. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  20. SAM II Data and Information (ASCII)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-01

    SAM II (ASCII) Data and Information Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Set Guide Readme Files:  Data Set (Text file) ...

  1. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  2. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.

    1994-01-01

    Instrumentation for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials.

  3. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  4. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? 102-85.155 Section 102-85.155 Public Contracts and... customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? (a) If a customer agency does not agree with the... classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b)...

  5. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? 102-85.155 Section 102-85.155 Public Contracts and... customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? (a) If a customer agency does not agree with the... classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b)...

  6. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? 102-85.155 Section 102-85.155 Public Contracts and... customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill? (a) If a customer agency does not agree with...

  7. Agreeing on Validity Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Kane (this issue) presents a comprehensive review of validity theory and reminds us that the focus of validation is on test score interpretations and use. In reacting to his article, I support the argument-based approach to validity and all of the major points regarding validation made by Dr. Kane. In addition, I call for a simpler, three-step…

  8. SAM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-06

    ... Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, which flew on board the Nimbus-7 ... Spatial Resolution:  The altitude profiles of aerosol extinction have a 1 km vertical resolution. Temporal ...

  9. Ideology as instrument.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. PMID:18085858

  10. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  11. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  12. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements: Evaluation of Aerosol Measurements from SAGE II, HALOE, and Balloonborne Optical Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark; Deshler, Terry; Moddrea, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements from the University of Wyoming balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs), the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) were compared in the period 1982-2000, when measurements were available. The OPCs measure aerosol size distributions, and HALOE multiwavelength (2.45-5.26 micrometers) extinction measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol size distributions. Aerosol extinctions at the SAGE II wavelengths (0.386-1.02 micrometers) were computed from these size distributions and compared to SAGE II measurements. In addition, surface areas derived from all three experiments were compared. While the overall impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement can change with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense, these comparisons fall into two categories: high aerosol loading (volcanic periods) and low aerosol loading (background periods and altitudes above 25 km). When the aerosol amount was low, SAGE II and HALOE extinctions were higher than the OPC estimates, while the SAGE II surface areas were lower than HALOE and the OPCS. Under high loading conditions all three instruments mutually agree to within 50%.

  13. ACRIM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM II Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... and Order:   ASDC Order Tool FTP Web Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Total Solar Irradiance ... ACRIM II Instrument Page ACRIM III Data Sets Readme Files:  Readme File Image ...

  14. Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Brown, T.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-05-05

    Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The two sources of activity are modeled separately in two acquisition configurations using two separate modeling tools. The results agree well, demonstrating a content of (1980 {+-} 150) {mu}Ci Am-241 and (110 {+-} 50) {mu}Ci of Np-237.

  15. GPS and Geologic Deformation Rates Agree to Within Uncertainties in the Arabia-Africa- Eurasia Zone of Plate Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.

    2008-12-01

    Geodetically-derived motions for Arabia and Nubia relative to Eurasia agree within 1 standard deviation with plate rates estimated from geologic observations (McQuarrie et al., GRL, 2003) for the past 11 Myr for Nubia and greater than 25 Myr for Arabia. Furthermore, fault slip rates derived from an elastic block model constrained by GPS agree within uncertainties (about +/- 15 percent) with geologically determined, long-term slip rates in this complex area of plate interaction. Detailed geomorphological studies of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) constrained by quantitative dating (Kozaci et a al., Geology, 2007) indicate slip rates that agree within uncertainties, but appear to be systematically lower than geodetic rates. While real rate changes of a few mm/yr cannot be ruled out at present, we note that geodetic inversions for coseismic fault slip on the NAF, and most other faults well constrained by geodetic observations, indicate larger slip at depth than at the surface. If this difference persists throughout the earthquake deformation cycle, it would account for the small difference in geodetic and geologic rates. Extrapolating present-day geodetic motions for Arabia relative to Nubia and Somalia to the time of initiation of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden extension indicates that Arabia separated from Nubia and Somalia simultaneously along the full extent of both rifts at about 25 Myr BP, consistent with independent geologic estimates for the style, and age of initiation of Red Sea extension (Omar and Steckler, 1995, Science). In addition, structural offsets across the Gulf of Suez (GoS) and Gulf of Aqaba (GoA) are consistent with a transfer of strain form the GoS to the GoA at around 12 Ma BP, roughly consistent with the age on initiation of the Dead Sea fault system. We further show that the apparent discrepancy between geodetic deformation of the Aegean (plate-like motion with low internal deformation), and geologic deformation (extensive crustal thinning

  16. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  17. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  18. A Systematic Critical Appraisal of Non-Pharmacological Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II

    PubMed Central

    Brosseau, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Poitras, Stéphane; Toupin-April, Karine; Paterson, Gail; Smith, Christine; King, Judy; Casimiro, Lynn; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne; Cavallo, Sabrina; Ewan, Jessica Mc

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to summarize evidence about the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and facilitate the uptake of evidence-based knowledge by consumers, health professionals, health administrators and policy makers. The objectives of this review was to assess the quality of CPGS on non-pharmacological management of RA with a standardized and validated instrument - the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool and summarize the key recommendations from these CPGs. Scientific literature databases from 2001 to 2013 were systematically searched and a total of 13 CPGs for RA was identified. Only a minority of AGREE II domains were effectively addressed by the CPGS. Scope and purpose was effectively addressed in 10 out of 13 CPGs, stakeholder involvement in 11 CPGs, rigor of development in 6 CPGs, clarity/presentation in 9 CPGs, editorial independence in 1 CPGs, and applicability in none of the CPGs. The overall quality of the included CPGs according to the 7-point AGREE II scoring system was 4.8±1.04. Patient education/self-management, aerobic, dynamic and stretching exercises were the commonly recommended for the non-pharmacological management of RA by the high-quality CPGs. The general clinical management recommendations tended to be similar among high-quality CPGs. Non-pharmacological management interventions were superficially addressed in more than half of the selected CPGs. CPGs creators should use the AGREE II criteria when developing guidelines. Innovative and effective methods of CPGs implementation to users are needed to ultimately enhance the quality of life of arthritic individuals. In addition, it was difficult to establish between strongly recommended, recommended and weakly recommended, as there is no consensus between the strength of the recommendations between the appraised CPGs. PMID:24840205

  19. A systematic critical appraisal of non-pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis with Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Poitras, Stéphane; Toupin-April, Karine; Paterson, Gail; Smith, Christine; King, Judy; Casimiro, Lynn; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne; Cavallo, Sabrina; Ewan, Jessica Mc

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to summarize evidence about the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and facilitate the uptake of evidence-based knowledge by consumers, health professionals, health administrators and policy makers. The objectives of this review was to assess the quality of CPGS on non-pharmacological management of RA with a standardized and validated instrument--the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool and summarize the key recommendations from these CPGs. Scientific literature databases from 2001 to 2013 were systematically searched and a total of 13 CPGs for RA was identified. Only a minority of AGREE II domains were effectively addressed by the CPGS. Scope and purpose was effectively addressed in 10 out of 13 CPGs, stakeholder involvement in 11 CPGs, rigor of development in 6 CPGs, clarity/presentation in 9 CPGs, editorial independence in 1 CPGs, and applicability in none of the CPGs. The overall quality of the included CPGs according to the 7-point AGREE II scoring system was 4.8 ± 1.04. Patient education/self-management, aerobic, dynamic and stretching exercises were the commonly recommended for the non-pharmacological management of RA by the high-quality CPGs. The general clinical management recommendations tended to be similar among high-quality CPGs. Non-pharmacological management interventions were superficially addressed in more than half of the selected CPGs. CPGs creators should use the AGREE II criteria when developing guidelines. Innovative and effective methods of CPGs implementation to users are needed to ultimately enhance the quality of life of arthritic individuals. In addition, it was difficult to establish between strongly recommended, recommended and weakly recommended, as there is no consensus between the strength of the recommendations between the appraised CPGs.

  20. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  1. In Favour of Medical Dissensus: Why We Should Agree to Disagree About End‐of‐Life Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Truog, Robert; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract End‐of‐life decision‐making is controversial. There are different views about when it is appropriate to limit life‐sustaining treatment, and about what palliative options are permissible. One approach to decisions of this nature sees consensus as crucial. Decisions to limit treatment are made only if all or a majority of caregivers agree. We argue, however, that it is a mistake to require professional consensus in end‐of‐life decisions. In the first part of the article we explore practical, ethical, and legal factors that support agreement. We analyse subjective and objective accounts of moral reasoning: accord is neither necessary nor sufficient for decisions. We propose an alternative norm for decisions – that of ‘professional dissensus’. In the final part of the article we address the role of agreement in end‐of‐life policy. Such guidelines can ethically be based on dissensus rather than consensus. Disagreement is not always a bad thing. PMID:25908398

  2. In Favour of Medical Dissensus: Why We Should Agree to Disagree About End-of-Life Decisions.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Truog, Robert; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-02-01

    End-of-life decision-making is controversial. There are different views about when it is appropriate to limit life-sustaining treatment, and about what palliative options are permissible. One approach to decisions of this nature sees consensus as crucial. Decisions to limit treatment are made only if all or a majority of caregivers agree. We argue, however, that it is a mistake to require professional consensus in end-of-life decisions. In the first part of the article we explore practical, ethical, and legal factors that support agreement. We analyse subjective and objective accounts of moral reasoning: accord is neither necessary nor sufficient for decisions. We propose an alternative norm for decisions - that of 'professional dissensus'. In the final part of the article we address the role of agreement in end-of-life policy. Such guidelines can ethically be based on dissensus rather than consensus. Disagreement is not always a bad thing. PMID:25908398

  3. Computers in Scientific Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enke, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    Computer applications in scientific instrumentation are traced from early data processing to modern computer-based instruments. Probable pathways toward instruments with increased "intelligence" include, among others, implementation of hierarchical computer networks and microprocessor controllers and the simplification of programing. The…

  4. The Instrumental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Devin Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  5. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

  7. 22 CFR 208.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 208.645 Section 208.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we...

  8. Making the Grade: Do Nebraska Teachers and Administrators Working in Public Schools in 7th-12th Grade Settings Agree about What Constitutes Sound Grading Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher sought to determine whether Nebraska teachers and administrators agreed about what constitutes sound grading practice. The results of this study indicated that Nebraska teachers and administrators working in public schools in 7th-12th grade settings did not always agree about what constituted sound grading practice.…

  9. 21 CFR 1404.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Drug Control Policy agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1404.645 Section 1404.645 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General... Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter...

  10. 22 CFR 208.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 208.645 Section 208.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we...

  11. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  12. Present status of aircraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.

  13. CICADA -- Configurable Instrument Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Peter J.; Roberts, William H.; Sebo, Kim M.

    CICADA (Young et al. 1997) is a multi-process, distributed application for the control of astronomical data acquisition systems. It comprises elements that control the operation of, and data flow from CCD camera systems; and the operation of telescope instrument control systems. CICADA can be used to dynamically configure support for astronomical instruments that can be made up of multiple cameras and multiple instrument controllers. Each camera is described by a hierarchy of parts that are each individually configured and linked together. Most of CICADA is written in C++ and much of the configurability of CICADA comes from the use of inheritance and polymorphism. An example of a multiple part instrument configuration -- a wide field imager (WFI) -- is described here. WFI, presently under construction, is made up of eight 2k x 4k CCDs with dual SDSU II controllers and will be used at Siding Spring's ANU 40in and AAO 3.9m telescopes.

  14. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    , these comparisons fall into two categories: high aerosol loading (volcanic periods) and low aerosol loading (background periods and altitudes above 25 km). When the aerosol amount is low SAGE II and HALOE extinctions are higher than the OPC estimates, while the SAGE II surface areas are lower than HALOE and the OPCS. Under high loading conditions, all three instruments mutually agree to within 50%.

  15. 17 CFR 34.3 - Hybrid instrument exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... meaning of 12 CFR 204.2 (b)(1), (c)(1) and (e), respectively, offered by an insured depository institution...-of-pocket payments to the issuer during the life of the instrument or at maturity; and (ii) The... the characteristics of a futures contract or a commodity option; and (iii) The instrument does...

  16. 17 CFR 34.3 - Hybrid instrument exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meaning of 12 CFR 204.2 (b)(1), (c)(1) and (e), respectively, offered by an insured depository institution...-of-pocket payments to the issuer during the life of the instrument or at maturity; and (ii) The... the characteristics of a futures contract or a commodity option; and (iii) The instrument does...

  17. 17 CFR 34.3 - Hybrid instrument exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meaning of 12 CFR 204.2 (b)(1), (c)(1) and (e), respectively, offered by an insured depository institution...-of-pocket payments to the issuer during the life of the instrument or at maturity; and (ii) The... the characteristics of a futures contract or a commodity option; and (iii) The instrument does...

  18. 14 CFR 61.65 - Instrument rating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... instrument rating must: (1) Hold at least a private pilot certificate with an airplane, helicopter, or... training device that represents an airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift appropriate to the instrument... airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift appropriate to the rating sought; or (ii) A flight simulator or...

  19. Numerical reconstruction of part of an actual blast-wave flow field to agree with available experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. C. M.; Gottlieb, J. J.

    1983-11-01

    A method of solution is presented and validated for the numerical reconstruction of a certain part of an actual blast-wave flow field of interest for planar, cylindrical and spherical explosions, away from the explosion source where the blast-wave has become sufficiently weak that real-gas effects are unimportant. This method involves, essentially, a trial-and-error process of constructing the best possible path of a fluid particle or equivalent piston at the upstream side of the flow field of interest such that the resulting flow field constructed numerically in front of the equivalent moving piston agrees as well as possible with all available although limited experimental data. The relatively new random-choice method was suitably modified to easily handle the numerical computations of the nonstationary flow in front of the moving piston. Finally, the present method is used to reconstruct the flow field for past TNT and ANFO explosions, for which the blast-wave amplitudes are less than about 1 MPa. These results are presented in convenient graphical and tabular form, scaled for the case of a 1-kg TNT surface explosion or its equivalent in a standard atmosphere, so that they can be utilized readily for different sized explosions at the same or other atmospheric conditions.

