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Sample records for agreement protocol based

  1. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Luan, Da-Peng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol.

  2. Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on commutative encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiwu; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A secure multiparty quantum key agreement protocol using single-qubit states is proposed. The agreement key is computed by performing exclusive-OR operation on all the participants' secret keys. Based on the commutative property of the commutative encryption, the exclusive-OR operation can be performed on the plaintext in the encrypted state without decrypting it. Thus, it not only protects the final shared key, but also reduces the complexity of the computation. The efficiency of the proposed protocol, compared with previous multiparty QKA protocols, is also improved. In the presented protocol, entanglement states, joint measurement and even the unitary operations are not needed, and only rotation operations and single-state measurement are required, which are easier to be realized with current technology.

  3. An efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Three-party password-based key agreement protocols allow two users to authenticate each other via a public channel and establish a session key with the aid of a trusted server. Recently, Farash et al. [Farash M S, Attari M A 2014 “An efficient and provably secure three-party password-based authenticated key exchange protocol based on Chebyshev chaotic maps”, Nonlinear Dynamics 77(7): 399-411] proposed a three-party key agreement protocol by using the extended chaotic maps. They claimed that their protocol could achieve strong security. In the present paper, we analyze Farash et al.’s protocol and point out that this protocol is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and suffers communication burden. To handle the issue, we propose an efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps, which uses neither symmetric cryptosystems nor the server’s public key. Compared with the relevant schemes, our protocol provides better performance in terms of computation and communication. Therefore, it is suitable for practical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61462033).

  4. Security improvement on an anonymous key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Tseng et al. proposed a password sharing and chaotic map based key agreement protocol (Tseng et al.'s protocol). They claimed that the protocol provided mutual authentication between a server and a user, and allowed the user to anonymously interact with the server to establish a shared session key. However, in 2011, Niu et al. have proved that Tseng et al.'s protocol cannot guarantee user anonymity and protocol security when there is an internal adversary who is a legitimate user. Also it cannot provide perfect forward secrecy. Then Niu et al. introduced a trust third party (TTP) into their protocol designing (Niu et al.'s protocol). But according to our research, Niu et al.'s protocol is found to have several unsatisfactory drawbacks. Based on reconsidering Tseng et al.'s protocol without introducing TTP, we give some improvements to meet the original security and performance requirements. Meanwhile our proposed protocol overcomes the security flaws of Tseng et al.'s protocol.

  5. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  6. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  7. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  8. An Improved RSA Based User Authentication and Session Key Agreement Protocol Usable in TMIS.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Giri et al.'s proposed a RSA cryptosystem based remote user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system and claimed that the protocol is secure against all the relevant security attacks. However, we have scrutinized the Giri et al.'s protocol and pointed out that the protocol is not secure against off-line password guessing attack, privileged insider attack and also suffers from anonymity problem. Moreover, the extension of password guessing attack leads to more security weaknesses. Therefore, this protocol needs improvement in terms of security before implementing in real-life application. To fix the mentioned security pitfalls, this paper proposes an improved scheme over Giri et al.'s scheme, which preserves user anonymity property. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA tool which ensures that the protocol is SAFE under OFMC and CL-AtSe models, that means the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal cryptanalysis has been also presented, which confirmed that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The performance analysis section compares the proposed protocol with other existing protocols in terms of security and it has been observed that the protocol provides more security and achieves additional functionalities such as user anonymity and session key verification. PMID:26123833

  9. A Biometric Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol for Secure Token

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Eun-Jun; Yoo, Kee-Young

    This letter proposes a robust biometric authenticated key agreement (BAKA) protocol for a secure token to provide strong security and minimize the computation cost of each participant. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed BAKA protocol not only is secure against well-known cryptographical attacks but also provides various functionality and performance requirements.

  10. Agreements between Industry and Academia on Publication Rights: A Retrospective Study of Protocols and Publications of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kasenda, Benjamin; von Elm, Erik; You, John J.; Tomonaga, Yuki; Saccilotto, Ramon; Amstutz, Alain; Bengough, Theresa; Meerpohl, Joerg J.; Stegert, Mihaela; Olu, Kelechi K.; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Neumann, Ignacio; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Faulhaber, Markus; Mulla, Sohail M.; Mertz, Dominik; Akl, Elie A.; Bassler, Dirk; Busse, Jason W.; Nordmann, Alain; Gloy, Viktoria; Ebrahim, Shanil; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Sun, Xin; Vandvik, Per O.; Johnston, Bradley C.; Walter, Martin A.; Burnand, Bernard; Hemkens, Lars G.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Briel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) based on archived protocols approved by six research ethics committees between 13 January 2000 and 25 November 2003. Only RCTs with industry involvement were eligible. We investigated the documentation of publication agreements in RCT protocols and statements in corresponding journal publications. Of 647 eligible RCT protocols, 456 (70.5%) mentioned an agreement regarding publication of results. Of these 456, 393 (86.2%) documented an industry partner’s right to disapprove or at least review proposed manuscripts; 39 (8.6%) agreements were without constraints of publication. The remaining 24 (5.3%) protocols referred to separate agreement documents not accessible to us. Of those 432 protocols with an accessible publication agreement, 268 (62.0%) trials were published. Most agreements documented in the protocol were not reported in the subsequent publication (197/268 [73.5%]). Of 71 agreements reported in publications, 52 (73.2%) were concordant with those documented in the protocol. In 14 of 37 (37.8%) publications in which statements suggested unrestricted publication rights, at least one co-author was an industry employee. In 25 protocol-publication pairs, author statements in publications suggested no constraints, but 18 corresponding protocols documented restricting agreements. Conclusions Publication agreements constraining academic authors’ independence are common. Journal articles seldom report on

  11. Cryptanalysis and improvement of authentication and key agreement protocols for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Islam, S K Hafizul; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2014-10-01

    Recently, many authentication protocols have been presented using smartcard for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS). In 2014, Xu et al. put forward a two-factor mutual authentication with key agreement protocol using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). However, the authors have proved that the protocol is not appropriate for practical use as it has many problems (1) it fails to achieve strong authentication in login and authentication phases; (2) it fails to update the password correctly in the password change phase; (3) it fails to provide the revocation of lost/stolen smartcard; and (4) it fails to protect the strong replay attack. We then devised an anonymous and provably secure two-factor authentication protocol based on ECC. Our protocol is analyzed with the random oracle model and demonstrated to be formally secured against the hardness assumption of computational Diffie-Hellman problem. The performance evaluation demonstrated that our protocol outperforms from the perspective of security, functionality and computation costs over other existing designs. PMID:25190590

  12. An improved authenticated key agreement protocol for telecare medicine information system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhao; Xie, Qi; Wang, Shengbao; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In telecare medicine information systems (TMIS), identity authentication of patients plays an important role and has been widely studied in the research field. Generally, it is realized by an authenticated key agreement protocol, and many such protocols were proposed in the literature. Recently, Zhang et al. pointed out that Islam et al.'s protocol suffers from the following security weaknesses: (1) Any legal but malicious patient can reveal other user's identity; (2) An attacker can launch off-line password guessing attack and the impersonation attack if the patient's identity is compromised. Zhang et al. also proposed an improved authenticated key agreement scheme with privacy protection for TMIS. However, in this paper, we point out that Zhang et al.'s scheme cannot resist off-line password guessing attack, and it fails to provide the revocation of lost/stolen smartcard. In order to overcome these weaknesses, we propose an improved protocol, the security and authentication of which can be proven using applied pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif. PMID:27218005

  13. Freshness-preserving non-interactive hierarchical key agreement protocol over WHMS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsung

    2014-01-01

    The digitization of patient health information (PHI) for wireless health monitoring systems (WHMSs) has brought many benefits and challenges for both patients and physicians. However, security, privacy and robustness have remained important challenges for WHMSs. Since the patient's PHI is sensitive and the communication channel, i.e., the Internet, is insecure, it is important to protect them against unauthorized entities, i.e., attackers. Otherwise, failure to do so will not only lead to the compromise of a patient's privacy, but will also put his/her life at risk. This paper proposes a freshness-preserving non-interactive hierarchical key agreement protocol (FNKAP) for WHMSs. The FNKAP is based on the concept of the non-interactive identity-based key agreement for communication efficiency. It achieves patient anonymity between a patient and physician, session key secrecy and resistance against various security attacks, especially including replay attacks. PMID:25513824

  14. Freshness-Preserving Non-Interactive Hierarchical Key Agreement Protocol over WHMS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsung

    2014-01-01

    The digitization of patient health information (PHI) for wireless health monitoring systems (WHMSs) has brought many benefits and challenges for both patients and physicians. However, security, privacy and robustness have remained important challenges for WHMSs. Since the patient's PHI is sensitive and the communication channel, i.e., the Internet, is insecure, it is important to protect them against unauthorized entities, i.e., attackers. Otherwise, failure to do so will not only lead to the compromise of a patient's privacy, but will also put his/her life at risk. This paper proposes a freshness-preserving non-interactive hierarchical key agreement protocol (FNKAP) for WHMSs. The FNKAP is based on the concept of the non-interactive identity-based key agreement for communication efficiency. It achieves patient anonymity between a patient and physician, session key secrecy and resistance against various security attacks, especially including replay attacks. PMID:25513824

  15. Collusive attacks to "circle-type" multi-party quantum key agreement protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Xiao, Di; Jia, Heng-Yue; Liu, Run-Zong

    2016-05-01

    We find that existing multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocols designed for fairness of the key are, in fact, unfair. Our analysis shows that these protocols are sensitive to collusive attacks; that is, dishonest participants can collaborate in predetermining the key without being detected. In fact, the transmission structures of the quantum particles in those unfair MQKA protocols, three of which have already been analyzed, have much in common. We call these unfair MQKA protocols circle-type MQKA protocols. Likewise, the transmission structures of the quantum particles in MQKA protocols that can resist collusive attacks are also similar. We call such protocols complete-graph-type MQKA protocols. A MQKA protocol also exists that can resist the above attacks but is still not fair, and we call it the tree-type MQKA protocol. We first point out a common, easily missed loophole that severely compromises the fairness of present circle-type MQKA protocols. Then we show that two dishonest participants at special positions can totally predetermine the key generated by circle-type MQKA protocols. We anticipate that our observations will contribute to secure and fair MQKA protocols, especially circle-type protocols.

  16. Protocols of quantum key agreement solely using Bell states and Bell measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Alam, Nasir; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-07-01

    Two protocols of quantum key agreement (QKA) that solely use Bell state and Bell measurement are proposed. The first protocol of QKA proposed here is designed for two-party QKA, whereas the second protocol is designed for multi-party QKA. The proposed protocols are also generalized to implement QKA using a set of multi-partite entangled states (e.g., 4-qubit cluster state and Ω state). Security of these protocols arises from the monogamy of entanglement. This is in contrast to the existing protocols of QKA where security arises from the use of non-orthogonal state (non-commutativity principle). Further, it is shown that all the quantum systems that are useful for implementation of quantum dialogue and most of the protocols of secure direct quantum communication can be modified to implement protocols of QKA.

  17. Chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement using smart cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cheng; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2013-06-01

    Password-based authenticated key agreement using smart cards has been widely and intensively researched. Inspired by the semi-group property of Chebyshev maps and key agreement protocols based on chaotic maps, we proposed a novel chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement protocol with smart cards. In our protocol, we avoid modular exponential computing or scalar multiplication on elliptic curve used in traditional authenticated key agreement protocols using smart cards. Our analysis shows that our protocol has comprehensive characteristics and can withstand attacks, including the insider attack, replay attack, and others, satisfying essential security requirements. Performance analysis shows that our protocol can refrain from consuming modular exponential computing and scalar multiplication on an elliptic curve. The computational cost of our protocol compared with related protocols is acceptable.

  18. Assessment of Assistance in Smoking Cessation Therapy by Pharmacies in Collaboration with Medical Institutions- Implementation of a Collaborative Drug Therapy Management Protocol Based on a Written Agreement between Physicians and Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumiyuki; Shinohara, Kuniko; Dobashi, Akira; Amagai, Kenji; Hara, Kazuo; Kurata, Kaori; Iizima, Hideo; Shimakawa, Kiyoshi; Shimada, Masahiko; Abe, Sakurako; Takei, Keiji; Kamei, Miwako

    2016-01-01

    This study built a protocol for drug therapy management (hereinafter "the protocol") that would enable continuous support from the decision making of smoking cessation therapy to the completion of therapy through the collaboration of physicians and community pharmacists, after which we evaluated whether the use of this protocol would be helpful to smoking cessation therapy. This study utilized the "On the Promotion of Team-Based Medical Care", a Notification by the Health Policy Bureau as one of the resources for judgment, and referred to collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM) in the United States. After the implementation of this protocol, the success rate of smoking cessation at the participating medical institutions rose to approximately 70%, approximately 28-point improvement compared to the rate before the implementation. In addition to the benefits of the standard smoking cessation program, this result may have been affected by the intervention of pharmacists, who assisted in continuing cessation by advising to reduce drug dosage as necessary approximately one week after the smoking cessation, when side effects and the urge to smoke tend to occur. Additionally, the awareness survey for the intervention group revealed that all respondents, including patients who failed to quit smoking, answered that they were satisfied to the question on general satisfaction. The question about the reason for successful cessation revealed that the support by pharmacists was as important as, or more important than, that by physicians and nurses. This infers that the pharmacists' active engagement in drug therapy for individual patients was favorably acknowledged. PMID:27592827

  19. A Secure Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for TMIS With User Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) and doctor(s) over the insecure internet. Therefore, data security, privacy and user authentication are enormously important for accessing important medical data over insecure communication. Recently, many user authentication protocols for TMIS have been proposed in the literature and it has been observed that most of the protocols cannot achieve complete security requirements. In this paper, we have scrutinized two (Mishra et al., Xu et al.) remote user authentication protocols using smart card and explained that both the protocols are suffering against several security weaknesses. We have then presented three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which fix the security pitfalls of the above mentioned schemes. The informal cryptanalysis makes certain that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. Furthermore, the simulator AVISPA tool confirms that the protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The security functionalities and performance comparison analysis confirm that our protocol not only provide strong protection on security attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase as well as session key verification property. PMID:26112322

  20. A Wiki Based CT Protocol Management System.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Rubert, Nicholas; Belden, Daryn; Ciano, Amanda; Duplissis, Andrew; Hermanns, Ashley; Monette, Stephen; Saldivar, Elliott Janssen

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin Madison Department of Radiology, CT protocol management requires maintenance of thousands of parameters for each scanner. Managing CT protocols is further complicated by the unique configurability of each scanner. Due to recent Joint Commission requirements, now all CT protocol changes must be documented and reviewed by a site's CT protocol optimization team. The difficulty of managing the CT protocols was not in assembling the protocols, but in managing and implementing changes. This is why a wiki based solution for protocol management was implemented. A wiki inherently keeps track of all changes, logging who made the changes and when, allowing for editing and viewing permissions to be controlled, as well as allowing protocol changes to be instantly relayed to all scanner locations. PMID:26710573

  1. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps. PMID:26090515

  2. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps. PMID:26090515

  3. Quantum key distribution protocol using random bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meslouhi, A.; Amellal, H.; Hassouni, Y.; El Baz, M.; El Allati, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to enhance the quantum key distribution (QKD) security, a new protocol, “QKDPRB” based on random bases is proposed. It consists of using standard encoding bases moving circularly with a variable rotational angle α which depends on angular velocity ω(t); thus, the traditional bases turn into relative ones. To prove the security and the efficiency of the protocol, we present a universal demonstration which proves a high level security of the proposed protocol, even in the presence of the intercept and resend attack. Finally, the QKDPRB may improve the security of QKD.

  4. A novel user authentication and key agreement protocol for accessing multi-medical server usable in TMIS.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-03-01

    Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) at home and doctor(s) at a clinical center. To ensure secure connection between the two entities (patient(s)/user(s), doctor(s)), user authentication is enormously important for the medical server. In this regard, many authentication protocols have been proposed in the literature only for accessing single medical server. In order to fix the drawbacks of the single medical server, we have primarily developed a novel architecture for accessing several medical services of the multi-medical server, where a user can directly communicate with the doctor of the medical server securely. Thereafter, we have developed a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using cryptographic one-way hash function. We have analyzed the security of our proposed authentication scheme through both formal and informal security analysis. Furthermore, we have simulated the proposed scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and showed that the scheme is secure against the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal security analysis is also presented which confirms that the protocol has well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The security and performance comparison analysis confirm that the proposed protocol not only provides security protection on the above mentioned attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase. PMID:25681100

  5. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  6. Flexible protocol for quantum private query based on B92 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng; Tian, Ju

    2013-12-01

    Jakobi et al. for the first time proposed a novel and practical quantum private query (QPQ) protocol based on SARG04 (Scarani et al. in Phys Rev Lett 92:057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol (Jakobi et al. in Phys Rev A 83:022301, 2011). Gao et al. generalized Jakobi et al's protocol and proposed a flexible QPQ protocol (Gao et al. in Opt Exp 20(16):17411-17420, 2012). When θ <π /4, Gao et al's protocol exhibits better database security than Jakobi et al's protocol, but has a higher probability with which Bob can correctly guess the address of Alice's query. In this paper, we propose a flexible B92-based QPQ protocol. Although SARG04 protocol is a modification of B92 protocol and can be seen as a generalization of B92 protocol, our protocol shows different advantages from Gao et al's protocol. It can simultaneously obtain better database security and a lower probability with which Bob can correctly guess the address of Alice's query when θ <π /4. By introducing entanglement, the proposed QPQ protocol is robust against channel-loss attack, which also implies lower classical communication complexity. Similar to Gao et al's protocol, it is flexible, practical, and robust against quantum memory attack.

  7. Two-party quantum key agreement based on four-particle GHZ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Based on four-particle GHZ states, the double CNOT operation and the delayed measurement technique, a two-party quantum key agreement (QKA) protocols is proposed. The double CNOT operation makes each four-particle GHZ state collapse into two independent quantum states without any entanglement. Furthermore, one party can directly know the two quantum states and the other party can be aware of the two quantum states by using the corresponding measurement. According to the initial states of the two quantum states, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Then the protocol achieves the fair establishment of a shared key. The security analysis shows that the new protocol can resist against participant attacks, the Trojan horse attacks and other outsider attacks. Furthermore, the new protocol also has no information leakage problem and has high qubit efficiency.

  8. Improved chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement using smart cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Han-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Elaborating on the security of password-based authenticated key agreement, in this paper, the author cryptanalyzes a chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement proposed by Guo and Chang recently. Specifically, their protocol could not achieve strong user anonymity due to a fixed parameter and a malicious adversary is able to derive the shared session key by manipulating the property of Chebyshev chaotic maps. Additionally, the author also presents an improved scheme to eliminate the above weaknesses and still maintain the efficiency.

  9. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation. PMID:25105163

  10. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; de Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

  11. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  12. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when compared to other related protocols. PMID:27462493

  13. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  14. A protocol-based evaluation of medical image digitizers.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, E P; Costaridou, L; Kocsis, O; Panayiotakis, G

    2001-09-01

    Medical film digitizers play an important transitory role as digital-to-analogue bridges in radiology. Their use requires performance evaluation to assure medical image quality. A complete quality control protocol is presented, based on a set of test objects adaptable to the specification of various digitizers. The protocol includes parameters such as uniformity, input-output response, noise, geometric distortion, spatial resolution, low contrast discrimination, film slippage and light leakage, as well as associated measurement methods. The applicability of the protocol is demonstrated with two types of medical film digitizers; a charge-coupled device (CCD) digitizer and a laser digitizer. The potential value of the protocol is also discussed. PMID:11560833

  15. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  16. An Efficient and Provably Secure Cross-Realm Client-to-Client Password-Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol with Smart Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wenting; Xu, Jing

    Cross-realm client-to-client password-authenticated key agreement (C2C-PAKA) protocols provide an authenticated key exchange between two clients of different realms, who only share their passwords with their own servers. Recently, several such cross-realm C2C-PAKA protocols have been suggested in the private-key (symmetric) setting, but all of these protocols are found to be vulnerable to password-compromise impersonation attacks. In this paper, we propose our innovative C2C- PAKA-SC protocol in which smart cards are first utilized in the cross-realm setting so that it can resist all types of common attacks including password-compromise impersonation attacks and provide improved efficiency. Moveover, we modify the original formal security model to adapt our proposed protocol and present a corresponding security proof.

  17. A Contextuality Based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    In 2005 Spekkens presented a generalization of noncontextuality that applies to imperfect measurements (POVMs) by allowing the underlying hidden variable model to be indeterministic. In addition, unlike traditional Bell-Kochen-Specker noncontextuality, HV models of a single qubit were shown to be contextual under this definition. Thus, not all single qubit POVM measurement outcomes can be modeled classically. Recently M. Pusey showed that, under certain conditions, exhibiting an anomalous weak value (i.e. values outside the eigenspectrum of the observable) implies contextuality. We will present a new single qubit prepare and measure QKD protocol that uses observation of anomalous weak values of particular observables to estimate the quantum channel error rate and certify the security of the channel. We also argue that it is the ``degree'' of contextuality of the noisy qubits exiting the channel that fundamentally determine the secure key rate. A benefit of this approach is that the security does not depend on the fair sampling assumption, and so is not compromised by Eve controlling Bob's measurement devices. Thus, it retains much of the benefit of ``Measurement Device Independent'' QKD protocols while only using single photon preparations and measurements. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-15-1-2225.

  18. Packet-Based Protocol Efficiency for Aeronautical and Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between bit error ratios and the effective link efficiency when transporting data with a packet-based protocol. Relations are developed to quantify the impact of a protocol s packet size and header size relative to the bit error ratio of the underlying link. These relations are examined in the context of radio transmissions that exhibit variable error conditions, such as those used in satellite, aeronautical, and other wireless networks. A comparison of two packet sizing methodologies is presented. From these relations, the true ability of a link to deliver user data, or information, is determined. Relations are developed to calculate the optimal protocol packet size forgiven link error characteristics. These relations could be useful in future research for developing an adaptive protocol layer. They can also be used for sizing protocols in the design of static links, where bit error ratios have small variability.

  19. A probability-based formula for calculating interobserver agreement1

    PubMed Central

    Yelton, Ann R.; Wildman, Beth G.; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of observer agreement are necessary to assess the acceptability of interval data. A common method for assessing observer agreement, per cent agreement, includes several major weaknesses and varies as a function of the frequency of behavior recorded and the inclusion or exclusion of agreements on nonoccurrences. Also, agreements that might be expected to occur by chance are not taken into account. An alternative method for assessing observer agreement that determines the exact probability that the obtained number of agreements or better would have occurred by chance is presented and explained. Agreements on both occurrences and nonoccurrences of behavior are considered in the calculation of this probability. PMID:16795541

  20. A Quantum Watermarking Protocol Based on Bell Dual Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jia; Ma, Zhaofeng; Yang, Yixian; Niu, Xinxin

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a Bell-dual-basis-based quantum watermarking protocol composed of three major algorithms: watermark embedding and extracting and the intercepting test. The first two are completed by using the entanglement swapping property of Bell dual basis and the test is accomplished through IBF protocol to guarantee its bottom security. The watermarking protocol is mainly designed for the protection of digital copyright in the existence of classical information. This design finds that the quality of digital contents is not damaged with its zero-watermark attributes when embedding watermarks.

  1. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  2. An XML-based protocol for distributed event services

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Dan K.; Smith, Warren; Quesnel, Darcy

    2001-06-25

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  3. A Voting Protocol Based on the Controlled Quantum Operation Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Juan-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yan-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Based on the controlled quantum operation teleportation, a secure voting protocol is proposed in this paper. Genuine four-qubit entangled state functions as the quantum channel. The eligible voter's quantum operation which represents his vote information can be transmitted to the tallyman Bob with the help of the scrutineer Charlie. Voter's quantum identity authentication provides the anonymity of voters'ID, which is ensured by a zero-knowledge proof of the notary organization CA. Charlie's supervision in the whole voting process can make the protocol satisfy verifiability and non-reusability so as to avoid Bob's dishonest behaviour. The security analysis shows that the voting protocol satisfies unforgeability, and has great advantages over some relevant researches. Additionally, the quantum operation can be transmitted successfully with the probability 1, which can make the protocol reliable and practical.

  4. Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

  5. Secure Biometrically Based Authentication Protocol for a Public Network Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Bobby; von Solms, Basie

    Biometric technology allows a computer system to identify and authenticate a person directly based on physical or behavioral traits [1]. However passwords and tokens that are currently widely used for authentication purposes do not directly authenticate a person; whenever a person offers a password or token the system only authenticates the presented password or token as authentic, but not the actual person presenting it [2], [8]. For this reason a lot of research went into developing a protocol that will allow a person to securely use a biometric token for personal authentication. Biometric technology is an attractive option for authenticating a person as there is a direct link between the person and a person's biometric token. This paper discusses a protocol, named BioVault. BioVault ensures safe transport of biometric tokens over un-secure networked environment without using any encryption technologies. The BioVault protocol also lays the foundation for biometrically based encryption, and biometrically based digital signatures.

  6. An Enhanced Security Protocol for VANET-Based Entertainment Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Hyoung-Kee

    Multimedia transactions between vehicles are expected to become a promising application in VANETs but security is a fundamental issue that must be resolved before such transactions can become practical and trusted. Existing certificate-based digital signature schemes are ineffective for ensuring the security of multimedia transactions in VANETs. This ineffectiveness exists because there is no guarantee that (1) vehicles can download the latest certificate revocation lists or that (2) vehicles can complete a multimedia transaction before leaving their communication range. These two problems result, respectively, from a lack of infrastructure and from the inconsistent connectivity inherent in VANETs. In this paper, we propose a digital signature approach that combines a certificateless signature scheme and short-lived public keys to alleviate these problems. We then propose a security protocol that uses the proposed signature approach for multimedia transactions between vehicles. The proposed protocol enables vehicles to trade in multimedia resources without an online trust authority. We provide an analytical approach to optimizing the security of the proposed protocol. The security and performance of our protocol are evaluated via simulation and theoretical analysis. Based on these evaluations, we contend that the proposed protocol is practical for multimedia transactions in VANETs in terms of security and performance.

  7. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the application of an XML (extensible mark-up language)-based protocol to the developing field of distributed processing by way of a computational grid which resembles an electric power grid. XML tags would be used to transmit events between the participants of a transaction, namely, the consumer and the producer of the grid scheme.

  8. Quantum Encryption Protocol Based on Continuous Variable EPR Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang-Qiang; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2006-07-01

    A quantum encryption protocol based on Gaussian-modulated continuous variable EPR correlations is proposed. The security is guaranteed by continuous variable EPR entanglement correlations produced by nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). For general beam splitter eavesdropping strategy, the mutual information I(α,epsilon) between Alice and Eve is calculated by employing Shannon information theory. Finally the security analysis is presented.

  9. Code Combining Based Cooperative LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaduzzaman; Kong, Hyung-Yun

    This letter proposes a simple modification of LEACH protocol to exploit its multi-hop scenario for user cooperation. Instead of a single cluster-head we propose M cluster-heads in each cluster to obtain the diversity of order M. All cluster-heads gather data from all sensor nodes within the cluster using the same technique as LEACH. Cluster-heads transmit gathered data cooperatively towards the destination or higher order cluster-head. We propose a code combining based cooperative protocol. We also develop the upper bounds on frame error rate (FER) for our proposal. Simulation and analysis show that our proposal can significantly prolong the system lifetime.

  10. The Verification-based Analysis of Reliable Multicast Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yunqing

    1996-01-01

    Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) is a communication protocol that provides an atomic, totally ordered, reliable multicast service on top of unreliable IP Multicasting. In this paper, we develop formal models for R.W using existing automatic verification systems, and perform verification-based analysis on the formal RMP specifications. We also use the formal models of RW specifications to generate a test suite for conformance testing of the RMP implementation. Throughout the process of RMP development, we follow an iterative, interactive approach that emphasizes concurrent and parallel progress between the implementation and verification processes. Through this approach, we incorporate formal techniques into our development process, promote a common understanding for the protocol, increase the reliability of our software, and maintain high fidelity between the specifications of RMP and its implementation.

  11. Protocols for Image Processing based Underwater Inspection of Infrastructure Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Image processing can be an important tool for inspecting underwater infrastructure elements like bridge piers and pile wharves. Underwater inspection often relies on visual descriptions of divers who are not necessarily trained in specifics of structural degradation and the information may often be vague, prone to error or open to significant variation of interpretation. Underwater vehicles, on the other hand can be quite expensive to deal with for such inspections. Additionally, there is now significant encouragement globally towards the deployment of more offshore renewable wind turbines and wave devices and the requirement for underwater inspection can be expected to increase significantly in the coming years. While the merit of image processing based assessment of the condition of underwater structures is understood to a certain degree, there is no existing protocol on such image based methods. This paper discusses and describes an image processing protocol for underwater inspection of structures. A stereo imaging image processing method is considered in this regard and protocols are suggested for image storage, imaging, diving, and inspection. A combined underwater imaging protocol is finally presented which can be used for a variety of situations within a range of image scenes and environmental conditions affecting the imaging conditions. An example of detecting marine growth is presented of a structure in Cork Harbour, Ireland.

  12. A Network Coding Based Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huayang; Chen, Min; Guan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime. PMID:22666045

  13. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  14. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol.

    PubMed

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  15. ASCOM based research on the universal control protocol of telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Luo, Chuanxin

    2014-08-01

    Remote control for the telescope can greatly reduce personnel requirements for observation and improve the quality of observation. It is important for astronomical observations. ASCOM provide a driver-client layer to separate astronomy device-specifics from the application software that uses those devices in the same time make sure that the drivers are usable from all programming languages. By building the server, client and drivers based on the ASCOM standard protocol to remote control the telescope. The software use Microsoft COM component programming model. Its API consists of a set of standard properties and methods , as defined in the relevant ASCOM interface specification and permit compatibility with all Windows languages. Applications control the operation of the equipment via ASCOM to invoke device driver. Using ASCOM common protocols will greatly improve the scalability and compatibility of system.

  16. Proposed Requirements-driven User-scenario Development Protocol for the Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Car, N.; Percivall, G.; Allen, D.; Fitch, P. G.; Baumann, P.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) is designed to foster a global community to collaborate on e-infrastructure challenges. One of the deliverables is an implementation plan to address global data infrastructure interoperability challenges and align existing domestic and international capabilities. Work package three (WP3) of the CRA focuses on the harmonization of global data infrastructure for sharing environmental data. One of the subtasks under WP3 is the development of user scenarios that guide the development of applicable deliverables. This paper describes the proposed protocol for user scenario development. It enables the solicitation of user scenarios from a broad constituency, and exposes the mechanisms by which those solicitations are evaluated against requirements that map to the Belmont Challenge. The underlying principle of traceability forms the basis for a structured, requirements-driven approach resulting in work products amenable to trade-off analyses and objective prioritization. The protocol adopts the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a top level framework. User scenarios are developed within RM-ODP's "Enterprise Viewpoint". To harmonize with existing frameworks, the protocol utilizes the conceptual constructs of "scenarios", "use cases", "use case categories", and use case templates as adopted by recent GEOSS Architecture Implementation Project (AIP) deliverables and CSIRO's eReefs project. These constructs are encapsulated under the larger construct of "user scenarios". Once user scenarios are ranked by goodness-of-fit to the Belmont Challenge, secondary scoring metrics may be generated, like goodness-of-fit to FutureEarth science themes. The protocol also facilitates an assessment of the ease of implementing given user scenario using existing GEOSS AIP deliverables. In summary, the protocol results in a traceability graph that can be extended to coordinate

  17. A knowledge-based care protocol system for ICU.

    PubMed

    Lau, F; Vincent, D D

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using care maps in ICU. So far, the emphasis has been on developing the critical path, problem/outcome, and variance reporting for specific diagnoses. This paper presents a conceptual knowledge-based care protocol system design for the ICU. It is based on the manual care map currently in use for managing myocardial infarction in the ICU of the Sturgeon General Hospital in Alberta. The proposed design uses expert rules, object schemas, case-based reasoning, and quantitative models as sources of its knowledge. Also being developed is a decision model with explicit linkages for outcome-process-measure from the care map. The resulting system is intended as a bedside charting and decision-support tool for caregivers. Proposed usage includes charting by acknowledgment, generation of alerts, and critiques on variances/events recorded, recommendations for planned interventions, and comparison with historical cases. Currently, a prototype is being developed on a PC-based network with Visual Basic, Level-Expert Object, and xBase. A clinical trial is also planned to evaluate whether this knowledge-based care protocol can reduce the length of stay of patients with myocardial infarction in the ICU. PMID:8591604

  18. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    PubMed

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  19. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  20. A realistic evaluation: the case of protocol-based care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Protocol based care' was envisioned by policy makers as a mechanism for delivering on the service improvement agenda in England. Realistic evaluation is an increasingly popular approach, but few published examples exist, particularly in implementation research. To fill this gap, within this paper we describe the application of a realistic evaluation approach to the study of protocol-based care, whilst sharing findings of relevance about standardising care through the use of protocols, guidelines, and pathways. Methods Situated between positivism and relativism, realistic evaluation is concerned with the identification of underlying causal mechanisms, how they work, and under what conditions. Fundamentally it focuses attention on finding out what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Results In this research, we were interested in understanding the relationships between the type and nature of particular approaches to protocol-based care (mechanisms), within different clinical settings (context), and what impacts this resulted in (outcomes). An evidence review using the principles of realist synthesis resulted in a number of propositions, i.e., context, mechanism, and outcome threads (CMOs). These propositions were then 'tested' through multiple case studies, using multiple methods including non-participant observation, interviews, and document analysis through an iterative analysis process. The initial propositions (conjectured CMOs) only partially corresponded to the findings that emerged during analysis. From the iterative analysis process of scrutinising mechanisms, context, and outcomes we were able to draw out some theoretically generalisable features about what works, for whom, how, and what circumstances in relation to the use of standardised care approaches (refined CMOs). Conclusions As one of the first studies to apply realistic evaluation in implementation research, it was a good fit, particularly given the growing emphasis on

  1. Self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šupić, I.; Augusiak, R.; Salavrakos, A.; Acín, A.

    2016-03-01

    Self-testing is a device-independent technique based on non-local correlations whose aim is to certify the effective uniqueness of the quantum state and measurements needed to produce these correlations. It is known that the maximal violation of some Bell inequalities suffices for this purpose. However, most of the existing self-testing protocols for two devices exploit the well-known Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Bell inequality or modifications of it, and always with two measurements per party. Here, we generalize the previous results by demonstrating that one can construct self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities, defined for two devices implementing an arbitrary number of two-output measurements. On the one hand, this proves that the quantum state and measurements leading to the maximal violation of the chained Bell inequality are unique. On the other hand, in the limit of a large number of measurements, our approach allows one to self-test the entire plane of measurements spanned by the Pauli matrices X and Z. Our results also imply that the chained Bell inequalities can be used to certify two bits of perfect randomness.

  2. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

  3. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  4. Evidence-based guidelines: Improving AGREEment on consistence evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Napolitano, Andrea; Santini, Daniele; Maiello, Evaristo; Torri, Valter; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Modern clinical practice relies on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based guidelines (EBGs). The critical evaluation of EBGs value is therefore an essential step to further improve clinical practice. In our opinion, correlating levels of evidence and grades of recommendation can be an easy tool to quickly display internal consistence of EBGs. PMID:26909252

  5. Endoscopic Endonasal Reconstruction of Skull Base: Repair Protocol.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Amir R; Stofko, Douglas; Okun, Jessica; Obourn, Chelsea; Kennedy, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Background Endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstructions have been associated with postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. Objective A repair protocol for endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstruction is presented with the objective of decreasing the overall leak rate. Methods A total of 180 endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstructions were reviewed. Reconstructions were classified I to IV according to the reconstruction method, determined by severity of intraoperatively encountered CSF leaks for types I to III, and planned preoperatively for type IVs, which required nasoseptal flap. Results A total of 11 patients(6%) had postoperative leaks: 0 in type I (0%), 2 in type II (5%), 7 in type III (18%), and 2 (4%) in type IV reconstruction. Type III leak rate was higher than all other reconstructions. Total 31 intraoperative and 16 postoperative lumbar drains were placed. More patients had lumbar drains placed postoperatively for type III and intraoperatively for type IV than all other groups. There were significant overall differences in postoperative CSF leaks and lumbar drain placement between the four reconstruction types. No patient with type III reconstruction and intraoperative lumbar drain had postoperative CSF leak. Conclusions A repair protocol for endoscopic endonasal reconstructions determined by intraoperative CSF leak and preoperative planning minimizes unnecessary repair materials and additional morbidity. Our experience leads to a routine prophylactic lumbar drain placement in all type III leak and reconstructions. We also favor the type III reconstruction for minor intraoperative leaks, and a more generous use of type IV reconstructions in expectation of significant intraoperative CSF leak. The option of rescue flap technique in type III leaks should be strongly considered. PMID:27175324

  6. VANET Clustering Based Routing Protocol Suitable for Deserts

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Nasr, Mohammed Mohsen; Abdelgader, Abdeldime Mohamed Salih; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Shen, Lian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has emerged applications of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) towards security, safety, rescue, exploration, military and communication redundancy systems in non-populated areas, besides its ordinary use in urban environments as an essential part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the process of organizing a cluster structure and cluster head election (CHE) suitable for VANETs. Moreover, it presents a robust clustering-based routing protocol, which is appropriate for deserts and can achieve high communication efficiency, ensuring reliable information delivery and optimal exploitation of the equipment on each vehicle. A comprehensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed CHE and routing algorithms. PMID:27058539

  7. VANET Clustering Based Routing Protocol Suitable for Deserts.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed Mohsen Mohammed; Abdelgader, Abdeldime Mohamed Salih; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Shen, Lian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has emerged applications of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) towards security, safety, rescue, exploration, military and communication redundancy systems in non-populated areas, besides its ordinary use in urban environments as an essential part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the process of organizing a cluster structure and cluster head election (CHE) suitable for VANETs. Moreover, it presents a robust clustering-based routing protocol, which is appropriate for deserts and can achieve high communication efficiency, ensuring reliable information delivery and optimal exploitation of the equipment on each vehicle. A comprehensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed CHE and routing algorithms. PMID:27058539

  8. Enhancing data exploitation through DTN-based data transmission protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Balasis, Georgios; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Paronis, Dimitrios; Sykioti, Olga; Tsinganos, Antonios

    2014-05-01

    Data distribution and data access are major issues in space sciences and geosciences as they strongly influence the degree of data exploitation. Processing and analysis of large volumes of Earth observation and space/planetary data face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity windows between spacecraft and ground receiving stations and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between space data receiving centres and the end-user community. Real-time data assimilation that would be critical in a number of forecasting capabilities is particularly affected by such limitations. The FP7-Space project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) has the aim of allowing space agencies, academic institutes and research centres to disseminate/share space data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. The approach of SDR relies on space internetworking - and in particular on Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications, unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The project includes the definition of limitations imposed by typical space mission scenarios in which the National Observatory of Athens is currently involved, including space and planetary exploration, as well as satellite-supported geoscience applications. In this paper, we present the mission scenarios, the SDR-application and the evaluation of the associated impact from the space-data router enhancements. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  9. A Public-Key Based Authentication and Key Establishment Protocol Coupled with a Client Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, M. C.; Fung, Chun-Kan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses network denial-of-service attacks which have become a security threat to the Internet community and suggests the need for reliable authentication protocols in client-server applications. Presents a public-key based authentication and key establishment protocol coupled with a client puzzle protocol and validates it through formal logic…

  10. REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATION OF THE MODEL PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE AGREEMENT(S) BETWEEN STATE(S) AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS, INFCIRC/540 (Corrected) VOLUME II/III IAEA COMMITTEE 24, Major Issues Underlying the Model Additional Protocol (1996-1997).

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Saum-Manning, L.; Houck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Volume I of this Review traces the origins of the Model Additional Protocol. It covers the period from 1991, when events in Iraq triggered an intensive review of the safeguards system, until 1996, when the IAEA Board of Governors established Committee 24 to negotiate a new protocol to safeguards agreement. The period from 1991-1996 set the stage for this negotiation and shaped its outcome in important ways. During this 5-year period, many proposals for strengthening safeguards were suggested and reviewed. Some proposals were dropped, for example, the suggestion by the IAEA Secretariat to verify certain imports, and others were refined. A rough consensus was established about the directions in which the international community wanted to go, and this was reflected in the draft of an additional protocol that was submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors on May 6, 1996 in document GOV/2863, Strengthening the Effectiveness and Improving the Efficiency of the Safeguards System - Proposals For Implementation Under Complementary Legal Authority, A Report by the Director General. This document ended with a recommendation that, 'the Board, through an appropriate mechanism, finalize the required legal instrument taking as a basis the draft protocol proposed by the Secretariat and the explanation of the measures contained in this document.'

  11. Dynamic quantum secret sharing protocol based on GHZ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ci-Hong; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelish

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a new dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS) protocol using the measurement property of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and the controlled-NOT gate. In the proposed DQSS protocol, an agent can obtain a shadow of the secret key by simply performing a measurement on single photons. In comparison with the existing DQSS protocols, it provides better qubit efficiency and has an easy way to add a new agent. The proposed protocol is also free from the eavesdropping attack, the collusion attack, and can have an honesty check on a revoked agent.

  12. Zone-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswarlu Kumaramangalam, Muni; Adiyapatham, Kandasamy; Kandasamy, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research happening across the globe witnessed the importance of Wireless Sensor Network in the present day application world. In the recent past, various routing algorithms have been proposed to elevate WSN network lifetime. Clustering mechanism is highly successful in conserving energy resources for network activities and has become promising field for researches. However, the problem of unbalanced energy consumption is still open because the cluster head activities are tightly coupled with role and location of a particular node in the network. Several unequal clustering algorithms are proposed to solve this wireless sensor network multihop hot spot problem. Current unequal clustering mechanisms consider only intra- and intercluster communication cost. Proper organization of wireless sensor network into clusters enables efficient utilization of limited resources and enhances lifetime of deployed sensor nodes. This paper considers a novel network organization scheme, energy-efficient edge-based network partitioning scheme, to organize sensor nodes into clusters of equal size. Also, it proposes a cluster-based routing algorithm, called zone-based routing protocol (ZBRP), for elevating sensor network lifetime. Experimental results show that ZBRP out-performs interims of network lifetime and energy conservation with its uniform energy consumption among the cluster heads.

  13. Agreements between ground-based and satellite-based observations. [of earth magnetospheric currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.; Weimer, D.; Iijima, T.; Ahn, B.-H.; Kamide, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The polar ionospheric parameters obtained by the meridian chain of magnetometers are compared with those obtained by satellites, and a number of ionospheric quantities including the distribution of the electric potential, field-aligned currents, ionospheric currents and their equatorial counterparts, and the relationship between the AE index and the cross-polar cap potential is determined. It is noted that the agreement observed between the ground-based and satellite-based results allows to reduce the search for the driving mechanism of the ionospheric Pedersen current to identifying the driving mechanism of the Pedersen counterpart current in the equatorial plane.

