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Sample records for agreeableness conscientiousness neuroticism

  1. Psychophysiological correlates of the NEO PI-R openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Stough, C; Donaldson, C; Scarlata, B; Ciorciari, J

    2001-05-01

    Eysenck (1983) has previously proposed biological mechanisms for his three personality dimensions. From a psychometric perspective there has been a growing acceptance of a five-factor model of personality incorporating two of Eysenck's dimensions Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) together with Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Despite the growing acceptance of the 'Big 5' model of personality there has been very few studies that have examined the biological basis of O, A and C. In an exploratory study we report the correlations between photic driving at alpha, beta-1, beta-2, delta and theta bands and O, A and C from the NEO PI-R in 16 participants. Significant correlations between the EEG at frontal, occipital-parietal and central-temporal areas at different driving frequencies with O, A and C are discussed.

  2. Agreeableness, conscientiousness, and psychoticism: distinctive influences of three personality dimensions in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter; Barkus, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have suggested that the psychoticism (P) personality dimension of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire may be largely redundant with the agreeableness (A) and conscientiousness (C) constructs of the five-factor model. Little research has examined the distinctiveness of these constructs. We utilized a multi-wave, multi-method design to examine the ability of C, A, and P to uniquely predict a number of important outcomes amongst high school students. A total of 778 students (391 males, 387 females; mean age 15.41 years.) completed personality measures in Grade 10. Self-reported self-esteem, social support, health-related behaviours, religious values as well as teachers' assessments of students, were collected 1 and 2 years later. A, C, and P were distinctive in their ability to predict these outcomes, after controlling for gender and socio-economic status as well as Grade 10 extraversion, openness, and neuroticism. The individual P items explained unique variance over and above that explained by A and C. It was concluded that P is not merely the opposite of A and C. Implications for interventions are raised.

  3. Personality and healthy sleep: the importance of conscientiousness and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Katherine A; Friedman, Howard S; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Mednick, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has shown personality and sleep are each substantial predictors of health throughout the lifespan, little is known about links between personality and healthy sleep patterns. This study examined Big Five personality traits and a range of factors related to sleep health in 436 university students (M(age) = 19.88, SD = 1.50, 50% Male). Valid self-report measures of personality, chronotype, sleep hygiene, sleep quality, and sleepiness were analyzed. To remove multicollinearity between personality factors, each sleep domain was regressed on relevant demographic and principal component-derived personality factors in multiple linear regressions. Results showed that low conscientiousness and high neuroticism were the best predictors of poor sleep (poor sleep hygiene, low sleep quality, and increased sleepiness), consistent with other research on predictors of poor health and mortality risk. In this first comprehensive study of the topic, the findings suggest that personality has a significant association with sleep health, and researchers could profitably examine both personality and sleep in models of health and well-being.

  4. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and fruit consumption: exploring mediator and moderator effects in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Brug, Johannes; Van Lenthe, Frank J

    2009-11-01

    Integrating the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the five-factor model (FFM) of personality may provide insight into the cognitive and motivational mechanisms linking personality with health behaviour, but this issue has received very little attention regarding fruit consumption. Mediator effects of TPB concepts in the personality-fruit consumption link, as well as moderator effects of personality in the intention-fruit consumption link, were therefore investigated in the present study. Data on fruit consumption, TPB concepts and FFM dimensions were gathered among 405 respondents in face-to-face interviews using questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediator and moderator effects. The direct effect of conscientiousness on fruit consumption was mediated by attitude and perceived behavioural control, while no direct effect of neuroticism on fruit consumption was found. Neuroticism moderated the intention-fruit consumption relationship with the weakest relationship for those scoring high on neuroticism. Conscientiousness did not moderate the intention-fruit consumption relationship. TPB variables are mediators in the conscientiousness-fruit consumption link. Whether fruit consumption is intentional may be dependent upon the personality dimension neuroticism. Personality dimensions may be a useful addition to the TPB and should be considered in health behaviour change interventions.

  5. The role of executive function and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the expression of neuroticism and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Chad E; Poore, Joshua C; Krueger, Frank; Barbey, Aron K; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how specific neurological systems contribute to the expression of multiple personality dimensions. We used individuals with traumatic brain injuries to examine the contribution of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)--a region important for executive function and attention-to the expression of neuroticism and conscientiousness factors and facets. Results from Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping analyses revealed that focal damage to the left DLPFC (Brodmann's area 9) was associated with high neuroticism and low conscientious factor and facet scores (anxiety and self-discipline, respectively). Compared with lesioned and normal controls, veterans with damage in left DLPFC also reported higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness facet scores, slower reaction times on the California Computerized Assessment Package assessment, and lower scores on the Delis-Kaplan executive function battery. Findings suggest that while neuroticism and conscientiousness remain psychometrically independent personality dimensions, their component facets may rely on a common neurocognitive infrastructure and executive function resources in general.

  6. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change.

    PubMed

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hampson, Sarah E; Roberts, Brent W; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-06-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25-74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors.

  7. Associations among central nervous system serotonergic function and neuroticism are moderated by gender

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Boyle, Stephen H.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Williams, Redford B.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonergic dysregulation is associated with negative affect. Plasma prolactin responses to a tryptophan enhancement challenge are used as a measure of central nervous system serotonergic activity. We examined prolactin responses to a tryptophan challenge as they relate to the personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Participants were 67 volunteers. Regression models assessed peak prolactin response to intravenous tryptophan infusion as a predictor of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Prolactin X gender product terms included to examine moderation by gender. Models were adjusted for baseline levels of prolactin, age, and race. Gender moderated the association between N and prolactin level (p<.03). Higher levels of N were associated with decreased levels of prolactin responses in females, whereas the opposite was true for males. Remaining personality domains were not related to prolactin levels. Findings add to literature suggesting the serotonin system functions differently, in important ways, in males and females. PMID:18417268

  8. Openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and family health and aging concerns interact in the prediction of health-related Internet searches in a representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Bogg, Tim; Vo, Phuong T

    2014-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest 60% of the U.S. adult population uses the Internet to find health-related information. The goal of the present study was to model health-related Internet searches as a function of an interdependent system of personality adaptation in the context of recent health and aging-related concerns. Assessments of background factors, Big Five personality traits, past-month health and aging-related concerns, and the frequency of past-month health-related Internet searches (via Google, Yahoo, AOL, Bing, or some other search engine) were obtained from a representative U.S. sample (N = 1,015). Controlling for background factors, regression analyses showed more frequent health-related Internet searches were predicted by a drive for exploration and investigation (high openness), as well as alarm sensitivity (high openness and high neuroticism) and an anticipatory inclination (high openness and high conscientiousness) in the context of recent problems with aging parents and recent health concerns for a family member. Consistent with interdependent models of personality adaptation, as well as prior evidence for "surrogate" health-related Internet searches, the results suggest a personality process model of search behavior that is partially dependent upon dispositional levels of exploration, emotional stability, control, and health and aging concerns for family members. PMID:24808880

  9. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait 'stability', which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  10. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait ‘stability’, which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  11. Happy Twitter tweets are more likely in American states with lower levels of resident neuroticism.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2014-06-01

    Relations between Big Five personality scores aggregated at the American state level and the happiness of Twitter tweet content emanating from each of the 50 American states were explored with the 50 states as the units of analysis. Tweet happiness correlated negatively with Neuroticism, and the relation remained when partial correlation and multiple regression adjusted and controlled for state socioeconomic status, white population percent, and urban population percent. In contrast, state levels of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness showed no relation to state levels of the happiness of tweet content.

  12. Happy Twitter tweets are more likely in American states with lower levels of resident neuroticism.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2014-06-01

    Relations between Big Five personality scores aggregated at the American state level and the happiness of Twitter tweet content emanating from each of the 50 American states were explored with the 50 states as the units of analysis. Tweet happiness correlated negatively with Neuroticism, and the relation remained when partial correlation and multiple regression adjusted and controlled for state socioeconomic status, white population percent, and urban population percent. In contrast, state levels of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness showed no relation to state levels of the happiness of tweet content. PMID:25074309

  13. The agreeableness asymmetry in first impressions: perceivers' impulse to (mis)judge agreeableness and how it is moderated by power.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel R; Bianchi, Emily C

    2008-12-01

    Prior research shows that perceivers can judge some traits better than others in first impressions of targets. However, questions remain about which traits perceivers naturally do infer. Here, the authors develop an account of the "agreeableness asymmetry": Although perceivers show little ability to accurately gauge target agreeableness in first impressions, they find that agreeableness is generally the most commonly inferred disposition among the Big Five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability). Using open-ended impressions based on photographs, videos, and face-to-face encounters, three studies show agreeableness as the most prevalently judged of the Big Five, although it is also poorly judged in both absolute and relative terms. The authors use interpersonal power to reveal an underlying mechanism. Manipulating the power of perceivers relative to targets substantially shifts impression content, suggesting that habitual interaction and relational concerns may partially explain perceiver's chronic interest in assessing agreeableness despite their limited ability to do so. PMID:18784327

  14. Uncovering the Affective Core of Conscientiousness: The Role of Self-Conscious Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Fayard, Jennifer V.; Roberts, Brent W.; Robins, Richard W.; Watson, David

    2013-01-01

    We conducted 3 studies to test the idea that guilt is a key affective component of Conscientiousness and that it can account for the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 1 used meta-analysis to show that Conscientiousness was associated with specific emotions and overall negative affect but was most strongly associated with guilt. Conscientiousness was negatively related to guilt experience but positively related to guilt proneness. Also, guilt experience mediated the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 2 (N = 142) examined the relation between facets of Conscientiousness and guilt. We replicated results from Study 1 and showed that the relation between Conscientiousness and guilt was not due to overlap with Extraversion and Neuroticism. Study 3 (n = 176) examined the interplay between Conscientiousness and guilt on grades in a short-term longitudinal study. These studies showed that Conscientiousness is primarily related to guilt and highlighted the importance of examining the emotional substrate of Conscientiousness. PMID:21241309

  15. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  16. Conscientiousness: origins in childhood?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L; Spinrad, Tracy L; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. On the basis of the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self-regulation fosters conscientiousness later in life, both directly and via academic motivation and internalized compliance with norms. We argue that elements of conscientiousness are evident by early childhood; self-regulation skills are likely a core developmental component of conscientiousness; and despite the contribution of heredity to the aforementioned aspects of functioning, environmental factors likely contribute to conscientiousness.

  17. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self-regulation fosters conscientiousness later in life, both directly and via academic motivation and internalized compliance with norms. We argue that elements of conscientiousness are evident by early childhood, self-regulation skills are likely a core developmental component of conscientiousness, and despite the contribution of heredity to the aforementioned aspects of functioning, environmental factors likely contribute to conscientiousness. PMID:23244405

  18. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  19. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  20. Assessment of Dependency, Agreeableness, and Their Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Jennifer Ruth; Edmundson, Maryanne; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Agreeableness is central to the 5-factor model conceptualization of dependency. However, 4 meta-analyses of the relationship of agreeableness with dependency have failed to identify a consistent relationship. It was the hypothesis of the current study that these findings might be due in part to an emphasis on the assessment of adaptive, rather…

  1. Test Anxiety and Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erben Kecici, Sayime

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association of the personality trait neuroticism and test anxiety (encoded as worry and emotionality) as well as social relationships (teacher-student and student-student relationship) as possible mediators for girls and boys. Participants were 8th grade students (N = 512) attending schools in Konya. Using…

  2. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  3. Conscientious commitment to women's health.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

    2011-05-01

    Conscientious commitment, the reverse of conscientious objection, inspires healthcare providers to overcome barriers to delivery of reproductive services to protect and advance women's health. History shows social reformers experiencing religious condemnation and imprisonment for promoting means of birth control, until access became popularly accepted. Voluntary sterilization generally followed this pattern to acceptance, but overcoming resistance to voluntary abortion calls for courage and remains challenging. The challenge is aggravated by religious doctrines that view treatment of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and emergency contraception not by reference to women's healthcare needs, but through the lens of abortion. However, modern legal systems increasingly reject this myopic approach. Providers' conscientious commitment is to deliver treatments directed to women's healthcare needs, giving priority to patient care over adherence to conservative religious doctrines or religious self-interest. The development of in vitro fertilization to address childlessness further illustrates the inspiration of conscientious commitment over conservative objections.

  4. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  5. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant…

  6. Who Does Well in Life? Conscientious Adults Excel in Both Objective and Subjective Success

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Weir, David; Tsukayama, Eli; Kwok, David

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth) and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect) in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of) negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude. PMID:23162483

  7. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    PubMed

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership.

  8. Adverse events in emerging adulthood are associated with increases in neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Boals, Adriel; Southard-Dobbs, Shana; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have produced mixed results when examining whether experiencing an adverse event can lead to changes in Neuroticism. We sought to examine this effect when (a) the event was relatively recent, (b) the event occurred during a relatively early development stage (i.e., emerging adulthood), and (c) the event was severely adverse. A sample of 1,108 undergraduates completed three measures of Neuroticism twice, separated by approximately 3 months, and indicated the most traumatic or adverse event they experienced during the intervening 3 months. We examined two operationalizations of adverse events: one that is more objectively defined (indicated experiencing a trauma listed on a trauma history measure) and another more subjectively defined (participant ratings of event centrality). The results revealed that high Neuroticism at Time 1 predicted future exposure to both types of adverse events. Critically, participants who experienced either type of adverse event during the semester reported significant increases in Neuroticism. Experiencing a high event centrality event was also associated with small increases in the personality traits Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness. The results are discussed in terms of the conditions necessary for adverse events to affect personality traits.

  9. Will Interventions Targeting Conscientiousness Improve Aging Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it…

  10. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions.

  11. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions. PMID:27073904

  12. Neuroticism, extraversion and slow brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Lolas, F; de Andraca, I

    1977-01-01

    Peak amplitude and area under the curve of average vertex slow potentials recorded during the foreperiod of a reaction time task were found to discriminate between high- and low-neuroticism subjects, defined according to the Eysenck Personality Inventory. High-neuroticism subjects developed smaller peak amplitude, greater area and longer reaction times, presenting a high extinction rate when the imperative stimulus was omitted. Differences between extraverts and introverts were found within the low-neuroticism group and for area values, extraverts exhibiting larger area. A significant interaction effect of extraversion and neuroticism on slow-potential parameters was evidenced. Results are interpreted in terms of heightened arousal and disrupted focused attention in high-neuroticism subjects. Although evolutionary indexes of slow potentials could differentiate between extraverts and introverts, further work using inhibition indicators is needed to further clarify the differences between them. The data reported also suggest that different aspects of overt behavior would be associated diversely with slow-potential parameters.

  13. Changes in neuroticism following trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C

    2014-04-01

    Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Our primary analyses included 670 participants (M(age) = 60.55; 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at ages 42 and 50 and reported their lifetime exposure to traumatic events approximately 10 years later. No differences in pre- and post-trauma neuroticism scores were found among individuals who experienced all of their lifetime traumas in the interval between the personality assessments. Results were instead consistent with normative age-related declines in neuroticism throughout adulthood. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in neuroticism scores did not differ between individuals with and without histories of midlife trauma exposure. Examination of change in neuroticism following life-threatening traumas yielded a comparable pattern of results. Analysis of facet-level scores largely replicated findings from the domain scores. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism does not reliably change following exposure to traumatic events in middle adulthood. Supplemental analyses indicated that individuals exposed to life-threatening traumas in childhood or adolescence reported higher midlife neuroticism than individuals who experienced severe traumas in adulthood. Life-threatening traumatic events encountered early in life may have a more pronounced impact on adulthood personality than recent traumatic events.

  14. Neuroticism Predicts Acculturative Stress in Mexican American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangold, Deborah L.; Veraza, Rafael; Kinkler, Lori; Kinney, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroticism is a risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders and a strong predictor of subjective stress in non-Hispanics. This study examined neuroticism as a predictor of subjective acculturative stress in 122 Mexican American college students. Neuroticism was measured using the Revised Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory…

  15. What do conscientious people do? Development and validation of the Behavioral Indicators of Conscientiousness (BIC)

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua J.; Wood, Dustin; Bogg, Tim; Walton, Kate E.; Harms, Peter D.; Roberts, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    Typical assessments of personality traits collapse behaviors, thoughts, and feelings into a single measure without distinguishing between these different manifestations. To address this lack of specification, the current study develops and validates a measure that assesses a number of broad behaviors associated with the personality trait of conscientiousness (the Behavioral Indicators of Conscientiousness; BIC). Findings suggest that the lower-order structure of conscientious behaviors is mostly similar to the lower-order structure in extant trait measures. Furthermore, a daily diary method was used to validate the BIC against frequency counts of conscientious behavior. Overall, the results identify specific behaviors that conscientious individuals tend to perform and highlight possible advantages of this approach over broad trait assessment. PMID:21278818

  16. Conscientiousness increases efficiency of multicomponent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many everyday situations require the flexible interruption and changing of different actions to achieve a goal. Several strategies can be applied to do so, but those requiring high levels of cognitive control seem to confer an efficiency (speed) advantage in situations requiring multi-component behavior. However, it is elusive in how far personality traits affect performance in such situations. Given that top-down control is an important aspect of personality and furthermore correlates with conscientiousness, N = 163 participants completed the NEO-FFI and performed an experimental (stop-change) paradigm assessing multicomponent behavior. Applying mathematical constraints to the behavioral data, we estimated the processing strategy of each individual. The results show that multicomponent behavior is selectively affected by conscientiousness which explained approximately 19% of the measured inter-individual behavioral variance. Conscientiousness should hence be seen as a major personality dimension modulating multicomponent behavior. Highly conscientious people showed a more effective, step-by-step processing strategy of different actions necessary to achieve a goal. In situations with simultaneous requirements, this strategy equipped them with an efficiency (speed) advantage towards individuals with lower conscientiousness. In sum, the results show that strategies and the efficiency with which people cope with situations requiring multicomponent behavior are strongly influenced by their personality. PMID:26503352

  17. Neuroticism Modifies Psychophysiological Responses to Fearful Films

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Emmanuelle; El Khoury-Malhame, Myriam; Rossier, Jérôme; Blin, Olivier; Khalfa, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroticism is a personality component frequently found in anxious and depressive psychiatric disorders. The influence of neuroticism on negative emotions could be due to its action on stimuli related to fear and sadness, but this remains debated. Our goal was thus to better understand the impact of neuroticism through verbal and physiological assessment in response to stimuli inducing fear and sadness as compared to another negative emotion (disgust). Methods Fifteen low neurotic and 18 high neurotic subjects were assessed on an emotional attending task by using film excerpts inducing fear, disgust, and sadness. We recorded skin conductance response (SCR) and corrugator muscle activity (frowning) as indices of emotional expression. Results SCR was larger in high neurotic subjects than in low neurotics for fear relative to sadness and disgust. Moreover, corrugator activity and SCR were larger in high than in low neurotic subjects when fear was induced. Conclusion After decades of evidence that individuals higher in neuroticism experience more intense emotional reactions to even minor stressors, our results indicate that they show greater SCR and expressive reactivity specifically to stimuli evoking fear rather than to those inducing sadness or disgust. Fear processing seems mainly under the influence of neuroticism. This modulation of autonomic activity by neurotics in response to threat/fear may explain their increased vulnerability to anxious psychopathologies such as PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder). PMID:22479326

  18. The genetics of neuroticism and human values

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Thomas M.; Maio, Gregory R.; Linden, David E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values and personality have been shown to share genetic variance in twin studies. However, there is a lack of evidence about the genetic components of this association. This study examined the interplay between genes, values and personality in the case of neuroticism, because polygenic scores were available for this personality trait. First, we replicated prior evidence of a positive association between the polygenic neuroticism score (PNS) and neuroticism. Second, we found that the PNS was significantly associated with the whole human value space in a sinusoidal waveform that was consistent with Schwartz's circular model of human values. These results suggest that it is useful to consider human values in the analyses of genetic contributions to personality traits. They also pave the way for an investigation of the biological mechanisms contributing to human value orientations. PMID:26915771

  19. Relationship between Fractal Dimension and Agreeability of Facial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Ito, Tasuo

    2007-11-01

    Why do people feel happy and good or equivalently empathize more, with smiling face imageries than with ones of expressionless face? To understand what the essential factors are underlying imageries in relating to the feelings, we conducted an experiment by 84 subjects asked to estimate the degree of agreeability about expressionless and smiling facial images taken from 23 young persons to whom the subjects were no any pre-acquired knowledge. Images were presented one at a time to each subject who was asked to rank agreeability on a scale from 1 to 10. Fractal dimensions of facial images were obtained in order to characterize the complexity of the imageries by using of two types of fractal analysis methods, i.e., planar and cubic analysis methods, respectively. The results show a significant difference in the fractal dimension values between expressionless faces and smiling ones. Furthermore, we found a well correlation between the degree of agreeability and fractal dimensions, implying that the fractal dimension optically obtained in relation to complexity in imagery information is useful to characterize the psychological processes of cognition and awareness.

  20. Conscientiousness in Life Course Context: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the common themes from the interesting articles in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" are considered as they illuminate the potential ontogenetic sources of the conscientiousness-well-being-longevity interconnections that have emerged in recent research. In particular, consideration is given to the…

  1. Genetic Strategies for Probing Conscientiousness and Its Relationship to Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Conscientiousness is an important trait for understanding healthy aging. The present article addresses how behavioral and molecular genetics methodologies can aid in furthering explicating the link between conscientiousness and aspects of health and well-being in later life. We review the etiology of conscientiousness documented by both…

  2. The Relationship of Neuroticism to Proxemic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Karen G.; DeJulio, Steven S.

    This research project used 93 college students to study the correlation between neuroticism and interpersonal space. The study shows that stressed persons prefer larger social distances than do well adjusted persons. Results also revealed a proxemic difference related to sex of the experimenters, with subjects prefering to sit closer to female…

  3. Borderline personality organization in violent offenders: correlations of identity diffusion and primitive defense mechanisms with antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, Falk; Kunst, Heike; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Although theoretical assumptions and empirical evidence suggest an association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial behavior or even antisocial personality disorder (APD), there is no study relating the psychodynamic aspects of BPD to antisocial behavior. In this study, the authors tested the correlation between the structural criteria of borderline personality organization (BPO)--that is, identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, and reality testing--and antisocial features, neuroticism, and interpersonal problems. A sample of imprisoned violent offenders (N = 91) was studied using the Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Neo-Five-Factor-Inventory (Neo-FFI), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). Significant correlations were predicted and found between the BPI scales of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms, impaired reality testing, and fear of closeness and antisocial features, neuroticism, agreeableness, and interpersonal problems. The results are consistent with both object relations theory and attachment theory.

  4. Neuroticism and vigilance revisited: A transcranial doppler investigation.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Arielle R; Becker, Alexandra; VanAndel, Aaron; Nelson, Andrew; Shaw, Tyler H

    2015-11-01

    Selecting for vigilance assignments remains an important factor in human performance research. The current study revisits the potential relationship between vigilance performance and trait neuroticism, in light of two possible theories. The first theory suggests that neuroticism impairs vigilance performance by competing for available resources. The second theory, attentional control theory, posits that high neuroticism can result in similar or superior performance levels due to the allocation of compensatory effort. In the present study, Transcranial Doppler Sonography was used to investigate the neurophysiological underpinnings of neuroticism during a 12-min abbreviated vigilance task. Performance results were not modified by level of neuroticism, but high neuroticism was associated with higher initial CBFV levels and a greater CBFV decrement over time. These findings indicate that participants higher in neuroticism recruited additional cognitive resources in order to achieve similar performance, suggesting that there is more of an effect on processing efficiency than effectiveness.

  5. Serotonergic Genotypes, Neuroticism, and Financial Choices

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Camelia M.; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Knutson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Life financial outcomes carry a significant heritable component, but the mechanisms by which genes influence financial choices remain unclear. Focusing on a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), we found that individuals possessing the short allele of this gene invested less in equities, were less engaged in actively making investment decisions, and had fewer credit lines. Short allele carriers also showed higher levels of the personality trait neuroticism, despite not differing from others with respect to cognitive skills, education, or wealth. Mediation analysis suggested that the presence of the 5-HTTLPR short allele decreased real life measures of financial risk taking through its influence on neuroticism. These findings show that 5-HTTLPR short allele carriers avoid risky and complex financial choices due to negative emotional reactions, and have implications for understanding and managing individual differences in financial choice. PMID:23382929

  6. A Big-Five Personality Profile of the Adaptor and Innovator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwang, Ng Aik; Rodrigues, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    A study explored the relationship between two creative types (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), in 164 teachers in Singapore. Adaptors were significantly more conscientious than innovators, while innovators were significantly more…

  7. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method Participants’ driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18 months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants’ KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Results Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c = −0.034, p = .09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a = −0.040, p = .09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a = −0.053, p = .03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b = 0.376, p = .02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c’ = −0.025, p = .20). Conclusions Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, suffered fewer CNC. Practical Applications Part of the variability in crash-risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage

  8. Genetic and Environmental Stability of Neuroticism From Adolescence to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nivard, Michel G; Middeldorp, Christel M; Dolan, Conor V; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal studies of neuroticism have shown that, on average, neuroticism scores decrease from adolescence to adulthood. The heritability of neuroticism is estimated between 0.30 and 0.60 and does not seem to vary greatly as a function of age. Shared environmental effects are rarely reported. Less is known about the role of genetic and environmental influences on the rank order stability of neuroticism in the period from adolescence to adulthood. We studied the stability of neuroticism in a cohort sequential (classical) twin design, from adolescence (age 14 years) to young adulthood (age 32 years). A genetic simplex model that was fitted to the longitudinal neuroticism data showed that the genetic stability of neuroticism was relatively high (genetic correlations between adjacent age bins >0.9), and increased from adolescence to adulthood. Environmental stability was appreciably lower (environmental correlations between adjacent age bins were between 0.3 and 0.6). This low stability was largely due to age-specific environmental variance, which was dominated by measurement error. This attenuated the age-to-age environmental correlations. We constructed an environmental covariance matrix corrected for this error, under the strong assumption that all age-specific environmental variance is error variance. The environmental (co)variance matrix corrected for attenuation revealed highly stable environmental influences on neuroticism (correlations between adjacent age bins were between 0.7 and 0.9). Our results indicate that both genetic and environmental influences have enduring effects on individual differences in neuroticism.

  9. Relations of Young Children's Agreeableness and Resiliency to Effortful Control and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland-Li, Amanda; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's agreeableness would be at least partly indirect through their resiliency was tested. Eighty-two children (M age = 58.67 mos.) were participants. Children nominated peers on agreeableness and completed a behavioral measure of effortful control. Teachers and a…

  10. You Are What You See and Choose: Agreeableness and Situation Selection.

    PubMed

    Bresin, Konrad; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Agreeableness positively predicts subjective well-being, but why does it do so? Recent theorizing has highlighted possible substrates related to emotion regulation. Following suit, the present studies focus on the situation selection stage of the emotion regulation sequence. Undergraduate participants reported on their agreeableness levels and completed a picture-viewing task (Studies 1 and 2) or a media choice task (Study 3). Studies 1 and 2 found that the tendency to view negative pictures for a longer period of time than positive pictures was evident at low levels of agreeableness and absent at high levels. The Study 3 paradigm asked individuals whether they typically choose to expose themselves to positive or negative stimuli across diverse media sources. Preferences for positive media were more pronounced at higher levels of agreeableness. The results have systematic implications for understanding the emotional lives of disagreeable versus agreeable people. PMID:25109246

  11. New Adolescent Money Attitude Scales: Entitlement and Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Ivan F.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.

    2012-01-01

    The development of two new money-attitude scales measuring entitlement and conscientiousness in adolescents are described. The scales were developed through student and focus group input and from a review of literature on entitlement and conscientiousness as a new adolescent financial education curriculum was being developed. The findings from 265…

  12. Genetic Strategies for Probing Conscientiousness and its Relationship to Aging

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Conscientiousness is an important trait for understanding healthy aging. The current paper addresses how behavioral and molecular genetics methodologies can aid in furthering explicating the link between conscientiousness and aspects of health and well-being in later life. We review the etiology of conscientiousness documented by both quantitative and molecular genetics methods. We also discuss the ways behavior genetics can be used to continue to help refine the concept of conscientiousness and to help identify points of etiological overlap between conscientiousness and healthy aging outcomes. Phenotypic research has established non-trivial associations between conscientiousness and important outcomes, but behavior genetic methods can determine what the causal (genetic and environmental) mechanisms are behind these relationships. An empirical example of one of these techniques is provided using twin data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study. We demonstrate that conscientiousness moderates genetic and environmental influences on problem alcohol use, such that greater levels of conscientiousness buffer against the random effects of the environment. Finally, suggestions for future work in this area are discussed. PMID:23181432

  13. Empirical Identification of the Major Facets of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Roberts, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Conscientiousness is often found to predict academic outcomes, but is defined differently by different models of personality. High school students (N = 291) completed a large number of Conscientiousness items from different models and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the items uncovered eight facets:…

  14. What Is Conscientiousness and How Can It Be Assessed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brent W.; Lejuez, Carl; Krueger, Robert F.; Richards, Jessica M.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Conscientiousness is a personality construct that is a core determinant of health, positive aging, and human capital. A large body of work has contributed to our understanding of this important aspect of personality, but there are multiple conceptual and methodological issues that complicate our understanding of conscientiousness. Toward this end,…

  15. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Verbal Conditioning of Affective Self-Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1971-01-01

    Subjects were assigned to four experimental groups: neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts, and a control group. Results indicated that introversion, and not neuroticism, facilitated conditioning processes. Neuroticism, however, did not interact on the conditioning of affective self disclosures. Introverted…

  16. Toward accommodating physicians' conscientious objections: an argument for public disclosure.

    PubMed

    Harter, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate how public disclosure can be used to balance physicians' conscientious objections with their professional obligations to patients--specifically respect for patient autonomy and informed consent. It is argued here that physicians should be permitted to exercise conscientious objections, but that they have a professional obligation to provide advance notification to patients about those objections. It is further argued here that public disclosure is an appropriate and ethically justifiable limit to the principle of advance notification. The argument for publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is made in this paper by discussing three practical benefits of public disclosure in medicine, and then addressing how publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is not an undue invasion of privacy. Three additional concerns with public disclosure of physicians' conscientious objections are briefly addressed--potential harassment of physicians, workplace discrimination, and mischaracterising physicians' professional aptitude--concluding that each of these concerns requires further deliberation in the realm of business ethics. PMID:24567421

  17. Conscientious objection, emergency contraception, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Card, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    Defenders of medical professionals' rights to conscientious objection (CO) regarding emergency contraception (EC) draw an analogy to CO in the military. Such professionals object to EC since it has the possibility of harming zygotic life, yet if we accept this analogy and utilize jurisprudence to frame the associated public policy, those who refuse to dispense EC would not have their objection honored. Legal precedent holds that one must consistently object to all forms of the relevant activity. In the case at hand, then, I argue that these professionals must also oppose morally innocuous practices that may prevent pregnancy after fertilization. These results reveal that such objectors cannot offer a plausible and consistent objection to harming zygotic life. Additionally, there are good reasons to reject the analogy itself. In either case, these findings call into question the case supporting refusals of EC based on scruples. PMID:21242325

  18. [Conscientious and responsible demographic family planning].

    PubMed

    Bernardo, F

    1997-01-01

    The present age is characterized by real contradictions: a dangerous population explosion in poor countries and the drastic reduction of fertility in developed countries. In Portugal, average fertility equals 1.5 children for married couples. The Catholic Church has developed criteria of conscientious and responsible fertility policies for couples. Some of these aspects are: 1) the service of human life is a conjugal and social responsibility; 2) conscientious and responsible family planning should always occur within the context of an attitude that promotes and restricts the capacity of married couples; 3) the proper regulation of fertility for married couples should avoid the two extremes: egoism and childlessness or lack of concern about the number of children; 4) fertility should be considered in the context of human completeness, which includes health, relative autonomy, access to culture, and a productive life that fits individual aspirations as well as the needs of the community; 5) each couple should resort to certain criteria in terms of maturity and intellectual, affective, social, economic, and educational capacity; 6) ethical criteria apply to contraceptive methods used for married couples; 7) married couples need to respect each other to overcome the risk of infidelity and the breakdown of the marriage; 8) on a regular basis, contraceptive methods should be evaluated and changed for the best compatibility; 9) although natural methods are considered a utopia, tracking the fertile period leads to the use of such methods; 10) married couples need pertinent information for making the right choice; and 11) assistance to single mothers should stress the avoidance of abortion.

  19. Neuroticism and attitudes toward action in 19 countries.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Hepler, Justin; Li, Hong; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Although individuals scoring high on Neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, Neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive biases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in Neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as, respectively, more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism-collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Participants (N = 3,827 college students; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring Neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism-collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals' less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between Neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of Neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action and inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism-collectivism. PMID:24684688

  20. Neuroticism and attitudes toward action in 19 countries.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Hepler, Justin; Li, Hong; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Although individuals scoring high on Neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, Neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive biases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in Neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as, respectively, more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism-collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Participants (N = 3,827 college students; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring Neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism-collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals' less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between Neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of Neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action and inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism-collectivism.

  1. Personality and Perceived Health in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer: The Roles of Neuroticism and Extraversion.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Coletta, Maria; Sörensen, Silvia; Chapman, Benjamin P; Kaukeinen, Kim; Tu, Xin; Duberstein, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Family members' responsibilities for patients with cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade and will likely continue to rise. Given that caregiving is associated with declines in self-care, there is a need for research on caregivers' perceptions of their own health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality is associated with four self-report perceived health items from the SF-36. Methods. The sample consisted of 114 spouses of lung cancer patients who completed cross-sectional measures as part of a larger cohort study on adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Predictors of interest were Neuroticism and Extraversion scores from the NEO-FFI. Covariates were age, gender, conscientiousness, depressive symptoms, and objective illness burden. Results. Multivariate analyses revealed that caregivers with higher Extraversion scores were less likely to respond affirmatively to the item "I expect my health to get worse" (OR = 0.90, p < 0.05). Neuroticism was associated with poorer perceived health (ORs from 1.11 to 1.12, p's < 0.05). Conclusions. The present cross-sectional findings suggest that personality is associated with responses to SF-36 perceived health items beyond what can be accounted for by objective illness burden and other covariates. The potential overestimation of health among extraverted caregivers may have implications for their health outcomes. PMID:27144023

  2. Personality and Perceived Health in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer: The Roles of Neuroticism and Extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Coletta, Maria; Sörensen, Silvia; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Kaukeinen, Kim; Tu, Xin; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Family members' responsibilities for patients with cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade and will likely continue to rise. Given that caregiving is associated with declines in self-care, there is a need for research on caregivers' perceptions of their own health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality is associated with four self-report perceived health items from the SF-36. Methods. The sample consisted of 114 spouses of lung cancer patients who completed cross-sectional measures as part of a larger cohort study on adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Predictors of interest were Neuroticism and Extraversion scores from the NEO-FFI. Covariates were age, gender, conscientiousness, depressive symptoms, and objective illness burden. Results. Multivariate analyses revealed that caregivers with higher Extraversion scores were less likely to respond affirmatively to the item “I expect my health to get worse” (OR = 0.90, p < 0.05). Neuroticism was associated with poorer perceived health (ORs from 1.11 to 1.12, p's < 0.05). Conclusions. The present cross-sectional findings suggest that personality is associated with responses to SF-36 perceived health items beyond what can be accounted for by objective illness burden and other covariates. The potential overestimation of health among extraverted caregivers may have implications for their health outcomes. PMID:27144023

  3. The Contribution of Agreeableness and Self-efficacy Beliefs to Prosociality

    PubMed Central

    CAPRARA, GIAN VITTORIO; ALESSANDRI, GUIDO; DI GIUNTA, LAURA; PANERAI, LAURA; EISENBERG, NANCY

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how agreeableness and self-efficacy beliefs about responding empathically to others’ needs predict individuals’ prosociality across time. Participants were 377 adolescents (66% males) aged 16 at Time 1 and 18 at Time 2 who took part at this study. Measures of agreeableness, empathic self-efficacy and prosociality were collected at two time points. The findings corroborated the posited paths of relations to assigning agreeableness a major role in predicting the level of individuals’ prosociality. Empathic self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the relation of agreeableness to prosociality. The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in prosociality and provides guidance with respect to interventions aimed at promoting prosociality. PMID:20592954

  4. Do nice guys--and gals--really finish last? The joint effects of sex and agreeableness on income.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A; Hurst, Charlice

    2012-02-01

    Sex and agreeableness were hypothesized to affect income, such that women and agreeable individuals were hypothesized to earn less than men and less agreeable individuals. Because agreeable men disconfirm (and disagreeable men confirm) conventional gender roles, agreeableness was expected to be more negatively related to income for men (i.e., the pay gap between agreeable men and agreeable women would be smaller than the gap between disagreeable men and disagreeable women). The hypotheses were supported across 4 studies. Study 1 confirmed the effects of sex and agreeableness on income and that the agreeableness-income relationship was significantly more negative for men than for women. Study 2 replicated these results, controlling for each of the other Big Five traits. Study 3 also replicated the interaction and explored explanations and paradoxes of the relationship. A 4th study, using an experimental design, yielded evidence for the argument that the joint effects of agreeableness and gender are due to backlash against agreeable men. PMID:22121889

  5. How Extraverted, Open, Agreeable, Conscientious, and Neurotic Are Prospective Early Childhood Pedagogues? A Comparison with the German Socio-Economic Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried; Roux, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of theories and research, it is crucial to gather in-depth information about the Big Five personality traits of pedagogues as well as prospective pedagogues. Such information can be attained by comparing them with a cross section of the population. However, there is a research gap concerning the Big Five of early childhood…

  6. Conscientious objection and induced abortion in Europe.

    PubMed

    Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Apter, Dan; Fiala, Christian

    2013-08-01

    The issue of conscientious objection (CO) arises in healthcare when doctors and nurses refuse to have any involvement in the provision of treatment of certain patients due to their religious or moral beliefs. Most commonly CO is invoked when it comes to induced abortion. Of the EU member states where induced abortion is legal, invoking CO is granted by law in 21 countries. The same applies to the non-EU countries Norway and Switzerland. CO is not legally granted in the EU member states Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The Icelandic legislation provides no right to CO either. European examples prove that the recommendation that CO should not prevent women from accessing services fails in a number of cases. CO puts women in an unequal position depending on their place of residence, socio-economic status and income. CO should not be presented as a question that relates only to health professionals and their rights. CO mainly concerns women as it has very real consequences for their reproductive health and rights. European countries should assess the laws governing CO and its effects on women's rights. CO should not be used as a subtle method for limiting the legal right to healthcare.

  7. Neuroticism, coping strategies, and negative well-being among caregivers.

    PubMed

    Patrick, J H; Hayden, J M

    1999-06-01

    Neuroticism was incorporated into a model for predicting the well-being of family caregivers. Using data from 596 women with an adult child with a chronic disability, the model hypothesizes direct effects of neuroticism on a caregiver's perceptions of the stressor, on her wishful-escapism and problem-focused coping, and on psychological well-being. Results indicate that neuroticism exerts direct and indirect effects on negative well-being. Results also indicate that stressors have direct effects on both wishful-escapism coping and problem-focused coping. Burden had direct effects on negative psychological well-being. Diagnosis influences the model by having direct effects on stressors and wishful-escapism coping but not on problem-focused coping or burden. Inclusion of individual level variables, such as neuroticism, results in a substantial amount of explained variance in negative well-being.

  8. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety.

  9. Interactions between donor Agreeableness and recipient characteristics in predicting charitable donation and positive social evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Yoni K.; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Agreeable people are more likely to display prosocial attitudes and helpful behavior in a broad range of situations. Here we show that this tendency interacts with the personal characteristics of interaction partners. In an online study (n = 284), participants were given the opportunity to report attitudes toward and make monetary donations to needy individuals who were described in dynamically generated biographies. Using a machine learning and multilevel modeling framework, we tested three potential explanations for the facilitatory influence of Agreeableness on charitable behavior. We find that Agreeableness preferentially increased donations and prosocial attitudes toward targets normatively rated as being more deserving. Our results advance understanding of person-by-situation interactions in the context of charitable behavior and prosocial attitudes. PMID:26312168

  10. The five-factor model, conscientiousness, and driving accident involvement.

    PubMed

    Arthur, W; Graziano, W G

    1996-09-01

    Personality researchers and theorists are approaching consensus on the basic structure and constructs of personality. Despite the apparent consensus on the emergent five-factor model (Goldberg, 1992, 1993), less is known about external correlates of separate factors. This research examined the relations between Conscientiousness, one dimension of the model, and driving accident involvement. Using multiple measures in independent samples drawn from college students (N = 227) and a temporary employment agency (N = 250), the results generally demonstrate a significant inverse relation between Conscientiousness and driving accident involvement; individuals who rate themselves as more self-disciplined, responsible, reliable, and dependable are less likely to be involved in driving accidents than those who rate themselves lower on these attributes. The findings are consistent with other research demonstrating the relations among Conscientiousness and other tasks and job performance. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8776881

  11. Associations between five-factor model traits and perceived job strain: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Törnroos, Maria; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the association between Five-Factor Model personality traits and perceived job strain. The sample consisted of 758 women and 614 men (aged 30-45 years in 2007) participating in the Young Finns study. Personality was assessed with the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) questionnaire and work stress according to Karasek's demand-control model of job strain. The associations between personality traits and job strain and its components were measured by linear regression analyses where the traits were first entered individually and then simultaneously. The results for the associations between individually entered personality traits showed that high neuroticism, low extraversion, low openness, low conscientiousness, and low agreeableness were associated with high job strain. High neuroticism, high openness, and low agreeableness were related to high demands, whereas high neuroticism, low extraversion, low openness, low conscientiousness, and low agreeableness were associated with low control. In the analyses for the simultaneously entered traits, high neuroticism, low openness, and low conscientiousness were associated with high job strain. In addition, high neuroticism was related to high demands and low control, whereas low extraversion was related to low demands and low control. Low openness and low conscientiousness were also related to low control. This study suggests that personality is related to perceived job strain. Perceptions of work stressors and decision latitude are not only indicators of structural aspects of work but also indicate that there are individual differences in how individuals experience their work environment.