  20. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers in Switzerland. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books

  1. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  2. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  3. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  4. Instrument performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program.

  5. DRAMA: Instrumentation software environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony

    2015-07-01

    DRAMA is a fast, distributed environment for writing instrumentation control systems. It allows low level instrumentation software to be controlled from user interfaces running on UNIX, MS Windows or VMS machines in a consistent manner. Such instrumentation tasks can run either on these machines or on real time systems such as VxWorks. DRAMA uses techniques developed by the AAO while using the Starlink-ADAM environment, but is optimized for the requirements of instrumentation control, portability, embedded systems and speed. A special program is provided which allows seamless communication between ADAM and DRAMA tasks.

  6. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  7. Hemispheric Cognitive Style: A Comparison of Three Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovese, Jeremy E. C.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author tested the reliability, concurrent validity, and predictive validity of three hemispheric cognitive style instruments: (a) the Preference Test (PT; R. Zenhausern, 1978), (b) the Polarity Questionnaire (PQ; B. E. Morton, 2002), and (c) the Wagner Preference Inventory II (WAPI II; R. F. Wagner & K. A. Wells, 1985).…

  8. Nuclear medicine instrumentation. Historic perspective.

    PubMed

    Croll, M N

    1994-01-01

    Recording the chronology of nuclear medicine instrumentation poses some difficult decisions as does the determination of the "father" of nuclear medicine?. Historians can agree on well-defined dates and events, but many of them are subjective and reside in the memories of those of us who were fortunate to experience the formative years of our field. We all search for the historical truth. The highlights of this story may begin with John Lawrence and phosphorus-32 therapy at Berkeley and continue with Enrico Fermi's sustained nuclear reaction, which lead to the Manhattan Project, then the Atomic Energy Commission, and finally, Sam Seidlin's treatment of thyroid metastases with iodine-131. The rectilinear scanner came to us from Benedict Cassen and was followed by Hal O. Anger and his gamma scintillation camera, one of the most pivotal developments in the field. A plethora of cameras followed: Merrill Benders's digital autofluroscope, Dave Kuhl's efforts for tomographic imaging, and then on to single photon emission computed tomography. Finally, we come back to Hal O. Anger, who suggested and worked with the idea of a positron camera, with positron emission tomography becoming commercially available in 1985. Ours is a variegated history, and I hope that this account speaks the historical truth.

  9. SAM II Data and Information (HDF-EOS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-01

    SAM II Data and Information (HDF-EOS) Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Set Guide Readme Files:  Data Set (Text file) ...

  10. BAA instrument no. 93

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  11. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Identifies a trend in analytical chemistry toward greater use of instruments and a need for an understanding of the basic principles involved in instrumentation. This need can be fulfilled using homebuilt equipment; examples are provided in the areas of electrolytic conductance and electronic coulometry. (GS)

  12. Clinical immunoassay instrument markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The present status and future prospects of the market for clinical immunoassay instruments is discussed. The market shares for the five basic instrument types - nephelometric immunoassay, fluorescence immmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, luminescence immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay are presented. It is noted that radioimmunoassay hold a major, but decreasing, share of the market.

  13. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  14. Beam instrumentation for the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald S.; Jansson, Andreas; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches and many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for future colliders.

  15. The DKIST Instrumentation Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope with its four meter diameter aperture will be the largest telescope in the world for solar observations when it is commissioned in the year 2019. In order to harness its scientific potential immediately, DKIST will integrate five instruments that each will provide unique functionality to measure properties of the solar atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution.In this paper we discuss the unique capabilities in the DKIST instrument suite that consists of the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP), the Visible Tunable Filter (VTF), the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (DL-NIRSP), and the Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP).In addition, we will explain the facility's approach to supporting high spatial resolution data acquisition with multiple instruments simultaneously by means of the Facility Instrument Distribution Optics. This system of wavelength separating and interchangeable beamsplitters will enable a variety of different ways to optically configure the light beam to the instruments. This approach ensures that the DKIST instruments can use their individual advantages in a multitude of different observing scenarios. The DKIST instrumentation suite will enable crucial new insights into complex physical processes that occur on spatial scales that are smaller than any solar structure observed in the past.

  16. Remote instrument telemaintenance.

    PubMed

    Laugier, A; Allahwerdi, N; Baudin, J; Gaffney, P; Grimson, W; Groth, T; Schilders, L

    1996-07-01

    In the past decade, great technological progress has been made in telemaintenance of mainframe and mini computers. As hardware technology is now available at an acceptable cost, computer aided trouble-shooting can be adapted to laboratory instrumentation in order to significantly improve repair time, avoid instrument downtime by taking advantage of predictive methods, and provide general diagnostic assistance. Depending on the size of the instrument, the telemaintenance facility can be dedicated to a single instrument or alternatively a telemaintenance server can manage multiple distributed small instruments through a Local Area Network. As complex failures can occur, the local diagnosis capabilities may be exceeded and automatic dialing for connection to computerized Remote Maintenance Centers is needed. The main advantages of such a centre, as compared to local diagnosis systems, are the increased access to more information and experience of failures from instrument installations, and consequently the provision of training data updates for Artificial Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Systems in general. When an abnormal situation is detected or anticipated by a diagnosis module, an automatic alert is given to the user, local diagnosis is activated, and for simple solutions, instructions are given to the operator. In the last resort, a human expert can be alerted who, with remote control tools, can attend to the failures. For both local and remote trouble-shooting, the data provided by the instrument and connected workstation is of paramount importance for the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis. Equally, the importance of standardization of telemaintenance communication protocols is addressed.

  17. Limb Darkening Measurements Free of Instrumental Stray Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elste, G.; Gilliam, L.

    2007-01-01

    We have used the 40 cm coronagraph with an inverse occulting disk to observe the limb darkening free of instrumental stray light. Our results agree remarkably well with those of Petro et al. (1984, Astrophys. J. 283, 426) who used the McMath Pierce tower telescope but employed a different correction procedure for instrumental stray light than Neckel and Labs (1994, Solar Phys. 153, 91), whose results for λ=445.1 nm deviate systematically, apparently overcorrecting for stray light. Future continuation of such highly reproducible measurements offers an interesting independent diagnostic of possible slow trends in effective temperature (T eff) and in total solar irradiance.

  18. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  19. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  20. Writing Instrument Profiles for Mastery of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Fernandez, Jorge; Nalliah, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Because of the rapidly changing nature of chemical instrumentation, students must be trained in how to learn and understand new instruments. Toward this end, students are asked to create small instrument manuals, or instrument profiles, for the major pieces of equipment studied during an instrumental analysis course. This writing-intensive process…

  1. The relationship between γ Cassiopeiae's X-ray emission and its circumstellar environment. II. Geometry and kinematics of the disk from MIRC and VEGA instruments on the CHARA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stee, Ph.; Delaa, O.; Monnier, J. D.; Meilland, A.; Perraut, K.; Mourard, D.; Che, X.; Schaefer, G. H.; Pedretti, E.; Smith, M. A.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Motch, C.; Henry, G. W.; Richardson, N. D.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Bücke, R.; Pollmann, E.; Zorec, J.; Gies, D. R.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H. A.; Turner, N. H.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Ridgway, S. T.

    2012-09-01

    Context.γ Cas is thought to be the prototype of classical Be stars and is the most studied object among this group. However, as for all Be stars, the origin and the physics of its circumstellar disk responsible for the observed near IR-excess, emission lines, and peculiar X-ray emission is still being debated. Aims: We constrain the geometry and kinematics of its circumstellar disk from the highest spatial resolution ever achieved on this star. This investigation is a part of a large multi-technique observing campaign to obtain the most complete picture of γ Cas which emphasizes the relation of the circumstellar environment to the star's X-ray flux. Methods: We present new observations in the near infrared (MIRC) and in the visible (VEGA) obtained with the CHARA interferometer. The VEGA instrument allows us to not only obtain a global disk geometry but also spectrally dispersed visibility modulus and phases within the Hα emission line, which enables us to study the kinematics within γ Cas's disk. Results: We obtain a disk extension in the nearby Hα continuum of 1.72 stellar diameter and 1.86 stellar diameter in the H band at 1.65 μm assuming a Gaussian disk model but also compatible with an elliptical ring model with a minor internal diameter of 1.38 stellar diameter in H. For the first time we demonstrate that the rotation mapped by the emission in the Hα line within the disk of γ Cas and up to 10 R⋆ is Keplerian. Conclusions: These observations have pushed the size of the disk to greater proportions. γ Cas was also confirmed to be a nearly critical rotator. The disk imaging gives neither indication of a 1-arm spiral feature nor evidence of a secondary star reinforcing the interpretation that the secondary is certainly a low-mass and low-luminosity star or a degenerate companion.

  2. Low cost instrumentation amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

  3. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z < 3.5. The status of VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  4. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  5. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  6. CALIPSO Instrument Operational

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-18

    CALIPSO Instrument Operational Thursday, September 11, 2014 The CALIPSO payload is back in data acquisition mode as of Wednesday, September 17, 2014.  CALIPSO data processing has returned to a nominal state, and...

  7. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  8. AIR Instrument Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, I. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The large number of radiation types composing the atmospheric radiation requires a complicated combination of instrument types to fully characterize the environment. A completely satisfactory combination has not as yet been flown and would require a large capital outlay to develop. In that the funds of the current project were limited to essential integration costs, an international collaboration was formed with partners from six countries and fourteen different institutions with their own financial support for their participation. Instruments were chosen to cover sensitivity to all radiation types with enough differential sensitivity to separate individual components. Some instruments were chosen as important to specify the physical field component and other instruments were chosen on the basis that they could be useful in dosimetric evaluation. In the present paper we will discuss the final experimental flight package for the ER-2 flight campaign.

  9. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  10. Aeronautic Instruments. Section III : Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Franklin L; Stearns, H O

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.

  11. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  12. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  13. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  14. Instrumentation in Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barp, Eric A; Erickson, John G; Reese, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, arthroscopic procedures of the foot and ankle have seen a significant increase in both indications and popularity. Furthermore, technological advances in video quality, fluid management, and other arthroscopy-specific instruments continue to make arthroscopic procedures more effective with reproducible outcomes. As surgeons continue to use this approach, it is important that they have a complete understanding of the instrumentation available to them, including their indications and limitations. PMID:27599434

  15. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  16. [The instrument for thermography].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25098130

  17. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  18. Medical instrument data exchange.

    PubMed

    Gumudavelli, Suman; McKneely, Paul K; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; Chapman, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. In this paper, a comparison between the data model of X73 and MediCAN will be presented to encourage interoperability demonstrations of medical instruments. PMID:19163033

  19. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II; Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Loukachine, K.; Wielicki, B. A.; Young, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes obtained from a new set of ADMs developed for the CERES instrument onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The uncertainty in regional monthly mean reflected shortwave (SW) and emitted longwave (LW) TOA fluxes is less than 0.5 W/sq m, based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. When stratified by viewing geometry, TOA fluxes from different angles are consistent to within 2% in the SW and 0.7% (or 2 W/sq m) in the LW. In contrast, TOA fluxes based on ADMs from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) applied to the same CERES radiance measurements show a 10% relative increase with viewing zenith angle in the SW and a 3.5% (9 W/sq m) decrease with viewing zenith angle in the LW. Based on multiangle CERES radiance measurements, 18 regional instantaneous TOA flux errors from the new CERES ADMs are estimated to be 10 W/sq m in the SW and, 3.5 W/sq m in the LW. The errors show little or no dependence on cloud phase, cloud optical depth, and cloud infrared emissivity. An analysis of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) sensitivity to differences between ERBE and CERES TRMM ADMs, scene identification, and directional models of albedo as a function of solar zenith angle shows that ADM and clear-sky scene identification differences can lead to an 8 W/sq m root-mean-square (rms) difference in 18 daily mean SW CRF and a 4 W/sq m rms difference in LW CRF. In contrast, monthly mean SW and LW CRF differences reach 3 W/sq m. CRF is found to be relatively insensitive to differences between the ERBE and CERES TRMM directional models.

  20. Experimental comparison of icing cloud instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Takeuchi, D. M.; Adams, K.

    1983-01-01

    Icing cloud instruments were tested in the spray cloud Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in order to determine their relative accuracy and their limitations over a broad range of conditions. It was found that the average of the readings from each of the liquid water content (LWC) instruments tested agreed closely with each other and with the IRT calibration; but all have a data scatter (+ or - one standard deviation) of about + or - 20 percent. The effect of this + or - 20 percent uncertainty is probably acceptable in aero-penalty and deicer experiments. Existing laser spectrometers proved to be too inaccurate for LWC measurements. The error due to water runoff was the same for all ice accretion LWC instruments. Any given laser spectrometer proved to be highly repeatable in its indications of volume median drop size (DVM), LWC and drop size distribution. However, there was a significant disagreement between different spectrometers of the same model, even after careful standard calibration and data analysis. The scatter about the mean of the DVM data from five Axial Scattering Spectrometer Probes was + or - 20 percent (+ or - one standard deviation) and the average was 20 percent higher than the old IRT calibration. The + or - 20 percent uncertainty in DVM can cause an unacceptable variation in the drag coefficient of an airfoil with ice; however, the variation in a deicer performance test may be acceptable.