  14. Precision Time Protocol-Based Trilateration for Planetary Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Progeny Systems Corporation has developed a high-fidelity, field-scalable, non-Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation system that offers precision localization over communications channels. The system is bidirectional, providing position information to both base and mobile units. It is the first-ever wireless use of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Precision Time Protocol (PTP) in a bidirectional trilateration navigation system. The innovation provides a precise and reliable navigation capability to support traverse-path planning systems and other mapping applications, and it establishes a core infrastructure for long-term lunar and planetary occupation. Mature technologies are integrated to provide navigation capability and to support data and voice communications on the same network. On Earth, the innovation is particularly well suited for use in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as it offers a non-GPS precision navigation and location service for use in GPS-denied environments. Its bidirectional capability provides real-time location data to the UAV operator and to the UAV. This approach optimizes assisted GPS techniques and can be used to determine the presence of GPS degradation, spoofing, or jamming.

  15. United States-Philippines bases agreements: prospect for its renewal. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahimer, S.M.

    1988-05-01

    Remarks on the problems and issues related to the United States-Philippines Bases Agreement and prospect for its renewal are included namely: analysis of the provisions of the new Philippine Constitution; ASEAN perspective on the bases; US policy on nuclear weapons and its interest and options; Philippine interests and priorities, including alternate plans to compensate for the possible withdrawal of the US from the Philippines; and then an assessment of the effects of these factors on the renewal of the Bases Agreement. There are difficulties and barriers to the renewal of the said Agreement posed by conflicting policies of both parties and also due to divergent views on priorities, constitutional processes of both countries, and time constraints for concluding an agreement. However there are options for the United States regarding the problem, depending upon the desired level of its presence in Asia/Pacific region and how central the Philippine bases are to US national security interests.

  16. Internet-Protocol-Based Satellite Bus Architecture Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywczak, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is designing future complex satellite missions ranging from single satellites and constellations to space networks and sensor webs. These missions require more interoperability, autonomy, and coordination than previous missions; in addition, a desire exists to have scientists retrieve data directly from the satellite rather than a central distribution source. To meet these goals, NASA has been studying the possibility of extending the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite for spacebased applications.

  17. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  18. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems based on PS-request protocols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol. PMID:22163721

  19. Scalable Multicast Protocols for Overlapped Groups in Broker-Based Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chayoung; Ahn, Jinho

    In sensor networks, there are lots of overlapped multicast groups because of many subscribers, associated with their potentially varying specific interests, querying every event to sensors/publishers. And gossip based communication protocols are promising as one of potential solutions providing scalability in P(Publish)/ S(Subscribe) paradigm in sensor networks. Moreover, despite the importance of both guaranteeing message delivery order and supporting overlapped multicast groups in sensor or P2P networks, there exist little research works on development of gossip-based protocols to satisfy all these requirements. In this paper, we present two versions of causally ordered delivery guaranteeing protocols for overlapped multicast groups. The one is based on sensor-broker as delegates and the other is based on local views and delegates representing subscriber subgroups. In the sensor-broker based protocol, sensor-broker might lead to make overlapped multicast networks organized by subscriber's interests. The message delivery order has been guaranteed consistently and all multicast messages are delivered to overlapped subscribers using gossip based protocols by sensor-broker. Therefore, these features of the sensor-broker based protocol might be significantly scalable rather than those of the protocols by hierarchical membership list of dedicated groups like traditional committee protocols. And the subscriber-delegate based protocol is much stronger rather than fully decentralized protocols guaranteeing causally ordered delivery based on only local views because the message delivery order has been guaranteed consistently by all corresponding members of the groups including delegates. Therefore, this feature of the subscriber-delegate protocol is a hybrid approach improving the inherent scalability of multicast nature by gossip-based technique in all communications.

  20. The Impact of Acceptance-Based Versus Avoidance-Based Protocols on Discomfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Carmen; Molina, Francisco; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Cabello, Francisco; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Wilson, Kelly G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate the conditions under which aversive stimulation is experienced as more or less discomforting/unpleasant. Discomfort was induced by playing loud noises through headphones while participants performed computer tasks. We employed 4 main conditions. Condition 1: the acceptance-based protocol (ACT), intended to integrate…

  1. Development of Research-Based Protocol Aligned to Predict High Levels of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a research-based teacher selection protocol. The protocol is intended to offer school district hiring authorities a tool to identify teacher candidates with the behaviors expected to predict effective teaching. It is hypothesized that a particular series of research-based interview questions focusing on teaching behaviors in…

  2. A Component-Based Evaluation Protocol for Clinical Decision Support Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Febretti, Alessandro; Lopez, Karen D.; Stifter, Janet; Johnson, Andrew E.; Keenan, Gail M.; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present our experience in designing and applying an evaluation protocol for assessing usability of a clinical decision support (CDS) system. The protocol is based on component-based usability testing, cognitive interviewing, and a rigorous coding scheme cross-referenced to a component library. We applied this protocol to evaluate alternate designs of a CDS interface for a nursing plan of care tool. The protocol allowed us to aggregate and analyze usability data at various granularity levels, supporting both validation of existing components and providing guidance for targeted redesign.

  3. Research of storage encryption based on multi-protocol RAID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Canhao; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Le

    2009-08-01

    Traditional RAID gradually becomes unable to satisfy most applications. It is reflected in two main respects, one is the security problem of data in RAID system, the other is that one RAID controller can not use several devices of different protocol. Now, the performance of RAID controller gets faster and faster, therefore, it is the right time to use software encryption module instead of hardware encryption to guarantee the data confidentiality. Furthermore, with the development of storage device, different disk interface appears. How to use the disk of different protocol in the same RAID controller is becoming a new research hotspot. As to the problems mentioned above, this paper presents a new multi-protocol disk array architecture that provides encryption on RAID, referred to as Encryption Multi-protocol RAID (EMRAID). EMRAID solution not only uses different interface to management the different kinds of device, but also adopts SEAL algorithm which is an efficient pseudorandom function family encryption algorithm. Analysis result indicates that EMRAID performs more efficiently than the single-protocol RAID, and the experiment shows that the encryption algorithm has certain loss (not very large) on I/O performance.

  4. The Specification-Based Validation of Reliable Multicast Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yunqing

    1995-01-01

    Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) is a communication protocol that provides an atomic, totally ordered, reliable multicast service on top of unreliable IP multicasting. In this report, we develop formal models for RMP using existing automated verification systems, and perform validation on the formal RMP specifications. The validation analysis help identifies some minor specification and design problems. We also use the formal models of RMP to generate a test suite for conformance testing of the implementation. Throughout the process of RMP development, we follow an iterative, interactive approach that emphasizes concurrent and parallel progress of the implementation and verification processes. Through this approach, we incorporate formal techniques into our development process, promote a common understanding for the protocol, increase the reliability of our software, and maintain high fidelity between the specifications of RMP and its implementation.

  5. Efficient biometric authenticated key agreements based on extended chaotic maps for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Lou, Der-Chyuan; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung

    2015-05-01

    Authenticated key agreements for telecare medicine information systems provide patients, doctors, nurses and health visitors with accessing medical information systems and getting remote services efficiently and conveniently through an open network. In order to have higher security, many authenticated key agreement schemes appended biometric keys to realize identification except for using passwords and smartcards. Due to too many transmissions and computational costs, these authenticated key agreement schemes are inefficient in communication and computation. This investigation develops two secure and efficient authenticated key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems by using biometric key and extended chaotic maps. One scheme is synchronization-based, while the other nonce-based. Compared to related approaches, the proposed schemes not only retain the same security properties with previous schemes, but also provide users with privacy protection and have fewer transmissions and lower computational cost. PMID:25795325

  6. Cryptanalysis of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Wei, Chun-Yan

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the security of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature, and find that there is a security leak in the quantum channels of this protocol, which gives a chance for an outside opponent to launch a special denial-of-service attack. Furthermore, we show that the dishonest merchant can succeed to change the purchase information of the customer in this protocol.

  7. A model-based control protocol for transition from ICU to HDU: Robustness analysis.

    PubMed

    Razak, Normy N; Chase, J Geoffrey; Suhaimi, Fatanah M; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Jamaluddin, Ummu

    2013-01-01

    The robustness of a model-based control protocol as a less intensive TGC protocol using insulin Glargine for provision of basal insulin is simulated in this study. To quantify the performance and robustness of the protocol to errors, namely physiological variability and sensor errors, an in-silico Monte Carlo analysis is performed. Actual patient data from Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand were used as virtual trial patients. PMID:24109660

  8. Examining agreement and longitudinal stability among traditional and RTI-based definitions of reading disability using the affected-status agreement statistic.

    PubMed

    Brown Waesche, Jessica S; Schatschneider, Christopher; Maner, Jon K; Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K

    2011-01-01

    Rates of agreement among alternative definitions of reading disability and their 1- and 2-year stabilities were examined using a new measure of agreement, the affected-status agreement statistic. Participants were 288,114 first through third grade students. Reading measures were Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Oral Reading Fluency and Nonsense Word Fluency, and six levels of severity of poor reading were examined (25th, 20th, 15th, 10th, 5th, and 3rd percentile ranks). Four definitions were compared, including traditional unexpected low achievement and three response-to-intervention-based definitions: low achievement, low growth, and dual discrepancy. Rates of agreement were variable but only poor to moderate overall, with poorest agreement between unexpected low achievement and the other definitions. Longitudinal stability was poor, with poorest stability for the low growth definition. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21252372

  9. Examining Agreement and Longitudinal Stability Among Traditional and Response-to-Intervention-Based Definitions of Reading Disability Using the Affected-Status Agreement Statistic

    PubMed Central

    Brown Waesche, Jessica S.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Maner, Jon K.; Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Rates of agreement among alternative definitions of reading disability and their 1- and 2-year stabilities were examined using a new measure of agreement, the affected-status agreement statistic. Participants were 288,114 first through third grade students. Reading measures were Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Oral Reading Fluency and Nonsense Word Fluency, and six levels of severity of poor reading were examined (25th, 20th, 15th, 10th, 5th, and 3rd percentile ranks). Four definitions were compared, including traditional unexpected low achievement and three response-to-intervention-based definitions: low achievement, low growth, and dual discrepancy. Rates of agreement were variable but only poor to moderate overall, with poorest agreement between unexpected low achievement and the other definitions. Longitudinal stability was poor, with poorest stability for the low growth definition. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21252372

  10. Protocols for a quantum network based on single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Susanne; O'Brien, Christopher; Reich, Daniel; Lauk, Nikolai; Koch, Christiane; Fleischhauer, Michael; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-03-01

    Two protocols for interfacing single optical photons with individual qubits are theoretically discussed. The first is a protocol which allows one to interface a single optical photon with a superconducting qubit. It makes use of a a spin ensemble, where the individual emitters possess both an optical and a magnetic dipole transition. Reversible frequency conversion is realized by combining optical photon storage, for instance by means of EIT, with the controlled switching on and off the coupling of the magnetic dipole transition with a microwave cavity, which in turn couples to a superconducting qubit. We test various strategies and compare their efficiencies in terms of robustness and transfer time. The second protocol aims at achieving perfect absorption of a photon by a single trapped atom, or solid-state emitter, by means of optimal control theory. We make use of the Krotov algorithm for the purpose of identifying pulses driving the atom, that maximize the efficiency and fidelity of absorption in the setup of. These protocols contribute to the development of a toolbox for quantum networks using hybrid platforms.

  11. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Taha Fayed, Zaki

    2013-11-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitable for VANET. AOMDV is the most important on demand multipath routing protocol. This paper proposes SSD-AOMDV as VANET routing protocol. SSD-AOMDV improves AOMDV to suit VANET characteristics. SSD-AOMDV adds the mobility parameters: Stop_times, Speed and Direction to hop count as new AOMDV routing metric to select next hop during the route discovery phase. Stop_times metric is added to simulate buses mobility pattern and traffic lights at intersections. Simulation results show that SSD-AOMDV achieves better performance compared to AOMDV.

  12. Two new Controlled not Gate Based Quantum Secret Sharing Protocols without Entanglement Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-Chao; Hu, Ai-Qun; Fu, An-Min

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose two new controlled not gate based quantum secret sharing protocols. In these two protocols, each photon only travels once, which guarantees the agents located in long distance can be able to derive the dealer's secret without suffering entanglement attenuation problem. The protocols are secure against trojan horse attack, intercept-resend attack, entangle-measure attack and entanglement-swapping attack. The theoretical efficiency for qubits of these two protocols can approach 100 %, except those used for eavesdropping checking, all entangled states can be used for final secret sharing.

  13. Interactive identification protocol based on a quantum public-key cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li

    2014-11-01

    We propose two interactive identification protocols based on a general construction of quantum public-key cryptosystem. Basic protocol contains set-up phase and authentication phase. Participants do operation with quantum computing of Boolean function in two-round transmission of authentication phase. Basic one only ensures completeness and soundness, but leaks information about private-key. We modify basic protocol with random string and random Boolean permutation. After modification, both transmitted states in two-round transmission can be proved to be ultimate mixed states. No participant or attacker will get useful information about private-key by measuring such states. Modified protocol achieves property of zero-knowledge.

  14. Comment on "Device-independent entanglement-based Bennett 1992 protocol"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong-gang; Cai, Qing-yu

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Lucamarini et al. proposed the device-independent entanglement-based Bennett 1992 protocol [Phys. Rev. A 86, 032325 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032325]. By exploiting the results in device-independent quantum key distribution with the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, they claimed the security of their protocol. We will show, however, the way of encoding and the process for the latent eavesdropper to obtain the illegal information are different in these two protocols. Thus the security of their protocol cannot rely on Bell's theorem only.

  15. An arbitrated quantum signature protocol based on the chained CNOT operations encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Guang; Shi, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    At present, the encryption scheme used by most arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocols is quantum one-time pad (QOTP) which encrypts data qubit by qubit. Though QOTP can achieve high security for data encryption, it is not suitable for AQS. There are many attacks on AQS using QOTP. In this paper, we propose an AQS protocol based on another encryption scheme called the chained CNOT operations, which encrypts quantum message ensemble. Our protocol preserves all merits in the similar AQS schemes and has better security. Security analysis shows that our protocol cannot be forged and disavowed under the existing attacks.

  16. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  17. A hybrid quantum key distribution protocol based on extended unitary operations and fountain codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Xue, Liyin; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Pieprzyk, Josef

    2015-02-01

    In 1984, Bennett and Brassard designed the first quantum key distribution protocol, whose security is based on quantum indeterminacy. Since then, there has been growing research activities, aiming in designing new, more efficient and secure key distribution protocols. The work presents a novel hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. The key distribution is derived from both quantum and classical data. This is why it is called hybrid. The protocol applies extended unitary operations derived from four basic unitary operations and distributed fountain codes. Compared to other protocols published so far, the new one is more secure (provides authentication of parties and detection of eavesdropping) and efficient. Moreover, our protocol still works over noisy and lossy channels.

  18. A Provably Secure Revocable ID-Based Authenticated Group Key Exchange Protocol with Identifying Malicious Participants

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tung-Tso

    2014-01-01

    The existence of malicious participants is a major threat for authenticated group key exchange (AGKE) protocols. Typically, there are two detecting ways (passive and active) to resist malicious participants in AGKE protocols. In 2012, the revocable identity- (ID-) based public key system (R-IDPKS) was proposed to solve the revocation problem in the ID-based public key system (IDPKS). Afterwards, based on the R-IDPKS, Wu et al. proposed a revocable ID-based AGKE (RID-AGKE) protocol, which adopted a passive detecting way to resist malicious participants. However, it needs three rounds and cannot identify malicious participants. In this paper, we fuse a noninteractive confirmed computation technique to propose the first two-round RID-AGKE protocol with identifying malicious participants, which is an active detecting way. We demonstrate that our protocol is a provably secure AGKE protocol with forward secrecy and can identify malicious participants. When compared with the recently proposed ID/RID-AGKE protocols, our protocol possesses better performance and more robust security properties. PMID:24991641

  19. A network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Jingao

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption. This protocol can provide every bank user a safe and effective way to manage his own bank account, and also can effectively prevent the hacker attacks and bank clerk crime, so that it is absolute to guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of bank users.

  20. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  1. Meta-Transport Library, A protocol base class library. Release 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, T.

    1994-05-10

    This User`s Guide describes the installation and use of the Meta- Transport Library protocol base classes. This software package includes the full source code for the implementation, as well as man pages and appropriate documents. The fully built MTL is a C++ library file that is linked into derived protocol code.

  2. A provably secure revocable ID-based authenticated group key exchange protocol with identifying malicious participants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Yang; Tsai, Tung-Tso; Tseng, Yuh-Min

    2014-01-01

    The existence of malicious participants is a major threat for authenticated group key exchange (AGKE) protocols. Typically, there are two detecting ways (passive and active) to resist malicious participants in AGKE protocols. In 2012, the revocable identity- (ID-) based public key system (R-IDPKS) was proposed to solve the revocation problem in the ID-based public key system (IDPKS). Afterwards, based on the R-IDPKS, Wu et al. proposed a revocable ID-based AGKE (RID-AGKE) protocol, which adopted a passive detecting way to resist malicious participants. However, it needs three rounds and cannot identify malicious participants. In this paper, we fuse a noninteractive confirmed computation technique to propose the first two-round RID-AGKE protocol with identifying malicious participants, which is an active detecting way. We demonstrate that our protocol is a provably secure AGKE protocol with forward secrecy and can identify malicious participants. When compared with the recently proposed ID/RID-AGKE protocols, our protocol possesses better performance and more robust security properties. PMID:24991641

  3. Security enhanced EMV-based mobile payment protocol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Hour

    2014-01-01

    Near field communication has enabled customers to put their credit cards into a smartphone and use the phone for credit card transaction. But EMV contactless payment allows unauthorized readers to access credit cards. Besides, in offline transaction, a merchant's reader cannot verify whether a card has been revoked. Therefore, we propose an EMV-compatible payment protocol to mitigate the transaction risk. And our modifications to the EMV standard are transparent to merchants and users. We also encrypt the communications between a card and a reader to prevent eavesdropping on sensitive data. The protocol is able to resist impersonation attacks and to avoid the security threats in EMV. In offline transactions, our scheme requires a user to apply for a temporary offline certificate in advance. With the certificate, banks no longer need to lower customer's credits for risk control, and users can have online-equivalent credits in offline transactions. PMID:25302334

  4. Quantum secret-sharing protocol based on Grover's algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi

    2003-08-01

    A marked state can be found with certainty in the two-qubit case of Grover's algorithm. This property is included in the proposed quantum secret-sharing protocol. In the proposed scheme, the sender prepares some initial state in private and then performs a phase shift of the marked state as the sender's bit. Then, the sender sends these two qubits to each of the two receivers. Only when the sender broadcasts the initially prepared state and then the receivers perform the corresponding inversion operation about the average, is the sender's bit faithfully revealed. Moreover, the sender can detect deception using cheat-detecting states. The proposed quantum secret-sharing protocol is shown to be secure.

  5. Base station prehospital care: judgement errors and deviations from protocol.

    PubMed

    Wasserberger, J; Ordog, G J; Donoghue, G; Balasubramaniam, S

    1987-08-01

    During a three-year period 5,944 paramedic runs were reviewed at the King/Drew Medical Center for deviations from prehospital management protocols established by the Los Angeles Paramedic Training Institute, and from standard medical practice. An overall compliance to the prehospital management protocols of 94% was found. Compliance to standard medical care was 97%. The most common deviations were failure to administer prophylactic lidocaine to patients having chest pain suggestive of myocardial ischemia and failure to apply cervical spine precautions in patients with suspected head trauma. Fifty percent of the radio operators who deviated from algorithms also were found to be making errors in judgment in standard medical care. PMID:3619166

  6. Security Enhanced EMV-Based Mobile Payment Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Near field communication has enabled customers to put their credit cards into a smartphone and use the phone for credit card transaction. But EMV contactless payment allows unauthorized readers to access credit cards. Besides, in offline transaction, a merchant's reader cannot verify whether a card has been revoked. Therefore, we propose an EMV-compatible payment protocol to mitigate the transaction risk. And our modifications to the EMV standard are transparent to merchants and users. We also encrypt the communications between a card and a reader to prevent eavesdropping on sensitive data. The protocol is able to resist impersonation attacks and to avoid the security threats in EMV. In offline transactions, our scheme requires a user to apply for a temporary offline certificate in advance. With the certificate, banks no longer need to lower customer's credits for risk control, and users can have online-equivalent credits in offline transactions. PMID:25302334

  7. Picture archiving and communications systems protocol based on ISO-OSI standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Nam, Jiseung; Dallas, William J.; Osada, Masakazu; McNeill, Kevin M.; Ozeki, Takeshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ichi

    1991-07-01

    During the last decade, the concept of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) has evolved and matured to integrate digital image information in a hospital. PACS integrates various imaging devices, database archive systems, and image viewing workstations. One of the most difficult problems for integration is the standardization of communication protocols required to connect devices from different vendors. When the ACR-NEMA standard was announced for communications in digital radiology in 1985, it solved some of the problems for PACS with a hardware interface, a set of software commands, and a consistent set of data formats. However, it has been found to be inadequate for networked PACS environments, not only because of its point-to-point nature and lack of a network layer, but also because of its inflexibility to allow other services and protocols to be added in the future. Based on previous experience, the case is made for a new standard for PACS networks and a suggested approach for new protocol is presented. This paper addresses the development of a new standard for PACS protocol layers and attempts to define the protocols from a layered-systems approach. The basis for the new protocol definition is primarily the International Organization for Standardization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) protocols and the data format portion of ACR-NEMA standard. The scope and rationale of the proposed protocol, background, and relationship to PACS technology are discussed. The proposed PACS protocol covers the protocol service definition and specification for the application, presentation, session, transport, and network layers. The proposed PACS protocol is intended to facilitate the development of PACSs by several vendors capable of interfacing with each other. The new PACS protocols will also support a global PACS environment.

  8. A RSVP-TE reservation protocol based on priority in multi-domain optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianping; Yang, Kai; Wu, Qiwu; Pan, Chaoping

    2009-11-01

    ASON (Automatic Switch Optical Network), which provides fast and dynamic connection from point to point, is the typical representation of the next generation intelligent optical network. There are two main kinds of resource reservation protocols in RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering), the most widely applied signaling in ASON, which are FRP (forward reservation protocol) and BRP (backward reservation protocol). Both of them are used to apply in single-domain optical network, however, when they are used in multi-domain optical network, there are apparent drawbacks. On base of FRP and BRP, we propose a reservation protocol-IDRPBP, which is based on priority in multi-domain optical network with wavelength converter at border nodes. Through analysis and simulation, we find it can achieve the trade-off between blocking probability and connection setup time.

  9. 42 CFR 137.120 - May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Stable Base Budget § 137.120 May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget? Yes, at the option of a Self-Governance Tribe, a funding agreement...

  10. 42 CFR 137.120 - May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Stable Base Budget § 137.120 May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget? Yes, at the option of a Self-Governance Tribe, a funding agreement...

  11. 42 CFR 137.120 - May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Stable Base Budget § 137.120 May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget? Yes, at the option of a Self-Governance Tribe, a funding agreement...

  12. 42 CFR 137.120 - May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Stable Base Budget § 137.120 May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget? Yes, at the option of a Self-Governance Tribe, a funding agreement...

  13. 42 CFR 137.120 - May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement... SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Stable Base Budget § 137.120 May a Self-Governance Tribe's funding agreement provide for a stable base budget? Yes, at the option of a Self-Governance Tribe, a funding agreement...

  14. A survey on the taxonomy of cluster-based routing protocols for homogeneous wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  15. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  16. 48 CFR 22.1002-3 - Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements. 22.1002-3 Section 22.1002-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965,...

  17. 48 CFR 22.1012-2 - Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements. 22.1012-2 Section 22.1012-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965,...

  18. 48 CFR 22.1012-2 - Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements. 22.1012-2 Section 22.1012-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965,...

  19. 48 CFR 22.1002-3 - Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements. 22.1002-3 Section 22.1002-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965,...

  20. 48 CFR 22.1012-2 - Wage determinations based on collective bargaining agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1012-2 Wage determinations based on collective... before commencement of the work shall be effective for purposes of the successor contract under section 4... contracting officer shall incorporate the collective bargaining agreement itself in a solicitation or...

  1. 13 CFR 108.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 108.507 Section 108.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of...

  2. 13 CFR 107.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 107.507 Section 107.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a...

  3. 13 CFR 108.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 108.507 Section 108.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of...

  4. 13 CFR 107.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 107.507 Section 107.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a...

  5. 13 CFR 107.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 107.507 Section 107.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a...

  6. 13 CFR 107.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 107.507 Section 107.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a...

  7. 13 CFR 108.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 108.507 Section 108.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of...

  8. 13 CFR 107.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 107.507 Section 107.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a...

  9. 13 CFR 108.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 108.507 Section 108.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of...

  10. 13 CFR 108.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 108.507 Section 108.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of...

  11. A hash based mutual RFID tag authentication protocol in telecare medicine information system.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Keerti; Awasthi, Amit K; Kaul, Sonam D; Mittal, R C

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which has multidimensional applications to reduce the complexity of today life. Everywhere, like access control, transportation, real-time inventory, asset management and automated payment systems etc., RFID has its enormous use. Recently, this technology is opening its wings in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, object traceability and drug administration systems etc. In this paper, we propose a secure RFID-based protocol for the medical sector. This protocol is based on hash operation with synchronized secret. The protocol is safe against active and passive attacks such as forgery, traceability, replay and de-synchronization attack. PMID:25491577

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A RATIONALLY BASED DESIGN PROTOCOL FOR THE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A protocol is demonstrated for the design and evaluation of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems based on a mathematical model. The disinfection model incorporates the system's physical dimensions, the residence time distribution of the reactor and dispersion characteristics, th...

  13. MAC protocol for an ATM-based SuperPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, John D.; Koulouris, John; Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.

    1996-11-01

    Developments in optical amplifiers and the tendency towards fewer and larger switching stages made feasible and desirable the concept of SuperPONs with a range of 100km. Up to 15000 residential customers can share the SuperPON on a TDMA basis lowering the cost of access to B-ISDN services. Tree PONs require a MAC protocol to arbitrate the access to upstream slots among the competing customer ATM cells in a dynamic and efficient way. The protocol presented in this work combines different access mechanisms according to service quality requirements. All bursty traffic is manipulated transparently using a reservation approach with closed loop control so as to handle the unpredictability of arrivals. In contrast, voice, N-ISDN and other delay sensitive services are provided with unsolicited access permits. In addition, composite cells offered quasi- synchronous permits are used to support STM legacy traffic without echo-cancellers. So, ABR traffic which is delay tolerant and more cost sensitive, can and should be concentrated with full exploitation of multiplexing gain prospects. The permit distribution algorithm focuses on cell spacing, control of CDV, almost jitter free access for synchronous traffic and efficiency for ABR traffic.

  14. Protocol Support for a New Satellite-Based Airspace Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, Yadong; Hadjitheodosiou, Michael; Baras, John

    2004-01-01

    We recommend suitable transport protocols for an aeronautical network supporting Internet and data services via satellite. We study the characteristics of an aeronautical satellite hybrid network and focus on the problems that cause dramatically degraded performance of the Transport Protocol. We discuss various extensions to standard TCP that alleviate some of these performance problems. Through simulation, we identify those TCP implementations that can be expected to perform well. Based on the observation that it is difficult for an end-to-end solution to solve these problems effectively, we propose a new TCP-splitting protocol, termed Aeronautical Transport Control Protocol (AeroTCP). The main idea of this protocol is to use a fixed window for flow control and one duplicated acknowledgement (ACK) for fast recovery. Our simulation results show that AeroTCP can maintain higher utilization for the satellite link than end-to-end TCP, especially in high BER environment.

  15. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  16. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  17. A neural networks-based hybrid routing protocol for wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic-i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  18. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  19. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  20. A Multihop Key Agreement Scheme for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Channel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  1. Enhancing user privacy in SARG04-based private database query protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fang; Qiu, Daowen; Situ, Haozhen; Wang, Xiaoming; Long, Shun

    2015-11-01

    The well-known SARG04 protocol can be used in a private query application to generate an oblivious key. By usage of the key, the user can retrieve one out of N items from a database without revealing which one he/she is interested in. However, the existing SARG04-based private query protocols are vulnerable to the attacks of faked data from the database since in its canonical form, the SARG04 protocol lacks means for one party to defend attacks from the other. While such attacks can cause significant loss of user privacy, a variant of the SARG04 protocol is proposed in this paper with new mechanisms designed to help the user protect its privacy in private query applications. In the protocol, it is the user who starts the session with the database, trying to learn from it bits of a raw key in an oblivious way. An honesty test is used to detect a cheating database who had transmitted faked data. The whole private query protocol has O( N) communication complexity for conveying at least N encrypted items. Compared with the existing SARG04-based protocols, it is efficient in communication for per-bit learning.

  2. Agreement among Health Care Professionals in Diagnosing Case Vignette-Based Surgical Site Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lepelletier, Didier; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess agreement in diagnosing surgical site infection (SSI) among healthcare professionals involved in SSI surveillance. Methods Case-vignette study done in 2009 in 140 healthcare professionals from seven specialties (20 in each specialty, Anesthesiologists, Surgeons, Public health specialists, Infection control physicians, Infection control nurses, Infectious diseases specialists, Microbiologists) in 29 University and 36 non-University hospitals in France. We developed 40 case-vignettes based on cardiac and gastrointestinal surgery patients with suspected SSI. Each participant scored six randomly assigned case-vignettes before and after reading the SSI definition on an online secure relational database. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess agreement regarding SSI diagnosis on a seven-point Likert scale and the kappa coefficient to assess agreement for superficial or deep SSI on a three-point scale. Results Based on a consensus, SSI was present in 21 of 40 vignettes (52.5%). Intraspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis ranged across specialties from 0.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.00–0.59) (anesthesiologists and infection control nurses) to 0.73 (0.32–0.90) (infectious diseases specialists). Reading the SSI definition improved agreement in the specialties with poor initial agreement. Intraspecialty agreement for superficial or deep SSI ranged from 0.10 (−0.19–0.38) to 0.54 (0.25–0.83) (surgeons) and increased after reading the SSI definition only among the infection control nurses from 0.10 (−0.19–0.38) to 0.41 (−0.09–0.72). Interspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis was 0.36 (0.22–0.54) and increased to 0.47 (0.31–0.64) after reading the SSI definition. Conclusion Among healthcare professionals evaluating case-vignettes for possible surgical site infection, there was large disagreement in diagnosis that varied both between and within specialties. PMID:22529980

  3. Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.

  4. A Scenario-Based Protocol Checker for Public-Key Authentication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takamichi

    Security protocol provides communication security for the internet. One of the important features of it is authentication with key exchange. Its correctness is a requirement of the whole of the communication security. In this paper, we introduce three attack models realized as their attack scenarios, and provide an authentication-protocol checker for applying three attack-scenarios based on the models. We also utilize it to check two popular security protocols: Secure SHell (SSH) and Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS).

  5. Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-02-01

    Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.

  6. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  7. Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.

  8. [Multi-bed & multi-parameter central monitoring system based on TCP/IP protocol].

    PubMed

    Lian, S J; Hu, D K; Zhao, M H; Tang, L H

    2000-02-01

    Communication is one of the key problems to a central monitoring system. In this paper we put forward a central monitoring system using TCP/IP as the network protocol, Windows NT4.0 as the platform, forming a Intranet in a hospital. We also discussed the communication problem between the bed-side monitoring station and the central monitoring station in detail and then put forward a new protocol--Hospital Central Monitor Protocol (HCMP) based on TCP/IP to transfer monitoring data. It is easy to achieve tele-monitoring through the current communication subsystem. PMID:12583091

  9. Agreement on the Level Selection in Laminoplasty among Experienced Surgeons: A Survey-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hwan; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Park, Jong-Beom; Ha, Jung-Ki; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Choon Sung

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Survey based study. Purpose To assess the degree of agreement in level selection of laminoplasty (LP) for the selected cervical myeloradiculopathy cases between experienced spine surgeons. Overview of Literature Although, cervical LP is a widely used surgical technique for multi-level spinal cord compression, until now there is no consensus about how many segments or which segments should be opened to achieve a satisfactory decompression. Methods Thorough clinical and radiographic data (plain X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) of 30 patients who had cervical myelopathy were prepared. The data were provided to three independent spine surgeons with over 10 years experience in operation of their own practices. They were questioned about the most preferable surgical method and suitable decompression levels. The second survey was carried out after 6 months with the same cases. If the level difference between respondents was a half level or below, agreement was considered acceptable. The intraobserver and interobserver agreements in level selection were assessed by kappa statistics. Results Three respondents selected LP as an option for 6, 8, and 22 cases in the first survey and 10, 21, and 24 cases in the second survey. The reasons for selection of LP were levels of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (p=0.004), segmental kyphotic deformity (p=0.036) and mean compression score (p=0.041). Intraobserver agreement showed variable results. Interobserver agreement was poor to fair by perfect matching (kappa=0.111–0.304) and fair to moderate by acceptable matching (kappa=0.308–0.625). Conclusions The degree of agreement for level selection of LP was not high even though experienced surgeons would choose the opening segments on the basis of same criteria. These results suggest that more specific guidelines in determination of levels for LP should be required to decrease unnecessary wide decompression according to

  10. Exclusive hospital-based service agreements: what radiologists need to know.

    PubMed

    Blau, Michael L

    2004-07-01

    This article provides radiologists with the information that they need to know to participate meaningfully in negotiating or renegotiating an exclusive hospital-based radiology service agreement. It discusses the contract negotiation process, including how to identify and prioritize contract objectives, and how to assess and create bargaining leverage. Options for achieving contract longevity, for resolving "turf" issues and for achieving financial objectives are also addressed. The article further explains the key regulatory issues that shape exclusive hospital-based radiology service agreements, including antitrust, fraud and abuse, Stark Law, HIPAA, tax, and Medicare reimbursement considerations. The author discusses the contract negotiation process from both the radiology group and hospital perspectives. He suggests that successful negotiation will depend on "fitting" the group's contracting agenda with the hospital's priorities, organizational structure, culture and resources. PMID:17411635

  11. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  12. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Chao; Chen, Han-Wu; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Hao

    2014-08-01

    Recently, Liu et al. [Commun. Theor. Phys. 57 (2012) 583] proposed a quantum private comparison protocol based on entanglement swapping of Bell states, which aims to securely compare the equality of two participants' information with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). However, the present study points out there is a fatal loophole in Liu et al.'s protocol, and TP can make Bell-basis measurement to know all the participants' secret inputs without being detected. To fix the problem, a simple solution, which uses one-time eavesdropper checking with decoy photons instead of twice eavesdropper checking with Bell states, is demonstrated. Compared with the original protocol, it not only reduces the Bell states consumption but also simplifies the protocol steps.

  13. Vehicle Density Based Forwarding Protocol for Safety Message Broadcast in VANET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

  14. Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiawei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

  15. EON: a component-based approach to automation of protocol-directed therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Musen, M A; Tu, S W; Das, A K; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Provision of automated support for planning protocol-directed therapy requires a computer program to take as input clinical data stored in an electronic patient-record system and to generate as output recommendations for therapeutic interventions and laboratory testing that are defined by applicable protocols. This paper presents a synthesis of research carried out at Stanford University to model the therapy-planning task and to demonstrate a component-based architecture for building protocol-based decision-support systems. We have constructed general-purpose software components that (1) interpret abstract protocol specifications to construct appropriate patient-specific treatment plans; (2) infer from time-stamped patient data higher-level, interval-based, abstract concepts; (3) perform time-oriented queries on a time-oriented patient database; and (4) allow acquisition and maintenance of protocol knowledge in a manner that facilitates efficient processing both by humans and by computers. We have implemented these components in a computer system known as EON. Each of the components has been developed, evaluated, and reported independently. We have evaluated the integration of the components as a composite architecture by implementing T-HELPER, a computer-based patient-record system that uses EON to offer advice regarding the management of patients who are following clinical trial protocols for AIDS or HIV infection. A test of the reuse of the software components in a different clinical domain demonstrated rapid development of a prototype application to support protocol-based care of patients who have breast cancer. PMID:8930854

  16. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols. PMID:25162060

  17. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The CHAMPS Motor Skills Protocol (CMSP)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field based settings. The development of the CHAMPS (Children’s Activity and Movement in Preschool Study) Motor Skills Protocol (CMSP) included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large epidemiological studies. Following pilot work, 297 children (3-5 years old) from 22 preschools were tested using the final version of the CMSP and the TGMD-2. Reliability of the CMSP and interobserver reliability were determined using intraclass correlation procedures (ICC; ANOVA). Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients to compare the CMSP to the original Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd Edition) (TGMD-2). Results indicated that test reliability, interobserver reliability and validity coefficients were all high, generally above R/r = 0.90. Significant age differences were found. Outcomes indicate that the CMSP is an appropriate tool for assessing motor development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in field-based settings that are consistent with large-scale trials. PMID:21532999

  18. A Novel Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for Cluster Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lu; Longmei, Zhang

    An energy efficient, scalable and collision free MAC protocol, DTFMM, is presented in this paper, which combines frequency and time division principles for medium sharing. It is based on clustered network topology, and the protocol employs a distributed local coordinate algorithm for assigning channels among clusters to enable simultaneous non-interfering data collection. Intra-cluster transmissions are scheduled by cluster head (CH) based on time slot. CHs aggregate the gathered data and forward it over inter-CH paths to the base-station based on minimum spanning tree routing. Distinct channels are adopted by the independent branches of the inter-CH routing tree. Data transmission on a branch is further scheduled in depth-first ordering. DTFMM allows nodes to stay in sleeping mode for the longest duration and thus it minimizes energy consumption. Simulation demonstrated superiority of DTFMM in terms of convergent rate, throughput and delay performance when compared with well-known protocol MMSN.

  19. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes. PMID:27537890

  20. Motor-based intervention protocols in treatment of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS)

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Edwin; Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Stoeckel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews current trends in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), with a particular emphasis on motor-based intervention protocols. The paper first briefly discusses how CAS fits into the typology of speech sound disorders, followed by a discussion of the potential relevance of principles derived from the motor learning literature for CAS treatment. Next, different motor-based treatment protocols are reviewed, along with their evidence base. The paper concludes with a summary and discussion of future research needs. PMID:25313348

  1. High levels of agreement between clinic-based ethyl glucuronide (EtG) immunoassays and laboratory-based mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Leickly, Emily; McDonell, Michael G.; Vilardaga, Roger; Angelo, Frank A.; Lowe, Jessica M.; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoassay urine drug screening cups that detect use for two or more days are commonly used in addiction treatment settings. Until recently, there has been no comparable immunoassay test for alcohol use in these settings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of a commercially available ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) test conducted at an outpatient addiction clinic and lab-based EtG mass spectrometry (EtG-MS) conducted at a drug testing laboratory at three cut-off levels. High agreement between these two measures would support the usefulness of EtG-I as a clinical tool for monitoring alcohol use. Methods Forty adults with co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illnesses submitted 1068 urine samples over a 16-week alcohol treatment study. All samples were tested using EtG-I on a benchtop analyzer and 149 were randomly selected for EtG-MS analysis at a local laboratory. Agreement was defined as the number of samples where EtG-I and EtG-MS were both above or below a specific cut-off level. Agreement was calculated at low cut-off levels (100 and 250 ng/ml), as well as at a higher cut-off level (500 ng/ml) recommended by most by commercial drug testing laboratories. Results Agreement between EtG-I and EtG-MS was high across all cut-off levels (90.6% at 100 ng/ml, and 96.6% at 250 and 500 ng/ml). Conclusions EtG immunoassays conducted at low cut-off levels in point-of-care testing settings have high agreement with lab-based EtG-MS. EtG-I can be considered a useful clinical monitoring tool for alcohol use in community-based addiction treatment settings. PMID:25695340

  2. Highly Scalable, UDP-Based Network Transport Protocols for Lambda Grids and 10 GE Routed Networks

    SciTech Connect

    PI: Robert Grossman Co-PI: Stephen Eick

    2009-08-04

    Summary of Report In work prior to this grant, NCDM developed a high performance data transport protocol called SABUL. During this grant, we refined SABUL’s functionality, and then extended both the capabilities and functionality and incorporated them into a new protocol called UDP-based Data transport Protocol, or UDT. We also began preliminary work on Composable UDT, a version of UDT that allows the user to choose among different congestion control algorithms and implement the algorithm of his choice at the time he compiles the code. Specifically, we: · Investigated the theoretical foundations of protocols similar to SABUL and UDT. · Performed design and development work of UDT, a protocol that uses UDP in both the data and control channels. · Began design and development work of Composable UDT, a protocol that supports the use of different congestion control algorithms by simply including the appropriate library when compiling the code. · Performed experimental studies using UDT and Composable UDT using real world applications such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomical data sets. · Released several versions of UDT and Composable, the most recent being v3.1.

  3. Robust ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme with privacy protection for Telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Zhu, Shaohui

    2015-05-01

    To protect the transmission of the sensitive medical data, a secure and efficient authenticated key agreement scheme should be deployed when the healthcare delivery session is established via Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMIS) over the unsecure public network. Recently, Islam and Khan proposed an authenticated key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptography for TMIS. They claimed that their proposed scheme is provably secure against various attacks in random oracle model and enjoys some good properties such as user anonymity. In this paper, however, we point out that any legal but malicious patient can reveal other user's identity. Consequently, their scheme suffers from server spoofing attack and off-line password guessing attack. Moreover, if the malicious patient performs the same time of the registration as other users, she can further launch the impersonation attack, man-in-the-middle attack, modification attack, replay attack, and strong replay attack successfully. To eliminate these weaknesses, we propose an improved ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme. Security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can resist various attacks and enables the patient to enjoy the remote healthcare services with privacy protection. Through the performance evaluation, we show that the proposed scheme achieves a desired balance between security and performance in comparisons with other related schemes. PMID:25732081

  4. An Integrated Hierarchical Dynamic Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban; Srikanth, R.; Venugopalan, Anu

    2015-09-01

    Generalizing the notion of dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS), a simplified protocol for hierarchical dynamic quantum secret sharing (HDQSS) is proposed and it is shown that the protocol can be implemented using any existing protocol of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement or secure direct quantum communication. The security of this proposed protocol against eavesdropping and collusion attacks is discussed with specific attention towards the issues related to the composability of the subprotocols that constitute the proposed protocol. The security and qubit efficiency of the proposed protocol is also compared with that of other existing protocols of DQSS. Further, it is shown that it is possible to design a semi-quantum protocol of HDQSS and in principle, the protocols of HDQSS can be implemented using any quantum state. It is also noted that the completely orthogonal-state-based realization of HDQSS protocol is possible and that HDQSS can be experimentally realized using a large number of alternative approaches.

  5. Engineering Analysis Using a Web-based Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.; Claus, Russell W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of a web-based framework for engineering analysis. A one-dimensional, high-speed analysis code called LAPIN was used in this study, but the approach can be generalized to any engineering analysis tool. The web-based framework enables users to store, retrieve, and execute an engineering analysis from a standard web-browser. We review the encapsulation of the engineering data into the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and various design considerations in the storage and retrieval of application data.