  12. The Contributions of Neuroticism and Childhood Maltreatment to Hyperbolic Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    Zanarini and colleagues have proposed that hyperbolic temperament, involving a preponderance of negative emotions and cognitions combined with a need for those dysphoric inner states to be validated and understood, underlies borderline symptomatology. This study examined neuroticism and childhood maltreatment as predictors of hyperbolic features measured 10 years later in a clinical sample. Neuroticism and childhood maltreatment were significant and independent predictors of prospective hyperbolic temperament. These findings expand upon the hyperbolic temperament model of borderline phenomenology by depicting its developmental antecedents. PMID:23013348

  13. Parental styles, conscientiousness, and academic performance in high school: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    This article assesses whether perceived parental style influenced the extent to which adolescents became increasingly conscientious and whether changes in conscientiousness influenced academic grades 1 year later. Parental styles, conscientiousness, verbal, and numerical ability at Time 1 were measured. One year later conscientiousness was again assessed, and 1 year after that end-of-year exam results were obtained. More than 784 students (mean age=12.3 years, SD=0.49) participated in the 1st year. The data of 563 students were matched across the 3 years. Conscientiousness tended to decrease from Time 1 to Time 2. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents with more authoritative parents experienced less of a decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 than did students with less authoritative parents and the same baseline level of conscientiousness at Time 1. Additionally, the decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 predicted worse grades at Time 3, even after controlling for baseline levels of academic achievement.

  14. Extraversion and Agreeableness: Divergent Routes to Daily Satisfaction With Social Relationships.

    PubMed

    Tov, William; Nai, Ze Ling; Lee, Huey Woon

    2016-02-01

    We examined the unique effects of extraversion and agreeableness (and honesty-humility) on everyday satisfaction with family, friends, romantic life, and acquaintances, and explored potential mediators of these effects. Three diary studies (Ns = 206, 139, 185) were conducted on Singaporean university students. In Studies 1 and 2, participants rated their satisfaction with different relationship categories. In Study 3, participants rated their satisfaction and social interactions with 10 target individuals each day for a 1-week period. Both extraversion and agreeableness predicted relationship satisfaction. However, the effect of extraversion was mediated by greater levels of trust in others, whereas the effect of agreeableness was mediated by less frequent negative exchanges (e.g., criticism, perceived anger, and perceived neglect). The effect of honesty-humility on negative exchanges was similar to agreeableness. When both were entered as predictors, only the effect of honesty-humility was significant. We discuss how the processes by which personality affect relationship satisfaction vary depending on the trait as well as the particular measure that is used (IPIP NEO PI-R, California Q-Set, and IPIP-HEXACO).

  15. What Facets of Openness and Conscientiousness Predict Fluid Intelligence Score?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutafi, Joanna; Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of fluid intelligence (gf) with trait Openness and Conscientiousness. A total of 2658 participants completed the NEO PI-R [Costa Jr., P. T. & MCrae, R. (1985). Revised NEO Personality Inventory and Five-Factor Inventory Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources]…

  16. Conscientious Consumerism Project in an Undergraduate Quality Management Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Marilyn M.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a "conscientious consumerism" project that involves the student as the consumer to either commend or complain to a company about a recent product or service experience. This activity and presentation helps students develop an understanding of the commendation/complaint management process within organizations while…

  17. Academic Underachievement: Relationship with Cognitive Motivation, Achievement Motivation, and Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz; Vock, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the role of need for cognition, achievement motivation, and conscientiousness on academic underachievement was investigated. Forty-seven male and 46 female students in Grades 7 to 10 participated in the study. Student attributes were assessed by self-report measures, school performance by academic grades, and intellectual abilities…

  18. Conscientiousness, Health, and Aging: The Life Course of Personality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Conscientiousness (C) of the self and significant others influences health by way of mediational chains involving socioeconomic attainment, the avoidance and neutralization of stressors, the promotion of health behaviors and the minimization of risk behaviors, and the management of symptoms and diseases. Yet, meta-analyses reveal that these…

  19. Understanding Conscientiousness and Its Role in Improved Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing global economy, "21st century skills" means much more than proficiency in basic academic subjects. One of the most important noncognitive competencies for student success is conscientiousness, which encompasses traits such as perseverance, self-regulation, resilience, and responsibility. Researchers have found…

  20. The Question of Conscientiousness and Religious Engagement in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the question of how to nurture and develop conscientiousness thinkers and future citizens of diverse liberal-democratic societies from the perspective of virtue epistemology (VE). More specifically, I examine this question in terms of how public schools might frame engagement with religious perspectives in the classroom. I…

  1. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  2. Development of a Conceptual Model and Survey Instrument to Measure Conscientious Objection to Abortion Provision

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Laura Florence; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Gerdts, Caitlin; Gil Urbano, Laura; González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Halpern, Jodi; Prata, Ndola; Baffoe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Conscientious objection to abortion, clinicians’ refusal to perform legal abortions because of their religious or moral beliefs, has been the subject of increasing debate among bioethicists, policymakers, and public health advocates in recent years. Conscientious objection policies are intended to balance reproductive rights and clinicians’ beliefs. However, in practice, clinician objection can act as a barrier to abortion access–impinging on reproductive rights, and increasing unsafe abortion and related morbidity and mortality. There is little information about conscientious objection from a medical or public health perspective. A quantitative instrument is needed to assess prevalence of conscientious objection and to provide insight on its practice. This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure conscientious objection to abortion provision. Methods A literature review, and in-depth formative interviews with stakeholders in Colombia were used to develop a conceptual model of conscientious objection. This model led to the development of a survey, which was piloted, and then administered, in Ghana. Results The model posits three domains of conscientious objection that form the basis for the survey instrument: 1) beliefs about abortion and conscientious objection; 2) actions related to conscientious objection and abortion; and 3) self-identification as a conscientious objector. Conclusions The instrument is intended to be used to assess prevalence among clinicians trained to provide abortions, and to gain insight on how conscientious objection is practiced in a variety of settings. Its results can inform more effective and appropriate strategies to regulate conscientious objection. PMID:27736992

  3. Personality, neuroticism, and coping towards the end of life.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Kristjanson, Linda J; Hack, Thomas F; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2006-10-01

    The influence of personality characteristics on how patients cope with various challenges at the end of life has not been extensively studied. In order to examine the association between end-of-life experience and neuroticism (defined within the personality literature as a trait tendency to experience psychological distress), a measure of neuroticism was administered to a cohort of dying cancer patients. Various other measures of physical, psychological, and existential distress were also measured to explore their possible connection to patient personality style. The personality characteristic neuroticism demonstrated a significant relationship with several end-of-life sources of distress, including depression, anxiety, sense of dignity, quality of life (rating and satisfaction), hopelessness, concentration, and outlook on the future. Neuroticism appears to have a significant association with the dying experience. This association is expressed across the psychological, existential and, to a lesser extent, physical and social domains of end-of-life distress. This may help clinicians identify vulnerable individuals who are most likely to have poorer adjustments and may benefit from earlier targeted interventional approaches. Exploring the relationship between various facets of personality and end-of-life distress, and mapping this information against optimal therapeutic responses, remains the challenge for future research broaching this intriguing and largely ignored area of palliative care.

  4. The Curvilinear Relationship between State Neuroticism and Momentary Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Debusscher, Jonas; Hofmans, Joeri; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-01-01

    A daily diary and two experience sampling studies were carried out to investigate curvilinearity of the within-person relationship between state neuroticism and task performance, as well as the moderating effects of within-person variation in momentary job demands (i.e., work pressure and task complexity). In one, results showed that under high work pressure, the state neuroticism–task performance relationship was best described by an exponentially decreasing curve, whereas an inverted U-shaped curve was found for tasks low in work pressure, while in another study, a similar trend was visible for task complexity. In the final study, the state neuroticism–momentary task performance relationship was a linear one, and this relationship was moderated by momentary task complexity. Together, results from all three studies showed that it is important to take into account the moderating effects of momentary job demands because within-person variation in job demands affects the way in which state neuroticism relates to momentary levels of task performance. Specifically, we found that experiencing low levels of state neuroticism may be most beneficial in high demanding tasks, whereas more moderate levels of state neuroticism are optimal under low momentary job demands. PMID:25238547

  5. A Gestalt Marathon Workshop: Effects on Extraversion and Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; Hannigan, Patricia S.

    1976-01-01

    College students (N=18) participated in a 24-hour marathon gestalt workshop and responded to the Eysenck Personality Inventory before and after the event. Results revealed a significant positive change at the .01 level on a measure of neuroticism-stability and no change on a measure of extroversion-introversion. (Author)

  6. The Five-Factor Model of Personality and Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Thorsteinsson, Einar B.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a meta-analysis of the relationship between the Five-Factor Model of personality and smoking. The results, based on nine studies and a total of 4,730 participants, show that smoking was associated with the following five-factor traits: low conscientiousness, low agreeableness, and high neuroticism. Smokers outside Canada and…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Workaholism Facets and Personality Traits: A Replication in American Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Tronzo, Casie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we further explored whether any of the dimensions in the five-factor model of personality (i.e., openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) were related to facets of workaholism (i.e., work involvement, work drive, and work enjoyment) in a sample of American workers in various…

  8. Age Differences in Personality: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional age differences in the Big Five personality traits were examined in a nationally representative sample of Australians (N = 12,618; age range = 15-84). Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age. Effect sizes comparing…

  9. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Effects of the Big Five Personality Traits, Grades and the Validity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Carol Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the Big Five personality traits and expected student grades relate to student evaluations of teachers and courses at the college level. Extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were found to be personality traits favoured in instructors, whereas neuroticism was not. A…

  10. Relationship between Personality and Behavioral Intention in Student Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, William R.; Tashchian, Armen; Shore, Ted H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the applicability of the Big Five and FIRO-B frameworks as predictors of group process outcomes in the context of student teams. The personality dimensions of Agreeableness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism were correlated with the interpersonal behavior dimensions of Inclusion, Affection, and Control. The…

  11. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  12. How the Ocean personality model affects the perception of crowds.

    PubMed

    Durupinar, F; Pelechano, N; Allbeck, J M; Gudukbay, Ugur; Badler, N I

    2011-01-01

    This approach extends the HiDAC (High-Density Autonomous Crowds) system by providing each agent with a personality model based on the Ocean (openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) personality model. Each personality trait has an associated nominal behavior. Specifying an agent's personality leads to an automation of low-level parameter tuning.

  13. Factors That Influence Students to Participate in Team Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, William R.; Tashchian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of personality on participation in decision making in a sample of 225 business students. The Neo-FFI scale was used to measure the five personality dimensions of openness, agreeableness, extroversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism. Analysis indicated that personality dimensions, extroversion and…

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Big 5 Personality Test Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine the validity of Big 5 Personality test inventory of 44 questions with 5-Likert Scale measurement. Confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the good fit indices of the 5 personality types. Those types are 1) extraversion, 2) agreeableness, 3) conscientiousness, 4) openness and 5) neuroticism.…

  15. The Five Factor Model of Personality Applied to Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Lincoln, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally; Menzies, Ross G.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has not explored the Five Factor Model of personality among adults who stutter. Therefore, the present study investigated the five personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), in a sample of 93 adults seeking speech…

  16. The Relationship between Cognitive Dissonance and the Big-5 Factors Model of the Personality and the Academic Achievement in a Sample of Female Students at the University of Umm Al-Qura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaibi, Sameera Moharib B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to try to determine the relationship between the cognitive dissonance, the Big-Five Factors (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and the academic achievement. The study also aim to identify differences between female students with high cognitive dissonance and students with low…

  17. Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to responsiveness to tempo in dance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed. PMID:27551819

  18. Job characteristics, flow, and performance: the moderating role of conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia

    2006-07-01

    The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that (a) motivating job characteristics are positively related to flow at work and (b) conscientiousness moderates the relationship between flow and other ratings of (in-role and out-of-role) performance. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 113 employees from several occupations. Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Motivating job characteristics were predictive of flow, and flow predicted in-role and extra-role performance, for only conscientious employees. PMID:16834474

  19. Faking and the validity of conscientiousness: a Monte Carlo investigation.

    PubMed

    Komar, Shawn; Brown, Douglas J; Komar, Jennifer A; Robie, Chet

    2008-01-01

    The article reports the findings from a Monte Carlo investigation examining the impact of faking on the criterion-related validity of Conscientiousness for predicting supervisory ratings of job performance. Based on a review of faking literature, 6 parameters were manipulated in order to model 4,500 distinct faking conditions (5 [magnitude] x 5 [proportion] x 4 [variability] x 3 [faking-Conscientiousness relationship] x 3 [faking-performance relationship] x 5 [selection ratio]). Overall, the results indicated that validity change is significantly affected by all 6 faking parameters, with the relationship between faking and performance, the proportion of fakers in the sample, and the magnitude of faking having the strongest effect on validity change. Additionally, the association between several of the parameters and changes in criterion-related validity was conditional on the faking-performance relationship. The results are discussed in terms of their practical and theoretical implications for using personality testing for employee selection. PMID:18211141

  20. Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to responsiveness to tempo in dance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed.

  1. Income inequality and personality: are less equal U.S. states less agreeable?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Robert; Gosling, Samuel; Potter, Jeff

    2011-06-01

    Richard Wilkinson's 'inequality hypothesis' describes the relationship between societal income inequality and population health in terms of the corrosive psychosocial effects of social hierarchy. An explicit component of this hypothesis is that inequality should lead individuals to become more competitive and self-focused, less friendly and altruistic. Together these traits are a close conceptual match to the opposing poles of the Big Five personality factor of Agreeableness; a widely used concept in the field of personality psychology. Based on this fact, we predicted that individuals living in more economically unequal U.S. states should be lower in Agreeableness than those living in more equal states. This hypothesis was tested in both ecological and multilevel analyses in the 50 states plus Washington DC, using a large Internet sample (N = 674,885). Consistent with predictions, ecological and multilevel models both showed a negative relationship between state level inequality and Agreeableness. These relationships were not explained by differences in average income, overall state socio-demographic composition or individual socio-demographic characteristics.

  2. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality. PMID:19968409

  3. Color preferences, extraversion, and neuroticism of art students.

    PubMed

    Götz, K O; Götz, K

    1975-12-01

    Color preferences of 190 art students (Götz & Götz, 1974, 1975) were compared with the corresponding scores on extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N). It was found that the preferences of a group of 27 highly gifted young artists were different from preferences of average and less gifted Ss who had little or no artistic practice. In the latter group extraverts and ambiverts mainly preferred primary and secondary colors (light clear and dark clear tones included), while introverts preferred tertiary colors (earth colors) and achromatics. However, in the group of highly gifted Ss no significant differences between positive and negative rankings in both color categories were found. Neuroticism had no effect on color preferences; this holds for introverts and extraverts and for each single color.

  4. Conscientious objection: personal and professional ethics in the public square.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    English law expects health professionals to have, and act upon, consciences, but formal conscience clauses are not the main legal recognition of this expectation. Rather, they should be regarded as an anomaly with roots in very specific political settlements between society and health professions, whose legitimacy is historically contingent, and as an aspect of the 'price' to be paid for securing services. There are sound reasons for the protection of conscientious discretion as an aspect of professional identify, but specific rights of personal conscientious objection are difficult to reconcile with legitimate public expectations of comprehensive and non-discriminatory services. Professional identities include moral commitments, such as the privileging of patient safety over administrative convenience. These should not be permitted to be overridden by personal moralities during the course of service delivery (as opposed to debating in the abstract what the proper courses of action should be). Consequently, formal conscientious objection clauses should be reduced to a minimum and regularly revisited. It is generally more satisfactory to address clashes between the personal moralities of professionals and public expectations through more flexible means, enabling accommodation of a plurality of views where possible but acknowledging that this is a matter of striking an appropriate balance. Employment law rather than healthcare law provides the best mechanism for regulating this process.

  5. Forgive and Forget, or Forgive and Regret? Whether Forgiveness Leads to Less or More Offending Depends on Offender Agreeableness.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Russell, V Michelle

    2016-05-01

    How does forgiveness predict the likelihood of reoffending? One survey study, one experiment, one 4-year longitudinal study, and one 2-week diary study examined the implications of forgiveness for reoffending in relationships. In all four studies, agreeableness interacted with partner forgiveness to predict subsequent offending; partner forgiveness was negatively associated with subsequent offending among more agreeable people but positively associated with subsequent offending among less agreeable people. Furthermore, Study 4 demonstrated a unique mechanism of each simple effect; relatively agreeable people engaged in fewer transgressions against more forgiving partners because they felt obligated to refrain from transgressing against such partners whereas relatively disagreeable people engaged in more transgressions against more forgiving partners because they perceived those partners were less easily angered. These studies indicate that completely understanding the intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of forgiveness requires recognizing the dyadic nature of forgiveness and attending to qualities of the offender. PMID:27029577

  6. Trait-agreeableness influences individual reactions to a physician's affiliative behavior in a simulated bad news delivery.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Gaëtan; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether the personality trait of agreeableness predicts different individual reactions to the level of nonverbal affiliativeness shown by a physician, in the context of a simulated bad news delivery. We predicted that individuals with high levels of agreeableness would react better to a physician adopting a highly affiliative communication style compared to individuals with low levels of agreeableness. We used an experimental design with analogue patients. Eighty participants (40 men/40 women) were randomly assigned to watch a video of a physician who communicated a bad diagnosis either in a highly affiliative or in a less affiliative way. Participants reported their reactions of anger and trust in the physician, and completed the agreeableness scale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). In accordance with our predictions, the higher the agreeableness score of the participants, the less anger and the more trust they reported after viewing the high as compared to the low affiliative physician. These results suggest that people with high levels of agreeableness may be especially sensitive to highly affiliative physician nonverbal behavior when receiving bad news.

  7. Using individual interest and conscientiousness to predict academic effort: Additive, synergistic, or compensatory effects?

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagy, Nicole; Lenski, Anna; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Although both conscientiousness and domain-specific interest are believed to be major determinants of academic effort, they have rarely been brought together in empirical studies. In the present research, it was hypothesized that both interest and conscientiousness uniquely predict academic effort and statistically interact with each other to predict academic effort. In 4 studies with 2,557, 415, 1,025, and 1,531 students, respectively, conscientiousness and interest meaningfully and uniquely predicted academic effort. In addition, conscientiousness interacted with interest in a compensatory pattern, indicating that conscientiousness is especially important when a student finds a school subject uninteresting and that domain-specific interest plays a particularly important role for students low in conscientiousness. PMID:25915134

  8. Longevity, big five personality factors, and health behaviors: presidents from Washington to Nixon.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the positive correlation between conscientiousness and death age discovered by H. S. Friedman et al. (1993, 1995) was replicated for 32 American presidents. Conscientiousness scores, using the Big Five variables produced by S. J. Rubenzer, T. R. Faschingbauer, and D. S. Ones (1996, 2000), were correlated with death age, r(30) = .41, p < .01, and the relationship was maintained with controls in a multiple regression framework. Smoking, drinking, and exercise, as assessed by J. R. Bumgarner (1994), were also correlated in the expected fashion with death age. Conscientiousness was correlated negatively with smoking and drinking, but openness to experience was correlated negatively with smoking and drinking to a higher degree and also was positively correlated with exercise. Openness, extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not correlated with death age, and extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not correlated with smoking, drinking or exercise. PMID:15945521

  9. Resting State Functional Connectivity within the Cingulate Cortex Jointly Predicts Agreeableness and Stressor-Evoked Cardiovascular Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John P.; Sheu, Lei K.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress confers risk for cardiovascular disease. Further, individual differences in stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity covary with the functionality of cortical and limbic brain areas, particularly within the cingulate cortex. What remains unclear, however, is how individual differences in personality traits interact with cingulate functionality in the prediction of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Accordingly, we tested the associations between (i) a particular personality trait, Agreeableness, which is associated with emotional reactions to conflict, (ii) resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex, and (iii) stressor-evoked blood pressure (BP) reactivity. Participants (N=39, 19 men, aged 20–37 yrs) completed a resting functional connectivity MRI protocol, followed by two standardized stressor tasks that engaged conflict processing and evoked BP reactivity. Agreeableness covaried positively with BP reactivity across individuals. Moreover, connectivity analyses demonstrated that a more positive functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate (BA31) and the perigenual anterior cingulate (BA32) covaried positively with Agreeableness and with BP reactivity. Finally, statistical mediation analyses demonstrated that BA31–BA32 connectivity mediated the covariation between Agreeableness and BP reactivity. Functional connectivity within the cingulate appears to link Agreeableness and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stressor-evoked BP reactivity. PMID:21130172

  10. The fibromyalgia syndrome as a manifestation of neuroticism?

    PubMed

    Netter, P; Hennig, J

    1998-01-01

    After elucidating the components and theory of neuroticism (N) as well as of psychosomatic complaints and their relationships to personality dimensions and to psychosomatic diseases, comparisons are performed between patients suffering from fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) or related pain diseases with healthy subjects scoring high on personality dimensions related to neuroticism. FMS and pain patients score high on depression, anxiety, and experience of stress although questionnaire scores on depression are higher in subjects not exhibiting somatic features of the disease. High subjective pain sensitivity and low thresholds for pain perception are also common features in high N subjects and FMS patients. On the endocrinological level cortisol responses to challenge tests with CRH as well as prolactin responses to TRH are higher in FMS patients than in high N healthy subjects indicating an endocrinological difference. A common feature, however, is the lack of adaptability in the two groups, since neurotics are in particular characterized by a low capacity to shift their behavior from one state to the other (waking-sleeping, working-relaxing), to re-adapt to baseline levels after endocrinological or physiological stress responses, or to adjust to conditions of shift work. This is reflected by chronobiological disturbances in FMS patients and could also explain their maintainance of pain perception, because they are incapable of correcting conditioned pain-producing muscle tension.

  11. The influence of neuroticism, extraversion and openness on stress responses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tamera R; Rench, Tara A; Lyons, Joseph B; Riffle, Rebecca R

    2012-04-01

    The present research moved beyond focusing on negative dispositions to investigate the influence of positive aspects of personality, namely extraversion and openness, on stress responses including appraisals, affect and task performance. Challenge appraisals occur when stressor demands are deemed commensurate with coping resources, whereas threat appraisals occur when demands are believed to outweigh coping resources. We examined the unique influence of personality on stress responses and the mediating role of appraisals. Personality was assessed, and then participants (N = 152) were exposed to a validated math stressor. We found unique effects on stress responses for neuroticism (high threat and negative affect and low positive affect), extraversion (high positive and low negative affect) and openness (high positive and low negative effect and better performance). Mediation analyses revealed that neuroticism indirectly worsened performance, through threat appraisals, and that openness indirectly increased positive affect through lower threat. These findings highlight the importance of investigating multiple aspects of personality on stress responses and provide an avenue through which stress responses can be changed-appraisals. Only by more broad investigations can interventions be tailored appropriately for different individuals to foster stress resilience. PMID:22281953

  12. 32 CFR 1630.18 - Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to perform alternative service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to... National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.18 Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to perform alternative service. In Class 1-W shall be placed any registrant who has been...

  13. Assessing Conscientious Personality in Primary Care: An Opportunity for Prevention and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this special section bolster the already strong evidence base that personality differences in the trait of conscientiousness predict health. What is now needed is a research agenda for translating documented risk associations between low conscientiousness and poor health into policies and interventions that improve health outcomes…

  14. 32 CFR 1630.16 - Class 1-O: Conscientious objector to all military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-O: Conscientious objector to all... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.16 Class 1-O: Conscientious objector to all military... and service in the Armed Forces shall be classified in Class 1-O. (b) Upon the written request of...

  15. The Careless or the Conscientious: Who Profits Most from Goal Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsheger, Ute R.; Maier, Gunter W.

    2010-01-01

    Although research indicates that making progress on personal work goals predicts positive job attitudes, little is known about the role of conscientiousness in moderating this relationship. Congruence theories suggest that job attitudes will be more dependent on goal progress when employees are high in conscientiousness, whereas compensation…

  16. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  17. Neuroticism Moderates the Relation between Parenting and Empathy and between Empathy and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparro, Maria Paula; Grusec, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    Links among neuroticism, inconsistent discipline, and empathy were assessed in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Mothers', but not fathers', inconsistent discipline predicted decreases in empathy 2 years later, but only for adolescents who were low in neuroticism. For those who were high, there was no effect of inconsistent discipline.…

  18. Neuroticism and Longitudinal Change in Caregiver Depression: Impact of a Spouse-Caregiver Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Clay, Olivio J.; Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Mittelman, Mary S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact of caregiver neuroticism on longitudinal change in depression among spouse-caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease receiving either enhanced psychosocial treatment or usual care. We were interested in whether high levels of caregiver neuroticism would lead to a diminished response to the enhanced…

  19. Relationship of neuroticism and laboratory pain in healthy children: does anxiety sensitivity play a role?

    PubMed

    Payne, Laura A; Seidman, Laura C; Lung, Kirsten C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2013-01-01

    Both neuroticism, a higher-order, stable personality trait, and anxiety sensitivity (AS), a lower-order pain-related construct, have been associated with pain, although no research exists examining the relationship of both these constructs to acute pain in children. In the current study, 99 healthy children (53 girls) completed self-report measures of neuroticism and AS before undergoing pain tasks involving cold and pressure pain. We hypothesized that both neuroticism and AS would be correlated with acute pain responses, but that AS would at least partially mediate the relationship between neuroticism and pain responses. Results indicated significant correlations between neuroticism, AS, and anticipatory anxiety, pain intensity and pain bother. Mediational models revealed that AS partially mediated relationships between neuroticism and pain intensity/bother, and fully mediated relationships between neuroticism and anticipatory anxiety. These data suggest that, at least in children, neuroticism may be best understood as a vulnerability factor for elevated pain responses, especially when coupled with a fear of bodily sensations.

  20. Intergenerational Effects of High Neuroticism in Parents and Their Public Health Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenbogen, Mark A.; Ostiguy, Caroline S.; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2010-01-01

    The article by Lahey (May-June 2009) provided a timely and important review of a growing body of evidence linking the personality trait of neuroticism to a host of health and psychosocial outcomes with public health significance. Lahey (2009) highlighted the links between high neuroticism and mental health, physical health, and quality of life and…

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    PubMed

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    PubMed

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

    PubMed Central

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  4. Conscientiousness and public health: synthesizing current research to promote healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2014-05-01

    In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms that account for this actuarial success. The current studies and comments marshal current knowledge of conscientiousness to advance a mechanistic understanding of these predictions and to exploit that understanding toward interventions to enhance robust adult development and healthy aging. In this introductory article, we underscore the strategy we used to invite presentations and commentary. First, we sought a clearer definition of conscientiousness and a review of its assessment. Second, we sought a review of how the components of this complex trait develop in childhood and are assembled across development. Third, we sought an understanding of how mechanisms linking conscientiousness and health might be transformed across the life span. Fourth, we scrutinized naturally occurring factors that moderate the links between conscientiousness and health for clues to successful interventions. Finally, we sought ways to pull these analyses together to outline the framework for a program of interventions that, collectively, might be applicable at specific points across the life span. Six commentaries place this project in sharp relief. They remind us that the causal status of the associations between conscientiousness and health, reported throughout our 9 studies, are uncertain at best. Second, they remind us that the concept of conscientiousness is still too spare: It fails to embody the social skills required for conscientious behavior, the moral judgment of self or other implicit in its assessment, or the neurobiological mechanisms that might account for differences among individuals. Third, they raise a potent

  5. Perceived Emotion Control Moderates the Relationship between Neuroticism and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Michelle L.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between neuroticism, perceived emotion control, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) severity were examined in 293 individuals diagnosed with GAD at a specialty anxiety disorders clinic. Hierarchical regression analyses performed within a structural equation modeling framework revealed that (1) neuroticism and perceived emotion control both predicted a latent variable of GAD in the expected direction, and (2) perceived emotion control moderated the relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity, such that lower levels of perceived emotion control were associated with a stronger relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity. The other dimensions of perceived control (i.e., stress and threat control) did not moderate the effect of neuroticism on GAD severity. The findings are discussed with regard to their implications to conceptual models of the psychopathology of GAD, and theory-based differential relationships between dimensions of vulnerability, perceived control, and anxiety disorders. PMID:26236059

  6. A New Life-Span Approach to Conscientiousness and Health: Combining the Pieces of the Causal Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Howard S.; Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2014-01-01

    Conscientiousness has been shown to predict healthy behaviors, healthy social relationships, and physical health and longevity. The causal links, however, are complex and not well elaborated. Many extant studies have used comparable measures for conscientiousness, and a systematic endeavor to build cross-study analyses for conscientiousness and…

  7. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature. PMID:27174228

  8. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  9. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  10. [Conscientious objection and the values of medical profession].

    PubMed

    Besio, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    It is usual to understand conscientious objection as a doctor’s refusal to perform a legitimate intervention, for subjective personal reasons unrelated to medicine. It is then accepted only by respect to professional autonomy and freedom of beliefs. Understood in that way it would be thus reasonable to limit it, curtail it or delete it, since the objector would not be willing to grant benefits that correspond to his medical profession. This work aims to show exactly the opposite, taking as an example the project of law that pretends to decriminalize abortion in some situations in Chile. Is the objector who defends medical activity relying on ethic codes that seek to preserve the values and principles of our profession. PMID:27299825

  11. Extraversion, neuroticism and strength of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J Y

    1976-11-01

    The hypothesized identity of the dimensions of extraversion-introversion and strength of the nervous system was tested on four groups of nine subjects (neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts). Strength of the subjects' nervous system was estimated using the electroencephalographic (EEG) variant of extinction with reinforcement. Introverted subjects were found to have weak nervous systems, according to the EEG index, while extraverted subjects had strong nervous systems, thus confirming the hypothesis. It was also found that the dimension of strength of the nervous system was unrelated to differences in neuroticism. The results are interpreted as adding support to Eysenck's theory relating differences in extraversion-introversion to differences in cortical arousal.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of over 106 000 individuals identifies 9 neuroticism-associated loci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Escott-Price, V; Davies, G; Bailey, M E S; Colodro-Conde, L; Ward, J; Vedernikov, A; Marioni, R; Cullen, B; Lyall, D; Hagenaars, S P; Liewald, D C M; Luciano, M; Gale, C R; Ritchie, S J; Hayward, C; Nicholl, B; Bulik-Sullivan, B; Adams, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Graham, N; Mackay, D; Evans, J; Smith, B H; Porteous, D J; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Holmans, P; McIntosh, A M; Pell, J P; Deary, I J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91 370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form's Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ∼15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 × 10−15) spanning 4 Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured

  13. Genome-wide analysis of over 106 000 individuals identifies 9 neuroticism-associated loci.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Escott-Price, V; Davies, G; Bailey, M E S; Colodro-Conde, L; Ward, J; Vedernikov, A; Marioni, R; Cullen, B; Lyall, D; Hagenaars, S P; Liewald, D C M; Luciano, M; Gale, C R; Ritchie, S J; Hayward, C; Nicholl, B; Bulik-Sullivan, B; Adams, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Graham, N; Mackay, D; Evans, J; Smith, B H; Porteous, D J; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Holmans, P; McIntosh, A M; Pell, J P; Deary, I J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-06-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91 370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form's Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ∼15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 × 10(-15)) spanning 4 Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured

  14. Conscientiousness mediates the relation between perceived parental socialisation and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Roberts, Brent W; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The pathways between parenting behaviours, personality and physical health have all been separately studied. Prior research has paid little attention to the indirect effects of personality in the path between parenting behaviours and better health. The purpose of this study was to explore the mediational effects of conscientiousness on the relationships between parental socialisation of responsibility and self-rated health, and to examine potential age differences in this mediational pathway. In total, 736 female and 749 male members across Japan participated in this study. They were divided into three groups by age category: younger-, middle-aged and older-aged. Conscientiousness and health were concurrently rated, while parental socialisation of responsibility was retrospectively assessed. Our analyses revealed that parental socialisation of responsibility is positively associated with conscientiousness and self-rated health, that conscientiousness is positively associated with self-rated health, and that conscientiousness fully mediated the effect of parental socialisation of responsibility on self-rated health. The mediational links were consistent across younger, middle-aged and older-aged cohorts. Our findings suggest that greater parental socialisation of responsibility relates to higher conscientiousness, and consequently healthier adults. These findings imply that parental behaviours could be a plausible target for intervention to foster the development of conscientiousness and better health.

  15. Task-contingent conscientiousness as a unit of personality at work.

    PubMed

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people are engaged in, (b) there are significant and stable differences between people in the extent to which their conscientiousness behaviors are contingent on task demands, and (c) individual differences in task-contingent conscientiousness are related to, though distinct from, individual differences in trait conscientiousness. We also provide evidence in relation to (a) need for cognition as a possible antecedent of task-contingent conscientiousness and (b) adaptive performance on a cognitive task as a possible consequence of it. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings for the cognitive nature of personality and the way in which conscientiousness is expressed at work. Practical implications in relation to the predictive function of personality and applications that focus on behavioral change are also discussed. PMID:20718521

  16. Neuroticism and common mental disorders: meaning and utility of a complex relationship.

    PubMed

    Ormel, Johan; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Kotov, Roman; Riese, Harriëtte; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hankin, Benjamin; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2013-07-01

    Neuroticism's prospective association with common mental disorders (CMDs) has fueled the assumption that neuroticism is an independent etiologically informative risk factor. This vulnerability model postulates that neuroticism sets in motion processes that lead to CMDs. However, four other models seek to explain the association, including the spectrum model (manifestations of the same process), common cause model (shared determinants), state and scar models (CMD episode adds temporary/permanent neuroticism). To examine their validity we reviewed literature on confounding, operational overlap, stability and change, determinants, and treatment effects. None of the models is able to account for (virtually) all findings. The state and scar model cannot explain the prospective association. The spectrum model has some relevance, especially for internalizing disorders. Common causes are most important but the vulnerability model cannot be excluded although confounding of the prospective association by baseline symptoms and psychiatric history is substantial. In fact, some of the findings, such as interactions with stress and the small decay of neuroticism's effect over time, are consistent with the vulnerability model. We describe research designs that discriminate the remaining models and plea for deconstruction of neuroticism. Neuroticism is etiologically not informative yet but useful as an efficient marker of non-specified general risk. PMID:23702592

  17. Neuroticism and Common Mental Disorders: Meaning and Utility of a Complex Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Bos, Elisabeth H.; Hankin, Benjamin; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroticism's prospective association with common mental disorders (CMDs) has fueled the assumption that neuroticism is an independent etiologically informative risk factor. This vulnerability model postulates that neuroticism sets in motion processes that lead to CMDs. However, four other models seek to explain the association, including the spectrum model (manifestations of the same process), common cause model (shared determinants), state and scar models (CMD episode adds temporary / permanent neuroticism). To examine their validity we reviewed literature on confounding, operational overlap, stability and change, determinants, and treatment effects. None of the models is able to account for (virtually) all findings. The state and scar model cannot explain the prospective association. The spectrum model has some relevance, especially for internalizing disorders. Common causes are most important but the vulnerability model cannot be excluded although confounding of the prospective association by baseline symptoms and psychiatric history is substantial. In fact, some of the findings, such as interactions with stress and the small decay of neuroticism's effect over time, are consistent with the vulnerability model. We describe research designs that discriminate the remaining models and plea for deconstruction of neuroticism. Neuroticism is etiologically not informative yet but useful as an efficient marker of non-specified general risk. PMID:23702592

  18. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

  19. Surviving an abusive supervisor: the joint roles of conscientiousness and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Nandkeolyar, Amit K; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Li, Andrew; Ekkirala, Srinivas; Bagger, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines a mediated moderation model of the effects of conscientiousness and coping strategies on the relationship between abusive supervision and employees' job performance. Across 2 studies conducted in India, we found evidence that the relationship between abusive supervision and job performance was weaker when employees were high in conscientiousness. In addition, we found that the use of an avoidance coping strategy facilitated a negative relationship between abusive supervision and performance. Finally, we found that the moderating effects of conscientiousness were mediated by the use of avoidance coping strategies. Our findings contribute to theories of abusive supervision, personality, coping strategies, and job performance. PMID:23978107

  20. Conscientious objection and abortion: rights and duties of public sector physicians.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2011-10-01

    The paper analyzes conscientious objection by physicians, through the concrete situation of legal abortion in Brazil. It reviews the two main ethical frameworks about conscientious objection in public health, the incompatibility thesis and the integrity thesis, to analyze the reality of legal abortion services in the referral services of the Brazilian public health care system. From these two perspectives, a third perspective is proposed - the justification thesis, to manage the right to conscientious objection among physicians in referral services. This analysis may contribute to the organization of services for legal abortion and to the education of future physicians working in emergency obstetric care.

  1. The role of goal-focused leadership in enabling the expression of conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Amy E; Witt, L A

    2009-05-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that goal-focused leadership enables conscientious workers to perform effectively by helping them to accurately understand organizational goal priorities. Data collected from 162 workers in a private sector document processing organization supported the hypotheses that goal-focused leadership moderates the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance and that person-organization goal congruence mediates this moderated relationship. Specifically, conscientiousness was more strongly positively related to performance among workers who perceived that their supervisors effectively set goals and defined roles, responsibilities, and priorities than among workers who did not perceive this type of goal-focused leadership. PMID:19450014

  2. ADHD and personality: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; Corr, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    We report a meta-analysis of up to 40 data sets that examined the personality dimensions in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and the integrated Five-Factor Model (IFFM) in relation to ADHD symptom domains of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI). The IFFM incorporated the dimensions of other personality models (in particular, those of Eysenck, Tellegen, and Cloninger, as well as the FFM). Major findings were: (1) IA and HI were both associated with low conscientious inhibition/conscientiousness, and low agreeable inhibition/agreeableness, and with high negative emotionality/neuroticism; (2) conscientious inhibition and conscientiousness were more strongly related to IA than HI; (3) agreeable inhibition and agreeableness were more strongly related to HI than IA; and (4) the association of conscientious inhibition and conscientiousness with HI was moderated by age group and source from where participants were recruited (associations were stronger in children than adults, and clinical samples than community samples). These findings are discussed in relation to single and multiple pathway theories, underlying factors and processes for the personality-ADHD link, and clinical implications.

  3. The Association between Neuroticism and Heart Rate Variability Is Not Fully Explained by Cardiovascular Disease and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Čukić, Iva; Bates, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with cardiovascular disease, autonomic reactivity, and depression. Here we address the extent to which neuroticism accounts for the excess heart disease risk associated with depression and test whether cardiac autonomic tone plays a role as mediator. Subjects were derived from a nationally representative sample (n = 1,255: mean age 54.5, SD = 11.5). Higher neuroticism was associated with reduced heart rate variability equally under rest and stress. The baseline structural equation model revealed significant paths from neuroticism to heart rate variability, cardiovascular disease and depression, and between depression and cardiovascular disease, controlling for age, sex, height, weight, and BMI. Dropping both the neuroticism to heart rate variability, and neuroticism to heart disease paths significantly reduced the model fit (p < .001 in each case). We conclude that neuroticism has independent associations with both autonomic reactivity and cardiovascular disease, over and above its associations with depression and other related variables. PMID:25951236

  4. Mutual reinforcement between neuroticism and life experiences: a five-wave, 16-year study to test reciprocal causation.

    PubMed

    Jeronimus, Bertus F; Riese, Harriëtte; Sanderman, Robbert; Ormel, Johan

    2014-10-01

    High neuroticism predicts psychopathology and physical health problems. Nongenetic factors, including major life events and experiences, explain approximately half of the variance in neuroticism. Conversely, neuroticism also predicts these life experiences. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reciprocal causation between neuroticism and life experiences and to gauge the magnitude and persistence of these associations. This longitudinal cohort study included 5 assessment waves over 16 years in a random sample of 296 Dutch participants (47% women) with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 12, range 16-63 years). Neuroticism was assessed with the Amsterdam Biographic Questionnaire. The experiences measured included positive and negative life events, long-term difficulties (LTDs), and change in life quality, all assessed by contextual rating procedures adapted from the Life Event and Difficulties Schedule. We fit structural equation models in Mplus. Results showed that neuroticism consistently predicted negative experiences, decreased life quality, and LTDs (β = 0.15 to 0.39), whereas effects on positive experiences were variable (β = 0.14). LTDs and deteriorated life quality each predicted small but persistent increases in neuroticism (β = 0.18), whereas improved life quality predicted small but persistent decreases (β = -0.13). This suggests set point change in neuroticism. Life event aggregates showed no persistent effects on the neuroticism set point. Neuroticism and life experiences showed persistent, bidirectional associations. Experience-driven changes in neuroticism lasted over a decade. Results support the corresponsive principle (reciprocal causation), suggesting a mixed model of change in neuroticism that distinguishes temporary changes in neuroticism from persistent changes in an individual's neuroticism set point.

  5. Conscientiousness and reactions to psychological contract breach: a longitudinal field study.

    PubMed

    Orvis, Karin A; Dudley, Nicole M; Cortina, Jose M

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the role of employee conscientiousness as a moderator of the relationships between psychological contract breach and employee behavioral and attitudinal reactions to the breach. They collected data from 106 newly hired employees within the 1st month of employment (Time 1), 3 months later (Time 2), and 8 months after Time 1 (Time 3) to observe the progression through contract development, breach, and reaction. Results suggest that conscientiousness is a significant moderator for 4 of the 5 contract breach-employee reaction relationships examined (turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, job satisfaction, and 1 of 2 facets of job performance). Specifically, employees who were lower in conscientiousness had more negative reactions to perceived breach with respect to turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, and job satisfaction. In contrast, employees who were higher in conscientiousness reduced their job performance to a greater degree in response to contract breach. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:18808236

  6. Assessing Conscientious Personality in Primary Care: An Opportunity for Prevention and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this special section bolster the already strong evidence base that personality differences in the trait of conscientiousness predict health. What is now needed is a research agenda for translating documented risk associations between low conscientiousness and poor health into policies and interventions that improve health outcomes for individuals and populations. In this commentary, we highlight 1 such avenue: introducing brief personality assessment into primary care practice. We provide examples of how conscientiousness assessment may help health care professionals get to know their patients better and potentially serve as a guide for more personalized care. We also raise key considerations for implementation research aimed at examining the feasibility and utility of integrating conscientiousness assessment into primary care settings. PMID:24773110

  7. Are you in a healthy relationship? Linking conscientiousness to health via implementing and immunizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Patrick L; Nickel, Lauren B; Roberts, Brent W

    2014-12-01

    The benefits of living a conscientious life have been demonstrated across multiple domains, and yet, few studies have sought to explain how the positive effects in one area may help explain those in another. The current article considers the possibility that conscientious individuals live healthier lives by virtue of having greater success in their relationships. Using both past research and new findings to support our model, we set forth a framework by which to consider how Conscientiousness affects relationship functioning, which in turn leads to better physical, emotional, and psychological health. In so doing, we also provide a new outlook on the health benefits associated with Conscientiousness, and how these may be conferred by relationship success.