  1. Issues in Shuttle System Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George

    2004-01-01

    The purose: a) Customer's perspective on Space Shuttle Return to Flight instrumentation; b) Focus on the difficult instrumentation issues; and c) Enable a discussion of new technologies (i.e.- NANO/MEMS/Small Tech) that could enhance Shuttle instrumentation posture. The T-10 Umbilical allows the vehicle instruments to be monitored and recorded prior to each launch and retract during launch.Launch Complex Instrumentation are instruments needed for assessment of Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) Salt-air and launch environments are issues. Instrumentation (Drag-On Instrumentation) can be added as needed to the vehicle for non-flight use. The current Roll-out Fatigue Testing is a primary example.

  2. Gotha - the instruments of the observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Around 1800 the Gotha observatory was an international center of astronomy and was the most modern astronomical institute with respect to its instruments 1. Duke Ernst II of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) used the following instruments in his private observatory at castle Friedenstein in Gotha; it should be emphasized that all instruments were coming from London - England was the center of instrument making in the 18th century 2: A 18-inch quadrant made by Sisson, London; a small 2-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London [DM 67751]; three Hadley sextants; an achromat heliometer made by Dollond, London [DM 67750]; a 2-ft achromat refractor made by Ramsden, London [DM 67754]; a Gregory reflector made by Short, London [Gotha] and several clocks. In 1787, Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) planned a new observatory outside of Gotha on the top of hill Seeberg, financed by the Duke (building 36000 Taler, instruments 20000 Taler; for comparison: the director got several hundreds Taler/year). The focus of research was astrometry, time keeping, geodetic and meteorological observations. Most of the instruments came from the leading instrument makers of that time: A southern and a northern quadrant; a 8-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London, 1788 [DM 67743 a-c]; a 7-ft Herschel reflector [DM 67483]; a 2-ft vertical circle made by Cary, London, 1796; a 8-ft circle made by Ramsden, London, 1800; a 3-ft vertical circle made by Trougthon, London, 1800; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Dollond, London, 1796 [DM 67745 a, b]; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Schroeder, Gotha [DM 67746 a, b]; a 3-ft double refractor made by Dollond, London [DM 67747]; a 10-ft refractor mady by Dollond, London, 1796; a 2-ft comet seeker made by Baumann & Kinzelbach, Stuttgart [DM 67755]. By analyzing the instrumentation, we can see around 1800 a change in the kind of the instruments on one hand from quadrants and sextants to the vertical circle and on the other hand from the

  3. Software Framework for Controlling Unsupervised Scientific Instruments.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Benjamin; Jahr, Wiebke; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Science outreach and communication are gaining more and more importance for conveying the meaning of today's research to the general public. Public exhibitions of scientific instruments can provide hands-on experience with technical advances and their applications in the life sciences. The software of such devices, however, is oftentimes not appropriate for this purpose. In this study, we describe a software framework and the necessary computer configuration that is well suited for exposing a complex self-built and software-controlled instrument such as a microscope to laymen under limited supervision, e.g. in museums or schools. We identify several aspects that must be met by such software, and we describe a design that can simultaneously be used to control either (i) a fully functional instrument in a robust and fail-safe manner, (ii) an instrument that has low-cost or only partially working hardware attached for illustration purposes or (iii) a completely virtual instrument without hardware attached. We describe how to assess the educational success of such a device, how to monitor its operation and how to facilitate its maintenance. The introduced concepts are illustrated using our software to control eduSPIM, a fluorescent light sheet microscope that we are currently exhibiting in a technical museum.

  4. Software Framework for Controlling Unsupervised Scientific Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Benjamin; Jahr, Wiebke; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Science outreach and communication are gaining more and more importance for conveying the meaning of today’s research to the general public. Public exhibitions of scientific instruments can provide hands-on experience with technical advances and their applications in the life sciences. The software of such devices, however, is oftentimes not appropriate for this purpose. In this study, we describe a software framework and the necessary computer configuration that is well suited for exposing a complex self-built and software-controlled instrument such as a microscope to laymen under limited supervision, e.g. in museums or schools. We identify several aspects that must be met by such software, and we describe a design that can simultaneously be used to control either (i) a fully functional instrument in a robust and fail-safe manner, (ii) an instrument that has low-cost or only partially working hardware attached for illustration purposes or (iii) a completely virtual instrument without hardware attached. We describe how to assess the educational success of such a device, how to monitor its operation and how to facilitate its maintenance. The introduced concepts are illustrated using our software to control eduSPIM, a fluorescent light sheet microscope that we are currently exhibiting in a technical museum. PMID:27570966

  5. Software Framework for Controlling Unsupervised Scientific Instruments.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Benjamin; Jahr, Wiebke; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Science outreach and communication are gaining more and more importance for conveying the meaning of today's research to the general public. Public exhibitions of scientific instruments can provide hands-on experience with technical advances and their applications in the life sciences. The software of such devices, however, is oftentimes not appropriate for this purpose. In this study, we describe a software framework and the necessary computer configuration that is well suited for exposing a complex self-built and software-controlled instrument such as a microscope to laymen under limited supervision, e.g. in museums or schools. We identify several aspects that must be met by such software, and we describe a design that can simultaneously be used to control either (i) a fully functional instrument in a robust and fail-safe manner, (ii) an instrument that has low-cost or only partially working hardware attached for illustration purposes or (iii) a completely virtual instrument without hardware attached. We describe how to assess the educational success of such a device, how to monitor its operation and how to facilitate its maintenance. The introduced concepts are illustrated using our software to control eduSPIM, a fluorescent light sheet microscope that we are currently exhibiting in a technical museum. PMID:27570966

  6. Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

    1925-01-01

    This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

  7. Instrumentation at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Boccas, Maxime; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Gomez, Percy; Murowinski, Rick; Chené, André-Nicolas; Henderson, David

    2014-07-01

    Gemini South's instrument suite has been completely transformed since our last biennial update. We commissioned the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and its associated Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) as well as Flamingos-2, our long-slit and multi-object infrared imager and spectrograph, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). We upgraded the CCDs in GMOS-S, our multi-object optical imager and spectrograph, with the GMOS-N CCD upgrade scheduled for 2015. Our next instrument, the Gemini High-resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is in its preliminary design stage and we are making plans for the instrument to follow:Gen4#3.

  8. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  9. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  10. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  11. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  13. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  14. Ocean Observation Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) was developed by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. for Ames Research Center under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract as a simulator for an advanced oceanographic satellite instrument. The instrument measures water temperature and detects water color in nine wavelengths. Water color indicates chlorophyll content or phytoplankton. After EOCAP assistance and technical improvements, the AOCI was successfully commercialized by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. One version provides commercial fishing fleets with information about fish locations, and the other is used for oceanographic research.

  15. Microtechnology for instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R.

    1998-01-01

    For the last two decades, the majority of research and development at LLNL in microtechnology has focused on photonics devices and bulk micromachining, including miccroelectro-mechanical systems and associated areas. For the last ten years, we have used these capabilities to address our analytical instrumentation needs. Just as the miniature photonics have enable the fabrication of analytical instruments that are either higher performance, smaller, more portable, or are combinations of these. Examples of these are our portable thermal cyclers for DNA analysis, our hand-held gas chromatograph, our flow-stream-waveguide-based flow cytometer, and our etched-microchannel electrophoresis systems. This presentation will describe these and related developments.

  16. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  17. Cluster II quartet take the stage together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    This is the only occasion on which all four of ESA's Cluster II spacecraft will be on display together in Europe. Four Spacecraft, One Mission The unique event takes place near the end of the lengthy assembly and test programme, during which each individual spacecraft is being assembled in sequence, one after the other. Two have already completed their assembly and systems testing and are about to be stored in special containers at IABG prior to shipment to the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan next spring. In the case of the other two, flight models 5 and 8, installation of the science payloads has finished, but their exhaustive series of environmental tests at IABG have yet to begin. Following delivery to the launch site next April, the satellites will be launched in pairs in June and July 2000. Two Soyuz rockets, each with a newly designed Fregat upper stage, are being provided by the Russian-French Starsem company. This will be the first time ESA satellites have been launched from the former Soviet Union. Cluster II is a replacement for the original Cluster mission, which was lost during the maiden launch of Ariane 5 in June 1996. ESA, given the mission's importance in its overall strategy in the area of the Sun-Earth connection, decided to rebuild this unique project. ESA member states supported that proposal. On 3 April 1997, the Agency's Science Programme Committee agreed. Cluster II was born. European Teamwork Scientific institutions and industrial enterprises in almost all the 14 ESA member states and the United States are taking part in the Cluster II project. Construction of the eight Cluster / Cluster II spacecraft has been a major undertaking for European industry. Built into each 1200 kg satellite are six propellant tanks, two pressure tanks, eight thrusters, 80 metres of pipework, about 5 km of wiring, 380 connectors and more than 14 000 electrical contacts. All the spacecraft were assembled in the giant clean room at the Friedrichshafen plant of

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.155 What does a... way GSA has determined its Rent obligation (e.g., the agency does not agree with GSA's space classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b)...

  19. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.155 What does a... way GSA has determined its Rent obligation (e.g., the agency does not agree with GSA's space classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b)...

  20. 22 CFR 1006.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1006.645 Section 1006.645 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1006.645 Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American...

  1. 22 CFR 1006.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1006.645 Section 1006.645 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1006.645 Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American...

  2. 22 CFR 1006.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1006.645 Section 1006.645 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1006.645 Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American...

  3. 22 CFR 1006.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1006.645 Section 1006.645 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1006.645 Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American...

  4. 22 CFR 1006.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-American Foundation agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1006.645 Section 1006.645 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1006.645 Do other Federal agencies know if the Inter-American...

  5. 45 CFR 309.85 - What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.85 Section 309.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM),...

  6. 45 CFR 309.85 - What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.85 Section 309.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM),...

  7. 45 CFR 309.85 - What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.85 Section 309.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM),...

  8. 45 CFR 309.85 - What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.85 Section 309.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM),...

  9. 45 CFR 309.85 - What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What records must a Tribe or Tribal organization agree to maintain in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.85 Section 309.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM),...

  10. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Woodwinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Melvin

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing modes and forms is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing wood-wind instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on identification of elementary concepts of mode and form. Course objectives include: (1) pupil will select…

  11. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  12. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  13. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  14. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  15. Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

    This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

  16. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  17. Instrumentation Control Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  18. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  19. HARMONI instrument control electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

  20. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  1. Portable dynamic fundus instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gerald R. (Inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (Inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (Inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (Inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

  2. Instrument for Textbook Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

  3. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  4. Tyrosinaemia II.

    PubMed

    Colditz, P B; Yu, J S; Billson, F A; Rogers, M; Molloy, H F; O'Halloran, M; Wilcken, B

    1984-08-18

    Four cases of tyrosinaemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) are reported. This syndrome consists of corneal erosions, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, and sometimes mental retardation. Presentation with photophobia and dendritic corneal ulceration or circumscribed palmoplantar keratoderma should alert the physician to the possible diagnosis of tyrosinaemia II. Early diagnosis is important, as the clinical picture can be modified by dietary restriction.

  5. Development of an instrument to assess learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Chissom, B; Iran-Nejad, A

    1992-12-01

    Items to measure learning strategies were extracted from students' written narratives about their study and learning habits. A resulting 79-item instrument was administered to 321 graduate and undergraduate students. From factor analysis of the correlation matrix four factors were identified: (I) reflective metacognition, (II) procedural metacognition, (III) rote memorization, and (IV) procrastination. There were significant positive correlations between GPA and Factors I and II and a significant negative correlation between Factor IV and GPA.

  6. Ideology as Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level,…

  7. Instrumentation problems for physicians.

    PubMed

    Turner, G O

    1980-01-01

    The physician has, for whatever reasons, diminished his or her level of involvement on the team dedicated to developing, refining, and evaluating medical technology. As a result, the challenge confronting the physician and the technology development team today is to orchestrate a team structure that will ensure the greatest input and commitment from physicians and other professionals during current and future technology development. The charges of cost escalation and dehumanization in our system of health care delivery will also be discussed, as will the lack of, or confusion about, access to data concerning cost of a given instrument, and fuzzy semantics and perspectives on technology and instrumentation. The author suggests answers to, or means to ameliorate, the problems.

  8. A GC Instrument Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, D. Bruce

    1999-02-01

    This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory. The instrument simulator is divided into 5 sections. One is for sample preparation. Another is used to manage carrier gases and choose a detector and column. The third sets the conditions for either isothermal or programmed temperature operation. A fourth section models manual injections, and the fifth is the autosampler. The operator has a choice among 6 columns of differing diameters and packing polarities and a choice of either isothermal or simple one-stage temperature programming. The simulator can be operated in either single-sample mode or as a 10-sample autosampler. The integrator has two modes of operation, a "dumb" mode in which only the retention time, area of the peak, and percentage area are listed and a "smart" mode that also lists the components' identities. The identities are obtained from a list of names and retention times created by the operator. Without this list only the percentages and areas are listed. The percentages are based on the areas obtained from the chromatogram and not on the actual percentages assigned during sample preparation. The data files for the compounds used in the simulator are ASCII files and can be edited easily to add more compounds than the 11 included with the simulator. A maximum of 10 components can be used in any one sample. Sample mixtures can be made on a percent-by-volume basis, but not by mass of sample per volume of solvent. A maximum of 30 compounds can be present in any one file, but the number of files is limited only by the operating system. (I suggest that not more than 20 compounds be used in any one file, as scrolling through large numbers of compounds is annoying to say the least.) File construction and layout are discussed in detail in the User's Manual. Chromatograms are generated by calculating a retention time based on

  9. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  10. Solar radioastronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonze, R.