  6. A School-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccio, Dana E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide remains the third leading cause of death among young people in the United States. Considering that youth who contemplate suicide generally exhibit warning signs before engaging in lethal self-harm, school-based mental health professionals can play a vital role in identifying students who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, the…

  7. Magnetic-particle-sensing based diagnostic protocols and applications.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Tsukasa; Ko, Pil Ju; Sharma, Jaiyam; Yukino, Ryoji; Ishizawa, Shunji; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle-labeled biomaterial detection has attracted much attention in recent years for a number of reasons; easy manipulation by external magnetic fields, easy functionalization of the surface, and large surface-to-volume ratio, to name but a few. In this review, we report on our recent investigations into the detection of nano-sized magnetic particles. First, the detection by Hall magnetic sensor with lock-in amplifier and alternative magnetic field is summarized. Then, our approach to detect sub-200 nm diameter target magnetic particles via relatively large micoro-sized "columnar particles" by optical microscopy is described. Subsequently, we summarize magnetic particle detection based on optical techniques; one method is based on the scattering of the magnetically-assembled nano-sized magnetic bead chain in rotating magnetic fields and the other one is based on the reflection of magnetic target particles and porous silicon. Finally, we report recent works with reference to more familiar industrial products (such as smartphone-based medical diagnosis systems and magnetic removal of unspecific-binded nano-sized particles, or "magnetic washing"). PMID:26053747

  8. School-Based Methylphenidate Placebo Protocols: Methodological and Practical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Irwin A.; Wojtowicz, Alexandra; Lee, Kee Duk; Haffner, Mary Elizabeth; Fiorello, Catherine A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on methodological issues involved in choosing instruments to monitor behavior, once a comprehensive evaluation has suggested trials on Ritalin. Case examples illustrate problems of teacher compliance in filling out measures, supplying adequate placebos, and obtaining physical cooperation. Emerging school-based methodologies are discussed…

  9. Insecurity of position-based quantum-cryptography protocols against entanglement attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2011-01-01

    Recently, position-based quantum cryptography has been claimed to be unconditionally secure. On the contrary, here we show that the existing proposals for position-based quantum cryptography are, in fact, insecure if entanglement is shared among two adversaries. Specifically, we demonstrate how the adversaries can incorporate ideas of quantum teleportation and quantum secret sharing to compromise the security with certainty. The common flaw to all current protocols is that the Pauli operators always map a codeword to a codeword (up to an irrelevant overall phase). We propose a modified scheme lacking this property in which the same cheating strategy used to undermine the previous protocols can succeed with a rate of at most 85%. We prove the modified protocol is secure when the shared quantum resource between the adversaries is a two- or three-level system.

  10. Insecurity of position-based quantum-cryptography protocols against entanglement attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2011-01-15

    Recently, position-based quantum cryptography has been claimed to be unconditionally secure. On the contrary, here we show that the existing proposals for position-based quantum cryptography are, in fact, insecure if entanglement is shared among two adversaries. Specifically, we demonstrate how the adversaries can incorporate ideas of quantum teleportation and quantum secret sharing to compromise the security with certainty. The common flaw to all current protocols is that the Pauli operators always map a codeword to a codeword (up to an irrelevant overall phase). We propose a modified scheme lacking this property in which the same cheating strategy used to undermine the previous protocols can succeed with a rate of at most 85%. We prove the modified protocol is secure when the shared quantum resource between the adversaries is a two- or three-level system.

  11. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Shugo; Watanabe, Dai; Li, Yang; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function. PMID:26491714

  12. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Shugo; Watanabe, Dai; Li, Yang; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function. PMID:26491714

  13. An adaptive OFDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Issa M; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  14. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Issa M.; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  15. Engineering protein therapeutics: predictive performances of a structure-based virtual affinity maturation protocol.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Michael; Kroemer, Romano; Mikol, Vincent; Minoux, Hervé; Tastan, Erdogan; Baurin, Nicolas

    2012-08-27

    The implementation of a structure based virtual affinity maturation protocol and evaluation of its predictivity are presented. The in silico protocol is based on conformational sampling of the interface residues (using the Dead End Elimination/A* algorithm), followed by the estimation of the change of free energy of binding due to a point mutation, applying MM/PBSA calculations. Several implementations of the protocol have been evaluated for 173 mutations in 7 different protein complexes for which experimental data were available: the use of the Boltzamnn averaged predictor based on the free energy of binding (ΔΔG(*)) combined with the one based on its polar component only (ΔΔE(pol*)) led to the proposal of a subset of mutations out of which 45% would have successfully enhanced the binding. When focusing on those mutations that are less likely to be introduced by natural in vivo maturation methods (99 mutations with at least two base changes in the codon), the success rate is increased to 63%. In another evaluation, focusing on 56 alanine scanning mutations, the in silico protocol was able to detect 89% of the hot-spots. PMID:22788756

  16. Timed artificial insemination programs during the summer in lactating dairy cows: comparison of the 5-d Cosynch protocol with an estrogen/progesterone-based protocol.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Rodrigues, A D P; Martins, T; Oliveira, W V C; Silveira, P S A; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a GnRH-based to an estrogen/progesterone (E2/P4)-based protocol for estrous cycle synchronization and fixed timed artificial insemination (TAI), both designed for synchronization of ovulation and to reduce the period from follicular emergence until ovulation in cows with a synchronized follicular wave. A total of 1,190 lactating Holstein cows (primiparous: n=685 and multiparous: n=505) yielding 26.5 ± 0.30 kg of milk/d at 177 ± 5.02 d in milk were randomly assigned to receive one of the following programs: 5-d Cosynch protocol [d -8: controlled internal drug release (CIDR) + GnRH; d -3: CIDR removal + PGF2α; d -2: PGF2α; d 0: TAI + GnRH] or E2/P4 protocol (d -10: CIDR + estradiol benzoate; d -3: PGF2α; d -2: CIDR removal + estradiol cypionate; d 0: TAI). Rectal temperature and circulating progesterone (P4) were measured on d -3, -2, 0 (TAI), and 7. The estrous cycle was considered to be synchronized when P4 was ≥ 1.0 ng/mL on d 7 in cows that had luteolysis (P4 ≤ 0.4 ng/mL on d 0). To evaluate the effects of heat stress, cows were classified by number of heat stress events: 0, 1, and 2-or-more measurements of elevated body temperature (≥ 39.1 °C). Pregnancy success (pregnancy per artificial insemination, P/AI) was determined at d 32 and 60 after TAI. The cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol had increased circulating P4 at the time of PGF2α injection (2.66 ± 0.13 vs. 1.66 ± 0.13 ng/mL). The cows in the E2/P4 protocol were more likely to be detected in estrus (62.8 vs. 43.4%) compared with the cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol, and expression of estrus improved P/AI in both treatments. The cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol had greater percentage of synchronized estrous cycle (78.2%), compared with cows in the E2/P4 protocol (70.7%). On d 60, the E2/P4 protocol tended to improve P/AI (20.7 vs. 16.7%) and reduced pregnancy loss from 32 to 60 d (11.0 vs. 19.6%), compared with the 5-d Cosynch protocol. In cows withtheir

  17. A broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    2014-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have thrived over the last few years. Healthcare systems have also benefited from this progression. A wireless body area network (WBAN) consists of small, low-power sensors used to monitor human physiological values remotely, which enables physicians to remotely monitor the health of patients. Communication security in WBANs is essential because it involves human physiological data. Key agreement and authentication are the primary issues in the security of WBANs. To agree upon a common key, the nodes exchange information with each other using wireless communication. This information exchange process must be secure enough or the information exchange should be minimized to a certain level so that if information leak occurs, it does not affect the overall system. Most of the existing solutions for this problem exchange too much information for the sake of key agreement; getting this information is sufficient for an attacker to reproduce the key. Set reconciliation is a technique used to reconcile two similar sets held by two different hosts with minimal communication complexity. This paper presents a broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for secure communication in WBANs. The proposed scheme allows the neighboring nodes to agree upon a common key with the personal server (PS), generated from the electrocardiogram (EKG) feature set of the host body. Minimal information is exchanged in a broadcast manner, and even if every node is missing a different subset, by reconciling these feature sets, the whole network will still agree upon a single common key. Because of the limited information exchange, if an attacker gets the information in any way, he/she will not be able to reproduce the key. The proposed scheme mitigates replay, selective forwarding, and denial of service attacks using a challenge-response authentication mechanism. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a great deal of

  18. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  19. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 (m2/m2)). PMID:27428969

  20. Alveolar corticotomy: a new surgical approach based on bone activation: principle and protocol.

    PubMed

    Petitbois, Renaud; Scortecci, Gérard

    2012-12-01

    Alveolar corticotomy has proven effective in shortening orthodontic treatments in adults. A new non-invasive and flapless surgical approach has, however, yielded the same results. This technique, based on prior osteogenic alveoli preparation, entails neither anatomical risk nor post-op pain. The present article describes this new protocol and uses a case report to illustrate it. PMID:23164922

  1. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; Leeuwen, Martin van; Romanczyk, Paul; Aardt, Jan van

    2016-01-01

    In support of NASA's next-generation spectrometer-the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)-we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the "classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data ( R 2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3-5 ( m 2 / m 2 )). PMID:27428969

  2. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  3. Using a Text-Based Verbal Protocol to Elicit Secondary English Teachers' Perspectives on New Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth C.; Chandler-Olcott, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a text-based verbal protocol (Afflerbach, 2000) situated within individual interviews to elicit secondary English teachers' perspectives on new literacies (Albers & Harste, 2007; Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear, & Leu, 2008). Ranging significantly in their teaching experience and comfort with new media and digital…

  4. Cheating and Anti-Cheating in Gossip-Based Protocol: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanchun; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Nan

    During recent years, there has been a rapid growth in deployment of gossip-based protocol in many multicast applications. In a typical gossip-based protocol, each node acts as dual roles of receiver and sender, independently exchanging data with its neighbors to facilitate scalability and resilience. However, most of previous work in this literature seldom considered cheating issue of end users, which is also very important in face of the fact that the mutual cooperation inherently determines overall system performance. In this paper, we investigate the dishonest behaviors in decentralized gossip-based protocol through extensive experimental study. Our original contributions come in two-fold: In the first part of cheating study, we analytically discuss two typical cheating strategies, that is, intentionally increasing subscription requests and untruthfully calculating forwarding probability, and further evaluate their negative impacts. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to defending cheating behaviors in gossip-based protocol. In the second part of anti-cheating study, we propose a receiver-driven measurement mechanism, which evaluates individual forwarding traffic from the perspective of receivers and thus identifies cheating nodes with high incoming/outgoing ratio. Furthermore, we extend our mechanism by introducing reliable factor to further improve its accuracy. The experiments under various conditions show that it performs quite well in case of serious cheating and achieves considerable performance in other cases.

  5. Towards an improved LAI collection protocol via simulated field-based PAR sensing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yao, Wei; Van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan; Kelbe, David

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopymore » gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. Furthermore, these collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 ( m2/m2)).« less

  6. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.’s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks. PMID:26866606

  7. A secure smart-card based authentication and key agreement scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2013-06-01

    A smart-card based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems enables patients, doctors, nurses, health visitors and the medicine information systems to establish a secure communication platform through public networks. Zhu recently presented an improved authentication scheme in order to solve the weakness of the authentication scheme of Wei et al., where the off-line password guessing attacks cannot be resisted. This investigation indicates that the improved scheme of Zhu has some faults such that the authentication scheme cannot execute correctly and is vulnerable to the attack of parallel sessions. Additionally, an enhanced authentication scheme based on the scheme of Zhu is proposed. The enhanced scheme not only avoids the weakness in the original scheme, but also provides users' anonymity and authenticated key agreements for secure data communications. PMID:23494392

  8. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.'s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks. PMID:26866606

  9. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols. PMID:26057037

  10. Relay-based routing protocol for space networks with predictable mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Dai, Guanzhong; Li, Lixin; Zhao, Yuting

    2005-11-01

    Future space scientific missions are envisioned to incorporate a large number of satellites and spacecrafts deployed in different orbits to network together into Space Networks. These networks have some unique characteristics such as limited resource of nodes, large latency and intermittent connectivity, which pose challenges to routing. In this paper, we propose a Relay-based Routing Protocol for Space Networks (RRPSN), which exploits the predictability of nodes motion to help deliver packets. Nodes use the link state and trajectory information received from other nodes to construct the routing tables where the next hop node is selected from the current as well as the future neighbors. Three key components of the protocol, including dissemination link information, modified Dijkstra's algorithm and packet processing are described in this paper. The computation complexity and overhead of the protocol is analyzed.

  11. A unified protocol for the transdiagnostic psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Although there is evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) in anxiety disorders, results are not yet satisfactory, for example, if rates of remission and response are considered. To address this problem, a unified psychodynamic protocol for anxiety disorders (UPP-ANXIETY) is proposed that integrates the treatment principles of those methods of PDT that have proven to be efficacious in anxiety disorders. In addition, this protocol is transdiagnostic, implying that it is applicable to various forms of anxiety disorders and related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorders, avoidant personality disorder). Based on supportive-expressive therapy, the UPP-ANXIETY represents an integrated form of psychodynamic therapy that allows for a flexible use of empirically supported treatment principles. UPP-ANXIETY encompasses the following 9 treatment principles (modules): (1) socializing the patient for psychotherapy, (2) motivating and setting treatment goals, (3) establishing a secure helping alliance, (4) identifying the core conflict underlying anxiety, (5) focusing on the warded-off wish/affect, (6) modifying underlying internalized object relations, (7) changing underlying defenses and avoidance, (8) modifying underlying response of self, and (9) termination and relapse prevention. Some principles are regarded as core components to be used in every treatment (principles 3-8). A unified protocol for the psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders has several advantages, that is (1) integrating the most effective treatment principles of empirically supported psychodynamic treatments for anxiety disorders can be expected to further improve the efficacy of PDT; (2) using a unified protocol in efficacy studies has the potential to enhance the evidence-based status of PDT by aggregating the evidence; (3) a unified protocol will facilitate both training in PDT and transfer of research to clinical practice; and (4) thus, a unified

  12. 78 FR 43926 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Evidence-Based Decision Making in State and Local...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Evidence-Based Decision Making...: National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Solicitation for a Cooperative..., groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for a 15-month period to begin no later...

  13. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs. PMID:26062288

  14. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  15. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  16. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  17. Key rate for calibration robust entanglement based BB84 quantum key distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gittsovich, O.; Moroder, T.

    2014-12-04

    We apply the approach of verifying entanglement, which is based on the sole knowledge of the dimension of the underlying physical system to the entanglement based version of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol. We show that the familiar one-way key rate formula holds already if one assumes the assumption that one of the parties is measuring a qubit and no further assumptions about the measurement are needed.

  18. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    . Simulations show that the optimized ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains (50% to 70% less than other MAC protocols for WSNs such as T-MAC and S-MAC for the scenarios investigated) while faring as well as T-MAC in terms of packet delivery ratio and latency. Although ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains over S-MAC and T-MAC, it is not optimal in terms of energy savings because contention is done twice -- once in the Advertisement Period and once in the Data Period. In the next part of my research, the second contention in the Data Period is eliminated and the advantages of contention-based and TDMA-based protocols are combined to form Advertisement based Time-division Multiple Access (ATMA), a distributed TDMA-based MAC protocol for WSNs. ATMA utilizes the bursty nature of the traffic to prevent energy waste through advertisements and reservations for data slots. Extensive simulations and qualitative analysis show that with bursty traffic, ATMA outperforms contention-based protocols (S-MAC, T-MAC and ADV-MAC), a TDMA based protocol (TRAMA) and hybrid protocols (Z-MAC and IEEE 802.15.4). ATMA provides energy reductions of up to 80%, while providing the best packet delivery ratio (close to 100%) and latency among all the investigated protocols. Simulations alone cannot reflect many of the challenges faced by real implementations of MAC protocols, such as clock-drift, synchronization, imperfect physical layers, and irregular interference from other transmissions. Such issues may cripple a protocol that otherwise performs very well in software simulations. Hence, to validate my research, I conclude with a hardware implementation of the ATMA protocol on SORA (Software Radio), developed by Microsoft Research Asia. SORA is a reprogrammable Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform that satisfies the throughput and timing requirements of modern wireless protocols while utilizing the rich general purpose PC development environment. Experimental results obtained from the hardware

  19. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    . Simulations show that the optimized ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains (50% to 70% less than other MAC protocols for WSNs such as T-MAC and S-MAC for the scenarios investigated) while faring as well as T-MAC in terms of packet delivery ratio and latency. Although ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains over S-MAC and T-MAC, it is not optimal in terms of energy savings because contention is done twice -- once in the Advertisement Period and once in the Data Period. In the next part of my research, the second contention in the Data Period is eliminated and the advantages of contention-based and TDMA-based protocols are combined to form Advertisement based Time-division Multiple Access (ATMA), a distributed TDMA-based MAC protocol for WSNs. ATMA utilizes the bursty nature of the traffic to prevent energy waste through advertisements and reservations for data slots. Extensive simulations and qualitative analysis show that with bursty traffic, ATMA outperforms contention-based protocols (S-MAC, T-MAC and ADV-MAC), a TDMA based protocol (TRAMA) and hybrid protocols (Z-MAC and IEEE 802.15.4). ATMA provides energy reductions of up to 80%, while providing the best packet delivery ratio (close to 100%) and latency among all the investigated protocols. Simulations alone cannot reflect many of the challenges faced by real implementations of MAC protocols, such as clock-drift, synchronization, imperfect physical layers, and irregular interference from other transmissions. Such issues may cripple a protocol that otherwise performs very well in software simulations. Hence, to validate my research, I conclude with a hardware implementation of the ATMA protocol on SORA (Software Radio), developed by Microsoft Research Asia. SORA is a reprogrammable Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform that satisfies the throughput and timing requirements of modern wireless protocols while utilizing the rich general purpose PC development environment. Experimental results obtained from the hardware

  20. Energy Efficiency of Cluster-based Routing Protocols used in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meelu, Rajni; Anand, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    WSN faces a challenge in energy consumption. Because the sensor nodes in WSN are provided energy by compact batteries and the data transmission is frequent, the energy could be used up in a short time. Minimizing energy dissipation and maximizing network lifetime are among the central concerns when designing applications and protocols for sensor networks. Clustering has been proven to be energy-efficient in sensor networks since data routing and relaying are only operated by cluster heads. Besides, cluster heads can process, filter and aggregate data sent by cluster members, thus reducing network load and alleviating the bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based routing algorithm viz. DCR (Distributed Cluster Routing) protocol and LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) protocol. Sensor's eligibility to be elected cluster head is based on its residual energy and the distance. A simulation shows the comparison of above said algorithms in terms of time to live for nodes and data transmission. The results show that these protocols are almost similar for energy consumption but in terms of data transmission DCR performs better than LEACH.

  1. Practical security analysis of two-way quantum-key-distribution protocols based on nonorthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, C. Ivan; Serra, Roberto M.

    2015-11-01

    Within the broad research scenario of quantum secure communication, two-way quantum key distribution (TWQKD) is a relatively new proposal for sharing secret keys that is not yet fully explored. We analyze the security of TWQKD schemes that use qubits prepared in nonorthogonal states to transmit the key. Investigating protocols that employ an arbitrary number of bases for the channel preparation, we show, in particular, that the security of the LM05 protocol cannot be improved by the use of more than two preparation bases. We also provide an alternative proof of unconditional security for a deterministic TWQKD protocol recently proposed in Beaudry et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.062302. In addition, we introduce a deterministic protocol named "TWQKD six-state" and compute an analytical lower bound (which can be tightened) for the maximum amount of information that an eavesdropper could extract in this case. An interesting advantage of our approach to the security analysis of TWQKD is the great simplicity and transparency of the derivations.

  2. Integrating heterogeneous classifier ensembles for EMG signal decomposition based on classifier agreement.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sarbast; Stashuk, Daniel W; Kamel, Mohamed S

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we present a design methodology for integrating heterogeneous classifier ensembles by employing a diversity-based hybrid classifier fusion approach, whose aggregator module consists of two classifier combiners, to achieve an improved classification performance for motor unit potential classification during electromyographic (EMG) signal decomposition. Following the so-called overproduce and choose strategy to classifier ensemble combination, the developed system allows the construction of a large set of base classifiers, and then automatically chooses subsets of classifiers to form candidate classifier ensembles for each combiner. The system exploits kappa statistic diversity measure to design classifier teams through estimating the level of agreement between base classifier outputs. The pool of base classifiers consists of different kinds of classifiers: the adaptive certainty-based, the adaptive fuzzy k -NN, and the adaptive matched template filter classifiers; and utilizes different types of features. Performance of the developed system was evaluated using real and simulated EMG signals, and was compared with the performance of the constituent base classifiers. Across the EMG signal datasets used, the developed system had better average classification performance overall, especially in terms of reducing classification errors. For simulated signals of varying intensity, the developed system had an average correct classification rate CCr of 93.8% and an error rate Er of 2.2% compared to 93.6% and 3.2%, respectively, for the best base classifier in the ensemble. For simulated signals with varying amounts of shape and/or firing pattern variability, the developed system had a CCr of 89.1% with an Er of 4.7% compared to 86.3% and 5.6%, respectively, for the best classifier. For real signals, the developed system had a CCr of 89.4% with an Er of 3.9% compared to 84.6% and 7.1%, respectively, for the best classifier. PMID:19171524

  3. Examining Agreement and Longitudinal Stability among Traditional and RTI-Based Definitions of Reading Disability Using the Affected-Status Agreement Statistic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waesche, Jessica S. Brown; Schatschneider, Christopher; Maner, Jon K.; Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Rates of agreement among alternative definitions of reading disability and their 1- and 2-year stabilities were examined using a new measure of agreement, the affected-status agreement statistic. Participants were 288,114 first through third grade students. Reading measures were "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" Oral Reading…

  4. Protein supplementation during a short-interval prostaglandin-based protocol for timed AI in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fierro, S; Gil, J; Viñoles, C; Soca, F; Banchero, G; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to improve the reproductive performance of a short-interval prostaglandin (PG)-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in sheep, using a short-term nutritional treatment. During the breeding season (March-April), 132 multiparous and 61 nulliparous Corriedale ewes grazing natural pastures (600 kg DM/ha, 8.5% CP), were allocated to two groups: 1, Control group (n=100) two injections of D-Cloprostenol (75 μg per dose, 7d apart: Synchrovine(®) protocol); and 2, Supplemented group (n=93) ewes in which stage of the oestrous cycle was synchronised with Synchrovine(®) protocol plus focus feeding of a protein supplement (33.8% CP) between PG doses (Day -7 to -2). Cervical AI was performed at fixed time (Day 0), 46 ± 1.0 h after the second PG injection using 150 million sperm per ewe. Ovulation rate (Day 10), pregnancy rate, prolificacy and fecundity at Day 69 were evaluated by ultrasonography. Ovulation rate at Day 10 (1.20 ± 0.05 vs. 1.22 ± 0.05), pregnancy (46 ± 0.05 vs. 56 ± 0.05), prolificacy (1.09 ± 0.04 vs. 1.06 ± 0.05), and fecundity (0.49 ± 0.06 vs. 0.59 ± 0.06) at Day 69, were similar between groups (P>0.05; Control and Supplemented group respectively). It is concluded that focus feeding for 6d with protein supplementation during a short-interval PG-based protocol (Synchrovine(®)) did not improve the reproductive outcome associated with this protocol. PMID:25129637

  5. Comparison between absorbed dose to water standards established by water calorimetry at the LNE-LNHB and by application of international air-kerma based protocols for kilovoltage medium energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perichon, N.; Rapp, B.; Denoziere, M.; Daures, J.; Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.-M.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, the absorbed dose to water for kilovoltage x-ray beams is determined from standards in terms of air-kerma by application of international dosimetry protocols. New standards in terms of absorbed dose to water has just been established for these beams at the LNE-LNHB, using water calorimetry, at a depth of 2 cm in water in accordance with protocols. The aim of this study is to compare these new standards in terms of absorbed dose to water, to the dose values calculated from the application of four international protocols based on air-kerma standards (IAEA TRS-277, AAPM TG-61, IPEMB and NCS-10). The acceleration potentials of the six beams studied are between 80 and 300 kV with half-value layers between 3.01 mm of aluminum and 3.40 mm of copper. A difference between the two methods smaller than 2.1% was reported. The standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being below 0.8%, and the one associated with the values from protocols being around 2.5%, the results are in good agreement. The calibration coefficients of some ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, established by application of calorimetry and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols, were also compared. The best agreement with the calibration coefficients established by water calorimetry was found for those established with the AAPM TG-61 protocol.

  6. Developing a Referral Protocol for Community-Based Occupational Therapy Services in Taiwan: A Logistic Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling-Hui; Tsai, Athena Yi-Jung; Huang, Wen-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Because resources for long-term care services are limited, timely and appropriate referral for rehabilitation services is critical for optimizing clients’ functions and successfully integrating them into the community. We investigated which client characteristics are most relevant in predicting Taiwan’s community-based occupational therapy (OT) service referral based on experts’ beliefs. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using the Multidimensional Assessment Instrument (MDAI). Community-dwelling participants (n = 221) ≥ 18 years old who reported disabilities in the previous National Survey of Long-term Care Needs in Taiwan were enrolled. The standard for referral was the judgment and agreement of two experienced occupational therapists who reviewed the results of the MDAI. Logistic regressions and Generalized Additive Models were used for analysis. Two predictive models were proposed, one using basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and one using instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Dementia, psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, joint range-of-motion limitations, fear of falling, behavioral or emotional problems, expressive deficits (in the BADL-based model), and limitations in IADLs or BADLs were significantly correlated with the need for referral. Both models showed high area under the curve (AUC) values on receiver operating curve testing (AUC = 0.977 and 0.972, respectively). The probability of being referred for community OT services was calculated using the referral algorithm. The referral protocol facilitated communication between healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions for OT referrals. The methods and findings should be useful for developing referral protocols for other long-term care services. PMID:26863544

  7. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services

    PubMed Central

    Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops.

  8. Implementation of utility-based resource optimization protocols on ITA Sensor Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswaran, Sharanya; Misra, Archan; Bergamaschi, Flavio; La Porta, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Utility-based cross-layer optimization is a valuable tool for resource management in mission-oriented wireless sensor networks (WSN). The benefits of this technique include the ability to take application- or mission-level utilities into account and to dynamically adapt to the highly variable environment of tactical WSNs. Recently, we developed a family of distributed protocols which adapts the bandwidth and energy usage in mission-oriented WSN in order to optimally allocate resources among multiple missions, that may have specific demands depending on their priority, and also variable schedules, entering and leaving the network at different times.9-12 In this paper, we illustrate the practical applicability of this family of protocols in tactical networks by implementing one of the protocols, which ensures optimal rate adaptation for congestion control in mission-oriented networks,9 on a real-time 802.11b network using the ITA Sensor Fabric.13 The ITA Sensor Fabric is a middleware infrastructure, developed as part of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) in Network and Information Science,14 to address the challenges in the areas of sensor identification, classification, interoperability and sensor data sharing, dissemination and consumability, commonly present in tactical WSNs.15 Through this implementation, we (i) study the practical challenges arising from the implementation and (ii) provide a proof of concept regarding the applicability of this family of protocols for efficient resource management in tactical WSNs amidst the heterogeneous and dynamic sets of sensors, missions and middle-ware.

  9. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  10. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  11. IDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Satellite Networks with Consideration on Channel Quality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols based on TDMA or CDMA in satellite networks, interleave division multiple access (IDMA) technique is introduced into satellite communication networks. Therefore, a novel wide-band IDMA MAC protocol based on channel quality is proposed in this paper, consisting of a dynamic power allocation algorithm, a rate adaptation algorithm, and a call admission control (CAC) scheme. Firstly, the power allocation algorithm combining the technique of IDMA SINR-evolution and channel quality prediction is developed to guarantee high power efficiency even in terrible channel conditions. Secondly, the effective rate adaptation algorithm, based on accurate channel information per timeslot and by the means of rate degradation, can be realized. What is more, based on channel quality prediction, the CAC scheme, combining the new power allocation algorithm, rate scheduling, and buffering strategies together, is proposed for the emerging IDMA systems, which can support a variety of traffic types, and offering quality of service (QoS) requirements corresponding to different priority levels. Simulation results show that the new wide-band IDMA MAC protocol can make accurate estimation of available resource considering the effect of multiuser detection (MUD) and QoS requirements of multimedia traffic, leading to low outage probability as well as high overall system throughput. PMID:25126592

  12. IDMA-based MAC protocol for satellite networks with consideration on channel quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gongliang; Fang, Xinrui; Kang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols based on TDMA or CDMA in satellite networks, interleave division multiple access (IDMA) technique is introduced into satellite communication networks. Therefore, a novel wide-band IDMA MAC protocol based on channel quality is proposed in this paper, consisting of a dynamic power allocation algorithm, a rate adaptation algorithm, and a call admission control (CAC) scheme. Firstly, the power allocation algorithm combining the technique of IDMA SINR-evolution and channel quality prediction is developed to guarantee high power efficiency even in terrible channel conditions. Secondly, the effective rate adaptation algorithm, based on accurate channel information per timeslot and by the means of rate degradation, can be realized. What is more, based on channel quality prediction, the CAC scheme, combining the new power allocation algorithm, rate scheduling, and buffering strategies together, is proposed for the emerging IDMA systems, which can support a variety of traffic types, and offering quality of service (QoS) requirements corresponding to different priority levels. Simulation results show that the new wide-band IDMA MAC protocol can make accurate estimation of available resource considering the effect of multiuser detection (MUD) and QoS requirements of multimedia traffic, leading to low outage probability as well as high overall system throughput. PMID:25126592

  13. The development of a mentalization-based outcomes and research protocol for an adolescent inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla; Williams, Laurel L; Ha, Carolyn; Baumgardner, Jenny; Michonski, Jared; Seals, Robert; Patel, Amee B; Bleiberg, Efrain; Fonagy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a theory-driven assessment and research protocol at the Adolescent Treatment Program of The Menninger Clinic. First, the theoretical framework behind a mentalization-based model for assessment and treatment is described. Next, the process whereby measures were selected to operationalize key components of the mentalization-based model is discussed, including a brief discussion of each measure and assessment procedure. The next section describes the clinical and research use of the data collected. Here, the authors describe how outcomes assessment information is integrated into the clinical decision-making process, and they outline the research questions they aim to answer through the assessment protocol. The authors conclude with a section on the challenges, pitfalls, and future directions of the project. PMID:20025427

  14. A local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiguo; Feng, Li; Jia, Lili; Gu, Xin; Yu, Dongxiao

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes' energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol), the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime. PMID:25479330

  15. Industrial WSN Based on IR-UWB and a Low-Latency MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Rafael; Underberg, Lisa; Wulf, Armin; Kays, Ruediger

    2016-07-01

    Wireless sensor networks for industrial communication require high reliability and low latency. As current wireless sensor networks do not entirely meet these requirements, novel system approaches need to be developed. Since ultra wideband communication systems seem to be a promising approach, this paper evaluates the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 impulse-radio ultra-wideband physical layer and the IEEE 802.15.4 Low Latency Deterministic Network (LLDN) MAC for industrial applications. Novel approaches and system adaptions are proposed to meet the application requirements. In this regard, a synchronization approach based on circular average magnitude difference functions (CAMDF) and on a clean template (CT) is presented for the correlation receiver. An adapted MAC protocol titled aggregated low latency (ALL) MAC is proposed to significantly reduce the resulting latency. Based on the system proposals, a hardware prototype has been developed, which proves the feasibility of the system and visualizes the real-time performance of the MAC protocol.

  16. A Local Energy Consumption Prediction-Based Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiguo; Feng, Li; Jia, Lili; Gu, Xin; Yu, Dongxiao

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes' energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol), the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime. PMID:25479330

  17. The Predigest Project of TCP/IP Protocol Communication System Based on DSP Technology and Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hong-you, Wang; san-ping, Zhao

    The paper introduce a predigest project of TCP/IP based on DSP CMOS chip TMS320F2407 and Ethernet interface. The system design the Network Interface Controller using TMS320F2407and TRL8019AS,it simplify TCP/IP, achieve simple protocol stack in DSP, and achieve Data transmission by software program. The experiment indicated that, the communication system constructed by TMS320F2407andTRL8019AS is low cast, simple and reliable.

  18. Proficiency and Working Memory Based Explanations for Nonnative Speakers' Sensitivity to Agreement in Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Caitlin E.; Tremblay, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the roles of proficiency and working memory (WM) capacity in second-/foreign-language (L2) learners' processing of agreement morphology. It investigates the processing of grammatical and ungrammatical short- and long-distance number agreement dependencies by native English speakers at two proficiencies in French, and the…

  19. Self-adaptive trust based ABR protocol for MANETs using Q-learning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anitha Vijaya; Jeyapal, Akilandeswari

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation. PMID:25254243

  20. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jeyapal, Akilandeswari

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation. PMID:25254243

  1. A Quantum Protocol for ( t, n)-Threshold Identity Authentication Based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Wang, Hong-Yang; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Hua

    2013-02-01

    A quantum protocol for ( t, n)-threshold identity authentication based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states is presented. A trusted third party (TTP) can authenticate the users simultaneously when and only when t or more users among n apply for authentication. Compared with the previous multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication (MSQIA) protocols, the proposed scheme is more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  2. Agent-based models of strategies for the emergence and evolution of grammatical agreement.

    PubMed

    Beuls, Katrien; Steels, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical agreement means that features associated with one linguistic unit (for example number or gender) become associated with another unit and then possibly overtly expressed, typically with morphological markers. It is one of the key mechanisms used in many languages to show that certain linguistic units within an utterance grammatically depend on each other. Agreement systems are puzzling because they can be highly complex in terms of what features they use and how they are expressed. Moreover, agreement systems have undergone considerable change in the historical evolution of languages. This article presents language game models with populations of agents in order to find out for what reasons and by what cultural processes and cognitive strategies agreement systems arise. It demonstrates that agreement systems are motivated by the need to minimize combinatorial search and semantic ambiguity, and it shows, for the first time, that once a population of agents adopts a strategy to invent, acquire and coordinate meaningful markers through social learning, linguistic self-organization leads to the spontaneous emergence and cultural transmission of an agreement system. The article also demonstrates how attested grammaticalization phenomena, such as phonetic reduction and conventionalized use of agreement markers, happens as a side effect of additional economizing principles, in particular minimization of articulatory effort and reduction of the marker inventory. More generally, the article illustrates a novel approach for studying how key features of human languages might emerge. PMID:23527055

  3. Agent-Based Models of Strategies for the Emergence and Evolution of Grammatical Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Beuls, Katrien; Steels, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical agreement means that features associated with one linguistic unit (for example number or gender) become associated with another unit and then possibly overtly expressed, typically with morphological markers. It is one of the key mechanisms used in many languages to show that certain linguistic units within an utterance grammatically depend on each other. Agreement systems are puzzling because they can be highly complex in terms of what features they use and how they are expressed. Moreover, agreement systems have undergone considerable change in the historical evolution of languages. This article presents language game models with populations of agents in order to find out for what reasons and by what cultural processes and cognitive strategies agreement systems arise. It demonstrates that agreement systems are motivated by the need to minimize combinatorial search and semantic ambiguity, and it shows, for the first time, that once a population of agents adopts a strategy to invent, acquire and coordinate meaningful markers through social learning, linguistic self-organization leads to the spontaneous emergence and cultural transmission of an agreement system. The article also demonstrates how attested grammaticalization phenomena, such as phonetic reduction and conventionalized use of agreement markers, happens as a side effect of additional economizing principles, in particular minimization of articulatory effort and reduction of the marker inventory. More generally, the article illustrates a novel approach for studying how key features of human languages might emerge. PMID:23527055

  4. An Improved EKG-Based Key Agreement Scheme for Body Area Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    Body area networks (BANs) play an important role in mobile health monitoring such as, monitoring the health of patients in a hospital or physical status of soldiers in a battlefield. By securing the BAN, we actually secure the lives of soldiers or patients. This work presents an electrocardiogram (EKG) based key agreement scheme using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the sake of generating a common key in a body area network. The use of EKG brings plug-and-play capability in BANs; i.e., the sensors are just placed on the human body and a secure communication is started among these sensors. The process is made secure by using the iris or fingerprints to lock and then unlock the blocks during exchange between the communicating sensors. The locking and unlocking is done through watermarking. When a watermark is added at the sender side, the block is locked and when it is removed at the receiver side, the block is unlocked. By using iris or fingerprints, the security of the technique improves and its plug-and-play capability is not affected. The analysis is done by using real 2-lead EKG data sampled at a rate of 125 Hz taken from MIT PhysioBank database.

  5. Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP)-base DTN for cislunar communications in presence of long link disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullapalli, Vasdev

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are consigned to the safe, sustained, affordable human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The goal is to create sustainable human settlements on the Moon and Mars with the motivation to preserve the human race. So, NASA has been trying different protocols to advance cis-lunar communication such as Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), and the latest one: Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION). ION is an implementation of DTN. ION was designed mainly to reduce the cost and risk in space communication. ION implements the TCPCL, LTPCL, and UDPCL to work with high channel Bit Error Rate (BER), long link breaks, and long link delays. In this thesis, we present a performance evaluation of Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP)-based DTN for cis-lunar communications in presence of long link disruption. Based on experimental evaluation and statistical analysis, we conclude that good-put performance variation is very less for different bit error rates at the particular link break, and also LTP is capable for reliable communication even in the link break for 16 hours to the maximum. Finally, the protocol is the best for higher BER's and long link break.

  6. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jayakumari, R Beulah; Senthilkumar, V Jawahar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC) protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol. PMID:26504898

  7. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Beulah Jayakumari, R.; Jawahar Senthilkumar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC) protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol. PMID:26504898

  8. A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to Ellestad stress test protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Za'aba, A; Madzhi, N K; Ahmad, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01. PMID:19964239

  9. A Network Coding Based Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Eryang; Zou, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years due to their extensive commercial and military applications. However, the harsh underwater channel causes many challenges for the design of reliable underwater data transport protocol. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transport protocol based on network coding and hybrid automatic repeat request (NCHARQ) to ensure reliability, efficiency and availability in UASNs. Moreover, an adaptive window length estimation algorithm is designed to optimize the throughput and energy consumption tradeoff. The algorithm can adaptively change the code rate and can be insensitive to the environment change. Extensive simulations and analysis show that NCHARQ significantly reduces energy consumption with short end-to-end delay. PMID:27618044

  10. Does paramedic-base hospital contact result in beneficial deviations from standard prehospital protocols?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, J. R.; Luo, J.; Schriger, D. L.; Silver, L.

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed written and audio records of paramedic-base hospital radio contact to determine whether care differed from that suggested in standard prehospital care protocols. Records of all 659 contacts for seizure, syncope, abdominal pain, or altered mental state during 1987 (28.4% of all contacts) were scored for the use of standard therapies (such as intravenous access, oxygen, naloxone hydrochloride) and unanticipated therapies (intubation, nitroglycerin). Cases that involved unanticipated treatments were reviewed to determine whether they could have been prospectively identified by simple clinical findings. Standard therapies were used in the majority of patients. Unanticipated therapies were administered to 13 patients, all of whom had abnormal vital signs, diaphoresis, respiratory distress, or a second prominent symptom. Data suggest that protocols could replace radio contact for most patients and that the few who might benefit from radio contact can be easily identified. A 90% reduction in radio contacts in Los Angeles county could save $3 million each year. PMID:2219893

  11. A carrier sensed multiple access protocol for high data base rate ring networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael; Khanna, S.; Paterra, Frank

    1990-01-01

    The results of the study of a simple but effective media access protocol for high data rate networks are presented. The protocol is based on the fact that at high data rates networks can contain multiple messages simultaneously over their span, and that in a ring, nodes used to detect the presence of a message arriving from the immediate upstream neighbor. When an incoming signal is detected, the node must either abort or truncate a message it is presently sending. Thus, the protocol with local carrier sensing and multiple access is designated CSMA/RN. The performance of CSMA/RN with TTattempt and truncate is studied using analytic and simulation models. Three performance factors, wait or access time, service time and response or end-to-end travel time are presented. The service time is basically a function of the network rate, it changes by a factor of 1 between no load and full load. Wait time, which is zero for no load, remains small for load factors up to 70 percent of full load. Response time, which adds travel time while on the network to wait and service time, is mainly a function of network length, especially for longer distance networks. Simulation results are shown for CSMA/RN where messages are removed at the destination. A wide range of local and metropolitan area network parameters including variations in message size, network length, and node count are studied. Finally, a scaling factor based upon the ratio of message to network length demonstrates that the results, and hence, the CSMA/RN protocol, are applicable to wide area networks.

  12. An Improved Quantum Information Hiding Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of χ-type Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Ding, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Hui

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572297, 61303199, 61272514, and 61373131, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, ZR2014FM003, and ZY2015YL018, the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China under Grant Nos. BS2015DX006 and BS2014DX007, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China under Grant No. MMJJ201401012, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology Funds, and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China under Grant Nos. 2015QN003 and 2013QN007

  13. Critical loads and the relevance of ammonia to an effects-based nitrogen protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, K. R.; Sutton, M. A.

    With the signing of the Second Sulphur Protocol in Oslo in 1994, many countries indicated their willingness to adopt an effects-based approach to reducing pollutant emissions. Current activities under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution have now moved to revision of the NO x Protocol. Because of the complex interaction of NO x with other pollutants, a "multi-pollutant, multi-effect" approach is envisaged, taking into account emissions of total reactive N (as NO x and NH 3), and considering acidification, nutrient N and photochemical oxidant effects. The magnitude of NH 3 emissions and deposition of NH x at an international scale have necessitated that NH 3 be considered. Adoption of an effects-based approach for NH 3 demands much information regarding the quantification of emissions and deposition, the understanding of physicochemical and biological processes for estimating critical loads, and the assessment of effectiveness and costs of emission abatement measures. In addition, methodology is needed to enable abatement strategies to be developed for SO 2, NO x and NH 3 at the same time. For the Second S Protocol, an approach defining the "S fraction" ( Sf) of acidity critical loads was used to distinguish S and N effects. Besides being difficult to justify scientifically, the dependence of Sf on "current" deposition results in changing critical loads as deposition is reduced. Current work under the Convention uses a "critical loads function", which considers S and N deposition simultaneously, for both acidification and eutrophication. This approach, together with the integrated assessment models approach used for the S Protocol, is achieving some of the multi-pollutant goals, though because of the link of emissions to environmental impacts, ongoing scientific underpinning and improved data remain essential.

  14. A Unique Approach to Dissemination of Evidence-Based Protocols: A Successful CAUTI Reduction Pilot.

    PubMed

    Dols, Jean Dowling; White, Sondra K; Timmons, Amy L; Bush, Michelle; Tripp, Joanne; Childers, Amanda Kay; Mathers, Nicholas; Tobias, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    A unique approach to disseminate an evidence-based protocol for urinary catheter management was led by a staff-driven catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) reduction team in one hospital. The nurseeducators, faculty from a local university, and the facility's clinical nurse leader mentored the team. As an approachto reduce CAUTIs in the transplant care and intensive care units, the team developed an interdisciplinary CAUTIEducation Fair, which provided a safe, nonthreateningenvironment to unlearn prior behaviors and showcompetency in new evidence-based ones. PMID:26797307

  15. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Hasan Farooq, Low Tang Jung,

    2013-06-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  16. On the difficulty to communicate with fMRI-based protocols used to identify covert awareness.