  8. Global Self-rating Validation of the Measurement of Extraversion and Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; Soper, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Results show that individuals identified by the personality inventory as extravert or introvert differed significantly in the expected direction on the global self ratings. The results were also obtained for neuroticism. (Author/DEP)

  9. Eye contact reveals a relationship between Neuroticism and anterior EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Uusberg, Helen; Allik, Jüri; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-07-01

    Although anterior functional brain asymmetry has been linked to individual differences in affect and motivation, its relations with the Five Factor Model personality traits remain unclear. We investigated anterior EEG alpha-activity asymmetry in response to variable degrees of social contact induced by different gaze directions of a "live" model. Neuroticism was negatively related to the anterior EEG asymmetry scores in response to direct gaze, indicating that higher levels of Neuroticism were associated with avoidance-related, relative right-sided functional brain asymmetry. Neuroticism was also related to behavioral direct gaze avoidance and subjective averted gaze preference. These relationships arose primarily from the Withdrawal aspect factor, suggesting that two subdomains of Neuroticism may be differentially related to approach-avoidance tendencies. These findings demonstrate that experimental manipulations of social contact can reveal personality related differences in anterior EEG asymmetry responsiveness, offering a motivationally salient alternative to resting state measures.

  10. Dopamine activation in Neuroticism as measured by spontaneous eye blink rate.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Giuseppe; Della Monica, Ciro; Costanzo, Antonio; De Padova, Vittoria

    2012-01-18

    Personality dimensions have been associated with different psychobiological systems. However, no agreement exists in literature on a specific role of a single neurotransmitter for each of the dimensions investigated. We studied the relationship of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism as assessed by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) with spontaneous eye blink rate (BR), a non-invasive measure of central dopamine activity. A total of sixty-three healthy subjects (40 females, 23 males, mean age 24.2±3.9) were studied. Spontaneous blink rate and time of blink suppression were assessed by EOG measurement. Levels of Extraversion and Neuroticism were inversely correlated. In contrast with previous findings, a significant correlation between blink rate measures and Neuroticism was found. No significant correlation between blink measures and either Extraversion, or Psychoticism were found. The results appear consistent with a lower threshold for activation in neuroticism as suggested by Eysenck's original model.

  11. HIV exceptionalism, CD4+ cell testing, and conscientious subversion

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, many states in the United States have passed legislation requiring laboratories to report the names of patients with low CD4 cell counts to their state Departments of Health. This name reporting is an integral part of the growing number of "HIV Reporting and Partner Notification Laws" which have emerged in response to recently revised guidelines suggested by the National Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Name reporting for patients with low CD4 cell counts allows for a more accurate tracking of the natural history of HIV disease. However, given that this test is now considered to be an "indicator" of HIV, should it be subject to the same strict consent required for HIV testing? While the CDC has recommended that each state develop its own consent requirements for CD4 cell testing, most states have continued to rely on the presumed consent standards for CD4 cell testing that were in place before the passage of name reporting statutes. This allows physicians who treat patients who refuse HIV testing to order a CD4 cell blood analysis to gather information that is indicative of their patient's HIV status. This paper examines the ethical and legal issues associated with the practice of "conscientious subversion" as it arises when clinicians use CD4 cell counts as a surrogate for HIV testing. PMID:15923478

  12. Invoking conscientious objection in reproductive health care: evolving issues in Peru, Mexico and Chile.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia

    2009-11-01

    As Latin American countries seek to guarantee sexual and reproductive health and rights, opponents of women's rights and reproductive choice have become more strident in their opposition, and are increasingly claiming conscientious objection to providing these services. Conscientious objection must be seen in the context of the rights and interests at stake, including women's health needs and right to self-determination. An analysis of law and policy on conscientious objection in Peru, Mexico and Chile shows that it is being used to erode women's rights, especially where it is construed to have no limits, as in Peru. Conscientious objection must be distinguished from politically-motivated attempts to undermine the law; otherwise, the still fragile re-democratisation processes underway in Latin America may be placed at risk. True conscientious objection requires that a balance be struck between the rights of the objector and the health rights of patients, in this case women. Health care providers are entitled to their beliefs and to have those beliefs accommodated, but it is neither viable nor ethically acceptable for conscientious objectors to exercise this right without regard for the right to health care of others, or for policy and services to be rendered ineffectual because of individual objectors.

  13. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.

  14. Conscientious objection in reproductive health care: Analysis of Pichon and Sajous v. France.

    PubMed

    Lamacková, Adriana

    2008-05-01

    This article explores the issue of conscientious objection invoked by health professionals in the reproductive and sexual health care context and its impact on women's ability to access health services. The right to exercise conscientious objection has been recognized by many international and European scholars as being derived from the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. It is not, however, an absolute right. When the exercise of conscientious objection conflicts with other human rights and fundamental freedoms, a balance must be struck between the right to conscientious objection and other affected rights such as the right to respect for private life, the right to equality and non-discrimination, and the right to receive and impart information. Particularly in the reproductive health care context, states that allow health professionals to exercise conscientious objection must accommodate this in such a way that its exercise does not compromise women's access to health services. This article analyses the European Court of Human Rights' decision on admissibility in Pichon and Sajous v. France (2001) and argues that a balancing approach should be applied in cases of conscientious objection in the sexual and reproductive health care context. PMID:18630725

  15. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations. PMID:27192958

  16. The Relationship between Neuroticism, Hopelessness, and Depression in Older Korean Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum Jung; Linton, Kristen; Cho, Sean; Ha, Jung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neuroticism, hopelessness, and depression among older Korean immigrants. To extend this line of research, this study aimed to examine the effects of neuroticism and hopelessness in predicting depression among older Korean immigrants. Methods Data for this study came from a survey of 220 first generation Korean immigrants aged 65 years or older in Los Angeles County in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with trained social workers using a structured questionnaire translated into Korean. All interviews were conducted in Korean. The neuroticism sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to assess neuroticism (EPQN). Hopelessness was measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). Depression was measured by the 20-item Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Results The study found that age (β = .26, p< .01), gender (β = -.13, p< .01), income (β = -.13, p< .01), neuroticism (β = .51, p< .01), and hopelessness (β = .15, p< .01) were significant predictors of depression. Conclusion The study provides preventive strategies that would help in the development of depression-reduction services or programs for the population, especially for those living with neuroticism and hopelessness. PMID:26727476

  17. The relation between schizotypy and early attention to rejecting interactions: The influence of neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Albert, Jacobo; Kessel, Dominique; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Carretié, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Schizotypy relates to rejection sensitivity (anxiety reflecting an expectancy of social exclusion) and neuroticism (excessive evaluation of negative emotions). Positive schizotypy (e.g., perceptual aberrations and odd beliefs) and negative schizotypy (e.g., social and physical anhedonia) could relate to altered attention to rejection because of neuroticism. Methods: Forty-one healthy individuals were assessed on positive and negative schizotypy and neuroticism, and event-related potentials during rejecting, accepting and neutral scenes. Participants were categorised into high, moderate and low neuroticism groups. Using temporo-spatial principal components analyses, P200 (peak latency =290 ms) and P300 amplitudes (peak latency = 390 ms) were measured, reflecting mobilisation of attention and early attention, respectively. Results: Scalp-level and cortical source analysis revealed elevated fronto-parietal N300/P300 amplitude and P200-related dorsal anterior cingulate current density during rejection than acceptance/neutral scenes. Positive schizotypy related inversely to parietal P200 amplitude during rejection. Negative schizotypy related positively to P200 middle occipital current density. Negative schizotypy related positively to parietal P300, where the association was stronger in high and moderate, than low, neuroticism groups. Conclusions: Positive and negative schizotypy relate divergently to attention to rejection. Positive schizotypy attenuates, but negative schizotypy increases rejection-related mobilisation of attention. Negative schizotypy increases early attention to rejection partly due to elevated neuroticism. PMID:26452584

  18. BDNF Val66Met is Associated with Introversion and Interacts with 5-HTTLPR to Influence Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sutin, Angelina R; Deiana, Barbara; Balaci, Lenuta; Sanna, Serena; Olla, Nazario; Maschio, Andrea; Uda, Manuela; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Costa, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission, and has been linked to neuroticism, a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. A recent genome-wide association (GWA) scan, however, found the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) associated with extraversion but not with neuroticism. In this study, we examine the links between BDNF and personality traits, assessed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), in a sample from SardiNIA (n=1560) and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA; n=1131). Consistent with GWA results, we found that BDNF Met carriers were more introverted. By contrast, in both samples and in a meta-analysis inclusive of published data (n=15251), we found no evidence for a main effect of BDNF Val66Met on neuroticism. Finally, on the basis of recent reports of an epistatic effect between BDNF and the serotonin transporter, we explored a Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR interaction in a larger SardiNIA sample (n=2333). We found that 5-HTTLPR LL carriers scored lower on neuroticism in the presence of the BDNF Val variant, but scored higher on neuroticism in the presence of the BDNF Met variant. Our findings support the association between the BDNF Met variant and introversion and suggest that BDNF interacts with the serotonin transporter gene to influence neuroticism. PMID:20042999

  19. Person-environment transactions: personality traits moderate and mediate the effects of child sexual victimization on psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí

    2013-05-01

    Personality, environmental adversity and psychopathology are related, and different models have been proposed to explain their interaction. The theory of person-environment transactions may elucidate the role of personality in these interactions beyond traditional conceptualizations. To our knowledge, hardly any studies have explored the relationships between the Five Factor Model, child sexual victimization and general psychopathology. We hypothesized (1) that neuroticism and conscientiousness will moderate the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology and (2) that neuroticism will mediate the relationship between sexual victimization and psychopathology. Our findings partially support these hypotheses. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and sexual victimization have a direct effect on psychopathology, whereas extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness do not. With regard to interactive effects, conscientiousness, but not neuroticism, moderates the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology, and neuroticism does mediate the aforementioned effect. No other interactions were found with regard to extraversion, agreeableness or openness to experience. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first global test of person-environment transactions with regard to psychopathology and sexual victimization within the framework of the Five Factor Model.

  20. Conscientiousness and (un)healthy eating: the role of impulsive eating and age in the consumption of daily main meals.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huy; Honkanen, Pirjo; Verplanken, Bas

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between conscientiousness and the consumption of healthy versus unhealthy main meals. Impulsive eating was tested as a mediator in this relationship, as well as direct effects of age on those constructs. A nationwide representative sample of 1,006 Norwegian adults (18-70 years) within a prospective design was used to test a theoretical model. The structural equation model (SEM), in combination with bootstrapping procedures in AMOS, was the principal analytical method. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating. Impulsive eating was a partial mediator between conscientiousness and unhealthy eating and a full mediator between conscientiousness and healthy eating. Age was positively correlated with conscientiousness and this relationship had an inverted U-shape form. Finally, age was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating, and positively associated with healthy eating. This study confirmed the relevance of conscientiousness for healthy, unhealthy, and impulsive eating.

  1. The indirect nature of social motives: the relation of social approach and avoidance motives with likeability via extraversion and agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-02-01

    The current study tested assumptions derived from the whole-trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which proposes a connection between personality and motivation. We hypothesized that individual differences in social approach and avoidance motives are associated with personality as observed by others. In addition, we expected that observed personality links social approach and avoidance motives to interpersonal outcomes. The sample was composed of 83 young adults (25.3% males, Mage  = 21.66 years) who had recently moved into a shared apartment. Roommates (N = 83; 50.6% males, Mage  = 22.83 years) evaluated the newcomers on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and likeability. Approach motives had an indirect positive effect on likeability through other-reported Extraversion and Agreeableness. Although avoidance motives had some negative effects on likeability mediated through low Extraversion, they were positively associated with Agreeableness. These results demonstrate the complexity of social approach and avoidance motives. Moreover, they highlight the importance of motivational factors for observed personality. PMID:24372488

  2. Task engagement and the relationships between the error-related negativity, agreeableness, behavioral shame proneness and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A S; Wester, Anne E; Lorist, Monicque M; Meijman, Theo F

    2006-08-01

    Previous results suggest that both cortisol mobilization and the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) reflect goal engagement, i.e. the mobilization and allocation of attentional and physiological resources. Personality measures of negative affectivity have been associated both to high cortisol levels and large ERN/Ne amplitudes. However, measures of positive social adaptation and agreeableness have also been related to high cortisol levels and large ERN/Ne amplitudes. We hypothesized that, as long as they relate to concerns over social evaluation and mistakes, both personality measures reflecting positive affectivity (e.g. agreeableness) and those reflecting negative affectivity (e.g. behavioral shame proneness) would be associated with an increased likelihood of high task engagement, and hence to increased cortisol mobilization and ERN/Ne amplitudes. We had female subjects perform a flanker task while EEG was recorded. Additionally, the subjects filled out questionnaires measuring mood and personality, and salivary cortisol immediately before and after task performance was measured. The overall pattern of relationships between our measures supports the hypothesis that cortisol mobilization and ERN/Ne amplitude reflect task engagement, and both relate positively to each other and to the personality traits agreeableness and behavioral shame proneness. We discuss the potential importance of engagement-disengagement and of concerns over social evaluation for research on psychopathology, stress and the ERN/Ne.

  3. The indirect nature of social motives: the relation of social approach and avoidance motives with likeability via extraversion and agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-02-01

    The current study tested assumptions derived from the whole-trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which proposes a connection between personality and motivation. We hypothesized that individual differences in social approach and avoidance motives are associated with personality as observed by others. In addition, we expected that observed personality links social approach and avoidance motives to interpersonal outcomes. The sample was composed of 83 young adults (25.3% males, Mage  = 21.66 years) who had recently moved into a shared apartment. Roommates (N = 83; 50.6% males, Mage  = 22.83 years) evaluated the newcomers on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and likeability. Approach motives had an indirect positive effect on likeability through other-reported Extraversion and Agreeableness. Although avoidance motives had some negative effects on likeability mediated through low Extraversion, they were positively associated with Agreeableness. These results demonstrate the complexity of social approach and avoidance motives. Moreover, they highlight the importance of motivational factors for observed personality.

  4. Personality risk profile for conduct disorder and substance use disorders in youth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristen G; Tapert, Susan F; Moadab, Ida; Crowley, Thomas J; Brown, Sandra A

    2007-10-01

    The five factor model of personality is a useful metric to describe personality profiles associated with maladaptive functioning. Using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), we examined a conceptually based profile of high neuroticism, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness among 243 youth (aged 13-18 years) with varying degrees of conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Comparisons of the NEO-FFI personality dimensions between CD/SUD youth and adolescent siblings (N=173), and relations between the personality dimensions and behavioral indicators of conduct disorder and substance involvement were examined. Youth with CD and SUD had greater neuroticism, lower agreeableness, and lower conscientiousness than siblings of a similar age. The NEO-FFI scales predicted aggression and substance involvement for both probands and siblings in this cross-sectional investigation. These findings support the role for personality in models of the etiology and persistence of conduct disorder and substance use disorders. PMID:17408870

  5. Parenting and social competence in school: The role of preadolescents' personality traits.

    PubMed

    Lianos, Panayiotis G

    2015-06-01

    In a study of 230 preadolescent students (mean age 11.3 years) from the wider area of Athens, Greece, the role of Big Five personality traits (i.e. Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Extraversion) in the relation between parenting dimensions (overprotection, emotional warmth, rejection, anxious rearing) and social competence in school was examined. Multiple sets of regression analyses were performed. Main effects of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience were identified. Limited evidence for moderation and some support of gender-specific parenting was found. Agreeableness and Extraversion interacted with paternal overprotection, whereas Neuroticism interacted with maternal and paternal rejection in predicting social competence. Mean differences in gender and educational grade were reported. The relationship between environmental effects (such as parenting during early adolescence) and social adjustment in school is discussed in terms of the plasticity and malleability of the preadolescents' personality characteristics. PMID:25840002

  6. Parenting and social competence in school: The role of preadolescents' personality traits.

    PubMed

    Lianos, Panayiotis G

    2015-06-01

    In a study of 230 preadolescent students (mean age 11.3 years) from the wider area of Athens, Greece, the role of Big Five personality traits (i.e. Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Extraversion) in the relation between parenting dimensions (overprotection, emotional warmth, rejection, anxious rearing) and social competence in school was examined. Multiple sets of regression analyses were performed. Main effects of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience were identified. Limited evidence for moderation and some support of gender-specific parenting was found. Agreeableness and Extraversion interacted with paternal overprotection, whereas Neuroticism interacted with maternal and paternal rejection in predicting social competence. Mean differences in gender and educational grade were reported. The relationship between environmental effects (such as parenting during early adolescence) and social adjustment in school is discussed in terms of the plasticity and malleability of the preadolescents' personality characteristics.

  7. [Big five personality factors related to face recognition].

    PubMed

    Saito, Takako; Nakamura, Tomoyasu; Endo, Toshihiko

    2005-02-01

    The present study examined whether scores on big five personality factors correlated with face-recognition response time in visual search paradigm. Sixty adjectives were used to measure personality scores of 60 participants along the five factors of Extroversion, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Picture of human faces or geometrical figures in a 4 x 4 array were used as stimuli. The sixteen faces or figures were either identical (absent condition) or one randomly placed target with 15 identical distracters (present condition). Participants were asked to respond 'present' or 'absent' as fast and accurately as possible. Results showed that the response time differed significantly between high and low groups of each personality factor except Agreeableness. For Extroversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness, the response time difference was observed only for human face recognition. The results suggested that personality differences and face recognition were related. PMID:15782589

  8. A New Lifespan Approach to Conscientiousness and Health: Combining the Pieces of the Causal Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Howard S.; Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2013-01-01

    Conscientiousness has been shown to predict healthy behaviors, healthy social relationships, and physical health and longevity. The causal links, however, are complex and not well elaborated. Many extant studies have used comparable measures for conscientiousness, and a systematic endeavor to build cross-study analyses for conscientiousness and health now seems feasible. Of particular interest are efforts to construct new, more-comprehensive causal models by linking findings and combining data from existing studies of different cohorts. Although methodological perils can threaten such integration, such efforts offer an early opportunity to enliven a life course perspective on conscientiousness, to see whether component facets of conscientiousness remain related to each other and to relevant mediators across broad spans of time, and to bolster the findings of the very few long-term longitudinal studies of the dynamics of personality and health. A promising approach to testing new models involves pooling data from extant studies, as an efficient and heuristic prelude to large-scale testing of interventions. PMID:23088747

  9. A Defence of Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Schuklenk and Savulescu.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    In a recent (2015) Bioethics editorial, Udo Schuklenk argues against allowing Canadian doctors to conscientiously object to any new euthanasia procedures approved by Parliament. In this he follows Julian Savulescu's 2006 BMJ paper which argued for the removal of the conscientious objection clause in the 1967 UK Abortion Act. Both authors advance powerful arguments based on the need for uniformity of service and on analogies with reprehensible kinds of personal exemption. In this article I want to defend the practice of conscientious objection in publicly-funded healthcare systems (such as those of Canada and the UK), at least in the area of abortion and end-of-life care, without entering either of the substantive moral debates about the permissibility of either. My main claim is that Schuklenk and Savulescu have misunderstood the special nature of medicine, and have misunderstood the motivations of the conscientious objectors. However, I acknowledge Schuklenk's point about differential access to lawful services in remote rural areas, and I argue that the health service should expend more to protect conscientious objection while ensuring universal access. PMID:26659648

  10. The Validity of Conscientiousness Is Overestimated in the Prediction of Job Performance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sensitivity analyses refer to investigations of the degree to which the results of a meta-analysis remain stable when conditions of the data or the analysis change. To the extent that results remain stable, one can refer to them as robust. Sensitivity analyses are rarely conducted in the organizational science literature. Despite conscientiousness being a valued predictor in employment selection, sensitivity analyses have not been conducted with respect to meta-analytic estimates of the correlation (i.e., validity) between conscientiousness and job performance. Methods To address this deficiency, we reanalyzed the largest collection of conscientiousness validity data in the personnel selection literature and conducted a variety of sensitivity analyses. Results Publication bias analyses demonstrated that the validity of conscientiousness is moderately overestimated (by around 30%; a correlation difference of about .06). The misestimation of the validity appears to be due primarily to suppression of small effects sizes in the journal literature. These inflated validity estimates result in an overestimate of the dollar utility of personnel selection by millions of dollars and should be of considerable concern for organizations. Conclusion The fields of management and applied psychology seldom conduct sensitivity analyses. Through the use of sensitivity analyses, this paper documents that the existing literature overestimates the validity of conscientiousness in the prediction of job performance. Our data show that effect sizes from journal articles are largely responsible for this overestimation. PMID:26517553

  11. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  12. Neuroticism and extraversion moderate neural responses and effective connectivity during appetitive conditioning.

    PubMed

    Schweckendiek, Jan; Stark, Rudolf; Klucken, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Classical appetitive conditioning constitutes a basic learning process through which environmental stimuli can be associated with reward. Previous studies showed that individual differences in neuroticism and extraversion influence emotional processing and have been shown to modulate neural activity in subcortical and prefrontal areas in response to emotional stimuli. However, the role of individual differences in appetitive conditioning has so far not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the association between neuroticism and extraversion with neural activity and connectivity during appetitive conditioning. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was either a picture of a dish or a cup. One stimulus (CS+) was paired with a monetary reward and the other stimulus (CS-) was associated with its absence while hemodynamic activity was measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. A significant negative correlation of neuroticism scores with amygdala activity was observed during appetitive conditioning. Further, extraversion was positively associated with responses in the hippocampus and the thalamus. In addition, effective connectivity between the amygdala as a seed region and the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the thalamus was negatively correlated with neuroticism scores and positively correlated with extraversion scores. The results may indicate a neural correlate for the deficits in appetitive learning in subjects with high neuroticism scores and point to a facilitating effect of extraversion on reward-related learning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2992-3002, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27132706

  13. Emotional clarity as a function of neuroticism and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Renee J; Kuppens, Peter; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-10-01

    Investigators have begun to document links between emotional clarity and forms of negative emotionality, including neuroticism and major depressive disorder (MDD). Researchers to date have relied almost exclusively on global self-reports of emotional clarity; moreover, no studies have examined emotional clarity as a function of valence, although this may prove to be crucial in understanding the relation of emotional clarity to maladjustment. In 2 studies, we used experience-sampling methodology and multilevel modeling to examine the associations between emotional clarity and 2 constructs that have been linked theoretically with emotional clarity: neuroticism and depression. In Study 1 we assessed 95 college students who completed a self-report measure of neuroticism. In Study 2 we examined 53 adults diagnosed with MDD and 53 healthy adults. Reaction times to negative and positive emotion ratings during the experience-sampling protocols were used as an indirect measure of emotional clarity. Neuroticism was related to lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. Similarly, compared with the healthy controls, individuals with MDD had lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. It is important to note, findings from both studies held after controlling for baseline RTs and current levels of negative and positive emotion. These findings highlight the importance of assessing valence when examining emotional clarity and increase our understanding of the nature of the emotional disturbances that characterize neuroticism and MDD.

  14. Relationship between neuroticism, childhood trauma and cognitive-affective responses to auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    So, Suzanne Ho-wai; Begemann, Marieke J. H.; Gong, Xianmin; Sommer, Iris E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual’s responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome. This study aimed to examine the mechanistic association of neuroticism with the cognitive-affective reactions to AVH. We assessed 40 psychotic patients experiencing frequent AVHs, 135 non-clinical participants experiencing frequent AVHs, and 126 healthy individuals. In both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers alike, a higher level of neuroticism was associated with more distress and behavioral resistance in response to AVHs, as well as a stronger tendency to perceive voices as malevolent and powerful. Neuroticism fully mediated the found associations between childhood trauma and the individuals’ cognitive-affective reactions to voices. Our results supported the role of neurotic personality in shaping maladaptive reactions to voices. Neuroticism may also serve as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychological reactions to voices. Implications for psychological models of hallucinations are discussed. PMID:27698407

  15. The two faces of conscientiousness: duty and achievement striving in escalation of commitment dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Moon, H

    2001-06-01

    The author proposes that 2 facets of conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, affect decision makers in escalation of commitment dilemmas in opposing ways, thus masking the predictive ability of a broad measure of conscientiousness. It is proposed that duty is associated with an other-centered orientation and that achievement striving is associated with a self-centered orientation. Analyses of decisions from 360 respondents showed that duty was associated with a deescalation of commitment, achievement striving was associated with an escalation of commitment, and the broad measure of conscientiousness was unassociated with commitment. The author advocates the utility of understanding potential self-centered versus other-centered aspects of the criterion of interest when conducting personality-based research.

  16. When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: an interactional approach.

    PubMed

    George, J M; Zhou, J

    2001-06-01

    This study adopted an interactional approach to understanding how 2 of the Five-Factor traits, openness to experience and conscientiousness, are related to creative behavior in the workplace. Openness to experience is theorized to result in high levels of creative behavior and conscientiousness is theorized to result in low levels of creative behavior when the situation allows for the manifestation of the trait influences. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that openness to experience would result in high levels of creative behavior if feedback valence were positive and job holders were presented with a heuristic task that allowed them to be creative. The authors also hypothesized that conscientiousness would result in low levels of creative behavior if supervisors engaged in close monitoring and coworkers were unsupportive. The authors tested their hypotheses in a sample of office workers, and 5 out of the 6 hypotheses were supported. PMID:11419810

  17. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and action control: comparing moderate and vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; de Groot, Ruben; van den Putte, Bas; Rhodes, Ryan

    2009-12-01

    The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

  18. Undergraduate Consent Form Reading in Relation to Conscientiousness, Procrastination, and the Point-of-Time Effect.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Justin D; Hobbs, William B; Giordano, Peter J; Brunson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Informed consent is central to conducting ethical research with human participants. The present study investigated differences in consent form reading in relation to conscientiousness, procrastination, and the point-of-time (PT) effect among undergraduate participants at a U.S. university. As hypothesized, conscientious participants and those who signed up to participate in a research study more days in advance and for earlier sessions (PT effect) read the consent form more thoroughly. However, procrastination was not related to consent form reading. Most importantly, consent form reading in general was poor, with 80% of participants demonstrating that they had not read the consent form. Conscientious participants were more likely to self-report reading the consent form, irrespective of their measured consent form reading. The article closes with suggestions to improve the process of obtaining informed consent with undergraduate participants. PMID:25746782

  19. The Case for Conscientiousness: Evidence and Implications for a Personality Trait Marker of Health and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, Tim; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recent initiatives by major funding agencies have emphasized translational and personalized approaches (e.g., genetic testing) to health research and health management. While such directives are appropriate, and will likely produce tangible health benefits, we seek to highlight a confluence of several lines of research showing relations between the personality dimension of conscientiousness and a variety of health-related outcomes. Methods Using a modified health process model, we review the compelling evidence linking conscientiousness to health and disease processes, including longevity, diseases, morbidity-related risk factors, health-related psycho-physiological mechanisms, health-related behaviors, and social environmental factors related to health. Conclusion We argue the accumulated evidence supports greater integration of conscientiousness into public health, epidemiological, and medical research, with the ultimate aim of understanding how facilitating more optimal trait standing might foster better health. PMID:23225322

  20. Undergraduate Consent Form Reading in Relation to Conscientiousness, Procrastination, and the Point-of-Time Effect.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Justin D; Hobbs, William B; Giordano, Peter J; Brunson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Informed consent is central to conducting ethical research with human participants. The present study investigated differences in consent form reading in relation to conscientiousness, procrastination, and the point-of-time (PT) effect among undergraduate participants at a U.S. university. As hypothesized, conscientious participants and those who signed up to participate in a research study more days in advance and for earlier sessions (PT effect) read the consent form more thoroughly. However, procrastination was not related to consent form reading. Most importantly, consent form reading in general was poor, with 80% of participants demonstrating that they had not read the consent form. Conscientious participants were more likely to self-report reading the consent form, irrespective of their measured consent form reading. The article closes with suggestions to improve the process of obtaining informed consent with undergraduate participants.

  1. Neuroticism Modulates the Effects of Intranasal Vasopressin Treatment on the Neural Response to Positive and Negative Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chunliang; DeMarco, Ashley C.; Haroon, Ebrahim; Rilling, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait associated with proneness to feel negative affect. Here we ask how Neuroticism influences the neural response to positive and negative social interactions and how Neuroticism modulates the effect of intranasal oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on the neural response to social interactions. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 153 male participants were randomized to receive 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU AVP or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. On a different day, subjects completed the NEO personality inventory to measure Neuroticism. Neuroticism was positively correlated with the neural response to negative social interactions in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex and with the neural response to positive social interactions in the insula, indicating that Neuroticism modulates neuropsychological processing of both negative and positive social interactions. Neuroticism did not modulate the effect of intranasal OT treatment on the neural response to either positive or negative social interactions. On the other hand, AVP treatment significantly interacted with Neuroticism to modulate the BOLD response to both positive and negative social interactions. Specifically, AVP increased anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex and lateral temporal lobe responses to negative social interactions to a greater extent in participants scoring high rather than low on Neuroticism. AVP also increased the insula response to positive social interactions to a greater extent in participants scoring high rather than low on Neuroticism. These results imply that AVP may increase emotion regulation in response to negative social interactions and the salience of positive social interactions to a greater extent in individuals high compared to low in Neuroticism. The current findings urge caution against uniform clinical application of

  2. Resting brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion in young men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Ji Hee; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2008-05-28

    Neuroticism and extraversion are two core dimensions of personality and are considered to be associated with emotional disorders. We investigated resting state brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion using a positron emission tomography. Twenty healthy young men completed an F-flurodeoxyglucose-PET scan at rest and the Korean version of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with regional glucose metabolism in prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex. Extraversion was positively correlated with metabolism in the right putamen. These results suggest close associations between resting state brain activity in the prefrontal and striatal regions and specific personality traits and thus contribute to the understanding of the neurobiological bases of predisposition to psychiatric disorders.

  3. Basic Religious Beliefs and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Ali Reza; Sarvarazemy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective Spiritual beliefs can help people find meaning of life, and can also influence their feelings, behaviors and mental health. The present research studied the relationship between basic religious beliefs (Human, Existence and God) and five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness. Method One hundred seventy eight students of Islamic Azad University in Torbat-jam were randomly selected and completed the basic religious beliefs and NEO Questionnaires. Results Data showed that basic religious beliefs have a significant negative correlation with neuroticism (r=-0.29),and a significant positive relationship with extraversion(r=0.28),openness(r=0.14),agreeableness (r=0.29),and conscientiousness (r=0.48). Also, the results of the regression analysis showed that basic religious beliefs can anticipate neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, but they cannot anticipate the openness factor significantly. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate that basic religious beliefs have a positive relationship with good characteristics that help people resolve the challenges of their lives and identity crisis. Thus, the results of this study support the idea of Religious Cognitive–Emotional Theory that religiosity is correlated with positive personality traits. PMID:22952550

  4. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers. PMID:27035394

  5. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness.

  6. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121

  7. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers.

  8. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Viruela, Ana M.; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121

  9. Medical speciality choice: does personality matter?

    PubMed

    Lydon, S; O'Connor, P; McVeigh, T; Offiah, C; Byrne, D

    2015-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in the personalities of doctors. This study examined whether personality differed based upon gender, level of training or medical speciality among 200 physicians and 134 medical students. Post-internship doctors scored significantly higher on conscientiousness (p = .001) than those pursuing basic medical training. Among those pursuing basic medical training, females scored significantly higher than males on agreeableness (p < .001) and conscientiousness (p = .001). Among post-internship respondents, females scored significantly higher on agreeableness (p = .004). There were no personality differences between post-internship doctors working in different specialities. However, among those pursuing basic medical training, those interested in person-focused medical specialities scored significantly higher on extraversion (p < .001), conscientiousness (p = .001), and lower on neuroticism (p = .01) than those who had no strong preference. These results suggest that there is no unique personality profile associated with medical practice, or medical speciality. Instead, it appears that medical school may shape personality.

  10. Clarifying the links between social support and health: culture, stress, and neuroticism matter.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2013-02-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism.

  11. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN NEUROTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al and were having verbal auditory hallucinations, with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. The relation between neuroticism scale of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and different aspects of the voice was examined. Neuroticism scores were positively related to the level of anxiety prior to the voice, anticipation of the voice, intensity of anger during the voice and interference with occupation and social activities of patients by the voice. PMID:21927144

  12. Personality types and coping style in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kidachi, Ruriko; Kikuchi, Atsuhiro; Nishizawa, Yoshiko; Hiruma, Tomiharu; Kaneko, Sunao

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information that would enable caregivers to provide the necessary psychological care for hemodialysis patients. A total of 608 hemodialysis patients completed the questionnaire of the Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness-Five Factor Inventory and were subsequently classified by personality types using cluster analysis. In comparison to the norms for the general Japanese adult population, the four-dimensional average of extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness among hemodialysis patients was significantly lower (P < 0.001), especially for openness. The openness score correlated with each of the following: age (P < 0.001), employment (P < 0.01), and diabetes (P < 0.001). Four personality types were defined based on these dimensions. High scores for agreeableness, extroversion and conscientiousness characterized the agreeable type (22.6%). The patients in this type will likely accept their own experiences in a positive manner. Submissive types (22.0%) received the lowest scores for conscientiousness, though extroversion, openness, and agreeableness were also low. It is necessary to enhance a sense of independence and responsibility in patients with submissive type personalities. Sensitive types (21.5%) were characterized by the highest neuroticism scores and low scores for the other four dimensions. The patients in this type were likely to be persistent with changes in conditions. The last type was the balanced type (33.9%), which was defined by scores within mean range. In clinical practice, it is particularly important that the submissive and sensitive types should receive appropriate mental health care.

  13. 32 CFR 1630.17 - Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all military service (separated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all... National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.17 Class 1-O-S: Conscientious... and noncombatant training and service in the Armed Forces shall be classified in Class 1-O-S...

  14. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  15. The effects of verbal encouragement and conscientiousness on maximal voluntary contraction of the triceps surae muscle in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Binboğa, Erdal; Tok, Serdar; Catikkas, Fatih; Guven, Senol; Dane, Senol

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of verbal encouragement on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) level of the triceps surae muscle group. Our secondary focus was to examine whether the effect of verbal encouragement on MVC level varies as a result of conscientiousness. While the participants performed plantar flexion, MVCs of the triceps surae muscle group were measured using rectified and smoothed surface electromyography (rsEMG) during the absence and presence of verbal encouragement. Participants completed questions from the Five Factor Personality Inventory concerning conscientiousness and were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups according to a median split. The sample included 30 female and 53 male elite athletes. In the entire cohort, there was no significant difference in MVCs with and without verbal encouragement. When the sample was partitioned by conscientiousness scores, verbal encouragement led to a significant increase in MVC in the low-conscientiousness group, whereas verbal encouragement led to a non-significant decrease in MVC in the high-conscientiousness group. Percentage change in MVC across experimental conditions was significantly different between the groups, with a 9.72% increase during verbal encouragement of the low-conscientiousness group, and a 2.47% decrease during verbal encouragement of the high-conscientiousness group.

  16. Conscientiousness and Health-Related Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis of the Leading Behavioral Contributors to Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogg, Tim; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has established conscientiousness as a predictor of longevity (H. S. Friedman et al., 1993; L. R. Martin & H. S. Friedman, 2000). To better understand this relationship, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of conscientiousness-related traits and the leading behavioral contributors to mortality in the United States (tobacco use,…

  17. Do as You’re Told! Facets of Agreeableness and Early Adult Outcomes for Inner-City Boys

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Duckworth, Angela L.; Urzúa, Sergio; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Lynam, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    With data from the middle cohort of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of inner-city boys, we examined whether Big Five agreeableness facets could be reliably recovered in this sample, and whether facets predicted educational, occupational, social, and antisocial life outcomes assessed a decade later. Caregivers described their adolescent boys’ personalities using the Common California Q-Set; twelve years later, participants were interviewed and court records were obtained. Factor analyses recovered two facets: compliance and compassion. Compliance predicted more schooling and lower risk of unemployment, teenage fatherhood, and crime; compassion related to longer committed relationships. Findings highlight the value of studying personality at the facet level. PMID:24311824

  18. Personality and attention: Levels of neuroticism and extraversion can predict attentional performance during a change detection task.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sowon; Buttaccio, Daniel R; Hahn, Jungwon; Lee, Taehun

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that levels of extraversion and neuroticism can predict attentional performance during a change detection task. After completing a change detection task built on the flicker paradigm, participants were assessed for personality traits using the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher levels of extraversion predict increased change detection accuracies, while higher levels of neuroticism predict decreased change detection accuracies. In addition, neurotic individuals exhibited decreased sensitivity A' and increased fixation dwell times. Hierarchical regression analyses further revealed that eye movement measures mediate the relationship between neuroticism and change detection accuracies. Based on the current results, we propose that neuroticism is associated with decreased attentional control over the visual field, presumably due to decreased attentional disengagement. Extraversion can predict increased attentional performance, but the effect is smaller than the relationship between neuroticism and attention.

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  20. Conscientious objection to referrals for abortion: pragmatic solution or threat to women’s rights?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conscientious objection has spurred impassioned debate in many Western countries. Some Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) refuse to refer for abortion. Little is know about how the GPs carry out their refusals in practice, how they perceive their refusal to fit with their role as professionals, and how refusals impact patients. Empirical data can inform subsequent normative analysis. Methods Qualitative research interviews were conducted with seven GPs, all Christians. Transcripts were analysed using systematic text condensation. Results Informants displayed a marked ambivalence towards their own refusal practices. Five main topics emerged in the interviews: 1) carrying out conscientious objection in practice, 2) justification for conscientious objection, 3) challenges when relating to colleagues, 4) ambivalence and consistency, 5) effects on the doctor-patient relationship. Conclusions Norwegian GP conscientious objectors were given to consider both pros and cons when evaluating their refusal practices. They had settled on a practical compromise, the precise form of which would vary, and which was deemed an acceptable middle way between competing interests. PMID:24571955

  1. Uncovering curvilinear relationships between conscientiousness and job performance: how theoretically appropriate measurement makes an empirical difference.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nathan T; Dalal, Dev K; Boyce, Anthony S; O'Connell, Matthew S; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Delgado, Kristin M

    2014-07-01

    The personality trait of conscientiousness has seen considerable attention from applied psychologists due to its efficacy for predicting job performance across performance dimensions and occupations. However, recent theoretical and empirical developments have questioned the assumption that more conscientiousness always results in better job performance, suggesting a curvilinear link between the 2. Despite these developments, the results of studies directly testing the idea have been mixed. Here, we propose this link has been obscured by another pervasive assumption known as the dominance model of measurement: that higher scores on traditional personality measures always indicate higher levels of conscientiousness. Recent research suggests dominance models show inferior fit to personality test scores as compared to ideal point models that allow for curvilinear relationships between traits and scores. Using data from 2 different samples of job incumbents, we show the rank-order changes that result from using an ideal point model expose a curvilinear link between conscientiousness and job performance 100% of the time, whereas results using dominance models show mixed results, similar to the current state of the literature. Finally, with an independent cross-validation sample, we show that selection based on predicted performance using ideal point scores results in more favorable objective hiring outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24188394

  2. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  3. Student Conscientiousness, Self-Regulated Learning, and Science Achievement: An Explorative Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Zeidner, Moshe; Aharon, Irit

    2009-01-01

    This explorative field study examined the mediating role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the relationship between the personality trait of conscientiousness, SRL, and science achievement in a sample of junior high school students. Over the course of an entire academic year, data on enacted SRL were collected each week for 52 eighth-grade…

  4. The Relationship between the Conscientiousness Trait and Use of the English Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between the Conscientiousness trait and English Language Learning Strategies (ELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Persian adapted Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), A Background Questionnaire, NEO-Five Factors Inventory…

  5. Conscientiousness and Public Health: Synthesizing Current Research to Promote Healthy Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of…

  6. Conscientiousness, Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Use: Testing for Mediated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Participants were 186 college students at a state university campus in the Northeastern United States participating in a study examining the effectiveness of a brief…

  7. Child maltreatment and risk behaviors: The roles of callous/unemotional traits and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor.

  8. Predicting relatedness and self-definition depressive experiences in aging women based on personality traits: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta; Junqueira, Diana

    2013-01-01

    As part of the research relating personality and depression, this study seeks to predict depressive experiences in aging women according to Sidney Blatt's perspective based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were administered. The domains Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted self-criticism, explaining 68% of the variance; the domains Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted dependency, explaining 62% of the variance. The subfactors Neediness and Connectedness were differently related to personality traits. These findings are relevant to the research relating personality and anaclitic / introjective depressive experiences in late adulthood.

  9. Indirect and direct associations between personality and psychological distress mediated by dispositional coping.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.