    Instruments for detecting and recording the radio emissions of the sun are required to cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum, measure intensity and polarization, as well as the region of the emissions, and display high resolution in both space and time. Radioheliographic images of the sun are made from wavelengths outside of the visible, and yield images based on a grid of relative intensities of varying fineness of resolution. Radioelectric isophote contours can be generated using radiotelescopes at specific receptive frequencies, and interferometric techniques permit the employment of multiple paraboloidal receivers to construct a synthetic image of greater resolution than possible with a single antenna. Dynamic radiospectrography is used to examine transitory solar radio emissions where fine structures are produced in frequency bands covering at least an octave. Multichannel radiospectrographic equipment with many receptors tuned to discrete frequencies and regularly adjusted permits coverage of broad frequency bands, with digital control to augment the dynamics of the instruments.

  11. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  12. Patient specific instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Lionberger, David R; Crocker, Catherine L; Chen, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Patient specific instrumentation (PSI) has recently been developed as a replacement for traditional instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study aim was to assess efficiency via the mean total OR time using the PSI versus computer-assisted (CAS) TKAs with accuracy as a secondary endpoint. Sixty patients were randomized to CAS or PSI. A formula was developed to derive a profit ratio (PR) that incorporated costs, revenue, and total OR time. The PSI cases were 1.45 times more profitable than CAS allowing for approximately 3 PSI cases versus 2 CAS cases in one 8 hour OR day. Results from this series show that PSI improves OR efficiency, but does not improve accuracy.

  13. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  14. Radar measurement instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, P.

    1983-02-01

    The radar techniques used for Earth observation are reviewed. Range, direction and speed measuring techniques, and the principles of scatterometers, side-looking radar, altimeters and SAR are discussed. The ERS-1 radar package including the active microwave instrumentation and the radar altimeter are described. The analysis of the calibration problems leads to the conclusion that only the test of the system loop as a whole, besides the individual part tests, can provide a calibration in the absolute sense.

  15. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  17. Impact dynamics instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormck, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

  18. An ice lithography instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  19. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  20. The MMT-POL Instrument Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, C.; Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Varosi, F.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Dewahl, K.; Krejny, M.

    2011-07-01

    Instrument control system (ICS) suites are a continually evolving class of software packages that are highly dependent upon the design choices and application programming interfaces (APIs) of the observatory control system (OCS), as well as the hardware choices for motors and electronics. We present the ICS for MMT-POL, a 1-5 μm polarimeter for the MMT telescope, in the context of being a transitional step between the software packages developed for facility class instruments at the University of Florida (UF), such as Flamingos-II and CanariCam, and in preparation for 30 m-class instruments. Our goals for improving ICS suites are to make them (a) portable (compile once, run anywhere), (b) highly modular and extensible (through the re-use of common libraries), (c) multi-threaded (to allow multiple tasks to be performed in parallel), (d) smart, and (e) easy to use and maintain. An ICS should also be well-defined and use mature languages (we choose Java and Python) and common standards (such as XML and the FITS file format). We also note that as hardware moves away from serial communications to ethernet, the use of TCP sockets makes communication faster and easier. Below, we present our design choices for the MMT-POL ICS and discuss our reasons for these choices and potential issues that must be addressed for future ICS suites ready for thirty meter class instruments.

  1. Investigation of Damping Liquids for Aircraft Instruments : II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, M R; Keulegan, G H

    1932-01-01

    Data are presented on the kinematic viscosity, in the temperature range -50 degrees to +30 degrees C. of pure liquids and of solutions of animal oils, vegetable oils, mineral oils, glycerine, and ethylene glycol in various low freezing point solvents. It is shown that the thermal coefficient of kinematic viscosity as a function of the kinematic viscosity of the solutions of glycerine and ethylene glycol in alcohols is practically independent of the temperature and the chemical composition of the individual liquids. This is similarly true for the mineral oil group and, for a limited temperature interval, for the pure animal and vegetable oils. The efficiency of naphthol, hydroquinone, and diphenylamine to inhibit the change of viscosity of poppyseed and linseed oils was also investigated.

  2. The Cluster II mission: recent observations and instrument calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elena, Kronberg

    2016-07-01

    For over 15 years, the Cluster mission passes through Earth's radiation belts at least once every two days for several hours, measuring the energetic electron intensity at energies from 30 to 400 keV. This vast amount of data has previously been considered as rather useless due to contamination by penetrating energetic particles (protons at >100 keV and electrons at >400 keV). In this study, we assess the efficiency with which aluminum shielding of RAPID/IES detector filters out contaminating high-energy electrons and protons. We base our estimation on the analysis of experimental data and a radiation transport code (Geant4). In our simulations, we use the incident particle energy distribution of the AE9/AP9 radiation belt models. We identify the Roederer L-values and energy channels that should be used with caution and show examples of misinterpreting the data. Comparison of the data with electron and proton observations from the Van Allen Probes ECT/MagEis indicates that the subtraction of proton intensities at energies ~230-630 keV from the IES electron data cleans the data from the proton contamination. We show that the data from this detector measured in the radiation belts is still useful for many scientific applications. This is valuable as it provides one of the longest available radiation belt data sets.

  3. Cluster II quartet take the stage together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    This is the only occasion on which all four of ESA's Cluster II spacecraft will be on display together in Europe. Four Spacecraft, One Mission The unique event takes place near the end of the lengthy assembly and test programme, during which each individual spacecraft is being assembled in sequence, one after the other. Two have already completed their assembly and systems testing and are about to be stored in special containers at IABG prior to shipment to the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan next spring. In the case of the other two, flight models 5 and 8, installation of the science payloads has finished, but their exhaustive series of environmental tests at IABG have yet to begin. Following delivery to the launch site next April, the satellites will be launched in pairs in June and July 2000. Two Soyuz rockets, each with a newly designed Fregat upper stage, are being provided by the Russian-French Starsem company. This will be the first time ESA satellites have been launched from the former Soviet Union. Cluster II is a replacement for the original Cluster mission, which was lost during the maiden launch of Ariane 5 in June 1996. ESA, given the mission's importance in its overall strategy in the area of the Sun-Earth connection, decided to rebuild this unique project. ESA member states supported that proposal. On 3 April 1997, the Agency's Science Programme Committee agreed. Cluster II was born. European Teamwork Scientific institutions and industrial enterprises in almost all the 14 ESA member states and the United States are taking part in the Cluster II project. Construction of the eight Cluster / Cluster II spacecraft has been a major undertaking for European industry. Built into each 1200 kg satellite are six propellant tanks, two pressure tanks, eight thrusters, 80 metres of pipework, about 5 km of wiring, 380 connectors and more than 14 000 electrical contacts. All the spacecraft were assembled in the giant clean room at the Friedrichshafen plant of

  4. Linear-noise approximation and the chemical master equation agree up to second-order moments for a class of chemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grima, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that the linear-noise approximation (LNA) agrees with the chemical master equation, up to second-order moments, for chemical systems composed of zero and first-order reactions. Here we show that this is also a property of the LNA for a subset of chemical systems with second-order reactions. This agreement is independent of the number of interacting molecules.

  5. Linear-noise approximation and the chemical master equation agree up to second-order moments for a class of chemical systems.

    PubMed

    Grima, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that the linear-noise approximation (LNA) agrees with the chemical master equation, up to second-order moments, for chemical systems composed of zero and first-order reactions. Here we show that this is also a property of the LNA for a subset of chemical systems with second-order reactions. This agreement is independent of the number of interacting molecules.

  6. FHR Process Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  7. Instrumentation: Software-Driven Instrumentation: The New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salit, M. L.; Parsons, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Software-driven instrumentation makes measurements that demand a computer as an integral part of either control, data acquisition, or data reduction. The structure of such instrumentation, hardware requirements, and software requirements are discussed. Examples of software-driven instrumentation (such as wavelength-modulated continuum source…

  8. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with themore » OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.« less

  9. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with the OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.

  10. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  11. LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

  12. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  13. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  14. Issues in conducting cross-cultural research: implementation of an agreed international protocol [corrected] designed by the WHOQOL Group for the conduct of focus groups eliciting the quality of life of older adults.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Davidson, Natasha; Quinn, Kathryn; McCrate, Farah; Winkler, Ines; Lucas, Ramona; Kilian, Reinhold; Molzahn, Anita

    2006-09-01

    Multi-centre and cross-cultural research require the use of common protocols if the results are to be either pooled or compared. All too often adherence to protocols is not discussed in reports and where it is reported poor adherence is frequently noted. This paper discusses the use of international guidelines developed by WHOQOL Field Centres to conduct and report focus groups aimed at eliciting key concepts of quality of life among older adults. This was the first step in the development of the WHOQOL-OLD instrument. Although there was overall adherence to the agreed guidelines, there were some differences in the level of reporting, even after participating Field Centres had the opportunity to explain their reports. The reasons for these discrepancies are reported. It is concluded that because of local situations, it is difficult to achieve identical implementation of multi-centre cross-cultural protocols and that the highest standards of auditing are required if findings are to be compared. Suggestions for how such protocols can be improved are given.

  15. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  16. Aerodynamically stabilized instrument platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey L. (Inventor); Miles, Ted K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A suspension apparatus for suspending instrumentation from an airborne platform may include a generally longitudinal boom having a payload end and a tail end. Yaw and pitch stabilizers may be disposed at the tail end of the boom. A mast that may be selectively translatable on the boom may connect the boom to a tether line of the airborne platform. The payload may be attached to the payload end of the boom. The mast may be positioned axially along the boom at the center of gravity of the combination of the payload, boom, pitch stabilizer, and yaw stabilizer.

  17. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  18. Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, M D

    1924-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

  19. Lifetimes and Oscillator Strengths for Ultraviolet Transitions in P II, Cl II and Cl III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, S.; Federman, S. R.; Schectman, R. M.; Brown, M.; Irving, R. E.; Fritts, M. C.; Gibson, N. D.

    2006-01-01

    Oscillator strengths for transitions in P II, Cl II and Cl III are derived from lifetimes and branching factions measured with beam-foil techniques. The focus is on the multiplets with a prominent interstellar line at 1153 A in P II which is seen in spectra of hot stars, and the lines at 1071 A in Cl II and 1011 A in Cl III whose lines are seen in spectra of diffuse interstellar clouds and the Io torus acquired with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. These data represent the first complete set of experimental f-values for the lines in the multiplets. Our results for P II (lambda)1153 agree well with Curtis semi-empirical predictions, as well as the large scale computations by Hibbert and by Tayal. The data for Cl II (lambda)1071 also agree very well with the most recent theoretical effort and with Morton s newest recommendations. For Cl III, however, our f-values are significantly larger than those given by Morton; instead, they are more consistent with recent large-scale theoretical calculations. Extensive tests provide confirmation that LS coupling rules apply to the transitions for the multiplets in Cl II and Cl III.

  20. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  1. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  2. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  3. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  4. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1115 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requiring recertification. (3) The approved Minimum Equipment List must: (i) Be prepared in accordance with... inoperable instruments and equipment and the information required by (a)(3)(ii) of this section must be... directive to be in operable condition unless the airworthiness directive provides otherwise. (3)...

  6. A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

  7. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumley, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  8. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  9. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  10. The QUIET Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  11. An Instrumental Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  12. SPIRE instrument for FIRST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Matthew J.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Vigroux, Laurent G.

    2000-07-01

    SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, will be a bolometer instrument for ESA's FIRST satellite. Its main scientific goals are deep extragalactic and galactic imaging surveys and spectroscopy of star-forming regions in own and nearby galaxies. The SPIRE detectors are feedhorn- coupled NTD spider-web bolometers. The instrument comprises a three-band imaging photometer covering the 250 - 500 micrometers range, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 200 - 670 micrometers . The photometer has a field of view of 4 X 8 arcminutes which is observed simultaneously at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers with dichroic beam dividers separating the three spectral bands. Its angular resolution is determined by the telescope diffraction limit, with FWHM beam widths of approximately 17, 24 and 35 arcseconds at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers , respectively. An internal beam steering mirror can be used for spatial modulation of the telescope beam, and observations can also be made by scanning the telescope without chopping, providing better sensitivity for source confusion-limited deep surveys. The FTS has a field of view of 2.6 arcminutes and an adjustable spectral resolution of 0.04 - 2 cm-1 ((lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) equals 20 - 1000 at 250 micrometers ). It employs a dual-beam configuration with novel broad-band intensity beam dividers to provide high efficiency and separated output and input ports.

  13. The QUIET Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

  14. Space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1989-03-01

    This grant was intended to be used for the purchase of high quality laboratory and data analysis instrumentation for the pursuit of space plasma physics research. Two of the first purchases were a 6250 BPI magnetic tape drive and a large, fast disk drive. These improved the satellite data analysis capability greatly and reduced the system backup time. With the big disk drive it became possible to dump entire magnetic tapes to disk for faster, more efficient processing. Several microcomputers improve both personnel computing as well as general connectivity within the group and on campus in general. Other microcomputers function in the laboratory setting by acting as hosts for several instrument interfaces for communication with satellite and balloon payloads as well as laboratory VLF signal processing equipment. Perhaps the single most expensive item purchased was an analog tape drive for reading and writing 16 in. analog magnetic tapes. This analog tape drive is used for the direct processing of FM and directly recorded telemetry data from the balloon and rocket payloads.

  15. Instrumentation and test of the Swiss LCT-coil

    SciTech Connect

    Zichy, J.A.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1985-03-01

    Just before Christmas 1983 the fabrication of the Swiss LCT-coil was finished. Tests at ambient temperature were performed on the factory site and after delivery in Oak Ridge. To avoid an undesirable delay of the rescheduled Partial-Array Test it was agreed to install the coil without its superconducting bus. In July 1984 the Swiss LCT-coil was successfully cooled down to LHe temperature together with the other two fully installed coils. Besides the cooling system, the instrumentation, measured parameters of the coil and some preliminary results obtained during the ongoing Partial-Array Test are presented.