    PubMed

    Comte, A; Gabriel, D; Pazart, L; Magnin, E; Cretin, E; Haffen, E; Moulin, T; Aubry, R

    2015-08-01

    Assessment of awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness such as patients in a vegetative state (unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, UWS) and patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) remains difficult, with a high rate of misdiagnosis (around 40%). While patients with UWS have no awareness, patients with MCS have partial preservation of conscious awareness. To improve the assessment of awareness in these patients, recent functional neuroimaging protocols have been developed. However, does the complexity of realizing and interpreting these functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation protocols, which are currently carried out by only a few specialist teams, permit generalizable use in clinical routine? In this study, 32 healthy volunteers, by definition perfectly conscious and able to efficiently communicate, performed the protocol proposed by Monti et al. in 2010. Four methods (comprising the method proposed by Monti et al., a mean squared error-based method, a correlation-based method, and a support vector machine-based method) were tested for correctly and accurately interpreting the communication task. Firstly, the different instructions for the localizer and the communication tasks had no effect on activations. Secondly, 25% of participants (8/32) did not provide the expected patterns of activations during fMRI tasks (four for each imagery task). However, this did not necessarily prevent the classification methods from correctly guessing the answers during the communication task. Conversely, these classification methods may fail to detect the correct answers even though participants activated the expected brain areas. None of the four methods produced 100% correct detection during the communication phases. The correlation-based method obtained the best results with an error rate of 4.2%. The results of this study demonstrate that fMRI-based communication paradigms may not be robust enough to reliably detect awareness in all aware

  17. Performance of a quantum teleportation protocol based on collective spontaneous emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Richard Jr.; Clemens, James P.

    2009-03-15

    Recently a conditional quantum teleportation protocol has been proposed by Chen et al. [New J. Phys. 7, 172 (2005)], which is based on the collective spontaneous emission of a photon from a pair of quantum dots. We formulate a similar protocol for collective emission from a pair of atoms, one of which is entangled with a single mode of an optical cavity. We focus on the performance of the protocol as characterized by the fidelity of the teleported state and the overall success probability. We consider a strategy employing spatially resolved photodetection of the emitted photon in order to distinguish superradiant from subradiant emission on the basis of a single detected photon. We find that fidelity approaches unity as the spacing of the atoms becomes much smaller than the emission wavelength with a success probability of 0.25. The fidelity remains above the classical limit of 2/3 for arbitrary atomic separations with the ultimate limit of performance coming from the spatial resolution of the detectors.

  18. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  19. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Distributed OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for MANETs

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyungyu; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed MAC protocol for OFDMA-based wireless mobile ad hoc multihop networks, in which the resource reservation and data transmission procedures are operated in a distributed manner. A frame format is designed considering the characteristics of OFDMA that each node can transmit or receive data to or from multiple nodes simultaneously. Under this frame structure, we propose a distributed resource management method including network state estimation and resource reservation processes. We categorize five types of logical errors according to their root causes and show that two of the logical errors are inevitable while three of them are avoided under the proposed distributed MAC protocol. In addition, we provide a systematic method to determine the advertisement period of each node by presenting a clear relation between the accuracy of estimated network states and the signaling overhead. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in respect of the reservation success rate and the success rate of data transmission. Since our method focuses on avoiding logical errors, it could be easily placed on top of the other resource allocation methods focusing on the physical layer issues of the resource management problem and interworked with them. PMID:25133254

  20. An Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPTV Users Based on an RFID-USB Convergence Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae

    With the growing trend towards convergence in broadcast and communications media, Internet Protocol television (IPTV) that delivers real-time multimedia content over diverse types of communications networks (e.g., broadband Internet, cable TV, and satellite TV) has become a mainstream technology. Authenticating mobile IPTV subscribers who are continuously on the move is a challenge. A complex authentication process often impairs conditional access security or service quality as increasing illegal users and delaying service. This paper proposes an RFID-USB authentication protocol, for mobile IPTV users, combined with USIM-based personalized authentication and lightweight authentication that utilizes the RFID-USB technology with an implanted agent module (called an "agent tag") which temporarily enhanced user status information. The proposed authentication protocol adopts a plug-and-play security agent module that is placed in both an RFID tag and an RFID-USB. The implanted security agents cooperate in such a way that multiple RFID tags are connected seamlessly to an RFID-USB.

  1. Testing a Theory-Based Mobility Monitoring Protocol Using In-Home Sensors: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Lazar, Amanda; Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.

    2014-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor in the performance of many everyday tasks required for independent living as a person grows older. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to test a theory-based mobility monitoring protocol by comparing sensor-based measures to self-report measures of mobility and assessing the acceptability of in-home sensors with older adults. Standardized instruments to measure physical, psychosocial and cognitive parameters were administered to 8 community-dwelling older adults at baseline, 3 month and 6 month visits (examples: FES, GDS-SF, Mini-cog). Semi-structured interviews to characterize acceptability of the technology were conducted at 3 month and 6 month visits. Technical issues prevented comparison of sensor-based measures with self-report measures. In-home sensor technology for monitoring mobility is acceptable to older adults. Implementing our theory-based mobility monitoring protocol in a field study in the homes of older adults is a feasible undertaking but requires more robust technology for sensor-based measure validation. PMID:23938159

  2. Exploring conformational search protocols for ligand-based virtual screening and 3-D QSAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Cappel, Daniel; Dixon, Steven L; Sherman, Woody; Duan, Jianxin

    2015-02-01

    3-D ligand conformations are required for most ligand-based drug design methods, such as pharmacophore modeling, shape-based screening, and 3-D QSAR model building. Many studies of conformational search methods have focused on the reproduction of crystal structures (i.e. bioactive conformations); however, for ligand-based modeling the key question is how to generate a ligand alignment that produces the best results for a given query molecule. In this work, we study different conformation generation modes of ConfGen and the impact on virtual screening (Shape Screening and e-Pharmacophore) and QSAR predictions (atom-based and field-based). In addition, we develop a new search method, called common scaffold alignment, that automatically detects the maximum common scaffold between each screening molecule and the query to ensure identical coordinates of the common core, thereby minimizing the noise introduced by analogous parts of the molecules. In general, we find that virtual screening results are relatively insensitive to the conformational search protocol; hence, a conformational search method that generates fewer conformations could be considered "better" because it is more computationally efficient for screening. However, for 3-D QSAR modeling we find that more thorough conformational sampling tends to produce better QSAR predictions. In addition, significant improvements in QSAR predictions are obtained with the common scaffold alignment protocol developed in this work, which focuses conformational sampling on parts of the molecules that are not part of the common scaffold. PMID:25408244

  3. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2015-01-01

    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses. PMID:26121612

  4. Fertility response in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using modified Ovsynch based timed insemination protocols

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, K. K.; Shukla, S. N.; Inwati, P.; Shrivastava, O. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Suboestrus constitutes the largest factor responsible for poor reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Therefore, oestrus synchronization (OS) and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) is considered an alternative approach to enhance reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Thus, the present study was carried out to study the efficacy of modified Ovsynch protocol with fixed time insemination in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Total 50 post-partum anoestrus dairy buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into 5 Groups, each comprising ten animals (n=10). Animals of Group I received buserelin acetate 10 μg(GnRH) at day 0 and 9, and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at day 7; in Group II similar to Group I except double dose of Gn RH (20 μg) at day 0; in Group III, similar to Group I plus additional administration of insulin on day 0, 1 and 2; in Group IV, similar to Group II plus additional administration of insulin on day 0,1 and 2; in Group V similar to Group I except replacement of first Gn RH with insulin on day 0,1 and 2. Animal of all groups were inseminated at fixed time using frozen semen at 60 h and 72 h after PGF2α administration and confirmed for pregnancy at day 60 post-insemination. Results: The results revealed satisfactory and comparable synchronization of oestrus (60-80%) and conception rate (20-40%) among the various treatment groups in the present study. The better synchronization was observed in modified protocols. However, non-significantly higher conception rate was recorded in modified Ovsynch protocol (40% each in Group II-V) as compared to 20% in Group-I (p>0.05). Conclusion: In this study comparatively higher OS and conception following insulin modified Ovsynch based timed AI protocols in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes was found satisfactory and comparable. PMID:27047090

  5. Clinical and dosimetric experience with MammoSite-based brachytherapy under the RTOG 0413 protocol.

    PubMed

    Wojcicka, Jadwiga B; Lasher, Donette E; Malcom, Ronald; Fortier, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    MammoSite balloon brachytherapy is a relatively new technique for partial breast irradiation. The present paper focuses on the treatment planning, dosimetry, and quality assurance aspects of that treatment, based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 randomized prospective trial (RTOG 0413) protocol. We investigate the usefulness of evaluating implants for treatment appropriateness according to the full set of RTOG criteria as compared with the manufacturer's guidelines. We describe our methods to improve MammoSite balloon implants that would otherwise not comply with the protocol. The initially acquired computed tomography (CT) images are evaluated for tissue conformance, balloon surface-to-skin distance, and balloon symmetry. If the implant fails to meet the foregoing criteria, corrective action such as delay in the CT scan, balloon manipulation, or fluid volume adjustment is taken, and the patient is re-scanned. If the corrective action appears to be successful, three dimensional treatment planning and dose-volume histogram analysis is performed to evaluate the geometric and dosimetric parameters with regard to the RTOG 0413 protocol. The evaluated parameters include, volume ratio of the lumpectomy cavity to the ipsilateral breast, target volume coverage, tissue-balloon conformance, balloon symmetry, minimal balloon surface-to-skin distance, maximum skin dose, and normal breast tissue dose-volume parameters V150 and V200. Among our implants, 21.7% did not initially meet the RTOG 0413 acceptance criteria. Asymmetry and poor conformance values reduce the target volume coverage, and so an implant with moderate conformance and asymmetry can be within the manufacturer's guidelines, but still not meet the RTOG criteria. Our intervention corrected all but one of the implants that failed to meet the criteria. Manipulating the cavity and adjusting the balloon volume may salvage an implant and meet the strict geometric and dosimetric criteria imposed by the RTOG

  6. Coping with Pain in the Motivational Context of Values: Comparison between an Acceptance-Based and a Cognitive Control-Based Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez-Blarrina, Marisa; Luciano, Carmen; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Valdivia, Sonsoles; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Ortega, Jose

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the effect of an acceptance-based protocol (ACT) and a cognitive control-based (CONT) protocol on three measures of pain coping: tolerance, self-report, and believability. Specific methodological controls were employed to further isolate the role of the value of participating in a pain task, compared to previous investigations…

  7. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation. PMID:26273933

  8. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystemwide risk, which can

  9. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    PubMed

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement. PMID:25096968

  10. An ICT-Based Platform to Monitor Protocols in the Healthcare Environment.

    PubMed

    Rorís, Víctor M Alonso; Gago, Juan M Santos; Sabucedo, Luis Álvarez; Merino, Mateo Ramos; Valero, Javier Sanz

    2016-10-01

    Procedures from the healthcare domain involve highly critical actions as they may pose a risk for patients' life. Therefore, a large effort is devoted to the standardization in clinical praxis and to the control of quality for these protocols in order to minimize hazards. In this line, this work is compelled to provide an ICT-based support to carry out these controls in a simple and effective manner. Using a methodology based on HACCP and taking advantage of Semantic tools, a holistic platform of services for traceability and control of processes has been designed and implemented. The applied paradigm is based on the use of Control Points as singular points to generate traces using observations and measures relevant for the processes considered. Based on those, it is possible to offer services for advanced querying and knowledge inference. The local deployment just requires regular mobile phones or tablets making this solution cost-effective and easily replicable. PMID:27624494

  11. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Madhumathy; Dhandapani, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN) using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS). This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a "splitting tree" technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the "Biased Random Walk" model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS) is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR) protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols. PMID:26495426

  12. TSH-Based Protocol, Tablet Instability, and Absorption Effects on L-T4 Bioequivalence

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Background FDA Guidance for pharmacokinetic (PK) testing of levothyroxine (L-T4) for interbrand bioequivalence has evolved recently. Concerns remain about efficacy and safety of the current protocol, based on PK analysis following supraphysiological L-T4 dosing in euthyroid volunteers, and recent recalls due to intrabrand manufacturing problems also suggest need for further refinement. We examine these interrelated issues quantitatively, using simulated what-if scenarios testing efficacy of a TSH-based protocol and tablet stability and absorption, to enhance precision of L-T4 bioequivalence methods. Methods We use an updated simulation model of human thyroid hormone regulation quantified and validated from data that span a wide range of normal and abnormal thyroid system function. Bioequivalence: We explored a TSH-based protocol, using normal replacement dosing in simulated thyroidectomized patients, switching brands after 8 weeks of full replacement dosing. We simulated effects of tablet potency differences and intestinal absorption differences on predicted plasma TSH, T4, and triiodothyronine (T3) dynamics. Stability: We simulated effects of potency decay and lot-by-lot differences in realistic scenarios, using actual tablet potency data spanning 2 years, comparing the recently reduced 95–105% FDA-approved potency range with the original 90–110% range. Results A simulated decrease as small as 10–15% in L-T4 or its absorption generated TSH concentrations outside the bioequivalence target range (0.5–2.5 mU/L TSH), whereas T3 and T4 plasma levels were maintained normal. For a 25% reduction, steady-state TSH changed 300% (from 1.5 to 6 mU/L) compared with <25% for both T4 and T3 (both within their reference ranges). Stability: TSH, T4, and T3 remained within normal ranges for most potency decay scenarios, but tablets of the same dose strength and brand were not bioequivalent between lots and between fresh and near-expired tablets. Conclusions A

  13. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Madhumathy; Dhandapani, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN) using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS). This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a “splitting tree” technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the “Biased Random Walk” model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS) is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR) protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols. PMID:26495426

  14. Research on an E-mail Encryption Protocol Based on Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shufen, Xiao; Yumin, Dong; Hongyang, Ma; Libo, Chen

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of information technology (IT), E-mail has become an important communication tool between human beings. Meanwhile, E-mail safety becomes increasingly important because of its universal applications. In order to overcome shortages of classical E-mail encryption, an E-mail encryption protocol based on quantum teleportation was proposed. It makes quantum encryption of E-mails during sending and receiving processes by taking advantages of entanglement and nonclonability of quantum, thus ensuring safety and reliability of E-mail transmission.

  15. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols. PMID:24193100

  16. A game theory-based obstacle avoidance routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xin; Wu, Huayang; Bi, Shujun

    2011-01-01

    The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes. PMID:22163698

  17. A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xin; Wu, Huayang; Bi, Shujun

    2011-01-01

    The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes. PMID:22163698

  18. A Protocol for Retrospective Remote-Sensing-based Ecological Monitoring of Rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; West, N. E.; Ramsey, R. D.; Efroymson, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Because the condition and trend of drylands in the United States at sub-regional to national scales is unknown, this paper presents a protocol for the monitoring and assessment of dryland degradation using historical remote sensing. Traditional field-based monitoring has proven inadequate for capturing the changes in spatial and temporal heterogeneity that may adversely affect drylands at sub-regional to national spatial scales. Continuous monitoring data of 14 to 25 years is required to detect and separate the effects of climatic processes from those induced by land management practices. However, few field-based datasets exist that have measured the trend of appropriate ecological indicators at regional to national scales. Landsat data has been collected and archived at least once-a month since 1972, and includes complete coverage of US drylands. Five assessment endpoints that relate to land degradation can be retrospectively measured for the last 33 years using surrogate indicators derived from Landsat imagery: change in vegetation physiognomy, decline in vegetation productivity, accelerated soil erosion, decline in soil quality, and change in landscape composition and configuration. Consequently, this protocol considers (1) how land degradation is characterized, i.e., what indicators are assessed, (2) which indicators are measured, (3) what reference conditions are appropriate, (4) which temporal and spatial scales are of concern, and finally, (5) which statistics and/or analyses are appropriate for determining the significance of a change? Aspects of two retrospective studies are presented as examples of application of the protocol to considerations of the land use impacts from military training and testing, and commercial grazing activities on drylands.

  19. Towards a protocol for validating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature: Theoretical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Ghent, Darren J.; Corlett, Gary C.; Prata, Fred; Remedios, John J.

    2013-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) and emissivity are important parameters for environmental monitoring and earth system modelling. LST has been observed from space for several decades using a wide variety of satellite instruments with different characteristics, including both platforms in low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. This includes for example the series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) delivering a continuous thermal infrared (TIR) data stream since the early 1980s, the series of Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) providing TIR data since 1991, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms, providing data since the year 2000. In addition, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of the geostationary Meteosat satellites is now providing LST at unprecedented sub-hour frequency. The data record provided by such instruments is extremely valuable for a wide variety of applications, including climate change, land/atmosphere feedbacks, fire monitoring, modelling, land cover change, geology, crop- and water management. All of these applications, however, require a rigorous validation of the data in order to assess the product quality and the associated uncertainty. Here we report on recent work towards developing a protocol for validation of satellite-based Land Surface Temperature products. Four main validation categories are distinguished within the protocol: A) Comparison with in situ observations, B) Radiance-based validation, C) Inter-comparison with similar LST products, and D) Time-series analysis. Each category is further subdivided into several quality classes, which approximately reflect the validation accuracy that can be achieved by the different approaches, as well as the complexity involved with each method. Advice on best practices is given for methodology common to all categories. For each validation category, recommendations

  20. 78 FR 16275 - Extension of the Duration of Programmatic Agreements Based on the Department of Energy Prototype...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... 22, 2013, for a one-week comment period (78 FR 12336-12337). In accordance with 36 CFR 800.14(e), the... HISTORIC PRESERVATION Extension of the Duration of Programmatic Agreements Based on the Department of... on Historic Preservation. ACTION: The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation has issued a...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with the Secretary or SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with the Secretary or SBA. 4290.507 Section 4290.507 Agriculture Regulations of the... with the Secretary or SBA. The following shall constitute a violation of this part: (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 4290.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with the Secretary or SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with the Secretary or SBA. 4290.507 Section 4290.507 Agriculture Regulations of the... with the Secretary or SBA. The following shall constitute a violation of this part: (a)...

  3. 17 CFR 240.3a69-3 - Books and records requirements for security-based swap agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Books and records requirements... § 240.3a69-3 Books and records requirements for security-based swap agreements. (a) A person registered... and regulations thereunder: (1) Shall not be required to keep and maintain additional books...

  4. 17 CFR 240.3a69-3 - Books and records requirements for security-based swap agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Books and records requirements... § 240.3a69-3 Books and records requirements for security-based swap agreements. (a) A person registered... and regulations thereunder: (1) Shall not be required to keep and maintain additional books...

  5. 75 FR 26791 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Evaluation of Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Evaluation of Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based Decisionmaking in Local Criminal Justice Systems Funding Opportunity Number 10C84, found on pages 21349 and 21350....

  6. A Frame-based Representation for a Bedside Ventilator Weaning Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, D; Grissom, CK; Carpenter, L; Austin, A; Sward, K; Napoli, L; Warner, HR; Morris, AH

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of a frame-based knowledge representation to construct an adequately-explicit bedside clinical decision support application for ventilator weaning. The application consists of a data entry form, a knowledge base, an inference engine, and a patient database. The knowledge base contains database queries, a data dictionary, and decision frames. A frame consists of a title, a list of findings necessary to make a decision or carry out an action, and a logic or mathematical statement to determine its output. Frames for knowledge representation are advantageous because they can be created, visualized, and conceptualized as self-contained entities that correspond to accepted medical constructs. They facilitate knowledge engineering and provide understandable explanations of protocol outputs for clinicians. Our frames are elements of a hierarchical decision process. In addition to running diagnostic and therapeutic logic, frames can run database queries, make changes to the user interface, and modify computer variables. PMID:18358789

  7. Analysis and Proposal of Position-Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiraku; Takano, Akira; Mase, Kenichi

    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.

  8. A Hybrid Routing Algorithm Based on Ant Colony and ZHLS Routing Protocol for MANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Asadinia, Sanaz; Pakzad, Farzaneh

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) require dynamic routing schemes for adequate performance. This paper, presents a new routing algorithm for MANETs, which combines the idea of ant colony optimization with Zone-based Hierarchical Link State (ZHLS) protocol. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a class of Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. SI is the local interaction of many simple agents to achieve a global goal. SI is based on social insect for solving different types of problems. ACO algorithm uses mobile agents called ants to explore network. Ants help to find paths between two nodes in the network. Our algorithm is based on ants jump from one zone to the next zones which contains of the proactive routing within a zone and reactive routing between the zones. Our proposed algorithm improves the performance of the network such as delay, packet delivery ratio and overhead than traditional routing algorithms.

  9. Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement by an Entangled Six-Qubit State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Cai; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jianping; Zhang, Yong; Long, Dongyang

    2016-03-01

    Since the first quantum key agreement protocol based on Bell state was presented by Zhou et al., much attention has focused on it, which is based on entangled states and product states. In this paper, we propose a multi-party quantum key agreement protocol, in which the genuinely maximally entangled six-qubit states are used. The presented protocol allows participants to share a secret key and preserves the following advantages. First, the outcome of the protocol is influenced by all parties; Second, the presented protocol is fairness, i.e., no one can determine the shared key alone; Third, outside eavesdroppers cannot gain the generated key without introducing any error. The security analysis shows that our protocol can resist both outside attacks and inside attacks.

  10. Individualized music for dementia: Evolution and application of evidence-based protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gerdner, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    The theory-based intervention of individualized music has been evaluated clinically and empirically leading to advancement and refinement of an evidence-based protocol, currently in its 5th edition. An expanded version of the protocol was written for professional health care providers with a consumer version tailored for family caregivers. The underlying mid-range theory is presented along with a seminal study that was followed by further research in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, France, Sweden, Norway, Japan and Taiwan. Key studies are summarized. Given its efficacy when implemented by research staff, studies have advanced to testing the intervention under real-life conditions when implemented and evaluated by trained nursing assistants in long-term care facilities and visiting family members. In addition, one study evaluated the implementation of music by family members in the home setting. Initial research focused on agitation as the dependent variable with subsequent research indicating a more holistic response such as positive affect, expressed satisfaction, and meaningful interaction with others. The article advances by describing on-line programs designed to train health care professionals in the assessment, implementation and evaluation of individualized music. In addition, Gerdner has written a story for a picture book intended for children and their families (in press). The story models principles of individualized music to elicit positive memories, reduce anxiety and agitation, and promote communication. The article concludes with implications for future research. PMID:24175165

  11. Forbidding Undesirable Agreements: A Dependence-Based Approach to the Regulation of Multi-agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, Paolo; Grossi, Davide; Broersen, Jan; Meyer, John-Jules Ch.

    The purpose of this contribution is to set up a language to evaluate the results of concerted action among interdependent agents against predetermined properties that we can recognise as desirable from a deontic point of view. Unlike the standard view of logics to reason about coalitionally rational action, the capacity of a set of agents to take a rational decision will be restricted to what we will call agreements, that can be seen as solution concepts to a dependence structure present in a certain game. The language will identify in concise terms those agreements that act accordingly or disaccordingly with the desirable properties arbitrarily set up in the beginning, and will reveal, by logical reasoning, a variety of structural properties of this type of collective action.

  12. Agreement among 2 x 2 Agreement Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Anthony J.; Ward, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen measures of reliability for two-category nominal scales are compared. Upon correcting for chance agreement, there are only five distinct indices: Fleiss's modification of A-sub-1, the phi coefficient, Cohen's kappa, and two intraclass coefficients. Recommendations for choosing an agreement index are made based on definitions, magnitude,…

  13. A universal TaqMan-based RT-PCR protocol for cost-efficient detection of small noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ulrike; Jiang, Xiaoou; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Patzel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for the detection of RNA have been developed over time. For small RNA detection, a stem–loop reverse primer-based protocol relying on TaqMan RT-PCR has been described. This protocol requires an individual specific TaqMan probe for each target RNA and, hence, is highly cost-intensive for experiments with small sample sizes or large numbers of different samples. We describe a universal TaqMan-based probe protocol which can be used to detect any target sequence and demonstrate its applicability for the detection of endogenous as well as artificial eukaryotic and bacterial small RNAs. While the specific and the universal probe-based protocol showed the same sensitivity, the absolute sensitivity of detection was found to be more than 100-fold lower for both than previously reported. In subsequent experiments, we found previously unknown limitations intrinsic to the method affecting its feasibility in determination of mature template RISC incorporation as well as in multiplexing. Both protocols were equally specific in discriminating between correct and incorrect small RNA targets or between mature miRNA and its unprocessed RNA precursor, indicating the stem–loop RT-primer, but not the TaqMan probe, triggers target specificity. The presented universal TaqMan-based RT-PCR protocol represents a cost-efficient method for the detection of small RNAs. PMID:24149841

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 20: CTDI Measurements using a Radiochromic Film-based clinical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, C.; Bekerat, H.; DeBlois, F.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was evaluating accuracy and reproducibility of a radiochromic film-based protocol to measure computer tomography dose index (CTDI) as a part of annual QA on CT scanners and kV-CBCT systems attached to linear accelerators. Energy dependence of Gafchromic XR-QA2 ® film model was tested over imaging beam qualities (50 – 140 kVp). Film pieces were irradiated in air to known values of air-kerma (up to 10 cGy). Calibration curves for each beam quality were created (Film reflectance change Vs. Air-kerma in air). Film responses for same air-kerma values were compared. Film strips were placed into holes of a CTDI phantom and irradiated for several clinical scanning protocols. Film reflectance change was converted into dose to water and used to calculate CTDIvol values. Measured and tabulated CTDIvol values were compared. Average variations of ±5.2% in the mean film reflectance change were observed in the energy range of 80 to 140 keV, and 11.1% between 50 and 140 keV. Measured CTDI values were in average 10% lower than tabulated CTDI values for CT-simulators, and 44% higher for CBCT systems. Results presented a mean variation for the same machine and protocol of 2.6%. Variation of film response is within ±5% resulting in ±15% systematic error in dose estimation if a single calibration curve is used. Relatively large discrepancy between measured and tabulated CTDI values strongly support the trend towards replacing CTDI value with equilibrium dose measurement in the center of cylindrical phantom, as suggested by TG- 111.

  15. Optimizing Equivalence-Based Instruction: Effects of Training Protocols on Equivalence Class Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Wright, Nicole A.; Fields, Lanny

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of the simple-to-complex and simultaneous training protocols on the formation of academically relevant equivalence classes. The simple-to-complex protocol intersperses derived relations probes with training baseline relations. The simultaneous protocol conducts all training trials and test trials in separate…

  16. Distance-to-Agreement Investigation of Tomotherapy's Bony Anatomy-Based Autoregistration and Planning Target Volume Contour-Based Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Steve; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To compare Tomotherapy's megavoltage computed tomography bony anatomy autoregistration with the best achievable registration, assuming no deformation and perfect knowledge of planning target volume (PTV) location. Methods and Materials: Distance-to-agreement (DTA) of the PTV was determined by applying a rigid-body shift to the PTV region of interest of the prostate from its reference position, assuming no deformations. Planning target volume region of interest of the prostate was extracted from the patient archives. The reference position was set by the 6 degrees of freedom (dof)—x, y, z, roll, pitch, and yaw—optimization results from the previous study at this institution. The DTA and the compensating parameters were calculated by the shift of the PTV from the reference 6-dof to the 4-dof—x, y, z, and roll—optimization. In this study, the effectiveness of Tomotherapy's 4-dof bony anatomy–based autoregistration was compared with the idealized 4-dof PTV contour-based optimization. Results: The maximum DTA (maxDTA) of the bony anatomy-based autoregistration was 3.2 ± 1.9 mm, with the maximum value of 8.0 mm. The maxDTA of the contour-based optimization was 1.8 ± 1.3 mm, with the maximum value of 5.7 mm. Comparison of Pearson correlation of the compensating parameters between the 2 4-dof optimization algorithms shows that there is a small but statistically significant correlation in y and z (0.236 and 0.300, respectively), whereas there is very weak correlation in x and roll (0.062 and 0.025, respectively). Conclusions: We find that there is an average improvement of approximately 1 mm in terms of maxDTA on the PTV going from 4-dof bony anatomy-based autoregistration to the 4-dof contour-based optimization. Pearson correlation analysis of the 2 4-dof optimizations suggests that uncertainties due to deformation and inadequate resolution account for much of the compensating parameters, but pitch variation also makes a statistically significant

  17. Quantum Chemical-Based Protocol for the Rational Design of Covalent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schirmeister, Tanja; Kesselring, Jochen; Jung, Sascha; Schneider, Thomas H; Weickert, Anastasia; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Bamberger, Denise; Wich, Peter R; Distler, Ute; Tenzer, Stefan; Johé, Patrick; Hellmich, Ute A; Engels, Bernd

    2016-07-13

    We propose a structure-based protocol for the development of customized covalent inhibitors. Starting from a known inhibitor, in the first and second steps appropriate substituents of the warhead are selected on the basis of quantum mechanical (QM) computations and hybrid approaches combining QM with molecular mechanics (QM/MM). In the third step the recognition unit is optimized using docking approaches for the noncovalent complex. These predictions are finally verified by QM/MM or molecular dynamic simulations. The applicability of our approach is successfully demonstrated by the design of reversible covalent vinylsulfone-based inhibitors for rhodesain. The examples show that our approach is sufficiently accurate to identify compounds with the desired properties but also to exclude nonpromising ones. PMID:27347738

  18. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2013-09-15

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.

  19. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  20. IDMA: improving the defense against malicious attack for mobile ad hoc networks based on ARIP protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2008-04-01

    Malicious nodes are mounting increasingly sophisticated attacking operations on the Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). This is mainly because the IP-based MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by various malicious nodes. However, the defense against malicious attack can be improved when a new layer of network architecture can be developed to separate true IP address from disclosing to the malicious nodes. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to improve the defense against malicious attack (IDMA) that is based on a recently developed Assignment Router Identify Protocol (ARIP) for the clustering-based MANET management. In the ARIP protocol, we design the ARIP architecture based on the new Identity instead of the vulnerable IP addresses to provide the required security that is embedded seamlessly into the overall network architecture. We make full use of ARIP's special property to monitor gateway forward packets by Reply Request Route Packets (RREP) without additional intrusion detection layer. We name this new algorithm IDMA because of its inherent capability to improve the defense against malicious attacks. Through IDMA, a watching algorithm can be established so as to counterattack the malicious node in the routing path when it unusually drops up packets. We provide analysis examples for IDMA for the defense against a malicious node that disrupts the route discovery by impersonating the destination, or by responding with state of corrupted routing information, or by disseminating forged control traffic. The IDMA algorithm is able to counterattack the malicious node in the cases when the node lunch DoS attack by broadcast a large number of route requests, or make Target traffic congestion by delivering huge mount of data; or spoof the IP addresses and send forge packets with a fake ID to the same Target causing traffic congestion at that destination. We have implemented IDMA algorism using the GloMoSim simulator and have demonstrated its performance under a variety of

  1. A novel quantum information hiding protocol based on entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Using entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states, we first derive a covert layer between the secret message and the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between any two generalized Bell states, and then propose a novel high-efficiency quantum information hiding protocol based on the covert layer. In the proposed scheme, a covert channel can be built up under the cover of a high-level quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) channel for securely transmitting secret messages without consuming any auxiliary quantum state or any extra communication resource. It is shown that this protocol not only has a high embedding efficiency but also achieves a good imperceptibility as well as a high security. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61303199, 61272514, 61170272, 61121061, and 61411146001), the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, and ZR2014FM003), the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China (Grant Nos. BS2013DX010 and BS2014DX007), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Universities, China (Grant No. NCET-13-0681), the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China (Grant No. MMJJ201401012), the Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation, China (Grant No. 131067), and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China (Grant No. 2013QN007).

  2. Minimum expected delay-based routing protocol (MEDR) for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin; Gong, Haigang

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs), which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR) tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED) and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches. PMID:22163658

  3. ProtocolNavigator: emulation-based software for the design, documentation and reproduction biological experiments

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imtiaz A.; Fraser, Adam; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Smith, Paul J.; White, Nick S.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Errington, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Experimental reproducibility is fundamental to the progress of science. Irreproducible research decreases the efficiency of basic biological research and drug discovery and impedes experimental data reuse. A major contributing factor to irreproducibility is difficulty in interpreting complex experimental methodologies and designs from written text and in assessing variations among different experiments. Current bioinformatics initiatives either are focused on computational research reproducibility (i.e. data analysis) or laboratory information management systems. Here, we present a software tool, ProtocolNavigator, which addresses the largely overlooked challenges of interpretation and assessment. It provides a biologist-friendly open-source emulation-based tool for designing, documenting and reproducing biological experiments. Availability and implementation: ProtocolNavigator was implemented in Python 2.7, using the wx module to build the graphical user interface. It is a platform-independent software and freely available from http://protocolnavigator.org/index.html under the GPL v2 license. Contact: wpciak@cf.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25150250

  4. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    PubMed

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols. PMID:23385410

  5. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Kassio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.; Neto, Augusto; de Souza, José Neuman

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare,environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols. PMID:23385410

  6. On the Supply Chain Management Supported by E-Commerce Service Platform for Agreement based Circulation of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Liwei; Huang, Yuchi; Ma, Zengjun; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Qingchu

    According to analysis of the supply chain process of agricultural products, the IT application requirements of the market entities participating in the agreement based circulation of fruits and vegetables have been discussed. The strategy of supply chain management basing on E-commerce service platform for fruits and vegetables has been proposed in this paper. The architecture and function composing of the service platform have been designed and implemented. The platform is constructed on a set of application service modules User can choose some of the application service modules and define them according to the business process. The application service modules chosen and defined by user are integrated as an application service package and applied as management information system of business process. With the E-commerce service platform, the supply chain management for agreement based circulation of agricultural products of vegetables and fruits can be implemented.

  7. Synchronization of ovulation in cattle with an aromatase inhibitor-based protocol.

    PubMed

    Yapura, M J; Mapletoft, R J; Pierson, R A; Singh, J; Adams, G P

    2016-05-01

    A study was designed to determine the effect of stage of the estrous cycle on the proportion of animals that ovulated and the synchrony of ovulation of heifers treated with an aromatase inhibitor-based protocol. Forty-eight heifers were treated intramuscularly with 500 μg of cloprostenol (PGF) followed by 100 μg of GnRH 24 hours later to serve as control data for comparison of the ovulatory response to a subsequent aromatase inhibitor protocol. Daily ultrasound examinations were done to determine the incidence of and interval to ovulation. At the time of ovulation (Day 0), heifers were assigned randomly to five day-groups (n = 8-11/group) and given an intravaginal device containing 3 g of letrozole for 4 days starting on Day 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16. At the time of device removal, heifers were given PGF followed by GnRH 24 hours later. Ultrasound examinations were done daily from 2 days before device insertion to 9 days after the posttreatment ovulation. The preovulatory follicle diameter after letrozole treatment was larger in the Day 4 group compared to the Day 0 and 16 groups and intermediate in the Day 8 and 12 groups (P < 0.001). Compared to control data, the percentage of heifers that ovulated after letrozole treatment was greater (87.1% vs. 69.4%, respectively; P < 0.05) as was the synchrony of ovulation (residuals: 0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.68 ± 0.13; P < 0.01). The day on which letrozole treatment was initiated did not affect the proportion of heifers that ovulated or the interval to ovulation. Plasma estradiol concentrations at the time of removal of the letrozole device in the Day 0 and 4 groups was lower (P < 0.05) than in the corresponding controls. Estradiol concentrations in the Day 8 and 12 groups did not differ from already low concentrations in the respective controls. Corpus luteum diameter profiles and progesterone production were not affected by day-group although reduced luteal lifespan after letrozole treatment was observed and

  8. Standard Care versus Protocol Based Therapy for New Onset Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Treggiari, Miriam M.; Konstan, Michael W.; Retsch-Bogart, George; Morgan, Wayne; Wagener, Jeff; Gibson, Ronald L.; Khan, Umer; Emerson, Julia; Thompson, Valeria; Elkin, Eric P.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The Early Pseudomonal Infection Control (EPIC) randomized trial rigorously evaluated the efficacy of different antibiotic regimens for eradication of newly identified Pseudomonas (Pa) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Protocol based therapy in the trial was provided based on culture positivity independent of symptoms. It is unclear whether outcomes observed in the clinical trial were different than those that would have been observed with historical standard of care driven more heavily by respiratory symptoms than culture positivity alone. We hypothesized that the incidence of Pa recurrence and hospitalizations would be significantly reduced among trial participants as compared to historical controls whose standard of care preceded the widespread adoption of tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) as initial eradication therapy at the time of new isolation of Pa. Methods Eligibility criteria from the trial were used to derive historical controls from the Epidemiologic Study of CF (ESCF) who received standard of care treatment from 1995 to 1998, before widespread availability of TIS. Pa recurrence and hospitalization outcomes were assessed over a 15-month time period. Results As compared to 100% of the 304 trial participants, only 296/608 (49%) historical controls received antibiotics within an average of 20 weeks after new onset Pa. Pa recurrence occurred among 104/298 (35%) of the trial participants as compared to 295/549 (54%) of historical controls (19% difference, 95% CI: 12%, 26%, p<0.001). No significant differences in the incidence of hospitalization were observed between cohorts. Conclusions Protocol-based antimicrobial therapy for newly acquired Pa resulted in a lower rate of Pa recurrence but comparable hospitalization rates as compared to a historical control cohort less aggressively treated with antibiotics for new onset Pa. PMID:23818295

  9. Towards a hybrid energy efficient multi-tree-based optimized routing protocol for wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Mitton, Nathalie; Razafindralambo, Tahiry; Simplot-Ryl, David; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing power efficient routing with guaranteed delivery for sensor networks with unknown geographic locations. We propose HECTOR, a hybrid energy efficient tree-based optimized routing protocol, based on two sets of virtual coordinates. One set is based on rooted tree coordinates, and the other is based on hop distances toward several landmarks. In HECTOR, the node currently holding the packet forwards it to its neighbor that optimizes ratio of power cost over distance progress with landmark coordinates, among nodes that reduce landmark coordinates and do not increase distance in tree coordinates. If such a node does not exist, then forwarding is made to the neighbor that reduces tree-based distance only and optimizes power cost over tree distance progress ratio. We theoretically prove the packet delivery and propose an extension based on the use of multiple trees. Our simulations show the superiority of our algorithm over existing alternatives while guaranteeing delivery, and only up to 30% additional power compared to centralized shortest weighted path algorithm. PMID:23443398

  10. Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication and Authentication Protocol based on Extended GHZ-W State and Quantum One-time Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state |φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of |φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.

  11. Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication and Authentication Protocol based on Extended GHZ-W State and Quantum One-time Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state | φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of | φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.

  12. Comprehensive Protocols for CRISPR/Cas9-based Gene Editing in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, David P; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Eggan, Kevin; Merkle, Florian T

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) with the CRISPR/Cas9 system has the potential to revolutionize hPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and transplantation therapy. Here, we aim to provide a single resource to enable groups, even those with limited experience with hPSC culture or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, to successfully perform genome editing. The methods are presented in detail and are supported by a theoretical framework to allow for the incorporation of inevitable improvements in the rapidly evolving gene-editing field. We describe protocols to generate hPSC lines with gene-specific knock-outs, small targeted mutations, or knock-in reporters. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27532820

  13. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  14. VANET Broadcast Protocol Based on Fuzzy Logic and Lightweight Retransmission Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Celimuge; Ohzahata, Satoshi; Kato, Toshihiko

    Vehicular ad hoc networks have been attracting the interest of both academic and industrial communities on account of their potential role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). However, due to vehicle movement and fading in wireless communications, providing a reliable and efficient multi-hop broadcast service in vehicular ad hoc networks is still an open research topic. In this paper, we propose FUZZBR (FUZZy BRoadcast), a fuzzy logic based multi-hop broadcast protocol for information dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks. FUZZBR has low message overhead since it uses only a subset of neighbor nodes to relay data messages. In the relay node selection, FUZZBR jointly considers multiple metrics of inter-vehicle distance, node mobility and signal strength by employing the fuzzy logic. FUZZBR also uses a lightweight retransmission mechanism to retransmit a packet when a relay fails. We use computer simulations to evaluate the performance of FUZZBR.