  10. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    PubMed

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  11. The Optimism-Neuroticism Question: An Evaluation Based on Cardiovascular Reactivity in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donna K.; Hughes, Brian M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess the competing roles of dispositional optimism and neuroticism on reactivity to psychological stress, we selected 50 women (mean age = 18.76 years; SD = 1.9 years) from a screening sample of 150 college students on the basis of having high and low scores in dispositional optimism. In a laboratory, participants provided…

  12. Personality predictors of antiaggressive response to fluoxetine: inverse association with neuroticism and harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Phan, K Luan; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2011-09-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are generally effective in reducing impulsive aggression in individuals with intermittent explosive disorder, a large proportion of intermittent explosive disorder patients fail to achieve full remission despite adequate dosage and duration of treatment. Temperament, specifically those associated with negative emotionality (neuroticism, harm avoidance) may predict response to SSRI treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline neuroticism and harm avoidance scores would be associated with reduced aggression (as measured by the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified [OAS-M] aggression scores) after SSRI treatment. Participants participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of fluoxetine completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (n=57) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (n=38) before entering the treatment trial. Multiple regression analyses (accounting for baseline OAS-M aggression scores) revealed that pretreatment eysenck personality questionnaire neuroticism and tridimensional personality questionnaire harm avoidance independently and uniquely predicted OAS-M aggression scores at endpoint in the fluoxetine, but not placebo, treated group. These preliminary findings are the first from a placebo-controlled clinical trial to suggest that temperamental factors such as neuroticism and harm avoidance can partly explain the observed variability in treatment response in SSRI treated individuals with impulsive aggression and prompt future prospective studies examining personality dimensions as predictors of outcomes in clinical trials.

  13. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait--extraversion--has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual--both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction.

  14. Gender, Neuroticism, and Emotional Expressivity: Effects on Spousal Constraints Among Individuals With Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quartana, Phillip J.; Schmaus, Brian J.; Zakowski, Sandra G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors prospectively tested the hypothesis that emotional expressivity would moderate the predictive relationship between patient neuroticism and spousal constraints among 120 individuals with cancer. The authors also examined whether patient gender further moderated the hypothesized relationships. After we controlled for Time 1 constraints,…

  15. The Relationship between the Neuroticism Trait and Use of the English Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between the Neuroticism trait and English Language Learning Strategies (ELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Persian adapted Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), A Background Questionnaire, NEO-Five Factors Inventory (NEO-FFI),…

  16. Differential Epidemiology: IQ, Neuroticism, and Chronic Disease by the 50 U.S. States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesta, Bryan J.; Bertsch, Sharon; McDaniel, Michael A.; Mahoney, Christine B.; Poznanski, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations…

  17. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait--extraversion--has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual--both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction. PMID:26161562

  18. Extraversion and neuroticism related to the resting-state effective connectivity of amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Wang, Yifeng; Chen, Yuyan; Wang, Xiaona; Han, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala plays a key role in emotion processing. Its functional connectivity with other brain regions has been extensively demonstrated to be associated with extraversion and neuroticism. However, how the amygdala affects other regions and is affected by others within these connectivity patterns associated with extraversion and neuroticism remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the effective connectivity of the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 70 participants. Results showed that extraversion was positively correlated with the influence from the right inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) to the left amygdala, and from the bilateral IOG to the right amygdala; such result may represent the neural correlates of social interactions in extraverts. Conversely, neuroticism was associated with an increased influence from right amygdala to right middle frontal gyrus and a decreased influence from right precuneus to right amygdala. This influence might affect the modulations of cognitive regulation function and self-referential processes in neurotic individuals. These findings highlight the importance of the causal influences of amygdala in explaining the individual differences in extraversion and neuroticism, and offer further insights into the specific neural networks underlying personality. PMID:27765947

  19. Neuroticism and Depressive Symptomatology: The Mediating Influence of College Student Floccinaucinihilipilification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sherman A.; Yeh, Ruth; Surething, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model between depression and neuroticism on 209 college students. Previous research suggests that students who appraise their lives as having no value or worth, which is known as floccinaucinihilipilification (flocci), may be prone to depressive symptoms because of a neurotic disposition. Results found flocci domains…

  20. Predicting and Explaining Students' Stress with the Demand-Control Model: Does Neuroticism Also Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Laura I.; Sieverding, Monika; Scheiter, Fabian; Obergfell, Julia

    2015-01-01

    University students often report high stress levels, and studies even suggest a recent increase. However, there is a lack of theoretically based research on the structural conditions that influence students' perceived stress. The current study compared the effects of Karasek's demand-control dimensions with the influence of neuroticism to address…

  1. Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  2. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait – extraversion – has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual – both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction. PMID:26161562

  3. Influence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1980-01-01

    Relations between personality and happiness were examined in three studies. It was argued that (a) different sets of traits influence type of affect and of satisfaction; (b) extraversion and neuroticism influence type of affect and of satisfaction; and (c) personality differences antedate and predict differences in happiness over a 10-year period.…

  4. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  6. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China

    PubMed Central

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology. PMID:27375513

  7. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology. PMID:27375513

  8. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology.

  9. The Effect of Criticism on Functional Brain Connectivity and Associations with Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Servaas, Michelle Nadine; Riese, Harriëtte; Renken, Remco Jan; Marsman, Jan-Bernard Cornelis; Lambregs, Johan; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2013-01-01

    Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders and depression. High neurotic individuals tend to be more self-critical and are overly sensitive to criticism by others. Hence, we used a novel resting-state paradigm to investigate the effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism. Forty-eight participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R) to assess neuroticism. Next, we recorded resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) during two sessions. We manipulated the second session before scanning by presenting three standardized critical remarks through headphones, in which the subject was urged to please lie still in the scanner. A seed-based functional connectivity method and subsequent clustering were used to analyse the resting state data. Based on the reviewed literature related to criticism, we selected brain regions associated with self-reflective processing and stress-regulation as regions of interest. The findings showed enhanced functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in emotion processing and social cognition during the processing of criticism. Concurrently, functional connectivity was reduced between these clusters and brain structures related to the default mode network and higher-order cognitive control. Furthermore, individuals scoring higher on neuroticism showed altered functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in the appraisal, expression and regulation of negative emotions. These results may suggest that the criticized person is attempting to understand the beliefs, perceptions and feelings of the critic in order to facilitate flexible and adaptive social behavior. Furthermore, multiple aspects of emotion processing were found to be affected in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism during the processing of

  10. Causes of comorbidity: pleiotropy or causality? Shared genetic and environmental influences on migraine and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-04-01

    Comorbidity - the clustered occurrence of two traits or disorders - may be studied in genetically informative designs such as the classical twin study, to test whether genetic and/or environmental factors underlying the two disorders are correlated. When a genetic correlation is found, this can be explained by several mechanisms, including pleiotropy (the same genes influencing multiple traits), and causality (one trait causing the other). With a cotwin control design, it can be investigated which scenario is most plausible. In this design, monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the first trait (i.e., one twin is affected, the other is not) are compared in terms of their risk for the second trait: under a causal model, only the twins affected for the first trait will be at increased risk for the second trait. Under genetic pleiotropy, this risk will be increased in both twins because they share the same risk genes. We first discuss the cotwin control design and then illustrate its application with data on migraine and neuroticism that were collected in 5,200 Dutch twins, including 1,648 complete twin pairs (981 monozygotic and 667 dizygotic pairs). There was a significant association between migraine and neuroticism, which could be attributed to genetic and environmental correlations (rG = .27 and rE = .19). In monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs discordant for neuroticism, the risk of migraine was significantly higher in the twins with a high neuroticism score. This pattern of results is consistent with a causal relationship, suggesting that neuroticism increases the risk of migraine.

  11. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, P<.001) and anxiety (r(s)=.69, P<.001), and somewhat with self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=.30, P<.001) and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=.24, P<.001). Extraversion correlated negatively with symptoms of depression (r(s)=-.47, P<.001), anxiety (r(s)=-.36, P<.001), self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=-.17, P<.001), and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=-.14, P=.004). In multiple regression models, even after adjusting for gender, age, and education, BDI scores were significantly associated with neuroticism, extraversion, and age, whereas BAI scores were associated only with neuroticism. Neuroticism is strongly associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, and intraversion is moderately associated with depressive symptoms in the urban general population. The relationship of these personality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  12. General job performance of first-line supervisors: the role of conscientiousness in determining its effects on subordinate exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A

    2011-04-01

    In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance. PMID:27486626

  13. General job performance of first-line supervisors: the role of conscientiousness in determining its effects on subordinate exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A

    2011-04-01

    In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance.

  14. Variation in the stress response between high- and low-neuroticism female undergraduates across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Renlai; Oei, Tian P S; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yanfeng

    2013-09-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate possible relationships between menstrual cycle stage, neuroticism and behavioral and physiological responses to a cognitive challenge. The study investigated the differences between high neuroticism and low neuroticism groups across the menstrual cycle (luteal, menstrual and ovulatory stages). The Stroop color-naming task was used as a stressor. During the task, the galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were simultaneously recorded by a polygraph. The results showed a significant difference in reaction times (RT) on the Stroop task between the high- and low-neuroticism groups during menstruation. However, there were no significant RT differences between groups during the luteal or ovulatory cycle stages. The GSR of the high-neuroticism group during menstruation was significantly lower than it was in the luteal and ovulatory stages. Moreover, during menstruation, the cardiovascular responses (high-frequency HRV (HF) and low-frequency HRV (LF)) and accuracy on the Stroop task were positively correlated, while the correlations between HF, LF and the RT were negative. The results demonstrate that during menstruation, there were consistent variations in female behavior and physiology when facing a cognitive stressor. Specifically, the high-neuroticism group was more sensitive to the stressor than the low neuroticism group, with decreased reaction time on the Stroop task, and increased GSR and HRV. PMID:23597234

  15. Pleiotropy between neuroticism and physical and mental health: findings from 108 038 men and women in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Gale, C R; Hagenaars, S P; Davies, G; Hill, W D; Liewald, D C M; Cullen, B; Penninx, B W; Boomsma, D I; Pell, J; McIntosh, A M; Smith, D J; Deary, I J; Harris, S E

    2016-01-01

    People with higher levels of neuroticism have an increased risk of several types of mental disorder. Higher neuroticism has also been associated, less consistently, with increased risk of various physical health outcomes. We hypothesised that these associations may, in part, be due to shared genetic influences. We tested for pleiotropy between neuroticism and 17 mental and physical diseases or health traits using linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring. Genetic correlations were derived between neuroticism scores in 108 038 people in the UK Biobank and health-related measures from 14 large genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary information for the 17 GWASs was used to create polygenic risk scores for the health-related measures in the UK Biobank participants. Associations between the health-related polygenic scores and neuroticism were examined using regression, adjusting for age, sex, genotyping batch, genotyping array, assessment centre and population stratification. Genetic correlations were identified between neuroticism and anorexia nervosa (rg=0.17), major depressive disorder (rg=0.66) and schizophrenia (rg=0.21). Polygenic risk for several health-related measures were associated with neuroticism, in a positive direction in the case of bipolar disorder, borderline personality, major depressive disorder, negative affect, neuroticism (Genetics of Personality Consortium), schizophrenia, coronary artery disease, and smoking (β between 0.009-0.043), and in a negative direction in the case of body mass index (β=-0.0095). A high level of pleiotropy exists between neuroticism and some measures of mental and physical health, particularly major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:27115122

  16. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness), directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173) completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect) of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism) and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating role of self

  17. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness), directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173) completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect) of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism) and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating role of self

  18. Pleiotropy between neuroticism and physical and mental health: findings from 108 038 men and women in UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Gale, C R; Hagenaars, S P; Davies, G; Hill, W D; Liewald, D C M; Cullen, B; Penninx, B W; Boomsma, D I; Pell, J; McIntosh, A M; Smith, D J; Deary, I J; Harris, S E

    2016-01-01

    People with higher levels of neuroticism have an increased risk of several types of mental disorder. Higher neuroticism has also been associated, less consistently, with increased risk of various physical health outcomes. We hypothesised that these associations may, in part, be due to shared genetic influences. We tested for pleiotropy between neuroticism and 17 mental and physical diseases or health traits using linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring. Genetic correlations were derived between neuroticism scores in 108 038 people in the UK Biobank and health-related measures from 14 large genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary information for the 17 GWASs was used to create polygenic risk scores for the health-related measures in the UK Biobank participants. Associations between the health-related polygenic scores and neuroticism were examined using regression, adjusting for age, sex, genotyping batch, genotyping array, assessment centre and population stratification. Genetic correlations were identified between neuroticism and anorexia nervosa (rg=0.17), major depressive disorder (rg=0.66) and schizophrenia (rg=0.21). Polygenic risk for several health-related measures were associated with neuroticism, in a positive direction in the case of bipolar disorder, borderline personality, major depressive disorder, negative affect, neuroticism (Genetics of Personality Consortium), schizophrenia, coronary artery disease, and smoking (β between 0.009–0.043), and in a negative direction in the case of body mass index (β=−0.0095). A high level of pleiotropy exists between neuroticism and some measures of mental and physical health, particularly major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:27115122

  19. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L. Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness), directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173) completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect) of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism) and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating role of self

  20. The relationship between the fear-avoidance model of pain and personality traits in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Pilar; Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Miró, Elena; Medina, Ana; Lami, María José

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between several cognitive-affective factors of the fear-avoidance model of pain, the big five model of personality, and functional impairment in fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy-four FM patients completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20, the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory. Results indicated that the cognitive-affective factors of pain are differentially associated with personality traits. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness were significant predictors of pain anxiety. Personality traits did not contribute significantly to vigilance to pain. The effect of neuroticism upon pain anxiety was mediated by pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism showed a trend to moderate the relationship between impairment and pain anxiety. Results support the fear-avoidance model of pain. Implications of the findings for the understanding and management of FM are discussed. PMID:21964824

  1. The work-family interface and job performance: moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Witt, L A; Carlson, Dawn S

    2006-10-01

    Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, the authors hypothesized that two aspects of the work-family interface--family-to-work conflict (FWC) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE)--are related to job performance. The authors also hypothesized that two variables moderate those relationships--individual differences in conscientiousness and aspects of the work environment in terms of perceived organizational support (POS). Data collected from a matched set of 136 private sector workers and their respective supervisors revealed that high FWC was more strongly related to lower job performance: (1) among high- than low-conscientiousness workers and (2) among workers reporting low rather than high levels of organizational support. However, FWE was unrelated to job performance. PMID:17059298

  2. Striking a balance: conscientious objection and reproductive health care from the Colombian perspective.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Luisa; Olaya, Monica Arango; Robledo, Valentina Montoya

    2014-12-11

    Conscientious Objection or conscientious refusal (CO) in access to reproductive health care is at the center of current legal debates worldwide. In countries such as the US and the UK, constitutional dilemmas surrounding CO in the context of reproductive health services reveal inadequate policy frameworks for balancing CO rights with women's rights to access contraception and abortion. The Colombian Constitutional Court's holistic jurisprudence regarding CO standards has applied international human rights norms so as to not only protect women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights, but to also introduce clear limits for the exercise of CO in health care settings. This paper reviews Latin American lines of regulation in Argentina, Uruguay, and Mexico City to argue that the Colombian Court's jurisprudence offers a strong guidance for future comprehensive policy approaches that aim to effectively balance tensions between CO and women's reproductive rights.

  3. The work-family interface and job performance: moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Witt, L A; Carlson, Dawn S

    2006-10-01

    Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, the authors hypothesized that two aspects of the work-family interface--family-to-work conflict (FWC) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE)--are related to job performance. The authors also hypothesized that two variables moderate those relationships--individual differences in conscientiousness and aspects of the work environment in terms of perceived organizational support (POS). Data collected from a matched set of 136 private sector workers and their respective supervisors revealed that high FWC was more strongly related to lower job performance: (1) among high- than low-conscientiousness workers and (2) among workers reporting low rather than high levels of organizational support. However, FWE was unrelated to job performance.

  4. Influencers of ethical beliefs and the impact on moral distress and conscientious objection.

    PubMed

    Davis, Shoni; Schrader, Vivian; Belcheir, Marcia J

    2012-11-01

    Considering a growing nurse shortage and the need for qualified nurses to handle increasingly complex patient care situations, how ethical beliefs are influenced and the consequences that can occur when moral conflicts of right and wrong arise need to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore influencers identified by nurses as having the most impact on the development of their ethical beliefs and whether these influencers might impact levels of moral distress and the potential for conscientious objection. Nurses whose ethical beliefs were most influenced by their religious beliefs scored higher in levels of moral distress and demonstrated greater differences in areas of conscientious objection than did nurses who developed their ethical beliefs from influencers such as family values, life and work experience, political views or the professional code of ethics.

  5. Relationship between conscientiousness and learning in employee training: mediating influences of self-deception and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Martocchio, J J; Judge, T A

    1997-10-01

    A field study of 97 employees tested a model of the mediating influences of self-deception and task-specific self-efficacy in the relationship between conscientiousness and learning. The setting was an introductory Windows 3.1 software training course. Findings indicated that, as hypothesized, self-deception and self-efficacy mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and learning. Specifically, conscientiousness was positively related to self-deception, which was negatively related to learning, and conscientiousness was positively related to self-efficacy, which was positively related to learning. In addition, 4 alternative models were estimated. The results of the tests of the 4 alternative models were not supported by the data, further substantiating the validity of the hypothesized model.

  6. Self-compassion and relationship maintenance: the moderating roles of conscientiousness and gender.

    PubMed

    Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K

    2011-05-01

    Should intimates respond to their interpersonal mistakes with self-criticism or with self-compassion? Although it is reasonable to expect self-compassion to benefit relationships by promoting self-esteem, it is also reasonable to expect self-compassion to hurt relationships by removing intimates' motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes. Two correlational studies, 1 experiment, and 1 longitudinal study demonstrated that whether self-compassion helps or hurts relationships depends on the presence versus absence of dispositional sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. Among men, the implications of self-compassion were moderated by conscientiousness. Among men high in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with greater motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes (Studies 1 and 3), observations of more constructive problem-solving behaviors (Study 2), reports of more accommodation (Study 3), and fewer declines in marital satisfaction that were mediated by decreases in interpersonal problem severity (Study 4); among men low in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with these outcomes in the opposite direction. Among women, in contrast, likely because women are inherently more motivated than men to preserve their relationships for cultural and/or biological reasons, self-compassion was never harmful to the relationship. Instead, women's self-compassion was positively associated with the motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes (Study 1) and changes in relationship satisfaction (Study 4), regardless of conscientiousness. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the implications of self-promoting thoughts for relationships may be most complete to the extent that they consider the presence versus absence of other sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes.

  7. Self-Compassion and Relationship Maintenance: The Moderating Roles of Conscientiousness and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Levi; McNulty, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Should intimates respond to their interpersonal mistakes with self-criticism or with self-compassion? Although it is reasonable to expect self-compassion to benefit relationships by promoting self-esteem, it is also reasonable to expect self-compassion to hurt relationships by removing intimates’ motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes. Two correlational studies, 1 experiment, and 1 longitudinal study demonstrated that whether self-compassion helps or hurts relationships depends on the presence versus absence of dispositional sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. Among men, the implications of self-compassion were moderated by conscientiousness. Among men high in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with greater motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes (Studies 1 and 3), observations of more-constructive problem-solving behaviors (Study 2), reports of more accommodation (Study 3), and fewer declines in marital satisfaction that were mediated by decreases in interpersonal problem severity (Study 4); among men low in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with these outcomes in the opposite direction. Among women, in contrast, likely because women are inherently more motivated than men to preserve their relationships for cultural and/or biological reasons, self-compassion was never harmful to the relationship. Instead, women’s self-compassion was positively associated with the motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes (Study 1) and changes in relationship satisfaction (Study 4), regardless of conscientiousness. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the implications of self-promoting thoughts for relationships may be most complete to the extent that they consider the presence versus absence of other sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. PMID:21280964

  8. Mortality Salience Effects on the Life Expectancy Estimates of Older Adults as a Function of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death. PMID:21151516

  9. Low neuroticism and high hedonistic traits for female internet child pornography consumers.

    PubMed

    Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C; Rogers, Marcus K

    2010-12-01

    Limited research has attempted to identify and understand the personality characteristics of female consumers of Internet child pornography (ICP). In the current study, female respondents (N = 162) from the Seigfried et al. study were analyzed to determine if personality characteristics differed between female users (n = 10, 6.2%) and female non-users (n = 152, 93.8%) of ICP. An exploratory backward stepwise (Wald) logistic regression revealed a predictive model, with female ICP consumers scoring: low on neuroticism, high on moral choice hedonism, and self-reporting a non-white racial identity. The relationship between female ICP consumption, neuroticism, hedonism, and race are discussed, along with the study's limitations and future research suggestions in the area of computer deviance. PMID:21142987

  10. Clarifying the links between social support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticism matter

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2012-01-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism. PMID:22419414

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on the longitudinal structure of neuroticism: a trait-state approach.

    PubMed

    Laceulle, Odilia M; Ormel, Johan; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we sought to elucidate both stable and changing factors in the longitudinal structure of neuroticism using a behavioral genetic twin design. We tested whether this structure is best accounted for by a trait-state, a trait-only, or a state-only model. In line with classic views on personality, our results revealed substantial trait and state components. The contributions of genetic and environmental influences on the trait component were nearly equal, whereas environmental influences on the state component were much stronger than genetic influences. Although the overall findings were similar for older and younger twins, genetic influences on the trait component were stronger than environmental influences in younger twins, whereas the opposite was found for older twins. The current findings help to elucidate how the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors contributes to both stability and change in neuroticism.

  12. Ambivalence toward the body: death, neuroticism, and the flight from physical sensation.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Jamie L; Hart, Joshua; Pyszczynski, Tom; Warnica, Gwendolyn M; Landau, Mark; Thomas, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    Based on terror management theory, the authors suggest that ambivalent reactions to the human body are partially rooted in the association of the physical body with inescapable death and that individuals high in neuroticism are particularly vulnerable to such difficulties. Three experiments demonstrated that priming thoughts about one's death leads individuals high in neuroticism to flee from physical sensations, including pleasurable ones. In response to mortality salience, highly neurotic individuals spent less time submerging their arm in ice-cold water and using an electric foot massager but did not avoid stimulation in nontactile modalities (i.e., listening to music). The discussion highlights the role of existentially motivated self-repression in inhibitions surrounding the body.

  13. Low neuroticism and high hedonistic traits for female internet child pornography consumers.

    PubMed

    Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C; Rogers, Marcus K

    2010-12-01

    Limited research has attempted to identify and understand the personality characteristics of female consumers of Internet child pornography (ICP). In the current study, female respondents (N = 162) from the Seigfried et al. study were analyzed to determine if personality characteristics differed between female users (n = 10, 6.2%) and female non-users (n = 152, 93.8%) of ICP. An exploratory backward stepwise (Wald) logistic regression revealed a predictive model, with female ICP consumers scoring: low on neuroticism, high on moral choice hedonism, and self-reporting a non-white racial identity. The relationship between female ICP consumption, neuroticism, hedonism, and race are discussed, along with the study's limitations and future research suggestions in the area of computer deviance.

  14. The Tripartite Model of Neuroticism and the suppression of depression and anxiety within an escalation of commitment dilemma.

    PubMed

    Moon, Henry; Hollenbeck, John R; Humphrey, Stephen E; Maue, Brian

    2003-06-01

    We found evidence of a mutual suppression effect between anxiety and depression on an individual's level of commitment within escalation dilemmas. On the one hand, our results demonstrate a positive relationship between anxiety and level of commitment; on the other, our results demonstrate a negative relationship between depression and level of commitment. Based on the opposing relationships between anxiety and depression and commitment, the broad factor of neuroticism does not demonstrate any relationship with level of commitment, and the significant effects of anxiety and depression on commitment is contingent upon partialling the effect of the other facet of neuroticism. Thus, we contend that applied psychologists, who have focused on neuroticism as a broad construct, should consider the large body of work among clinical psychologists, who argue that anxiety and depression have unique variance associated with them. We conclude by addressing organizational implications of measuring the broad trait of neuroticism more narrowly.

  15. A genome-wide scan for Eysenckian personality dimensions in adolescent twin sibships: psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism, and lie.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Zhu, Gu; Evans, David M; Medland, Sarah E; Wright, Margie J; Martin, Nick G

    2008-12-01

    We report the first genome-wide scan of adolescent personality. We conducted a genome-wide scan to detect linkage for measures of adolescent Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Lie from the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Data are based on 1,280 genotyped Australian adolescent twins and their siblings. The highest linkage peaks were found on chromosomes 16 and 19 for Neuroticism, on chromosomes 1, 7, 10, 13 m, and 18 for Psychoticism, and on chromosomes 2 and 3 for Extraversion.

  16. The paradox of conscientious objection and the anemic concept of 'conscience': downplaying the role of moral integrity in health care.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Conscientious objection in health care is a form of compromise whereby health care practitioners can refuse to take part in safe, legal, and beneficial medical procedures to which they have a moral opposition (for instance abortion). Arguments in defense of conscientious objection in medicine are usually based on the value of respect for the moral integrity of practitioners. I will show that philosophical arguments in defense of conscientious objection based on respect for such moral integrity are extremely weak and, if taken seriously, lead to consequences that we would not (and should not) accept. I then propose that the best philosophical argument that defenders of conscientious objection in medicine can consistently deploy is one that appeals to (some form of) either moral relativism or subjectivism. I suggest that, unless either moral relativism or subjectivism is a valid theory--which is exactly what many defenders of conscientious objection (as well as many others) do not think--the role of moral integrity and conscientious objection in health care should be significantly downplayed and left out of the range of ethically relevant considerations.

  17. Welcome to the wild, wild north: conscientious objection policies governing Canada's medical, nursing, pharmacy, and dental professions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jacquelyn; Downie, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, as in many developed countries, healthcare conscientious objection is growing in visibility, if not in incidence. Yet the country's health professional policies on conscientious objection are in disarray. The article reports the results of a comprehensive review of policies relevant to conscientious objection for four Canadian health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy and dentistry. Where relevant policies exist in many Canadian provinces, there is much controversy and potential for confusion, due to policy inconsistencies and terminological vagueness. Meanwhile, in Canada's three most northerly territories with significant Aboriginal populations, whose already precarious health is influenced by funding and practitioner shortages, there are major policy gaps applicable to conscientious objection. In many parts of the country, as a result of health professionals' conscientious refusals, access to some legal health services - including but not limited to reproductive health services such as abortion - has been seriously impeded. Although policy reform on conscientious conflicts may be difficult, and may generate strenuous opposition from some professional groups, for the sake of both patients and providers, such policy change must become an urgent priority.

  18. Facebook use and depressive symptomatology: Investigating the role of neuroticism and extraversion in youth☆

    PubMed Central

    Simoncic, Teague E.; Kuhlman, Kate R.; Vargas, Ivan; Houchins, Sean; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of social networking sites, such as Facebook, has increased rapidly over the past decade, especially among youth. Consequently, the impact of Facebook use on mental health problems (e.g., depressive symptomatology) has become a recent area of concern. Yet, evidence for such a link has been mixed and factors that contribute to heterogeneity of findings have not been identified. In this study, we examined whether the association between Facebook use and depressive symptoms is moderated by individual factors (i.e., personality and sex). To this end, we measured Facebook use, depressive symptoms, and personality domains (i.e., extroversion and neuroticism) among 237 young adults. No direct association was found between Facebook use and depressive symptoms. However, for females with high neuroticism, more frequent Facebook use was associated with lower depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest a complex relationship between Facebook use and depressive symptomatology that appears to vary by sex and personality. Facebook use may be protective against depressive symptoms for female users with high levels of neuroticism, while Facebook use may be unrelated to depressive symptoms among males. PMID:25861155

  19. Aversive learning in adolescents: modulation by amygdala-prefrontal and amygdala-hippocampal connectivity and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Tzschoppe, Jelka; Nees, Frauke; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Smolka, Michael N; Gallinat, Jürgen; Ströhle, Aandreas; Struve, Maren; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2014-03-01

    Neuroticism involves a tendency for enhanced emotional and cognitive processing of negative affective stimuli and a propensity to worry and be anxious. It is known that this trait modulates fear learning and the activation of brain regions involved in it such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex and their connectivity. Thirty-nine (21 female) 14-year-old healthy adolescents participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of aversive pavlovian differential delay conditioning. An unpleasant sound served as unconditioned stimulus (US) and pictures of neutral male faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+ followed by the US in 50% of the cases; CS- never followed by the US). During acquisition (CS+/- differentiation), higher levels of neuroticism were associated with a stronger interaction between the right amygdala and the right hippocampus as well as the right amygdala and prefrontal cortical regions, specifically ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The association of stronger conditionability of fear and connectivity of brain regions related to consolidation of fear associations and neuroticism points to underlying mechanisms of the enhanced propensity for anxiety disorders in highly neurotic participants. This is especially important in adolescence, a vulnerable time for the onset of mental disorders such as anxiety disorders.

  20. Aversive learning in adolescents: modulation by amygdala-prefrontal and amygdala-hippocampal connectivity and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Tzschoppe, Jelka; Nees, Frauke; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Smolka, Michael N; Gallinat, Jürgen; Ströhle, Aandreas; Struve, Maren; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2014-03-01

    Neuroticism involves a tendency for enhanced emotional and cognitive processing of negative affective stimuli and a propensity to worry and be anxious. It is known that this trait modulates fear learning and the activation of brain regions involved in it such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex and their connectivity. Thirty-nine (21 female) 14-year-old healthy adolescents participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of aversive pavlovian differential delay conditioning. An unpleasant sound served as unconditioned stimulus (US) and pictures of neutral male faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+ followed by the US in 50% of the cases; CS- never followed by the US). During acquisition (CS+/- differentiation), higher levels of neuroticism were associated with a stronger interaction between the right amygdala and the right hippocampus as well as the right amygdala and prefrontal cortical regions, specifically ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The association of stronger conditionability of fear and connectivity of brain regions related to consolidation of fear associations and neuroticism points to underlying mechanisms of the enhanced propensity for anxiety disorders in highly neurotic participants. This is especially important in adolescence, a vulnerable time for the onset of mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. PMID:24126454

  1. Neuroticism and Depression in Children: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Andrés, María Laura; Richaud de Minzi, María Cristina; Castañeiras, Claudia; Canet-Juric, Lorena; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This study's general objective was to analyze whether different types of cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS), namely adaptive strategies-specifically positive refocusing and positive reappraisal-and maladaptive strategies-self-blame, catastrophizing, and rumination-mediated the neuroticism-depression relationship in children 9-12 years old, and whether gender and school transition moderated the relationships proposed. A self-reporting measure was administered to 315 children to evaluate said variables. The resulting data were analyzed using structural equations. The study verified that maladaptive CERS partially mediated neuroticism's relationship with depression, while adaptive CERS, though negatively associated with depression, did not show a mediating effect on this relationship. The results provide evidence of the mediating function of maladaptive CERS on the neuroticism-depression relationship. Gender and school transition did not moderate the relationships proposed. Because, by their very nature, these strategies are modifiable, these results constitute an important finding that can be transferred to the design and content of child mental health prevention and promotion programs.

  2. 42 CFR 137.330 - What happens if the Self-Governance Tribe and the Secretary cannot develop a mutually agreeable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Secretary cannot develop a mutually agreeable construction project agreement? 137.330 Section 137.330 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.330... construction project agreement? The Self-Governance Tribe may submit a final construction project proposal...

  3. 42 CFR 137.330 - What happens if the Self-Governance Tribe and the Secretary cannot develop a mutually agreeable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary cannot develop a mutually agreeable construction project agreement? 137.330 Section 137.330 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.330... construction project agreement? The Self-Governance Tribe may submit a final construction project proposal...

  4. 42 CFR 137.330 - What happens if the Self-Governance Tribe and the Secretary cannot develop a mutually agreeable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Secretary cannot develop a mutually agreeable construction project agreement? 137.330 Section 137.330 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.330... construction project agreement? The Self-Governance Tribe may submit a final construction project proposal...

  5. Low birth weight and features of neuroticism and mood disorder in 83 545 participants of the UK Biobank cohort

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Hazel M.; Mackay, Daniel; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Hotopf, Matthew; Kendrick, Tony; Pell, Jill P.; Smith, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been inconsistently associated with risk of developing affective disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, studies investigating possible associations between birth weight and bipolar disorder (BD), or personality traits known to predispose to affective disorders such as neuroticism, have not been conducted in large cohorts. Aims To assess whether very low birth weight (<1500 g) and low birth weight (1500–2490 g) were associated with higher neuroticism scores assessed in middle age, and lifetime history of either MDD or BD. We controlled for possible confounding factors. Method Retrospective cohort study using baseline data on the 83 545 UK Biobank participants with detailed mental health and birth weight data. Main outcomes were prevalent MDD and BD, and neuroticism assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism scale - Revised (EPIN-R) Results Referent to normal birth weight, very low/low birth weight were associated with higher neuroticism scores, increased MDD and BD. The associations between birth weight category and MDD were partially mediated by higher neuroticism. Conclusions These findings suggest that intrauterine programming may play a role in lifetime vulnerability to affective disorders. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703752

  6. Do extraversion and neuroticism moderate the association between bullying victimization and internalizing symptoms? A three-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Orue, I; Gamez-Guadix, M

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined the moderating roles of neuroticism and extraversion in victims of bullying. According to a stress-diathesis model, we hypothesized that adolescents with high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion would react to victimization with increased symptoms of depression and social anxiety. A sample of 1440 adolescents (648 girls and 792 boys; ages between 13- and 17-years-old) completed measures of extraversion and neuroticism at time 1, as well as measures of bullying victimization, depressive symptoms and social anxiety symptoms at time 1, time 2, and time 3 (in intervals of six months). The results of multilevel analyses for longitudinal data indicated that there was a weak association between bullying victimization and social anxiety symptoms for the adolescents who scored high on extraversion. In addition, the adolescents with high levels of extraversion presented a greater reduction in depressive symptoms over time than adolescents with low levels. Although neuroticism predicted both depression and social anxiety, no significant interactions were evident between neuroticism and bullying victimization. Regarding gender differences, the association between bullying victimization and social anxiety was stronger for boys than for girls, whereas the association between neuroticism and depression was stronger for girls. PMID:27268566

  7. The Little Six Personality Dimensions From Early Childhood to Early Adulthood: Mean-Level Age and Gender Differences in Parents' Reports.

    PubMed

    Soto, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present research pursues three major goals. First, we develop scales to measure the Little Six youth personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity. Second, we examine mean-level age and gender differences in the Little Six from early childhood into early adulthood. Third, we examine the development of more specific nuance traits. We analyze parent reports, made using the common-language California Child Q-Set (CCQ), for a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 target children ranging from 3 to 20 years old. We construct CCQ-Little Six scales that reliably measure each Little Six dimension. Using these scales, we find (a) curvilinear, U-shaped age trends for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, with declines followed by subsequent inclines; (b) monotonic, negative age trends for Extraversion and Activity; (c) higher levels of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness among girls than boys, as well as higher levels of Activity among boys than girls; and (d) gender-specific age trends for Neuroticism, with girls scoring higher than boys by mid-adolescence. Finally, we find that several nuance traits show distinctive developmental trends that differ from their superordinate Little Six dimension. These results highlight childhood and adolescence as key periods of personality development.

  8. FFM description of the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy in men and women.

    PubMed

    Poy, Rosario; Segarra, Pilar; Esteller, Àngels; López, Raúl; Moltó, Javier

    2014-03-01

    This study examined differential associations between phenotypic domains of the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition; Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009), as assessed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010b), and the five-factor model (FFM) of normal personality, as indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Spanish version, Costa & McCrae, 1999), in 349 undergraduates (96 men). Distinctive patterns of correlations for psychopathy components did not differ significantly across gender, although relations between Meanness and Agreeableness were stronger for men than for women. Our findings are largely consistent with the conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of FFM constructs and provide discriminant evidence in support of all 3 triarchic domains. Thus, meanness is marked by low Agreeableness and some degree of low Conscientiousness, whereas disinhibition is characterized both by low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness along with high Neuroticism and Extraversion. Notably, the constellation of low Neuroticism, high Extraversion, and high Openness, with facets of low Agreeableness, supports the idea that boldness encompasses some adaptive features of psychological adjustment while depicting the interpersonal features of psychopathy.

  9. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    PubMed

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  10. Differential influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype, neuroticism and real-life acute stress exposure on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Capello, Aimée E M; Markus, C Rob

    2014-06-01

    Stress or negative mood often promotes energy intake and overeating. Since the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is found to mediate stress vulnerability as well as to influence energy intake, this gene may also influence the negative effects of stress exposure on overeating. Moreover, since stress proneness also reflects cognitive stress vulnerability - as often defined by trait neuroticism - this may additionally predispose for stress-induced overeating. In the present study it was investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with neuroticism on changes in mood, appetite and energy intake following exposure to a real-life academic examination stressor. In a balanced-experimental design, homozygous S-allele and L-allele carriers (N = 94) with the lowest and highest neuroticism scores were selected from a large database of 5-HTTLPR genotyped students. Mood, appetite and energy intake were measured before and after a 2-hour academic examination and compared with a control day. Examination influenced appetite for particular sweet snacks differently depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism. S/S compared with L/L subjects reported greater examination stress, and this was accompanied by a more profound post-stress increase in appetite for sweet snacks. Data also revealed a 5-HTTLPR genotype by trait neuroticism interaction on energy intake, regardless of examination. These results consolidate previous assumptions of 5-HTTLPR involvement in stress vulnerability and suggest 5-HTTLPR and neuroticism may influence stress-induced overeating depending on the type of food available. These findings furthermore link previous findings of increased risk for weight gain in S/S-allele carriers, particularly with high scores on trait neuroticism, to increased energy intake.

  11. Personality and culture: a comparison of Francophones and Anglophones in Québec.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kerri L; McKelvie, Stuart J; de Man, Anton F

    2008-04-01

    The authors compared the personality characteristics of Québec Francophones (25 women, 25 men) and Anglophones (25 women, 25 men) aged 16-64 years. Each participant completed a French or English version of 3 personality inventories that measured (a) extraversion (2 scales), (b) neuroticism (2 scales), (c) psychoticism, (d) lying, (e) openness to experience, (f) conscientiousness, (g) agreeableness, (h) conservatism, and (i) altruism. Francophones scored higher than did Anglophones on psychoticism and on 1 measure of extraversion, and Anglophones scored higher than did Francophones on conservatism, but the 2 groups did not differ on the other personality traits. Men scored higher than did women on psychoticism, and women scored higher than did men on conscientiousness and agreeableness. Conservatism and altruism increased with age. The authors discuss the results in the context of cross-cultural theory and research on personality.

  12. Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Judge, T A; Bono, J E

    2000-10-01

    This study linked traits from the 5-factor model of personality (the Big 5) to transformational leadership behavior. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness were hypothesized to predict transformational leadership. Results based on 14 samples of leaders from over 200 organizations revealed that Extraversion and Agreeableness positively predicted transformational leadership; Openness to Experience was positively correlated with transformational leadership, but its effect disappeared once the influence of the other traits was controlled. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were unrelated to transformational leadership. Results further indicated that specific facets of the Big 5 traits predicted transformational leadership less well than the general constructs. Finally, transformational leadership behavior predicted a number of outcomes reflecting leader effectiveness, controlling for the effect of transactional leadership. PMID:11055147

  13. Personal Traits Underlying Environmental Preferences: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  14. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  15. Conscientious Objection to Harmful Animal Use within Veterinary and Other Biomedical Education

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Classes in which animals are harmed are controversial within veterinary and other life and health sciences courses. Increasingly, students object to the harmful use of animals, and request humane teaching alternatives. Such cases can raise important animal welfare, legal and administrative concerns for universities. Several have implemented formal policies to guide their responses, maximising the likelihood of optimal and consistent outcomes. This paper reviews the development of these conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and examines their underlying legal foundations. It concludes with recommendations for other universities considering how to respond to such cases. Abstract Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that decisions are consistent and defensible from legal and other policy perspectives. However, many other institutions have not yet done so, instead dealing with such cases on an ad hoc basis as they arise. Among other undesirable outcomes this can lead to insufficient student and faculty preparation, suboptimal and inconsistent responses, and greater likelihood of legal challenge. Accordingly, this paper provides pertinent information about the evolution of conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and about the

  16. Common SNPs explain some of the variation in the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Vinkhuyzen, A A E; Pedersen, N L; Yang, J; Lee, S H; Magnusson, P K E; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Madden, P A F; Heath, A C; Luciano, M; Payton, A; Horan, M; Ollier, W; Pendleton, N; Deary, I J; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Visscher, P M; Wray, N R

    2012-01-01

    The personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion are predictive of a number of social and behavioural outcomes and psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have reported moderate heritability estimates for both traits. Few associations have been reported between genetic variants and neuroticism/extraversion, but hardly any have been replicated. Moreover, the ones that have been replicated explain only a small proportion of the heritability (<∼2%). Using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from ∼12 000 unrelated individuals we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by variants in linkage disequilibrium with common SNPs as 0.06 (s.e.=0.03) for neuroticism and 0.12 (s.e.=0.03) for extraversion. In an additional series of analyses in a family-based sample, we show that while for both traits ∼45% of the phenotypic variance can be explained by pedigree data (that is, expected genetic similarity) one third of this can be explained by SNP data (that is, realized genetic similarity). A part of the so-called ‘missing heritability' has now been accounted for, but some of the reported heritability is still unexplained. Possible explanations for the remaining missing heritability are that: (i) rare variants that are not captured by common SNPs on current genotype platforms make a major contribution; and/ or (ii) the estimates of narrow sense heritability from twin and family studies are biased upwards, for example, by not properly accounting for nonadditive genetic factors and/or (common) environmental factors. PMID:22832902

  17. Stress-coping skills and neuroticism in apical ballooning syndrome (Takotsubo/stress cardiomyopathy)

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, Dawn C; Rohe, Daniel E; Best, Patricia J M; Lennon, Ryan J; Lerman, Amir; Prasad, Abhiram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS) is typically associated with an antecedent stressful situation. Affected patients have been reported to have higher frequencies of premorbid affective disorders. We hypothesised that patients with ABS would have elevated levels of neuroticism (tendency to experience negative affect) and greater vulnerability to stress. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all active participants in the Mayo Clinic ABS prospective follow-up registry were invited to complete the third edition of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3). The NEO-PI-3 is the universally accepted measure of the ‘Five-Factor Model’ of personality. Inventory responses were scored using the NEO-PI-3 computer program and the data were compared with US normative sample used in standardisation of the inventory. Significance was set at 0.0014 to account for multiple comparisons. Results Of 106 registry participants approached, 53 completed the inventory. There was no difference in age, gender, time from ABS diagnosis, type of antecedent stressor (emotional, physical or none) or severity of initial illness between the responders and non-responders. Responders had mean Neuroticism T-scores of 48.0±10.6 (95% CI 45.1 to 50.9); p=0.18, when compared with the normal mean of 50. There was also no significant difference in the facet scale of Vulnerability: 46.9±8.4 (44.6 to 49.2), p=0.038, at α=0.0014. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, patients with ABS do not manifest higher levels of neuroticism and do not have greater vulnerability to stress than the general population. These findings have implications for the clinicians’ perception of, and approach to, patients with ABS. PMID:26870388

  18. Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691

  19. Delay discounting, but not disinhibition or inattention, partially mediates the effects of neuroticism on disordered eating in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thamotharan, Sneha; Hubbard, Meagan; Fields, Sherecce

    2015-08-01

    Adolescence represents an integral developmental period for the prevention and intervention of disordered eating. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism have been shown to respond with greater impulsivity and use of disordered eating as a coping mechanism. However, the exact mechanism through which neuroticism and impulsivity affect disordered eating remains unknown. To understand the effects of personality and impulsivity on disordered eating in adolescence, the present study aimed to investigate whether impulsivity mediated the relationship between neuroticism and disordered eating. Adolescents (N=40) between the ages of 13 and 19 (Mage=18.25years; S.D.=1.30) were queried on eating attitudes and personality, as well as completed behavioral tasks assessing impulsivity (delay discounting, disinhibition and inattention). Mediation analyses revealed that neuroticism was significantly associated with patterns of disordered eating, but delay discounting, and not disinhibition and inattention, appeared to mediate the relationship between neuroticism and disordered eating. These results should guide prospective research exploring the relations between neurotic and impulsive behavior, particularly delay discounting on disordered eating, which will assist in future treatment efforts targeting the development of maladaptive eating behaviors.

