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Sample records for agri-environmental policy measures

  1. Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  2. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  3. Dynamical Aspects in the Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbuch, Gérard; Boudjema, GeEacuterRard

    We describe a simple model of the dynamics of adoption of agri-environmental measures by farmers in Europe. Farmers choices are based on their evaluation of the economic advantages of taking environmental premiums in exchange for environment friendly practices, plus imitation terms taking into account the information that they get from neighbors which have already made their own choice. We show that under a large set of social network topologies and hypotheses on distribution of farmers characteristics, the outcome of the social processes, namely premium uptaken rate, depends upon local characteristics of farmers and their network. It is not directly related to average characteristics. Some conclusions and recommendations about policy implementation can then be driven.

  4. Co-Construction of Agency and Environmental Management. The Case of Agri-Environmental Policy Implementation at Finnish Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljonen, Minna

    2006-01-01

    One of the main challenges of European environmental policies is to recruit local-level actors to fulfill set targets. This article explores how targets of European agri-environmental policy have been achieved in Finland. It also analyses how implementation practices produce conditions for agri-environmental management and how policy success-or…

  5. Co-Construction of Agency and Environmental Management. The Case of Agri-Environmental Policy Implementation at Finnish Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljonen, Minna

    2006-01-01

    One of the main challenges of European environmental policies is to recruit local-level actors to fulfill set targets. This article explores how targets of European agri-environmental policy have been achieved in Finland. It also analyses how implementation practices produce conditions for agri-environmental management and how policy success-or…

  6. Spatial targeting of agri-environmental policy using bilevel evolutionary optimization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we describe the optimal designation of agri-environmental policy as a bilevel optimization problem and propose an integrated solution method using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The problem is characterized by a single leader, the agency, that establishes a policy with the goal of optimiz...

  7. The role of multi-target policy instruments in agri-environmental policy mixes.

    PubMed

    Schader, Christian; Lampkin, Nicholas; Muller, Adrian; Stolze, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The Tinbergen Rule has been used to criticise multi-target policy instruments for being inefficient. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of multi-target policy instruments using the case of agri-environmental policy. Employing an analytical linear optimisation model, this paper demonstrates that there is no general contradiction between multi-target policy instruments and the Tinbergen Rule, if multi-target policy instruments are embedded in a policy-mix with a sufficient number of targeted instruments. We show that the relation between cost-effectiveness of the instruments, related to all policy targets, is the key determinant for an economically sound choice of policy instruments. If economies of scope with respect to achieving policy targets are realised, a higher cost-effectiveness of multi-target policy instruments can be achieved. Using the example of organic farming support policy, we discuss several reasons why economies of scope could be realised by multi-target agri-environmental policy instruments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design rules for successful governmental payments for ecosystem services: Taking agri-environmental measures in Germany as an example.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Claas; Reutter, Michaela; Matzdorf, Bettina; Sattler, Claudia; Schomers, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to financial environmental policy instruments that have played important roles in solving agri-environmental problems throughout the world, particularly in the European Union and the United States. The ample and increasing literature on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and agri-environmental measures (AEMs), generally understood as governmental PES, shows that certain single design rules may have an impact on the success of a particular measure. Based on this research, we focused on the interplay of several design rules and conducted a comparative analysis of AEMs' institutional arrangements by examining 49 German cases. We analyzed the effects of the design rules and certain rule combinations on the success of AEMs. Compliance and noncompliance with the hypothesized design rules and the success of the AEMs were surveyed by questioning the responsible agricultural administration and the AEMs' mid-term evaluators. The different rules were evaluated in regard to their necessity and sufficiency for success using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Our results show that combinations of certain design rules such as environmental goal targeting and area targeting conditioned the success of the AEMs. Hence, we generalize design principles for AEMs and discuss implications for the general advancement of ecosystem services and the PES approach in agri-environmental policies. Moreover, we highlight the relevance of the results for governmental PES program research and design worldwide.