  16. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... also integrate reagent handling, hybridization, washing, dedicated instrument control, and other hardware components, as well as raw data storage mechanisms, data acquisition software, and software to process detected signals. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is...

  17. 77 FR 76456 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... meeting these requirements, the unique capabilities of this instrument are expanded spectral reach, x-ray... energies to a sample, which are ] synchronized to the Linac Coherent Light Source II project's ray...

  18. When rheumatologists report that they agree with a guideline, does this mean that they practise the guideline in clinical practice? Results of the International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Allaart, Cornelia F; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Smolen, Josef S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Landewé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the treat-to-target (T2T) principles have been developed in order to improve the treatment outcome of patients with RA, and have received broad attention. It is not clear, though, whether these recommendations are indeed followed up in clinical practice. Objective To investigate if rheumatologists that report to agree with existing guidelines indeed follow them up in clinical practice. Methods The International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS) included 132 participating rheumatologists from 14 countries. Participating rheumatologists received a questionnaire measuring their awareness/commitment with the EULAR/T2T recommendations and followed a dedicated educational programme. Subsequently, they were asked to enrol 5–10 patients with new-onset RA in the online IRIS database and monitor disease activity and treatment for a period of 1–2 years. Four recommendations (3 from the EULAR recommendations and one from the T2T recommendations) were selected on the basis of testability, and analysed with regard to compliance by participating rheumatologists. Results In total, 72 of the 132 participating rheumatologists contributed 378 patients to the database. Of these participants, 70 (98%) agreed upfront with the recommendation that disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis in every patient; 69 (96%) of the rheumatologists agreed with the recommendation that methotrexate (MTX) should be part of the first treatment strategy. When measuring the actual performance, it was found that the recommendation on early DMARD start was met in 253 (67%) of the recorded patients, and the recommendation on MTX in 225 (60%) of the recorded patients. Of the participants, 60 (83%) agreed that composite measures should be recorded regularly, but only in 134(54%) of the patients were

  19. XEUS mission and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30 m2 effective area and <5 inch angular resolution respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I X-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever-available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, by using the European Robotic Arm on the ISS. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employing the Earth as a shield to make the most sensitive low energy X-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. After completion of an initial observation phase lasting 5 years, the mirror spacecraft will be upgraded (basically expanded to a full 10 m diameter mirror) at the ISS, while the DSC is replaced by a new spacecraft with a new suite of detector instruments optimised to the full area XEUS mirror. An industrial feasibility study was successfully completed and identified no major problem area. Current activities focus on a full system level study and the necessary technology developments. XEUS is likely to become a truly global mission, involving many of the partners that have teamed up to build the ISS. Japan is already a major partner int the study of XEUS, with ISAS having its main

  20. Ozone Monitoring Instrument geolocation verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, M.; Dobber, M. R.; Dirksen, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; van den Oord, G. H. J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2008-08-01

    Verification of the geolocation assigned to individual ground pixels as measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the NASA EOS-Aura satellite was performed by comparing geophysical Earth surface details as observed in OMI false color images with the high-resolution continental outline vector map as provided by the Interactive Data Language (IDL) software tool from ITT Visual Information Solutions. The OMI false color images are generated from the OMI visible channel by integration over 20-nm-wide spectral bands of the Earth radiance intensity around 484 nm, 420 nm, and 360 nm wavelength per ground pixel. Proportional to the integrated intensity, we assign color values composed of CRT standard red, green, and blue to the OMI ground pixels. Earth surface details studied are mostly high-contrast coast lines where arid land or desert meets deep blue ocean. The IDL high-resolution vector map is based on the 1993 CIA World Database II Map with a 1-km accuracy. Our results indicate that the average OMI geolocation offset over the years 2005-2006 is 0.79 km in latitude and 0.29 km in longitude, with a standard deviation of 1.64 km in latitude and 2.04 km in longitude, respectively. Relative to the OMI nadir pixel size, one obtains mean displacements of ˜6.1% in latitude and ˜1.2% in longitude, with standard deviations of 12.6% and 7.9%, respectively. We conclude that the geolocation assigned to individual OMI ground pixels is sufficiently accurate to support scientific studies of atmospheric features as observed in OMI level 2 satellite data products, such as air quality issues on urban scales or volcanic eruptions and its plumes, that occur on spatial scales comparable to or smaller than OMI nadir pixels.

  1. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  2. Soldering instrument safety improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Kosslow, W.J.; Giron, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    It is an object of the present invention to make soldering instruments safer and easier to use. According to one aspect of the present invention, a non-heatsinking, protective shield is provided around the soldering tip of the solder iron. This heat shield covers the iron`s hot tip throughout the soldering process with the exception of the time needed to perform an actual solder connection using the tip. The shield protects the user or nearby personnel from harm when the soldering iron is at elevated temperatures (500{degrees}F to 800{degrees}F).Moreover, the shield is capable of preventing fires which might result if the iron`s tip inadvertently comes into contact with an object that can be easily ignited, e.g. paper. In addition, an air vacuum system is incorporated into the shield to remove the solder smoke.

  3. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  4. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  5. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  6. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  8. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  9. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the magnetic surgical instrument system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27658314

  10. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the magnetic surgical instrument system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  11. Instrument development continues in Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Ekkebus, Allen E

    2012-01-01

    Peer review panels composed of 80 external scientists recently visited Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review almost 700 proposals for experiments on 23 instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These were proposed for the time period from January-June 2012. About 40% of the proposals were approved for beam time and 20% were placed on an alternate list if time becomes available. The Hybrid Spectrometer HYSPEC at SNS began its commissioning in September 2011. HYSPEC is otpimized for studying low energy dynamics in single-crystal samples using a broad variety of sample environments, and is equipped with a polarization analysis capability. It is expected to be available for users on a limited basis in the second half of 2012. The detector tank of CORELLI has been installed on beamline 9 at SNS. Now that the tank is in place, banks of neutron detectors and boron carbide shielding will be installed around the interior. CORELLI is optimized to probe complex disorder in crystalline materials through diffuse scattering from single-crystal samples. It will begin commissioning in 2014. CORELLI is one of four instruments being developed under the SING II (SNS Instruments Next Generation II) project. The others are the Macromolecular Neutron Diffractometer (MANDI), the Vibrational Spectrometer (VISION, scheduled to begin commissioning in 2012), and the Time of Flight Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument (TOF-USANS). The single crystal neutron diffractometer IMAGINE, was deliverd to HFIR in October 2011. Preliminary testing has been carried out. IMAGINE will provide atomic resolution information on chemical, organic, metallo-organic and protein single crystals that will enable their chemical, physical and biological structure and function to be understood. This instrument will benefit scientists with interests in pharmaceuticals, minerals and other inorganic crystals, small molecules, molecular organo

  12. Realism, positivism, instrumentalism, and quantum geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prugovečki, Eduard

    1992-02-01

    The roles of classical realism, logical positivism, and pragmatic instrumentalism in the shaping of fundamental ideas in quantum physics are examined in the light of some recent historical and sociological studies of the factors that influenced their development. It is shown that those studies indicate that the conventionalistic form of instrumentalism that has dominated all the major post-World War II developments in quantum physics is not an outgrowth of the Copenhagen school, and that despite the “schism” in twentieth century physics created by the Bohr-Einstein “disagreements” on foundational issues in quantum theory, both their philosophical stands were very much opposed to those of conventionalistic instrumentalism. Quotations from the writings of Dirac, Heisenberg, Popper, Russell, and other influential thinkers, are provided, illustrating the fact that, despite the various divergencies in their opinions, they all either opposed the instrumentalist concept of “truth” in general, or its conventionalistic version in post-World War II quantum physics in particular. The basic epistemic ideas of a quantum geometry approach to quantum physics are reviewed and discussed from the point of view of a quantum realism that seeks to reconcile Bohr's “positivism” with Einstein's “realism” by emphasizing the existence of an underlying quantum reality, in which they both believed. This quantum geometry framework seeks to introduce geometro-stochastic concepts that are specifically designed for the systematic description of that underlying quantum reality, by developing the conceptual and mathematical tools that are most appropriate for such a use.

  13. Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, instrumentation room, bays and console plan. Specifications No. Eng-04-353-55-72; drawing no. 60-09-12; sheet 110 of 148; file no. 1321/61. Stamped: Record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-01-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive

  15. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.988-6 - Nonfunctional currency contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the method that reflects the instrument's economic substance. (ii) Discretion as to method. If a... that reflects the instrument's economic substance, the Commissioner may apply the rules of this section... bond method (as set forth in § 1.1275-4(b)) in the nonfunctional currency in which a debt...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1274-1 - Debt instruments to which section 1274 applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable on the instrument is qualified stated interest; (ii) The stated rate of interest is at least equal to the test rate of interest (as defined in § 1.1274-4); (iii) The debt instrument is not issued in a... subject to section 1041 (relating to transfers of property between spouses or incident to divorce)....

  18. Galactic interstellar abundance surveys with IUE. II - The equivalent widths and column densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Steenberg, Michael E.; Shull, J. Michael

    1988-01-01

    This paper continues a survey of interstellar densities, abundances, and cloud structure in the Galaxy, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. Equivalent widths of 18 ultraviolet resonance transitions are presented and column densities for Si II, Mn II, Fe II, S II, and Zn II toward 261 early-type stars are derived. These equivalent widths and column densities agree within the stated errors of earlier Copernicus, BUSS, or IUE surveys of Mn II, Fe II, S II, and Zn II for 45 stars in common. The column densities are derived from single-component curves of growth with a common b-value based on that of Fe II and Si II.

  19. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Cancer.gov

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  20. The instrumental rationality of addiction.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Hanna

    2011-12-01

    The claim that non-addictive drug use is instrumental must be distinguished from the claim that its desired ends are evolutionarily adaptive or easy to comprehend. Use can be instrumental without being adaptive or comprehensible. This clarification, together with additional data, suggests that Müller & Schumann's (M&S's) instrumental framework may explain addictive, as well as non-addictive consumption. PMID:22074973

  1. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  2. Two Radiative/Thermochemical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Janoff, Dwight D.; Shelley, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of absorption and emission complement thermal measurements. Two laboratory instruments for research in combustion and pyrolysis equipped for radiative as well as thermal measurements. One instrument essentially differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) modified to detect radiation emitted by flames. Provides means to evaluate limits of flammability of materials exhibiting exothermic reactions in DSC's. Other instrument used to determine pyrolysis properties of specimens exposed to various gases by measurement of infrared absorption spectra of pyrolysis products.

  3. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents from the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBW, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  4. SAO Participation in the GOME and SCIAMACHY Satellite Instrument Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest (Technical Monitor); Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on our three-year program of research to refine the measurement capability for satellite-based instruments that monitor ozone and other trace species in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere, to retrieve global distributions of these and other constituents h m the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments, and to conduct scientific studies for the ILAS instruments. This continues our involvements as a U.S. participant in GOME and SCIAMACHY since their inception, and as a member of the ILAS-II Science Team. These programs have led to the launch of the first satellite instrument specifically designed to measure height-resolved ozone, including the tropospheric component (GOME), and the development of the first satellite instrument that will measure tropospheric ozone simultaneously with NO2, CO, HCHO, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (SCIAMACHY). The GOME program now includes the GOME-2 instruments, to be launched on the Eumetsat Metop satellites, providing long-term continuity in European measurements of global ozone that complement the measurements of the TOMS, SBUV, OMI, OMPS instruments. The research primarily focuses on two areas: Data analysis, including algorithm development and validation studies that will improve the quality of retrieved data products, in support for future field campaigns (to complement in situ and airborne campaigns with satellite measurements), and scientific analyses to be interfaced to atmospheric modeling studies.

  5. The tissue diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  6. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  7. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  8. Halo vest instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  9. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  10. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  11. Ultrasonics and space instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

  12. The Clementine instrument complement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.

  13. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  14. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  15. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus.

  16. Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Gwyn

    2012-03-01

    With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.

  17. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  18. Analysis of Fine-Mode Aerosol Retrieval Capabilities by Different Passive Remote Sensing Instrument Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael; Chowdhary, Jacek; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Martin, William; Ottaviani, Matteo; Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing of aerosol optical properties is difficult, but multi-angle, multi-spectral, polarimetric instruments have the potential to retrieve sufficient information about aerosols that they can be used to improve global climate models. However, the complexity of these instruments means that it is difficult to intuitively understand the relationship between instrument design and retrieval success. We apply a Bayesian statistical technique that relates instrument characteristics to the information contained in an observation. Using realistic simulations of fine size mode dominated spherical aerosols, we investigate three instrument designs. Two of these represent instruments currently in orbit: the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the POLarization and Directionality of the Earths Reflectances (POLDER). The third is the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS), which failed to reach orbit during recent launch, but represents a viable design for future instruments. The results show fundamental differences between the three, and offer suggestions for future instrument design and the optimal retrieval strategy for current instruments. Generally, our results agree with previous validation efforts of POLDER and airborne prototypes of APS, but show that the MISR aerosol optical thickness uncertainty characterization is possibly underestimated.