  15. Protocol for the prevention and management of complications related to ADM implant-based breast reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Citron, Isabelle; Dower, Rory; Ho-Asjoe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) implant-based reconstructions have transformed direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI). But like all surgery, it is not deplete of complications such as seroma, infections and wound healing problems. These are cited with varying frequencies in the literature. With increased experience and through a series of measures instituted to minimize complications, we have been able to improve outcomes for our patients. We report our technical refinements for prevention of ADM reconstruction associated complications including patient selection, implant selection, drains, dressing and our post operative antibiotic regime. We also outline our protocol for the management of ADM associated complications including seroma, simple and complex infection and red breast syndrome, such that the sequelae of complications are minimized and patients achieve a better long-term outcome. PMID:26816672

  16. Protocol for the prevention and management of complications related to ADM implant-based breast reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Isabelle; Dower, Rory; Ho-Asjoe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) implant-based reconstructions have transformed direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI). But like all surgery, it is not deplete of complications such as seroma, infections and wound healing problems. These are cited with varying frequencies in the literature. With increased experience and through a series of measures instituted to minimize complications, we have been able to improve outcomes for our patients. We report our technical refinements for prevention of ADM reconstruction associated complications including patient selection, implant selection, drains, dressing and our post operative antibiotic regime. We also outline our protocol for the management of ADM associated complications including seroma, simple and complex infection and red breast syndrome, such that the sequelae of complications are minimized and patients achieve a better long-term outcome. PMID:26816672

  17. The first protocol of stable isotope ratio assessment in tumor tissues based on original research.

    PubMed

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Toma; Kamiński, Rafal; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Kobos, Jozef; Paneth, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Thanks to proteomics and metabolomics, for the past several years there has been a real explosion of information on the biology of cancer, which has been achieved by spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry. These modern techniques can provide answers to key questions about tissue structure and mechanisms of its pathological changes. However, despite the thousands of spectroscopic studies in medicine, there is no consensus on issues ranging from the choice of research tools, acquisition and preparation of test material to the interpretation and validation of the results, which greatly reduces the possibility of transforming the achieved knowledge to progress in the treatment of individual patients. The aim of this study was to verify the utility of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in the evaluation of tumor tissues. Based on experimentation on animal tissues and human neoplasms, the first protocol of stable isotope ratio assessment of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in tumor tissues was established. PMID:26619108

  18. Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, Markus; Simon, Christoph; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo

    2011-02-15

    Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

  19. SMS-Based Medical Diagnostic Telemetry Data Transmission Protocol for Medical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Ben; Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their time at home, most current technologies rely on hardwired landline technology or expensive mobile data transmissions to transmit data to a medical facility. The aim of this paper is to investigate and develop an approach to increase the freedom of a monitored patient and decrease costs by utilising mobile technologies and SMS messaging to transmit data from patient to medico. To this end, we evaluated the capabilities of SMS and propose a generic communications protocol which can work within the constraints of the SMS format, but provide the necessary redundancy and robustness to be used for the transmission of non-critical medical telemetry from data logging medical sensors. PMID:22163845

  20. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  1. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  2. Grader agreement, and sensitivity and specificity of digital photography in a community optometry-based diabetic eye screening program

    PubMed Central

    Sellahewa, Luckni; Simpson, Craig; Maharajan, Prema; Duffy, John; Idris, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    Background Digital retinal photography with mydriasis is the preferred modality for diabetes eye screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate agreement in grading levels between primary and secondary graders and to calculate their sensitivity and specificity for identifying sight-threatening disease in an optometry-based retinopathy screening program. Methods This was a retrospective study using data from 8,977 patients registered in the North Nottinghamshire retinal screening program. In all cases, the ophthalmology diagnosis was used as the arbitrator and considered to be the gold standard. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate the level of agreement between graders. Results Agreement between primary and secondary graders was 51.4% and 79.7% for detecting no retinopathy (R0) and background retinopathy (R1), respectively. For preproliferative (R2) and proliferative retinopathy (R3) at primary grading, agreement between the primary and secondary grader was 100%. Where there was disagreement between the primary and secondary grader for R1, only 2.6% (n=41) were upgraded by an ophthalmologist. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting R3 was 78.2% and 98.1%, respectively. None of the patients upgraded from any level of retinopathy to R3 required photocoagulation therapy. The observed kappa between the primary and secondary grader was 0.3223 (95% confidence interval 0.2937–0.3509), ie, fair agreement, and between the primary grader and ophthalmology for R3 was 0.5667 (95% confidence interval 0.4557–0.6123), ie, moderate agreement. Conclusion These data provide information on the safety of a community optometry-based retinal screening program for screening as a primary and as a secondary grader. The level of agreement between the primary and secondary grader at a higher level of retinopathy (R2 and R3) was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity for R3 were 78.2% and 98.1%, respectively. None of the false-negative results required photocoagulation therapy

  3. [Classification of allergens by positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis based on specific IgE antibodies in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, E; Baba, M

    1992-10-01

    Classification and characterization of allergens is important because allergic patients are sensitized by a variety of allergens. One hundred and sixty-one sera from asthmatic children were investigated for specific IgE antibodies against 35 allergens including 20 inhalants and 15 foods by means of the MAST method. We assessed the allergenic properties of the allergens based on positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis. There was a high positive percentage agreement of specific IgE antibodies between house dust and Dermatophagoides spp., a relatively high agreement between 5 molds, cat and dog epithelium, mugwort and wormwood and 5 grasses. Among the food allergens, the positive percentage agreements were relatively high, especially between cow's milk, casein, cheese, and between 3 cereal grains. In the cluster analysis, house dust and Dermatophagoides spp. made a big cluster; therefore 32 allergens except house dust and mites were analyzed. From the results of the cluster analysis, the major cluster consisted of (1) ragweed, (2) mugwort and wormwood, (3) timothy, sweet vernal, velvet and cultivated rye, (4) wheat, barley and rice, (5) molds, (6) cow's milk, casein, soybean and cheese, (7) shrimp and crab, (8) egg white, (9) Japanese cedar, (10) dog epithelium, (11) cat epithelium. The cluster of grass pollens and cereal grains made one cluster. These results tend to confirm the presence of species cross-reactivities within the major classes of allergens. PMID:1482294

  4. Structure-based protocol for identifying mutations that enhance protein-protein binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Sammond, Deanne W; Eletr, Ziad M; Purbeck, Carrie; Kimple, Randall J; Siderovski, David P; Kuhlman, Brian

    2007-08-31

    The ability to manipulate protein binding affinities is important for the development of proteins as biosensors, industrial reagents, and therapeutics. We have developed a structure-based method to rationally predict single mutations at protein-protein interfaces that enhance binding affinities. The protocol is based on the premise that increasing buried hydrophobic surface area and/or reducing buried hydrophilic surface area will generally lead to enhanced affinity if large steric clashes are not introduced and buried polar groups are not left without a hydrogen bond partner. The procedure selects affinity enhancing point mutations at the protein-protein interface using three criteria: (1) the mutation must be from a polar amino acid to a non-polar amino acid or from a non-polar amino acid to a larger non-polar amino acid, (2) the free energy of binding as calculated with the Rosetta protein modeling program should be more favorable than the free energy of binding calculated for the wild-type complex and (3) the mutation should not be predicted to significantly destabilize the monomers. The performance of the computational protocol was experimentally tested on two separate protein complexes; Galpha(i1) from the heterotrimeric G-protein system bound to the RGS14 GoLoco motif, and the E2, UbcH7, bound to the E3, E6AP from the ubiquitin pathway. Twelve single-site mutations that were predicted to be stabilizing were synthesized and characterized in the laboratory. Nine of the 12 mutations successfully increased binding affinity with five of these increasing binding by over 1.0 kcal/mol. To further assess our approach we searched the literature for point mutations that pass our criteria and have experimentally determined binding affinities. Of the eight mutations identified, five were accurately predicted to increase binding affinity, further validating the method as a useful tool to increase protein-protein binding affinities. PMID:17603074

  5. A Dynamic CFP Allocation and Opportunity Contention-Based WBAN MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Young; Cho, Jinsung

    WBANs provide communication services in the vicinity of the human body. Since WBANs utilize both MICS frequency band for implant medical applications and ISM frequency band for medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications, MAC protocols in WBAN should be designed considering flexibility between medical and CE applications. In this letter, we identify the requirements of WBAN MAC protocols and propose a WBAN MAC protocol which satisfies the requirements. In order to provide transmission flexibility for various applications, we present the dynamic CFP allocation and opportunity period. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves improved throughput and latency in WBAN environment compared with IEEE 802.15.4.

  6. A Novel Quantum Covert Channel Protocol Based on Any Quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-05-01

    By analyzing the basic properties of unitary transformations used in a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol, we show the main idea why a covert channel can be established within any QSDC channel which employs unitary transformations to encode information. On the basis of the fact that the unitary transformations used in a QSDC protocol are secret and independent, a novel quantum covert channel protocol is proposed to transfer secret messages with unconditional security. The performance, including the imperceptibility, capacity and security of the proposed protocol are analyzed in detail.

  7. An Empirical Evaluation of Lightweight Random Walk Based Routing Protocol in Duty Cycle Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Mehwish

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important design paradigm in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and its consumption in dynamic environment is even more critical. Duty cycling of sensor nodes is used to address the energy consumption problem. However, along with advantages, duty cycle aware networks introduce some complexities like synchronization and latency. Due to their inherent characteristics, many traditional routing protocols show low performance in densely deployed WSNs with duty cycle awareness, when sensor nodes are supposed to have high mobility. In this paper we first present a three messages exchange Lightweight Random Walk Routing (LRWR) protocol and then evaluate its performance in WSNs for routing low data rate packets. Through NS-2 based simulations, we examine the LRWR protocol by comparing it with DYMO, a widely used WSN protocol, in both static and dynamic environments with varying duty cycles, assuming the standard IEEE 802.15.4 in lower layers. Results for the three metrics, that is, reliability, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption, show that LRWR protocol outperforms DYMO in scalability, mobility, and robustness, showing this protocol as a suitable choice in low duty cycle and dense WSNs. PMID:24696667

  8. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria. PMID:23422471

  9. Delta Coherence Protocols: The Home Update Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Reynolds, P.F.; de Supinoki, B.

    2000-07-21

    We describe a new class of directory coherence protocols called delta coherence protocols that use network guarantees to support a new and highly concurrent approach to maintain a consistent shared memory. Delta coherence protocols are more concurrent than other coherence protocols in that they allow processes to pipeline memory accesses without violating sequential consistency; support multiple concurrent readers and writers to the same cache block; and allow processes to access multiple shared variables atomically without invalidating the copies held by other processes or otherwise obtaining exclusive access to the referenced variables. Delta protocols include both update and invalidate protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest, most basic delta protocol, an update protocol called the home update protocol. Delta protocols are based on isotach network guarantees. An isotach network maintains a logical time system that allows each process to predict and control the logical time at which its messages are received. Processes use isotach guarantees to control the logical time at which their requests on shared memory appear to be executed. We prove the home update protocol is correct using logical time to reason about the order in which requests are executed.

  10. A reliable transmission protocol for ZigBee-based wireless patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shyr-Kuen; Kao, Tsair; Chan, Chia-Tai; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Lai, Chin-Yu; Tung, Tse-Hua; Wang, Pi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multihop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both the schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. In this paper, we present a reliable transmission protocol based on anycast routing for wireless patient monitoring. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an anycast group as a destination to reduce the transmission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor positioning, and ECG monitoring. When the triaxial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmitted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, 4-s ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation technology of wireless wide area network, worldwide interoperability for microwave access, to achieve real-time patient monitoring. PMID:21997287

  11. Utilization of Internet Protocol-Based Voice Systems in Remote Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, jim; Bradford, Bob; Best, Susan; Nichols, Kelvin

    2002-01-01

    Due to limited crew availability to support science and the large number of experiments to be operated simultaneously, telescience is key to a successful International Space Station (ISS) science program. Crew, operations personnel at NASA centers, and researchers at universities and companies around the world must work closely together to per orm scientific experiments on-board ISS. The deployment of reliable high-speed Internet Protocol (IP)-based networks promises to greatly enhance telescience capabilities. These networks are now being used to cost-effectively extend the reach of remote mission support systems. They reduce the need for dedicated leased lines and travel while improving distributed workgroup collaboration capabilities. NASA has initiated use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) to supplement the existing mission voice communications system used by researchers at their remote sites. The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) connects remote researchers to mission support "loopsll or conferences via NASA networks and Internet 2. Researchers use NODS software on personal computers to talk with operations personnel at NASA centers. IVoDS also has the ;capability, if authorized, to allow researchers to communicate with the ISS crew during experiment operations. NODS was developed by Marshall Space Flight Center with contractors & Technology, First Virtual Communications, Lockheed-Martin, and VoIP Group. NODS is currently undergoing field-testing with full deployment for up to 50 simultaneous users expected in 2002. Research is being performed in parallel with IVoDS deployment for a next-generation system to qualitatively enhance communications among ISS operations personnel. In addition to the current voice capability, video and data/application-sharing capabilities are being investigated. IVoDS technology is also being considered for mission support systems for programs such as Space Launch Initiative and Homeland Defense.

  12. REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATION OF THE MODEL PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE AGREEMENT(S) BETWEEN STATE(S) AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS,INFCIRC/540 (Corrected) VOLUME I/III SETTING THE STAGE: 1991-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Saum-Manning, L.; Houck, F.; Anzelon, G.

    2010-01-01

    Events in Iraq at the beginning of the 1990s demonstrated that the safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needed to be improved. It had failed, after all, to detect Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapon program even though some of Iraq's's activities had been pursued at inspected facilities in buildings adjacent to ones being inspected by the IAEA. Although there were aspects of the implementation of safeguards where the IAEA needed to improve, the primary limitations were considered to be part of the safeguards system itself. That system was based on the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970, to which Iraq was a party, and implemented on the basis of a model NPT safeguards agreement, published by the IAEA 1972 as INFCIRC/153 (corrected). The agreement calls for states to accept and for the IAEA to apply safeguards to all nuclear material in the state. Iraq was a party to such an agreement, but it violated the agreement by concealing nuclear material and other nuclear activities from the IAEA. Although the IAEA was inspecting in Iraq, it was hindered by aspects of the agreement that essentially limited its access to points in declared facilities and provided the IAEA with little information about nuclear activities anywhere else in Iraq. As a result, a major review of the NPT safeguards system was initiated by its Director General and Member States with the objective of finding the best means to enable the IAEA to detect both diversions from declared stocks and any undeclared nuclear material or activities in the state. Significant improvements that could be made within existing legal authority were taken quickly, most importantly a change in 1992 in how and when and what design information would be reported to the IAEA. During 1991-1996, the IAEA pursued intensive study, legal and technical analysis, and field trials and held numerous consultations with Member States. The Board of Governors discussed the issue of strengthening safeguards

  13. An improved and effective secure password-based authentication and key agreement scheme using smart cards for the telecare medicine information system.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Bruhadeshwar, Bezawada

    2013-10-01

    Recently Lee and Liu proposed an efficient password based authentication and key agreement scheme using smart card for the telecare medicine information system [J. Med. Syst. (2013) 37:9933]. In this paper, we show that though their scheme is efficient, their scheme still has two security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in authentication phase and (2) it has design flaws in password change phase. In order to withstand these flaws found in Lee-Liu's scheme, we propose an improvement of their scheme. Our improved scheme keeps also the original merits of Lee-Liu's scheme. We show that our scheme is efficient as compared to Lee-Liu's scheme. Further, through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. PMID:24061705

  14. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.'s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.'s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance. PMID:27101305

  15. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.’s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.’s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance. PMID:27101305

  16. A research-based child welfare employee selection protocol: strengthening retention of the workforce.

    PubMed

    Ellett, Alberta J; Ellett, Chad D; Ellis, Jacquelyn; Lerner, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial implementation of a new employee selection protocol (ESP) for child welfare grounded in the results of recent large-scale employee retention studies and a set of research-based, minimally essential knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. The complete ESP consists of a sequenced set of Web- and site-based assessment processes and procedures for potential applicants. Using the ESP, applicants and employers make informed decisions about the goodness of fit between the applicant and the demands of a career in child welfare. To date, the new ESP has been piloted in three Georgia Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS) regions and implemented by all nine colleges and universities participating in IV-E child welfare education programs. Evaluation data collected from students and new employees in one DFCS region strongly support the value of the ESP Web-based activities to make a more informed decision about whether to apply for the IV-E stipends and child welfare positions. Feedback from trained ESP assessors supports the value of various ESP activities. A major goal of implementing the ESP is to select more professionally committed and highly qualified applicants to strengthen employee retention and outcomes for children and families. PMID:20187562

  17. An RSA-Based Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Secure against Replacement Attacks, and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    Secure channels can be realized by an authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that generates authenticated session keys between the involving parties. In [32], Shin et al., proposed a new kind of AKE (RSA-AKE) protocol whose goal is to provide high efficiency and security against leakage of stored secrets as much as possible. Let us consider more powerful attacks where an adversary completely controls the communications and the stored secrets (the latter is denoted by “replacement” attacks). In this paper, we first show that the RSA-AKE protocol [32] is no longer secure against such an adversary. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) we propose an RSA-based leakage-resilient AKE (RSA-AKE2) protocol that is secure against active attacks as well as replacement attacks; (2) we prove that the RSA-AKE2 protocol is secure against replacement attacks based on the number theory results; (3) we show that it is provably secure in the random oracle model, by showing the reduction to the RSA one-wayness, under an extended model that covers active attacks and replacement attacks; (4) in terms of efficiency, the RSA-AKE2 protocol is comparable to [32] in the sense that the client needs to compute only one modular multiplication with pre-computation; and (5) we also discuss about extensions of the RSA-AKE2 protocol for several security properties (i.e., synchronization of stored secrets, privacy of client and solution to server compromise-impersonation attacks).

  18. USDA-ARS GRACEnet Project Protocols, Chapter 3. Chamber-based trace gas flux measurements4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This protocol addresses N2O, CO2 and CH4 flux measurement by soil chamber methodology. The reactivities of other gasses of interest such as NOx O3, CO, and NH3 will require different chambers and associated instrumentation. Carbon dioxide is included as an analyte with this protocol; however, when p...

  19. Validating Knowledge-Based Framework through Mission-Oriented Sensors Array and Smart Sensor Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Douglas; Pires, Rayner M.; Branco, Kalinka R. L. J. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in critical embedded systems, mainly in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We present the use of a SOA approach to provide the integration of the payload in the UAV. The integration is provided by a plug and play protocol named Smart Sensor Protocol (SSP) that validates the SOA approach.

  20. 16S rRNA region based PCR protocol for identification and subtyping of Parvimonas micra

    PubMed Central

    Ota-Tsuzuki, C.; Brunheira, A.T.P.; Mayer, M.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study established a PCR protocol in order to identify Parvimonas micra and to evaluate the intra-species diversity by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA partial sequence. The data indicated that the protocol was able to identify this species which could be clustered in five genotypes. PMID:24031274

  1. HybridDock: A Hybrid Protein-Ligand Docking Protocol Integrating Protein- and Ligand-Based Approaches.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-You; Li, Min; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2016-06-27

    Structure-based molecular docking and ligand-based similarity search are two commonly used computational methods in computer-aided drug design. Structure-based docking tries to utilize the structural information on a drug target like protein, and ligand-based screening takes advantage of the information on known ligands for a target. Given their different advantages, it would be desirable to use both protein- and ligand-based approaches in drug discovery when information for both the protein and known ligands is available. Here, we have presented a general hybrid docking protocol, referred to as HybridDock, to utilize both the protein structures and known ligands by combining the molecular docking program MDock and the ligand-based similarity search method SHAFTS, and evaluated our hybrid docking protocol on the CSAR 2013 and 2014 exercises. The results showed that overall our hybrid docking protocol significantly improved the performance in both binding affinity and binding mode predictions, compared to the sole MDock program. The efficacy of the hybrid docking protocol was further confirmed using the combination of DOCK and SHAFTS, suggesting an alternative docking approach for modern drug design/discovery. PMID:26317502

  2. Comparison of long-term progestin-based estrus synchronization protocols in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Mallory, D A; Wilson, D J; Busch, D C; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated long-term progestin-based estrus-synchronization programs on the basis of potential for use in facilitating fixed-time AI in estrous cycling and prepubertal beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments by age, BW, and estrous cyclicity status. Heifers assigned to the melengestrol acetate-PGF(2α) protocol (MGA-PG; n = 50) received MGA (0.5 mg·animal(-1)·d(-1)) in a 1.0-kg carrier from d 0 to 13 and were administered PGF(2α) (25 mg, intramuscularly) 19 d after MGA withdrawal (d 32). Heifers assigned to the Show-Me-Synch protocol (n = 49) received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert (1.38 g of progesterone) from d 2 to 16 followed by PGF(2α) administration 16 d after CIDR removal (d 32). All heifers were fitted with HeatWatch estrus-detection transmitters at the time of progestin removal for continuous estrus detection through the synchronized period after PGF(2α). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 396) were assigned to the same 2 treatments described in Exp. 1 by age, BW, and reproductive tract score. Heifers in Exp. 2, however, were fitted with HeatWatch estrus-detection transmitters at PGF(2α) to characterize estrus-distribution patterns during the synchronized period after PGF(2α). Heifers in both experiments were inseminated approximately 12 h after the onset of estrus. In Exp. 1, estrous response after PGF(2α) and mean interval to estrus after PGF(2α) did not differ between MGA-PG and Show-Me-Synch treatments (P = 0.97). The variance for interval to estrus after PGF(2α) tended (P = 0.06) to be reduced among MGA-PG-treated heifers compared with Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers. Conception to AI, AI pregnancy, and final pregnancy rates did not differ (P > 0.1) between treatments. In Exp. 2, estrous response after PGF(2α) was greater (P = 0.01) among Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers (92%) compared with MGA-PG-treated heifers (85%); however, mean interval to estrus after PGF(2α) did not differ (P = 0

  3. A class of protocols for quantum private comparison based on the symmetry of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; Wang, Cong; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a class of protocols for quantum private comparison is investigated. The main feature is that the symmetry of quantum states is utilized. First of all, we design a new protocol for quantum private comparison via the -type state as a special example. Then, through the in-deep research and analysis on the quantum carrier, it is found that lots of quantum states with the symmetrical characteristic can be utilized to perform the protocol successfully. It is an attractive advantage in the practical application. What is more, two players are only required to be equipped with the unitary operation machines. It means that our protocols can easily be realized and have a broad scope of application. Finally, the analyses on the protocols' security, which are mainly ensured by the symmetry of quantum states and the property of the decoy state, are given in detail.

  4. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and

  5. Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED). PMID:25860073

  6. Comparison of prostaglandin- and progesterone-based protocols for timed artificial insemination in sheep.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Muzante, J; Fierro, S; López, V; Gil, J

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of a new PGF(2α)-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in sheep (Synchrovine®: two doses of PGF(2α), 7 d apart) to a traditional progesterone-eCG (P4-eCG) protocol, considering the effects of seminal state, AI-times, and AI-pathway. Three experiments involving 1297 multiparous Australian Merino ewes were done during the physiologic breeding season (location 32 °S-57 °W). Reproductive performance was assessed as non-return rate to service 21 d after AI (NRR21d), based on detection with androgenized wethers, as well as Fertility (pregnant/inseminated ewes), Prolificacy (fetuses/pregnant ewe), and Fecundity (fetuses/inseminated ewe), which were based on transabdominal ultrasonography 50 d after TAI. In Experiment 1, Synchrovine® treated ewes TAI cervically with fresh semen at 42, 48, or 54 h had similar NRR21d (0.51, 0.46, 0.57), Fertility (0.27, 0.31, 0.26), and Fecundity (0.29, 0.32, 0.27), all of which were lower (P < 0.05) than in a control P4-eCG group inseminated at 54 h (0.61, 0.48, 0.52, NRR21d, Fertility and Fecundity respectively). In Experiment 2, using chilled semen and cervical TAI, Synchrovine® treated ewes inseminated at 42 h yielded lower (P < 0.05) NRR21d, Fertility and Fecundity (0.28, 0.06, 0.06) compared to 48 (0.43, 0.24, 0.24) and 54 h (0.44, 0.22, 0.23). In Experiment 3 with chilled semen, Synchrovine® treated ewes TAI into the cervix at 51 or 57 h were similar in NRR21d (0.16 vs 0.20), Fertility (0.12 vs 0.14), and Fecundity (0.12 vs 0.15), respectively; but lower (P < 0.05) than P4-eCG treated ewes TAI at 54 h (0.34, 0.28, and 0.33 for NRR21d, Fertility and Fecundity respectively). Synchrovine® treated ewes intrauterine TAI at 51 or 57 h yielded similar NRR21d (0.51 vs 0.58), Fertility (0.43 vs 0.51), and Fecundity (0.45 vs 0.56) respectively, but lower (P < 0.05) results compared to P4-eCG treated ewes (0.75, 0.71, and 0.88 for NRR21d, Fertility and Fecundity

  7. Arterial pressure: agreement between a brachial cuff-based device and radial tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chloe M.; Korolkova, Olga; Davies, Justin E.; Parker, Kim H.; Siggers, Jennifer H.; March, Katherine; Tillin, Therese; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Aortic (central) blood pressure (BP) differs from brachial BP and may be a superior predictor of cardiovascular events. However, its measurement is currently restricted to research settings, owing to a moderate level of operator dependency. We tested a new noninvasive device in a large UK cohort. The device estimates central BP using measurements obtained with an upper arm cuff inflated to suprasystolic pressure. We compared these estimates with those obtained using radial tonometry as well as with invasively acquired measurements of aortic BP in a limited number of individuals. Methods: Consecutive cuff-based and tonometry-based estimates of the pressure waveform and the central BP were obtained from 1107 individuals (70 ± 6 years). Short-term and long-term reproducibility studies were performed on 28 individuals. Simultaneous cuff-based and invasively measured pressure traces were acquired and compared in an additional six individuals (65 ± 20 years). Results: Central systolic BP, as estimated by the cuff-based device, was found to be highly reproducible (coefficient of variation 4 and 8% for short and long-term reproducibility, respectively) and was comparable to that estimated by tonometry (average difference 3 ± 6 mmHg, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91). The cuff-based pressure waveforms were similar to those acquired invasively (cross-correlation coefficient 0.93), and the difference in the estimated central systolic BP was −5 ± 8 mmHg (P = 0.2). Conclusion: Cuff-based devices show promise to simplify the measurement of central BP, whilst maintaining a similar fidelity to tonometry. This could lead to improved adoption of estimates of central BP in clinical practice. PMID:24379000

  8. Poor agreement between endoscopists and gastrointestinal pathologists for the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy findings

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Shajan; Council, Leona; Bang, Ji Young; Neumann, Helmut; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Wilcox, Charles Melbern

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) findings between endoscopists and gastrointestinal (GI)-pathologists. METHODS: All pCLE procedures were undertaken and the endoscopist rendered assessment. The same pCLE videos were then viewed offline by an expert GI pathologist. Histopathology was considered the gold standard for definitive diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of dysplastic/ neoplastic GI lesions and interobserver agreement between endoscopists and experienced gastrointestinal pathologist for pCLE findings were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 66 included patients, 40 (60.6%) had lesions in the esophagus, 7 (10.6%) in the stomach, 15 (22.7%) in the biliary tract, 3 (4.5%) in the ampulla and 1 (1.5%) in the colon. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing dysplastic/neoplastic lesions using pCLE were higher for endoscopists than pathologist at 87.0% vs 69.6%, 80.0% vs 40.0% and 84.8% vs 60.6% (P = 0.0003), respectively. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was greater for endoscopists than the pathologist (0.83 vs 0.55, P = 0.0001). Overall agreement between endoscopists and pathologist was moderate for all GI lesions (K = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.26-0.61), luminal lesions (K = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.20-0.60) and those of dysplastic/neoplastic pathology (K = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.37-0.72), the agreement was poor for benign (K = 0.13; 95%CI: -0.097-0.36) and pancreaticobiliary lesions (K = 0.19; 95%CI: -0.26-0.63). CONCLUSION: There is a wide discrepancy in the interpretation of pCLE findings between endoscopists and pathologist, particularly for benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary lesions. Further studies are needed to identify the cause of this poor agreement. PMID:25548499

  9. 17 CFR 1.7 - Books and records requirements for security-based swap agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Books and records requirements... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.7 Books... not be required to keep and maintain additional books and records regarding security-based...

  10. 17 CFR 1.7 - Books and records requirements for security-based swap agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Books and records requirements... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.7 Books... not be required to keep and maintain additional books and records regarding security-based...

  11. 77 FR 40634 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Pretrial Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... activities. These change strategies are critical to meeting their system's harm reduction goals. The...-based practice. It defines a vision of safer communities. It puts forward the belief that risk and harm... specific risk and harm reduction outcomes; and (3) Change in knowledge, skills, and abilities...

  12. Efficacy of treatments and pain management for trapeziometacarpal (thumb base) osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Tokiko; Lalonde, Lyne; Harris, Patrick; Bureau, Nathalie J; Gaudreault, Nathaly; Ziegler, Daniela; Choinière, Manon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The thumb is essential for daily activities. Unfortunately, this digit is commonly affected by trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis (TMO), handicapping a large number of individuals. TMO constitutes an increasing human and economic burden for our society whose population is ageing. Limited access to adequate treatment is among the most important obstacles to optimal TMO management. Poor understanding of TMO characteristics, lack of knowledge about evidence-based treatments, simplistic pain management plans based solely on the patient's physical condition, absence of interprofessional communication and lack of multidisciplinary treatment guidelines contribute to inadequate TMO management. On the long term, our research project aims at improving the quality of care and services offered to patients with TMO by developing a patient-centred, evidence-based multidisciplinary management clinical pathway coordinated across the healthcare system. This proposed systematic review is a prerequisite to ensuring evidence-based practices and aims to document the efficacy of all the existing modalities for TMO management. Methods and analysis The protocol of the systematic review is registered with PROSPERO and will be conducted using the guidelines Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We will identify studies in English and French concerning TMO treatments through searches in Cochrane Central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINHAL, PubMed, OT Seekers, PEDRO and the grey literature. 2 reviewers will independently screen study eligibility, extract data and appraise studies using published assessment tools. Meta-analyses will be undertaken where feasible; otherwise, narrative syntheses will be carried out. The robustness of evidence will be assessed using the GRADE system. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for this study. A comprehensive knowledge exchange and transfer plan incorporating effective strategies will be used to

  13. Framingham Ten-Year General Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Agreement between BMI-Based and Cholesterol-Based Estimates in a South Asian Convenience Sample

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Charlotte A.; Ross, Leanne; Surani, Nadia; Dharamshi, Narissa; Karmali, Karima

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this analysis was to determine the agreement between body mass index-based and cholesterol-based ten-year Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk scores among a convenience sample of 773 South Asian Canadian adults attending community-based screening clinics. Scores were calculated using age, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive use, current smoking, diabetes, and total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (for cholesterol-based risk) or height and weight (for body mass index-based risk). Mean risk score differences (body mass index-based risk minus cholesterol-based risk) were estimated using paired t-tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between scores. Finally, agreement across risk categories (low [<10%], moderate [10% to <20%], high [> = 20%]) was examined using the kappa statistic. Average agreement between the two risk scores was quite good overall (mean differences of 0.6% for men and 0.5% for women), but increased to about 3% among participants 60–74 years of age. However, Bland-Altman plots revealed that the differences between the two scores and the variability of the differences increased with increasing average 10-year risk. In terms of clinical importance, the limits of agreement were reasonable for women < 60 years (95% confidence interval: -3.2% to 3.1%), but of concern for women 60-74 years (95% confidence interval: -6.0% to 12.3%), men < 60 years (95% confidence interval: -7.1% to 7.3%) and men 6-074 years (95% confidence interval: -13.8% to 18.8%). Agreement across categories was moderate for most sex and age groups examined (kappa values: 0.51 for women < 60 years, 0.50 for women 60-74 years, 0.65 for men < 60 years), except for men 60-74 years, where agreement was only fair (kappa = 0.26). In light of these disagreements, evaluation of a participant’s change in cardiovascular disease risk over time will necessitate use of the same risk score (i.e., either body mass index-based or cholesterol-based

  14. Recommended protocols based on a survey of current practice in genotoxicity testing laboratories: study evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brillinger, R L; Nestmann, E R; Sigal, E A; Swierenga, S H

    1991-02-01

    The approach used in the survey of current methodologies used in mammalian cell genotoxicity testing (unscheduled DNA synthesis, mutation, cell transformation and cytogenetics testing) is discussed. The recommended protocols, described in the preceding papers, were developed using responses to detailed questionnaires. This summary outlines general observations related to the survey methodology and to the protocols themselves. Also discussed are the qualities of an effective survey; the evolution of a survey and of a protocol; and the contributions and limitations of this study. PMID:1996127

  15. SCPS-TP, TCP, and Rate-Based Protocol Evaluation. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Diepchi T.; Lawas-Grodek, Frances J.; Dimond, Robert P.; Ivancic, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Tests were performed at Glenn Research Center to compare the performance of the Space Communications Protocol Standard Transport Protocol (SCPS TP, otherwise known as "TCP Tranquility") relative to other variants of TCP and to determine the implementation maturity level of these protocols, particularly for higher speeds. The testing was performed over reasonably high data rates of up to 100 Mbps with delays that are characteristic of near-planetary environments. The tests were run for a fixed packet size, but for variously errored environments. This report documents the testing performed to date.

  16. Reducing Tobacco Use among Youth: Community-Based Approaches. A Guideline. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    General guidance is offered in the planning and implementation of community-based strategies for the prevention of tobacco use among youth. Ideas and data are organized by means of the Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS), which is a systematic process for evaluating prevention research and practice evidence, assessing the strength of…

  17. Assessing the Fecal Microbiota: An Optimized Ion Torrent 16S rRNA Gene-Based Analysis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Sanchez, Borja; Martín, Rebeca; Gueimonde, Miguel; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within a biological sample represents the current state-of-the-art for determination of human gut microbiota composition. Advances in dissecting the microbial biodiversity of this ecosystem have very much been dependent on the development of novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, like the Ion Torrent. However, the precise representation of this bacterial community may be affected by the protocols used for DNA extraction as well as by the PCR primers employed in the amplification reaction. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the fecal microbiota. PMID:23869230

  18. Protocol based on compressed sensing for high-speed authentication and cryptographic key distribution over a multiparty optical network.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Li, Shen; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2013-11-20

    We present a protocol for the amplification and distribution of a one-time-pad cryptographic key over a point-to-multipoint optical network based on computational ghost imaging (GI) and compressed sensing (CS). It is shown experimentally that CS imaging can perform faster authentication and increase the key generation rate by an order of magnitude compared with the scheme using computational GI alone. The protocol is applicable for any number of legitimate user, thus, the scheme could be used in real intercity networks where high speed and high security are crucial. PMID:24513737

  19. Agreement Dynamics of Memory-Based Naming Game with Forgetting Curve of Ebbinghaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Jie-Fang

    2009-04-01

    We propose a memory-based naming game (MBNG) model with two-state variables in full-connected networks, which is like some previous opinion propagation models. It is found that this model is deeply affected by the memory decision parameter, and then its dynamical behaviour can be partly analysed by using numerical simulation and analytical argument. We also report a modified MBNG model with the forgetting curve of Ebbinghaus in the memory. With deletion of one parameter in the MBNG model, it can converge to success rate S(t) = 1 and the average sum E(t) is decided by the size of network N.

  20. Protocol Improvements for Low Concentration DNA-Based Bioaerosol Sampling and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun Kiat; Miller, Dana; Cao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As bioaerosol research attracts increasing attention, there is a need for additional efforts that focus on method development to deal with different environmental samples. Bioaerosol environmental samples typically have very low biomass concentrations in the air, which often leaves researchers with limited options in choosing the downstream analysis steps, especially when culture-independent methods are intended. Objectives This study investigates the impacts of three important factors that can influence the performance of culture-independent DNA-based analysis in dealing with bioaerosol environmental samples engaged in this study. The factors are: 1) enhanced high temperature sonication during DNA extraction; 2) effect of sampling duration on DNA recoverability; and 3) an alternative method for concentrating composite samples. In this study, DNA extracted from samples was analysed using the Qubit fluorometer (for direct total DNA measurement) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results and Findings The findings suggest that additional lysis from high temperature sonication is crucial: DNA yields from both high and low biomass samples increased up to 600% when the protocol included 30-min sonication at 65°C. Long air sampling duration on a filter media was shown to have a negative impact on DNA recoverability with up to 98% of DNA lost over a 20-h sampling period. Pooling DNA from separate samples during extraction was proven to be feasible with margins of error below 30%. PMID:26619279

  1. A multipath routing protocol based on clustering and ant colony optimization for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Xu, Mai; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Baoguo

    2010-01-01

    For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a multipath routing protocol (MRP) based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO) is proposed. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length) were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH) is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively. PMID:22399890

  2. Efficacy of a behaviorally based voice therapy protocol for vocal nodules.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, E B; Hillman, R E; Hammarberg, B; Södersten, M; Doyle, P

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects on vocal function of voice therapy for vocal nodules. Perceptual and physiological progressive changes were examined during a strictly structured, behaviorally based voice therapy protocol in which 11 women with vocal nodules participated. Randomized audio recordings from pretherapy and from each of the therapy approaches (vocal hygiene, respiration, direct facilitation, carryover) were used for perceptual evaluations. Six speech-language pathologists rated ten voice quality parameters. Two evaluation procedures were performed and compared. Interlistener reliability was sufficiently high in both tests. Significant effects of therapy were found for decreased overall dysphonia, press, instability, gratings, roughness, vocal fry, and "scrape." Nonsignificant group effects were found for breathiness, aphonic instances, and lack of sonority. No significant parameter changes occurred between baseline assessment and the completion of the initial (vocal hygiene) phase of therapy. Significant changes were found following the direct facilitation and respiration phases of therapy. Videostroboscopic evaluations made by two laryngologists showed that in no case were the nodules completely resolved. However, the nodules had decreased in size and edema was reduced after therapy for all clients, but one. Combined results suggest: (1) Alterations in vocal function were reflected in perceptual parameters, and (2) the voice therapy had a positive effect on voice quality, vocal status, and vocal function for the majority of the vocal nodule clients. PMID:11575636

  3. A simple TALEN-based protocol for efficient genome-editing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Ferreira, Irene R S; Schnorrer, Frank

    2014-08-15

    Drosophila is a well-established genetic model organism: thousands of point mutations, deficiencies or transposon insertions are available from stock centres. However, to date, it is still difficult to modify a specific gene locus in a defined manner. A potential solution is the application of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), which have been used successfully to mutate genes in various model organisms. TALENs are constructed by fusion of TALE proteins to the endonuclease FokI, resulting in artificial, sequence-specific endonucleases. They induce double strand breaks, which are either repaired by error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR). We developed a simple TALEN-based protocol to mutate any gene of interest in Drosophila within approximately 2 months. We inject mRNA coding for two TALEN pairs targeting the same gene into embryos, employ T7 endonuclease I screening of pooled F1 flies to identify mutations and generate a stable mutant stock in the F3 generation. We illustrate the efficacy of our strategy by mutating CG11617, a previously uncharacterized putative transcription factor with an unknown function in Drosophila. This demonstrates that TALENs are a reliable and efficient strategy to mutate any gene of interest in Drosophila. PMID:24680697

  4. Three sample preparation protocols for polymerase chain reaction based detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Kostrzynska, M; Sankey, M; Haack, E; Power, C; Aldom, J E; Chagla, A H; Unger, S; Palmateer, G; Lee, H; Trevors, J T; De Grandis, S A

    1999-02-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness worldwide. In this report, we describe development of sample preparation protocols for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of C. parvum in fecal material and environmental water samples. Two of these methods were found adequate for isolation of Cryptosporidium DNA from filtered water pellet suspensions. The first involved several filtration steps, immunomagnetic separation and freeze-thaw cycles. The second method involved filtration, addition of EnviroAmp lysis reagent, freeze-thaw cycles and precipitation of the DNA with isopropanol. Using nested PCR, we detected 100 oocysts/ml of filtered water pellet suspension, with either of the above sample preparation procedures. Nested PCR increased sensitivity of the assay by two to three orders of magnitude as compared to the primary PCR. The detection limit for seeded fecal samples was 10-fold higher than for filtered environmental water pellet suspension. Nested PCR results showed 62.4 and 91.1% correlation with immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for fecal samples and filtered environmental water pellet suspensions, respectively. This correlation decreased to 47.2% and 44.4%, respectively, when only IFA positive samples were analyzed. However, in fecal samples contaminated with a high number (> 10(5)/g) of C. parvum oocysts, this correlation was 100%. PMID:10076632

  5. Maintaining communication link based on AODV routing protocol in mobile robot networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Jiang, Hong

    2007-12-01

    Wired computer networks are vital in modern life. However, these networks are extremely vulnerable to disaster or attack in emergency situations. Therefore, how to maintain communication link under emergency situations is very important. In this paper, we utilize a series of autonomous mobile slave robots which follow behind the lead robot and automatically stop where needed to maintain an ad hoc network for guaranteeing a link between the lead robot and its remote monitor/control station. To accomplish this target, an efficient communication protocol limitation mobile robots broadcast based on AODV (LMRB-AODV) is proposed for deployment in multi-robot system. After then the lead robot could carry service traffics to the monitor station under emergency situations through the communication link. At any instance, the lead robot has the ability to reclaim the relay robot(s) which are unneeded in the network to rejoin the convoy behind the lead robot and use it to extend the range of wireless communication when the radio frequency (RF) shortcuts are detected by the lead robot. All relay deployment and reclaiming strategy functions occur without the operator's involvement. Finally, we provide a comparative study of their performance in a number of different simulation environments. The results show that the proposed scheme is very efficient in maintaining communication link in wireless network.

  6. Gender-based violence and absent fathers: a scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Khuzwayo, Nelisiwe; Mthombeni, Andile; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) and absent fathers are two epidemics that affect women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the understanding of the complex links between GBV and absent fathers is currently inadequate. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of documented evidence that links GBV and absent fathers as well as identifies areas that require systematic review and where more primary research is needed. Methods and analysis The search strategy for this scoping review study will involve electronic databases including: Academic Search Premier, Ingenta, Kluwer Online, PsycARTICLES (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Social Work Abstracts and Sociological Collection. The studies will be mapped in 2 stages: stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and method; stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. A thematic analysis of the studies will be carried out to extract relevant outcomes using NVIVO. Discussion We anticipate finding a large number of studies on GBV diagnostic interventions in sub-Saharan Africa which, once summarised, will be useful to guide future research. The protocol for the scoping review has been registered in PROSPERO. Dissemination The study will be disseminated electronically and in print. It will also be presented to conferences related to GBV, Father Connections and Children's Health. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015022094. PMID:27297007

  7. The short-term impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus based immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Guleria, S; Jain, S; Dinda, A K; Mahajan, S; Gupta, S; Mehra, N K

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. Eighty-three live-related transplant recipients were randomly allocated to protocol biopsy group (Group I, n = 40) and a control group (Group II, n = 43). Other immunosuppressants in these groups consisted of either mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine and steroids. Protocol biopsies were conducted in biopsy group at 1, 6, and 12 months post-transplant. The non-biopsy group was followed by serial serum creatinine and biopsies in them were conducted as and when clinically indicated. Both groups were analyzed at 12 months with respect to graft function and survival. The two groups were similar with respect to age, number of dialysis pre-operatively, tacrolimus levels, induction therapy, donor age, and donor glomerular filtration rate. Forty protocol biopsies were conducted at 1 month, 31 at 6 months, and 26 at 12 months. The prevalence of sub-clinical rejection at 1, 6, and 12 months in these biopsies was 17.5%, 11.2%, and 10.3%, respectively. The prevalence of calcineurin inhibitor toxicity during same period was 15%, 15.5%, and 14.4%, respectively. The cumulative rejection rate in Group I and Group II at 12-month follow-up was 10.3% and 11.3% (P = 0.78), respectively, and cumulative calcineurin inhibitor toxicity at 12 months was 14.4% and 9.3% (P = 0.59), respectively, were not statistically significant. There was no difference in graft survival and function at 1 year. Protocol biopsies have a limited role in a well-matched renal transplant program with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. However, the long-term impact of protocol biopsies needs further evaluation. PMID:23960339

  8. Design of a Medical Triage Evidence-Based Clinical Management Protocol and Implementation of Medical Triage On-Line Training for Use by Mission of Mercy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kimberly D; DiBartolo, Mary C; Welsh, Debra L; Brown, Voncelia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based protocols in safety net settings can help standardize care practices, increase organizational workflow, and enhance quality outcomes for those receiving services. The purpose of this quality improvement project is two-fold: to design an evidence-based medical triage clinical management protocol, and, to influence adherence to that protocol by safety net medical triage volunteers through an on-line volunteer orientation. Leadership skills were required to help translate evidence-based practice recommendations into useful tools to assist in directing practice. Project outcomes included successful multidisciplinary practice change, significantly improved volunteer knowledge surrounding medical triage protocol parameters, increased organizational workflow, and enhanced quality client outcomes. PMID:26529107

  9. Evidence-based protocol for structural rehabilitation of the spine and posture: review of clinical biomechanics of posture (CBP®) publications

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Paul A.; Harrison, Donald D.; Harrison, Deed E.; Haas, Jason W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although practice protocols exist for SMT and functional rehabilitation, no practice protocols exist for structural rehabilitation. Traditional chiropractic practice guidelines have been limited to acute and chronic pain treatment, with limited inclusion of functional and exclusion of structural rehabilitation procedures. OBJECTIVE (1) To derive an evidence-based practice protocol for structural rehabilitation from publications on Clinical Biomechanics of Posture (CBP®) methods, and (2) to compare the evidence for Diversified, SMT, and CBP®. METHODS Clinical control trials utilizing CBP® methods and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) were obtained from searches in Mantis, CINAHL, and Index Medicus. Using data from SMT review articles, evidence for Diversified Technique (as taught in chiropractic colleges), SMT, and CBP® were rated and compared. RESULTS From the evidence from Clinical Control Trials on SMT and CBP®, there is very little evidence support for Diversified (our rating = 18), as taught in chiropractic colleges, for the treatment of pain subjects, while CBP® (our rating = 46) and SMT for neck pain (rating = 58) and low back pain (our rating = 202) have evidence-based support. CONCLUSIONS While CBP® Technique has approximately as much evidence-based support as SMT for neck pain, CBP® has more evidence to support its methods than the Diversified technique taught in chiropractic colleges, but not as much as SMT for low back pain. The evolution of chiropractic specialization has occurred, and doctors providing structural-based chiropractic care require protocol guidelines for patient quality assurance and standardization. A structural rehabilitation protocol was developed based on evidence from CBP® publications. PMID:17549209

  10. Optimized protocol for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring-based proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jacob J.; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Schoenherr, Regine M.; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues. While the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e. 9 processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R2 = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R2 = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens. PMID:27462933

  11. Optimized Protocol for Quantitative Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jacob J; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Schoenherr, Regine M; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-08-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e., nine processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R(2) = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R(2) = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens. PMID:27462933

  12. Practical quantum private query of blocks based on unbalanced-state Bennett-Brassard-1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin

    2014-12-01

    Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each ai contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary.