  9. Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures by Organic Farmers: The Role of Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay Gailhard, Ilkay; Bavorová, Miroslava; Pirscher, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of interpersonal communication on the adoption of agri-environmental measures (AEM) by organic farmers in Germany. Methodology: The study used the logit model to predict the probability of adoption behaviour, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) was conducted to analyse the question of…

  10. Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures by Organic Farmers: The Role of Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay Gailhard, Ilkay; Bavorová, Miroslava; Pirscher, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of interpersonal communication on the adoption of agri-environmental measures (AEM) by organic farmers in Germany. Methodology: The study used the logit model to predict the probability of adoption behaviour, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) was conducted to analyse the question of…

  11. Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

    2014-01-15

    Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    PubMed

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of network bridging organisations in compensation payments for agri-environmental services under the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Polard, Audrey; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Compensation payments to farmers for the provision of agri-environmental services are a well-established policy scheme under the EU Common Agricultural Policy. However, in spite of the success in most EU countries in the uptake of the programme by farmers, the impact of the scheme on the long term commitment of farmers to change their practices remains poorly documented. To explore this issue, this paper presents the results of structured field interviews and a quantitative survey in the Walloon Region of Belgium. The main finding of this study is that farmers who have periodic contacts with network bridging organisations that foster cooperation and social learning in the agri-environmental landscapes show a higher commitment to change. This effect is observed both for farmers with high and low concern for biodiversity depletion. Support for network bridging organisations is foreseen under the EU Leader programme and the EU regulation 1306/2013, which could open-up interesting opportunities for enhancing the effectiveness of the current payment scheme for agri-environmental services.

  14. Studies on Agri-environmental Measures: A Survey of the Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthes, Sandra; Matzdorf, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Agri-environmental measures (AEM) are incentive-based instruments in the European Union (EU) that provide payments to farmers for voluntary environmental commitments related to preserving and enhancing the environment and maintaining the cultural landscape. We review the AEM literature and provide an overview of important research topics, major research results and future challenges as discussed in the available literature concerning these measures. This review contributes to the existing literature by attempting to equally consider ecological and economic perspectives. The reviewed articles are analyzed regarding their regional focus, topics and methods. The analytical section of the article seeks to discuss commonly asked questions about AEM on the basis of results from reviewed studies. The vast amount of available literature provides valuable insights into specific cases and reveals a complex picture with few general conclusions. The existing research is usually either biased toward ecological or economic perspectives and fails to provide a holistic picture of the problems and challenges within agri-environmental programming (e.g., multiple measures, multiple target areas, legal aspects, financial constraints, transaction costs). Most empirical studies provide detailed insights into selected individual measures but are incapable of providing results at a level relevant to decision-making, as they neglect the role of farmers and the available AEM budget. Predominantly economic approaches often only consider rough assumptions of ecological and economic processes and are also not suitable for decision-making. Decision-support tools that build on these disciplinary results and simultaneously consider scheme factors and environmental conditions at high spatial resolution for application by the responsible authorities are rare and require further research.

  15. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned.

  16. Towards a planning support system for environmental management and agri-environmental measures--the Colorfields study.

    PubMed

    Paar, Philip; Röhricht, Wieland; Schuler, Johannes

    2008-11-01

    The authors present the beginnings of a planning support system (PSS) for agri-environmental measures exemplified by a virtual implementation of Colorfields and blooming strips on model farms, based on real-world data. This paper starts with an introduction to the Colorfields, a concept for transdisciplinary and sustainable landscape design of set-aside land. Colorfields comprise of blooming strips of flowering annual or biennial plants, which are designed and drilled in pattern on fallow land creating Land Art. The temporary scenic arrangements of the Colorfields combine the advantages of ecological strips, e.g. providing habitats for insects (especially bees), improving soil fertility through the cultivation of intercrops, with improvements of the social recognition of farmers as producers of pleasant landscapes instead of monoculture fields. The prototype of the PSS uses two software tools of different scientific origin, the bio-economic modeling system MODAM and the landscape visualization system Lenné3D, which are linked based on geo-data. The resulting system helps to assess the economic effects and visualizes the effects of the specific landuse patterns under different scenarios. The economic assessment of blooming strips on arable land and of one Colorfield on fallow land shows that these measures prove to be profitable from an economic viewpoint assuming the current area payments for the obligatory European Union set-aside program. Furthermore, the visualizations enable the design to be tested virtually by exploring the resultant scenery. They provide artists, planners and stakeholders including farmers with a tool to virtually wander through landscape scenarios supporting a collaborative design and a shared vision for the community. The results of the two model farms and previous case studies for Colorfields demonstrate how current policy conditions could be used for the improvement of environmental and scenic qualities. Furthermore, the ability of the