  20. Using implicit association tests for the assessment of implicit personality self-concepts of extraversion and neuroticism in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Suslow, Thomas; Lindner, Christian; Kugel, Harald; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2014-08-30

    There is evidence from research based on self-report personality measures that schizophrenia patients tend to be lower in extraversion and higher in neuroticism than healthy individuals. Self-report personality measures assess aspects of the explicit self-concept. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) has been developed to assess aspects of implicit cognition such as implicit attitudes and implicit personality traits. The present study was conducted to investigate the applicability and reliability of the IAT in schizophrenia patients and test whether they differ from healthy individuals on implicitly measured extraversion and neuroticism. The IAT and the NEO-FFI were administered as implicit and explicit measures of extraversion and neuroticism to 34 schizophrenia patients and 45 healthy subjects. For all IAT scores satisfactory to good reliabilities were observed in the patient sample. In both study groups, IAT scores were not related to NEO-FFI scores. Schizophrenia patients were lower in implicit and explicit extraversion and higher in implicit and explicit neuroticism than healthy individuals. Our data show that the IAT can be reliably applied to schizophrenia patients and suggest that they differ from healthy individuals not only in their conscious representation but also in their implicit representation of the self with regard to neuroticism and extraversion-related characteristics.

  1. Delay discounting, but not disinhibition or inattention, partially mediates the effects of neuroticism on disordered eating in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thamotharan, Sneha; Hubbard, Meagan; Fields, Sherecce

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents an integral developmental period for the prevention and intervention of disordered eating. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism have been shown to respond with greater impulsivity and use of disordered eating as a coping mechanism. However, the exact mechanism through which neuroticism and impulsivity affect disordered eating remains unknown. To understand the effects of personality and impulsivity on disordered eating in adolescence, the present study aimed to investigate whether impulsivity mediated the relationship between neuroticism and disordered eating. Adolescents (N = 40) between the ages of 13 and 19 (Mage = 18.25 years; S.D. = 1.30) were queried on eating attitudes and personality, as well as completed behavioral tasks assessing impulsivity (delay discounting, disinhibition and inattention). Mediation analyses revealed that both neuroticism was significantly associated with patterns of disordered eating, but delay discounting, and not disinhibition and inattention, appeared to mediate the relationship between neuroticism and disordered eating. These results should guide prospective research exploring the relations between neurotic and impulsive behavior, particularly delay discounting on disordered eating, which will assist in future treatment efforts targeting the development of maladaptive eating behaviors. PMID:26010818

  2. Happiness is a personal(ity) thing: the genetics of personality and well-being in a representative sample.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Bates, Timothy C; Luciano, Michelle

    2008-03-01

    Subjective well-being is known to be related to personality traits. However, to date, nobody has examined whether personality and subjective well-being share a common genetic structure. We used a representative sample of 973 twin pairs to test the hypothesis that heritable differences in subjective well-being are entirely accounted for by the genetic architecture of the Five-Factor Model's personality domains. Results supported this model. Subjective well-being was accounted for by unique genetic influences from Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness, and by a common genetic factor that influenced all five personality domains in the directions of low Neuroticism and high Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These findings indicate that subjective well-being is linked to personality by common genes and that personality may form an "affective reserve" relevant to set-point maintenance and changes in set point over time.

  3. Is it ethical for a general practitioner to claim a conscientious objection when asked to refer for abortion?

    PubMed

    Gerrard, J W

    2009-10-01

    Abortion is one of the most divisive topics in healthcare. Proponents and opponents hold strong views. Some health workers who oppose abortion assert a right of conscientious objection to it, a position itself that others find unethical. Even if allowance for objection should be made, it is not clear how far it should extend. Can conscientious objection be given as a reason not to refer when a woman requests her doctor to do so? This paper explores the idea of the general practitioner (GP) who declines to make a direct referral for abortion, asking the woman to see another GP instead. The purpose is to defend the claim that an appeal to conscientious objection in this way can be reasonable and ethical. PMID:19793938

  4. Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and adherence to diet.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-01-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism. PMID:25453590

  5. Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and adherence to diet.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-01-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism.

  6. Consequences for patients of health care professionals' conscientious actions: the ban on abortions in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cannold, L

    1994-06-01

    The legitimacy of the refusal of South Australian nurses to care for second trimester abortion patients on grounds of conscience is examined as a test case for a theory of permissible limits on the autonomy of health care professionals. In cases of health care professional (HCP) conscientious refusal, it is argued that a balance be struck between the HCPs' claims to autonomous action and the consequences to them of having their autonomous action restricted, and the entitlement of patients to care and the consequences for them of being refused such care. Conscientious action that results in the disruption or termination of health care services, however, is always impermissible on two grounds. Firstly, because it is at this point that the action '... invades a patient's autonomy, puts a patient at serious risk ... [and] treats a patient unjustly' (1) Secondly, because the consequences of such refusals turn them into political acts--acts of civil disobedience. It is arguable that in order for acts of civil disobedience to be legitimate, certain obligations are required of the dissenter by the community. It is concluded that the actions of the South Australian nurses, which have over the last few years both terminated and disrupted second trimester services, are morally impermissible.

  7. Self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism: perspectives on emotional adjustment in couples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of reciprocal associations between individual emotional adjustment and the quality of intimate relationships has led to the growing use of interventions that combine a focus on couple issues with a focus on individual emotional functioning. In these approaches, spouse ratings of emotional functioning can provide an important second method of assessment, beyond the much more commonly used self-reports. Although an extensive literature demonstrates substantial convergent correlations between self-reported and spouse-rated emotional adjustment, levels of adjustment evident across these 2 assessment methods are much less commonly compared, especially among couples reporting higher levels of marital distress. Well-documented limitations of both self-reports and spouse ratings suggest that differences--which would not necessarily be evident in correlations between methods--might be common and substantial, perhaps raising complications in couple assessments and intervention. The present study compared self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism and its specific components using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised in a sample of 301 middle-aged and older couples. For overall neuroticism and the specific facets of anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability, self-reported levels of negative emotionality were consistently lower than the parallel ratings by spouses, most notably among couples reporting low levels of marital adjustment. Hence, substantial underestimates of negative emotionality obtained through self-reports as compared to ratings by spouses (or overestimates as obtained through spouse ratings) may be common and could complicate couple assessment and intervention. PMID:25844498

  8. Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the association between loneliness and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xia; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Cun, Lingli; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is an unpleasant and distressing feeling that a person experiences when he/she perceives that his/her social relationships are lacking in someway, either quantitatively or qualitatively; this can be linked to anxiety, depression, and suicide risk. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits (which are temporally stable and heritable) are predictors of loneliness. However, little empirical evidence is available on the brain structures associated with loneliness, as well as how personality traits impact the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. Thus, the current study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain structures underlying individual differences in loneliness (as measured by the UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a large sample, and then, applied multiple mediation analyses to explore the nature of the influence of personality traits on the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. The results showed that lonely individuals had greater regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which might reflect immature functioning in terms of emotional regulation. More importantly, we found that neuroticism and extraversion partially mediated the relationship between the left DLPFC and loneliness. In summary, through morphometric and multiple mediation analyses, this paper further validates the influence of both neuroticism and extraversion on loneliness.

  9. Reasonability and conscientious objection in medicine: a reply to Marsh and an elaboration of the reason-giving requirement.

    PubMed

    Card, Robert F

    2014-07-01

    In this paper I defend the Reasonability View: the position that medical professionals seeking a conscientious exemption must state reasons in support of their objection and allow those reasons to be subject to evaluation. Recently, this view has been criticized by Jason Marsh as proposing a standard that is either too difficult to meet or too easy to satisfy. First, I defend the Reasonability View from this proposed dilemma. Then, I develop this view by presenting and explaining some of the central criteria it uses to assess whether a conscientious objection is proper grounds for extending an exemption to a medical practitioner.

  10. Mechanisms of health: Education and health-related behaviours partially mediate the relationship between conscientiousness and self-reported physical health

    PubMed Central

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Jackson, Joshua; Bogg, Tim; Walton, Kate; Wood, Dustin; Harms, Peter; Roberts, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    The personality trait of conscientiousness is an important predictor of health and longevity. The present research examined how conscientiousness, in combination with educational attainment and health-related behaviours, predicted self-reported physical health across adulthood. These relations were investigated in two studies, one using a large, representative sample of Illinois residents (N = 617) and the other using a community sample with a multi-method assessment of conscientiousness (N = 274). Across both studies, structural path analyses provided evidence for a model wherein conscientiousness predicted health, in part, through its relationship to both educational attainment and health-related behaviours. The findings suggest conscientiousness predicts health through a diverse set of mechanisms including, but not limited to, educational attainment and health-related behaviours. PMID:20204934

  11. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C; Wood, Jeffrey J; Kapp, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828; nASD = 364) completed an online survey with an autism trait questionnaire and an FFM personality questionnaire. FFM facets accounted for 70 % of variance in autism trait scores. Neuroticism positively correlated with autism symptom severity, while extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness negatively correlated with autism symptom severity. Four FFM subtypes emerged within adults with ASD, with three subtypes characterized by high neuroticism and none characterized by lower-than-average neuroticism.

  12. Acculturation, Enculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Conscientiousness as Predictors of Latino Boys' and Girls' Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…

  13. The Conscientious Practice Policy: a futility policy for acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2005-08-01

    Much attention has been paid in recent years to the conflict that may occur when patients or their families insist on a therapy that the physician feels would be futile. In 1999 the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association recommended that all health-care institutions adopt a policy on medical futility that follows a fair process. Development of such a policy has proved problematic for many hospitals. The Conscientious Practice Policy at Lawrence & Memorial Hospital was developed as a response to the AMA recommendation. It outlines a specific process to be followed in the event that a physician wishes to refuse to provide a requested therapy, whether that refusal is based on perceived futility or other concerns. The policy was subsequently modified slightly and adopted by two other Connecticut acute care hospitals.

  14. Your morality, my mortality: conscientious objection and the standard of care.

    PubMed

    Rich, Ben A

    2015-04-01

    Recently the scope of protections afforded those healthcare professionals and institutions that refuse to provide certain interventions on the grounds of conscience have expanded, in some instances insulating providers (institutional and individual) from any liability or sanction for harms that patients experience as a result. With the exponential increase in the penetration of Catholic-affiliated healthcare across the country, physicians and nurses who are not practicing Catholics are nevertheless required to execute documents pledging to conform their patient care to the Ethical and Religious Directives for Health Care Services as a condition of employment or medical staff privileges. In some instances, doing so may result in patient morbidity or mortality or violate professional standards for respecting advance directives or surrogate decisionmaking. This article challenges the ethical propriety of such institutional mandates and argues that legal protections for conscientious refusal must provide redress for patients who are harmed by care that falls below the prevailing clinical standards.

  15. Conscientiousness and work performance while suffering from acute mountain sickness: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gloria R

    2002-04-01

    A 52-yr-old male scientist who participated in a geophysical survey in Antarctica from a field camp located at 3538 m (11,600 ft) experienced specific symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by Mission Day 9, and full syndrome AMS by Mission Day 12. He was treated at the field camp and evacuated to sea level on the next available flight (Mission Day 15). The concerns of this highly conscientious individual that initial signs of illness, such as fatigue with exertion, could be misinterpreted by others as poor work performance are described. The report focuses on individual personality and group processes that could lead to nondisclosure of symptoms, and the need, particularly in long-duration missions in which evacuation is difficult or impossible, to sensitize personnel to the importance of recognizing and reporting potential health problems.

  16. The Interaction of Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Audience Presence in the Performance of a Choice Reaction Time Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calcote, Lynn G.

    Ninety-six female introductory psychology students differing in terms of the dimensions of neuroticism-stability and introversion-extraversion performed two sets of thirty trials each on a choice reaction time task. On one of the sets of trials the Ss were observed by two female observers and on the other set of trials the observers were not…

  17. Assessment of personality organization in couple relationships: factorial structure of the inventory of personality organization and incremental validity over neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Melissa; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Normandin, Lina; Clarkin, John F

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 372 French-Canadian couples, this study examined the factorial structure of a 20-item abbreviated version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO) across a sample of couples and tested if identity diffusion, primitive defenses, and reality testing explain additional variance in couple distress when controlling for neuroticism. The IPO is based on Kernberg's conceptualization of personality organization (Kernberg, 1976 ). Gender differences were also studied through an examination of the value of both self-reported and partner-reported personality in the prediction of each partner's couple satisfaction. Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the tripartite model of the short version of the IPO provided an acceptable fit and proved invariant when tested on couples. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006 ) showed that elevated neuroticism predicted higher endorsement of primitive defenses, which in turn predict couple dissatisfaction. There was also a direct, negative path from neuroticism to dyadic adjustment. Finally, self-reported neuroticism scores predicted high utilization of primitive defenses by the partner, and low partner-reported couple satisfaction. Furthermore, high self-reported utilization of primitive defenses predicted low couple satisfaction. PMID:22906020

  18. Moderation of the Association between Childhood Maltreatment and Neuroticism by the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Colin G.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Neuroticism is a personality trait reflecting the tendency to experience negative affect. It is a major risk for psychopathology, especially depression and anxiety disorders. Childhood maltreatment is another major risk factor for psychopathology and may influence personality. Maltreatment may interact with genotype to predict…

  19. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  20. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response. PMID:26780150

  1. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response.

  2. "On the Internet no one knows I'm an introvert": extroversion, neuroticism, and Internet interaction.

    PubMed

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Wainapel, Galit; Fox, Shaul

    2002-04-01

    Social communication is one of the most common reasons for using the Internet. This paper examines how the personality characteristics of the user affect the meaning and importance of Internet social interaction in comparison with "real life," face-to-face interactions. Forty subjects all of whom were familiar with using "chat" participated in this study. After a at" session, they were instructed to answer several questionnaires. It was found that introverted and neurotic people locate their "real me" on the Internet, while extroverts and nonneurotic people locate their "real me" through traditional social interaction. The implications of our results for understanding the user-net interaction, the "real-me" location, extroversion, neuroticism, and Internet interaction, and the treatment of social phobics are examined. PMID:12025878

  3. Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: happy and unhappy people.

    PubMed

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1980-04-01

    Three studies are reported that examine the relations between personality and happiness or subjective well-being. It is argued that (a) one set of traits influences positive affect or satisfaction, whereas a different set of traits influences negative affect or dissatisfaction; (b) the former set of traits can be reviewed as components of extraversion, and the latter as components of neuroticism; and (c) personality differences antedate and predict differences in happiness over a period of 10 years, thus ruling out the rival hypothesis that temporary moods or states account for the observed relations. A model of individual differences in happiness is presented, and the separate and complementary roles of trait and adaptation-level theories in explaining happiness are discussed.

  4. Exploring relationships between personality and anatomy performance.

    PubMed

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Walker, Simon J; Carter, Madeline; Cox, David R; Hewitson, Ruth; Smith, Claire F

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in medicine of the importance of noncognitive factors, including personality, for performance, and for good medical practice. The personality domain of conscientiousness is a well-established predictor of performance in workplace and academic settings. This study investigates the relationships between the "Big Five" personality domains, the facets of conscientiousness and performance in a practical anatomy examination. First- and second-year undergraduate medical students (n = 85) completed a paper-based questionnaire, which included a 50-item measure of the Big Five personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and a 60-item measure of the six conscientiousness facets (orderliness, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self-discipline, self-efficacy, and cautiousness) from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). In addition, routinely-collected academic performance scores from the end of semester anatomy practical examinations (spotters) were obtained. Anatomy examination performance correlated moderately with conscientiousness (r = 0.24, P = 0.03). Of the six facets of conscientiousness, a positive relationship was observed between anatomy examination performance and achievement striving (r = 0.22, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study found that performance in an anatomy examination was related to higher levels of conscientiousness and, more specifically, to higher levels of achievement striving. The results have implications for selection and assessment in medicine.

  5. Social anxiety and the Big Five personality traits: the interactive relationship of trust and openness.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Simona C; Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that social anxiety (SA) has a positive relationship with neuroticism and a negative relationship with extraversion. However, findings on the relationships between SA and agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are mixed. In regard to facet-level personality traits, SA is negatively correlated with trust (a facet of agreeableness) and self-efficacy (a facet of conscientiousness). No research has examined interactions among the Big Five personality traits (e.g., extraversion) and facet levels of personality in relation to SA. In two studies using undergraduate samples (N = 502; N = 698), we examined the relationships between trust, self-efficacy, the Big Five, and SA. SA correlated positively with neuroticism, negatively with extraversion, and had weaker relationships with agreeableness, openness, and trust. In linear regression predicting SA, there was a significant interaction between trust and openness over and above gender. In addition to supporting previous research on SA and the Big Five, we found that openness is related to SA for individuals low in trust. Our results suggest that high openness may protect against the higher SA levels associated with low trust.

  6. Filipino personality structure and the big five model: a lexical approach.

    PubMed

    Church, A T; Reyes, J A; Katigbak, M S; Grimm, S D

    1997-09-01

    In lexically based studies, we derived Filipino personality dimensions and related them to the Big Five model. In Study 1, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 629) rated themselves on a near-comprehensive list of 861 Filipino (Tagalog) trait adjectives. In Study 2, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 1,531) rated 280 markers of dimensions identified in Study 1. Some students (n = 473) also completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Seven comparable Filipino dimensions were identified in factor analyses in the two studies. We concluded that the dimensions we labeled Concern for Others (vs. Egotism), Conscientiousness, Gregariousness, and Intellect were quite similar to Big Five Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Intellect, respectively. The Filipino Self-Assurance dimension was most similar to Big Five Neuroticism. The Filipino Temperamentalness dimension was more complex in Big Five terms, overlapping Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. A final Filipino factor resembled a Negative Valence or Infrequency dimension. More than five factors had to be extracted to obtain Philippine dimensions resembling all of the Big Five. PMID:9327587

  7. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and personality traits among Jordanian university students

    PubMed Central

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M; Shammout, Nizar A; Alkhazaleh, Ziad M; Al-Alwan, Ahmed F; Abu-Eita, Jawhara D

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the level of spiritual intelligence and its correlation with personality traits among a group of Jordanian undergraduate students. A purposive sample of 716 male and female students was chosen from different faculties at the Hashemite University. Two questionnaires on spiritual intelligence and personality traits were distributed to members of the sample during the academic year 2013–2014. Results illustrated a medium level of spiritual intelligence in students, and indicated a positive and statistically significant relationship between spiritual intelligence dimensions (critical existential thinking, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion) and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), but no significant correlation between personal meaning production and transcendental awareness dimensions and neuroticism personality traits. Finally, regression analysis results indicate that critical existential thinking is the first predictor dimension of spiritual intelligence in terms of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In the light of the results of this study, many recommendations were written by the researchers. PMID:25834470

  8. Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety.

    PubMed

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Schaubroeck, John

    2009-09-01

    The antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership were examined in a study of 894 employees and their 222 immediate supervisors in a major financial institution in the United States. The leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to direct reports' ratings of the leader's ethical leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to these ratings. Ethical leadership influenced followers' voice behavior as rated by followers' immediate supervisors. This relationship was partially mediated by followers' perceptions of psychological safety. Implications for research on ethical leadership and means to enhance ethical behavior among leaders and nonleaders are discussed.

  9. Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: the moderating role of personality.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shannon G; Kluemper, Donald H

    2012-07-01

    Although research on workplace aggression has long recognized job stressors as antecedents, little is known about the process through which employee responses to stressful workplace demands escalate from relatively mild interactions into more intense behaviors. This study investigates the influence that employees' perceptions of role stress (ambiguity, conflict, overload) have on their aggressive behavior by affecting their perceptions of incivility, and whether these downstream effects depend on personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness). Results supported moderated mediation, such that the indirect effects of perceived role ambiguity and role conflict on enacted aggression through experienced incivility varied according to individual differences in personality.

  10. Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety.

    PubMed

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Schaubroeck, John

    2009-09-01

    The antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership were examined in a study of 894 employees and their 222 immediate supervisors in a major financial institution in the United States. The leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to direct reports' ratings of the leader's ethical leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to these ratings. Ethical leadership influenced followers' voice behavior as rated by followers' immediate supervisors. This relationship was partially mediated by followers' perceptions of psychological safety. Implications for research on ethical leadership and means to enhance ethical behavior among leaders and nonleaders are discussed. PMID:19702370

  11. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications.

    PubMed

    McCrae, R R; John, O P

    1992-06-01

    The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Research using both natural language adjectives and theoretically based personality questionnaires supports the comprehensiveness of the model and its applicability across observers and cultures. This article summarizes the history of the model and its supporting evidence; discusses conceptions of the nature of the factors; and outlines an agenda for theorizing about the origins and operation of the factors. We argue that the model should prove useful both for individual assessment and for the elucidation of a number of topics of interest to personality psychologists.

  12. Is happiness good for your personality? Concurrent and prospective relations of the big five with subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Soto, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    The present research examined longitudinal relations of the Big Five personality traits with three core aspects of subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Latent growth models and autoregressive models were used to analyze data from a large, nationally representative sample of 16,367 Australian residents. Concurrent and change correlations indicated that higher levels of subjective well-being were associated with higher levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and with lower levels of Neuroticism. Moreover, personality traits prospectively predicted change in well-being, and well-being levels prospectively predicted personality change. Specifically, prospective trait effects indicated that individuals who were initially extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, and emotionally stable subsequently increased in well-being. Prospective well-being effects indicated that individuals with high initial levels of well-being subsequently became more agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and introverted. These findings challenge the common assumption that associations of personality traits with subjective well-being are entirely, or almost entirely, due to trait influences on well-being. They support the alternative hypothesis that personality traits and well-being aspects reciprocally influence each other over time.

  13. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process. PMID:26838573

  14. Tasmania's Reproductive Health (Access to Terminations) Act 2013: An analysis of conscientious objection to abortion and the "obligation to refer".

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli

    2015-06-01

    This article focuses on Tasmania's Reproductive Health (Access to Terminations) Act 2013, which decriminalises abortion in that State. The article first provides an overview of the Tasmanian legislation, comparing it with Victoria's Abortion Law Reform Act 2008. It then provides a more in-depth analysis of a doctor's right to "conscientious objection" and the requirement in both Acts of an "obligation to refer". The article concludes that ultimately, as a democratic society, it is important that both a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and a doctor's right to freedom of conscience is respected. Where these rights conflict, as is the case when a doctor with a conscientious objection to abortion is confronted with a patient who seeks information about abortion, they must be balanced. The Victorian and Tasmanian Acts represent a considered and reasonable approach to balancing the rights at issue. PMID:26349386

  15. A meta-analytic investigation of conscientiousness in the prediction of job performance: examining the intercorrelations and the incremental validity of narrow traits.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Nicole M; Orvis, Karin A; Lebiecki, Justin E; Cortina, José M

    2006-01-01

    Researchers of broad and narrow traits have debated whether narrow traits are important to consider in the prediction of job performance. Because personality-performance relationship meta-analyses have focused almost exclusively on the Big Five, the predictive power of narrow traits has not been adequately examined. In this study, the authors address this question by meta-analytically examining the degree to which the narrow traits of conscientiousness predict above and beyond global conscientiousness. Results suggest that narrow traits do incrementally predict performance above and beyond global conscientiousness, yet the degree to which they contribute depends on the particular performance criterion and occupation in question. Overall, the results of this study suggest that there are benefits to considering the narrow traits of conscientiousness in the prediction of performance. PMID:16435937

  16. An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, James; McClelland, Alastair; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of trait neuroticism on cognitive performance under distraction. Seventy participants were given a personality test and then undertook a number of different cognitive tasks in silence, in the presence of popular music and in background noise. It was predicted that performance on a general intelligence test, a test of abstract reasoning, and a mental arithmetic task would be adversely affected by background sounds. It was predicted that neuroticism would be negatively correlated with performance on the mental arithmetic task but only when the individuals were working in the presence of background sound. Stable vs. unstable participant's performance on a mental arithmetic task during noise was significantly higher as predicted. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses and are discussed with respect to previous findings in the literature on personality (particularly introversion-extraversion) and distraction on cognitive task performance. Limitations are noted.

  17. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.

  18. Depressive symptoms and marital satisfaction: within-subject associations and the moderating effects of gender and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Davila, Joanne; Karney, Benjamin R; Hall, Todd W; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2003-12-01

    Given the emphasis on within-subject associations between depression and marital quality in recent theory and practice, this study was undertaken with three goals: to examine within-subject associations between depressive symptoms and marital quality over time, to address gender differences in the magnitude and direction of these associations, and to determine whether neuroticism moderates the strength of these associations. A total of 164 newly wed couples provided 8 waves of data over 4 years of marriage. Hierarchical linear modeling confirmed the existence of bidirectional within-subject associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were rarely significant. Although neuroticism strengthened the effect of marital distress on symptoms as predicted, it weakened the effect of symptoms on marital distress among husbands. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, James; McClelland, Alastair; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of trait neuroticism on cognitive performance under distraction. Seventy participants were given a personality test and then undertook a number of different cognitive tasks in silence, in the presence of popular music and in background noise. It was predicted that performance on a general intelligence test, a test of abstract reasoning, and a mental arithmetic task would be adversely affected by background sounds. It was predicted that neuroticism would be negatively correlated with performance on the mental arithmetic task but only when the individuals were working in the presence of background sound. Stable vs. unstable participant's performance on a mental arithmetic task during noise was significantly higher as predicted. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses and are discussed with respect to previous findings in the literature on personality (particularly introversion-extraversion) and distraction on cognitive task performance. Limitations are noted. PMID:24215564

  20. An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, James; McClelland, Alastair; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of trait neuroticism on cognitive performance under distraction. Seventy participants were given a personality test and then undertook a number of different cognitive tasks in silence, in the presence of popular music and in background noise. It was predicted that performance on a general intelligence test, a test of abstract reasoning, and a mental arithmetic task would be adversely affected by background sounds. It was predicted that neuroticism would be negatively correlated with performance on the mental arithmetic task but only when the individuals were working in the presence of background sound. Stable vs. unstable participant's performance on a mental arithmetic task during noise was significantly higher as predicted. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses and are discussed with respect to previous findings in the literature on personality (particularly introversion-extraversion) and distraction on cognitive task performance. Limitations are noted. PMID:24215564

  1. Benefits of all work and no play: the relationship between neuroticism and performance as a function of resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Luke D; Yeo, Gillian B; Furnham, Adrian F; Jackson, Chris J

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluate a model suggesting that the performance of highly neurotic individuals, relative to their stable counterparts, is more strongly influenced by factors relating to the allocation of attentional resources. First, an air traffic control simulation was used to examine the interaction between effort intensity and scores on the Anxiety subscale of Eysenck Personality Profiler Neuroticism in the prediction of task performance. Overall effort intensity enhanced performance for highly anxious individuals more so than for individuals with low anxiety. Second, a longitudinal field study was used to examine the interaction between office busyness and Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism in the prediction of telesales performance. Changes in office busyness were associated with greater performance improvements for highly neurotic individuals compared with less neurotic individuals. These studies suggest that highly neurotic individuals outperform their stable counterparts in a busy work environment or if they are expending a high level of effort.

  2. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    PubMed Central

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M.L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J.; Liu, Jimmy Z.; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W.; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J.; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B.; Minica, Camelia C.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M.; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A.; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R.; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S.P.; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B.; Harris, Juliette M.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L.; Kaakinen, Marika A.; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J.; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mosing, Miriam A.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E.; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E.; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A.; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C.; Hinds, David A.; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Spector, Tim D.; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G.; Weir, David R.; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C.; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I.; Medland, Sarah E.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F.; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (N = 298,420), depressive symptoms (N = 161,460), and neuroticism (N = 170,910). We identified three variants associated with subjective well-being, two with depressive symptoms, and eleven with neuroticism, including two inversion polymorphisms. The two depressive symptoms loci replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ̂| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings, and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal/pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  3. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion.

  4. Underlying differences between conscientious omnivores and vegetarians in the evaluation of meat and animals.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-04-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important options for those reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism/veganism (i.e., veg*nism), the avoidance of animal flesh/all animal products; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has recently received much attention in the social science literature, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as COs have been virtually nonexistent. The present research sought to investigate possible underlying attitudinal differences between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to veg*ns, COs evaluated animals less favorably, meat more favorably, and were lower in idealism, misanthropy, and ingroup identification. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences between COs and veg*ns in the perceived acceptability of killing animals for food were mediated by beliefs about animals and meat. The discussion largely speculates on the causal direction of these effects. PMID:25529819

  5. Underlying differences between conscientious omnivores and vegetarians in the evaluation of meat and animals.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-04-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important options for those reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism/veganism (i.e., veg*nism), the avoidance of animal flesh/all animal products; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has recently received much attention in the social science literature, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as COs have been virtually nonexistent. The present research sought to investigate possible underlying attitudinal differences between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to veg*ns, COs evaluated animals less favorably, meat more favorably, and were lower in idealism, misanthropy, and ingroup identification. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences between COs and veg*ns in the perceived acceptability of killing animals for food were mediated by beliefs about animals and meat. The discussion largely speculates on the causal direction of these effects.

  6. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. PMID:24908465

  7. Legal and ethical standards for protecting women's human rights and the practice of conscientious objection in reproductive healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Zampas, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests.

  8. Experiential, Autonomic, and Neural Responses During Threat Anticipation Vary as a Function of Threat Intensity and Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Drabant, Emily M; Kuo, Janice R; Ramel, Wiveka; Blechert, Jens; Edge, Michael D; Cooper, Jeff R; Goldin, Philippe R; Hariri, Ahmad R; Gross, James J

    2011-01-01

    Anticipatory emotional responses play a crucial role in preparing individuals for impending challenges. They do this by triggering a coordinated set of changes in behavioral, autonomic, and neural response systems. In the present study, we examined the biobehavioral impact of varying levels of anticipatory anxiety, using a shock anticipation task in which unpredictable electric shocks were threatened and delivered to the wrist at variable intervals and intensities (safe, medium, strong). This permitted investigation of a dynamic range of anticipatory anxiety responses. In two studies, 95 and 51 healthy female participants, respectively, underwent this shock anticipation task while providing continuous ratings of anxiety experience and electrodermal responding (Study 1) and during fMRI BOLD neuroimaging (Study 2). Results indicated a step-wise pattern of responding in anxiety experience and electrodermal responses. Several brain regions showed robust responses to shock anticipation relative to safe trials, including the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, caudate, precentral gyrus, thalamus, insula, ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and ACC. A subset of these regions demonstrated a linear pattern of increased responding from safe to medium to strong trials, including the bilateral insula, ACC, and inferior frontal gyrus. These responses were modulated by individual differences in neuroticism, such that those high in neuroticism showed exaggerated anxiety experience across the entire task, and reduced brain activation from medium to strong trials in a subset of brain regions. These findings suggest that individual differences in neuroticism may influence sensitivity to anticipatory threat and provide new insights into the mechanism through which neuroticism may confer risk for developing anxiety disorders via dysregulated anticipatory responses. PMID:21093595

  9. Effect of the Interplay between Trauma Severity and Trait Neuroticism on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents Exposed to a Pipeline Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Shao, Di; Long, Zhou-Ting; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background While numerous studies have explored relevant factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, there have been few joint investigations of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on the development of PTSD symptoms. This study aims to assess the involvement and interrelationship of trauma severity and neuroticism in the expression of PTSD symptoms among adolescents exposed to an accidental explosion. Methods Six hundred and sixty-two adolescents were recruited from a junior middle school closest to the 2013 pipeline explosion site in China and were assessed using the Explosion Exposure Questionnaire, the NEO Five Factor Inventory-Neuroticism Subscale (FFI-N), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). A battery of hierarchical multiple regression analyses and two-way ANOVAs were performed to examine the effect of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on adolescent PTSD symptoms. Results Eighty-seven adolescents (13.1%) showed PTSD symptoms after the pipeline explosion. Correlation analysis showed that all the factors of explosion exposure and trait neuroticism were positively associated with adolescent PTSD symptoms. Being male and younger was linked to lower risk for PTSD symptoms. The regression models identified explosion exposure and neuroticism as independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms, and the interactions between trait neuroticism and trauma exposure (personal casualty, degree of influence, total traumatic severity) were related to PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The results highlight the role of trauma exposure and trait neuroticism as risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Therefore, the combination of these two factors should be investigated in clinical settings due to an augmented risk for more severe PTSD symptoms. PMID:25793606

  10. Striatal response to favorite brands as a function of neuroticism and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Knuth, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska

    2011-11-24

    Recent research has demonstrated that the perception of favorite brands involves similar brain networks than artificially associated reward stimuli. This has been explained by the association of brands with appetitive stimuli due to marketing efforts. Thereby, strong emotional bonds between the brand and the customer may be established. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that the personality dimension extraversion can be linked with the dopaminergic system and reward-sensitive brain areas. The current study aimed to examine if personality traits are associated with the perception of brands as rewarding stimuli. In order to test this hypothesis we conducted an fMRI study in which we presented pictures of chocolate brands, which participants had to rate according to their personal attraction. The personality traits were assessed according to the Five-Factor-Model. Results revealed that favorite brands engaged reward-related brain areas (ventral striatum). This activation was significantly correlated with the degree of extraversion and neuroticism of the participants. Thus, the results demonstrate that personality traits are closely associated with the perception of brands as rewarding stimuli. We discuss the results with recent studies on the neuronal substrates of reward related processing of cultural objects and the role of personality in brand loyalty. PMID:22035566

  11. Poor Decision Making Among Older Adults Is Related to Elevated Levels of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Weller, J. A.; Yamada, T. H.; Shivapour, D. M.; Kaup, A. R.; LaLoggia, A.; Cole, C. A.; Tranel, D.; Bechara, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A well-studied index of reasoning and decision making is the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT possesses many features important to medical decision making, such as weighing risks and benefits, dealing with unknown outcomes, and making decisions under uncertainty. Purpose There exists a great deal of individual variability on the IGT, particularly among older adults, and the present study examines the role of personality in IGT performance. We explored which of the five-factor model of personality traits were predictive of decision-making performance, after controlling for relevant demographic variables. Methods One hundred and fifty-two healthy cognitively intact adults (aged 26–85) were individually administered the IGT and the NEO Five-Factory Inventory. Results In the older adults, but not the younger, higher NEO neuroticism was associated with poorer IGT performance. Conclusions Our findings are discussed in the context of how stress may impact cognitive performance and cause dysfunction of neural systems in the brain important for decision making. PMID:19350336

  12. Affective and neuroendocrine stress reactivity to an academic examination: influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological stress responses to an academic examination in healthy undergraduate students. From 771 students, 46 short/short (S/S)-allele carriers and 48 long/long (L/L)-allele carriers with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (80 females, 14 males; mean age±SD: 20.3±1.7 years) were selected. Salivary cortisol concentrations, mood and perceived stress were assessed before and after a 2-h written examination and compared with a control day. Negative mood, perceived stress and cortisol significantly increased during the examination compared to the control day. Negative stress effects on mood and perceived stress were significantly larger for S/S-allele carriers compared to L/L-allele carriers, regardless of trait neuroticism. Since vulnerability to real-life stressors is an important risk factor for depression pathogenesis, this may be a mediating factor making S/S-allele carriers more susceptible for depression symptoms.

  13. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses.

    PubMed

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S Fleur W; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-06-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associated with subjective well-being, 2 variants associated with depressive symptoms, and 11 variants associated with neuroticism, including 2 inversion polymorphisms. The two loci associated with depressive symptoms replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal or pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association.

  14. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses.

    PubMed

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S Fleur W; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-06-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associated with subjective well-being, 2 variants associated with depressive symptoms, and 11 variants associated with neuroticism, including 2 inversion polymorphisms. The two loci associated with depressive symptoms replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal or pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  15. Neuroticism and self-evaluation measures are related to the ability to form cognitive maps critical for spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Guadagni, Veronica; Hoey, Felecia; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Levy, Richard M; O'Neill, Thomas; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Trait neuroticism is suggested to be related to measures of volume and function of the hippocampus, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for human navigation and orientation. In this study, we assessed whether measures of trait neuroticism and self-concept are correlated with the human ability to orient by means of cognitive maps (i.e. mental representations of an environment that include landmarks and their spatial relationships). After controlling for gender differences, which are well-known in spatial orientation abilities, we found that measures of neuroticism (i.e. negative affect, emotional stability) and self-concept (i.e. self-esteem) were correlated with individual differences in the rate at which cognitive maps were formed; the same measures were generally unrelated to the ability to make use of cognitive maps, as well as the ability to orient using visual path integration. The relationships (and lack thereof) between personality traits and the spatial orientation skills, as reported in the present study, are consistent with specific neural correlates underlying these factors, and may have important implications for treatment of disorders related to them.

  16. Five-factor model personality traits and inflammatory markers: new data and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Barkley, James M; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the association between five major dimensions of personality and systemic inflammation through (a) new data on C-reactive protein (CRP) from three large national samples of adults that together cover most of the adult lifespan and (b) a meta-analysis of published studies on CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6). New data (total N=26,305) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the Midlife in the United States study, and the Health and Retirement Study. PRISMA guidelines were used for the meta-analysis to combine results of up to seven studies on CRP (N=34,067) and six on IL-6 (N=7538). Across the three new samples, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower CRP. The conscientiousness-CRP relation was virtually identical controlling for smoking; controlling for body mass index attenuated this association but did not eliminate it. Compared to participants in the highest quartile of conscientiousness, participants in the lowest quartile had an up to 50% increased risk of CRP levels that exceeded the clinical threshold (≥3 mg/l). The meta-analysis supported the association between conscientiousness and both CRP and IL-6 and also suggested a negative association between openness and CRP; no associations were found for neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. The present work indicates a modest, but consistent, association between conscientiousness and a more favorable inflammatory profile, which may contribute to the role of conscientiousness in better health across the lifespan.

  17. Female students' disordered eating and the big five personality facets.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2009-08-01

    Female undergraduate students at two Canadian universities (N = 378) completed the NEO PI-R (Costa, P.T. & McCrae, R.R. (1992). NEO PI-R Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., Bohr, Y. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878.). Eating disorder symptomatic (N = 43) and nonsymptomatic (N = 335) women differed on facets of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness. Among symptomatic women, the Oral Control subscale of the EAT-26 was correlated significantly with facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Specifically, the Impulsivity facet of Neuroticism was positively correlated with the Bulimia and Food Preoccupation subscale of EAT-26, but negatively correlated with the Oral Control and Dieting subscales. Overall, results suggest that high scores on Neuroticism may be a risk factor for development of disordered eating behavior and that the degree of Impulsiveness may predict the eating disorder subtype to which one is most susceptible.

  18. White Matter Integrity and Five-Factor Personality Measures in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    The five-factor model organizes personality traits into five factors: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Measures of these personality traits predict people’s behaviors and important outcomes of their lives. Therefore, understanding the neural correlates of these personality traits is important. This study assessed the relationships between white matter (WM) integrity and personality traits among 51 healthy participants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Neuroticism correlated positively while Openness and Agreeableness correlated negatively with DTI mean diffusivity (MD) in the corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus, tracts which interconnect prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex, and subcortical structures. Furthermore, Neuroticism correlated positively with MD in the anterior cingulum and uncinate fasciculus, tracts interconnecting PFC and amygdala. Openness correlated negatively with MD of WM adjacent to the dorsolateral PFC in both hemispheres. These findings suggest that greater Neuroticism associates with worse integrity of WM interconnecting extensive cortical and subcortical structures including the PFC and amygdala and that greater Openness associates with better integrity of WM interconnecting extensive cortical and subcortical structures including the dorsolateral PFC. PMID:21840401

  19. [Law, medicine and society (2/2). From conscientious duty to the risk of mistrust].