  19. MISR Instrument Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David; Garay, Michael; Diner, David; Thompson, Charles; Hall, Jeffrey; Rheingans, Brian; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The MISR Interactive eXplorer (MINX) software functions both as a general-purpose tool to visualize Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument data, and as a specialized tool to analyze properties of smoke, dust, and volcanic plumes. It includes high-level options to create map views of MISR orbit locations; scrollable, single-camera RGB (red-greenblue) images of MISR level 1B2 (L1B2) radiance data; and animations of the nine MISR camera images that provide a 3D perspective of the scenes that MISR has acquired. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 55 The plume height capability provides an accurate estimate of the injection height of plumes that is needed by air quality and climate modelers. MISR provides global high-quality stereo height information, and this program uses that information to perform detailed height retrievals of aerosol plumes. Users can interactively digitize smoke, dust, or volcanic plumes and automatically retrieve heights and winds, and can also archive MISR albedos and aerosol properties, as well as fire power and brightness temperatures associated with smoke plumes derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Some of the specialized options in MINX enable the user to do other tasks. Users can display plots of top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) versus camera-angle for selected pixels. Images and animations can be saved to disk in various formats. Also, users can apply a geometric registration correction to warp camera images when the standard processing correction is inadequate. It is possible to difference the images of two MISR orbits that share a path (identical ground track), as well as to construct pseudo-color images by assigning different combinations of MISR channels (angle or spectral band) to the RGB display channels. This software is an interactive application written in IDL and compiled into an IDL Virtual Machine (VM) ".sav" file.

  20. 45 CFR 164.512 - Uses and disclosures for which an authorization or opportunity to agree or object is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... absence of facial hair (beard or moustache), scars, and tattoos. (ii) Except as permitted by paragraph (f... employer needs such findings in order to comply with its obligations, under 29 CFR parts 1904 through 1928, 30 CFR parts 50 through 90, or under state law having a similar purpose, to record such illness...

  1. Associations in Human Instrumental Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez, A. Matias; Rosas, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to study the contents of human instrumental conditioning. Experiment 1 found positive transfer between a discriminative stimulus (S[superscript D] and an instrumental response (R) that shared the outcome (O) with the response that was originally trained with the S[superscript D], showing the formation of an…

  2. Usability in space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, J.; Scapin, D.

    2009-12-01

    The scientists who will eventually use data from a space instrument may not be the most important people to consider during the development programme, argues Alec McCalden. Better results could come from treating instrument usability as a design parameter from the start.

  3. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  4. Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

  5. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  6. Introduction to Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III

    This module contains instructional materials on instrumentation to help teachers train students in the job skills they will need as beginning instrumentation technicians. The module addresses the nature of accessing, measuring, and controlling phenomena such as level, flow, pressure, and temperature. Students are introduced to the devices and…

  7. Ethnic Studies Materials Analysis Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    An instrument for analyzing ethnic studies curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check ethnic accuracy of materials as an aid to classroom teachers who are preparing ethnic studies curriculum. The booklet is divided into two main sections.…

  8. Career Education Materials Analysis Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedstrom, Judith E.; Williams, Constance M.

    An instrument for analyzing career education curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check the educational soundness and accuracy of career education materials. The booklet is divided into two main sections. Part I is a modified version of the…

  9. Statistics of equivalent width data and new oscillator strengths for Si II, Fe II, and Mn II. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Dave

    1986-01-01

    Equivalent width data from Copernicus and IUE appear to have an exponential, rather than a Gaussian distribution of errors. This is probably because there is one dominant source of error: the assignment of the background continuum shape. The maximum likelihood method of parameter estimation is presented for the case of exponential statistics, in enough generality for application to many problems. The method is applied to global fitting of Si II, Fe II, and Mn II oscillator strengths and interstellar gas parameters along many lines of sight. The new values agree in general with previous determinations but are usually much more tightly constrained. Finally, it is shown that care must be taken in deriving acceptable regions of parameter space because the probability contours are not generally ellipses whose axes are parallel to the coordinate axes.

  10. The ATST Virtual Instrument Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, S.; Goodrich, B.

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is intended to be the premier solar observatory for experimental physics. Unlike its night-time counterparts that operate with relatively fixed instrument sets, ATST's science goals and requirements are best met by a laboratory style instrument configuration, where scientific requirements often mean that instrumentation must be assembled by scientists to meet the unique demands of each experiment. In order to maximize observing efficiency the ATST software and control systems must be designed to operate smoothly in this environment. To meet the requirement of providing flexibility in a laboratory style operations environment, the control system uses a Virtual Instrument Model. This report introduces this model and briefly outlines its salient characteristics. The aim is to provide some insight into the approach being proposed as part of the overall software and controls design and to provide a foundation for discussions on the advantages and disadvantages of using a virtual instrument model.

  11. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  12. A review of health-related workplace productivity loss instruments.

    PubMed

    Lofland, Jennifer H; Pizzi, Laura; Frick, Kevin D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this review was to identify health-related workplace productivity loss survey instruments, with particular emphasis on those that capture a metric suitable for direct translation into a monetary figure. A literature search using Medline, HealthSTAR, PsycINFO and Econlit databases between 1966 and 2002, and a telephone-administered survey of business leaders and researchers, were conducted to identify health-related workplace productivity measurement survey instruments. This review was conducted from the societal perspective. Each identified instrument was reviewed for the following: (i). reliability; (ii). content validity; (iii). construct validity; (iv). criterion validity; (v). productivity metric(s); (vi). instrument scoring technique; (vii). suitability for direct translation into a monetary figure; (viii). number of items; (ix). mode(s) of administration; and (x). disease state(s) in which it had been tested. Reliability and validity testing have been performed for 8 of the 11 identified surveys. Of the 11 instruments identified, six captured metrics that are suitable for direct translation into a monetary figure. Of those six, one instrument measured absenteeism, while the other five measured both absenteeism and presenteeism. All of the identified instruments except for one were available as paper, self-administered questionnaires and many were available in languages other than English. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the published, peer-reviewed survey instruments available to measure health-related workplace productivity loss. As the field of productivity measurement matures, tools may be developed that will allow researchers to accurately calculate lost productivity costs when performing cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Using data captured by these instruments, society and healthcare decision makers will be able to make better informed decisions concerning the value of the medications, disease management and

  13. A review of health-related workplace productivity loss instruments.

    PubMed

    Lofland, Jennifer H; Pizzi, Laura; Frick, Kevin D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this review was to identify health-related workplace productivity loss survey instruments, with particular emphasis on those that capture a metric suitable for direct translation into a monetary figure. A literature search using Medline, HealthSTAR, PsycINFO and Econlit databases between 1966 and 2002, and a telephone-administered survey of business leaders and researchers, were conducted to identify health-related workplace productivity measurement survey instruments. This review was conducted from the societal perspective. Each identified instrument was reviewed for the following: (i). reliability; (ii). content validity; (iii). construct validity; (iv). criterion validity; (v). productivity metric(s); (vi). instrument scoring technique; (vii). suitability for direct translation into a monetary figure; (viii). number of items; (ix). mode(s) of administration; and (x). disease state(s) in which it had been tested. Reliability and validity testing have been performed for 8 of the 11 identified surveys. Of the 11 instruments identified, six captured metrics that are suitable for direct translation into a monetary figure. Of those six, one instrument measured absenteeism, while the other five measured both absenteeism and presenteeism. All of the identified instruments except for one were available as paper, self-administered questionnaires and many were available in languages other than English. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the published, peer-reviewed survey instruments available to measure health-related workplace productivity loss. As the field of productivity measurement matures, tools may be developed that will allow researchers to accurately calculate lost productivity costs when performing cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Using data captured by these instruments, society and healthcare decision makers will be able to make better informed decisions concerning the value of the medications, disease management and

  14. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with

  15. Validation of SAGE II NO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Zawodny, J. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of NO2 measurements from the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II is examined by comparing the data with climatological distributions of NO2 and by examining the consistency of the observations themselves. The precision at high altitudes is found to be 5 percent, which is also the case at specific low altitudes for certain latitudes where the mixing ratio is 4 ppbv, and the precision is 0.2 ppbv at low altitudes. The autocorrelation distance of the smoothed profile measurement noise is 3-5 km and 10 km for 1-km and 5-km smoothing, respectively. The SAGE II measurements agree with spectroscopic measurements to within 10 percent, and the SAGE measurements are about 20 percent smaller than average limb monitor measurements at the mixing ratio peak. SAGE I and SAGE II measurements are slightly different, but the difference is not attributed to changes in atmospheric NO2.

  16. SUNRISE: INSTRUMENT, MISSION, DATA, AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Bonet, J. A.; Pillet, V. MartInez; Domingo, V.; Palacios, J.; Knoelker, M.; Gonzalez, N. Bello; Berkefeld, T.; Franz, M.; Schmidt, W.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    The SUNRISE balloon-borne solar observatory consists of a 1 m aperture Gregory telescope, a UV filter imager, an imaging vector polarimeter, an image stabilization system, and further infrastructure. The first science flight of SUNRISE yielded high-quality data that revealed the structure, dynamics, and evolution of solar convection, oscillations, and magnetic fields at a resolution of around 100 km in the quiet Sun. After a brief description of instruments and data, the first qualitative results are presented. In contrast to earlier observations, we clearly see granulation at 214 nm. Images in Ca II H display narrow, short-lived dark intergranular lanes between the bright edges of granules. The very small-scale, mixed-polarity internetwork fields are found to be highly dynamic. A significant increase in detectable magnetic flux is found after phase-diversity-related reconstruction of polarization maps, indicating that the polarities are mixed right down to the spatial resolution limit and probably beyond.

  17. Electrochemical Microsensors for the Detection of Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Zehnalek, Josef; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Routine determination of trace metals in complex media is still a difficult task for many analytical instruments. The aim of this work was to compare three electro-chemical instruments [a standard potentiostat (Autolab), a commercially available miniaturized potentiostat (PalmSens) and a homemade micropotentiostat] for easy-to-use and sensitive determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) ions. The lowest detection limits (hundreds of pM) for both metals was achieved by using of the standard potentiostat, followed by the miniaturized potentiostat (tens of nM) and the homemade instrument (hundreds of nM). Nevertheless, all potentiostats were sensitive enough to evaluate contamination of the environment, because the environmental limits for both metals are higher than detection limits of the instruments. Further, we tested all used potentiostats and working electrodes on analysis of environmental samples (rainwater, flour and plant extract) with artificially added cadmium(II) and lead(II). Based on the similar results obtained for all potentiostats we choose a homemade instrument with a carbon tip working electrode for our subsequent environmental experiments, in which we analyzed maize and sunflower seedlings and rainwater obtained from various sites in the Czech Republic. PMID:22219663

  18. Creating and validating an instrument to identify the workload at an oncology and hematology outpatient service

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lelia Gonçalves Rocha; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone

    2014-01-01

    Objective Construct and to validate an instrument for measuring the time spent by nursing staff in the interventions/activities in Outpatient Oncology and Hematology, interventions based on Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), for key areas of Pediatric Oncology and Oncology Nursing. Methods Cross-sectional study divided into two steps: (1) construction of an instrument to measure the interventions/Nursing activities and (2) validation of this instrument. Results We selected 32 essential interventions from NIC for Pediatric Oncology and Oncology Nursing areas. The judges agreed with removing 13 and including 6 interventions in the instrument, beyond personal activity. Conclusion The choice of essential interventions from NIC is justified by the gain time on research. PMID:25295454

  19. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  20. Novel fiber optic immunosensor instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Huang, Wenling; Tang, Lei; Zhou, Bo; Li, Yugi; He, Jun

    1996-09-01

    It has developed and performed a novel fiberoptic immunosensor instrument with operating wavelength 400 - 760 nm and repeatability cv equals 0.27%. The instrument has many excellent features such as simplified operation, faster testing time, higher sensitivity and economic cost. It has completely eliminated recovery period which traditional immunosensor owned due to use separative sensor structure. It can widely apply to test for bacteria, virus, hormone, parasite and cancer protein in clinical examination. The instrument has operated in laboratory and relevant medicine units and successfully tested monoclonal rat-anti-human of 413 cases in clinic and prepared with existing ELISA method, the coincidence probability reached 94 to 100%.

  1. Commissioning Instrument for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, S.; Sánchez, B.; Bringas, V.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Chavolla, A.; Anguiano, G.; Arciniega, S.; Dorantes, A.; González, J. L.; Montoya, J. M.; Toral, R.; Hernández, H.; Nava, R.; Devaney, N.; Castro, J.; Cavaller-Marqués, L.

    2005-12-01

    During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes: imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomía UNAM and the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) under GRANTECAN contract after a public bid. In this paper we made a general instrument overview and we show some of the performance final results obtained when the Factory Acceptance tests previous to its transport to La Palma.

  2. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  3. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  4. Validating GOES Instrument Thermal Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harter, Peter; Ghaffarian, Benny; Ng, Ray; Pugh, Brett; Wilkin, Paul; Sayal, Chetan; Chu, Don

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) instrument thermal model predictions with on-orbit data shows that the models capture the observed temperature and misalignment trends. Lack of precise knowledge as to spacecraft pointing precludes such comparison with instrument pointing predictions. Based on the models, thermally induced instrument attitude variation will dominate GOES N-Q Image Motion Compensation (IMC). Errors due to day-to-day changes in the attitude profiles are predicted to be under 10 microradians except for rapid scans where disturbances may reach 30 microradians.

  5. Genetic markers as instrumental variables

    PubMed Central

    von Hinke, Stephanie; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Propper, Carol; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The use of genetic markers as instrumental variables (IV) is receiving increasing attention from economists, statisticians, epidemiologists and social scientists. Although IV is commonly used in economics, the appropriate conditions for the use of genetic variants as instruments have not been well defined. The increasing availability of biomedical data, however, makes understanding of these conditions crucial to the successful use of genotypes as instruments. We combine the econometric IV literature with that from genetic epidemiology, and discuss the biological conditions and IV assumptions within the statistical potential outcomes framework. We review this in the context of two illustrative applications. PMID:26614692

  6. EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF EINSTEIN A-COEFFICIENT RATIOS OF BRIGHT [Fe II] LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Alcalá, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Bonito, R.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe{sup +} lines have been computed by several authors with results that differ from each other by up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties that in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines that would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-Very Large Telescope X-shooter instrument between 3000 Å and 24700 Å, we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH 1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratios ≥100. Among these latter lines, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose dereddened intensity ratios are direct functions of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH 1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, H I  recombination lines and H{sub 2} ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-coefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (λ12570/λ16440 and λ13209/λ16440) are in better agreement with the predictions by the Quinet et al. relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predict A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all of our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations.