  13. Practical quantum private query of blocks based on unbalanced-state Bennett-Brassard-1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each ai contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary. PMID:25518810

  14. Strong Password-Based Authentication in TLS Using the Three-PartyGroup Diffie-Hellman Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, Michel; Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Moeller,Bodo; Pointcheval, David

    2006-08-26

    The Internet has evolved into a very hostile ecosystem where"phishing'' attacks are common practice. This paper shows that thethree-party group Diffie-Hellman key exchange can help protect againstthese attacks. We have developed a suite of password-based cipher suitesfor the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that are not onlyprovably secure but also assumed to be free from patent and licensingrestrictions based on an analysis of relevant patents in thearea.

  15. A reliable user authentication and key agreement scheme for Web-based Hospital-acquired Infection Surveillance Information System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Tseng, Yi-Ju; Chung, Yufang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lai, Feipei

    2012-08-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, both digitization and electronic orientation are required on various applications in the daily life. For hospital-acquired infection control, a Web-based Hospital-acquired Infection Surveillance System was implemented. Clinical data from different hospitals and systems were collected and analyzed. The hospital-acquired infection screening rules in this system utilized this information to detect different patterns of defined hospital-acquired infection. Moreover, these data were integrated into the user interface of a signal entry point to assist physicians and healthcare providers in making decisions. Based on Service-Oriented Architecture, web-service techniques which were suitable for integrating heterogeneous platforms, protocols, and applications, were used. In summary, this system simplifies the workflow of hospital infection control and improves the healthcare quality. However, it is probable for attackers to intercept the process of data transmission or access to the user interface. To tackle the illegal access and to prevent the information from being stolen during transmission over the insecure Internet, a password-based user authentication scheme is proposed for information integrity. PMID:21556897

  16. Review of recent studies and issues regarding the P300-based complex trial protocol for detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Labkovsky, Elena; Meixner, John; Winograd, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    In this review, the evolution of new P300-based protocols for detection of concealed information is summarized. The P300-based complex trial protocol (CTP) is described as one such countermeasure (CM)-resistant protocol. Recent lapses in diagnostic accuracy (from 90% to 75%) with CTPs applied to mock crime protocols are summarized, as well as recent enhancements to the CTP which have restored accuracy. These enhancements include 1) use of performance feedback during testing, 2) use of other ERP components such as N200 in diagnosis, 3) use of auxiliary tests, including the autobiographical implicit association test, as leading to restored diagnostic accuracy, and 4) a study of the mechanisms underlying CMs. A novel, doubly efficient version of the CTP involving presentation of two probes in one trial is described as a new way to improve accuracy to levels above 90% in mock crime situations. Finally, a thorough analysis of the legal issues surrounding use of the CTP in U.S. is given. PMID:24012907

  17. Q-Learning and p-persistent CSMA based rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio networks operating with shared spectrum activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Clifton L.; Biswas, Subir

    2014-06-01

    With an increasing demand for spectrum, dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been proposed as viable means for providing the flexibility and greater access to spectrum necessary to meet this demand. Within the DSA concept, unlicensed secondary users temporarily "borrow" or access licensed spectrum, while respecting the licensed primary user's rights to that spectrum. As key enablers for DSA, cognitive radios (CRs) are based on software-defined radios which allow them to sense, learn, and adapt to the spectrum environment. These radios can operate independently and rapidly switch channels. Thus, the initial setup and maintenance of cognitive radio networks are dependent upon the ability of CR nodes to find each other, in a process known as rendezvous, and create a link on a common channel for the exchange of data and control information. In this paper, we propose a novel rendezvous protocol, known as QLP, which is based on Q-learning and the p-persistent CSMA protocol. With the QLP protocol, CR nodes learn which channels are best for rendezvous and thus adapt their behavior to visit those channels more frequently. We demonstrate through simulation that the QLP protocol provides a rendevous capability for DSA environments with different dynamics of PU activity, while attempting to achieve the following performance goals: (1) minimize the average time-to-rendezvous, (2) maximize system throughput, (3) minimize primary user interference, and (4) minimize collisions among CR nodes.

  18. Patient-based estimation of organ dose for a population of 58 adult patients across 13 protocol categories

    SciTech Connect

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive patient-specific organ dose estimation across a multiplicity of computed tomography (CT) examination protocols. Methods: A validated Monte Carlo program was employed to model a common CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). The organ and effective doses were estimated from 13 commonly used body and neurological CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on 58 adult computational extended cardiac-torso phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The organ dose normalized by CTDI{sub vol} (h factor) and effective dose normalized by the dose length product (DLP) (k factor) were calculated from the results. A mathematical model was derived for the correlation between the h and k factors with the patient size across the protocols. Based on this mathematical model, a dose estimation iPhone operating system application was designed and developed to be used as a tool to estimate dose to the patients for a variety of routinely used CT examinations. Results: The organ dose results across all the protocols showed an exponential decrease with patient body size. The correlation was generally strong for the organs which were fully or partially located inside the scan coverage (Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) of 0.49). The correlation was weaker for organs outside the scan coverage for which distance between the organ and the irradiation area was a stronger predictor of dose to the organ. For body protocols, the effective dose before and after normalization by DLP decreased exponentially with increasing patient's body diameter (r > 0.85). The exponential relationship between effective dose and patient's body diameter was significantly weaker for neurological protocols (r < 0.41), where the trunk length was a slightly stronger predictor of effective dose (0.15 < r < 0.46). Conclusions: While the most accurate estimation of a patient dose requires specific modeling of the patient

  19. Patient-based estimation of organ dose for a population of 58 adult patients across 13 protocol categories

    PubMed Central

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive patient-specific organ dose estimation across a multiplicity of computed tomography (CT) examination protocols. Methods: A validated Monte Carlo program was employed to model a common CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). The organ and effective doses were estimated from 13 commonly used body and neurological CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on 58 adult computational extended cardiac-torso phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The organ dose normalized by CTDIvol (h factor) and effective dose normalized by the dose length product (DLP) (k factor) were calculated from the results. A mathematical model was derived for the correlation between the h and k factors with the patient size across the protocols. Based on this mathematical model, a dose estimation iPhone operating system application was designed and developed to be used as a tool to estimate dose to the patients for a variety of routinely used CT examinations. Results: The organ dose results across all the protocols showed an exponential decrease with patient body size. The correlation was generally strong for the organs which were fully or partially located inside the scan coverage (Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) of 0.49). The correlation was weaker for organs outside the scan coverage for which distance between the organ and the irradiation area was a stronger predictor of dose to the organ. For body protocols, the effective dose before and after normalization by DLP decreased exponentially with increasing patient's body diameter (r > 0.85). The exponential relationship between effective dose and patient's body diameter was significantly weaker for neurological protocols (r < 0.41), where the trunk length was a slightly stronger predictor of effective dose (0.15 < r < 0.46). Conclusions: While the most accurate estimation of a patient dose requires specific modeling of the patient

  20. FDG-PET-Based Radiotherapy Planning in Lung Cancer: Optimum Breathing Protocol and Patient Positioning-An Intraindividual Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Grgic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (CT) are increasingly used for radiotherapy (RT) planning in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma. The planning process often is based on separately acquired FDG-PET/CT and planning CT scans. We compared intraindividual differences between PET acquired in diagnostic (D-PET) and RT treatment position (RT-PET) coregistered with planning CTs acquired using different breathing protocols. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma underwent two PET acquisitions (D-PET and RT-PET) and three planning CT acquisitions (expiration [EXP], inspiration [INS], and mid-breath hold [MID]) on the same day. All scans were rigidly coregistered, resulting in six fused data sets: D-INS, D-EXP, D-MID, RT-INS, RT-EXP, and RT-MID. Fusion accuracy was assessed by three readers at eight anatomic landmarks, lung apices, aortic arch, heart, spine, sternum, carina, diaphragm, and tumor, by using an alignment score ranging from 1 (no alignment) to 5 (exact alignment). Results: The RT-PET showed better alignment with any CT than D-PET (p < 0.001). With regard to breathing, RT-MID showed the best mean alignment score (3.7 {+-} 1.0), followed by RT-EXP (3.5 {+-} 0.9) and RT-INS (3.0 {+-} 0.8), with all differences significant (p < 0.001). Comparing alignment scores with regard to anatomic landmarks, the largest deviations were found at the diaphragm, heart, and apices. Overall, there was fair agreement ({kappa} = 0.48; p < 0.001) among the three readers. Conclusions: Significantly better fusion of PET and planning CT can be reached with PET acquired in the RT position. The best intraindividual fusion results are obtained with the planning CT performed during mid-breath hold. Our data justify the acquisition of a separate planning PET in RT treatment position if only a diagnostic PET scan is available.

  1. The specification-based validation of reliable multicast protocol: Problem Report. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yunqing

    1995-01-01

    Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) is a communication protocol that provides an atomic, totally ordered, reliable multicast service on top of unreliable IP multicasting. In this report, we develop formal models for RMP using existing automated verification systems, and perform validation on the formal RMP specifications. The validation analysis help identifies some minor specification and design problems. We also use the formal models of RMP to generate a test suite for conformance testing of the implementation. Throughout the process of RMP development, we follow an iterative, interactive approach that emphasizes concurrent and parallel progress of implementation and verification processes. Through this approach, we incorporate formal techniques into our development process, promote a common understanding for the protocol, increase the reliability of our software, and maintain high fidelity between the specifications of RMP and its implementation.

  2. An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Kun; Jin, Zhigang; Shen, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols. PMID:26029955

  3. An Efficient and Reliable Geographic Routing Protocol Based on Partial Network Coding for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Kun; Jin, Zhigang; Shen, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes’ location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols. PMID:26029955

  4. Impact of an immunohistochemistry-based universal screening protocol for Lynch syndrome in endometrial cancer on genetic counseling and testing

    PubMed Central

    Frolova, Antonina I.; Babb, Sheri A.; Zantow, Emily; Hagemann, Andrea R.; Powell, Matthew A.; Thaker, Premal H.; Gao, Feng; Mutch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate effects of a Lynch syndrome universal screening protocol in newly diagnosed endometrial cancers on subsequent genetic counseling (GC) and germline testing (GT) referral and acceptance rates. METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent a hysterectomy for endometrial cancer at Barnes Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, MO between 1/1/2011 and 12/31/2013 (n=637). An immunohistochemistry-based (IHC) universal screening protocol for Lynch syndrome was initiated on 12/17/2012. The cohorts consisted of women presenting prior to (Pre Em-USP; n=395) and those presenting following (Em-USP; n=242) initiation of the universal screening protocol. GC and GT referrals were based on risk factors and/or IHC results. Comparisons were made using the Fisher’s exact test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS A greater proportion of individuals in the Em-USP cohort underwent GT than in Pre Em-USP (9.1% vs 4.8%, p<0.05). Of individuals with an IHC screening result suggestive of LS, those within the Em-USP cohort were significantly more likely to accept GC compared to those in the Pre-Em-USP cohort (95% vs 64%, p=0.02). Specifically within the Em-USP cohort, patients referred to GC due to a concerning IHC screening result, versus those who were referred based on other risk factors, had a higher counseling acceptance rate (95% vs 61%, p=0.03) and underwent genetic testing more readily (76% vs 30%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Implementation of an IHC-based universal screening protocol for LS in endometrial cancer leads to higher acceptance of genetic counseling and higher rates of genetic testing compared to referral based on risk factors alone. PMID:25617771

  5. Size-based protocol optimization using automatic tube current modulation and automatic kV selection in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Robert D; Kleinman, Patricia L; Callahan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Size-based diagnostic reference ranges (DRRs) for contrast-enhanced pediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) have been published in order to establish practical upper and lower limits of CTDI, DLP, and SSDE. Based on these DRRs, guidelines for establishing size-based SSDE target levels from the SSDE of a standard adult by applying a linear correction factor have been published and provide a great reference for dose optimization initiatives. The necessary step of designing manufacturer-specific CT protocols to achieve established SSDE targets is the responsibility of the Qualified Medical Physicist. The task is straightforward if fixed-mA protocols are used, however, more difficult when automatic exposure control (AEC) and automatic kV selection are considered. In such cases, the physicist must deduce the operation of AEC algorithms from technical documentation or through testing, using a wide range of phantom sizes. Our study presents the results of such testing using anthropomorphic phantoms ranging in size from the newborn to the obese adult. The effect of each user-controlled parameter was modeled for a single-manufacturer AEC algorithm (Siemens CARE Dose4D) and automatic kV selection algorithm (Siemens CARE kV). Based on the results presented in this study, a process for designing mA-modulated, pediatric abdominal CT protocols that achieve user-defined SSDE and kV targets is described. PMID:26894344

  6. Calcified coronary artery plaque measurement with cardiac CT in population-based studies: standardized protocol of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Carr, J Jeffrey; Nelson, Jennifer Clark; Wong, Nathan D; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Arad, Yadon; Jacobs, David R; Sidney, Stephan; Bild, Diane E; Williams, O Dale; Detrano, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Calcified coronary artery plaque, measured at cardiac computed tomography (CT), is a predictor of cardiovascular disease and may play an increasing role in cardiovascular disease risk assessment. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute are population-based studies in which calcified coronary artery plaque was measured with electron-beam and multi-detector row CT and a standardized protocol in 6814 (MESA) and 3044 (CARDIA study) participants. The studies were approved by the appropriate institutional review board from the study site or agency, and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Participation in the CT examination was high, image quality was good, and agreement for the presence of calcified plaque was high (kappa = 0.92, MESA; kappa = 0.77, CARDIA study). Extremely high agreement was observed between and within CT image analysts for the presence (kappa > 0.90, all) and amount (intraclass correlation coefficients, >0.99) of calcified plaque. Measurement of calcified coronary artery plaque with cardiac CT is well accepted by participants and can be implemented with consistently high-quality results with a standardized protocol and trained personnel. If predictive value of calcified coronary artery plaque for cardiovascular events proves sufficient to justify screening a segment of the population, then a standardized cardiac CT protocol is feasible and will provide reproducible results for health care providers and the public. PMID:15618373

  7. An Advanced Temporal Credential-Based Security Scheme with Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs). Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.'s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users' attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.'s authentication scheme are left unchanged. PMID:23887085

  8. An advanced temporal credential-based security scheme with mutual authentication and key agreement for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs). Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.'s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users' attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.'s authentication scheme are left unchanged. PMID:23887085

  9. Randomized control trial of computer-based rehabilitation of spatial neglect syndrome: the RESPONSE trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spatial neglect is a frequent and debilitating consequence of acquired brain injury and currently has no widely accepted standard of care. While previous interventions for spatial neglect have targeted patients’ overt spatial deficits (e.g., reduced contralesional visual scanning), far fewer have directly targeted patients’ non-spatial deficits (e.g., sustained attention deficits). Considering that non-spatial deficits have shown to be highly predictive of long-term disability, we developed a novel computer based training program that targets both sustained (tonic) and moment-to-moment (phasic) aspects of non-spatial attention (Tonic and Phasic Alertness Training, TAPAT). Preliminary studies demonstrate that TAPAT is safe and effective in improving both spatial and non-spatial attention deficits in the post-acute recovery phase in neglect patients. The purpose of the current trial (referred to as the REmediation of SPatial Neglect or RESPONSE trial) is to compare TAPAT to an active control training condition, include a larger sample of patients, and assess both cognitive and functional outcomes. Methods/Design We will employ a multi-site, longitudinal, blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with a target sample of 114 patients with spatial neglect. Patients will either perform, at their home, the experimental TAPAT training program or an active control computer games condition for thirty minutes/day, five days a week, over three months. Patients will be assessed on a battery of cognitive and functional outcomes on three occasions: a) immediately before training, b) within forty-eight hours post completion of total training, and c) after a three-month no-contact period post completion of total training, to assess the longevity of potential training effects. Discussion The strengths of this protocol are that it tests an innovative, in-home administered treatment that targets a fundamental deficit in neglect, employs highly sensitive computer-based

  10. Treatment Protocols for Eating Disorders: Clinicians' Attitudes, Concerns, Adherence and Difficulties Delivering Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    There are several protocols in existence that guide clinicians in the implementation of effective, evidence-based psychological interventions for eating disorders. These have been made accessible in the form of treatment manuals. However, relatively few clinicians use those protocols, preferring to offer more eclectic or integrative approaches. Following a summary of the research that shows that these evidence-based approaches can be used successfully in routine clinical settings, this review considers why there is such poor uptake of these therapies in such settings. This review focuses on the role of service culture and on clinicians' own attitudes, beliefs and emotions. Possible means of enhancing uptake are considered, but these cannot be considered to be ideal solutions at present. PMID:26893234

  11. Scenario-based Participatory Design of A Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Authoring System

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua; Gennari, John H.; McDonald, David W.

    2003-01-01

    We present our experience of using prototype scenarios to actively involve users in the design of a collaborative clinical trial protocol authoring system. This method enables us to do usability testing and elicit prompt user feedback at the early phase of design. We conclude that it is an effective approach to the design of complex medical information systems. PMID:14728554

  12. Practical Password Recovery Attacks on MD4 Based Prefix and Hybrid Authentication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Aoki, Kazumaro; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we present practical password recovery attacks against two challenge and response authentication protocols using MD4. For attacks on protocols, the number of queries is one of the most important factors because the opportunity where an attacker can ask queries is very limited in real protocols. When responses are computed as MD4(Password||Challenge), which is called prefix approach, previous work needs to ask 237 queries to recover a password. Asking 237 queries in real protocols is almost impossible. In our attack, to recover up to 8-octet passwords, we only need 1 time the amount of eavesdropping, 17 queries, and 234 MD4 off-line computations. To recover up to 12-octet passwords, we only need 210 times the amount of eavesdropping, 210 queries, and 241 off-line MD4 computations. When responses are computed as MD4(Password||Challenge||Password), which is called hybrid approach, previous work needs to ask 263 queries, while in our attack, up to 8-octet passwords are practically recovered by 28 times the amount of eavesdropping, 28 queries, and 239 off-line MD4 computations. Our idea is guessing a part of passwords so that we can simulate values of intermediate chaining variables from observed hash values. This enables us to use a short local collision that occurs with a very high probability, and thus the number of queries becomes practical.

  13. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  14. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  15. Evidence based decontamination protocols for the removal of external Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from contaminated hair.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; Peeters, Ruth J P; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-01

    External contamination can cause false positive results in forensic hair testing for drugs of abuse and is therefore a major concern when hair evidence is used in court. Current literature about decontamination strategies is mainly focused on external cocaine contamination and no consensus on the best decontamination procedure for hair samples containing cannabinoids has been reached so far. In this study, different protocols with solvents, both organic as well as aqueous, were tested on blank and drug user hair for their performance on removing external cannabis contamination originating from either smoke or indirect contact with cannabis plant material. Smoke contamination was mimicked by exposing hair samples to smoke from a cannabis cigarette and indirect contact contamination by handling hair with cannabis contaminated gloves or hands. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels in the hair samples and wash solvents were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Aqueous surfactant solutions removed more THC contamination compared to water, but much less than organic solvents. Methanol, dichloromethane and chloroform were most efficient in removing THC contamination. Due to its lower environmental impact, methanol was chosen as the preferred decontamination solvent. After testing of different sequential wash steps on externally contaminated blank hair, three protocols performed equally well, removing all normal level and more than 99% of unrealistically high levels of external cannabis contamination. Thorough testing on cannabis users' hair, both as such and after deliberate contamination, showed that using these protocols all contamination could be washed from the hair while no incorporated THC was removed from truly positive samples. The present study provides detailed scientific evidence in support of the recommendations of the Society of Hair Testing: a protocol using a single methanol wash followed by a single aqueous

  16. Effects of Detergent-Based Protocols on Decellularization of Corneas With Sclerocorneal Limbus. Evaluation of Regional Differences

    PubMed Central

    González-Andrades, Miguel; Carriel, Victor; Rivera-Izquierdo, Mario; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Elena; Medialdea, Santiago; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, we decellularized whole porcine corneas including the sclerocorneal limbus (SCL) and we evaluated regional differences in order to identify an efficient method to decellularize whole corneas for future clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the efficiency of four decellularization protocols based on benzalkonium chloride (BAK), Igepal, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Triton X-100 detergents on whole porcine corneas. Results: Results showed that the decellularization efficiency of most protocols was low, with the specific protocol resulting in more efficient levels of decellularization being 0.1% SDS for 48 hours, especially in the medium and posterior cornea regions. A significant correlation was found between the decellularization efficiency and the concentration of agent used (P = 0.0174; r = 0.1540), but not for the incubation time (P > 0.05). The analysis of cornea components preservation demonstrated that all protocols were able to preserve the integrity of the Bowman's layer and Descemet's membrane. Although the collagen structure was partially altered, the global decellularization groups showing highest preservation of the ECM collagen contents and orientation were Igepal and SDS, with differences among the three regions of the cornea. All global groups showed high levels of proteoglycan and glycoprotein preservation after decellularization, with the best results were found in the SDS group followed by the Igepal group. Conclusions: These results suggest that very powerful protocols are necessary for whole-cornea decellularization. For the generation of lamelar corneas for clinical use, decellularization regional differences should be taken into account. Translational Relevance: Decellularized whole corneas may be potential therapeutic agents for lamelar keratoplasty. PMID:25909036

  17. Robust chaotic map-based authentication and key agreement scheme with strong anonymity for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Ma, Jianfeng; Lu, Xiang; Tian, Youliang

    2014-02-01

    To ensure only authorized access to medical services, several authentication schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) have been proposed in the literature. Due to its better performance than traditional cryptography, Hao et al. proposed an authentication scheme for TMIS using chaotic map based cryptography. They claimed that their scheme could resist various attacks, including the smart card stolen attack. However, we identify that their scheme is vulnerable to the stolen smart card attack. The reason causing the stolen smart card attack is that the scheme is designed based on the assumption that the scheme itself achieves user untraceability. Then, we propose a robust authentication and key agreement scheme. Compared with the previous schemes, our scheme not only enjoys more security features, but also has better efficiency. Our analysis indicates that designing a two-factor authentication scheme based on the assumption that privacy protection is achieved in the scheme itself may pose potential security risks. The lesson learned is that, we should avoid this situation in the future design of two-factor authentication schemes. PMID:24493073

  18. Clarifying CLARITY: Quantitative Optimization of the Diffusion Based Delipidation Protocol for Genetically Labeled Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Magliaro, Chiara; Callara, Alejandro L.; Mattei, Giorgio; Morcinelli, Marco; Viaggi, Cristina; Vaglini, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clarification has been recently proposed to allow deep tissue imaging without light scattering. The clarification parameters are somewhat arbitrary and dependent on tissue type, source and dimension: every laboratory has its own protocol, but a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time is still lacking. Since the use of transgenic mouse lines that express fluorescent proteins to visualize specific cell populations is widespread, a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time for genetically labeled neurons from thick murine brain slices using CLARITY2 is described. In particular, as the main objective of the delipidation treatment is to clarify tissues, while limiting loss of fluorescent signal, the “goodness” of clarification was evaluated by considering the bulk tissue clarification index (BTCi) and the fraction of the fluorescent marker retained in the slice as easily quantifiable macroscale parameters. Here we describe the approach, illustrating an example of how it can be used to determine the optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick cerebellar slice from transgenic L7GFP mice, in which Purkinje neurons express the GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. To validate the method, we evaluated confocal stacks of our samples using standard image processing indices (i.e., the mean pixel intensity of neurons and the contrast-to-noise ratio) as figures of merit for image quality. The results show that detergent-based delipidation for more than 5 days does not increase tissue clarity but the fraction of GFP in the tissue continues to diminish. The optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick slices was thus identified as 5 days, which is the best compromise between the increase in light penetration depth due to removal of lipids and a decrease in fluorescent signal as a consequence of protein loss: further clearing does not improve tissue transparency, but only leads to more protein removal or degradation. The rigorous quantitative

  19. Individualized Immunosuppressive Protocol of Liver Transplant Recipient Should be Made Based on Splenic Function Status

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Yong; Du, Guo-Sheng; Xiao, Li; Chen, Wen; Suo, Long-Long; Gao, Yu; Feng, Li-Kui; Shi, Bing-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lymphocyte subsets play important roles in rejection in liver transplant recipients, and the effect of splenic function on these roles remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility to adjust immunosuppressive agents based on splenic function status through detecting the lymphocyte subsets in liver transplant recipients. Methods: The lymphocyte subsets of 49 liver transplant recipients were assessed in the 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army between June 2014 and August 2015. The patients were divided into splenectomy group (n = 9), normal splenic function group (n = 24), and hypersplenism group (n = 16). The percentages and counts of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, natural killer (NK) cell, B-cell, regulatory B-cell (Breg), and regulatory T-cell (Treg) were detected by flow cytometer. In addition, the immunosuppressive agents, histories of rejection and infection, and postoperative time of the patients were compared among the three groups. Results: There was no significant difference of clinical characteristics among the three groups. The percentage of CD19+CD24+CD38+ Breg was significantly higher in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group and splenectomy group (3.29 ± 0.97% vs. 2.12 ± 1.08% and 1.90 ± 0.99%, P = 0.001). The same result was found in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg percentage (0.97 ± 0.39% vs. 0.54 ± 0.31% and 0.56 ± 0.28%, P = 0.001). The counts of CD8+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group (254.25 ± 149.08 vs. 476.96 ± 225.52, P = 0.002; 301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 532.50 ± 194.42, P = 0.000; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 188.33 ± 134.51, P = 0.048). Moreover, the counts of CD4+ T-cell and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than splenectomy group (301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 491.89 ± 132.31, P = 0.033; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 226.00 ± 168.85, P = 0.032). Conclusion: Splenic function status might affect the immunity of

  20. Clarifying CLARITY: Quantitative Optimization of the Diffusion Based Delipidation Protocol for Genetically Labeled Tissue.

    PubMed

    Magliaro, Chiara; Callara, Alejandro L; Mattei, Giorgio; Morcinelli, Marco; Viaggi, Cristina; Vaglini, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clarification has been recently proposed to allow deep tissue imaging without light scattering. The clarification parameters are somewhat arbitrary and dependent on tissue type, source and dimension: every laboratory has its own protocol, but a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time is still lacking. Since the use of transgenic mouse lines that express fluorescent proteins to visualize specific cell populations is widespread, a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time for genetically labeled neurons from thick murine brain slices using CLARITY2 is described. In particular, as the main objective of the delipidation treatment is to clarify tissues, while limiting loss of fluorescent signal, the "goodness" of clarification was evaluated by considering the bulk tissue clarification index (BTCi) and the fraction of the fluorescent marker retained in the slice as easily quantifiable macroscale parameters. Here we describe the approach, illustrating an example of how it can be used to determine the optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick cerebellar slice from transgenic L7GFP mice, in which Purkinje neurons express the GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. To validate the method, we evaluated confocal stacks of our samples using standard image processing indices (i.e., the mean pixel intensity of neurons and the contrast-to-noise ratio) as figures of merit for image quality. The results show that detergent-based delipidation for more than 5 days does not increase tissue clarity but the fraction of GFP in the tissue continues to diminish. The optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick slices was thus identified as 5 days, which is the best compromise between the increase in light penetration depth due to removal of lipids and a decrease in fluorescent signal as a consequence of protein loss: further clearing does not improve tissue transparency, but only leads to more protein removal or degradation. The rigorous quantitative approach

  1. Proposal of a quantitative PCR-based protocol for an optimal Pseudomonas aeruginosa detection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lung of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is particularly sensitive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium plays an important role in the poor outcome of CF patients. During the disease progress, first acquisition of P. aeruginosa is the key-step in the management of CF patients. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) offers an opportunity to detect earlier the first acquisition of P. aeruginosa by CF patients. Given the lack of a validated protocol, our goal was to find an optimal molecular protocol for detection of P. aeruginosa in CF patients. Methods We compared two formerly described qPCR formats in early detection of P. aeruginosa in CF sputum samples: a qPCR targeting oprL gene, and a multiplex PCR targeting gyrB and ecfX genes. Results Tested in vitro on a large panel of P. aeruginosa isolates and others gram-negative bacilli, oprL qPCR exhibited a better sensitivity (threshold of 10 CFU/mL versus 730 CFU/mL), whereas the gyrB/ecfX qPCR exhibited a better specificity (90% versus 73%). These results were validated ex vivo on 46 CF sputum samples positive for P. aeruginosa in culture. Ex vivo assays revealed that qPCR detected 100 times more bacterial cells than culture-based method did. Conclusion Based on these results, we proposed a reference molecular protocol combining the two qPCRs, which offers a sensitivity of 100% with a threshold of 10 CFU/mL and a specificity of 100%. This combined qPCR-based protocol can be adapted and used for other future prospective studies. PMID:24088260

  2. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    PubMed Central

    Beirn, Lisa A.; Wang, Ruying; Clarke, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli), although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen. PMID:26339538

  3. Performance analysis of a proposed tightly-coupled medical instrument network based on CAN protocol.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Shantanu; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; McKneely, Paul K; Chapman, Frank M; Merchant, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN™ technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. The instruments are in turn becoming more sophisticated; however, the operation of an instrument is still expected to be locally done by authorized medical personnel. Unfortunately, each medical instrument has its unique proprietary API (application programming interface - if any) to provide automated and electronic access to monitoring data. Integration of these APIs requires an agreement with the manufacturers towards realization of interoperable health care networking. As long as the interoperability of instruments with a network is not possible, ubiquitous access to patient status is limited only to manual entry based systems. This paper demonstrates an attempt to realize an interoperable medical instrument interface for networking using MediCAN technology suite as an open

  4. Internet Protocol Television for Personalized Home-Based Health Information: Design-Based Research on a Diabetes Education System

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Ken; Kwong, Mabel; Alzougool, Basil; Hines, Carolyn; Tidhar, Gil; Frukhtman, Feodor

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of Internet protocol television (IPTV) as a channel for consumer health information is a relatively under-explored area of medical Internet research. IPTV may afford new opportunities for health care service providers to provide health information and for consumers, patients, and caretakers to access health information. The technologies of Web 2.0 add a new and even less explored dimension to IPTV’s potential. Objective Our research explored an application of Web 2.0 integrated with IPTV for personalized home-based health information in diabetes education, particularly for people with diabetes who are not strong computer and Internet users, and thus may miss out on Web-based resources. We wanted to establish whether this system could enable diabetes educators to deliver personalized health information directly to people with diabetes in their homes; and whether this system could encourage people with diabetes who make little use of Web-based health information to build their health literacy via the interface of a home television screen and remote control. Methods This project was undertaken as design-based research in two stages. Stage 1 comprised a feasibility study into the technical work required to integrate an existing Web 2.0 platform with an existing IPTV system, populated with content and implemented for user trials in a laboratory setting. Stage 2 comprised an evaluation of the system by consumers and providers of diabetes information. Results The project succeeded in developing a Web 2.0 IPTV system for people with diabetes and low literacies and their diabetes educators. The performance of the system in the laboratory setting gave them the confidence to engage seriously in thinking about the actual and potential features and benefits of a more widely-implemented system. In their feedback they pointed out a range of critical usability and usefulness issues related to Web 2.0 affordances and learning fundamentals. They also described

  5. Event-Driven On-Board Software Using Priority-Based Communications Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowell, S.; Ward, R.; Plummer, C.

    This paper describes current projects being performed by SciSys in the area of the use of software agents, built using CORBA middleware and SOIF communications protocols, to improve operations within autonomous satellite/ground systems. These concepts have been developed and demonstrated in a series of experiments variously funded by ESA's Technology Flight Opportunity Initiative (TFO) and Leading Edge Technology for SMEs (LET-SME), and the British National Space Centre's (BNSC) National Technology Programme. In [1] it is proposed that on-board software should evolve to one that uses an architecture of loosely -coupled software agents, integrated using minimum Real- Time CORBA ORBs such as the SciSys microORB. Building on that, this paper considers the requirements such an architecture and implementation place on the underlying communication protocols (software and hardware) and how these may be met by the emerging CCSDS SOIF recommendations. 2. TRENDS AND ISSUES 2.

  6. Distributed project scheduling at NASA: Requirements for manual protocols and computer-based support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.

    1992-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of Space Shuttle mission planning.

  7. Chemoprophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in traumatic brain injury: a review and evidence-based protocol.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Paul M; Schmalz, Philip G R; Griessenauer, Christoph J

    2014-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized source of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). While traumatic brain injury is a recognized risk factor for the development of VTE, its presence complicates the decision to begin anticoagulation due to fear of exacerbating the intracranial hemorrhagic injury. The role of chemoprophylaxis in this setting is poorly defined, leading to a wide variability in clinical practice. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed in an effort to summarize relevant data and construct a chemoprophylaxis protocol to be implemented in a Level I Trauma Center. The review reveals robust evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of chemoprophylaxis in the setting of TBI following demonstration of a stable intracranial injury. In light of this data, a protocol is assembled that, in the absence of predetermined exclusion criteria, will initiate chemoprophylaxis within 24h after the demonstration of a stable intracranial injury by computed tomography (CT). PMID:25012022

  8. Reply to "Comment on `Device-independent entanglement-based Bennett 1992 protocol' "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Mataloni, Paolo; Villoresi, Paolo; Lucamarini, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Our paper [Phys. Rev. A 86, 032325 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032325], setting forth a previously unknown connection between the Bennett 1992 protocol and a Bell inequality, has recently received a Comment [Phys. Rev. A 93, 066303 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.066303] about a possible flaw in its potential device-independent (DI) implementation. We point the authors of the Comment to prior works showing that what they assume to be specific to our protocol's DI implementation is actually a standard assumption in DI quantum key distribution. Therefore there is no need to revise any of the conclusions drawn in Lucamarini et al. [Phys. Rev. A 86, 032325 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032325].

  9. Utilization of Internet Protocol-Based Voice Systems in Remote Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Susan; Nichols, Kelvin; Bradford, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of a proposed voice communication system for use in remote payload operations performed on the International Space Station. The system, Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS), would make use of existing Internet protocols, and offer a number of advantages over the system currently in use. Topics covered include: system description and operation, system software and hardware, system architecture, project status, and technology transfer applications.

  10. Application Agreement and Integration Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.; Hall, Brendan; Schweiker, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Application agreement and integration services are required by distributed, fault-tolerant, safety critical systems to assure required performance. An analysis of distributed and hierarchical agreement strategies are developed against the backdrop of observed agreement failures in fielded systems. The documented work was performed under NASA Task Order NNL10AB32T, Validation And Verification of Safety-Critical Integrated Distributed Systems Area 2. This document is intended to satisfy the requirements for deliverable 5.2.11 under Task 4.2.2.3. This report discusses the challenges of maintaining application agreement and integration services. A literature search is presented that documents previous work in the area of replica determinism. Sources of non-deterministic behavior are identified and examples are presented where system level agreement failed to be achieved. We then explore how TTEthernet services can be extended to supply some interesting application agreement frameworks. This document assumes that the reader is familiar with the TTEthernet protocol. The reader is advised to read the TTEthernet protocol standard [1] before reading this document. This document does not re-iterate the content of the standard.

  11. Designing Ontology-based Patterns for the Representation of the Time-Relevant Eligibility Criteria of Clinical Protocols.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Christopher L; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    The amount of time and money required to screen patients for clinical trial and guideline eligibility presents the need for an automated screening process to streamline clinical trial enrollment and guideline implementation. This paper introduces an ontology-based approach for defining a set of patterns that can be used to represent various types of time-relevant eligibility criteria that may appear in clinical protocols. With a focus only on temporal requirements, we examined the criteria of 600 protocols and extracted a set of 37 representative time-relevant eligibility criteria. 16 patterns were designed to represent these criteria. Using a test set of an additional 100 protocols, it was found that these 16 patterns could sufficiently represent 98.5% of the time-relevant criteria. After the time-relevant criteria are modeled by these patterns, it will allow the potential to (1) use natural language processing algorithms to automatically extract temporal constraints from criteria; and (2) develop computer rules and queries to automate the processing of the criteria. PMID:26306263

  12. Designing Ontology-based Patterns for the Representation of the Time-Relevant Eligibility Criteria of Clinical Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Christopher L.; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    The amount of time and money required to screen patients for clinical trial and guideline eligibility presents the need for an automated screening process to streamline clinical trial enrollment and guideline implementation. This paper introduces an ontology-based approach for defining a set of patterns that can be used to represent various types of time-relevant eligibility criteria that may appear in clinical protocols. With a focus only on temporal requirements, we examined the criteria of 600 protocols and extracted a set of 37 representative time-relevant eligibility criteria. 16 patterns were designed to represent these criteria. Using a test set of an additional 100 protocols, it was found that these 16 patterns could sufficiently represent 98.5% of the time-relevant criteria. After the time-relevant criteria are modeled by these patterns, it will allow the potential to (1) use natural language processing algorithms to automatically extract temporal constraints from criteria; and (2) develop computer rules and queries to automate the processing of the criteria. PMID:26306263

  13. Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Protocol Based on Three-Particle GHZ States in X-Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-03-01

    A controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol is proposed based on three-particle GHZ state in X-basis. Only X-basis and Z1Z2X3-basis (composed of Z-basis and X-basis) measurement are required, which makes the scheme more convenient than others in practical applications. By distributing a random key between both sides of the communication and performing classical XOR operation, we realize a one-time-pad scheme, therefore our protocol achieves unconditional secure. Because only user with legitimate identity string can decrypt the secret, our protocol can resist man-in-the middle attack. The three-particle GHZ state in X-basis is used as decoy photons to detect eavesdropping. The detection rate reaches 75% per qubit. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402058, Science and Technology, Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 2013GZX0137, Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 12ZB017, and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions under Grant No. szjj2014-074

  14. Effectiveness of a prematurity-based protocol for management of infants born to mothers with Group B Streptococcus colonisation.

    PubMed

    Zuppa, A A; Alighieri, G; Fracchiolla, A; Galluccio, C; Riccardi, R; Cavani, M; Romagnoli, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the efficacy of a protocol for the management of infants born to colonised mothers with Group B Streptococcus (GBS). We studied a cohort of newborns admitted at the A. Gemelli University Hospital between May 2006 and December 2009. A total of 1,108 were newborns of mothers with GBS; 178 were children of mothers with unknown GBS status. Newborns were managed according to the care protocol in use at our division. Infected infants were born to mothers who underwent inadequate intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). No mother with complete IAP had an infected newborn. The incidence of invasive GBS infection in newborns of mothers with GBS was 0.4% and in newborns of mothers with unknown GBS status was 2.2%. Only 17.4% of newborns of mothers with GBS had risk factors. The complete IAP should always be performed regardless of the presence or the absence of risk factors. The care protocol applied offers successful management of the newborns of mothers with GBS, based on the correct execution of IAP, considering as a primary risk factor, the gestational age of < 35 weeks. PMID:24921191

  15. A protocol for the systematic and quantitative measurement of protein-lipid interactions using the liposome-microarray-based assay.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Vonkova, Ivana; Deghou, Samy; Ceschia, Stefano; Tischer, Christian; Kugler, Karl G; Bork, Peer; Ellenberg, Jan; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Lipids organize the activity of the cell's proteome through a complex network of interactions. The assembly of comprehensive atlases embracing all protein-lipid interactions is an important challenge that requires innovative methods. We recently developed a liposome-microarray-based assay (LiMA) that integrates liposomes, microfluidics and fluorescence microscopy and which is capable of measuring protein recruitment to membranes in a quantitative and high-throughput manner. Compared with previous assays that are labor-intensive and difficult to scale up, LiMA improves the protein-lipid interaction assay throughput by at least three orders of magnitude. Here we provide a step-by-step LiMA protocol that includes the following: (i) the serial and generic production of the liposome microarray; (ii) its integration into a microfluidic format; (iii) the measurement of fluorescently labeled protein (either purified proteins or from cell lysate) recruitment to liposomal membranes using high-throughput microscopy; (iv) automated image analysis pipelines to quantify protein-lipid interactions; and (v) data quality analysis. In addition, we discuss the experimental design, including the relevant quality controls. Overall, the protocol-including device preparation, assay and data analysis-takes 6-8 d. This protocol paves the way for protein-lipid interaction screens to be performed on the proteome and lipidome scales. PMID:27149326

  16. An Improvement of Robust Biometrics-Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In multi-server environments, user authentication is a very important issue because it provides the authorization that enables users to access their data and services; furthermore, remote user authentication schemes for multi-server environments have solved the problem that has arisen from user’s management of different identities and passwords. For this reason, numerous user authentication schemes that are designed for multi-server environments have been proposed over recent years. In 2015, Lu et al. improved upon Mishra et al.’s scheme, claiming that their remote user authentication scheme is more secure and practical; however, we found that Lu et al.’s scheme is still insecure and incorrect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Lu et al.’s scheme is vulnerable to outsider attack and user impersonation attack, and we propose a new biometrics-based scheme for authentication and key agreement that can be used in multi-server environments; then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and supports the required security properties. PMID:26709702

  17. An Improvement of Robust Biometrics-Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In multi-server environments, user authentication is a very important issue because it provides the authorization that enables users to access their data and services; furthermore, remote user authentication schemes for multi-server environments have solved the problem that has arisen from user's management of different identities and passwords. For this reason, numerous user authentication schemes that are designed for multi-server environments have been proposed over recent years. In 2015, Lu et al. improved upon Mishra et al.'s scheme, claiming that their remote user authentication scheme is more secure and practical; however, we found that Lu et al.'s scheme is still insecure and incorrect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Lu et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to outsider attack and user impersonation attack, and we propose a new biometrics-based scheme for authentication and key agreement that can be used in multi-server environments; then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and supports the required security properties. PMID:26709702

  18. Multicenter study using standardized protocols and reagents for evaluation of reproducibility of PCR-based fingerprinting of Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, H J; Towner, K J; Dijkshoorn, L; Gerner-Smidt, P; Maher, M; Seifert, H; Vaneechoutte, M

    1997-01-01

    Seven laboratories in six European countries examined 40 isolates belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex to investigate whether standardized protocols and quality-controlled reagents could produce reliable, discriminatory, and reproducible PCR-based fingerprinting results. Four PCR protocols with different primers (primers DAF4, ERIC-2, M13, and REP1 + REP2) were used. The epidemiological conclusions reached by the participating laboratories were substantially correct, with 96.4% of the total isolate grouping allocations agreeing with the consensus view. All laboratories identified the main epidemiological clusters, and each laboratory also identified two non-outbreak-related isolates. There were no significant differences between the isolate grouping results obtained by the different protocols and with the different primers. Visual comparison indicated that the standardized protocols and reagents yielded reproducible fingerprint patterns, but with some variations in particular band intensities. Minor variations in fingerprint profiles were detected, but computer-assisted analysis of PCR fingerprints obtained on agarose gels demonstrated that 88.3 to 91.6% (depending on the source of DNA) of the patterns clustered correctly, while 96.4 to 98.9% of the patterns clustered correctly following automated high-resolution laser fluorescence analysis. Correlation of the patterns for isogenic isolates ranged from 83.3 to 86.6% but was slightly better (mean correlation, 87.1%) for centrally prepared DNA extracts than for DNA extracts prepared by individual laboratories (mean correlation, 84.7%). It was concluded that independently produced PCR fingerprint patterns can be obtained reproducibly for Acinetobacter spp. at the practical level if (i) quality-controlled reagents, (ii) standardized extraction of DNA, and (iii) standardized amplification conditions are used. PMID:9399496

  19. Computer-assisted machine-to-human protocols for authentication of a RAM-based embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrissa, Abdourhamane; Aubert, Alain; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    Mobile readers used for optical identification of manufactured products can be tampered in different ways: with hardware Trojan or by powering up with fake configuration data. How a human verifier can authenticate the reader to be handled for goods verification? In this paper, two cryptographic protocols are proposed to achieve the verification of a RAM-based system through a trusted auxiliary machine. Such a system is assumed to be composed of a RAM memory and a secure block (in practice a FPGA or a configurable microcontroller). The system is connected to an input/output interface and contains a Non Volatile Memory where the configuration data are stored. Here, except the secure block, all the blocks are exposed to attacks. At the registration stage of the first protocol, the MAC of both the secret and the configuration data, denoted M0 is computed by the mobile device without saving it then transmitted to the user in a secure environment. At the verification stage, the reader which is challenged with nonces sendsMACs / HMACs of both nonces and MAC M0 (to be recomputed), keyed with the secret. These responses are verified by the user through a trusted auxiliary MAC computer unit. Here the verifier does not need to tract a (long) list of challenge / response pairs. This makes the protocol tractable for a human verifier as its participation in the authentication process is increased. In counterpart the secret has to be shared with the auxiliary unit. This constraint is relaxed in a second protocol directly derived from Fiat-Shamir's scheme.