    PubMed

    Sargos, Pierre; David, Georges

    2002-06-22

    PROFESSIONAL INDEPENDENCE: The physician's conscientious duty is primarily implies that he/she provides the patient with personal and professionally non-dependent care, the consequences of which imply the physician's responsibility. INFORMATION FOR THE PATIENT: The physicians second duty is a major element of medical ethics: a physician must provide the patient with true, clear and appropriate information concerning the risks involved in the various investigations and treatments proposed. The physician must be able to prove that the patient has been well informed; such information can be provided by whatsoever means. The only dispensation from this is in emergency cases, or if the patient refuses to be informed. The fact that exposure to risk may be required medically, or only materializes exceptionally, does not justify limiting the information supplied. However, limited information may be necessary in the patient's interest, depending on the nature of the disease, its prognosis and the patient's character. NECESSITY AND DIFFICULTY IN INFORMING THE PATIENT: Before being an obligation, information is a necessity since it is required when, for example, obtaining the patient's informed consent. However, there is a great difference in the information supplied, and the correct interpretation of the message by the patient. There is also a risk of excess information, gendered by Internet and all the websites devoted to health, and the subsequent risk of mistrust. FEED-BACK: A new science, 'Cindynics', or the science of danger, based on past experience, proposes to use prior legal medical affairs in order to learn from the lessons they may provide, in the development of preventive measures. THE NOTION OF A HEALTH DUTY: Medicine attempts to restore good health when altered it can also ensure preventive measures. The obligation to apply such measures depends not only on the State but also on individuals, who, by avoiding situations at risk, ensure their health duty.

  20. Applying conscientiousness index: a tool to explore medical students’ professionalism in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Rukmini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was aimed to describe lecturers’ perspective concerning the suitable Conscientiousness Index (CI) components and implementations, as well as to compare the CI scores in year 1–4 student batches. Methods Components were formulated from objective measurements based on interviews with 12 faculty members. The components include: attendance, adherence to rules, evaluative feedback submissions, performance in assignments and clinical skills, assignment submissions, volunteerism, accomplishments, and general misconducts. The scores were collected from year 1-4 pre-clinical medical students (N=144) during the first semester of 2014-2015. Final interviews were conducted with 9 faculty members. Quantitative analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Qualitative analysis was performed using content analysis. Results Using Kruskal-Wallis test, significant difference was found in the CI scores among all years (p=0.000). Post-hoc analysis using Mann-Whitney test showed significant difference in all years except year 1 and 4 (p=0.388). Of the 9 lecturers interviewed during the second interviews, 7 endorsed the importance of CI, while 2 doubted its applicability. Conclusions Due to the unique characteristics of each block, our system had not been able to conduct a balanced CI evaluation, as compared to the original research. We concluded that the implementation of CI would be highly dependent on the faculty members, with their commitment as the main pre-requisite. We hope to involve academic advisors as CI evaluators and improve our student-centered learning for future assessments. Further study is needed to investigate the longitudinal implementation of CI. PMID:27421124

  1. Thumbs up or thumbs down? Effects of neuroticism and depressive symptoms on psychophysiological responses to social evaluation in healthy students.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, F M; van der Molen, M J W; van der Molen, M W; Franken, I H A

    2016-10-01

    The effects of neuroticism and depressive symptoms on psychophysiological responses in a social judgment task were examined in a sample of 101 healthy young adults. Participants performed a social judgment task in which they had to predict whether or not a virtual peer presented on a computer screen liked them. After the prediction, the actual judgment was shown, and behavioral, electrocortical, and cardiac responses to this judgment were measured. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) was largest after unexpected feedback. The largest P3 was found after the expected "like" judgments, and cardiac deceleration was largest following unexpected "do not like" judgments. Both the P3 and cardiac deceleration were affected by gender-that is, only males showed differential P3 responses to social judgments, and males showed stronger cardiac decelerations. Time-frequency analyses were performed to explore theta and delta oscillations. Theta oscillations were largest following unexpected outcomes and correlated with FRN amplitudes. Delta oscillations were largest following expected "like" judgments and correlated with P3 amplitudes. Self-reported trait neuroticism was significantly related to social evaluative predictions and cardiac reactivity to social feedback, but not to the electrocortical responses. That is, higher neuroticism scores were associated with a more negative prediction bias and with smaller cardiac responses to judgments for which a positive outcome was predicted. Depressive symptoms did not affect the behavioral and psychophysiological responses in this study. The results confirmed the differential sensitivities of various outcome measures to different psychological processes, but the found individual differences could only partly be ascribed to the collected subjective measures. PMID:27165337

  2. Thumbs up or thumbs down? Effects of neuroticism and depressive symptoms on psychophysiological responses to social evaluation in healthy students.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, F M; van der Molen, M J W; van der Molen, M W; Franken, I H A

    2016-10-01

    The effects of neuroticism and depressive symptoms on psychophysiological responses in a social judgment task were examined in a sample of 101 healthy young adults. Participants performed a social judgment task in which they had to predict whether or not a virtual peer presented on a computer screen liked them. After the prediction, the actual judgment was shown, and behavioral, electrocortical, and cardiac responses to this judgment were measured. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) was largest after unexpected feedback. The largest P3 was found after the expected "like" judgments, and cardiac deceleration was largest following unexpected "do not like" judgments. Both the P3 and cardiac deceleration were affected by gender-that is, only males showed differential P3 responses to social judgments, and males showed stronger cardiac decelerations. Time-frequency analyses were performed to explore theta and delta oscillations. Theta oscillations were largest following unexpected outcomes and correlated with FRN amplitudes. Delta oscillations were largest following expected "like" judgments and correlated with P3 amplitudes. Self-reported trait neuroticism was significantly related to social evaluative predictions and cardiac reactivity to social feedback, but not to the electrocortical responses. That is, higher neuroticism scores were associated with a more negative prediction bias and with smaller cardiac responses to judgments for which a positive outcome was predicted. Depressive symptoms did not affect the behavioral and psychophysiological responses in this study. The results confirmed the differential sensitivities of various outcome measures to different psychological processes, but the found individual differences could only partly be ascribed to the collected subjective measures.

  3. Adolescent psychopathy and the big five: results from two samples.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness, whereas the aspect of psychopathy representing impulsivity, instability, and social deviance (Factor 2) is associated with low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, and high Neuroticism. Data from 13- and 16-year-old boys and their mothers from two samples of the Pittsburgh Youth Study are used to test these hypotheses. Results were consistent across age and rating source in supporting the initial hypotheses, providing support for the construct of juvenile psychopathy and the interpretation of psychopathy as a constellation of traits drawn from a general model of personality functioning.

  4. The personality bases of ideology: a one-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Chris G; Duckitt, John

    2010-01-01

    The cross-lagged effects of the Big-Five personality dimensions on Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) were examined over 1 year (N = 112). Consistent with the Dual Process Cognitive-Motivational Model, SDO and RWA exhibited markedly different personality bases. Low Agreeableness and unexpectedly high Extraversion predicted change in the motivational goal for group-based dominance and superiority (SDO), whereas Openness to Experience predicted change in the motivational goal for social cohesion and collective security (RWA). Neuroticism and Conscientiousness did not predict change in SDO or RWA over time. These findings extend previous cross-sectional (correlational) research and indicate that key dimensions of personality (primarily Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) are an important temporal antecedent of the group-based motivational goals underlying individual differences in prejudice. PMID:21058579

  5. Personality changes in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Strauss, M E; Smyth, K A; Whitehouse, P J

    1992-05-01

    How personality changes in Alzheimer's disease is not well understood. Accentuations of premorbid personality, systematic shifts in personality traits, and specific personality changes affecting subtypes of patients have been postulated. To investigate which of these alternatives occurs in Alzheimer's disease, caregivers were given a comprehensive personality inventory standardized for use by informants. Caregivers observed more neurotic, less extroverted, and less conscientious behavior. To a smaller extent, patients with Alzheimer's disease were reported as becoming less agreeable and less open. The changes in reports of neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, and openness suggested consistent systematic shifts across all patients. Patients with depressive features were reported to have been more neurotic; those with paranoid delusions were reported as having been more hostile. Premorbid personality traits may predispose to subsequent psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H.; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. Methods We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0±9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3±3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0±15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8±3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β = 0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β = −0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β = −0.072, agreeableness β = 0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β = −0.202, agreeableness: β = 0.227) (P<0.05). Conclusion Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention

  7. The Relation Between Supervisors' Big Five Personality Traits and Employees' Experiences of Abusive Supervision.

    PubMed

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors' personality traits and employees' experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that - to date - remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors' agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors' extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors' conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors' Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees' experiences of abusive supervision. PMID:26903919

  8. Personality correlates of the Five-Factor Model for a sample of business owners/managers: associations with scores on Self-Monitoring, Type A Behavior, Locus of Control, and Subjective Well-being.

    PubMed

    Morrison, K A

    1997-02-01

    Bivariate relationships were examined between scores on the Five-Factor Model of personality and four personality dimensions including Self-monitoring, Locus of Control, Type A Behavior, and Subjective Well-being. Data were collected from 307 franchise business owner/managers from four different industries. Scores for Self-monitoring were positively related to those on Extraversion; Self-monitoring was the only personality measure significantly correlated with scores on Openness to Experience. Scores for Type A Behavior, measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey, were negatively correlated with Agreeableness and positively correlated with those for Extraversion. Somewhat surprisingly, the score for Type A Behavior had a relatively low correlation with the score for Conscientiousness. Scores for Subjective Well-being and Locus of Control were most strongly correlated with the positive pole of Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Possible explanations for the observed relationships are discussed. PMID:9122336

  9. The Relation Between Supervisors’ Big Five Personality Traits and Employees’ Experiences of Abusive Supervision

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors’ personality traits and employees’ experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that – to date – remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors’ agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors’ extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors’ conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors’ Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees’ experiences of abusive supervision. PMID:26903919

  10. The Relation Between Supervisors' Big Five Personality Traits and Employees' Experiences of Abusive Supervision.

    PubMed

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors' personality traits and employees' experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that - to date - remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors' agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors' extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors' conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors' Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees' experiences of abusive supervision.

  11. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood.

  12. Personality and coping.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  13. Personality, acculturation, and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese international students in Germany.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Mandl, Heinz; Wang, Erping

    2010-10-01

    The effect of personality traits and acculturation variables on crosscultural adjustment were investigated in 139 Chinese students in Germany (52% girls; M age = 25.3 yr., SD = 2.9). Participants were surveyed by house visits to their dormitories. Several scales were administered: (a) Big Five Inventory; (b) Vancouver Index of Acculturation; (c) sociocultural adjustment, general and academic; and (d) psychological adjustment, i.e., depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results showed that Neuroticism and Openness were two shared predictors of sociocultural adjustment. Agreeableness and mainstream acculturation were only related to general adjustment, while Conscientiousness was only related to academic adjustment. All facets of psychological adjustment were related to Neuroticism and Consciousness, while positive components (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were also related to Extraversion and Openness. No influence of heritage acculturation was found. The findings are discussed in light of measurement issues and the shared and unique individual predictors of the different facets of adjustment. PMID:21117478

  14. Stress-induced muscle effort as a cause of repetitive strain injury?

    PubMed

    Rietveld, S; van Beest, I; Kamphuis, J H

    2007-12-01

    The influence of stress-induced muscle effort during computer utilization was tested in patients with repetitive strain injury (RSI). Twenty academic researchers with a formal medical diagnosis of RSI and 20 matched controls, randomly selected from a sample of 71 colleagues with and without RSI, typed after stress (induced via an intelligence/skill task under social pressure) and after relaxation. Results indicated that both groups had more electromyography (EMG) activity in the shoulder muscles during typing after stress than after relaxation, but that patients started with higher baseline muscle activity. Furthermore, EMG activity of different muscle groups during typing after stress correlated among controls, but not among patients. Finally, analysis of intake forms showed that patients scored higher than controls on neuroticism and alexithymia, but not on extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. It was concluded that deviations in muscle activity during computer utilization, as well as neuroticism and alexithymia, may be risk factors for RSI.

  15. Affective forecasting and the Big Five

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on affective forecasting clarify that the emotional reactions people anticipate often differ markedly from those they actually experience in response to affective stimuli and events. However, core personality differences in affective forecasting have received limited attention, despite their potential relevance to choice behavior. In the present study, 226 college undergraduates rated their anticipated and experienced reactions to the emotionally-evocative event of Valentine’s Day and completed a measure of the Big Five personality traits – neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness – and their facet scales. Neuroticism and extraversion were associated with baseline mood, experienced emotional reactions, and anticipated emotional reactions. The present findings hold implications for the study of individual differences in affective forecasting, personality theory, and interventions research. PMID:22021944

  16. Comorbid Problem Gambling and Major Depression in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Leanne; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C; Dobson, Keith S; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2015-12-01

    Major depression is among the most common comorbid conditions in problem gambling. However, little is known about the effects of comorbid depression on problem gambling. The present study examined the prevalence of current major depression among problem gamblers (N = 105) identified from a community sample of men and women in Alberta, and examined group differences in gambling severity, escape motivation for gambling, family functioning, childhood trauma, and personality traits across problem gamblers with and without comorbid depression. The prevalence of major depression among the sample of problem gamblers was 32.4%. Compared to problem gamblers without depression (n = 71), problem gamblers with comorbid depression (n = 34) reported more severe gambling problems, greater history of childhood abuse and neglect, poorer family functioning, higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Furthermore, the problem gamblers with comorbid depression had greater levels of childhood abuse and neglect, worse family functioning, higher neuroticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness than a comparison sample of recreational gamblers with depression (n = 160). These findings underscore the need to address comorbid depression in assessment and treatment of problem gambling and for continued research on how problem gambling is related to frequently co-occurring disorders such as depression.

  17. Personality, Relationship Conflict, and Teamwork-Related Mental Models

    PubMed Central

    Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143

  18. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  19. Interpersonal impacts mediate the association between personality and treatment response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Quilty, Lena C; Bagby, R Michael

    2016-07-01

    Personality, as characterized by the Five-Factor Model, predicts response to psychotherapy for depression. To explain how personality impacts treatment response, the present study investigated patient and therapist interpersonal processes in treatment sessions as an explanatory pathway. A clinical trial was conducted in which 103 outpatients (mean age: 41.17 years, 65% female) with primary major depressive disorder completed 16-20 weeks of cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal therapy. Before treatment, patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to assess personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness-to-experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). After 3 and 13 weeks, patient interpersonal behavior was rated by the therapist and vice versa to determine levels of patient and therapist communal and agentic behaviors. Depression levels were measured before and after treatment. Structural equation modeling supported that patients' interpersonal behavior during therapy mediated the associations between pretreatment personality and depression treatment outcome. Specifically, extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism (inverse) predicted higher levels of patient communion throughout treatment, which was in turn associated with improved treatment outcomes. Furthermore, patient agreeableness was inversely associated with agency throughout treatment, which was linked to poorer treatment response. Therapist interpersonal behavior was not a significant mediator. Results suggest that patient interpersonal behavior during treatment may be one way that patient personality impacts clinical outcomes in depression. Results underscore the clinical utility of Five-Factor Model domains in treatment process and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27031606

  20. The Big Five default brain: functional evidence.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Adriana; Soares, José Miguel; Coutinho, Joana; Sousa, Nuno; Gonçalves, Óscar F

    2014-11-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that different dimensions of human personality may be associated with specific structural neuroanatomic correlates. Identifying brain correlates of a situation-independent personality structure would require evidence of a stable default mode of brain functioning. In this study, we investigated the correlates of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness/Intellect, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy adults completed the NEO-Five Factor. The results showed that the Extraversion (E) and Agreeableness (A) were positively correlated with activity in the midline core of the DMN, whereas Neuroticism (N), Openness (O), and Conscientiousness (C) were correlated with the parietal cortex system. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with A and negatively with C. Regions of the parietal lobe were differentially associated with each personality dimension. The present study not only confirms previous functional correlates regarding the Big Five personality dimensions, but it also expands our knowledge showing the association between different personality dimensions and specific patterns of brain activation at rest.

  1. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song E.; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  2. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models.

    PubMed

    Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.

  3. Cohort differences in Big Five personality factors over a period of 25 years.

    PubMed

    Smits, Iris A M; Dolan, Conor V; Vorst, Harrie C M; Wicherts, Jelte M; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2011-06-01

    The notion of personality traits implies a certain degree of stability in the life span of an individual. But what about generational effects? Are there generational changes in the distribution or structure of personality traits? This article examines cohort changes on the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience, among first-year psychology students in The Netherlands, ages 18 to 25 years, between 1982 and 2007. Because measurement invariance of a personality test is essential for a sound interpretation of cohort differences in personality, we first assessed measurement invariance with respect to cohort for males and females separately on the Big Five personality factors, as measured by the Dutch instrument Five Personality Factors Test. Results identified 11 (females) and 2 (males) biased items with respect to cohort, out of a total of 70 items. Analyzing the unbiased items, results indicated small linear increases over time in Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and small linear decreases over time in Neuroticism. No clear patterns were found on the Openness to Experience factor. Secondary analyses on students from 1971 to 2007 of females and males of different ages together revealed linear trends comparable to those in the main analyses among young adults between 1982 onward. The results imply that the broad sociocultural context may affect personality factors.

  4. Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Colin G; Hirsh, Jacob B; Shane, Matthew S; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Gray, Jeremy R

    2010-06-01

    We used a new theory of the biological basis of the Big Five personality traits to generate hypotheses about the association of each trait with the volume of different brain regions. Controlling for age, sex, and whole-brain volume, results from structural magnetic resonance imaging of 116 healthy adults supported our hypotheses for four of the five traits: Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Extraversion covaried with volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region involved in processing reward information. Neuroticism covaried with volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative affect. Agreeableness covaried with volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals. Conscientiousness covaried with volume in lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior. These findings support our biologically based, explanatory model of the Big Five and demonstrate the potential of personality neuroscience (i.e., the systematic study of individual differences in personality using neuroscience methods) as a discipline.

  5. Attitude to Substance Abuse: Do Personality and Socio-Demographic Factors Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited by random sampling from March to July 2013. The participants were instructed and asked to complete the NEO FIVE-factor Inventory, the attitude to substance abuse scale, and the demographic questionnaire. Then data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression employing PASW 18. Results: Being male sex and neuroticism had a significant positive role in predicting positive attitude toward substance abuse in university students. In addition, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and socio-economic status had a significant negative role in predicting tendency toward substance abuse (P < 0.001). Extraversion had no significant role in prediction of positive attitude to substance abuse (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Lower agreeableness, decreased conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, diminished openness, low socio-economic status, and male sex might make university students more inclined to substance abuse. Thus, it is reasonable to show the importance of these factors in tailored prevention programs. PMID:25593892

  6. Personality disorders as maladaptive, extreme variants of normal personality: borderline personality disorder and neuroticism in a substance using sample.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

    2013-10-01

    Although the current diagnostic manual conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical entities, an alternative perspective is that PDs represent maladaptive extreme versions of the same traits that describe normal personality. Existing evidence indicates that normal personality traits, such as those assessed by the five-factor model (FFM), share a common structure and obtain reasonably predictable correlations with the PDs. However, very little research has investigated whether PDs are more extreme than normal personality traits. Utilizing item-response theory analyses, the authors of the current study extend previous research to demonstrate that the diagnostic criterion for borderline personality disorder and FFM neuroticism could be fit along a single latent dimension. Furthermore, the authors' findings indicate that the borderline criteria assessed the shared latent trait at a level that was more extreme (d = 1.11) than FFM neuroticism. This finding provides further evidence for dimensional understanding of personality pathology and suggests that a trait model in DSM-5 should span normal and abnormal personality functioning, but focus on the extremes of these common traits.

  7. Neuroticism and locus of control as moderators of the relationships of charismatic and autocratic leadership with burnout.

    PubMed

    De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Den Hartog, Deanne N

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between leader behavior and burnout. In two samples, employees (N = 91; N = 190) filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and rated their leader's autocratic and charismatic leader behavior and their own neuroticism and internal work locus of control. As expected, neuroticism and internal work locus of control moderated the relationship between leader behavior and burnout. Charisma was associated with lower burnout, particularly for individuals low on internal locus. The relationship between autocratic leadership and burnout was positive for neurotic individuals, whereas for emotionally stable individuals this relationship weakened. These results were consistent across two independent samples: one with individual employee ratings of manager's leadership styles and the other with aggregate ratings of manager's leadership styles among employees in diverse organizations. Thus, although charismatic and autocratic leader behavior may respectively act to hinder or enhance overload and stress, the relationship between these leadership styles and burnout differs for followers with different traits.

  8. [Conscientious objection of health personnel in the recent Organic Law 2/2010, about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Martínez Otero, Juan María

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to analyse and evaluate the recent Organic Law 2/2010, and its prescriptions referring to the conscientious objection of health personnel in relation to the voluntary interruption of pregnancy. The paper starts studying conscientious objection: its raison d'être, its delimitation, its recognition by the Spanish regulation. Further on, the paper focuses on the article 19.2° of the Organic Law 2/2010, underlining on the one hand the positive aspects (such as the formal requirements for the objection), and on the other hand the negative ones (such as suspicion over objectors).

  9. [Conscientious objection of health personnel in the recent Organic Law 2/2010, about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Martínez Otero, Juan María

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to analyse and evaluate the recent Organic Law 2/2010, and its prescriptions referring to the conscientious objection of health personnel in relation to the voluntary interruption of pregnancy. The paper starts studying conscientious objection: its raison d'être, its delimitation, its recognition by the Spanish regulation. Further on, the paper focuses on the article 19.2° of the Organic Law 2/2010, underlining on the one hand the positive aspects (such as the formal requirements for the objection), and on the other hand the negative ones (such as suspicion over objectors). PMID:21090842

  10. Heritability estimates of the Big Five personality traits based on common genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Power, R A; Pluess, M

    2015-07-14

    According to twin studies, the Big Five personality traits have substantial heritable components explaining 40-60% of the variance, but identification of associated genetic variants has remained elusive. Consequently, knowledge regarding the molecular genetic architecture of personality and to what extent it is shared across the different personality traits is limited. Using genomic-relatedness-matrix residual maximum likelihood analysis (GREML), we here estimated the heritability of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness for experience) in a sample of 5011 European adults from 527,469 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. We tested for the heritability of each personality trait, as well as for the genetic overlap between the personality factors. We found significant and substantial heritability estimates for neuroticism (15%, s.e. = 0.08, P = 0.04) and openness (21%, s.e. = 0.08, P < 0.01), but not for extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The bivariate analyses showed that the variance explained by common variants entirely overlapped between neuroticism and openness (rG = 1.00, P < 0.001), despite low phenotypic correlation (r = - 0.09, P < 0.001), suggesting that the remaining unique heritability may be determined by rare or structural variants. As far as we are aware of, this is the first study estimating the shared and unique heritability of all Big Five personality traits using the GREML approach. Findings should be considered exploratory and suggest that detectable heritability estimates based on common variants is shared between neuroticism and openness to experiences.

  11. Heritability estimates of the Big Five personality traits based on common genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Power, R A; Pluess, M

    2015-01-01

    According to twin studies, the Big Five personality traits have substantial heritable components explaining 40–60% of the variance, but identification of associated genetic variants has remained elusive. Consequently, knowledge regarding the molecular genetic architecture of personality and to what extent it is shared across the different personality traits is limited. Using genomic-relatedness-matrix residual maximum likelihood analysis (GREML), we here estimated the heritability of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness for experience) in a sample of 5011 European adults from 527 469 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. We tested for the heritability of each personality trait, as well as for the genetic overlap between the personality factors. We found significant and substantial heritability estimates for neuroticism (15%, s.e.=0.08, P=0.04) and openness (21%, s.e.=0.08, P<0.01), but not for extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The bivariate analyses showed that the variance explained by common variants entirely overlapped between neuroticism and openness (rG=1.00, P <0.001), despite low phenotypic correlation (r=−0.09, P <0.001), suggesting that the remaining unique heritability may be determined by rare or structural variants. As far as we are aware of, this is the first study estimating the shared and unique heritability of all Big Five personality traits using the GREML approach. Findings should be considered exploratory and suggest that detectable heritability estimates based on common variants is shared between neuroticism and openness to experiences. PMID:26171985

  12. The role of active assortment in spousal similarity.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Beer, Andrew; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has established the existence of active assortment, that is, a preference for similarity in a potential mate. Few studies, however, have directly related mate preferences to dyadic similarity by examining them in the same participants. We collected both similarity and mate preference data in two studies: undergraduate students (N = 519) and newlyweds (N = 335). In both studies, women placed a higher value on desirable personality characteristics (e.g., higher Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, lower Neuroticism) than did men. Nevertheless, our data also provided strong evidence of consensual mate preferences: Men and women both desired partners who were agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, intelligent, and physically attractive; furthermore, participants desired partners who were better (e.g., more agreeable and attractive) than they were. In contrast, attitudinal variables such as religiousness and political orientation displayed much weaker consensus but showed significant dyadic similarity in both samples; similarity coefficients for personality tended to be positive, but lower. Finally, analyses revealed a direct link between actual and desired similarity: Couples displayed the strongest similarity on those variables for which participants expressed the strongest preference for similarity. Our findings strongly suggest that active assortment is partly responsible for dyadic similarity.

  13. Conscientiousness, the transtheoretical model of change, and exercise: a neo-socioanalytic integration of trait and social-cognitive frameworks in the prediction of behavior.

    PubMed

    Bogg, Tim

    2008-07-01

    Relationships between conscientiousness-related traits and transtheoretical model (TTM) of change constructs, exercise self-efficacy, and exercise behavior were examined in college and community samples (N=566). Measures of the conscientiousness-related traits of conventionality and industriousness were expected to show positive relations with measures of exercise behavior stage location, processes of exercise behavior change, endorsing the benefits of exercise behavior (i.e., decisional balance), exercise self-efficacy, and self-reported exercise behavior. In addition, based on Neo-Socioanalytic Theory (Roberts & Wood, 2006) an intervening role was predicted for TTM constructs and exercise self-efficacy in the relationship between conscientiousness-related traits and exercise behavior stage location. The results showed industriousness (being hardworking) to be the most robust conscientiousness-related predictor of stage location, processes of change, endorsing the benefits of exercise behavior, and exercise self-efficacy. Mediation analyses showed the relationship between industriousness and exercise behavior stage location to be fully accounted for by select processes of change and exercise self-efficacy scales. The results are discussed in terms of a useful integration of trait and social-cognitive approaches to exercise behavior, with an emphasis on the role of industriousness as an important individual difference factor therein.

  14. Investigating the relative importance of individual differences on the work-family interface and the moderating role of boundary preference for segmentation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jesse S; Clark, Malissa A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the relative importance of individual differences in relation to perceptions of work-family conflict and facilitation, as well as the moderating role of boundary preference for segmentation on these relationships. Relative importance analyses, based on a diverse sample of 380 employees from the USA, revealed that individual differences were consistently predictive of self-reported work-family conflict and facilitation. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, negative affect and core self-evaluations were consistently related to both directions of work-family conflict, whereas agreeableness predicted significant variance in family-to-work conflict only. Positive affect and core self-evaluations were consistently related to both directions of work-family facilitation, whereas agreeableness and neuroticism predicted significant variance in family-to-work facilitation only. Collectively, individual differences explained 25-28% of the variance in work-family conflict (primarily predicted by neuroticism and negative affect) and 11-18% of the variance in work-family facilitation (primarily predicted by positive affect and core self-evaluations). Moderated regression analyses showed that boundary preference for segmentation strengthened many of the relationships between individual differences and work-family conflict and facilitation. Implications for addressing the nature of work and family are discussed.

  15. Psychometric properties of the revised conscientiousness dimension of Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade (IDCP).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lucas de Francisco; Souza, Bruna Daniela Balbino de; Primi, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the revised scale of conscientiousness of a clinical personality inventory (Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade, IDCP). One hundred and twenty participants (68 women; 56.7%) aged 18 to 53 years (mean = 22.58, standard deviation = 6.19) were recruited by convenience and answered the IDCP and the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised. The analysis of internal structure, association with external variables and reliability of the dimension under review confirmed its validity. The psychometric characteristics of the revised dimension seem to be more adequate than those of the original version and more focused on pathological functioning, which was expected and desirable. PMID:27000545

  16. [Attitudes concerning military duty and personality structures. Clinical, psychometric and projective study of Jehovah wittnesses and conscientious objectors (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Jadot, F; Paquay, J; Timsit, M

    1979-01-01

    Refusal of military duty appearing to be a deviant social attitude, the authors have investigated the relationship between this behaviour and personality. They hypothesize that the rigid attitude of the Jehovah Wittness, refusing military duty and civil service, would be linked to paranoïd structure, and conscientious objectors to border-line states. A triple approach (clinical, Rorschach and aggressivity inventory of Buss and Durkee) was used; representative groups of these two populations were compared to control military recruits. Rorschach protocoles did not differentiate the Jehovah and control group, both being characterized by poor items and retraction. The authors interpret there data by possible absence of motivation in controls, or a rigid psychological organisation, which could be related habits in life and spirit of our societies. For the objectors, these are richer and more open. Five out of twelve appear to have a border-line organisation. PMID:543432

  17. Psychometric properties of the revised conscientiousness dimension of Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade (IDCP).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lucas de Francisco; Souza, Bruna Daniela Balbino de; Primi, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the revised scale of conscientiousness of a clinical personality inventory (Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade, IDCP). One hundred and twenty participants (68 women; 56.7%) aged 18 to 53 years (mean = 22.58, standard deviation = 6.19) were recruited by convenience and answered the IDCP and the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised. The analysis of internal structure, association with external variables and reliability of the dimension under review confirmed its validity. The psychometric characteristics of the revised dimension seem to be more adequate than those of the original version and more focused on pathological functioning, which was expected and desirable.

  18. The Mediating Role of Socio-Motivational Relationships in the Interplay of Perceived Stress, Neuroticism, and Test Anxiety among Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether socio-motivational relationships, such as student-student relationships (SSR) and teacher-student relationships (TSR), as well as peers as positive motivators (PPM) and teachers as positive motivators (TPM), would mediate the association of both perceived stress and neuroticism with test anxiety in 1,088 German…

  19. Examining the Role of Social Relationships in the Association between Neuroticism and Test Anxiety--Results from a Study with German Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the mediating role of student-student relationships (SSRs) and teacher-student relationships (TSRs) in the association between neuroticism and test anxiety. Gender differences in these associations were examined. A total of 513 adolescent girls and boys from secondary schools in Berlin, Germany completed…

  20. Childhood onset of migraine, gender, parental social class, and trait neuroticism as predictors of the prevalence of migraine in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke; Green, Andy; Chapman, Benjamin P; Κornilaki, Ekaterina N; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of socio-demographic and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood on the prevalence of migraine in adulthood using data from The National Child Development Studies (NCDS), a birth cohort in the UK. The analytical sample comprises 5799 participants with complete data. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher professional parental social class (OR=2.0: 1.05, 3.86, p<0.05), female sex (OR=2.24: 1.68-2.99, p<0.001), migraine in childhood diagnosed by physicians (OR=1.76: 1.23-2.50, p<0.01), and higher trait neuroticism (OR=1.17:1.26-1.06, p<0.01):<0 were all significantly associated with the prevalence of migraine in adulthood. Both socio-demographic and personality factors were significantly associated with the prevalence of migraine in adulthood. PMID:27521654

  1. Childhood onset of migraine, gender, parental social class, and trait neuroticism as predictors of the prevalence of migraine in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke; Green, Andy; Chapman, Benjamin P; Κornilaki, Ekaterina N; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of socio-demographic and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood on the prevalence of migraine in adulthood using data from The National Child Development Studies (NCDS), a birth cohort in the UK. The analytical sample comprises 5799 participants with complete data. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher professional parental social class (OR=2.0: 1.05, 3.86, p<0.05), female sex (OR=2.24: 1.68-2.99, p<0.001), migraine in childhood diagnosed by physicians (OR=1.76: 1.23-2.50, p<0.01), and higher trait neuroticism (OR=1.17:1.26-1.06, p<0.01):<0 were all significantly associated with the prevalence of migraine in adulthood. Both socio-demographic and personality factors were significantly associated with the prevalence of migraine in adulthood.

  2. Impact of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and neuroticism on trajectories of overgeneral autobiographical memory over repeated trials.

    PubMed

    Kashdan, Todd B; Roberts, John E; Carlos, Erica L

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined trajectories of change in the frequency of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) over the course of repeated trials, and tested whether particular dimensions of depressive symptomatology (somatic and cognitive-affective distress), self-esteem, and neuroticism account for individual differences in these trajectories. Given that depression is associated with impairments in effortful processing, we predicted that over repeated trials depression would be associated with increasingly OGM. Generalised Linear Mixed Models with Penalised Quasi-Likelihood demonstrated significant linear and quadratic trends in OGM over repeated trials, and somatic distress and self-esteem moderated these slopes. The form of these interactions suggested that somatic distress and low self-esteem primarily contribute to OGM during the second half of the trial sequence. The present findings demonstrate the value of a novel analytical approach to OGM that estimates individual trajectories of change over repeated trials.

  3. The influence of chronotype and intelligence on academic achievement in primary school is mediated by conscientiousness, midpoint of sleep and motivation.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement.

  4. A cross-setting study of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality structure and development: zoological parks and Yerkes National Primate Research Center.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Hopkins, William D

    2007-11-01

    This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings.

  5. Is Personality Associated with Health Care Use by Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Bruce; Veazie, Peter J; Chapman, Benjamin P; Manning, Willard G; Duberstein, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Context The patterns of health care utilization in the United States pose well-established challenges for public policy. Although economic and sociological research has resulted in considerable knowledge about what influences the use of health services, the psychological literature in this area is underdeveloped. Importantly, it is not known whether personality traits are associated with older adults’ use of acute and long-term care services. Methods Data were collected from 1,074 community-dwelling seniors participating in a Medicare demonstration. First they completed a self-report questionnaire measuring the “Big Five” personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. During the next two years, the participants maintained daily journals of their use of health care services. We used regression models based on the Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization to test for associations. Findings Our hypothesis that higher Neuroticism would be associated with greater health care use was confirmed for three services—probability of any emergency department (ED) use, likelihood of any custodial nursing home use, and more skilled nursing facility (SNF) days for SNF users—but was disconfirmed for hospital days for those hospitalized. Higher Openness to Experience was associated with a greater likelihood of custodial home care use, and higher Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness with a higher probability of custodial nursing home use. For users, lower Openness was associated with more ED visits and SNF days, and lower Conscientiousness with more ED visits. For many traits with significant associations, the predicted use was 16 to 30 percent greater for people high (low) versus low (high) in specific traits. Conclusions Personality traits are associated with Medicare beneficiaries’ use of many expensive health care services, findings that have implications for health services research and

  6. A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach

    PubMed Central

    Feizi, Awat; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Nouri, Fatemeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity) of anxiety (continuous) and Psychological stress (dichotomous) as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 participants who attended in the cross-sectional population-based “study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition” and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic and life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, perceived intensity of stress, social support, and psychological outcome was analyzed using shared random effect approach in R Free software. Results: The results indicated high scores of neuroticism increase the chance of high psychological stress (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1; P < 0.001) and anxiety score (B = 1.73; P < 0.001) after adjustment for the probable confounders. In contrast, those who had higher scores of extraversion and conscientiousness experienced lower levels of anxiety score (B = −0.54 and −0.23, respectively, P < 0.001) and psychological stress (OR = 0.36 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.001). Furthermore, higher score of agreeableness had significant negative relationship with anxiety (B = −0.32, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study indicated that the scores of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness strongly predict both anxiety and psychological stress in Iranian adult population. Due to likely mechanism of genetic and environmental factors on the relationships between personality traits and psychological disorders, it is suggested to perform longitudinal studies focusing on both genetic and environmental factors in Iranian population. PMID:25535497

  7. Cannabis-Dependence Risk Relates to Synergism between Neuroticism and Proenkephalin SNPs Associated with Amygdala Gene Expression: Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Jacobs, Michelle M.; Yiannoulos, Georgia; Roussos, Panos; Bitsios, Panos; Nomura, Yoko; Liu, Xun; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many young people experiment with cannabis, yet only a subgroup progress to dependence suggesting individual differences that could relate to factors such as genetics and behavioral traits. Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and proenkephalin (PENK) genes have been implicated in animal studies with cannabis exposure. Whether polymorphisms of these genes are associated with cannabis dependence and related behavioral traits is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Healthy young adults (18–27 years) with cannabis dependence and without a dependence diagnosis were studied (N = 50/group) in relation to a priori-determined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DRD2 and PENK genes. Negative affect, Impulsive Risk Taking and Neuroticism-Anxiety temperamental traits, positive and negative reward-learning performance and stop-signal reaction times were examined. The findings replicated the known association between the rs6277 DRD2 SNP and decisions associated with negative reinforcement outcomes. Moreover, PENK variants (rs2576573 and rs2609997) significantly related to Neuroticism and cannabis dependence. Cigarette smoking is common in cannabis users, but it was not associated to PENK SNPs as also validated in another cohort (N = 247 smokers, N = 312 non-smokers). Neuroticism mediated (15.3%–19.5%) the genetic risk to cannabis dependence and interacted with risk SNPs, resulting in a 9-fold increase risk for cannabis dependence. Molecular characterization of the postmortem human brain in a different population revealed an association between PENK SNPs and PENK mRNA expression in the central amygdala nucleus emphasizing the functional relevance of the SNPs in a brain region strongly linked to negative affect. Conclusions/Significance Overall, the findings suggest an important role for Neuroticism as an endophenotype linking PENK polymorphisms to cannabis-dependence vulnerability synergistically amplifying the apparent genetic risk. PMID:22745721

  8. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension. PMID:20573134

  9. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension.

  10. Personality traits measured by the Swedish universities Scales of Personality: factor structure and position within the five-factor model in an Estonian sample.

    PubMed

    Aluoja, Anu; Voogne, Helina; Maron, Eduard; Gustavsson, J Petter; Võhma, Ulle; Shlik, Jakov

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Estonian version of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), and to characterize the position of the SSP-measured traits within the basic personality dimensions of the five-factor model. A total of 529 participants completed the Estonian version of the SSP. A subsample of 197 persons completed the SSP together with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The internal consistency of the SSP scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis yielded three factors representing neuroticism, aggression and disinhibition. The factor solution obtained in the Estonian sample was similar to the original SSP study in the Swedish normative sample. NEO-PI-R Neuroticism had highest correlations with SSP neuroticism factor scales. Extraversion had strongest relationship with adventure seeking and low detachment. Agreeableness correlated positively with SSP social desirability and negatively to aggression-irritability scales. Conscientiousness facet Deliberation correlated with Impulsiveness. The Estonian SSP showed acceptable reliability and validity, which confirms that SSP is applicable in different social and cultural background. The SSP measures traits that correspond to the major personality models. The SSP characterizes three broad dimensions of personality, namely neuroticism, disinhibition and aggression, which are useful in assessment of personality correlates of mental disorders.

  11. The role of instrumental emotion regulation in the emotions-creativity link: how worries render individuals with high neuroticism more creative.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela K-Y; Liou, Shyhnan; Qiu, Lin; Kwan, Letty Y-Y; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Yong, Jose C

    2014-10-01

    Based on the instrumental account of emotion regulation (Tamir, 2005), the current research seeks to offer a novel perspective to the emotions-creativity debate by investigating the instrumental value of trait-consistent emotions in creativity. We hypothesize that emotions such as worry (vs. happy) are trait-consistent experiences for individuals higher on trait neuroticism and experiencing these emotions can facilitate performance in a creativity task. In 3 studies, we found support for our hypothesis. First, individuals higher in neuroticism had a greater preference for recalling worrisome (vs. happy) events in anticipation of performing a creativity task (Study 1). Moreover, when induced to recall a worrisome (vs. happy) event, individuals higher in neuroticism came up with more creative design (Study 2) and more flexible uses of a brick (Study 3) when the task was a cognitively demanding one. Further, Study 3 offers preliminary support that increased intrinsic task enjoyment and motivation mediates the relationship between trait-consistent emotion regulation and creative performance. These findings offer a new perspective to the controversy concerning the emotions-creativity relationship and further demonstrate the role of instrumental emotion regulation in the domain of creative performance.

  12. The role of instrumental emotion regulation in the emotions-creativity link: how worries render individuals with high neuroticism more creative.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela K-Y; Liou, Shyhnan; Qiu, Lin; Kwan, Letty Y-Y; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Yong, Jose C

    2014-10-01

    Based on the instrumental account of emotion regulation (Tamir, 2005), the current research seeks to offer a novel perspective to the emotions-creativity debate by investigating the instrumental value of trait-consistent emotions in creativity. We hypothesize that emotions such as worry (vs. happy) are trait-consistent experiences for individuals higher on trait neuroticism and experiencing these emotions can facilitate performance in a creativity task. In 3 studies, we found support for our hypothesis. First, individuals higher in neuroticism had a greater preference for recalling worrisome (vs. happy) events in anticipation of performing a creativity task (Study 1). Moreover, when induced to recall a worrisome (vs. happy) event, individuals higher in neuroticism came up with more creative design (Study 2) and more flexible uses of a brick (Study 3) when the task was a cognitively demanding one. Further, Study 3 offers preliminary support that increased intrinsic task enjoyment and motivation mediates the relationship between trait-consistent emotion regulation and creative performance. These findings offer a new perspective to the controversy concerning the emotions-creativity relationship and further demonstrate the role of instrumental emotion regulation in the domain of creative performance. PMID:24866525

  13. Medical students' preferences for problem-based learning in relation to culture and personality: a multicultural study

    PubMed Central

    Manandhar, Kedar; Pant, Devendra S.; Karmacharya, Biraj M.; Olson, Linda M.; Koju, Rajendra; Mansur, Dil I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore positive and negative preferences towards problem-based learning in relation to personality traits and socio-cultural context. Methods The study was an anonymous and voluntary cross-sectional survey of medical students (N=449) in hybrid problem-based curricula in Nepal, Norway and North Dakota. Data was collected on gender, age, year of study, cohabitation and medical school. The PBL Preference Inventory identified students' positive and negative preferences in relation to problem-based learning; the personality traits were detected by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The determinants of the two kinds of preferences were analyzed by hierarchical multiple linear regressions. Results Positive preferences were mostly determined by personality; associations were found with the traits Extraversion, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism; the first three are related to sociability, curiosity and orderliness, the last, to mental health. The learning environments of such curricula may be supportive for some and unnerving for others who score high on Neuroticism. Negative preferences were rather determined by culture, but also, they correlated with Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Negative preferences were lower among females and students living in symmetrical relationships. Some high on Conscientiousness disliked group work, and the negative correlation with Agreeableness indicated that less sociable students were not predisposed to this kind of learning activity. Conclusions Preferences related to problem-based learning were significantly and independently determined both by personality traits and culture. More insights into the nature of students' preferences may guide aspects of curriculum modifications and the daily facilitation of groups. PMID:26188962

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for personality.