  7. Empirical Determination of Einstein A-coefficient Ratios of Bright [Fe II] Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Alcalá, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Bonito, R.; Podio, L.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe+ lines have been computed by several authors with results that differ from each other by up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties that in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines that would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-Very Large Telescope X-shooter instrument between 3000 Å and 24700 Å, we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH 1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratios >=100. Among these latter lines, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose dereddened intensity ratios are direct functions of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH 1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, H I recombination lines and H2 ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-coefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (λ12570/λ16440 and λ13209/λ16440) are in better agreement with the predictions by the Quinet et al. relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predict A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all of our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations. Based on observations collected with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal (Chile), operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Program ID: 092.C-0058(A).

  8. Can we agree on patient-reported outcome measures for assessing hematopoietic cell transplantation patients? A study from the CIBMTR and BMT CTN.

    PubMed

    Shaw, B E; Lee, S J; Horowitz, M M; Wood, W A; Rizzo, J D; Flynn, K E

    2016-09-01

    Much research into the impact of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on recipients' symptoms, functioning and health-related quality of life uses diverse patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Robust conclusions regarding PROs in HCT patients are constrained by methodological issues, including the use of multiple different and noncomparable assessment measures. We reviewed 114 publications addressing PROs in HCT patients. Although three multi-item measures were most frequently used (FACT-BMT, n=28; European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, n=26; and SF-36, n=26), 25 additional measures were used in more than one study. Another 50 measures were used in single studies. Over 50% of studies used more than one measure. We recommend that the field agrees upon a set of measures to address the core domains important to patients, to reduce heterogeneity and allow comparisons across studies and between different populations. Measures should be available in a free and easily accessible manner internationally. We discuss the relative benefits of the National Institutes of Health-supported Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) system to achieve these goals. To further address these issues, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network has recently created a task force to implement PROMIS measures alongside traditional PRO measures in future clinical trials. Robust comparisons between measures in this setting may allow for the development of a standard for HCT patients. PMID:27159181

  9. Instrumentation and testing of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessheimer, M.F.; Pace, D.W.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1997-04-01

    Static overpressurization tests of two scale models of nuclear containment structures - a steel containment vessel (SCV) representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR) - are being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper discusses plans for instrumentation and testing of the PCCV model. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. New Methods of Optical Modeling for Astronomical Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutin, B.

    1996-05-01

    A new raytracing program written by the author is being used to model the Keck II telescope and two new instruments currently being built at UCO/Lick Observatory, DEIMOS and ESI. Optical systems are written as programs in a block-structured programming language which includes arbitrary mathematical expressions. Full three-dimensional models of the telescope and instruments are raytraced, and a complete description of the final system can be written as an AutoCAD file for mechanical engineering purposes. Detailed spectral format, distortion, image diameters, and beam "footprints" at any surface are easily displayed. Light losses from surface reflections and internal absorption in refractive elements and vignetting are calculated. Examples of each of these uses are given for either the DEIMOS or ESI instruments.

  11. Ames Scientists Develop MSL Instrument

    NASA Video Gallery

    David Blake, a research scientist at NASA Ames, led the development of CheMin, one of ten scientific instruments onboard Curiosity, the Mars Scientific Laboratory. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction tool...

  12. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  13. Instrument detects bacterial life forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plakas, C.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument assays enzymatic bioluminescent reaction that occurs when adenosine triphosphate /ATP/ combines with lucifrase and luciferin. Module assembly minimizes need for hardware associated with reaction fluid and waste transfer. System is applicable in marine biology and aerospace and medical fields.

  14. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  15. Tailoring Instrumentation to the Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abplanalp, Glen H.; Menzenhauer, Fred C.

    1978-01-01

    This article provides guidelines in selecting appropriate instrumentation for water treatment facilities. Major areas of concern include: technical operating requirements of the process; equipment design and quality; installations; and mechanical aptitude of personnel. (CS)

  16. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry

    PubMed Central

    McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  17. Life support subsystem monitoring instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Kostell, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.

  18. Interfacing Microcomputers with Laboratory Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of microcomputer-controlled gamma scintillation spectrometer and chromatographic data analyzer, including design and construction of interface electronics and production of software. Includes diagrams of electric circuits and project evaluation indicating that both instruments functioned as intended. (JN)

  19. Course on Instruments Updates Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course in chemical instrumentation for high school chemistry teachers, paid for by Union Carbide. Teachers used spectrophotometer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrograph, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph and infrared spectrophotometer. Also describes other teacher education seminars. (JM)

  20. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  1. Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Richard L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

  2. Trends in data acquisition instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanar, George J.

    1993-10-01

    Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including BNL, FNAL, CERN, SLAC, etc., as well as LeCroy Corporation's 26 year history in the field of physics research instrumentation. Finally, instrumentation needs for the next generation of high energy, hadron colliders including the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be reviewed and compared to current technologies.

  3. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  4. The MEPHISTO scientific space instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambon, G.; Cadet, G.; Favier, J. J.

    1987-02-01

    A furnace to study solidification on Earth and in orbit was developed. Design and performances in Bridgman-Stockbarger directional solidification are given in terms of thermal gradient achievables, thermal gradient stability, back-melting mastering, and quenching capabilities. In-situ measurements in real time of fundamental parameters for the solidification process control, associated with a possible interactivity between the principal investigator on ground and the instrument in orbit, are among the main features of the space instrument.

  5. Instrumentation, Monitoring and NDE for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Good, Morris S.; Waltar, Alan E.

    2007-07-28

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has been proposed as a viable system in which to close the fuel cycle in a manner consistent with markedly expanding the global role of nuclear power while significantly reducing proliferation risks. A key part of this system relies on the development of actinide transmutation, which can only be effectively accomplished in a fast-spectrum reactor. The fundamental physics for fast reactors is well established. However, to achieve higher standards of safety and reliability, operate with longer intervals between outages, and achieve high operating capacity factors, new instrumentation and on-line monitoring capabilities will be required--during both fabrication and operation. Since the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) reactors were operational in the USA, there have been major advances in instrumentation, not the least being the move to digital systems. Some specific capabilities have been developed outside the USA, but new or at least re-established capabilities will be required. In many cases the only available information is in reports and papers. New and improved sensors and instrumentation will be required. Advanced instrumentation has been developed for high-temperature/high-flux conditions in some cases, but most of the original researchers and manufacturers are retired or no longer in business.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 25.1337 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit...

  7. INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

    2001-05-04

    Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

  8. The SETI instrument development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The architecture of the instrument system for the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) program is briefly described and the development approach used to implement the operational instruments is discussed. The two versions of the instrument system include a target survey instrument to observe at a very high sensitivity a selected set of interesting stars that have particular a priori promise, and a sky survey instrument to observe the entire celestial sphere at a lower sensitivity. The targeted survey utilizes the 305 meter antenna at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, a 64 meter DSN antenna, and other large radio telescopes. The Arecibo instrument provides the highest sensitivity by virtue of the antenna gain. The antenna line feeds cover an instantaneous frequency range of 50 MHz (tunable over 100 MHz), while the multichannel spectrum analyzer/signal detector is capable of analyzing a frequency segment 16 MHz wide with a maximum resolution of 1 Hz. The sky survey employs a listen-only, 34 meter antenna. The SETI breadboard development is also described.

  9. A multi-instrument analysis of sunspot umbrae

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, F. T.; Penn, M. J.; Livingston, W.

    2014-05-20

    The recent solar minimum and rise phase of solar cycle 24 have been unlike any period since the early 1900s. This article examines some of the properties of sunspot umbrae over the last 17 yr with three different instruments on the ground and in space: MDI, HMI and BABO. The distribution of magnetic fields and their evolution over time is shown and reveals that the field distribution in cycle 24 is fundamentally different from that in cycle 23. The annual average umbral magnetic field is then examined for the 17 yr observation period and shows a small decrease of 375 G in sunspot magnetic fields over the period 1996-2013, but the mean intensity of sunspot umbrae does not vary significantly over this time. A possible issue with sample sizes in a previous study is then explored to explain disagreements in data from two of the source instruments. All three instruments show that the relationship between umbral magnetic fields and umbral intensity agrees with past studies in that the umbral intensity decreases as the field strength increases. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the range of magnetic field values measured for a given umbral intensity being larger than the measured 375 G change in umbral field strength over time.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section, or (ii) Develop a continuous best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a... flow. The points on the calibration curve relative to the calibration device measurements must...

  11. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section; or (ii) Develop a continuous best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a... flow. The points on the calibration curve relative to the calibration device measurements must...

  12. Combined SAGE II-GOMOS ozone profile data set for 1984-2011 and trend analysis of the vertical distribution of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Tukiainen, S.; Zawodny, J.; Thomason, L.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied data from two satellite occultation instruments in order to generate a high vertical resolution homogeneous ozone time series of 26 yr. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument and the Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument measured ozone profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere from 1984-2005 and 2002-2012, respectively. Global coverage, good vertical resolution, and the self-calibrating measurement method make data from these instruments valuable for the detection of changes in vertical distribution of ozone over time. As both instruments share a common measurement period from 2002-2005, it is possible to inter-calibrate the data sets. We investigate how well these measurements agree with each other and combine all the data to produce a new stratospheric ozone profile data set. Above 55 km, SAGE II measurements show much less ozone than the GOMOS nighttime measurements as a consequence of the well-known diurnal variation of ozone in the mesosphere. Between 35-55 km, SAGE II sunrise and sunset measurements differ from GOMOS' measurements to different extents. Sunrise measurements show 2% less ozone than GOMOS, whereas sunset measurements show 4% more ozone than GOMOS. Differences can be explained qualitatively by the diurnal variation of ozone in the stratosphere recently observed by SMILES and modeled by chemical transport models. Between 25-35 km, SAGE II sunrise and sunset measurements and GOMOS measurements agree within 1%. The observed ozone bias between collocated measurements of SAGE II sunrise/sunset and GOMOS night measurements is used to align the two data sets. The combined data set covers the time period 1984-2011, latitudes 60° S-60° N, and the altitude range of 20-60 km. Profile data are given on a 1 km vertical grid, and with a resolution of 1 month in time and 10° in latitude. The combined ozone data set is analyzed by fitting a time series model to the

  13. Combined SAGE II-GOMOS ozone profile data set 1984-2011 and trend analysis of the vertical distribution of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Tukiainen, S.; Zawodny, J.; Thomason, L.

    2013-04-01

    We have studied data from two satellite occultation instruments in order to generate a high vertical resolution homogeneous ozone time series of 26 yr. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experimen (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument from 1984-2005 and the Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument (GOMOS) from 2002-2012 measured ozone profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Global coverage, good vertical resolution and the self calibrating measurement method make data from these instruments valuable for the detection of changes in vertical distribution of ozone over time. As both instruments share a common measurement period from 2002-2005, it is possible to intercalibrate the data sets. We investigate how well these measurements agree with each other and combine all the data to produce a new stratospheric ozone profile data set. Above 55 km SAGE II measurements show much less ozone than the GOMOS nighttime measurements as a consequence of the well-known diurnal variation of ozone in the mesosphere. Between 35-55 km SAGE II sunrise and sunset measurements differ from each other. Sunrise measurements show 2% less ozone than GOMOS whereas sunset measurements show 4% more ozone than GOMOS. Differences can be explained qualitatively by the diurnal variation of ozone in the stratosphere recently observed by SMILES and modelled by chemical transport models. For 25-35 km SAGE II sunrise and sunset and GOMOS agree within 1%. The observed ozone bias between collocated measurements of SAGE II sunrise/sunset and GOMOS night measurements is used to align the two data sets. The combined data set covers the time period 1984-2011, latitudes 60° S-60° N and the altitude range of 20-60 km. Profile data are given on a 1 km vertical grid, and with a resolution of one month in time and ten degrees in latitude. The combined ozone data set is analyzed by fitting a time series model to the data. We assume a linear trend with an inflexion point (so-called "hockey

  14. Agreement between a generic and disease-specific quality-of-life instrument: the 15D and the SGRQ in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ritva, K; Pekka, R; Harri, S

    2000-01-01

    The generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument 15D, and the disease-specific St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were highly correlated in cross-sectional and in follow-up data among asthmatic patients. However, a high correlation does not mean that these instruments yield similar results about outcome. We measured among 134 asthmatic patients the mathematical relationship between the changes in the scores of these instruments by regression techniques and agreement by cross-tabulation. The prospective data included measurements at baseline and at one, three and five years. The three measurements of change in HRQOL were compared with the baseline. There was a close mathematical relationship between the scores, but it was affected significantly by confounding factors such as patient's age, gender and smoking habits. The instruments agreed on the direction of change in HRQOL (positive or negative) in 64.8% of patients, while in 15.8% the changes were in opposite direction. There was a statistically significant difference in indicating the direction of changes (improvement or decline) of these instruments. The changes in the SGRQ scores agreed slightly better than those in the 15D with the changes in clinical parameters. The conclusion was that these instruments do not necessarily yield similar results of effectiveness. Therefore, the choice of HRQOL instrument may influence the economic attractiveness of different asthma interventions. The disease-specific SGRQ agreed slightly better than the generic 15D with the changes in clinical parameters. PMID:11332228

  15. High Data Rate Instrument Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

    1999-01-01

    The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

  16. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information on developments in instrumentation is arranged into four sections: (1) instrumentation for analysis; (2) analysis of matter; (3) analysis of electrical and mechanical phenomena; and (4) structural analysis. Patent information for two of the instruments described is presented.