  17. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and “Species of European Conservation Concern” [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs. PMID:25165523

  18. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and "Species of European Conservation Concern" [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs.

  19. Measures of the EU Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and their impacts on the visual acceptability of Finnish agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Liisa; Ihalainen, Marjut; Hietala-Koivu, Reija; Kolehmainen, Osmo; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Nousiainen, Ismo; Helenius, Juha

    2002-11-01

    As a member of the European Union, Finland has committed itself to creating an environmental policy for agriculture. The aims of this study were to evaluate visual impacts of the General Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and Supplementary Protection Scheme (SPS) and general attitudes towards some activities in those policies and furthermore to examine the suitability of the method of Alho et al. (2001) for the scenic beauty assessment. The study areas consisted of three original, untreated, and 15 modified rural landscapes representing a variety of different activities. The scenic beauty of the landscapes was evaluated through pairwise comparisons of the responses of 68 people. Furthermore, attitudes towards environmental values, water protection, buffer strips and subsidies to agriculture were obtained. The respondents found the maintained buffer strips more pleasing than unmaintained strips and considered that the quality of watercourses was increased by buffer strips along them. A suitable width for the buffer strip along main ditches, brooks and waterways was regarded, on average, to be wider than the current recommendations. Although the opinions of farmers were basically in line with the existing recommendations, farmers' opininons on the second and third most important effects of buffer strips, an increase in weeds and a decrease in cultivated land, clearly differed from those of the other respondents. Afforestation, lack of building maintenance and abandoned fields were considered to be the most important factors impacting rural landscapes. This study indicates that the Finnish Agri-Environmental Protection Schemes have had positive impacts on the visual quality of landscapes. Attitudes towards other impacts are contradictory. This study also showed the improvement of the Alho et al. (2001) method in these kinds of studies relative to other methods of pairwise comparisons.

  20. Efficacy and efficiency of Agri-environmental payments in impacts of crops' management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, Emanuele; Martella, Angelo; Passeri, Nicolo; Ghini, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Since the 90s, in Europe the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) started to activate measures for improving the sustainability of European agriculture, these measures were systematized in 2000 with the tools of rural development, pursuing a synergistic environmental action trough the agri-environmental payments. Since their definition, those payments were designed to ensure the protection, maintenance and enhancement of natural resources (water, soil, forests), biodiversity (species and habitat), and landscape. In particular initiatives as set aside, afforestation, organic agriculture, integrated pest management, low input and precision agriculture have enriched the agricultural management practices. The aim of this work is to check the trend between agro-environmental subsidies and environmental performance (based on Ecological Indicators and CO2 evaluation) at country level in EU, in order to study the regulatory framework impact in addressing the European cropping system towards sustainability. In particular soils and their land use can storage CO2 as pool and so provide environmental services and, on the other hand the agricultural practices can stimulate the emission and the environmental footprint. Impacts (so called emissions/footprints and storage/environmental services) will be compared with the Agri-environmental Payments for calculating performances due to environmental management practices, supported by political initiatives. Such analysis sustains the European policy makers towards more suitable agricultural policies and in particular it can address national sustainability through agricultural practices.