    PubMed

    de Moor, M H M; Costa, P T; Terracciano, A; Krueger, R F; de Geus, E J C; Toshiko, T; Penninx, B W J H; Esko, T; Madden, P A F; Derringer, J; Amin, N; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Distel, M A; Uda, M; Sanna, S; Spinhoven, P; Hartman, C A; Sullivan, P; Realo, A; Allik, J; Heath, A C; Pergadia, M L; Agrawal, A; Lin, P; Grucza, R; Nutile, T; Ciullo, M; Rujescu, D; Giegling, I; Konte, B; Widen, E; Cousminer, D L; Eriksson, J G; Palotie, A; Peltonen, L; Luciano, M; Tenesa, A; Davies, G; Lopez, L M; Hansell, N K; Medland, S E; Ferrucci, L; Schlessinger, D; Montgomery, G W; Wright, M J; Aulchenko, Y S; Janssens, A C J W; Oostra, B A; Metspalu, A; Abecasis, G R; Deary, I J; Räikkönen, K; Bierut, L J; Martin, N G; van Duijn, C M; Boomsma, D I

    2012-03-01

    Personality can be thought of as a set of characteristics that influence people's thoughts, feelings and behavior across a variety of settings. Variation in personality is predictive of many outcomes in life, including mental health. Here we report on a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data for personality in 10 discovery samples (17,375 adults) and five in silico replication samples (3294 adults). All participants were of European ancestry. Personality scores for Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were based on the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Genotype data of ≈ 2.4M single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; directly typed and imputed using HapMap data) were available. In the discovery samples, classical association analyses were performed under an additive model followed by meta-analysis using the weighted inverse variance method. Results showed genome-wide significance for Openness to Experience near the RASA1 gene on 5q14.3 (rs1477268 and rs2032794, P=2.8 × 10(-8) and 3.1 × 10(-8)) and for Conscientiousness in the brain-expressed KATNAL2 gene on 18q21.1 (rs2576037, P=4.9 × 10(-8)). We further conducted a gene-based test that confirmed the association of KATNAL2 to Conscientiousness. In silico replication did not, however, show significant associations of the top SNPs with Openness and Conscientiousness, although the direction of effect of the KATNAL2 SNP on Conscientiousness was consistent in all replication samples. Larger scale GWA studies and alternative approaches are required for confirmation of KATNAL2 as a novel gene affecting Conscientiousness.

  15. Five-factor model personality traits and inflammatory markers: new data and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Barkley, James M; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the association between five major dimensions of personality and systemic inflammation through (a) new data on C-reactive protein (CRP) from three large national samples of adults that together cover most of the adult lifespan and (b) a meta-analysis of published studies on CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6). New data (total N=26,305) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the Midlife in the United States study, and the Health and Retirement Study. PRISMA guidelines were used for the meta-analysis to combine results of up to seven studies on CRP (N=34,067) and six on IL-6 (N=7538). Across the three new samples, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower CRP. The conscientiousness-CRP relation was virtually identical controlling for smoking; controlling for body mass index attenuated this association but did not eliminate it. Compared to participants in the highest quartile of conscientiousness, participants in the lowest quartile had an up to 50% increased risk of CRP levels that exceeded the clinical threshold (≥3 mg/l). The meta-analysis supported the association between conscientiousness and both CRP and IL-6 and also suggested a negative association between openness and CRP; no associations were found for neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. The present work indicates a modest, but consistent, association between conscientiousness and a more favorable inflammatory profile, which may contribute to the role of conscientiousness in better health across the lifespan. PMID:25233337

  16. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be

  17. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  18. People in high latitudes: the "Big Five" personality characteristics of the circumpolar sojourner.

    PubMed

    Steel, G D; Suedfeld, P; Peri, A; Palinkas, L A

    1997-05-01

    The personality of the polar sojourner has been of interest to psychologists for a number of years. Using the NEO Five Factor Inventory, this study examined the general personality factors of the polar worker compared to a normative population, and how these factors differ according to the worker's occupational classification and the polar region in which he or she is working. It was found that polar workers scored higher than a normative group on all factors except Neuroticism. Comparisons across occupational groups showed that scientists were lower than military personnel on Extraversion and lower than technical/support staff on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The analysis by polar region indicated that Antarctic workers were higher than Arctic personnel on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. A group of Italian Antarctic personnel, completing a translated form of the NEO-FFI, scored lower than the rest of the polar groups on all factors. These findings are discussed in light of various features of the polar environment and Gunderson's 3-predictor model of polar adaptability.

  19. Personality Traits and Successful Aging: Findings From the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Yousun; Martin, Peter; Siegler, Ilene C; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W

    2016-09-01

    The current study attempted to describe how personality traits of older adults are associated with components of successful aging (cognition, volunteering, activities of daily living, and subjective health). Three-hundred and six octogenarians and centenarians who participated in the third phase of the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the existence of two higher-order factors of the Big Five personality traits, and a two-factor model (alpha and beta) fit the data well. Also, blocked multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between personality traits and four components of successful aging. Results indicated that low scores on neuroticism and high scores on extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are significantly related to the components of successful aging. After controlling for demographic variables (age, gender, residential type, and race/ethnicity), alpha (i.e., emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) was associated with higher levels of cognition, higher likelihood of engaging in volunteer work, higher levels of activities of daily living, and higher levels of subjective health. Beta (i.e., extraversion and openness to experience) was also positively associated with cognition and engaging in volunteer work. PMID:27298487

  20. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  1. Association between Organizational Commitment and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Dashti, Rezvan; Mokhtari, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individual characteristics are important factors influencing organizational commitment. Also, committed human resources can lead organizations to performance improvement as well as personal and organizational achievements. This research aimed to determine the association between organizational commitment and personality traits among faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Methods the research population of this cross-sectional study was the faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Ahvaz, Iran). The sample size was determined to be 83. Data collection instruments were the Allen and Meyer questionnaire for organizational commitment and Neo for characteristics’ features. The data were analyzed through Pearson’s product-moment correlation and the independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and simple linear regression analysis (SLR) by SPSS. Results Continuance commitment showed a significant positive association with neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Normative commitment showed a significant positive association with conscientiousness and a negative association with extroversion (p = 0.001). Openness had a positive association with affective commitment. Openness and agreeableness, among the five characteristics’ features, had the most effect on organizational commitment, as indicated by simple linear regression analysis. Conclusion Faculty members’ characteristics showed a significant association with their organizational commitment. Determining appropriate characteristic criteria for faculty members may lead to employing committed personnel to accomplish the University’s objectives and tasks. PMID:27123222

  2. Personality profiles associated with different motivations for playing World of Warcraft.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lindsay T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-03-01

    Gamers play massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) for a variety of reasons. For example, some gamers play primarily as a form of socialization, whereas others play to gain a sense of achievement. Past studies have shown that these motives are associated with individual differences such as gender and number of years spent playing online games. What other individual differences might affect why people play MMORPGs? Personality is known to be associated with in-game behaviors, raising the possibility of link between personality and gaming motives. The present study examines the relationship between gamers' Big Five personality traits and their motivations for playing World of Warcraft. Results reveal several links between a player's personality and gaming motivations. For instance, individuals playing to socialize tend to be high on extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness, whereas individuals playing to gain a sense of achievement tend to be high on extraversion and neuroticism, but low on agreeableness and conscientiousness. Findings are discussed with respect to previous research on links between personality and motives in other MMORPGs and in terms of how and why the connections between personality and motives may differ across online and offline contexts.

  3. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    PubMed

    Merino, Hipólito; Senra, Carmen; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  4. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Hipólito; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms. PMID:27243462

  5. The impact of high neuroticism in parents on children's psychosocial functioning in a population at high risk for major affective disorder: a family-environmental pathway of intergenerational risk.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral genetic studies indicate that nongenetic factors play a role in the development of bipolar and major depressive disorders. The trait of neuroticism is common among individuals with major affective disorders. We hypothesized that high neuroticism among parents affects the family environment and parenting practices and thereby increases the risk of psychosocial problems among offspring. This hypothesis is tested in a sample of participants at high and low risk for major affective disorders, which contained parents with bipolar disorder (55), major depression (21), or no mental disorder (148) and their 146 children between 4 and 14 years of age. Parents with high neuroticism scores were characterized by low psychosocial functioning, poor parenting, more dependent stressful life events, and the use of more emotion-focused and less task-oriented coping skills. High neuroticism in parents was associated with internalizing and externalizing problems among the children, as assessed by parent and teacher ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and clinician ratings. The results suggest that high neuroticism in parents with major affective disorders is associated with inadequate parenting practices and the creation of a stressful family environment, which are subsequently related to psychosocial problems among the offspring. PMID:15115067

  6. Tenure: A Conscientious Objection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, James

    1978-01-01

    A faculty member at the University of Southern California explains why he has renounced tenure: it is inimical to academic freedom, discourages radical innovation and risk-taking, limits the mobility of professors, and may work to the ultimate advantage of administrators in bargaining with professors. (LBH)

  7. When is meaning making unhealthy for the self? The roles of neuroticism, implicit theories, and memory telling in trauma and transgression memories.

    PubMed

    Lilgendahl, Jennifer Pals; McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how three factors-neuroticism, implicit theories of personality, and memory telling-relate to patterns of healthy and unhealthy meaning making in two kinds of negative memories: traumas and transgressions. Healthy meaning making was defined as self-growth, whereas unhealthy meaning making was defined as viewing the self as damaged in traumas (damaged self) and as a bad person in transgressions (bad self). A total of 85 adult participants completed survey measures of personality and memory telling (retrospective reports of extent to which memory was shared with others) and wrote a narrative of a trauma and a transgression which were coded for specific forms of meaning making. Results revealed distinct patterns of associations for trauma and transgression memories. The combination of low neuroticism and an incremental theory (belief that personality can change) predicted self-growth in traumas, whereas memory telling was predictive of self-growth in transgressions, especially among incremental theorists. For unhealthy forms of meaning making, an entity theory (belief that personality is fixed) was associated with the bad self in transgressions, and viewing the self as damaged by traumas was more common among younger adults than older adults.

  8. When is meaning making unhealthy for the self? The roles of neuroticism, implicit theories, and memory telling in trauma and transgression memories.

    PubMed

    Lilgendahl, Jennifer Pals; McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how three factors-neuroticism, implicit theories of personality, and memory telling-relate to patterns of healthy and unhealthy meaning making in two kinds of negative memories: traumas and transgressions. Healthy meaning making was defined as self-growth, whereas unhealthy meaning making was defined as viewing the self as damaged in traumas (damaged self) and as a bad person in transgressions (bad self). A total of 85 adult participants completed survey measures of personality and memory telling (retrospective reports of extent to which memory was shared with others) and wrote a narrative of a trauma and a transgression which were coded for specific forms of meaning making. Results revealed distinct patterns of associations for trauma and transgression memories. The combination of low neuroticism and an incremental theory (belief that personality can change) predicted self-growth in traumas, whereas memory telling was predictive of self-growth in transgressions, especially among incremental theorists. For unhealthy forms of meaning making, an entity theory (belief that personality is fixed) was associated with the bad self in transgressions, and viewing the self as damaged by traumas was more common among younger adults than older adults. PMID:22891898

  9. Dirty habits? Online pornography use, personality, obsessionality, and compulsivity.

    PubMed

    Egan, Vincent; Parmar, Reena

    2013-01-01

    Internet pornography use can be compulsive, but evaluation of pathology underlying this is difficult to assess. The present study aimed to distinguish individual differences in personality and psychopathology that predict pornography consumption in an individual, and whether this reflected more general compulsive processes, assessing 226 male participants. Neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and obsessional checking all significantly correlated with a latent measure of compulsive behavior upon which use of Internet pornography use also loaded. The authors suggest the greater use of pornography on the Internet may reflect a general vulnerability to compulsive problems related to basic disposition, and that problems associated with this behavior can be managed with generic clinical approaches to obsessional and compulsive disorders. PMID:23577795

  10. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  11. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  12. Elucidating the relationship between noise sensitivity and personality

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Hautus, Michael J.; Heikkilä, Kauko

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to unwanted sounds is common in general and clinical populations. Noise sensitivity refers to physiological and psychological internal states of an individual that increase the degree of reactivity to noise in general. The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and noise sensitivity using the 240-item NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and 35-item The Noise-Sensitivity-Questionnaire (NoiSeQ) scales, respectively. Overall, the Big Five accounted for 33% of the variance in noise sensitivity, with the Introversion-Extroversion dimension explaining the most variability. Furthermore, the Big Five personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) had an independent effect on noise sensitivity, which were linear. However, additional analyses indicated that the influence of gender and age must be considered when examining the relationship between personality and noise sensitivity. The findings caution against pooling data across genders, not controlling for age, and using personality dimensions in isolation. PMID:25913556

  13. Social curiosity and interpersonal perception: a judge x trait interaction.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the impact of social curiosity on the utilization of social information and the accuracy of personality judgments. In total, 182 individuals who never met each other before were asked to interact for 10 minutes and afterwards to evaluate the personality (Big Five) of their interaction partner. High socially curious judges were more accurate in evaluating the degree of Extraversion and Openness of their interaction partners. Interestingly, high and low curious judges differed significantly in the utilization of verbal and nonverbal cues displayed by their interaction partner. Specifically, high socially curious judges more often used valid cues for inferring Extraversion and Openness. No differences in interpersonal accuracy and cue utilization were found for Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. The results suggest that high socially curious individuals are more accurate in judging visible traits and that this higher accuracy is grounded in a more comprehensive utilization of valid cues.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of the proactive personality scale.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of the Proactive Personality Scale. Four samples were surveyed. In Sample 1 and Sample 2, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis results confirmed the unidimensional structure of the 10-item abbreviated version of the scale. In Sample 2, Proactive Personality scores were found to be positively correlated with the personality factors of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness, and negatively correlated with Neuroticism. In Sample 3, Proactive Personality was found to be positively related to self-efficacy and political skill. In Sample 4, demographics controlled, Proactive Personality explained significant incremental variance in the employees' self-rated career satisfaction and job performance as rated by immediate supervisors. PMID:19810432

  15. Student-teacher relationship quality and academic adjustment in upper elementary school: the role of student personality.

    PubMed

    Zee, Marjolein; Koomen, Helma M Y; Van der Veen, Ineke

    2013-08-01

    This study tested a theoretical model considering students' personality traits as predictors of student-teacher relationship quality (closeness, conflict, and dependency), the effects of student-teacher relationship quality on students' math and reading achievement, and the mediating role of students' motivational beliefs on the association between student-teacher relationship quality and achievement in upper elementary school. Surveys and tests were conducted among a nationally representative Dutch sample of 8545 sixth-grade students and their teachers in 395 schools. Structural equation models were used to test direct and indirect effects. Support was found for a model that identified conscientiousness and agreeableness as predictors of close, nonconflictual relationships, and neuroticism as a predictor of dependent and conflictual relationships. Extraversion was associated with higher levels of closeness and conflict, and autonomy was only associated with lower levels of dependency. Students' motivational beliefs mediated the effects of dependency and student-reported closeness on reading and math achievement. PMID:23870445

  16. Personality and personal projects: linking big five and PAC units of analysis.

    PubMed

    Little, B R; Lecci, L; Watkinson, B

    1992-06-01

    This article examines the relationships between classical trait units as represented by the five-factor model (e.g., Digman, 1990) and personal action construct (PAC) units as measured by Personal Projects Analysis (Little, 1983). One hundred and forty-seven students were administered the NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1985) and two components of Personal Projects methodology during their first term in university. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were related to problematic and positive project systems, respectively, with these effects generalizing across the academic and interpersonal project domains. Extraversion and Agreeableness were also associated with positive evaluations of personal projects, particularly in the interpersonal domain. Openness was distinctively linked with project initiation and value congruency. We suggest theoretical and applied implications of using PAC methods to expand and refine the classical trait research agenda.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Personality Questionnaire for the Greek population.

    PubMed

    Ypofanti, Maria; Zisi, Vasiliki; Zourbanos, Nikolaos; Mouchtouri, Barbara; Tzanne, Pothiti; Theodorakis, Yannis; Lyrakos, Georgios

    2015-09-30

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811), in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193) also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form). Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01). Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01). The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88) and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires. PMID:26973962

  18. Similar associations between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders in a population study of Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and native Dutch subjects.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Agnes C; de Wit, Matty A S; Krol, Anneke; Fassaert, Thijs J L; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Kupka, Ralph W; Dekker, Jack; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that personality traits are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in Western populations, but it is not known whether this is true also for people from non-Western cultures. In this study, we examined whether ethnicity moderates the association between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders or symptoms. In a random urban population sample, stratified by ethnicity, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we interviewed 309 native Dutch subjects, 203 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 170 Moroccan-Dutch subjects. Dimensions of personality were measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Anxiety and depressive disorders and symptom levels were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The association between personality factors and disorders or symptoms of anxiety and depression was very similar in the three ethnic groups: all show the typical profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

  19. Associations Between Changes in Normal Personality Traits and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms over 16 years

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant movement toward conceptualizing borderline personality disorder (BPD) with normal personality traits. However one critical assumption underlying this transition, that longitudinal trajectories of BPD symptoms and normal traits track together, has not been tested. We evaluated the prospective longitudinal associations of changes in five-factor model traits and BPD symptoms over the course of 16 years using parallel process latent growth curve models in 362 patients with BPD (N=290) or other PDs (N=72). Moderate to strong cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were observed between BPD symptoms and Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. This study is the first to demonstrate a longitudinal link between changes in BPD symptoms and changes in traits over an extended interval in a clinical sample. These findings imply that changes in BPD symptoms occur in concert with changes in normal traits, and support the proposed transition to conceptualizing BPD, at least in part, with trait dimensions. PMID:25364942

  20. Big Five personality traits: are they really important for the subjective well-being of Indians?

    PubMed

    Tanksale, Deepa

    2015-02-01

    This study empirically examined the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (SWB) in India. SWB variables used were life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect. A total of 183 participants in the age range 30-40 years from Pune, India, completed the personality and SWB measures. Backward stepwise regression analysis showed that the Big Five traits accounted for 17% of the variance in life satisfaction, 35% variance in positive affect and 28% variance in negative affect. Conscientiousness emerged as the strongest predictor of life satisfaction. In line with the earlier research findings, neuroticism and extraversion were found to predict negative affect and positive affect, respectively. Neither openness to experience nor agreeableness contributed to SWB. The research emphasises the need to revisit the association between personality and SWB across different cultures, especially non-western cultures.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Personality Questionnaire for the Greek population.

    PubMed

    Ypofanti, Maria; Zisi, Vasiliki; Zourbanos, Nikolaos; Mouchtouri, Barbara; Tzanne, Pothiti; Theodorakis, Yannis; Lyrakos, Georgios

    2015-09-30

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811), in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193) also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form). Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01). Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01). The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88) and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires.

  2. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  3. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  4. Personality and emotional intelligence in teacher burnout.

    PubMed

    Pishghadam, Reza; Sahebjam, Samaneh

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between teacher's personality types, emotional intelligence and burnout and to predict the burnout levels of 147 teachers in the city of Mashhad (Iran). To this end, we have used three inventories: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). We used Homogeneity Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression to analyze the data. The results exhibited a significant relationship between personality types and emotional intelligence and the three dimensions of burnout. It was indicated that the best predictors for emotional exhaustion were neuroticism and extroversion, for depersonalization were intrapersonal scale of emotional intelligence and agreeableness, and for personal accomplishment were interpersonal scale and conscientiousness. Finally, the results were discussed in the context of teacher burnout.

  5. Unmasking Cleckley's psychopath: assessing historical case studies.

    PubMed

    DeShong, Hilary L; Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated original case descriptions of psychopathy (Cleckley, 1941) in relation to current conceptualizations and general personality traits. Attorneys, forensic psychologists and clinical faculty members completed ratings of psychopathy and personality after reading vignettes based on Cleckley's descriptions of a psychopath. The results suggest that professionals' ratings are consistent with current conceptualizations of psychopathy. Furthermore, the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits of the vignettes aligned with the current literature on the FFM and psychopathy (i.e. low neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness). The results further supported that a general trait model, like the FFM, may be well suited to describe the underlying personality traits of psychopathy. Gender differences were also examined. PMID:26931520

  6. Personality disorder and dimension differences between type A and type B substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Ball, S A; Kranzler, H R; Tennen, H; Poling, J C; Rounsaville, B J

    1998-01-01

    Substance abuse subtype differences in DSM-IV personality disorders and normal personality dimensions were evaluated in 370 inpatient and outpatient alcohol, cocaine, and opiate abusers. The Type A/Type B distinction was replicated, with Type B substance abusers exhibiting more premorbid risk factors, more severe substance abuse, and greater psychosocial impairment. As predicted, compared to Type A, Type B were more commonly diagnosed with, and had more severe symptoms of, all personality disorders except Schizoid. With regard to normal personality dimensions, Type B scored higher on neuroticism, novelty seeking, and harm avoidance; Type A scored higher on agreeableness, conscientiousness, cooperativeness, and self-directedness. These subtype differences remained after controlling for the effects of antisocial personality and psychiatric symptoms.

  7. [Relationship between two models of personality in old individuals].

    PubMed

    Calvet, Benjamin; Bricaud, Magali; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2014-12-01

    The relationships between the seven dimensions of the Cloninger psychobiological model and the five factors of the Costa and McCrae model were examined in 54 elderly subjects from the French general population. The dimensions of temperament (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence) and character (determination, cooperation, transcendence) from the Cloninger's model were measured by the temperament and character inventory whereas the five factors of Costa and McCrae model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) were evaluated using the NEO PI-R. Multiple regression analyses show that some dimensions of the temperament and character inventory predict some dimensions of the Big five and vice versa. Therefore we suggest that the Big five model could be related to brain monoaminergic activities.

  8. Psychometric Properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Personality Questionnaire for the Greek population

    PubMed Central

    Ypofanti, Maria; Zisi, Vasiliki; Zourbanos, Nikolaos; Mouchtouri, Barbara; Tzanne, Pothiti; Theodorakis, Yannis; Lyrakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Goldberg’s International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811), in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193) also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form). Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01). Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01). The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88) and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires. PMID:26973962

  9. Elucidating the relationship between noise sensitivity and personality.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Hautus, Michael J; Heikkilä, Kauko

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to unwanted sounds is common in general and clinical populations. Noise sensitivity refers to physiological and psychological internal states of an individual that increase the degree of reactivity to noise in general. The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and noise sensitivity using the 240-item NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and 35-item The Noise-Sensitivity-Questionnaire (NoiSeQ) scales, respectively. Overall, the Big Five accounted for 33% of the variance in noise sensitivity, with the Introversion-Extroversion dimension explaining the most variability. Furthermore, the Big Five personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) had an independent effect on noise sensitivity, which were linear. However, additional analyses indicated that the influence of gender and age must be considered when examining the relationship between personality and noise sensitivity. The findings caution against pooling data across genders, not controlling for age, and using personality dimensions in isolation.

  10. Maternal personality, parenting cognitions, and parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O Maurice

    2011-05-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the 5-factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the 5 personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process.

  11. Problematic Mobile Phone Use and Big-Five Personality Domains

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Motoharu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although a mobile phone is useful and attractive as a tool for communication and interpersonal interaction, there exists the risk of its problematic or addictive use. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the correlation between the big-five personality domains and problematic mobile phone use. Materials and Methods: The Mobile Phone Problem Usage Scale and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) were employed in this study. Survey data were gathered from 504 university students for multiple regression analysis. Results: Problematic mobile phone use is a function of gender, extraversion, neuroticism, openness-to-experience; however, it is not a function of agreeableness or conscientiousness. Conclusions: The measurement of these predictors would enable the screening of and intervening in the potentially problematic behaviors of mobile phone users. PMID:24963228

  12. Personality Profiles and Frequent Heavy Drinking in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Zhang, Minqiang; Lanza, Stephanie T.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examining the link between personality and alcohol use have adopted a comprehensive modeling framework to take into account individuals’ profiles across multiple personality traits. In this study, latent profile analysis (LPA) was applied to a national sample of young adults in the United States to identify subgroups defined by their profiles of mean scores on the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness personality factors. Personality profiles were then used to predict heavy drinking. Five profiles were identified: Reserved, Rigid, Confident, Ordinary, and Resilient. Compared to individuals in the Ordinary profile, those with Reserved and Resilient profiles were at increased risk of frequent heavy drinking. These findings suggest which comprehensive personality profiles may place individuals at risk for problematic alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25892836

  13. Personality Stability from Childhood to Midlife: Relating Teachers’ Assessments in Elementary School to Observer- and Self-Ratings 40 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Grant W.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Barckley, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    We report on the longitudinal stability of personality traits across an average 40 years in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort relating childhood teacher assessments of personality to adult self- and observer- reports. Stabilities based on self-ratings in adulthood were compared to those measured by the Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997), and trait ratings completed by interviewers. Although convergence between self-reports and observer-ratings was modest, childhood traits demonstrated similar levels of stability across methods in adulthood. Extraversion and Conscientiousness generally showed higher stabilities, whereas Neuroticism showed none. For Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness, stability was highest when assessed with observer-ratings. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in trait evaluativeness and observability across measurement methods. PMID:24039315

  14. Composition and consistency of the desired affective state: The role of personality and motivation

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Adam A; Hemenover, Scott H.; Larsen, Randy J.; Shulman, Tirza E.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal and experience sampling designs, the consistency and composition, and personality and motivational predictors, of the desired affective state are explored. Findings indicate that, while the desired affect is relatively malleable throughout one semester, it is relatively stable throughout 1 week. Personality and motivations/goals were related to the content of the desired affective state. Extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to the content of the desired affective state. In addition, higher-order goals predicted the content of the desired affective state. Our results suggest that the content of the desired affective state may be largely dependent on personality, motivation, and, potentially, an interaction between personality and motivation. PMID:21625402

  15. Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Yanna J.; DeYoung, Colin G.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates gender differences in personality traits, both at the level of the Big Five and at the sublevel of two aspects within each Big Five domain. Replicating previous findings, women reported higher Big Five Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism scores than men. However, more extensive gender differences were found at the level of the aspects, with significant gender differences appearing in both aspects of every Big Five trait. For Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, the gender differences were found to diverge at the aspect level, rendering them either small or undetectable at the Big Five level. These findings clarify the nature of gender differences in personality and highlight the utility of measuring personality at the aspect level. PMID:21866227

  16. A cross-cultural study of relationships between daily social interaction and the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Schütz, Astrid; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Smith, C Veronica

    2011-08-01

    Two studies, one in the United States (N = 130) and another in Germany (N = 100), examined relationships between daily social interaction and the traits of the Five-Factor Model. In both studies, student participants described their social interactions for 2 weeks using the Rochester Interaction Record. In both countries, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively related to reactions to social interaction, whereas Neuroticism was unrelated to reactions to interactions. In the United States, Extraversion and Openness were positively related to reactions to interactions, whereas these factors were not related to reactions to interactions in Germany. In the United States, Extraversion was positively related to how socially active participants were, whereas none of the FFM traits was related to amount of social interaction in the German sample. In both countries, Extraversion was positively related to percent of interactions involving friends. The results highlight the importance of taking into account the sociocultural milieus within which personality unfolds.

  17. Relationships between personality traits, seminal parameters and hormones in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Conrad, R; Schilling, G; Haidl, G; Geiser, F; Imbierowicz, K; Liedtke, R

    2002-10-01

    In this study we investigated the relationship between personality attitudes, psychopathological symptoms and biological parameters in male infertility. Eighty-four infertile men underwent a psychological and medical examination at our clinic. The psychological tests comprised the Symptom Checklist 90-R, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Seminal parameters, gonadotrophins, sex steroids, cortisol and prolactin were analyzed to obtain biological data. Compared with questionnaires completed by normal populations those in the study group scored higher on the scales for 'conscientiousness', 'agreeableness', 'alexithymia' and 'somatization' and lower on the scale for 'neuroticism'. Regarding psychobiological correlations we found a negative correlation between seminal parameters and 'extraversion', 'anxiety' and 'psychoticism'. 'Alexithymia' was negatively correlated with stress hormones and 'conscientiousness' was correlated with sex steroids. The findings suggest above average social competence in the study group. The psychobiological correlations indicate a link between social-competence-related personality traits such as 'extraversion' and 'conscientiousness' and biological fertility characteristics. Implications of a higher alexithymia in infertile men, which is negatively correlated with stress hormones, are discussed.

  18. Sexual Minority Stress and Suicide Risk: Identifying Resilience through Personality Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nicholas A.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Gleason, Hillary; Oost, Kathryn M.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual minority-based victimization, which includes threats or enacted interpersonal violence, predicts elevated suicide risk among sexual minority individuals. However, research on personality factors that contribute to resilience among sexual minority populations is lacking. Using the Five-Factor Model, we hypothesized that individuals classified as adaptive (versus at-risk) would be at decreased risk for a suicide attempt in the context of reported lifetime victimization. Method Sexual minority-identified young adults between the ages of 18 and 25 (N=412) were recruited nationally and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and lifetime suicide attempts. Results A two-stage cluster analytic method was used to empirically derive latent personality profiles and to classify respondents as adaptive (lower neuroticism and higher extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness) or at-risk (higher neuroticism, lower extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness) on the basis of their Five Factor Personality trait scores. Adaptive individuals were slightly older and less likely to conceal their sexual orientation, but reported similar rates of victimization, discrimination, and internalized heterosexism as their at-risk counterparts. Logistic regression results indicate that despite reporting similar rates of victimization, which was a significant predictor of lifetime suicide attempt, adaptive individuals evidenced decreased risk for attempted suicide in the context of victimization, relative to at-risk individuals. Discussion These findings suggest that an adaptive personality profile may confer resilience in the face of sexual minority-based victimization. This study adds to our knowledge of sexual minority mental health and highlights new directions for future research. PMID:26640810

  19. Personality Factor as a Predictor of Depression Score Among Depressed and CHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kikhavani, Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many risk factors can affect depression and coronary disease, these including physiological and psychological risk factors (such as personality traits) Objectives Our objectives were to examine whether personality factors (The Five-Factor Model) can predict depression score in the depressed and coronary heart disease (CHD) individuals compared to that of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods To achieve the above objectives, 100 depressed (Mean=35.90 years, SD=10.59 years), and 100 CHD (Mean=46.42 years, SD=12.52 years), patients and 100 healthy subjects (Mean = 37.97 years, SD =12.49 years) were selected by convenience sampling method. To compare the three groups of participants, ANOVA test was used. Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to identify the variables that most closely predict the perceived stress and depression scores. Pearson’s Correlation Co-efficient was used to examine the correlation between variables. Results In Neuroticism, the CHD patients had significant highest scores, followed by depressed patients. The healthy group had the least scores. In case of Extraversion, Openness and Agreeableness, healthy participants had significant higher scores followed by the depressed and CHD patients. Only in conscientiousness factor, Depressive and CHD groups had statistically less scores compared to the healthy group. Also, high Neuroticism and Age, and low Extraversion were significant protective factors for depression Scores of CHD patients, while high Neuroticism and low Extraversion function as predictors in the depressed and healthy groups. Conclusion The effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion on depression have been reported as inconsistent across previous studies. This study indicates that, older CHD individuals with high Neuroticism and low Extraversion scores are more vulnerable for depression. PMID:26557596

  20. An interaction of a NR3C1 polymorphism and antenatal solar activity impacts both hippocampus volume and neuroticism in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christian; Eichner, Markus; Markett, Sebastian; Quesada, Carlos M.; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Melchers, Martin; Plieger, Thomas; Weber, Bernd; Reuter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the interaction of genes and environment in the context of mental health and personality yields important new insights for a better understanding of human nature. Both antenatal and postnatal environmental factors have been considered as potential modulators of genetic activity. Antenatally, especially smoking or alcohol drinking habits of the mother dramatically influence the health of the child during pregnancy and even later on in life. In the present study we would like to introduce a more “distant” factor that is not under the control of the becoming mother but that nevertheless plays a potential role for the health of the unborn child later on in adulthood. Here, we retrospectively investigate the influence of solar activity (while the child is still in the uterus of the becoming mother) on brain structure (with a focus on hippocampus and amygdala volume) and personality in adulthood. We observe an interaction of a genetic variant (rs41423247) of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and solar activity in the first trimester after conception on both hippocampal volume and the personality trait neuroticism in adulthood in N = 254 participants. The NR3C1 gene is the focus of interest, because of its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and negative emotionality. Carriers of the CC variant of rs41423247 grown in the womb under the influence of high sun radiation (high solar activity) show both the highest hippocampal volume in the left hemisphere and lowest neuroticism scores. The present findings should encourage researchers in psychology and psychiatry to include also environmental influences such as solar activity besides genetics to better understand the etiogenesis of psychiatric disorders. PMID:23761749

  1. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense.

  2. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense. PMID:26333128

  3. Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Alireza; Somi, Mohammad H; Sarami, Firouz; Farhang, Sara; Yasrebinia, Sanaz

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both) and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients. METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome II diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the NEO Five Factor Inventory. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients were studied. The mean age (± SD) was 33.4 (± 11.0) year (62% female). Subjects scored higher in neuroticism (26.25 ± 7.80 vs 22.92 ± 9.54, P < 0.0005), openness (26.25 ± 5.22 vs 27.94 ± 4.87, P < 0.0005) and conscientiousness (32.90 ± 7.80 vs 31.62 ± 5.64, P < 0.01) compared to our general population derived from universities of Iran. Our studied population consisted of 71 patients with Diarrhea dominant-IBS, 33 with Constipation dominant-IBS and 46 with Altering type-IBS. Scores of conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantly higher in C-IBS compared to D-IBS and A-IBS (35.79 ± 5.65 vs 31.95 ± 6.80, P = 0.035 and 31.97 ± 9.87, P = 0.043, respectively). Conscientiousness was the highest dimension of personality in each of the variants. Patients with C-IBS had almost similar personality profiles, composed of higher scores for neuroticism and conscientiousness, with low levels of agreeableness, openness and extraversion that were close to those of the general population. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed between IBS patients and the general population, as well as between IBS subtypes, in terms of personality factors. Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed similar personality profiles. Patients with each subtype of IBS may benefit from psychological interventions, which can be focused considering the characteristics of each subtype. PMID:18081232

  4. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    PubMed

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers. PMID:21859225

  5. Bottom-line mentality as an antecedent of social undermining and the moderating roles of core self-evaluations and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Rebecca L; Mawritz, Mary Bardes; Eissa, Gabi

    2012-03-01

    We propose that an employee's bottom-line mentality may have an important effect on social undermining behavior in organizations. Bottom-line mentality is defined as 1-dimensional thinking that revolves around securing bottom-line outcomes to the neglect of competing priorities. Across a series of studies, we establish an initial nomological network for bottom-line mentality. We also develop and evaluate a 4-item measure of bottom-line mentality. In terms of our theoretical model, we draw on social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977, 1986) to propose that supervisor bottom-line mentality is positively related to employee bottom-line mentality (Hypothesis 1). On the basis of conceptual arguments pertaining to bottom-line mentality (Callahan, 2004; Wolfe, 1988), we hypothesize that employee bottom-line mentality is positively related to social undermining (Hypothesis 2). We further predict a moderated-mediation model whereby the indirect effect of supervisor bottom-line mentality on social undermining, through employee bottom-line mentality, is moderated by employee core self-evaluations and conscientiousness (Hypothesis 3). We collected multisource field data to test our theoretical model (i.e., focal-supervisor-coworker triads; N = 113). Results from moderated-mediation analyses provide general support for our hypotheses. Theoretical and practical implications of bottom-line mentality and social undermining are discussed, and areas for future research are identified.

  6. [Compromising conscientiously with reality but not with conscience. Reflections on the occasion of 75th anniversary of A. Stampar School of Public Health].

    PubMed

    Jaksić, Zelimir

    2002-09-01

    Changes in the activities and working conditions of the A. Stampar School of Public Health are reviewed following their anniversaries in the 25-year intervals. The differences have been described in understanding of major fields of work between: (1) social medicine (people's health) and public health; (2) health education following philosophy of Enlightenment and learning in the information era; (3) formal administrative organisation stressing implementation of given laws and entrepreneurial management in a society in transition; and (4) transfer of technology through international collaboration and under pressure of market oriented globalisation. Two basic points of view are identified: a social concern as opposite to technology-oriented productivity. It is concluded that a compromise of intentions and reality was always present looking for a balance between the described points of view. In relation to the present and future activities, the necessary compromise has to be conscientious, following the idea of preventive and social orientation applied to actual living problems of people and health care, namely people's health.

  7. Testing Relations of Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence and the Incremental Predictive Validity of Conscientiousness and Its Facets on Career Success in a Small Sample of German and Swiss Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Gygi, Jasmin T.; Weidmann, Rebekka; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation of fluid and crystallized intelligence with extrinsic (occupational skill level, income) and intrinsic (job satisfaction) career success as well as the incremental predictive validity of conscientiousness and its facets. Participants (N = 121) completed the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS), the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and reported their occupational skill level, income, and job satisfaction. Results revealed that crystallized intelligence was positively related to occupational skill level, but not to income. The association of crystallized intelligence and job satisfaction was negative and stronger for the lowest occupational skill level, whereas it was non-significant for higher levels. Fluid intelligence showed no association with career success. Beyond intelligence, conscientiousness and its facet self-discipline were associated with income, whereas conscientiousness and its facets competence and achievement striving were associated with job satisfaction. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the assessment process as well as for future research to adequately predict career success. PMID:27148112

  8. Testing Relations of Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence and the Incremental Predictive Validity of Conscientiousness and Its Facets on Career Success in a Small Sample of German and Swiss Workers.

    PubMed

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Gygi, Jasmin T; Weidmann, Rebekka; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation of fluid and crystallized intelligence with extrinsic (occupational skill level, income) and intrinsic (job satisfaction) career success as well as the incremental predictive validity of conscientiousness and its facets. Participants (N = 121) completed the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS), the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and reported their occupational skill level, income, and job satisfaction. Results revealed that crystallized intelligence was positively related to occupational skill level, but not to income. The association of crystallized intelligence and job satisfaction was negative and stronger for the lowest occupational skill level, whereas it was non-significant for higher levels. Fluid intelligence showed no association with career success. Beyond intelligence, conscientiousness and its facet self-discipline were associated with income, whereas conscientiousness and its facets competence and achievement striving were associated with job satisfaction. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the assessment process as well as for future research to adequately predict career success. PMID:27148112

  9. The genetic association between personality and major depression or bipolar disorder. A polygenic score analysis using genome-wide association data

    PubMed Central

    Middeldorp, C M; de Moor, M H M; McGrath, L M; Gordon, S D; Blackwood, D H; Costa, P T; Terracciano, A; Krueger, R F; de Geus, E J C; Nyholt, D R; Tanaka, T; Esko, T; Madden, P A F; Derringer, J; Amin, N; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Distel, M A; Uda, M; Sanna, S; Spinhoven, P; Hartman, C A; Ripke, S; Sullivan, P F; Realo, A; Allik, J; Heath, A C; Pergadia, M L; Agrawal, A; Lin, P; Grucza, R A; Widen, E; Cousminer, D L; Eriksson, J G; Palotie, A; Barnett, J H; Lee, P H; Luciano, M; Tenesa, A; Davies, G; Lopez, L M; Hansell, N K; Medland, S E; Ferrucci, L; Schlessinger, D; Montgomery, G W; Wright, M J; Aulchenko, Y S; Janssens, A C J W; Oostra, B A; Metspalu, A; Abecasis, G R; Deary, I J; Räikkönen, K; Bierut, L J; Martin, N G; Wray, N R; van Duijn, C M; Smoller, J W; Penninx, B W J H; Boomsma, D I

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) remains controversial. Previous research has reported differences and similarities in risk factors for MDD and BD, such as predisposing personality traits. For example, high neuroticism is related to both disorders, whereas openness to experience is specific for BD. This study examined the genetic association between personality and MDD and BD by applying polygenic scores for neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness to both disorders. Polygenic scores reflect the weighted sum of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles associated with the trait for an individual and were based on a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for personality traits including 13 835 subjects. Polygenic scores were tested for MDD in the combined Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN-MDD) and MDD2000+ samples (N=8921) and for BD in the combined Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder and Wellcome Trust Case–Control Consortium samples (N=6329) using logistic regression analyses. At the phenotypic level, personality dimensions were associated with MDD and BD. Polygenic neuroticism scores were significantly positively associated with MDD, whereas polygenic extraversion scores were significantly positively associated with BD. The explained variance of MDD and BD, ∼0.1%, was highly comparable to the variance explained by the polygenic personality scores in the corresponding personality traits themselves (between 0.1 and 0.4%). This indicates that the proportions of variance explained in mood disorders are at the upper limit of what could have been expected. This study suggests shared genetic risk factors for neuroticism and MDD on the one hand and for extraversion and BD on the other. PMID:22833196

  10. Effects of Gender and Personality on First Impression.

    PubMed

    Mattarozzi, Katia; Todorov, Alexander; Marzocchi, Michele; Vicari, Alba; Russo, Paolo Maria

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores whether and to what extent individual differences (i.e., gender and personality traits of perceiver) predict inferences of trustworthiness from emotionally neutral unfamiliar faces and the related confidence in judgment. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students participated in the study. Personality was assessed using the Big Five model (i.e., Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness to experience) and measures of trait anxiety and aggression. The results suggest that trustworthiness judgments are affected by the gender of the perceiver, although this effect depends on the valence of the face. Women tend to judge trustworthy-looking faces as significantly more trustworthy than men do, and this is particularly pronounced for judgments of female faces. There were no gender differences for judgments of untrustworthy-looking or neutral faces. Gender also seems to affect the confidence in judgment. Specifically, women were generally less confident than men in judging trustworthiness of unfamiliar faces. Personality also affected judgment. Both low agreeable individuals and high trait aggressive individuals tend to perceive unfamiliar faces as less trustworthy. The present findings suggest that both gender and personality traits are relevant for understanding how people evaluate the trustworthiness of others. Whom we decide to trust is a function not only of their facial features but also of gender and individual differences in personality traits. PMID:26331610

  11. A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-12-01

    Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  12. GWA meta-analysis of personality in Korean cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Seung Ku; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Chung, Hye Won; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chol; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-08-01

    Personality is a determinant of behavior and lifestyle that is associated with health and human diseases. Despite the heritability of personality traits is well established, the understanding of the genetic contribution to personality trait variation is extremely limited. To identify genetic variants associated with each of the five dimensions of personality, we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of three cohorts, followed by comparison of a family cohort. Personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the five-factor model (FFM) of personality. We investigated the top five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each trait, and revealed the most highly association with neuroticism and TACC2 (rs1010657, P=8.79 × 10(-7)), extraversion and PTPN12 (rs12537271, P=1.47 × 10(-7)), openness and IMPAD1 (rs16921695, P=5 × 10(-8)), agreeableness and RPS29 (rs8015351, P=1.27 × 10(-6)) and conscientiousness and LMO4 (rs912765, P=2.91 × 10(-6)). It had no SNP reached the GWA study threshold (P<5 × 10(-8)). When expanded the SNPs up to top 100, the correlation of PTPRD (rs1029089) and agreeableness was confirmed in Healthy Twin cohort with other 13 SNPs. This GWA meta-analysis on FFM personality traits is meaningful as it was the first on a non-Caucasian population targeted to FFM of personality traits.