  20. Secured Communication for Business Process Outsourcing Using Optimized Arithmetic Cryptography Protocol Based on Virtual Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    Within a span of over a decade, India has become one of the most favored destinations across the world for Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) operations. India has rapidly achieved the status of being the most preferred destination for BPO for companies located in the US and Europe. Security and privacy are the two major issues needed to be addressed by the Indian software industry to have an increased and long-term outsourcing contract from the US. Another important issue is about sharing employee’s information to ensure that data and vital information of an outsourcing company is secured and protected. To ensure that the confidentiality of a client’s information is maintained, BPOs need to implement some data security measures. In this paper, we propose a new protocol for specifically for BPO Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMC). As there are many computations and surveys which involve confidential data from many parties or organizations and the concerned data is property of the organization, preservation and security of this data is of prime importance for such type of computations. Although the computation requires data from all the parties, but none of the associated parties would want to reveal their data to the other parties. We have proposed a new efficient and scalable protocol to perform computation on encrypted information. The information is encrypted in a manner that it does not affect the result of the computation. It uses modifier tokens which are distributed among virtual parties, and finally used in the computation. The computation function uses the acquired data and modifier tokens to compute right result from the encrypted data. Thus without revealing the data, right result can be computed and privacy of the parties is maintained. We have given a probabilistic security analysis of hacking the protocol and shown how zero hacking security can be achieved. Also we have analyzed the specific case of Indian BPO.

  1. Taking electroporation-based delivery of DNA vaccination into humans: a generic clinical protocol.

    PubMed

    Tjelle, Torunn Elisabeth; Rabussay, Dietmar; Ottensmeier, Christian; Mathiesen, Iacob; Kjeken, Rune

    2008-01-01

    We are presently aware of two early-phase DNA vaccine clinical trials in humans using electroporation-enhanced vaccine delivery. Moreover, two phase I immunogenetherapy studies are in progress and several tolerability studies have been performed on healthy volunteers. We have used knowledge from these studies to compose a template for clinical protocols involving electroporation-mediated gene delivery. In this template the emphasis will be on aspects related to electroporation. In addition, we will discuss general topics concerning electroporation-augmented DNA vaccination in human subjects. PMID:18370225

  2. Circumventing Traditional Conditioning Protocols in Polymer Membrane-Based Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michelle; Mendecki, Lukasz; Mensah, Samantha T; Blanco-Martinez, Enrique; Armas, Stephanie; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Radu, Aleksandar; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y

    2016-09-01

    Preparation of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) often requires long and complicated conditioning protocols limiting their application as tools for in-field measurements. Herein, we eliminated the need for electrode conditioning by loading the membrane cocktail directly with primary ion solution. This proof of concept experiment was performed with iodide, silver, and sodium selective electrodes. The proposed methodology significantly shortened the preparation time of ISEs, yielding functional electrodes with submicromolar detection limits. Moreover, it is anticipated that this approach may form the basis for the development of miniaturized all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes for in situ measurements. PMID:27523089

  3. Security proof for cryptographic protocols based only on the monogamy of Bell's inequality violations

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, M.

    2010-09-15

    We show that monogamy of Bell's inequality violations, which is strictly weaker condition than the no-signaling principle is enough to prove security of quantum key distribution. We derive our results for a whole class of monogamy constraints and generalize our results to any theory that communicating parties may have access to. Some of these theories do not respect the no-signaling principle yet still allow for secure communication. This proves that no signaling is only a sufficient condition for the possibility of secure communication, but not the necessary one. We also present some new qualitative results concerning the security of existing quantum key distribution protocols.

  4. Protocol for Landsat-Based Monitoring of Landscape Dynamics at North Coast and Cascades Network Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Robert E.; Cohen, Warren B.; Kirschbaum, Alan A.; Haunreiter, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives As part of the National Park Service's larger goal of developing long-term monitoring programs in response to the Natural Resource Challenge of 2000, the parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) have determined that monitoring of landscape dynamics is necessary to track ecosystem health (Weber and others, 2005). Landscape dynamics refer to a broad suite of ecological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic processes occurring across broad spatial scales. The NCCN has sought protocols that would leverage remote-sensing technologies to aid in monitoring landscape dynamics.

  5. The current evidence based medical management of vesicoureteral reflux: The Sickkids protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Sumit; Khoury, Antoine E.

    2007-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux is a common clinical entity and is one of the keystones of the establishment of pediatric urology as a urological subspeciality. There has been continued evolution in the management of vesicoureteral reflux as new insights are gained on its role in renal damage. The optimal treatment algorithm remains controversial. This review aims to highlight the current literature on VUR and its association with urinary tract infections and renal damage. The protocol of management of a child with VUR followed at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto is described. PMID:19718297

  6. Neuroanatomy-based matrix-guided trimming protocol for the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Rossella; Criado, Ana; Zantedeschi, Valentina; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    Brain trimming through defined neuroanatomical landmarks is recommended to obtain consistent sections in rat toxicity studies. In this article, we describe a matrix-guided trimming protocol that uses channels to reproduce coronal levels of anatomical landmarks. Both setup phase and validation study were performed on Han Wistar male rats (Crl:WI(Han)), 10-week-old, with bodyweight of 298 ± 29 (SD) g, using a matrix (ASI-Instruments(®), Houston, TX) fitted for brains of rats with 200 to 400 g bodyweight. In the setup phase, we identified eight channels, that is, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 19, and 21, matching the recommended landmarks midway to the optic chiasm, frontal pole, optic chiasm, infundibulum, mamillary bodies, midbrain, middle cerebellum, and posterior cerebellum, respectively. In the validation study, we trimmed the immersion-fixed brains of 60 rats using the selected channels to determine how consistently the channels reproduced anatomical landmarks. Percentage of success (i.e., presence of expected targets for each level) ranged from 89 to 100%. Where 100% success was not achieved, it was noted that the shift in brain trimming was toward the caudal pole. In conclusion, we developed and validated a trimming protocol for the rat brain that allow comparable extensiveness, homology, and relevance of coronal sections as the landmark-guided trimming with the advantage of being quickly learned by technicians. PMID:24947989

  7. Near-Collision Attacks on MD4: Applied to MD4-Based Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    The most widely used hash functions from MD4 family have been broken, which lead to a public competition on designing new hash functions held by NIST. This paper focuses on one concept called near-collision resistance: computationally difficult to find a pair of messages with hash values differing in only few bits, which new hash functions should satisfy. In this paper, we will give a model of near-collisions on MD4, and apply it to attack protocols including HMAC/NMAC-MD4 and MD4(Password||Challenge). Our new outer-key recovery attacks on HMAC/NMAC-MD4 has a complexity of 272 online queries and 277 MD4 computations, while previous result was 288 online queries and 295 MD4 computations. Our attack on MD4(Password||Challenge) can recover 16 password characters with a complexity of 237 online queries and 221 MD4 computations, which is the first approach to attack such protocols.

  8. A field-based cleaning protocol for sampling devices used in life-detection studies.

    PubMed

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Benning, Liane G; Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Amundsen, Hans E F

    2009-06-01

    Analytical approaches to extant and extinct life detection involve molecular detection often at trace levels. Thus, removal of biological materials and other organic molecules from the surfaces of devices used for sampling is essential for ascertaining meaningful results. Organic decontamination to levels consistent with null values on life-detection instruments is particularly challenging at remote field locations where Mars analog field investigations are carried out. Here, we present a seven-step, multi-reagent decontamination method that can be applied to sampling devices while in the field. In situ lipopolysaccharide detection via low-level endotoxin assays and molecular detection via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to test the effectiveness of the decontamination protocol for sampling of glacial ice with a coring device and for sampling of sediments with a rover scoop during deployment at Arctic Mars-analog sites in Svalbard, Norway. Our results indicate that the protocols and detection technique sufficiently remove and detect low levels of molecular constituents necessary for life-detection tests. PMID:19496672

  9. Uptake of a web-based oncology protocol system: how do cancer clinicians use eviQ cancer treatments online?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of computerized systems to support evidence-based practice is commonplace in contemporary medicine. Despite the prolific use of electronic support systems there has been relatively little research on the uptake of web-based systems in the oncology setting. Our objective was to examine the uptake of a web-based oncology protocol system (http://www.eviq.org.au) by Australian cancer clinicians. Methods We used web-logfiles and Google Analytics to examine the characteristics of eviQ registrants from October 2009-December 2011 and patterns of use by cancer clinicians during a typical month. Results As of December 2011, there were 16,037 registrants; 85% of whom were Australian health care professionals. During a typical month 87% of webhits occurred in standard clinical hours (08:00 to 18:00 weekdays). Raw webhits were proportional to the size of clinician groups: nurses (47% of Australian registrants), followed by doctors (20%), and pharmacists (14%). However, pharmacists had up to three times the webhit rate of other clinical groups. Clinicians spent five times longer viewing chemotherapy protocol pages than other content and the protocols viewed reflect the most common cancers: lung, breast and colorectal. Conclusions Our results demonstrate eviQ is used by a range of health professionals involved in cancer treatment at the point-of-care. Continued monitoring of electronic decision support systems is vital to understanding how they are used in clinical practice and their impact on processes of care and patient outcomes. PMID:23497080

  10. Reducing software security risk through an integrated approach research initiative model based verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John D.

    2003-01-01

    This document discusses the verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) communication protocol as a demonstration of the Model Based Verification (MBV) portion of the verification instrument set being developed under the Reducing Software Security Risk (RSSR) Trough an Integrated Approach research initiative. Code Q of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds this project. The NASA Goddard Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) facility manages this research program at the NASA agency level and the Assurance Technology Program Office (ATPO) manages the research locally at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California institute of Technology) where the research is being carried out.

  11. Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity of a Computer Based Hand Function Test Protocol in People with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Srikesavan, Cynthia S.; Shay, Barbara; Szturm, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A computer based hand function assessment tool has been developed to provide a standardized method for quantifying task performance during manipulations of common objects/tools/utensils with diverse physical properties and grip/grasp requirements for handling. The study objectives were to determine test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the test protocol in people with arthritis. Methods: Three different object manipulation tasks were evaluated twice in forty people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or hand osteoarthritis (HOA). Each object was instrumented with a motion sensor and moved in concert with a computer generated visual target. Self-reported joint pain and stiffness levels were recorded before and after each task. Task performance was determined by comparing the object movement with the computer target motion. This was correlated with grip strength, nine hole peg test, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Results: The test protocol indicated moderate to high test-retest reliability of performance measures for three manipulation tasks, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging between 0.5 to 0.84, p<0.05. Strength of association between task performance measures with self- reported activity/participation composite scores was low to moderate (Spearman rho <0.7). Low correlations (Spearman rho < 0.4) were observed between task performance measures and grip strength; and between three objects’ performance measures. Significant reduction in pain and joint stiffness (p<0.05) was observed after performing each task. Conclusion: The study presents initial evidence on the test retest reliability and convergent validity of a computer based hand function assessment protocol in people with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis. The novel tool objectively measures overall task performance during a variety of object manipulation tasks done by tracking a

  12. Authenticated Key Agreement with Rekeying for Secured Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Eldefrawy, Mohamed Hamdy; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled; Tolba, Ahmed Saleh; Kim, Kyngn Jung

    2011-01-01

    Many medical systems are currently equipped with a large number of tiny, non-invasive sensors, located on, or close to, the patient’s body for health monitoring purposes. These groupings of sensors constitute a body sensor network (BSN). Key management is a fundamental service for medical BSN security. It provides and manages the cryptographic keys to enable essential security features such as confidentiality, integrity and authentication. Achieving key agreement in BSNs is a difficult task. Many key agreement schemes lack sensor addition, revocation, and rekeying properties, which are very important. Our proposed protocol circumvents these shortcomings by providing node rekeying properties, as well as node addition and revocation. It proposes a key distribution protocol based on public key cryptography—the RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman) algorithm, and the DHECC (Diffie-Hellman Elliptic Curve Cryptography) algorithm. The proposed protocol does not trust individual sensors, and partially trusts the base station (hospital). Instead of loading full pair-wise keys into each node, after installation our protocol establishes pair-wise keys between nodes according to a specific routing algorithm. In this case, each node doesn’t have to share a key with all of its neighbors, only those involved in the routing path; this plays a key role in increasing the resiliency against node capture attacks and the network storage efficiency. Finally we evaluate our algorithm from the BSN security viewpoint and evaluate its performance in comparison with other proposals. PMID:22163930

  13. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  14. An efficient protocol for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid in perdeuterated recombinant proteins using glucose-based media.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L; Clore, G Marius

    2012-03-01

    The in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins is a well-established technique requiring an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is incorporated at a position encoded by a TAG amber codon. Although this technology provides unique opportunities to engineer protein structures, poor protein yields are usually obtained in deuterated media, hampering its application in the protein NMR field. Here, we describe a novel protocol for incorporating unnatural amino acids into fully deuterated proteins using glucose-based media (which are relevant to the production, for example, of amino acid-specific methyl-labeled proteins used in the study of large molecular weight systems). The method consists of pre-induction of the pEVOL plasmid encoding the tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair in a rich, H(2)O-based medium prior to exchanging the culture into a D(2)O-based medium. Our protocol results in high level of isotopic incorporation (~95%) and retains the high expression level of the target protein observed in Luria-Bertani medium. PMID:22350951

  15. Optimized QKD BB84 protocol using quantum dense coding and CNOT gates: feasibility based on probabilistic optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueddana, Amor; Attia, Moez; Chatta, Rihab

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we simulate a fiber-based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol (QKDP) BB84 working at the telecoms wavelength 1550 nm with taking into consideration an optimized attack strategy. We consider in our work a quantum channel composed by probabilistic Single Photon Source (SPS), single mode optical Fiber and quantum detector with high efficiency. We show the advantages of using the Quantum Dots (QD) embedded in micro-cavity compared to the Heralded Single Photon Sources (HSPS). Second, we show that Eve is always getting some information depending on the mean photon number per pulse of the used SPS and therefore, we propose an optimized version of the QKDP BB84 based on Quantum Dense Coding (QDC) that could be implemented by quantum CNOT gates. We evaluate the success probability of implementing the optimized QKDP BB84 when using nowadays probabilistic quantum optical devices for circuit realization. We use for our modeling an abstract probabilistic model of a CNOT gate based on linear optical components and having a success probability of sqrt (4/27), we take into consideration the best SPSs realizations, namely the QD and the HSPS, generating a single photon per pulse with a success probability of 0.73 and 0.37, respectively. We show that the protocol is totally secure against attacks but could be correctly implemented only with a success probability of few percent.

  16. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  17. A General Purpose Connections type CTI Server Based on SIP Protocol and Its Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Toru; Koizumi, Hisao

    In this paper, we propose a general purpose connections type CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) server that provides various CTI services such as voice logging where the CTI server communicates with IP-PBX using the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), and accumulates voice packets of external line telephone call flowing between an IP telephone for extension and a VoIP gateway connected to outside line networks. The CTI server realizes CTI services such as voice logging, telephone conference, or IVR (interactive voice response) with accumulating and processing voice packets sampled. Furthermore, the CTI server incorporates a web server function which can provide various CTI services such as a Web telephone directory via a Web browser to PCs, cellular telephones or smart-phones in mobile environments.

  18. A bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) based protocol for characterizing proliferating progenitors in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Auger, Hélène; Thuret, Raphaël; El Yakoubi, Warif; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle. BrdU incorporation can be used to quantify the number of cells that are in S-phase in the time period that BrdU is available. Thus, BrdU incorporation is an essential method in the quantitative analysis of cell proliferation, during normal embryonic development or after experimental manipulation. It is a reliable and versatile method that can be easily combined with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to relate cell proliferation with gene expression. BrdU incorporation has been used in all model organisms; here, we describe a protocol adapted for use in Xenopus embryos. PMID:22956104

  19. A clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks based on energy potential field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuo; Xiao, Yao; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Renfa

    2013-01-01

    It is the core issue of researching that how to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor network. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a clustering protocol LEACH-PF, which is a multihop routing algorithm with energy potential field of divided clusters. In LEACH-PF, the network is divided into a number of subnetworks and each subnetwork has a cluster head. These clusters construct an intercluster routing tree according to the potential difference of different equipotential fields. The other member nodes of the subnetworks communicate with their cluster head directly, so as to complete regional coverage. The results of simulation show that LEACH-PF can reduce energy consumption of the network effectively and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:24288507

  20. A Provably Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve for Healthcare Environments.

    PubMed

    Farash, Mohammad Sabzinejad; Nawaz, Omer; Mahmood, Khalid; Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-07-01

    To enhance the quality of healthcare in the management of chronic disease, telecare medical information systems have increasingly been used. Very recently, Zhang and Qi (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):47, 32), and Zhao (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):46, 33) separately proposed two authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. They claimed that their protocols achieve all security requirements including forward secrecy. However, this paper demonstrates that both Zhang and Qi's scheme, and Zhao's scheme could not provide forward secrecy. To augment the security, we propose an efficient RFID authentication scheme using elliptic curves for healthcare environments. The proposed RFID scheme is secure under common random oracle model. PMID:27221283

  1. Based on asynchronous communication protocol of geographic space information service access mechanism research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Zhao, J.; Gu, M.; Li, D.

    2014-04-01

    At present, the traditional way of accessing to classified network in geographic spatial information services is using network gatekeeper and firewall etc. to ensure public and classified network communications links. However, the physical isolation between classified network and public network is crossed, which is bound to cause classified network potential security hazard. In Yunnan province space Land dynamic monitoring integration project, it proposed the point to point text message communication protocol and asynchronous transmission mechanism. Using geo-spatial information encryption processing and data compression processing method, it reduced the risk of data sensitivity and monitored, namely to ensure data security, which realized geographic spatial information services data communication effectively between classified network and public network in the rigid field conditions.

  2. A Structure-Based Design Protocol for Optimizing Combinatorial Protein Libraries.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Mark W; Snow, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Protein variant libraries created via site-directed mutagenesis are a powerful approach to engineer improved proteins for numerous applications such as altering enzyme substrate specificity. Conventional libraries commonly use a brute force approach: saturation mutagenesis via degenerate codons that encode all 20 natural amino acids. In contrast, this chapter describes a protocol for designing "smarter" degenerate codon libraries via direct combinatorial optimization in "library space." Several case studies illustrate how it is possible to design degenerate codon libraries that are highly enriched for favorable, low-energy sequences as assessed using a standard all-atom scoring function. There is much to gain for experimental protein engineering laboratories willing to think beyond site saturation mutagenesis. In the common case that the exact experimental screening budget is not fixed, it is particularly helpful to perform a Pareto analysis to inspect favorable libraries at a range of possible library sizes. PMID:27094288

  3. Alternating-Offers Protocol for Multi-issue Bilateral Negotiation in Semantic-Enabled Marketplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragone, Azzurra; di Noia, Tommaso; di Sciascio, Eugenio; Donini, Francesco M.

    We present a semantic-based approach to multi-issue bilateral negotiation for e-commerce. We use Description Logics to model advertisements, and relations among issues as axioms in a TBox. We then introduce a logic-based alternating-offers protocol, able to handle conflicting information, that merges non-standard reasoning services in Description Logics with utility thoery to find the most suitable agreements. We illustrate and motivate the theoretical framework, the logical language, and the negotiation protocol.

  4. AADS--an automated active site identification, docking, and scoring protocol for protein targets based on physicochemical descriptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanya; Biswas, D; Jayaram, B

    2011-10-24

    We report here a robust automated active site detection, docking, and scoring (AADS) protocol for proteins with known structures. The active site finder identifies all cavities in a protein and scores them based on the physicochemical properties of functional groups lining the cavities in the protein. The accuracy realized on 620 proteins with sizes ranging from 100 to 600 amino acids with known drug active sites is 100% when the top ten cavity points are considered. These top ten cavity points identified are then submitted for an automated docking of an input ligand/candidate molecule. The docking protocol uses an all atom energy based Monte Carlo method. Eight low energy docked structures corresponding to different locations and orientations of the candidate molecule are stored at each cavity point giving 80 docked structures overall which are then ranked using an effective free energy function and top five structures are selected. The predicted structure and energetics of the complexes agree quite well with experiment when tested on a data set of 170 protein-ligand complexes with known structures and binding affinities. The AADS methodology is implemented on an 80 processor cluster and presented as a freely accessible, easy to use tool at http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/dock/ActiveSite_new.jsp . PMID:21877713

  5. [A protocol to assist people with suicidal thoughts in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Gagliesi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a Protocol for Suicidal Clients in mental health practice. These protocols in medicine should promote a practice based on evidence and the experts consensus. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this procedures, promoting its use. The reasons include research, training, efficacy, evidence based practices, stress reduction and better performance of the mental health professionals. Based on Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, this protocol has been designed and used in a program with severly disturb clients. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the No Harm Contracts versus its replacement for Treatment Agreements or Compromises. PMID:20440411

  6. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  7. Accelerated rehabilitation following Achilles tendon repair after acute rupture - Development of an evidence-based treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Brumann, Mareen; Baumbach, Sebastian F; Mutschler, Wolf; Polzer, Hans

    2014-11-01

    The acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is a protracted injury. Surgery is only the beginning of a long rehabilitation period. Therefore, the rehabilitation protocol is an integral aspect to restore the pre-injury activity level. Despite several trials available comparing different treatment regimes, there is still no consensus regarding the optimal protocol. Consequently, the aim of our study was to systematically search the evidence available and define a precise rehabilitation programme after operative repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture based on the trials with the highest level of evidence. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline, Embase and Cochrane library. We identified twelve randomized controlled trials comparing different treatment regimes after operative repair of the Achilles tendon. Five trials compared full to non weight bearing, all applying immobilization in equinus. Immediate full weight bearing led to significant higher patient satisfaction, earlier ambulation and return to pre-injury activity. Four trials compared early ankle mobilization to immobilization. All trials found mobilization to be superior as it shortens time to return to work and sports significantly. Three trials compared the combination of full weight bearing and early ankle mobilization to immobilization. This combination was most beneficial. Patients showed significantly higher satisfaction, less use of rehabilitation resources, earlier return to pre-injury activities and further demonstrated significantly increased calf muscle strength, reduced atrophy and tendon elongation. No study found an increased rerupture rate for the more progressive treatment. In conclusion, the rehabilitation protocol after Achilles tendon repair should allow immediate full weight bearing. After the second postoperative week controlled ankle mobilization by free plantar flexion and limited dorsiflexion at 0° should be applied. PMID:25059505

  8. Streptavidin-modified monodispersed magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres as solid support in DNA-based molecular protocols.

    PubMed

    Salih, Tagrid; Ahlford, Annika; Nilsson, Mats; Plichta, Zdeněk; Horák, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics may provide tailored and cost efficient treatment for infectious disease and cancer. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) of padlock probes guarantees high specificity to identify nucleic acid targets down to single nucleotide resolution in a multiplex fashion. This makes the assay suitable for molecular analysis of various diseases, and interesting to integrate into automated devices for point-of-care analysis. A critical prerequisite for many molecular assays is (i) target-specific isolation from complex clinical samples and (ii) removal of reagents, inhibitors and contaminants between reaction steps. Efficient solid supports are therefore essential to enable multi-step, multi-analyte protocols. Superparamagnetic micro- and nanoparticles, with large surface area and rapid liquid-phase kinetics, are attractive for multi-step protocols. Recently, streptavidin-modified magnetic monodispersed poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (STV-mag.PHEMA) microspheres were developed by multiple swelling polymerization. They are easily separated by a magnet and exhibit low non-specific protein sorption. In this study, the performance and the binding efficiency of STV-mag.PHEMA was addressed by circle-to-circle amplification (C2CA). A lower number of RCA products were detected as compared to the gold standard Dynabeads. Nevertheless, this study was the first to successfully adapt STV-mag.PHEMA microspheres as solid support in a DNA-based protocol, which is an important finding. The STV-mag.PHEMA microspheres were larger with about 16 times less surface area as compared to the Dynabeads, which might partly explain the lower rolling circle product (RCP) count obtained. Further research is currently ongoing comparing particles of similar sizes and optimizing reaction conditions to establish their full utility in the field. Ultimately, low cost and versatile particles are a great resource to facilitate future clinical molecular diagnostics. PMID:26838862

  9. Costs of HIV+/AIDS at CD4+ counts disease stages based on treatment protocols.

    PubMed

    Gable, C B; Tierce, J C; Simison, D; Ward, D; Motte, K

    1996-08-01

    We report treatment protocols for HIV+/AIDS patients by CD4+ counts (T-lymphocyte cells/mm3: > or = 500, 499-200, 199-50, and < 50) as a tool to provide better definition and to project annual costs (total charges for services) and lifetimes costs for HIV+/AIDS. The treatment protocols, derived from the literature and an HIV+/AIDS Physician Panel, defined the resource use associated with antiretroviral therapy and opportunistic disease prophylaxis and treatment. Resource use costs were derived from the published literature, insurance database, Medicare fee schedules, surveys, and the Physician Panel. At CD4+ counts, the rates of opportunistic diseases were derived from the Physician Panel experience; the mean occupancy times were derived from the literature. The sensitivity analysis indicated stability of the lifetime costs to variation in mean occupancy times, rates of opportunistic diseases, rates of adverse events (AE), and costs. The total annual costs (1995 dollars) of HIV+/AIDS patients ranged from $1,934 (> or = 500), $6,015 (200-499), and $9,031 (50-199), to $25,239 ( < 50). The annual costs of opportunistic diseases are esophageal candidiasis (EC) ($2,194), tuberculosis (TB) ($2,924), cryptococcal meningitis (CM) ($17,264), toxoplasmosis ($17,631), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (+20,153), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) ($22,329), wasting syndrome ($26,676), central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma ($27,333), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) [mild ($3,545), moderate ($4,889), and severe ($32,609)], Kaposi' sarcoma (KS) [mild/moderate ($5,902), and severe ($10,744)], and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis ($100,337). The projected lifetime costs of HIV+/AIDS are $94,726 (annual costs $7,645). Our lower lifetime costs as compared with recent estimates may be due to including resources only for HIV+/AIDS-related treatment and not for non-HIV+/AIDS conditions, as well as reduced resource use resulting from more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic techniques

  10. SU-F-18C-01: Minimum Detectability Analysis for Comprehensive Sized Based Optimization of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Across CT Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Smitherman, C; Chen, B; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work involved a comprehensive modeling of task-based performance of CT across a wide range of protocols. The approach was used for optimization and consistency of dose and image quality within a large multi-vendor clinical facility. Methods: 150 adult protocols from the Duke University Medical Center were grouped into sub-protocols with similar acquisition characteristics. A size based image quality phantom (Duke Mercury Phantom) was imaged using these sub-protocols for a range of clinically relevant doses on two CT manufacturer platforms (Siemens, GE). The images were analyzed to extract task-based image quality metrics such as the Task Transfer Function (TTF), Noise Power Spectrum, and Az based on designer nodule task functions. The data were analyzed in terms of the detectability of a lesion size/contrast as a function of dose, patient size, and protocol. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to predict image quality and dose to achieve a minimum level of detectability. Results: Image quality trends with variations in dose, patient size, and lesion contrast/size were evaluated and calculated data behaved as predicted. The GUI proved effective to predict the Az values representing radiologist confidence for a targeted lesion, patient size, and dose. As an example, an abdomen pelvis exam for the GE scanner, with a task size/contrast of 5-mm/50-HU, and an Az of 0.9 requires a dose of 4.0, 8.9, and 16.9 mGy for patient diameters of 25, 30, and 35 cm, respectively. For a constant patient diameter of 30 cm, the minimum detected lesion size at those dose levels would be 8.4, 5, and 3.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The designed CT protocol optimization platform can be used to evaluate minimum detectability across dose levels and patient diameters. The method can be used to improve individual protocols as well as to improve protocol consistency across CT scanners.

  11. Faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on hyperentanglement against collective noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Higher channel capacity and security are difficult to reach in a noisy channel. The loss of photons and the distortion of the qubit state are caused by noise. To solve these problems, in our study, a hyperentangled Bell state is used to design faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol over collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noisy channel, which doubles the channel capacity compared with using an ordinary Bell state as a carrier; a logical hyperentangled Bell state immune to collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noise is constructed. The secret message is divided into several parts to transmit, however the identity strings of Alice and Bob are reused. Unitary operations are not used. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).

  12. A PCR-based protocol for generating West Nile virus replicons.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Junko; Takagi, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Shingo; Kurane, Ichiro; Maeda, Akihiko

    2008-03-01

    A new protocol for the generation of West Nile virus (WNV) replicons was developed. Fragmented cDNAs that covered the entire WNV RNA sequence, except the sequence corresponding to nucleotides 190-2379, were amplified separately by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using primer set franking with overlapping sequences of 40-50 bp at the 5'- and the 3'-ends of each fragment. All amplified fragments were mixed together and annealed to each other at the overlapping sequences. The annealed-DNA fragments were elongated by DNA polymerase and amplified by short-cycle PCRs to generate full-sized WNV replicon cDNAs. The WNV replicons were transcribed in vitro using the replicon cDNAs as templates. When the in vitro-transcribed replicon was introduced into mammalian cells, the viral envelope protein and viral positive- and negative-strand RNAs were detected in the replicon-transfected cells. It is noteworthy that the synthesis of the replicon cDNAs and the replicons took just 1 week, and that the use of a high-fidelity DNA polymerase afforded stability to the sequence of the synthetic replicon. PMID:18242719

  13. Attitudes towards acceptance of an innovative home-based and remote sensing rehabilitation protocol among cardiovascular patients in Shantou, China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jia-Ying; Li, Ji-Lin; Li, Zhong-Han; Xu, Duan-Min; Chen, Chang; Xie, Bin; Chen, Helen; Au, William W

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) protocols have diversified to include home-based cardiac tele-rehabilitation (HBCTR) as an alternative to hospital-based or center-based CR. To adopt the use of home-based cardiac tele-rehabilitation, it is necessary to assess cardiac patients' attitudes towards acceptance of such e-health technology, especially in China where knowledge of such technology is deficient. Methods Interviews were conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China. After percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) surgery, patients completed the survey. Results Among the 150 patients, only 13% had ever heard of HBCTR. After an introduction of our HBCTR program, 60% of patients were willing to participate in the program. From our multivariate analysis of questionnaire data, age (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.98; P = 0.007), average family monthly income (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.05–0.34; P < 0.001), education level (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10–0.59; P = 0.002) and physical exercise time (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06–0.56; P = 0.003) were independent predictors for acceptance of HBCTR. From the reasons for participation, patients selected: enhanced safety and independence (28.3%), ability to self-monitor physical conditions daily (25.4%), and having automatic and emergency alert (23.1%). Reasons for refusal were: too cumbersome operation (34.3%) and unnecessary protocol (19.4%). Conclusions Most patients lacked knowledge about HBCTR but volunteered to participate after they have learned about the program. Several personal and life-style factors influenced their acceptance of the program. These indicate that both improvement of technology and better understanding of the program will enhance active participation. PMID:27403142

  14. Quantitative Computed Tomography Protocols Affect Material Mapping and Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based Finite-Element Analysis Predicted Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Giambini, Hugo; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Nassr, Ahmad; Yaszemski, Michael J; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative computed tomography-based finite-element analysis (QCT/FEA) has become increasingly popular in an attempt to understand and possibly reduce vertebral fracture risk. It is known that scanning acquisition settings affect Hounsfield units (HU) of the CT voxels. Material properties assignments in QCT/FEA, relating HU to Young's modulus, are performed by applying empirical equations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of QCT scanning protocols on predicted stiffness values from finite-element models. One fresh frozen cadaveric torso and a QCT calibration phantom were scanned six times varying voltage and current and reconstructed to obtain a total of 12 sets of images. Five vertebrae from the torso were experimentally tested to obtain stiffness values. QCT/FEA models of the five vertebrae were developed for the 12 image data resulting in a total of 60 models. Predicted stiffness was compared to the experimental values. The highest percent difference in stiffness was approximately 480% (80 kVp, 110 mAs, U70), while the lowest outcome was ∼1% (80 kVp, 110 mAs, U30). There was a clear distinction between reconstruction kernels in predicted outcomes, whereas voltage did not present a clear influence on results. The potential of QCT/FEA as an improvement to conventional fracture risk prediction tools is well established. However, it is important to establish research protocols that can lead to results that can be translated to the clinical setting. PMID:27428281

  15. Simulation-based optimisation of the PET data processing for partial saturation approach protocols.

    PubMed

    Wimberley, Catriona; Angelis, Georgios; Boisson, Frederic; Callaghan, Paul; Fischer, Kristina; Pichler, Bernd J; Meikle, Steven R; Grégoire, Marie-Claude; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2014-08-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C]Raclopride is an important tool for studying dopamine D2 receptor expression in vivo. [(11)C]Raclopride PET binding experiments conducted using the Partial Saturation Approach (PSA) allow the estimation of receptor density (B(avail)) and the in vivo affinity appK(D). The PSA is a simple, single injection, single scan experimental protocol that does not require blood sampling, making it ideal for use in longitudinal studies. In this work, we generated a complete Monte Carlo simulated PET study involving two groups of scans, in between which a biological phenomenon was inferred (a 30% decrease of B(avail)), and used it in order to design an optimal data processing chain for the parameter estimation from PSA data. The impact of spatial smoothing, noise removal and image resolution recovery technique on the statistical detection was investigated in depth. We found that image resolution recovery using iterative deconvolution of the image with the system point spread function associated with temporal data denoising greatly improves the accuracy and the statistical reliability of detecting the imposed phenomenon. Before optimisation, the inferred B(avail) variation between the two groups was underestimated by 42% and detected in 66% of cases, while a false decrease of appK(D) by 13% was detected in more than 11% of cases. After optimisation, the calculated B(avail) variation was underestimated by only 3.7% and detected in 89% of cases, while a false slight increase of appK(D) by 3.7% was detected in only 2% of cases. We found during this investigation that it was essential to adjust a factor that accounts for difference in magnitude between the non-displaceable ligand concentrations measured in the target and in the reference regions, for different data processing pathways as this ratio was affected by different image resolutions. PMID:24742918

  16. A Space Based Internet Protocol System for Sub-Orbital Tracking and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Grant, Charles; Morgan, Dwayne; Streich, Ron; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia are responsible for the overall management of the NASA Sounding Rocket Program. Payloads are generally in support of NASA's Space Science Enterprise's missions and return a variety of scientific data as well as providing a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft. The fifteen types of sounding rockets used by NASA can carry payloads of various weights to altitudes from 50 km to more than 1,300 km. Launch activities are conducted not only from established missile ranges, but also from remote locations worldwide requiring mobile tracking and command equipment to be transported and set up at considerable expense. The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communications satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce tracking and control costs of launch vehicles and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by reducing or eliminating this ground infrastructure. Additionally, since data transmission is by packetized Internet Protocol (IP), data can be received and commands initiated from practically any location. A low cost Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) system is currently under development for sounding rockets which also has application to UAVs and scientific balloons. Due to relatively low data rate (9600 baud) currently available, the system will first be used to provide GPS data for tracking and vehicle recovery. Range safety requirements for launch vehicles usually stipulate at least two independent tracking sources. Most sounding rockets flown by NASA now carry GPS receivers that output position data via the payload telemetry system to the ground station. The Flight Modem can be configured as a completely separate link thereby eliminating requirement for tracking radar. The system architecture which integrates antennas, GPS receiver, commercial satellite packet data modem, and a

  17. A Space Based Internet Protocol System for Launch Vehicle Tracking and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Grant, Charles; Morgan, Dwayne; Streich, Ron; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia are responsible for the overall management of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Scientific Balloon Programs. Payloads are generally in support of NASA's Space Science Enterprise's missions and return a variety of scientific data as well as providing a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft. Sounding rockets used by NASA can carry payloads of various weights to altitudes from 50 km to more than 1,300 km. Scientific balloons can carry a payload weighing as much as 3,630 Kg to an altitude of 42 km. Launch activities for both are conducted not only from established ranges, but also from remote locations worldwide requiring mobile tracking and command equipment to be transported and set up at considerable expense. The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communications satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce tracking and control costs of these launch vehicles and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by reducing or eliminating this ground infrastructure. Additionally, since data transmission is by packetized Internet Protocol (IP), data can be received and commands initiated from practically any location. A low cost Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) system is currently under development for sounding rockets that also has application to UAVs and scientific balloons. Due to relatively low data rate (9600 baud) currently available, the system will first be used to provide GPS data for tracking and vehicle recovery. Range safety requirements for launch vehicles usually stipulate at least two independent tracking sources. Most sounding rockets flown by NASA now carry GP receivers that output position data via the payload telemetry system to the ground station. The Flight Modem can be configured as a completely separate link thereby eliminating the requirement for tracking radar. The

  18. Improving adherence to web-based cessation programs: a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone. Methods/Design This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome. Discussion Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage

  19. Enhanced Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in Hong Kong: A Study Protocol for Three Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Nannan; Zhong, Linda L. D.; Han, XueJie; Ng, Bacon; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    We presented a study protocol of developing Chinese medicine clinical practice guidelines for three common diseases in Hong Kong, including insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction. This research project will be conducted in three phases. First phase is the preparation stage which consists of the establishment of steering committee and panel. Second phase involves 6 steps, which are searching and identifying evidence, text mining process, Delphi survey, synthesizing of data, consensus conference, and drafting guidelines. In this phase, text mining technique, evidence-based method, and formal consensus method are combined to get consolidated supporting data as the source of CM CPGs. The final phase comprised external reviews, dissemination, and updating. The outputs from this project will provide three CM CPGs for insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction for Hong Kong local use. PMID:25815035

  20. Integrating Authentic Assessment with Competence-Based Learning in Vocational Education: The Protocol Portfolio Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Straetmans, Gerard J. J. M.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how competence-based learning (CBL) can be organised in vocational education by integrating elements from a holistic instructional design model with recent ideas on assessment. A curriculum based on this model is pre-eminently suitable for an assessment approach emphasising that proof of competence is gathered by having…

  1. A model-based information sharing protocol for profile Hidden Markov Models used for HIV-1 recombination detection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many applications, a family of nucleotide or protein sequences classified into several subfamilies has to be modeled. Profile Hidden Markov Models (pHMMs) are widely used for this task, modeling each subfamily separately by one pHMM. However, a major drawback of this approach is the difficulty of dealing with subfamilies composed of very few sequences. One of the most crucial bioinformatical tasks affected by the problem of small-size subfamilies is the subtyping of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences, i.e., HIV-1 subtypes for which only a small number of sequences is known. Results To deal with small samples for particular subfamilies of HIV-1, we introduce a novel model-based information sharing protocol. It estimates the emission probabilities of the pHMM modeling a particular subfamily not only based on the nucleotide frequencies of the respective subfamily but also incorporating the nucleotide frequencies of all available subfamilies. To this end, the underlying probabilistic model mimics the pattern of commonality and variation between the subtypes with regards to the biological characteristics of HI viruses. In order to implement the proposed protocol, we make use of an existing HMM architecture and its associated inference engine. Conclusions We apply the modified algorithm to classify HIV-1 sequence data in the form of partial HIV-1 sequences and semi-artificial recombinants. Thereby, we demonstrate that the performance of pHMMs can be significantly improved by the proposed technique. Moreover, we show that our algorithm performs significantly better than Simplot and Bootscanning. PMID:24946781

  2. Treatment protocol based on assessment of clot quality during endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke using the Trevo stent retriever

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kojiro; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Nishihori, Masahiro; Imai, Tasuku; Goto, Shunsaku; Yamamoto, Taiki; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Shimato, Shinji; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The optional endovascular approach for acute ischemic stroke is unclear. The Trevo stent retriever can be used as first-line treatment for fast mechanical recanalization. The authors developed a treatment protocol for acute ischemic stroke based on the assessment of clot quality during clot removal with the Trevo. This prospective single-center study included all patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke between July 2014 and February 2015, who underwent emergency endovascular treatment. According to the protocol, the Trevo was used for first-line treatment. Immediately after the Trevo was deployed, the stent delivery wire was pushed to open the stent by force (ACAPT technique). Clot quality was assessed on the basis of the perfusion status after deployment of the Trevo; continued occlusion or immediate reopening either reoccluded or maintained after the stent retriever had been in place for 5 min. If there was no obvious clot removal after the first pass with the Trevo, according to the quality of the clot, either a second pass was performed or another endovascular device was selected. Twelve consecutive patients with acute major cerebral artery occlusion were analyzed. Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b and 3 was achieved in 11 patients (91.7%) and 9 (75%) had a good clinical outcome after 90 days based on a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient (8.3%). The overall mortality rate was 8.3%. Endovascular thrombectomy using the Trevo stent retriever for first-line treatment is feasible and effective. PMID:27578909

  3. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) program by investigating pre-conceptual health and risk behaviours, teen pregnancy and the resultant birth outcomes, early child health and maternal health. Methods and Design Fifty-seven schools (86% of 66 eligible secondary schools) in Perth, Australia were recruited to the clustered (by school) randomised trial, with even randomisation to the intervention and control arms. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP program was administered to 1,267 participants in the intervention schools, while 1,567 participants in the non-intervention schools received standard curriculum. Participants were all female and aged between 13-15 years upon recruitment. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires measured short-term impact and participants are now being followed through their teenage years via data linkage to hospital medical records, abortion clinics and education records. Participants who have a live birth are interviewed by face-to-face interview. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards regression will test for differences in pregnancy, birth and abortion rates during the teenage years between the study arms. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed overview of the trial design as well as initial results in the form of participant flow. The authors describe the intervention and its delivery within the natural school setting and discuss the practical issues in the conduct of the trial, including recruitment. The trial is pragmatic and will directly inform those who provide Infant Simulator based programs

  4. Treatment protocol based on assessment of clot quality during endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke using the Trevo stent retriever.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kojiro; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Nishihori, Masahiro; Imai, Tasuku; Goto, Shunsaku; Yamamoto, Taiki; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Shimato, Shinji; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-08-01

    The optional endovascular approach for acute ischemic stroke is unclear. The Trevo stent retriever can be used as first-line treatment for fast mechanical recanalization. The authors developed a treatment protocol for acute ischemic stroke based on the assessment of clot quality during clot removal with the Trevo. This prospective single-center study included all patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke between July 2014 and February 2015, who underwent emergency endovascular treatment. According to the protocol, the Trevo was used for first-line treatment. Immediately after the Trevo was deployed, the stent delivery wire was pushed to open the stent by force (ACAPT technique). Clot quality was assessed on the basis of the perfusion status after deployment of the Trevo; continued occlusion or immediate reopening either reoccluded or maintained after the stent retriever had been in place for 5 min. If there was no obvious clot removal after the first pass with the Trevo, according to the quality of the clot, either a second pass was performed or another endovascular device was selected. Twelve consecutive patients with acute major cerebral artery occlusion were analyzed. Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b and 3 was achieved in 11 patients (91.7%) and 9 (75%) had a good clinical outcome after 90 days based on a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient (8.3%). The overall mortality rate was 8.3%. Endovascular thrombectomy using the Trevo stent retriever for first-line treatment is feasible and effective. PMID:27578909

  5. Design and evaluation of web-based image transmission and display with different protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bin; Chen, Kuangyi; Zheng, Xichuan; Zhang, Jianguo

    2011-03-01

    There are many Web-based image accessing technologies used in medical imaging area, such as component-based (ActiveX Control) thick client Web display, Zerofootprint thin client Web viewer (or called server side processing Web viewer), Flash Rich Internet Application(RIA) ,or HTML5 based Web display. Different Web display methods have different peformance in different network environment. In this presenation, we give an evaluation on two developed Web based image display systems. The first one is used for thin client Web display. It works between a PACS Web server with WADO interface and thin client. The PACS Web server provides JPEG format images to HTML pages. The second one is for thick client Web display. It works between a PACS Web server with WADO interface and thick client running in browsers containing ActiveX control, Flash RIA program or HTML5 scripts. The PACS Web server provides native DICOM format images or JPIP stream for theses clients.