  1. Creating Culturally Sustainable Agri-Environmental Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Paragahawewa, Upananda Herath

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is emerging from across Europe that contemporary agri-environmental schemes are having only limited, if any, influence on farmers' long-term attitudes towards the environment. In this theoretical paper we argue that these approaches are not "culturally sustainable," i.e. the actions are not becoming embedded within farming…

  2. Creating Culturally Sustainable Agri-Environmental Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Paragahawewa, Upananda Herath

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is emerging from across Europe that contemporary agri-environmental schemes are having only limited, if any, influence on farmers' long-term attitudes towards the environment. In this theoretical paper we argue that these approaches are not "culturally sustainable," i.e. the actions are not becoming embedded within farming…

  3. Agri-environmental collaboratives as bridging organisations in landscape management.

    PubMed

    Prager, Katrin

    2015-09-15

    In recent years, landscape and its management has become a focus of policies and academic conceptualisation. Landscape is understood as a concept of interconnected natural and human systems. Its management must take into account the dynamic interdependencies and diverging interests of various stakeholders at different levels. Bridging organisations can provide an arena for trust-building, conflict resolution, learning and collaboration between relevant stakeholders. This paper draws on two strands of literature - landscape governance and co-management of social-ecological systems - to investigate the contributions of agri-environmental collaboratives (AEC) to sustainable landscape management. Based on data from 41 interviews with key informants and AEC members in Germany and the Netherlands, six fields of contributions were identified: policy implementation and service provision; coordination and mediation; awareness raising and behaviour change; care for 'everyday' landscapes; maintenance and protection of landscapes (including species and habitats); and income generation and economic benefits. Some of the contributions evolve around the specific role of AEC as bridging organisations, but other contributions such as economic benefits emerge beyond this analytical lens. The paper therefore emphasises holistic, bottom up assessment of AEC contributions and argues that governments should support such organisations through i) funding for facilitators and ii) funding for impact monitoring and data management.

  4. Upscaling SOC changes from long term field experiments to regional level - evaluation of agri-environmental measures on their contribution to mitigate climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Sedy, Katrin; Spiegel, Heide; Zethner, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Several agri-environment measures in Austria are presumed to also mitigate climate change. These are mainly measures that lead to an increase or stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable soils, like e.g. organic farming, legumes and cover crops in the crop rotation as well as the application of organic fertilizers. A reduction of mineral fertiliser application may also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study aim to evaluate different agricultural practices on their impact on SOC changes. Data from long term field experiments in Austria with different tillage systems and incorporation rates of crop residues and manure are used to determine effects of agricultural practices on SOC changes. Management factors that compare results from different activities on cropland are calculated and compared with international data. Furthermore these data are used to verify results gained from the application of humus balance model (VDLUFA). For the upscaling of potential SOC changes at regional level (federal states of Austria) data of the IACS - Integrated Administrative Control System are applied in the humus balance model. In order to cover the range of possible SOC changes three different approaches of the humus balance model are introduced and the results will be presented.

  5. The agri-environmental footprint: A method for the identification and classification of peri-urban areas.

    PubMed

    Diti, Irene; Tassinari, Patrizia; Torreggiani, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research is to define and test a methodology for an articulated and systematic analysis of the countryside, which can lend support to urban and landscape planning processes in addition to improving knowledge of the landscape, and for the implementation of agricultural and rural development policies. We have conceived a multi-criteria and multilevel methodology that was integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) and is based on clustering and maximum likelihood classification algorithms. The proposed method focuses on various agri-environmental and socio-economic components, whose synthesis is performed by means of an interpretative key that was developed by the authors, the "Agri-Environmental Footprint", to quantify the impact of rural areas on urban systems. In particular, this paper presents the general framework of the methodology, a set of indexes that are defined for its first-level analyses, and the results of their implementation through a case study in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). The method is based on the IsoCluster technique, which is associated with statistical analyses of criteria, such as the Principal Component Analysis and different data standardisation algorithms (min-max and z-score). The case study has allowed an iterative calibration of both the methodological framework and indexes.