  17. The instrument explosion--a study of aircraft cockpit instruments.

    PubMed

    Lovesey, E J

    1977-03-01

    Aircraft cockpit instruments have been increasing in number since the Wright Brothers made their first powered flight. As aeroplane development progresses, new systems are continually being added to improve performance or capability and cockpits have now reached the stage where there is often little space left in which to install the monitoring instruments for these additional systems. Fortunately, the advent of electronic cockpit displays offers a solution to this problem. One electronic display can be used to present the information previously requiring several conventional electro-mechanical instruments, with a consequent saving in cockpit panel space. However, cockpit displays must be matched to the pilot's information requirements and processing abilities. If this is not done the advantages of electronic displays will not be realised and the pilot will be in an even worse position than he was before.

  18. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  19. IRIS Controlled Source Seismic Experiments: Continental Structure, Instrumentation, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    The controlled-source seismology program of IRIS/PASSCAL has made major contributions to the study of continental structure and evolution. It has also undergone major developments in seismic instrumentation. The first PASSCAL experiments (1984/85) targeted the Basin and Range Province and the Ouachita orogenic belt. The Basin and Range study provided remarkably clear images of this thin, highly-extended crust, while the Ouachita experiment tested competing hypotheses for the deep structure of this Paleozoic orogen. However, both of these projects were limited by a lack of seismic instruments. The situation improved in the late 1980's with the benefit of a mixed array of 600 seismic recorders from the USGS, Stanford, and the Geological Survey of Canada. The resolution achieved with these instruments was revolutionary. Results include the imaging of such remarkable features as crustal-scale duplexes in the Brooks Range compressional orogen of northern Alaska, and of crustal "core complexes" in the extended crust of southwest Arizona. The 3-channel PASSCAL Jr. instrument was developed, leading to experiments in which ˜1000 instruments were deployed, including three-component recording. This complex mix of instruments served the community well for several years, but required large, complex instrument centers and lots of technical support. With input from PASSCAL and the international community, a newly designed, compact instrument (the Texan) was finalized in the spring of 1998, and the first 200 instruments was delivered to the Univ. of Texas-El Paso in late 1998. The present instrument pool of Texans exceeds 1,400 and these have been used on such projects as the high-resolution imaging of the Los Angeles and San Fernando basins (LARSE I and II experiments), where active thrust faults have been imaged. Controlled-source seismic experiments are now very numerous. During calendar year 2004 alone, portable Texan instruments have traveled from Venezuela to Denmark

  20. Application Programming in AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Matt; McGrath, Kevin; Burks, Jason; Carcione, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception almost 8 years ago, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has integrated NASA data into the National Weather Service's decision support system (DSS) the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SPoRT has, in some instances, had to shape and transform data sets into various formats and manipulate configurations to visualize them in AWIPS. With the advent of the next generation of DSS, AWIPS II, developers will be able to develop their own plugins to handle any type of data. Raytheon is developing AWIPS II to be a more extensible package written mainly in Java, and built around a Service Oriented Architecture. A plugin architecture will allow users to install their own code modules, and (if all the rules have been properly followed) they will work hand-in-hand with AWIPS II as if it were originally built in. Users can bring in new datasets with existing plugins, tweak plugins to handle a nuance or desired new functionality, or create an entirely new visualization layout for a new dataset. SPoRT is developing plugins to ensure its existing NASA data will be ready for AWIPS II when it is delivered, and to prepare for the future of new instruments on upcoming satellites.

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  2. AMO Instrumentation for the LCLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, John

    2008-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is quickly nearing completion. When finished in summer 2009, the LCLS will produce ultrafast pulses of x-rays with photon energies of 800 -- 8000 eV, intensities >= 10^13 ph/s and pulse durations of 150 fs, at a repetition rate of 120Hz. A suite of four instruments, including one dedicated to AMO science, are currently being designed for first experiments with the LCLS source. The design of the AMO instrument is in the final stages with construction to begin later this year. Included in the AMO instrumentation are optics to focus the LCLS beam to a waist of ˜2μm, an experimental chamber with a supersonic pulsed gas jet, a set of five time-of-flight electron energy spectrometers, one of three ion spectrometers, and two x-ray fluorescence spectrometers, and a synchronized laser for pump-probe experiments. A downstream diagnostics chamber with instruments to measure the relevant parameters of each FEL pulse is also included. Plans for first experiments along with designs of the instrumentation will be presented. Guidance for experimental proposals for the LCLS will also be provided for prospective users.

  3. A method for estimating vertical distibution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.; Mccormick, M.P.; Minnis, P.; Kent, G.S.; Yue, G.K.; Skeens, K.M. |

    1995-02-01

    A method is developed to infer the vertical distribution of the occurrence frequency of clouds that are opaque to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II instrument. An application of the method to the 1986 SAGE II observations is included in this paper. The 1986 SAGE II results are compared with the 1952-1981 cloud climatology of Warren et al. (1986, 1988)

  4. A method for estimating vertical distibution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. Patrick; Minnis, Patrick; Kent, Geoffrey S.; Yue, Glenn K.; Skeens, Kristi M.

    1995-01-01

    A method is developed to infer the vertical distribution of the occurrence frequency of clouds that are opaque to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II instrument. An application of the method to the 1986 SAGE II observations is included in this paper. The 1986 SAGE II results are compared with the 1952-1981 cloud climatology of Warren et al. (1986, 1988)

  5. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  6. 14 CFR 91.191 - Category II and Category III manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category II and Category III manual. 91.191... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.191 Category II and Category III manual. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c... approved Category II or Category III manual, as appropriate, for that aircraft; (2) The operation...

  7. 14 CFR 91.191 - Category II and Category III manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Category II and Category III manual. 91.191... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.191 Category II and Category III manual. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c... approved Category II or Category III manual, as appropriate, for that aircraft; (2) The operation...

  8. Instrumental Capabilities of the EST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados Vera, M.; EST Team

    2012-12-01

    The EST has recently finished its conceptual design study. A number of instruments have been devised to make possible the observation of the solar photosphere and chromosphere with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution, as well as with high polarimetric sensitivity. To achieve these goals, the telescope is provided with a powerful MCAO system and a polarimetrically compensated optical design. In this paper, a summary of the present situation of the telescope and its different subsystems is outlined. Especial emphasis is put in the description of the instruments and of the flexible light distribution system. The latter will allow scientists to perform observations using all instruments at the same time or individually, to maximize the efficiency of the system. With this expected performance, EST will provide to the community with data of unprecedented quality to study solar magnetic phenomena at its finest scales.

  9. An improved instrument mounting arm.

    PubMed

    Gendeh, B S; Khalid, B A; Alberti, P W

    2001-02-01

    Although some form of commercial instrument mounting arm is available, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model for an ENT department wishing to trial their invention for use in the clinic or operating theatre. The instrument mounting arm described here is based on existing designs used by hobbyists and model makers for many years but the main benefit of this innovation is its multi-purpose use in the operating theatre and cost effectiveness since it is made of aluminum alloy. It is compact, stable and easily adjustable and can incorporate an endoscope holder or an operating end piece to mount various ENT instruments that offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator.

  10. [Portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuai; Chen, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    A portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment containing sensor module, acquisition board and embedded module was developed for home care in this paper. The sensor module consists of one ECG module and three pulse wave extraction modules, synchronously acquiring human ECG and pulse wave signal of carotid, radial, and dorsal, respectively. The acquisition board converts the sensor module's analog output signals into digital signals and transmits them to the embedded module. The embedded module realizes the functions including signal display, storage and the calculation and output of pulse wave velocity. The structure of the proposed portable instrument is simple, easy to use, and easy to expand. Small size, low cost, and low power consumption are also the advantages of this device. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment has high accuracy, good repeatability and can assess the degree of atherosclerosis appropriately.

  11. Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

  12. SAGE II stratospheric density and temperature retrieval experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Lenoble, J.; Nagatani, R. M.; Chanin, M. L.; Barnes, R. A.; Schmidlin, F.; Rowland, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a stratospheric density and temperature retrieval experiment based on the solar occultation measurement of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II). The entire retrieval analysis involves two inversion steps: the vertical structure inversion, which derives the profile of local atmospheric extinction from SAGE II limb optical depth data, and the species inversion, which inverts the concentration of air molecules, aerosols, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide from the derived atmospheric extinction at five SAGE II short wavelengths (0.385, 0.448, 0.453, 0.525, and 0.600 microns). The derived density profile is then used to infer the temperature distribution, assuming that the atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium and obeys the ideal gas law. The temperature profiles retrieved from the SAGE II observations are compared with near-coincident, in both time and space, French Rayleigh lidar and NASA Wallops Flight Facility rocket datasonde soundings as well as the National Meteorological Center (NMC) data analyses. The results indicate that the mean SAGE II temperature agrees with the mean lidar measurements to within 2 C at altitudes from 30.5 to 52.5 km. The SAGE II and datasonde observations agree to within about 4 C in approximately the same altitude region.

  13. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  14. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  15. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  16. Sample acquisition and instrument deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing the Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID) system, a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. The systems have been fabricated and tested in environmental chambers, as well as soil testing and robotic control testing.

  17. Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804

  18. A comparison of rainfall measurements from multiple instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. C.; Gao, T. C.; Liu, L.

    2013-07-01

    Simultaneous observations of rainfall collected by a tipping bucket rain gauge (TBRG), a weighing rain gauge (WRG), an optical rain gauge (ORG), a present weather detector (PWD), a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), and a 2-D video disdrometer (2DVD) during January to October 2012 were analyzed to evaluate how accurately they measure rainfall and drop size distributions (DSDs). For the long-term observations, there were different discrepancies in rain amounts from six instruments on the order of 0% to 27.7%. The TBRG, WRG, and ORG have a good agreement, while the PWD and 2DVD record higher and the JWD lower rain rates when R > 20 mm h-1, the ORG agrees well with JWD and 2DVD, while the TBRG records higher and the WRG lower rain rates when R > 20 mm h-1. Compared with the TBRG and WRG, optical and impact instruments can measure the rain rate accurately in the light rain. The overall DSDs of JWD and 2DVD agree well with each other, except for the small raindrops (D < 1 mm). JWD can measure more moderate-size raindrops (0.3 mm < D < 1.5 mm) than 2DVD, but 2DVD can measure more small-size raindrops (D < 0.3 mm). 2DVD has a larger measurement range; more overall raindrops can be measured by 2DVD than by JWD in different rain rate regimes. But small raindrops might be underestimated by 2DVD when R > 15 mm h-1. The small raindrops tend to be omitted in the more large-size raindrops due to the shadow effect of light. Therefore, the measurement accuracy of small raindrops in the heavy rainfall from 2DVD should be handled carefully.

  19. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  20. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  1. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  2. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  3. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  4. An Instrument to Measure Anomia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty-six disadvantaged adults from North Carolina were the subjects in a study that factor-analyzed three instruments designed to measure anomia, yielding a 12-item unidimensional scale. (The refined combination scale is presented as of potential usefulness for research on the effects of educational intervention on anomia.) (LRA)

  5. Instrument sterilization in orthodontic offices.

    PubMed

    Matlack, R E

    1979-07-01

    1. Three different quaternary ammonium compound solutions remained bactericidal against specific vegetative bacteria in three orthodontic offices over a ten day working period. However, no spore formers or viruses were tested. 2. Bacterial contaminants were cultured on pliers and scalers at the chair at least once in each of three orthodontic offices sampled twice a day for ten working days. 3. Sampled chairside instruments wiped with an alcohol sponge only, between patients, were contaminated an excessive 32.5% of the time, too frequently to be seriously considered for routine disinfection of pliers. 4. Chairside instruments, sampled regardless of other means of disinfection or sterilization used, were contaminated from 3.5 to 15% of the time. Therefore, storage and handling of orthodontic instruments must be evaluated and upgraded to prevent recontamination of previously sterilized instruments. 5. Staff personnel need courses in sterilization and disinfection procedures to prevent cross contamination from patient to patient and to protect themselves. These courses should be related specifically to orthodontic practice procedures.

  6. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  7. Literature Review of Multicultural Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarraj, Huda; Carter, Stacy; Burley, Hansel

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K-12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first…

  8. Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

  9. Remote Instrumentation for Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using current software, such as PC-Duo, PCAnywhere or LabVIEW, in training students in instrumental analysis from a remote location is investigated. Findings show that creation of online features is crucial to the use and learning by students and the development of a suitable Web site, which provides an easy-to-use interface to…

  10. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  11. Psychology Needs Realism, Not Instrumentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…

  12. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  13. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  14. Instrument Reporting Practices in Second Language Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Deirdre J.

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers often have to develop or change the instruments they use to measure numerous constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2012). Given the prevalence of researcher-developed and -adapted data collection instruments, and given the profound effect instrumentation can have on results, thorough reporting of instrumentation is…

  15. Concert Band Instrumentation: Realities and Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests ways to solve problems resulting from imbalanced instrumentation in school concert bands. Identifies sources of imbalance. Encourages band directors to plan for correct instrumentation, to match students' characteristics and abilities to instruments, and to recruit students to play needed instruments. Discusses the benefits of balanced…

  16. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a) Make each instrument and control easily readable and...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights must— (1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a) Make each instrument and control easily readable and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights must— (1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other...

  20. 14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section 121.307..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.307 Engine instruments. Unless the Administrator allows or requires different instrumentation for turbine engine...