  6. Report of the National Panel for Evidence-Based School Counseling: Outcome Research Coding Protocol and Evaluation of Student Success Skills and Second Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John C.; Dimmitt, Carey; Hatch, Trish A.; Lapan, Richard T.; Whiston, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The National Panel for School Counseling Evidence-Based Practice was established by the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research to improve the practice of school counseling by helping to develop the research base that is necessary for responsible and effective practice. This article presents the panel's Outcome Research Coding Protocol and…

  7. An efficient diethyl ether-based soxhlet protocol to quantify faecal sterols from catchment waters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vikas Kumar G; Dunstan, Hugh; Taylor, Warren

    2006-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and reproducibility of a diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure for faecal sterols occurring from catchment waters. Water samples spiked with a mixture of faecal sterols were filtered and analytes were extracted using the diethyl ether-based soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process. For diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure, solvent extracts were saponified with 100 microL of 10% KOH in methanol (100 degrees C/120 min) and then acidified with 60 microL of 6M HCl. Lipid contents were extracted by ethanol (0.5 mL) from the saponification products. The lipid extracts were then reacted with 100 microL of bis(trimethyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethyl chlorosilane (100 degrees C/60 min) to form the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The derivatised extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For sterol concentrations ranging from 35 to 175 microg mL(-1), the soxhlet-based extraction process yielded the following recovery efficiencies for coprostanol (101%), epicoprostanol (97%), cholesterol (97%), dihydrocholesterol (97%) and 5alpha-cholestane (111%), whereas the Bligh and Dyer process yielded recoveries of 32, 41, 0, 36 and 51%, respectively. The results suggested that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method was more efficient and reproducible than the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process for the analyses of trace levels of faecal sterols from water samples. Moreover, it was revealed that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method used less solvent and was logistically easier. PMID:16430911

  8. The effects of sweep numbers per average and protocol type on the accuracy of the p300-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Ariana B; Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, we compared the accuracy of the P300 concealed information test protocol as a function of numbers of trials experienced by subjects and ERP averages analyzed by investigators. Contrary to Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), we found no evidence that 100 trial based averages are more accurate than 66 or 33 trial based averages (all numbers led to accuracies of 84-94 %). There was actually a trend favoring the lowest trial numbers. The second study compared numbers of irrelevant stimuli recalled and recognized in the 3-stimulus protocol versus the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld in Memory detection: theory and application of the concealed information test, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 63-89, 2011). Again, in contrast to expectations from Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), there were no differences between protocols, although there were more irrelevant stimuli recognized than recalled, and irrelevant 4-digit number group stimuli were neither recalled nor recognized as well as irrelevant city name stimuli. We therefore conclude that stimulus processing in the P300-based complex trial protocol-with no more than 33 sweep averages-is adequate to allow accurate detection of concealed information. PMID:24531833

  9. EQUIPping Teachers: A Protocol to Guide and Improve Inquiry-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeff; Horton, Robert; White, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For many years, publications such as the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996) and "The Science Teacher" (TST) have encouraged teachers to focus science classes more heavily on inquiry-based instructional practice. One way to improve our teaching practice is to use a benchmark assessment to obtain a solid point of reference that…

  10. SoyBase Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol (SSWAP) Services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semantic web technologies offer the potential to link internet resources and data by shared concepts without having to rely on absolute lexical matches. Thus two web sites or web resources which are concerned with similar data types could be identified based on similar semantics. In the biological...

  11. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume V. Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the fifth of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with sixth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and…

  12. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume II. Grades One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the second of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with first and second grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and the…

  13. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume IV. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the fourth of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with fifth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and…

  14. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume III. Grades Three and Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the third of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with third and fourth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and…

  15. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume VI. Grades Eight through Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the last of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade…

  16. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to

  17. Policy to implementation: evidence-based practice in community mental health – study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are not widely available in community mental health settings. In response to the call for implementation of evidence-based treatments in the United States, states and counties have mandated behavioral health reform through policies and other initiatives. Evaluations of the impact of these policies on implementation are rare. A systems transformation about to occur in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, offers an important opportunity to prospectively study implementation in response to a policy mandate. Methods/design Using a prospective sequential mixed-methods design, with observations at multiple points in time, we will investigate the responses of staff from 30 community mental health clinics to a policy from the Department of Behavioral Health encouraging and incentivizing providers to implement evidence-based treatments to treat youth with mental health problems. Study participants will be 30 executive directors, 30 clinical directors, and 240 therapists. Data will be collected prior to the policy implementation, and then at two and four years following policy implementation. Quantitative data will include measures of intervention implementation and potential moderators of implementation (i.e., organizational- and leader-level variables) and will be collected from executive directors, clinical directors, and therapists. Measures include self-reported therapist fidelity to evidence-based treatment techniques as measured by the Therapist Procedures Checklist-Revised, organizational variables as measured by the Organizational Social Context Measurement System and the Implementation Climate Assessment, leader variables as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, attitudes towards EBTs as measured by the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale, and knowledge of EBTs as measured by the Knowledge of Evidence- Based Services Questionnaire. Qualitative data will include semi-structured interviews with a subset of the

  18. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems. PMID:26573649

  19. A model-based framework for the quality assessment of surface albedo in situ measurement protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jennifer; Gobron, Nadine; Widlowski, Jean-Luc; Mio, Corrado

    2016-09-01

    Satellite-based retrievals of land surface albedo are essential for climate and environmental modelling communities. To be of use, satellite-retrievals are required to comply to given accuracy requirements, mainly achieved through comparison with in situ measurements. Differences between in situ and satellite-based retrievals depend on their actual difference and their associated uncertainties. It is essential that these uncertainties can be computed to properly understand the differences between satellite-based and in situ measurements of albedo, however quantifying the individual contributions of uncertainty is difficult. This study introduces a model-based framework for assessing the quality of in situ albedo measurements. A 3D Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) radiative transfer model is used to simulate field measurements of surface albedo, and is able to identify and quantify potential sources of error in the field measurement. Compliance with the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) requirement for 3% accuracy is tested. 8 scenarios were investigated, covering a range of ecosystem types and canopy structures, seasons, illumination angles and tree heights. Results indicate that height of measurement above the canopy is the controlling factor in accuracy, with each canopy scenario reaching the WMO requirement at different heights. Increasing canopy heterogeneity and tree height noticeably reduces the accuracy, whereas changing seasonality from summer to winter in a deciduous forest increases accuracy. For canopies with a row structure, illumination angle can significantly impact accuracy as a result of shadowing effects. Tests were made on the potential use of multiple in situ measurements, indicating considerably increased accuracy if two or more in situ measurements can be made.

  20. Optimized formulation and processing protocol for a supplementary bean-based composite flour.

    PubMed

    Ndagire, Catherine T; Muyonga, John H; Manju, Reddy; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-11-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is the most serious nutritional body depletion disorder among infants and young children in developing countries, attributable to inadequate energy and nutrient intake, partly due to high dietary bulk of weaning and infant foods. The gruels fed to children are typically of low nutrient and energy density due to the low flour incorporation rate required for drinking viscosity. The aim of this study was to develop a nutritious product, based on common dry beans and other grains, suitable for supplementary feeding. The optimal processing conditions for desired nutritional and sensory attributes were determined using Response Surface Methodology. For bean processing, soaking for 6, 15, or 24 h, germination for 24 or 48 h, and cooking under pressure for either 10 or 20 min were the independent variables. The processed bean flour's total polyphenol, phytic acid and protein content, the sensory acceptability of the bean-based composite porridge and its protein and starch digestibility were dependent variables. Based on product acceptability, antinutrients and protein content, as well as on protein and starch digestibility, the optimum processing conditions for the bean flour for infant and young child feeding were 24 h of soaking, 48 h of malting, and 19 min of steaming under pressure. These conditions resulted in a product with the highest desirability. The model equations developed can be used for predicting the quality of the bean flour and the bean-based composite porridge. Bean optimally processed and incorporated with grain amaranth and rice flours of a ratio of 40: 30: 30, respectively, resulted into flour with high energy, mineral, and nutrient density of the final porridge. The composite is well adaptable to preparation at rural community level. The use of these locally available grains and feasible processes could make a great contribution to nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. PMID:26788294

  1. History-based route selection for reactive ad hoc routing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Cappetto, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Ad hoc networks rely on cooperation in order to operate, but in a resource constrained environment not all nodes behave altruistically. Selfish nodes preserve their own resources and do not forward packets not in their own self interest. These nodes degrade the performance of the network, but judicious route selection can help maintain performance despite this behavior. Many route selection algorithms place importance on shortness of the route rather than its reliability. We introduce a light-weight route selection algorithm that uses past behavior to judge the quality of a route rather than solely on the length of the route. It draws information from the underlying routing layer at no extra cost and selects routes with a simple algorithm. This technique maintains this data in a small table, which does not place a high cost on memory. History-based route selection's minimalism suits the needs the portable wireless devices and is easy to implement. We implemented our algorithm and tested it in the ns2 environment. Our simulation results show that history-based route selection achieves higher packet delivery and improved stability than its length-based counterpart.

  2. Community-based interventions to prevent fatal overdose from illegal drugs: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Okolie, Chukwudi; Evans, Bridie Angela; John, Ann; Moore, Chris; Russell, Daphne; Snooks, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug overdose is the most frequent cause of death among people who misuse illegal drugs. People who inject these drugs are 14–17 times more likely to die than their non-drug using peers. Various strategies to reduce drug-related deaths have failed to meet target reductions. Research into community-based interventions for preventing drug overdose deaths is promising. This review seeks to identify published studies describing community-based interventions and to evaluate their effectiveness at reducing drug overdose deaths. Methods and analysis We will systematically search key electronic databases using a search strategy which groups terms into four facets: (1) Overdose event, (2) Drug classification, (3) Intervention and (4) Setting. Searches will be limited where possible to international literature published in English between 1998 and 2014. Data will be extracted by two independent reviewers using a predefined table adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. The quality of included studies will be evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. We will conduct a meta-analysis for variables which can be compared across studies, using statistical methods to control for heterogeneity where appropriate. Where clinical or statistical heterogeneity prevents a valid numerical synthesis, we will employ a narrative synthesis to describe community-based interventions, their delivery and use and how effectively they prevent fatal overdoses. Ethics and dissemination We will publish findings from this systematic review in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences. It will be disseminated electronically and in print. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015017833. PMID:26534734

  3. Adaptive Square-Shaped Trajectory-Based Service Location Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Joa-Hyoung; Lee, Heon-Guil

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive square-shaped trajectory (ASST)-based service location method to ensure load scalability in wireless sensor networks. This first establishes a square-shaped trajectory over the nodes that surround a target point computed by the hash function and any user can access it, using the hash. Both the width and the size of the trajectory are dynamically adjustable, depending on the number of queries made to the service information on the trajectory. The number of sensor nodes on the trajectory varies in proportion to the changing trajectory shape, allowing high loads to be distributed around the hot spot area. PMID:22399889

  4. The research on electronic commerce security payment system based on set protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongliang

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, online transactions have become more and more common. In this paper, we firstly introduce the principle and the basic principal and technical foundation of SET, and then we analyze the progress of designing a system in the foundation of the procedure of the electronic business based on SET. On this basis, we design a system of the Payment System for Electronic Business. It will not only take on crucial realism signification for large-scale, medium-sized and mini-type corporations, but also provide guide meaning with programmer and design-developer to realize Electronic Commerce (EC).

  5. An inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Chen, Yongzhi; Fang, Junbin

    2013-01-01

    Security and anonymity are essential to E-payment systems. However, with the increasing computing power, existing E-payment systems will gradually become insecure. In this paper, we propose an inter-bank E-payment system which is based on quantum proxy blind signature. Adopting the techniques of quantum key distribution, one-time pad and quantum proxy blind signature, our quantum E-payment system could protect user's anonymity as the traditional E-payment systems do, and also have unconditional security which the classical E-payment systems cannot provide. Furthermore, compared with the existing quantum E-payment systems, the proposed system could support inter-bank transactions.

  6. Protocol for Atomic Oxygen Testing of Materials in Ground-Based Facilities. No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K.

    1995-01-01

    A second version of standard guidelines is proposed for improving materials testing in ground-based atomic oxygen environments for the purpose of predicting the durability of the tested materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). Accompanying these guidelines are background information and notes about testing. Both the guidelines and the additional information are intended to aid users who wish to evaluate the potential hazard of atomic oxygen in LEO to a candidate space component without actually flying the component in space, and to provide a framework for more consistent atomic oxygen testing in the future.

  7. Tailored Hospital-based Risk reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES) study: qualitative phase protocol

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Hurst, Samantha; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Salako, Babatunde L.; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to develop effective strategies to improve stroke outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where use of evidence-based therapies among patients receiving conventional care is poor. Designs of behavioral interventions to improve stroke care in SSA need to be sensitive to both individual and community factors (including local perceptions and public policies) contributing to the likelihood of compliance with recommended therapeutic goals. This article presents a community-based participatory research protocol that will evaluate systems and processes affecting the continuum of stroke preventive care in a SSA country. Methods/Design Phase 1 of the Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events (THRIVES) study will be implemented from 2013 to 2014 at four different types of hospital settings in Nigeria. Six adult stroke survivor and six stroke caregiver focus groups, comprising ~ 8 participants per group, and lasting 120 minutes each, will be conducted; as well as 22 semi-structured key informant interviews (informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework) with several types of providers and hospital administrators. Purposive and maximum variation sampling will be used to identify and recruit participants from participating hospitals. Transcript data will be analyzed by reviewers in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes using a constructivist variant of the grounded theory methodology, and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders to enhance authenticity and veracity of findings. Discussion Based on the results of THRIVES Phase 1, we intend to develop a culturally-sensitive, system-appropriate, multipronged intervention whose efficacy to boost adherence to evidence-based stroke preventive care will be tested in a future randomized trial (Phase 2). PMID:24526149

  8. Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher. WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. Methods This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude

  9. Increasing error resilience in superconducting qubits based on symmetries and parametric protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, David

    The field of superconducting quantum computing has seen remarkable advances in the past decade, and is getting closer to realizing logical qubits partially stabilized by error correction. However, achieving full scalability necessary to build a universal quantum computer remains a significant challenge which calls for new ideas to make superconducting qubits even more resilient with respect to external noise and fabrication imperfections. Past breakthroughs in this direction include circuit QED enabled measurement and long-range interactions; reliably long coherence times in transmon qubits; and additional coherence improvements by the use of 3D cavities. Here we review previous work on topological protection in superconducting circuit networks, and report on new efforts, in experiment and theory, to increase autonomous error protection of superconducting qubits by harnessing symmetry properties of circuit Hamiltonians and employing parametric processes for robust manipulation and storage of quantum information. This talk is based on joint work with Andrew Houck and David Schuster.

  10. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications. PMID:22777183

  11. Replacing Amalgam Restorations: A Standardized Protocol Based on Analyzing Tissue Physicochemical Modifications.

    PubMed

    Decup, Franck; Epaillard, Alexandre; Chemla, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Almost 60% of operative dentistry is devoted to replacing restorations. When practitioners have to replace an amalgam restoration, they tend to opt for an adhesive restoration, as it is conservative of tooth tissues and mimics the natural appearance of teeth. Based on a literature review, the aim of this article is to determine the best tissue approach when replacing an old amalgam by a new adhesive restoration. After analyzing and understanding tissue alterations due to the amalgam corrosion process, the authors propose an analytical approach to managing the situation. Both tissue orientated and specific mechanical approaches are developed and should be implemented to carry out the optimal clinical procedure and achieve the most conservative and durable treatment. PMID:26767237

  12. Evaluation of EPS extraction protocols from anaerobic sludge for gel-based proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Zorel, J A; Aquino, S F; Sanson, A L; Castro-Borges, W; Silva, S Q

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of anaerobic sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), their characterization is limited to information regarding their chemical classes and molecular size. This work explores the possibility of using proteomic techniques to study the proteins present in this matrix. Thus, this paper compares eight EPS extraction methods regarding extraction yield, protein/carbohydrate ratio, size distribution profile and suitability to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses. Despite the differences found in quantification and size exclusion chromatography assays, the band profile found for all methods was very similar. Considering the band pattern, extraction time and background level, heating method followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation proved to be the most appropriate method for gel-based analyses of anaerobic sludge EPS proteins. PMID:26247751

  13. Protocol for developing the evidence base for a national salt reduction programme for India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Praveen, Deversetty; Woodward, Mark; Maulik, Pallab K; Shivashankar, Roopa; Amarchand, Ritvik; Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Thout, Sudhir Raj; MacGregor, Graham; He, Feng; Reddy, K Srinath; Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The scientific evidence base in support of salt reduction is strong but the data required to translate these insights into reduced population salt intake are mostly absent. The aim of this research project is to develop the evidence base required to formulate and implement a national salt reduction programme for India. Methods and analysis The research will comprise three components: a stakeholder analysis involving government, industry, consumers and civil society organisations; a population survey using an age-stratified and sex-stratified random samples drawn from urban (slum and non-slum) and rural areas of North and South India; and a systematic quantitative evaluation of the nutritional components of processed and restaurant foods. The stakeholder interviews will be analysed using qualitative methods to summarise the main themes and define the broad range of factors influencing the food environment in India. The population survey will estimate the mean daily salt consumption through the collection of 24 h urine samples with concurrent dietary surveys identifying the main sources of dietary sodium/salt. The survey of foods will record the nutritional composition of the chief elements of food supply. The findings from this research will be synthesised and proposals for a national salt reduction strategy for India will be developed in collaboration with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Sydney and the Centre for Chronic Disease Control in New Delhi, and also by the Indian Health Ministry's Screening Committee. The project began fieldwork in February 2014 and will report the main results in 2016. The findings will be targeted primarily at public health policymakers and advocates, but will be disseminated widely through other mechanisms including conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications, as well as to the participating communities. PMID

  14. A PCR based protocol for detecting indel mutations induced by TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan; Zhang, Yaguang; Yao, Shaohua; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing techniques such as the zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effecter nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system Cas9 can induce efficient DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) at the target genomic sequence and result in indel mutations by the error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair system. Several methods including sequence specific endonuclease assay, T7E1 assay and high resolution melting curve assay (HRM) etc have been developed to detect the efficiency of the induced mutations. However, these assays have some limitations in that they either require specific sequences in the target sites or are unable to generate sequencing-ready mutant DNA fragments or unable to distinguish induced mutations from natural nucleotide polymorphism. Here, we developed a simple PCR-based protocol for detecting indel mutations induced by TALEN and Cas9 in zebrafish. We designed 2 pairs of primers for each target locus, with one putative amplicon extending beyond the putative indel site and the other overlapping it. With these primers, we performed a qPCR assay to efficiently detect the frequencies of newly induced mutations, which was accompanied with a T-vector-based colony analysis to generate single-copy mutant fragment clones for subsequent DNA sequencing. Thus, our work has provided a very simple, efficient and fast assay for detecting induced mutations, which we anticipate will be widely used in the area of genome editing. PMID:24901507

  15. Protocol: high throughput silica-based purification of RNA from Arabidopsis seedlings in a 96-well format

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The increasing popularity of systems-based approaches to plant research has resulted in a demand for high throughput (HTP) methods to be developed. RNA extraction from multiple samples in an experiment is a significant bottleneck in performing systems-level genomic studies. Therefore we have established a high throughput method of RNA extraction from Arabidopsis thaliana to facilitate gene expression studies in this widely used plant model. We present optimised manual and automated protocols for the extraction of total RNA from 9-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings in a 96 well plate format using silica membrane-based methodology. Consistent and reproducible yields of high quality RNA are isolated averaging 8.9 μg total RNA per sample (~20 mg plant tissue). The purified RNA is suitable for subsequent qPCR analysis of the expression of over 500 genes in triplicate from each sample. Using the automated procedure, 192 samples (2 × 96 well plates) can easily be fully processed (samples homogenised, RNA purified and quantified) in less than half a day. Additionally we demonstrate that plant samples can be stored in RNAlater at -20°C (but not 4°C) for 10 months prior to extraction with no significant effect on RNA yield or quality. Additionally, disrupted samples can be stored in the lysis buffer at -20°C for at least 6 months prior to completion of the extraction procedure providing a flexible sampling and storage scheme to facilitate complex time series experiments. PMID:22136293

  16. Fluoride varnish for caries prevention: comparisons with other preventive agents and recommendations for a community-based protocol.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Jane A

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews fluoride varnish (FV) literature to develop a community-based protocol for people with special needs or those who are caries susceptible. Safety, personnel and cost issues are discussed and existing NIH, CDC and WHO recommendations are presented. FV studies are assessed with respect to type of FV to use and frequency of application. FV is compared with studies using other caries preventive agents: 0.2% NaF mouthrinse, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel, dental sealants, water fluoridation and chlorhexidine. Because there are few FV studies among special need populations, conclusions are based on available literature and public health principles. If personnel are available, FV use is preferred to APF gel and may be preferable to 0.2% NaF mouthrinse. FV is more effective in optimally fluoridated communities. If many occlusal surfaces are at risk, sealants should be applied. Additional combinations and frequencies of preventive agents should be tested, especially for people with special needs and high caries risk adults. PMID:14965184

  17. A Unified Fault-Tolerance Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul; Gedser, Alfons; Pike, Lee; Maddalon, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Davies and Wakerly show that Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved by a cascade of broadcasts and middle value select functions. We present an extension of the Davies and Wakerly protocol, the unified protocol, and its proof of correctness. We prove that it satisfies validity and agreement properties for communication of exact values. We then introduce bounded communication error into the model. Inexact communication is inherent for clock synchronization protocols. We prove that validity and agreement properties hold for inexact communication, and that exact communication is a special case. As a running example, we illustrate the unified protocol using the SPIDER family of fault-tolerant architectures. In particular we demonstrate that the SPIDER interactive consistency, distributed diagnosis, and clock synchronization protocols are instances of the unified protocol.

  18. Improving practice in community-based settings: a randomized trial of supervision – study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems are not consistently available in public mental health settings. Expanding availability requires workforce training. However, research has demonstrated that training alone is not sufficient for changing provider behavior, suggesting that ongoing intervention-specific supervision or consultation is required. Supervision is notably under-investigated, particularly as provided in public mental health. The degree to which supervision in this setting includes ‘gold standard’ supervision elements from efficacy trials (e.g., session review, model fidelity, outcome monitoring, skill-building) is unknown. The current federally-funded investigation leverages the Washington State Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Initiative to describe usual supervision practices and test the impact of systematic implementation of gold standard supervision strategies on treatment fidelity and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design The study has two phases. We will conduct an initial descriptive study (Phase I) of supervision practices within public mental health in Washington State followed by a randomized controlled trial of gold standard supervision strategies (Phase II), with randomization at the clinician level (i.e., supervisors provide both conditions). Study participants will be 35 supervisors and 130 clinicians in community mental health centers. We will enroll one child per clinician in Phase I (N = 130) and three children per clinician in Phase II (N = 390). We use a multi-level mixed within- and between-subjects longitudinal design. Audio recordings of supervision and therapy sessions will be collected and coded throughout both phases. Child outcome data will be collected at the beginning of treatment and at three and six months into treatment. Discussion This study will provide insight into how supervisors can optimally support clinicians delivering evidence-based treatments. Phase I will

  19. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as "out of body" and "near death experiences," including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  20. Harmonization protocols for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoassays: different approaches based on the consensus mean value.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Ripoli, Andrea; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Plebani, Mario

    2015-02-01

    The lack of interchangeable laboratory results and consensus in current practices has underpinned greater attention to standardization and harmonization projects. In the area of method standardization and harmonization, there is considerable debate about how best to achieve comparability of measurement for immunoassays, and in particular heterogeneous proteins. The term standardization should be used only when comparable results among measurement procedures are based on calibration traceability to the International System of Units (SI unit) using a reference measurement procedure (RMP). Recently, it has been promoted the harmonization of methods for many immunoassays, and in particular for thyreotropin (TSH), as accepted RMPs are not available. In a recent paper published in this journal, a group of well-recognized authors used a complex statistical approach in order to reduce variability between the results observed with the 14 TSH immunoassay methods tested in their study. Here we provide data demonstrating that data from an external quality assessment (EQA) study allow similar results to those obtained using the reported statistical approach. PMID:25241732

  1. Maximum Data Collection Rate Routing Protocol Based on Topology Control for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haifeng; Bai, Di; Gao, Demin; Liu, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    In Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks (R-WSNs), in order to achieve the maximum data collection rate it is critical that sensors operate in very low duty cycles because of the sporadic availability of energy. A sensor has to stay in a dormant state in most of the time in order to recharge the battery and use the energy prudently. In addition, a sensor cannot always conserve energy if a network is able to harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its limited storage capacity. Therefore, energy exploitation and energy saving have to be traded off depending on distinct application scenarios. Since higher data collection rate or maximum data collection rate is the ultimate objective for sensor deployment, surplus energy of a node can be utilized for strengthening packet delivery efficiency and improving the data generating rate in R-WSNs. In this work, we propose an algorithm based on data aggregation to compute an upper data generation rate by maximizing it as an optimization problem for a network, which is formulated as a linear programming problem. Subsequently, a dual problem by introducing Lagrange multipliers is constructed, and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. At the same time, a topology controlling scheme is adopted for improving the network's performance. Through extensive simulation and experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient at maximizing the data collection rate in rechargeable wireless sensor networks. PMID:27483282

  2. Designing Communication Protocols for a Computer-Mediated Laboratory for Problem-Based Learning

    PubMed Central

    Koschmann, T.D.; Feltovich, P.J.; Myers, A.; Barrows, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the design criteria for a facility to support problem-based tutorials, known as the Computer-Mediated Tutorial Laboratory (CMTL). In the CMTL, a networked workstation will be provided for the tutor and each of the students. The tutor's workstation will be connected to a projection system, permitting the entire group to view the tutor's screen. The software used in the CMTL will have three components: a Patient Simulation Stack (PSS), the group/student Tutorial Stacks (TSs) and the network communication interface. The PSS represents a clinical problem; it is designed to realistically simulate an encounter with an actual patient. The TSs serve as a personalized record of what transpired in the tutorial session. Each student will maintain a private TS and the tutor will maintain a shared TS, viewable by all members of the group. The network communication interface will permit the participants in the tutorial to direct electronic messages to each other. The communication interface has two components: the client software available on the student's and tutor's workstation and the server software. The CMTL client software consists of two applications-one for sending messages and one for viewing the stream of incoming messages. Research is planned to investigate the effects of computer-mediation on the tutorial process.

  3. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as “out of body” and “near death experiences,” including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  4. Rational Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  5. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Procrastination: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rozental, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    period, albeit without therapist contact. Results The current study is believed to result in three important findings. First, a CBT intervention is assumed to be beneficial for people suffering from problems caused by procrastination. Second, the degree of therapist contact will have a positive effect on treatment outcome as procrastination can be partially explained as a self-regulatory failure. Third, an Internet based CBT intervention is presumed to be an effective way to administer treatment for procrastination, which is considered highly important, as the availability of adequate care is limited. The current study is therefore believed to render significant knowledge on the treatment of procrastination, as well as providing support for the use of Internet based CBT for difficulties due to delayed tasks and commitments. Conclusions To our knowledge, the current study is the first clinical trial to examine the effects of CBT for procrastination, and is assumed to render significant knowledge on the treatment of procrastination, as well as investigating whether it can be delivered via the Internet. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01842945; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01842945 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KSmaXewC). PMID:24220277

  6. Healthcare professionals' intentions to use wiki-based reminders to promote best practices in trauma care: a survey protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Healthcare professionals are increasingly using wikis as collaborative tools to create, synthesize, share, and disseminate knowledge in healthcare. Because wikis depend on collaborators to keep content up-to-date, healthcare professionals who use wikis must adopt behaviors that foster this collaboration. This protocol describes the methods we will use to develop and test the metrological qualities of a questionnaire that will assess healthcare professionals' intentions and the determinants of those intentions to use wiki-based reminders that promote best practices in trauma care. Methods Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we will conduct semi-structured interviews of healthcare professionals to identify salient beliefs that may affect their future use of wikis. These beliefs will inform our questionnaire on intended behavior. A test-retest of the survey will verify the questionnaire's stability over time. We will interview 50 healthcare professionals (25 physicians and 25 allied health professionals) working in the emergency departments of three trauma centers in Quebec, Canada. We will analyze the content of the interviews and construct and pilot a questionnaire. We will then test the revised questionnaire with 30 healthcare professionals (15 physicians and 15 allied health professionals) and retest it two weeks later. We will assess the internal consistency of the questionnaire constructs using Cronbach's alpha coefficients and determine their stability with the intra-class correlation (ICC). Discussion To our knowledge, this study will be the first to develop and test a theory-based survey that measures healthcare professionals' intentions to use a wiki-based intervention. This study will identify professionals' salient beliefs qualitatively and will quantify the psychometric capacities of the questionnaire based on those beliefs. PMID:20540775

  7. Optimising text messaging to improve adherence to web-based smoking cessation treatment: a randomised control trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Jacobs, Megan A; Cohn, Amy M; Cha, Sarah; Abroms, Lorien C; Papandonatos, George D; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Millions of smokers use the Internet for smoking cessation assistance each year; however, most smokers engage minimally with even the best designed websites. The ubiquity of mobile devices and their effectiveness in promoting adherence in other areas of health behaviour change make them a promising tool to address adherence in Internet smoking cessation interventions. Text messaging is used by most adults, and messages can proactively encourage use of a web-based intervention. Text messaging can also be integrated with an Internet intervention to facilitate the use of core Internet intervention components. Methods and analysis We identified four aspects of a text message intervention that may enhance its effectiveness in promoting adherence to a web-based smoking cessation programme: personalisation, integration, dynamic tailoring and message intensity. Phase I will use a two-level full factorial design to test the impact of these four experimental features on adherence to a web-based intervention. The primary outcome is a composite metric of adherence that incorporates general utilisation metrics (eg, logins, page views) and specific feature utilisation shown to predict abstinence. Participants will be N=860 adult smokers who register on an established Internet cessation programme and enrol in its text message programme. Phase II will be a two-arm randomised trial to compare the efficacy of the web-based cessation programme alone and in conjunction with the optimised text messaging intervention on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Phase II participants will be N=600 adult smokers who register to use an established Internet cessation programme and enrol in text messaging. Secondary analyses will explore whether adherence mediates the effect of treatment condition on outcome. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Chesapeake IRB. We will disseminate study results through peer-reviewed manuscripts and conference

  8. Study protocol: home-based telehealth stroke care: a randomized trial for veterans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stroke is one of the most disabling and costly impairments of adulthood in the United States. Stroke patients clearly benefit from intensive inpatient care, but due to the high cost, there is considerable interest in implementing interventions to reduce hospital lengths of stay. Early discharge rehabilitation programs require coordinated, well-organized home-based rehabilitation, yet lack of sufficient information about the home setting impedes successful rehabilitation. This trial examines a multifaceted telerehabilitation (TR) intervention that uses telehealth technology to simultaneously evaluate the home environment, assess the patient's mobility skills, initiate rehabilitative treatment, prescribe exercises tailored for stroke patients and provide periodic goal oriented reassessment, feedback and encouragement. Methods We describe an ongoing Phase II, 2-arm, 3-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) that determines primarily the effect of TR on physical function and secondarily the effect on disability, falls-related self-efficacy, and patient satisfaction. Fifty participants with a diagnosis of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) TR; or (b) Usual Care. The TR intervention uses a combination of three videotaped visits and five telephone calls, an in-home messaging device, and additional telephonic contact as needed over a 3-month study period, to provide a progressive rehabilitative intervention with a treatment goal of safe functional mobility of the individual within an accessible home environment. Dependent variables will be measured at baseline, 3-, and 6-months and analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model across all time points. Discussion For patients recovering from stroke, the use of TR to provide home assessments and follow-up training in prescribed equipment has the potential to effectively supplement existing home health services, assist transition to home and increase efficiency. This may

  9. A theory-based online health behavior intervention for new university students: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Too few young people engage in behaviors that reduce the risk of morbidity and premature mortality, such as eating healthily, being physically active, drinking sensibly and not smoking. The present research developed an online intervention to target these health behaviors during the significant life transition from school to university when health beliefs and behaviors may be more open to change. This paper describes the intervention and the proposed approach to its evaluation. Methods/design Potential participants (all undergraduates about to enter the University of Sheffield) will be emailed an online questionnaire two weeks before starting university. On completion of the questionnaire, respondents will be randomly assigned to receive either an online health behavior intervention (U@Uni) or a control condition. The intervention employs three behavior change techniques (self-affirmation, theory-based messages, and implementation intentions) to target four heath behaviors (alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking). Subsequently, all participants will be emailed follow-up questionnaires approximately one and six months after starting university. The questionnaires will assess the four targeted behaviors and associated cognitions (e.g., intentions, self-efficacy) as well as socio-demographic variables, health status, Body Mass Index (BMI), health service use and recreational drug use. A sub-sample of participants will provide a sample of hair to assess changes in biochemical markers of health behavior. A health economic evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be conducted. Discussion The findings will provide evidence on the effectiveness of online interventions as well as the potential for intervening during significant life transitions, such as the move from school to university. If successful, the intervention could be employed at other universities to promote healthy behaviors among new

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma: From clinical practice to evidence-based treatment protocols

    PubMed Central

    Galun, Danijel; Basaric, Dragan; Zuvela, Marinko; Bulajic, Predrag; Bogdanovic, Aleksandar; Bidzic, Nemanja; Milicevic, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major malignant diseases in many healthcare systems. The growing number of new cases diagnosed each year is nearly equal to the number of deaths from this cancer. Worldwide, HCC is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, as it is the fifth most common cancer and the third most important cause of cancer related death in men. Among various risk factors the two are prevailing: viral hepatitis, namely chronic hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor contributing to the rising incidence of HCC. The epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, not only in the United States but also in Asia, tend to become the leading cause of the long-term rise in the HCC incidence. Today, the diagnosis of HCC is established within the national surveillance programs in developed countries while the diagnosis of symptomatic, advanced stage disease still remains the characteristic of underdeveloped countries. Although many different staging systems have been developed and evaluated the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer staging system has emerged as the most useful to guide HCC treatment. Treatment allocation should be decided by a multidisciplinary board involving hepatologists, pathologists, radiologists, liver surgeons and oncologists guided by personalized -based medicine. This approach is important not only to balance between different oncologic treatments strategies but also due to the complexity of the disease (chronic liver disease and the cancer) and due to the large number of potentially efficient therapies. Careful patient selection and a tailored treatment modality for every patient, either potentially curative (surgical treatment and tumor ablation) or palliative (transarterial therapy, radioembolization and medical treatment, i.e., sorafenib) is mandatory to achieve the best treatment outcome. PMID:26380652

  11. A Stakeholder-Based System Dynamics Model of Return-to-Work: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Fish, Jon; Jeffries, Susan; Hettinger, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Returning to work following a job-related injury or illness can be a complex process, influenced by a range of interrelated personal, psychosocial, and organizational components. System dynamics modelling (SDM) takes a sociotechnical systems perspective to view return-to-work (RTW) as a system made up of multiple feedback relationships between influential components. Design and Methods To build the RTW SDM, a mixed-method approach will be used. The first stage, that has already been completed, involved creating a baseline model using key informant interviews. Second, in two manufacturing companies, stakeholder-based models will be developed through interviews and focus groups with senior management, frontline workers, and frontline supervisors. Participants will be asked about the RTW process in general and more targeted questions regarding influential components. Participants will also be led through a reference mode exercise where they will be asked to estimate the direction, shape and magnitude of relationships between influential components. Data will be entered into the software program Vensim that provides a platform for visualizing system-structure and simulating the effects of adapting components. Finally, preliminary model validity testing will be conducted to provide insights on model generalizability and sensitivity. Expected Impact of the study for Public Health The proposed methodology will create a SDM of the RTW process using feedback relationships of influential components. It will also provide an important simulation tool to understand system behaviour that underlies complex RTW cases, and examine anticipated and unanticipated consequences of disability management policies. Significance for public health While the incidence of occupational injuries and illnesses has declined over the past two decades, the proportion resulting in sickness absence has actually increased. Implementing strategies to address sickness absences and promote

  12. MTP: An atomic multicast transport protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freier, Alan O.; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Multicast transport protocol (MTP); a reliable transport protocol that utilizes the multicast strategy of applicable lower layer network architectures is described. In addition to transporting data reliably and efficiently, MTP provides the client synchronization necessary for agreement on the receipt of data and the joining of the group of communicants.

  13. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  14. Monte Carlo based protocol for cell survival and tumour control probability in BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sung-Joon

    1999-02-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the theoretical cell survival probability (nominally, the cell survival fraction) is developed to evaluate preclinical treatment conditions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A treatment condition is characterized by the neutron beam spectra, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron carrier drug (boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boron sulfhydryl hydride (BSH)). The cell survival probability defined from Poisson statistics is expressed with the cell-killing yield, the (n, ) reaction density, and the tolerable neutron fluence. The radiation transport calculation from the neutron source to tumours is carried out using Monte Carlo methods: (i) reactor-based BNCT facility modelling to yield the neutron beam library at an irradiation port; (ii) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose (10.5 Gy-Eq); (iii) calculation of the (n, ) reaction density in tumours. A shallow surface tumour could be effectively treated by single exposure producing an average cell survival probability of - for probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs, while a deep tumour will require bilateral exposure to achieve comparable cell kills at depth. With very pure epithermal beams eliminating thermal, low epithermal and fast neutrons, the cell survival can be decreased by factors of 2-10 compared with

  15. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explored fully as a medium for improving sun-protective behaviour in adults. This paper presents the study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an online intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) that aims to improve sun safety among Australian adults. Methods/Design Approximately 420 adults aged 18 and over and predominantly from Queensland, Australia, will be recruited and randomised to the intervention (n = 200), information only (n = 200) or the control group (n = 20). The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive attitudes and beliefs toward sun-protective behaviour, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over sun protection. The intervention will be delivered online over a single session. Data will be collected immediately prior to the intervention (Time 1), immediately following the intervention (Time 1b), and one week (Time 2) and one month (Time 3) post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun-protective behaviour. Secondary outcomes are the participants’ attitudes toward sun protection, perceptions of normative support for sun protection (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, personal norms and image norms) and perceptions of control/self-efficacy toward sun protection. Discussion The study will contribute to an understanding of the effectiveness of a TPB-based online intervention to improve Australian adults’ sun

  16. A web service system supporting three-dimensional post-processing of medical images based on WADO protocol.

    PubMed

    He, Longjun; Xu, Lang; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional post-processing operations on the volume data generated by a series of CT or MR images had important significance on image reading and diagnosis. As a part of the DIOCM standard, WADO service defined how to access DICOM objects on the Web, but it didn't involve three-dimensional post-processing operations on the series images. This paper analyzed the technical features of three-dimensional post-processing operations on the volume data, and then designed and implemented a web service system for three-dimensional post-processing operations of medical images based on the WADO protocol. In order to improve the scalability of the proposed system, the business tasks and calculation operations were separated into two modules. As results, it was proved that the proposed system could support three-dimensional post-processing service of medical images for multiple clients at the same moment, which met the demand of accessing three-dimensional post-processing operations on the volume data on the web. PMID:25628160

  17. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621

  18. Optimisation of recovery protocols for double-base smokeless powder residues analysed by total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Sauzier, Georgina; Bors, Dana; Ash, Jordan; Goodpaster, John V; Lewis, Simon W

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of explosive events requires appropriate evidential protocols to recover and preserve residues from the scene. In this study, a central composite design was used to determine statistically validated optimum recovery parameters for double-base smokeless powder residues on steel, analysed using total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS. It was found that maximum recovery was obtained using isopropanol-wetted swabs stored under refrigerated conditions, then extracted for 15min into acetone on the same day as sample collection. These parameters were applied to the recovery of post-blast residues deposited on steel witness surfaces following a PVC pipe bomb detonation, resulting in detection of all target components across the majority of samples. Higher overall recoveries were obtained from plates facing the sides of the device, consistent with the point of first failure occurring in the pipe body as observed in previous studies. The methodology employed here may be readily applied to a variety of other explosive compounds, and thus assist in establishing 'best practice' procedures for explosive investigations. PMID:27343617

  19. [Development of telepathology systems between different types of terminals based on the standard for image collaboration command protocol].

    PubMed

    Tofukuji, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Shuji; Suzuki, Akitoshi; Saito, Makoto; Hara, Shigeji; Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Shiraishi, Taizo; Ooshiro, Mariko; Sawai, Takashi; Kaihara, Shigekoto

    2003-01-01

    In Japan telepathology systems have been developed in medical or pathological environment such as a shortage and an uneven distribution of pathologists. More than 100 telepathology terminals are working mainly for intraoperative quick diagnosis. They cannot communicate with different types each other. In March 2000 the Medical Information System Development Center(MEDIS-DC) successfully demonstrated the interconnection between different types of telepathology terminals based on the Standard for Image Collaboration Command Protocol (SICCP). Nikon, NTTdata and Olympus had joined the development. In February 2002 MEDIS-DC examined these systems for pathological consultations in the fields of Okinawa-Kyoto, Kyoto-Mie and Mie-Okinawa. These successful examinations let us know that telepathology systems need new observation methodologies for telecytology and teleconsultation in addition to the flow for intraoperative quick diagnosis, new GUI guidelines for telepathology terminal design and, education and support for users of their smooth operation. Outcomes of MEDIS-DC activities encourageed us to challenge the next generation telepathology. We found some new trends in telepathology or pathology informatics such as virtual slide technologies and the internet applications in US and Europe. In order to keep Japanese priority, MEDIS-DC telepathology comittee has started investigations to construct a strategy for development of Japanese next generation telepathology. PMID:12832859

  20. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.