  6. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  7. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  8. Roll-Out Neoliberalism and Hybrid Practices of Regulation in Australian Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockie, Stewart; Higgins, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    In the last 15 years, agri-environmental programmes in Australia have been underpinned by a neoliberal regime of governing which seeks to foster participation and "bottom-up" change at the regional level at the same time as encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurial and improve their productivity and environmental performance without…

  9. Considering the source: commercialisation and trust in agri-environmental information and advisory services in England.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Mills, Jane; Ingram, Julie; Burton, Rob J F; Dwyer, Janet; Blackstock, Kirsty

    2013-03-30

    Recent decades have seen the emergence and increasing prominence of a range of public and private sector providers of agricultural information and advice, owing to state transition away from direct provision of agricultural advisory services. In this paper, we evaluate the establishment of trust in agri-environmental agricultural advisory services in England. Qualitative field research was undertaken with farmers, advisors and promoters engaged in four contrasting agri-environmental advisory initiatives. Findings suggest that longevity and expertise in service provision are more important than the public, private or charitable status of specific advisory service in engendering trust. Consistent funding allocated to well-known agencies or their affiliates is thus more likely influence farmer behaviour in the short term than 'contract' advisory projects awarded to novice service providers. Study participants also put their trust in services that were perceived as 'impartial' or actively 'pro-agriculture'. However, we suggest this 'pro-farmer' orientation can negatively impact on environmental outcomes: advisors may be incentivised to provide information on the easiest access to agri-environmental grants, rather than the actions with the most environmental benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Landscape-moderated biodiversity effects of agri-environmental management: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Batáry, Péter; Báldi, András; Kleijn, David; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Agri-environmental management (AEM) is heralded as being key to biodiversity conservation on farmland, yet results of these schemes have been mixed, making their general utility questionable. We test with meta-analysis whether the benefits of AEM for species richness and abundance of plants and animals are determined by the surrounding landscape context. Across all studies (109 observations for species richness and 114 observations for abundance), AEM significantly increased species richness and their abundance. More specifically, we test the hypothesis that AEM benefits species richness and abundance (i.e. increases the difference between fields with and without AEM) more in simple than in complex landscapes. In croplands, species richness but not abundance was significantly enhanced in simple but not in complex landscapes. In grasslands, AEM effectively enhanced species richness and abundance regardless of landscape context. Pollinators were significantly enhanced by AEM in simple but not in complex landscapes in both croplands and grasslands. Our results highlight that the one-size-fits-all approach of many agri-environmental programmes is not an efficient way of spending the limited funds available for biodiversity conservation on farmland. Therefore, we conclude that AEM should be adapted to landscape structure and the species groups at which they are targeted. PMID:21106585

  11. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times.

  12. Agri-environmental schemes: their role in reversing floral decline in the Brue floodplain, Somerset, UK.

    PubMed

    Swetnam, Ruth D; Owen Mountford, J; Manchester, Sarah J; Broughton, Richard K

    2004-05-01

    This paper explores whether the introduction of an agri-environmental scheme has altered the course of long-term trends in plant species abundance in the Somerset Levels and Moors Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA), UK. A semi-quantitative approach has been taken which integrates disparate but important historical datasets relating to flora and land management with more contemporary digital information. Species datasets from four time periods throughout the 20th century have been collated within a Geographic Information System and analysed with respect to ancillary data relating to elevation, under-drainage and ESA designation. Qualitative reconstruction of the historical ecology of this internationally important area of lowland wet grassland showed that a steady decline in abundance and extent of key components of the flora had already started by 1900. Analysis of historical under-drainage records dating from 1940s to 1980s showed a clear link between the length of time an area had been under-drained and the subsequent diversity of flora recorded in later surveys. In addition, the relative persistence of the rarer components of the wetland flora between surveys in 1980 and 1997 was related to the spatial pattern of under-drainage on the site since 1940. When overall species diversity was compared before and after ESA designation (1980-1997) there was some evidence of an increase in the number of species present and their spatial extent. The historical dataset provided useful contextual information with respect to species trends and allowed the interpretation of contemporary datasets to be placed within a longer timeframe. This pilot study using 18 species gives some evidence that long-established trends in species decline in the Somerset Levels and Moors ESA are starting to be reversed.