  13. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and < 4 consecutive days missed), and dispensing data (medication possession ratio ≥ 80%). One hundred four women and 33 men participated (mean age, 51; standard deviation, 14). Paroxetine was most frequently prescribed (N = 53, 38%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that of the personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits. PMID:27454894

  14. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology. PMID:24016019

  15. An Investigation of Students' Personality Traits and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2011-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to validate an instrument of attitudes toward science and to investigate grade level, type of school, and gender differences in Taiwan's students' personality traits and attitudes toward science as well as predictors of attitudes toward science. Nine hundred and twenty-two elementary students and 1,954 secondary students completed the School Student Questionnaire in 2008. Factor analyses, correlation analyses, ANOVAs, and regressions were used to compare the similarities and differences among male and female students in different grade levels. The findings were as follows: female students had higher interest in science and made more contributions in teams than their male counterparts across all grade levels. As students advanced through school, student scores on the personality trait scales of Conscientiousness and Openness sharply declined; students' scores on Neuroticism dramatically increased. Elementary school and academic high school students had significantly higher total scores on interest in science than those of vocational high and junior high school students. Scores on the scales measuring the traits of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness were the most significant predictors of students' attitudes toward science. Implications of these findings for classroom instruction are discussed.

  16. The Big Five of Personality and structural imaging revisited: a VBM - DARTEL study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Yin; Weber, Bernd; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Montag, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The present study focuses on the neurostructural foundations of the human personality. In a large sample of 227 healthy human individuals (168 women and 59 men), we used MRI to examine the relationship between personality traits and both regional gray and white matter volume, while controlling for age and sex. Personality was assessed using the German version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory that measures individual differences in the 'Big Five of Personality': extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. In contrast to most previous studies on neural correlates of the Big Five, we used improved processing strategies: white and gray matter were independently assessed by segmentation steps before data analysis. In addition, customized sex-specific diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra templates were used. Our results did not show significant correlations between any dimension of the Big Five and regional gray matter volume. However, among others, higher conscientiousness scores correlated significantly with reductions in regional white matter volume in different brain areas, including the right insula, putamen, caudate, and left fusiformis. These correlations were driven by the female subsample. The present study suggests that many results from the literature on the neurostructural basis of personality should be reviewed carefully, considering the results when the sample size is larger, imaging methods are rigorously applied, and sex-related and age-related effects are controlled.

  17. Childhood personality as a harbinger of competence and resilience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Rebecca L; Masten, Ann S

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the significance of childhood Big Five personality traits for competence and resilience in early adulthood. Resilience was defined in terms of adaptive success in age-salient developmental tasks despite significant adversity throughout childhood/adolescence. The Project Competence Longitudinal Study tracked 205 young people from childhood (around age 10) to emerging adulthood (EA, age 20) and young adulthood (YA, age 30; 90% retention). Multimethod composites were created for personality traits, adversity exposure, and adult outcomes of academic achievement, work, rule-abiding conduct, friendship, and romantic relationships. Regressions showed significant main effects of childhood personality predicting adult outcomes, controlling for adversity, with few interaction effects. In person-focused analyses, the resilient group in EA and YA (high competence, high adversity) showed higher childhood conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness and lower neuroticism than the maladaptive group (low competence, high adversity). The competent (high competence, low adversity) and resilient groups showed similar childhood traits. Turnaround cases, who changed from the maladaptive group in EA to the resilient group in YA, exhibited higher childhood conscientiousness than persistently maladaptive peers. Findings suggest that children on pathways to success in adulthood, whether facing low or high adversity, have capacities for emotion regulation, empathy and connection, dedication to schoolwork, and mastery and exploration. PMID:22559127

  18. Behavioral and trait rating assessments of personality in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Iwanicki, Suzanne; Lehmann, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The study of personality in animals is a rapidly growing scientific field and numerous species have been reported to show consistent personality profiles. Much animal personality research has focused on nonhuman primates, with the main emphasis being placed on Old World primates, particularly rhesus macaques and chimpanzees. So far, little work has been done on cooperatively breeding nonhuman primates and New World species. Here, we study personality in the cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to broaden the taxonomic range of such research and to widen the perspective of comparative personality research. We use behavioral data collection and observer trait ratings to assess marmoset personality dimensions. The resulting behavioral and rating-derived personality dimensions, when viewed in tandem, resemble the human five-factor model and include extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness. Correlations between the behavioral data and the observer trait-rated personality components suggest that the personality construct of common marmosets exhibits both convergent and discriminant validity. The finding of a distinct Conscientiousness component in this species extends previous knowledge in comparative personality psychology and warrants reconsideration of proposed taxonomic trait distributions.

  19. Alcoholism, personality, and religion/spirituality: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Haber, Jon Randolph; Koenig, Laura B; Jacob, Theodore

    2011-12-01

    A review of the literature on the relationships between alcoholism, personality, and religion identified patterns that may help explain the inverse association between alcoholism and religion/spirituality (R/S). Personality plays a central role in two etiological models of alcoholism. The personality traits of high behavioral undercontrol (low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness) and high negative affect (high Neuroticism) are both significantly related to higher alcohol use. Religiosity is also correlated with these traits, but in the opposite direction (e.g., with low behavioral undercontrol and low negative affect). Thus, the personality profiles associated with alcoholism and religion are the inverse of one another. In addition, evidence suggests that R/S moderates genetic variation on both Neuroticism and Disinhibition (part of behavioral undercontrol). Implications are discussed in terms of competing explanatory models: a basic research model which argues for genetically-determined stability in personality and alcoholism risk, and a clinical treatment model which argues for the primacy of environmental interventions in treatment and the possibility of personality change as a pathway to recovery.

  20. Morningness-eveningness, sex, and the Alternative Five Factor Model of personality.

    PubMed

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2009-08-01

    Recent research on personality and circadian typology indicates that evening-type subjects are more extraverted, impulsive, and novelty-seeking, while morning ones tend to be more introverted, conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between circadian typologies on the Zuckerman's Alternative Five Factor Model of personality (AFFM), which has a strong biological basis, controlling for sex and age. A sample of 533 university students (168 men) participated in the study. Results showed that morning-type subjects had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type subjects in Activity, and in its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. A significant interaction between circadian typology and sex was found for Neuroticism-Anxiety: morning-type men showed higher scores than evening-type and neither-type, who had the lowest scores. Women presented the opposite pattern: neither-type obtained the highest scores, while morning-type showed the lowest. This is the first time the AFFM has been used in the context of circadian rhythms research. The results suggest that activity is the only trait related to extraversion associated with morningness, while Neuroticism-Anxiety was modulated by sex. These results might help highlight previous results on the association between morningness-eveningness and other models of personality assessment, and they offer new data that calls for further research.

  1. Gut feelings, deliberative thought, and paranoid ideation: a study of experiential and rational reasoning.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel

    2012-05-15

    Rapid intuitive hunches or gut feelings may be a compelling source of evidence for paranoid ideas. Conversely, a failure to apply effortful analytic thinking may contribute to the persistence of such thoughts. Our main aim was to examine for the first time the associations of persecutory thinking with experiential and rational thinking styles. Five hundred individuals recruited from the general population completed self-report assessments of current persecutory ideation, general reasoning styles and personality traits. Persecutory ideation was independently associated with greater use of experiential reasoning and less use of rational reasoning. The correlations were small. Persecutory ideation was also positively associated with neuroticism and negatively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There was no evidence of an interaction between neuroticism and experiential reasoning in the prediction of paranoia, but high experiential reasoning in the context of low rational reasoning was particularly associated with persecutory ideation. Overall, the study provides rare evidence of self-reported general reasoning styles being associated with delusional ideation. Perceived reliance on intuition is associated with paranoid thinking, while perceived reliance on deliberation is associated with fewer such thoughts. The dual process theory of reasoning may provide a framework to contribute to the understanding of paranoid thinking.

  2. The effect of personality on daily life emotional processes.

    PubMed

    Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life.

  3. Estimating one's own personality and intelligence scores.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2004-05-01

    One hundred and eighty-seven university students completed the full NEO-PI-R assessing the five super-traits and 30 primary traits, and the Wonderlic Personnel Test of general intelligence. Two months later (before receiving feedback on their psychometric scores), they estimated their own scores on these variables. Results at the super-factor level indicated that participants could significantly predict/estimate their own Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness scores. The correlation between estimated and psychometrically measured IQ was r=.30, showing that participants could, to some extent, accurately estimate their intelligence. In addition, there were a number of significant correlations between estimated intelligence and psychometrically assessed personality (particularly Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Extraversion). Disagreeable people tended to award themselves higher self-estimated intelligence scores. Similarly, stable people tended to award themselves higher estimates of intelligence (even when other variables were controlled). Regressing both estimated and psychometric IQ scores onto estimated and psychometric personality scores indicated that the strongest significant effect was the relationship between trait scores and self-estimated intelligence. PMID:15142299

  4. Psychological Importance of the "Big Five": Impression Formation and Context Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personality's basic dimensions are: extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability; conscientiousness, and openness. Rated items of Adjective Check List for psychological importance, then rated hypothetical applicants described with different combinations of personality dimensions. Applicants described with extraversion and agreeableness…

  5. The ‘Dark Side’ and ‘Bright Side’ of Personality: When Too Much Conscientiousness and Too Little Anxiety Are Detrimental with Respect to the Acquisition of Medical Knowledge and Skill

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J. Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a ‘dark side’ and those generally viewed as negative can have a ‘bright side’ depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a ‘dark side’ reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a ‘bright side’ enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning ‘backbone’, whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on

  6. Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs for Cognitive Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Schunck, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    While the number of studies of the non-medical use of prescription drugs to augment cognitive functions is growing steadily, psychological factors that can potentially help explain variance in such pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE) behavior are often neglected in research. This study investigates the association between the Big Five personality traits and a retrospective (prior CE-drug use) as well as a prospective (willingness to use CE drugs) measure of taking prescription drugs with the purpose of augmenting one's cognitive functions (e.g., concentration, memory, or vigilance) without medical necessity. We use data from a large representative survey of German employees (N = 6454, response rate = 29.8%). The Five Factor Model (FFM) of Personality was measured with a short version of the Big Five Personality Traits Inventory (BFI-S), which includes: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Together with this, demographic variables such as gender, age, education, and income were used as potential confounders in multiple logistic regression models. Our results show a 2.96% lifetime prevalence of CE-drug use and a 10.45% willingness to (re)use such drugs in the future. We found that less conscientious and more neurotic respondents have a higher probability of prior CE-drug use and a greater willingness to use CE drugs in the future. No significant effects were found for openness, extraversion, or agreeableness. Prior CE-drug use was strongly associated with a greater willingness to take such drugs in the future. This study shows that specific personality traits are not only associated with prior enhancement behavior, but also affect the willingness to (re)use such drugs. It helps increase understanding of the risk factors of CE-drug use, which is a health-related behavior that can entail severe side-effects for consumers. The knowledge gathered can thus help improve interventions aimed at minimizing health

  7. Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs for Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Schunck, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    While the number of studies of the non-medical use of prescription drugs to augment cognitive functions is growing steadily, psychological factors that can potentially help explain variance in such pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE) behavior are often neglected in research. This study investigates the association between the Big Five personality traits and a retrospective (prior CE-drug use) as well as a prospective (willingness to use CE drugs) measure of taking prescription drugs with the purpose of augmenting one's cognitive functions (e.g., concentration, memory, or vigilance) without medical necessity. We use data from a large representative survey of German employees (N = 6454, response rate = 29.8%). The Five Factor Model (FFM) of Personality was measured with a short version of the Big Five Personality Traits Inventory (BFI-S), which includes: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Together with this, demographic variables such as gender, age, education, and income were used as potential confounders in multiple logistic regression models. Our results show a 2.96% lifetime prevalence of CE-drug use and a 10.45% willingness to (re)use such drugs in the future. We found that less conscientious and more neurotic respondents have a higher probability of prior CE-drug use and a greater willingness to use CE drugs in the future. No significant effects were found for openness, extraversion, or agreeableness. Prior CE-drug use was strongly associated with a greater willingness to take such drugs in the future. This study shows that specific personality traits are not only associated with prior enhancement behavior, but also affect the willingness to (re)use such drugs. It helps increase understanding of the risk factors of CE-drug use, which is a health-related behavior that can entail severe side-effects for consumers. The knowledge gathered can thus help improve interventions aimed at minimizing health

  8. The Mediating Role of Resilience in the Relationship between Big Five Personality and Anxiety among Chinese Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng; Liu, Li; Wang, Zi Yue; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57%) at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. Results The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50) among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms. PMID:25794003

  9. Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs for Cognitive Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Schunck, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    While the number of studies of the non-medical use of prescription drugs to augment cognitive functions is growing steadily, psychological factors that can potentially help explain variance in such pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE) behavior are often neglected in research. This study investigates the association between the Big Five personality traits and a retrospective (prior CE-drug use) as well as a prospective (willingness to use CE drugs) measure of taking prescription drugs with the purpose of augmenting one's cognitive functions (e.g., concentration, memory, or vigilance) without medical necessity. We use data from a large representative survey of German employees (N = 6454, response rate = 29.8%). The Five Factor Model (FFM) of Personality was measured with a short version of the Big Five Personality Traits Inventory (BFI-S), which includes: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Together with this, demographic variables such as gender, age, education, and income were used as potential confounders in multiple logistic regression models. Our results show a 2.96% lifetime prevalence of CE-drug use and a 10.45% willingness to (re)use such drugs in the future. We found that less conscientious and more neurotic respondents have a higher probability of prior CE-drug use and a greater willingness to use CE drugs in the future. No significant effects were found for openness, extraversion, or agreeableness. Prior CE-drug use was strongly associated with a greater willingness to take such drugs in the future. This study shows that specific personality traits are not only associated with prior enhancement behavior, but also affect the willingness to (re)use such drugs. It helps increase understanding of the risk factors of CE-drug use, which is a health-related behavior that can entail severe side-effects for consumers. The knowledge gathered can thus help improve interventions aimed at minimizing health

  10. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

    PubMed Central

    Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual performance. The aim this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem. Materials and Methods: This correlation study was performed on 127 married women who referred to selected health care centers of Mashhad in 2014–2015. Data collection tools included NEO personality inventory dimensions and Zeanah and Schwarz sexual self-esteem questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient test and stepwise regression model. Results: The results of Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between neuroticism personality dimension (r = −0.414), extroversion (r = 0.363), agreeableness (r = 0.420), and conscientiousness (r = 0.364) with sexual self-esteem (P < 0.05). The relationship between openness with sexual self-esteem was not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, based on the results of the stepwise regression model, three dimensions of agreeableness, neuroticism, and extraversion could predict 27% of the women's sexual self-esteem variance. Conclusions: The results showed a correlation between women's personality characteristics and their sexual self-esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at-risk group or the women having low sexual self-esteem in premarital and family counseling. PMID:27186198

  11. Personality and HIV Disease Progression: Role of NEO-PI-R Openness, Extraversion, and Profiles of Engagement

    PubMed Central

    O'Cleirigh, Conall; Schneiderman, Neil; Weiss, Alexander; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of the big five personality domains (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) and their respective facets and profiles on change in CD4 and log HIV-RNA copies/ml (VL) over 4 years. The examination of psychosocial predictors of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has focused primarily on depression, coping, and stress, with little attention paid to stable individual differences. Methods A diverse sample of HIV-seropositive patients (n = 104) completed personality assessment (NEO-PI-R), underwent comprehensive psychological assessment and blood samples every 6 months for 4 years. Linear rates of change for CD4 cells and VL were modeled using Hierarchical Linear Modeling controlling for antiretrovirals (time dependent covariate), initial disease status, age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Results Domains that were significantly associated with slower disease progression over 4 years included Openness (CD4, VL), Extraversion (CD4, VL), and Conscientiousness (VL). Facets of the above domains that were significantly related to slower disease progression were assertiveness, positive emotions, and gregariousness (Extraversion); ideas, esthetics (Openness); achievement striving and order (Conscientiousness). In addition, profile analyses suggested personality styles which seem to underscore the importance of remaining engaged (e.g., Creative Interactors (E+O+), Upbeat Optimists (N−E+), Welcomers (E+A+), Go Getters (C+E+), and Directed (N−C+)) had slower disease progression, whereas the “homebody” profile (Low Extraversion-Low Openness) was significantly associated with faster disease progression. Conclusions These results provide good initial evidence of the relationship between personality and disease progression in HIV and suggest protective aspects of profiles of engagement. These finding may help identify those individuals at risk for poorer disease course and specify targets

  12. Heritability and Fitness Correlates of Personality in the Ache, a Natural-Fertility Population in Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Drew H.; Walker, Robert S.; Blomquist, Gregory E.; Hill, Kim R.; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed the heritability of personality in a traditional natural-fertility population, the Ache of eastern Paraguay. Self-reports (n = 110) and other-reports (n = 66) on the commonly used Big Five Personality Inventory (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness) were collected. Self-reports did not support the Five Factor Model developed with Western samples, and did not correlate with other-reports for three of the five measured personality factors. Heritability was assessed using factors that were consistent across self- and other-reports and factors assessed using other-reports that showed reliabilities similar to those found in Western samples. Analyses of these items in combination with a multi-generation pedigree (n = 2,132) revealed heritability estimates similar to those found in most Western samples, although we were not able to separately estimate the influence of the common environment on these traits. We also assessed relations between personality and reproductive success (RS), allowing for a test of several mechanisms that might be maintaining heritable variation in personality. Phenotypic analyses, based largely on other-reports, revealed that extraverted men had higher RS than other men, but no other dimensions of personality predicted RS in either sex. Mothers with more agreeable children had more children, and parents mated assortatively on personality. Of the evolutionary processes proposed to maintain variation in personality, assortative mating, selective neutrality, and temporal variation in selection pressures received the most support. However, the current study does not rule out other processes affecting the evolution and maintenance of individual differences in human personality. PMID:23527163

  13. Heritability and fitness correlates of personality in the Ache, a natural-fertility population in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Walker, Robert S; Blomquist, Gregory E; Hill, Kim R; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed the heritability of personality in a traditional natural-fertility population, the Ache of eastern Paraguay. Self-reports (n = 110) and other-reports (n = 66) on the commonly used Big Five Personality Inventory (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness) were collected. Self-reports did not support the Five Factor Model developed with Western samples, and did not correlate with other-reports for three of the five measured personality factors. Heritability was assessed using factors that were consistent across self- and other-reports and factors assessed using other-reports that showed reliabilities similar to those found in Western samples. Analyses of these items in combination with a multi-generation pedigree (n = 2,132) revealed heritability estimates similar to those found in most Western samples, although we were not able to separately estimate the influence of the common environment on these traits. We also assessed relations between personality and reproductive success (RS), allowing for a test of several mechanisms that might be maintaining heritable variation in personality. Phenotypic analyses, based largely on other-reports, revealed that extraverted men had higher RS than other men, but no other dimensions of personality predicted RS in either sex. Mothers with more agreeable children had more children, and parents mated assortatively on personality. Of the evolutionary processes proposed to maintain variation in personality, assortative mating, selective neutrality, and temporal variation in selection pressures received the most support. However, the current study does not rule out other processes affecting the evolution and maintenance of individual differences in human personality.

  14. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses.

  15. Cannabis users differ from non-users on measures of personality and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Fridberg, Daniel J; Vollmer, Jennifer M; O'Donnell, Brian F; Skosnik, Patrick D

    2011-03-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ), and chronic cannabis users score higher than non-users on measures of schizotypal personality traits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between normal personality, schizotypy, and cannabis use. Sixty-two chronic cannabis users and 45 cannabis-naïve controls completed a measure of normal personality, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and two measures of schizotypy, the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ) and perceptual aberration scale (PAS). Substance use was assessed using the SCID I alcohol/drug module and a locally developed drug use questionnaire. On the NEO-FFI, users scored higher than controls on openness, but lower on agreeableness and conscientiousness, and endorsed greater schizotypy on the SPQ and PAS. Higher neuroticism predicted greater schizotypy in both groups, and, higher Extraversion predicted lower negative-syndrome schizotypy among users. Finally, duration of cannabis use was positively correlated with scores on the SPQ and PAS among users, suggesting a relation between overall cannabis use chronicity and schizotypy. These data show that cannabis users differ from non-users on dimensions of normal personality and schizotypy, and provide further evidence that cannabis use is associated with increased levels of psychosis-related personality traits.

  16. Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jacobs, Tonya L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2011-04-01

    We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being. PMID:21500899

  17. Personality as a predictor of professional behavior in dental school: comparisons with dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, T C; Catano, V M; Cunningham, D P

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of personality measures to predict the success of dental students (N = 87) in clinical and academic courses and to compare their personality profiles to those of dental practitioners (N = 130). A second purpose of the study was to develop a new criterion measure, the Student Professionalism Scale, based on competencies previously identified as necessary for professional success. The Canadian Dental Aptitude Test (DAT) predicted first-year, preclinical academic success; the DAT Reading Comprehension component predicted third-year clinical performance; and Perceptual Ability, the ability to deal with two- and three-dimensional objects, predicted student professionalism. Results from the personality measure indicated that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism, and to a lesser extent Agreeableness, were significant predictors of both first-year academic performance and professional behavior. In comparing the personality profiles of dental students to dental practitioners, students who were more similar to the dentists did better in their first year of coursework. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the dental admissions process. PMID:16275685

  18. The psychological process of reintegration following a nine month/260 day solo sailboat circumnavigation of the globe.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Anders; Leon, Gloria R; Venables, Noah C

    2015-04-01

    The focus of this case report is on the psychological reintegration process following the achievement of a highly challenging long-duration and solitary endeavor. The participant was a 29 year old male who successfully circumnavigated the globe during a 260 day solo sailing expedition. We assessed the psychological aftermath in terms of stability and change in personality characteristics and personal beliefs prior to, and at 180 and 360 days after the completion of the journey. Overall, the personality configuration reflected adaptive personality functioning. A belief in an internal locus of control was consistent throughout, as were perceptions of personal growth as a result of the circumnavigation experience. NEO PI-R Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, and Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Tri-PM) Boldness scores remained stable. Positive personality change was reflected by an elevation in Conscientiousness; negative change by a decline in Agreeableness and an increase in Tri-PM Disinhibition. While overall the participant exhibited positive change as a result of his journey, there were also some negative aspects of the reintegration phase in regard to interactions with other persons. This latter change may be related to the effects of isolation from usual social contacts over an extended period.

  19. NEO-FFI personality clusters in trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Tung, Esther S; Tung, Matthew G; Curley, Erin E; Flessner, Christopher A

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether personality prototypes exist among hair pullers and if these groups differ in hair pulling (HP) characteristics, clinical correlates, and quality of life. 164 adult hair pullers completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa and McCrae, 1992) and self-report measures of HP severity, HP style, affective state, and quality of life. A latent class cluster analysis using NEO-FFI scores was performed to separate participants into clusters. Bonferroni-corrected t-tests were used to compare clusters on HP, affective, and quality of life variables. Multiple regression was used to determine which variables significantly predicted quality of life. Two distinct personality prototypes were identified. Cluster 1 (n=96) had higher neuroticism and lower extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness when compared to cluster 2 (n=68). No significant differences in demographics were reported for the two personality clusters. The clusters differed on extent of focused HP, severity of depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as quality of life. Those in cluster 1 endorsed greater depression, anxiety, and stress, and worse quality of life. Additionally, only depression and cluster membership (based on NEO scores) significantly predicted quality of life. PMID:27016621

  20. Similar Personality Patterns Are Associated with Empathy in Four Different Countries.

    PubMed

    Melchers, Martin C; Li, Mei; Haas, Brian W; Reuter, Martin; Bischoff, Lena; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is an important human ability associated with successful social interaction. It is currently unclear how to optimally measure individual differences in empathic processing. Although the Big Five model of personality is an effective model to explain individual differences in human experience and behavior, its relation to measures of empathy is currently not well understood. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the Big Five personality concept and two commonly used measures for empathy [Empathy Quotient (EQ), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] in four samples from China, Germany, Spain, and the United States of America. This approach was designed to advance the way the Big Five personality model can be used to measure empathy. We found evidence of medium effect sizes for associations between personality and empathy, with agreeableness and conscientiousness as the most important predictors of affective and cognitive empathy (measured by the respective IRI subscales) as well as for a one-dimensional empathy score (measured by the EQ). Empathy in a fictional context was most closely related to openness to experience while personal distress was first of all related to neuroticism. In terms of culture, we did not observe any distinct pattern concerning cultural differences. These results support the cross-cultural applicability of the EQ and the IRI and indicate structurally similar associations between personality and empathy across cultures. PMID:27014115

  1. Mystical Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin Lead to Increases in the Personality Domain of Openness

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Katherine A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event. Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than one year after the session. The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change. PMID:21956378

  2. "A Match Made...Online?" The Effects of User-Generated Online Dater Profile Types (Free-Spirited Versus Uptight) on Other Users' Perception of Trustworthiness, Interpersonal Attraction, and Personality.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seunga Venus; Martin, Cassie

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the effects of an online dater's profile type (open/free-spirited vs. traditional/uptight) on people's perception of the dater's trustworthiness, interpersonal attraction, and Big Five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion). Interpersonal deception theory, theories of attraction, and source credibility model inform this research, providing a theoretical foundation for the proposed research questions and hypothesis. This research employed a simple two-group comparison experiment (open/free-spirited dater profile vs. traditional/uptight dater profile). Participants were randomly assigned to view either open or traditional profiles, and asked about their perception of the target dater. Results indicated a significant causal effect of user-generated online dater profile types on the dependent variables (perceived trustworthiness, interpersonal attraction, and Big Five personality traits) as well as a significant mediating effect of perceived trustworthiness. This study provided unique and necessary information on self-presentation and other perception in the online dating context, with the aim of helping theorists, online daters, and managers of online dating sites further their understandings of this novel and exciting romantic frontier.

  3. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  4. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Externalizing behavior and the higher order factors of the Big Five.

    PubMed

    Deyoung, Colin G; Peterson, Jordan B; Séguin, Jean R; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-11-01

    The comorbidity of various externalizing behaviors stems from a broad predisposition that is strongly genetically determined (R. F. Krueger, B. M. Hicks, C. J. Patrick, S. R. Carlson, W. G. Iacono, & M. McGue, 2002). This finding raises the question of how externalizing behavior is related to broad personality traits that have been identified in normal populations and that also have a genetic component. Using structural equation modeling, the authors applied a hierarchical personality model based on the Big Five and their two higher order factors, Stability (Neuroticism reversed, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and Plasticity (Extraversion and Openness). Cognitive ability was included to separate variance in Openness associated with Extraversion (hypothesized to be positively related to externalizing behavior) from variance in Openness associated with cognitive ability (negatively related to externalizing behavior). This model was used to predict a latent externalizing behavior variable in an adolescent male sample (N = 140) assessed through self- and teacher reports. As hypothesized, externalizing behavior was characterized by low Stability, high Plasticity, and low cognitive ability.

  6. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-01-01

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients. PMID:27605876

  7. The psychological process of reintegration following a nine month/260 day solo sailboat circumnavigation of the globe.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Anders; Leon, Gloria R; Venables, Noah C

    2015-04-01

    The focus of this case report is on the psychological reintegration process following the achievement of a highly challenging long-duration and solitary endeavor. The participant was a 29 year old male who successfully circumnavigated the globe during a 260 day solo sailing expedition. We assessed the psychological aftermath in terms of stability and change in personality characteristics and personal beliefs prior to, and at 180 and 360 days after the completion of the journey. Overall, the personality configuration reflected adaptive personality functioning. A belief in an internal locus of control was consistent throughout, as were perceptions of personal growth as a result of the circumnavigation experience. NEO PI-R Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, and Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Tri-PM) Boldness scores remained stable. Positive personality change was reflected by an elevation in Conscientiousness; negative change by a decline in Agreeableness and an increase in Tri-PM Disinhibition. While overall the participant exhibited positive change as a result of his journey, there were also some negative aspects of the reintegration phase in regard to interactions with other persons. This latter change may be related to the effects of isolation from usual social contacts over an extended period. PMID:25605497

  8. A Random Walk Down University Avenue: Life Paths, Life Events, and Personality Trait Change at the Transition to University Life

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relation between continuity and change in the Big Five personality traits and life events. Approximately 2,000 German students were tracked from high school to university or to vocational training or work, with 3 assessments over 4 years. Life events were reported retrospectively at the 2nd and 3rd assessment. Latent curve analyses were used to assess change in personality traits, revealing 3 main findings. First, mean-level changes in the Big Five factors over the 4 years were in line with the maturity principle, indicating increasing psychological maturity from adolescence to young adulthood. Second, personality development was characterized by substantive individual differences relating to the life path followed; participants on a more vocationally oriented path showed higher increases in conscientiousness and lower increases in agreeableness than their peers at university. Third, initial level and change in the Big Five factors (especially Neuroticism and Extraversion) were linked to the occurrence of aggregated as well as single positive and negative life events. The analyses suggest that individual differences in personality development are associated with life transitions and individual life experiences. PMID:21744977

  9. The Five-Factor Model personality traits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-30

    Personality is one of important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because it affects patients' symptoms, cognition and social functioning. Several studies have reported specific personality traits in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects. However, the results were inconsistent among studies. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measures five personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Here, we performed a meta-analysis of these personality traits assessed by the NEO-FFI in 460 patients with schizophrenia and 486 healthy subjects from the published literature and investigated possible associations between schizophrenia and these traits. There was no publication bias for any traits. Because we found evidence of significant heterogeneity in all traits among the studies, we applied a random-effect model to perform the meta-analysis. Patients with schizophrenia showed a higher score for N and lower scores for E, O, A and C compared with healthy subjects. The effect sizes of these personality traits ranged from moderate to large. These differences were not affected by possible moderator factors, such as gender distribution and mean age in each study, expect for gender effect for A. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a different personality profile compared with healthy subjects. PMID:27082867

  10. Examining Equity Sensitivity: An Investigation Using the Big Five and HEXACO Models of Personality.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Hayden J R; Bourdage, Joshua S; Ogunfowora, Babatunde; Nguyen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The construct of equity sensitivity describes an individual's preference about his/her desired input to outcome ratio. Individuals high on equity sensitivity tend to be more input oriented, and are often called "Benevolents." Individuals low on equity sensitivity are more outcome oriented, and are described as "Entitleds." Given that equity sensitivity has often been described as a trait, the purpose of the present study was to examine major personality correlates of equity sensitivity, so as to inform both the nature of equity sensitivity, and the potential processes through which certain broad personality traits may relate to outcomes. We examined the personality correlates of equity sensitivity across three studies (total N = 1170), two personality models (i.e., the Big Five and HEXACO), the two most common measures of equity sensitivity (i.e., the Equity Preference Questionnaire and Equity Sensitivity Inventory), and using both self and peer reports of personality (in Study 3). Although results varied somewhat across samples, the personality variables of Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility, followed by Agreeableness, were the most robust predictors of equity sensitivity. Individuals higher on these traits were more likely to be Benevolents, whereas those lower on these traits were more likely to be Entitleds. Although some associations between Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism and equity sensitivity were observed, these were generally not robust. Overall, it appears that there are several prominent personality variables underlying equity sensitivity, and that the addition of the HEXACO model's dimension of Honesty-Humility substantially contributes to our understanding of equity sensitivity.

  11. The Five-Factor Model personality traits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-30

    Personality is one of important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because it affects patients' symptoms, cognition and social functioning. Several studies have reported specific personality traits in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects. However, the results were inconsistent among studies. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measures five personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Here, we performed a meta-analysis of these personality traits assessed by the NEO-FFI in 460 patients with schizophrenia and 486 healthy subjects from the published literature and investigated possible associations between schizophrenia and these traits. There was no publication bias for any traits. Because we found evidence of significant heterogeneity in all traits among the studies, we applied a random-effect model to perform the meta-analysis. Patients with schizophrenia showed a higher score for N and lower scores for E, O, A and C compared with healthy subjects. The effect sizes of these personality traits ranged from moderate to large. These differences were not affected by possible moderator factors, such as gender distribution and mean age in each study, expect for gender effect for A. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a different personality profile compared with healthy subjects.

  12. Personality correlates of physical activity: a review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, R E; Smith, N E I

    2006-01-01

    This review aimed to combine the literature on major personality traits and physical activity alongside providing some meta‐analytic summaries of the findings. Overall, 33 studies containing 35 independent samples, ranging from 1969 to 2006, met the inclusion criteria. Extraversion (r = 0.23), neuroticism (r = −0.11) and conscientiousness (r = 0.20) were identified as correlates of physical activity using random effects meta‐analytic procedures correcting for sampling bias and attenuation of measurement error. The five‐factor model traits of openness to experience/intellect and agreeableness, as well as Eysenck's psychoticism trait, were not associated with physical activity. Potential moderators of personality and physical activity relationships such as sex, age, culture/country, design and instrumentation were inconclusive given the small number of studies. Still, the existing evidence was suggestive that personality and physical activity relationships are relatively invariant to these factors. Studies examining personality and different physical activity modes suggested differences by traits such as extraversion, but more research is needed to make any conclusions. Future research using multivariate analyses, personality‐channelled physical activity interventions, longitudinal designs and objective physical activity measurement is recommended. PMID:17124108

  13. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association datasets of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-N; Kim, B-H; Cho, J; Ryu, S; Shin, H; Sung, J; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Sung, Y A; Choi, B-O; Kim, H-L

    2015-04-01

    Although several genome-wide association (GWA) studies of human personality have been recently published, genetic variants that are highly associated with certain personality traits remain unknown, due to difficulty reproducing results. To further investigate these genetic variants, we assessed biological pathways using GWA datasets. Pathway analysis using GWA data was performed on 1089 Korean women whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the 5-factor model of personality. A total of 1042 pathways containing 8297 genes were included in our study. Of these, 14 pathways were highly enriched with association signals that were validated in 1490 independent samples. These pathways include association of: Neuroticism with axon guidance [L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions]; Extraversion with neuronal system and voltage-gated potassium channels; Agreeableness with L1CAM interaction, neurotransmitter receptor binding and downstream transmission in postsynaptic cells; and Conscientiousness with the interferon-gamma and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide pathways. Several genes that contribute to top-ranked pathways in this study were previously identified in GWA studies or by pathway analysis in schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report the first pathway analysis of all five personality traits. Importantly, our analysis identified novel pathways that contribute to understanding the etiology of personality traits. PMID:25809424

  14. Psychopathy Deconstructed and Reconstructed: Identifying and Assembling the Personality Building Blocks of Cleckley's Chimera.

    PubMed

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Watts, Ashley L; Francis Smith, Sarah; Berg, Joanna M; Latzman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    The psychopathy field has long been beset by confusion and contention regarding the boundaries and features of this chimerical condition. We propose that this disagreement stems largely from the historical separation between psychopathy and basic personality psychology. Using findings from a meta-analysis of the correlations between the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and normal-range personality traits as a launching point, we (a) deconstruct widely used measures of psychopathy into their constituent subdimensions and (b) examine the associations of these subdimensions with higher-order and lower-order personality dimensions drawn from the Big Five and Big Three frameworks. Our review of the adult psychopathy literature reveals broad agreement that psychopathy measures are imbued with low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Nevertheless, substantial disagreement revolves around the place of largely adaptive features, especially high agentic Extraversion, low Neuroticism, and high Openness, within the psychopathy construct. We propose that ongoing debates regarding the nature and boundaries of psychopathy reflect a focus on two differing operationalizations of this condition, each of which reflects a different "species" of individual.

  15. An Examination of the Higher-Order Structure of Psychopathology and its Relationship to Personality.

    PubMed

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E

    2016-04-01

    This study compared a series of higher-order models encompassing symptoms of both clinical and personality disorders. The final model was then correlated with a latent variable model of normal personality traits. A total of 420 undergraduates completed a battery of self-report symptom and personality questionnaires, with informant-reports and diagnostic interviews provided by overlapping subsamples. A three-level model with two factors at the highest level and four factors at the second level was the best fitting model. The higher-order internalizing and externalizing factors were then correlated with 30 latent personality facets. Results demonstrate an elevation on the neuroticism facets for the higher-order internalizing factor, along with low positive emotions, low actions, and low competence. The higher-order externalizing factor was negatively associated with most conscientiousness and agreeableness factors, while showing an elevation on excitement-seeking, impulsivity, and angry hostility. Future studies should replicate these models with the inclusion of more low base-rate disorders (i.e., psychosis).

  16. The Five Factors of personality and regional cortical variability in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina; Davatzikos, Christos; Costa, Paul; Resnick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although personality changes have been associated with brain lesions and atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and aging, neuroanatomical correlates of personality in healthy individuals and their stability over time have received relatively little investigation. In this study, we explored regional gray matter (GM) volumetric associations of the five-factor model of personality. Eighty-seven healthy older adults took the NEO Personality Inventory and had brain MRI at two time points 2 years apart. We performed GM segmentation followed by regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space map creation and voxel based morphometry-type statistical inference in SPM8. We created a regression model including all five factors and important covariates. Next, a conjunction analysis identified associations between personality scores and GM volumes that were replicable across time, also using cluster-level Family-Wise-Error correction. Larger right orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and rolandic operculum were associated with lower Neuroticism; larger left temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices with higher Extraversion; larger right frontopolar and smaller orbitofrontal and insular cortices with higher Openness; larger right orbitofrontal cortex with higher Agreeableness; larger dorsolateral prefrontal and smaller frontopolar cortices with higher Conscientiousness. In summary, distinct personality traits were associated with stable individual differences in GM volumes. As expected for higher-order traits, regions performing a large number of cognitive and affective functions were implicated. Our findings highlight personality-related variation that may be related to individual differences in brain structure that merit additional attention in neuroimaging research. PMID:22610513

  17. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  18. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association datasets of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-N; Kim, B-H; Cho, J; Ryu, S; Shin, H; Sung, J; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Sung, Y A; Choi, B-O; Kim, H-L

    2015-04-01

    Although several genome-wide association (GWA) studies of human personality have been recently published, genetic variants that are highly associated with certain personality traits remain unknown, due to difficulty reproducing results. To further investigate these genetic variants, we assessed biological pathways using GWA datasets. Pathway analysis using GWA data was performed on 1089 Korean women whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the 5-factor model of personality. A total of 1042 pathways containing 8297 genes were included in our study. Of these, 14 pathways were highly enriched with association signals that were validated in 1490 independent samples. These pathways include association of: Neuroticism with axon guidance [L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions]; Extraversion with neuronal system and voltage-gated potassium channels; Agreeableness with L1CAM interaction, neurotransmitter receptor binding and downstream transmission in postsynaptic cells; and Conscientiousness with the interferon-gamma and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide pathways. Several genes that contribute to top-ranked pathways in this study were previously identified in GWA studies or by pathway analysis in schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report the first pathway analysis of all five personality traits. Importantly, our analysis identified novel pathways that contribute to understanding the etiology of personality traits.

  19. "A Match Made...Online?" The Effects of User-Generated Online Dater Profile Types (Free-Spirited Versus Uptight) on Other Users' Perception of Trustworthiness, Interpersonal Attraction, and Personality.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seunga Venus; Martin, Cassie

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the effects of an online dater's profile type (open/free-spirited vs. traditional/uptight) on people's perception of the dater's trustworthiness, interpersonal attraction, and Big Five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion). Interpersonal deception theory, theories of attraction, and source credibility model inform this research, providing a theoretical foundation for the proposed research questions and hypothesis. This research employed a simple two-group comparison experiment (open/free-spirited dater profile vs. traditional/uptight dater profile). Participants were randomly assigned to view either open or traditional profiles, and asked about their perception of the target dater. Results indicated a significant causal effect of user-generated online dater profile types on the dependent variables (perceived trustworthiness, interpersonal attraction, and Big Five personality traits) as well as a significant mediating effect of perceived trustworthiness. This study provided unique and necessary information on self-presentation and other perception in the online dating context, with the aim of helping theorists, online daters, and managers of online dating sites further their understandings of this novel and exciting romantic frontier. PMID:26075918

  20. Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Katherine A; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2011-11-01

    A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event. Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than 1 year after the session. The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change.