  13. Evaluating farm performance using agri-environmental indicators: recent experiences for nitrogen management in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Langeveld, J W A; Verhagen, A; Neeteson, J J; van Keulen, H; Conijn, J G; Schils, R L M; Oenema, J

    2007-02-01

    Intensive agriculture, characterized by high inputs, has serious implications on the environment. Monitoring and evaluation of projects aiming at designing, testing and applying more sustainable practices require instruments to asses agronomic as well as environmental performance. Guidelines for Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) or Good Farming Practice (GFP) define sustainable practices but give limited insight into their environmental performance. Agri-environmental indicators (AEIs) provide information on environmental as well as agronomic performance, which allows them to serve as analytical instruments in research and provide thresholds for legislation purposes. Effective AEIs are quantifiable and scientifically sound, relevant, acceptable to target groups, easy to interpret and cost-effective. This paper discusses application of four AEIs for nitrogen (N) management in three Dutch research projects: 'De Marke', 'Cows and Opportunities' and 'Farming with a future'. 'De Marke' applied Nitrogen Surplus and Groundwater Nitrate Concentration in the design and testing of environmentally sound dairy systems. 'Cows and Opportunities', testing and disseminating dairy systems designed at 'De Marke', mainly applied Nitrogen Surplus, while 'Farming with a future' used Nitrogen Surplus, Groundwater Nitrate Concentration and Residual Mineral Soil Nitrogen to support arable farmers in complying with Dutch legislation (MINAS). Nitrogen Surplus is quantifiable, appealing and easy to interpret, but lacks scientific soundness or a good relationship with groundwater quality. Nitrogen Use Efficiency is sensitive to changes in management, while Residual Mineral Soil Nitrogen is appealing and cheap, but has difficulties in scaling. Groundwater Nitrate Concentration lacks clear rules for sampling, is labor consuming, expensive and mainly used in combination with other indicators. AEIs enhanced improvements in N management by facilitating (i) definition of project goals, (ii) design

  14. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Ralf; Kreins, Peter; Tetzlaff, Björn; Wendland, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We used the interdisciplinary model network AGRUM [corrected] to predict the actual mean nitrate concentration in percolation water at the scale of the Weser river basin (Germany) using an area differentiated (100 m x 100 m) approach. AGRUM [corrected] combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ for assessing the nitrate leaching from the soil. For areas showing predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water above the European Union (EU) groundwater quality standard of 50 mg NO3-N/L, effective agri-environmental reduction measures need to be derived and implemented to improve groundwater and surface water quality by 2015. The effects of already implemented agricultural policy are quantified by a baseline scenario projecting the N-surpluses from agricultural sector to 2015. The AGRUM [corrected] model is used to estimate the effects of this scenario concerning groundwater and surface water pollution by nitrate. From the results of the model analysis the needs for additional measures can be derived in terms of required additional N-surplus reduction and in terms of regional prioritization of measures. Research work will therefore directly support the implementation of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union in the Weser basin.

  15. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A.; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26284618

  16. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes.

  17. Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC): A new device to support high resolution soil and sediment sampling for agri-environmental assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, Lionel; Meusburger, Katrin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Owens, Philip N.; Toloza, Arsenio; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agri-environmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing coring equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. Therefore, the authors have designed an economic, portable, hand-operated surface soil/sediment sampler - the Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC) - which allows extensive control of soil/sediment sampling process and easy recovery of the material collected by using a simple screw-thread extraction system. In comparison with existing sampling tools, the FISC has the following advantages and benefits: (i) it permits sampling of soil/sediment samples at the top of the profile; (ii) it is easy to adjust so as to collect soil/sediment at mm resolution; (iii) it is simple to operate by one single person; (iv) incremental samples can be performed in the field or at the laboratory; (v) it permits precise evaluation of bulk density at millimetre vertical resolution; and (vi) sample size can be tailored to analytical requirements. To illustrate the usefulness of the FISC in sampling soil and sediments for 7Be - a well-known cosmogenic soil tracer and fingerprinting tool - measurements, the sampler was tested in a forested soil located 45 km southeast of Vienna in Austria. The fine resolution increments of 7Be (i.e. 2.5 mm) affects directly the measurement of the 7Be total inventory but above all impacts the shape of the 7Be exponential profile which is needed to assess soil movement rates. The FISC can improve the determination of the depth distributions of other Fallout Radionuclides (FRN) - such as 137Cs, 210Pbexand239+240Pu - which are frequently used for soil erosion and sediment transport studies and/or sediment fingerprinting. Such a device also offers great potential to investigate FRN depth distributions associated with fallout events such as that associated with nuclear emergencies. Furthermore, prior

  18. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, R.; Kreins, P.; Tetzlaff, B.; Wendland, F.

    2009-04-01

    reactive nitrate transport in the soil-groundwater system. Nitrogen transport by groundwater runoff, surface runoff, drainage runoff and natural interflow is considered. In a first step the model is used to analyze the present situation using N surpluses from agriculture for the year 2003. In many region of the Weser basin, particularly in the northwestern part which is characterized by high livestock densities, predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water exceed the EU groundwater quality standard of 50 mg/L by far. In parallel, high nitrogen outputs to surface waters via the different pathways are predicted for these areas. The regional importance of a specific outtake pathway for nitrogen, however, may vary significantly depending on the individual site characteristics. Based on the results of the analysis of the present situation regionally adapted and hence effective agri-environmental reduction measures need to be derived and implemented to improve groundwater and surface water quality by 2015. These measures include both single measures and combination of measures, which will be analyzed with regard to their impact on the regional quality of percolation water and on their impacts on the regional agricultural income. In this context it is very important to distinguish between the effects of measures, which have already been implemented by current agricultural policy and measures which have to be additionally implemented to meet the environmental targets of the EU Water Framework Directive. For this purpose a baseline scenario is developed, which projects the effects of modified general conditions of the agricultural sector on the nitrogen surpluses to the year 2015. In this baseline scenario the effects of the common agricultural policy (CAP) of the EU, already implemented agri-environmental measures of the Federal States and the expected developments of agriculture are considered. According to this scenario the nitrogen surpluses for agricultural areas can

  19. Handling Practicalities in Agricultural Policy Optimization for Water Quality Improvements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bilevel and multi-objective optimization methods are often useful to spatially target agri-environmental policy throughout a watershed. This type of problem is complex and is comprised of a number of practicalities: (i) a large number of decision variables, (ii) at least two inte...

  20. Current adaptation measures and policies

    Treesearch

    Geoff Roberts; John A. Parrotta; Anita. Wreford

    2009-01-01

    As stated in earlier chapters, the possible impacts of climate change on forests and the forest sector are considerable, and many impacts have already been observed. As forest conditions change, there is an inherent need to change management and policy measures to minimise negative impacts and to exploit the benefits derived from climate change. This chapter highlights...

  1. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes

  2. Science and precautionary measures in EMF policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repacholi, Mike

    2010-04-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are generated by many of the technologies we use in everyday life. Since virtually everyone on the planet is subjected to these fields, safety from exposure to them is a matter for government health policy. Most countries limiting exposure to EMF fields have adopted those recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO); the guidelines on exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Yet there are challenges to the use of established science and some call for the incorporation of additional precautionary measures into government policy. This paper discusses the use of science and precautionary measures for policies that protect the health of everyone from exposure to manmade EMF.

  3. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-02-01

    At every turn now, one encounters sharply debated issues and important public policies that rest on chemical information. This is true in practically any arena where public interest intersects with the material world: health care practice and public health; energy; quality of air, water, and food; manufacturing standards and product liability; criminal justice; national and international security, including the defense against terrorism. The scale can be truly global, as in the case of the current debate over climate change, which extends into international efforts to regulate gaseous emissions. Sometimes the relevant chemical measurements and applicable theory are sound and their scope is appropriate to the policy; often they are inadequate and a policy or debate overreaches the analytical capability needed to support it. In the decades ahead, the issues with us today will become even more pressing and will drive a still greater reliance on analytical chemistry. This presentation will have four parts covering (a) illustrations of the impact of analytical chemistry on public debate and public policy, including instances where analytical capabilities actually gave rise to new issues and policies, (b) the manner in which chemical information is handled and understood in public debates, (c) areas of analytical chemistry that will be critical to sound public policy in the future, and (d) implications for the education of leaders and general citizens of modern societies.

  4. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of analytical science in the formulation of public policy is described. This includes the ability to resolve atomic composition in two and three dimensions on the micrometer scale altering the means for defining intellectual property, medical diagnostics built on analytical measurements repeatedly raising international alarm over…

  5. The harmonised data model for assessing Land Parcel Identification Systems compliance with requirements of direct aid and agri-environmental schemes of the CAP.

    PubMed

    Sagris, Valentina; Wojda, Piotr; Milenov, Pavel; Devos, Wim

    2013-03-30

    The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers are administered through dedicated information systems, a part of which is the GIS-based Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). The requirement to map and record land eligible for payments has led to a situation where the agricultural administrations have acquired a large amount of geographic data. As the geospatial community of data producers, custodians and users has grown during the last decades, so has the need to assess the quality and consistency of the LPIS towards the EU regulations on the CAP as well as for cross compliance with environmental legislation. In view of this, a LPIS Conceptual Model (LCM) is presented in this paper in order to address harmonisation and data quality needs. The ISO 19100 series standards on geoinformatics were used for LCM development, including an UML modelling approach and the handling of the quality of geographical information. This paper describes the core elements of the LCM and their integration with data supporting management of agri-environment schemes. Later, the paper shows how the LCM is used for conformity and quality checks of the member states' LPIS system; an Abstract Test Suite (ATS) for mapping the LCM model against existing system implementations was developed and tested in collaboration with several member states.

  6. Integrated landscape planning and remuneration of agri-environmental services. Results of a case study in the Fuhrberg region of Germany.

    PubMed

    V Haaren, Christina; Bathke, Manfred

    2008-11-01

    Until now, existing remuneration of environmental services has not sufficiently supported the goals of spending money more effectively on the environment and of motivating farmers. Only a small share of the budgets for agriculture in the EU, as well as in US and other countries, is available for buying environmental goods and services beyond the level of good farming practice (GFP). This combined with the insufficient targeting of compensation payments to areas where special measures are needed leads to an unsatisfactorily low impact of agri-environment measures compared to other driving forces that stimulate the intensification of farming. The goal of this paper is to propose a management concept that enhances the ecological and cost efficiency of agri-environment measures. Components of the concept are a comprehensive environmental information base with prioritised goals and targets (available in Germany from landscape planning) and new remuneration models, which complement conventional compensation payments that are based upon predetermined measures and cost. Comprehensive landscape planning locates and prioritises areas which require environmental action. It contains the information that authorities need to prioritise funding for environmental services and direct measures to sites which need environmental services beyond the level of GFP. Also appropriate remuneration models, which can enhance the cost efficiency of public spending and the motivation of the farmers, can be applied on the base of landscape planning. Testing of the planning methodology and of one of the remuneration models (success-oriented remuneration) in a case study area ("Fuhrberger Feld" north of Hanover, Germany) demonstrated the usability of the concept and led to proposals for future development of the methodology and its application in combination with other approaches.

  7. Conservation policy and the measurement of forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Joseph O.; Noojipady, Praveen; Song, Xiao-Peng; Feng, Min; Song, Dan-Xia; Kim, Do-Hyung; Anand, Anupam; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Pimm, Stuart L.; Townshend, John R.

    2016-02-01

    Deforestation is a major driver of climate change and the major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet the essential baseline for monitoring forest cover--the global area of forests--remains uncertain despite rapid technological advances and international consensus on conserving target extents of ecosystems. Previous satellite-based estimates of global forest area range from 32.1 × 106 km2 to 41.4 × 106 km2. Here, we show that the major reason underlying this discrepancy is ambiguity in the term `forest’. Each of the >800 official definitions that are capable of satellite measurement relies on a criterion of percentage tree cover. This criterion may range from >10% to >30% cover under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Applying the range to the first global, high-resolution map of percentage tree cover reveals a discrepancy of 19.3 × 106 km2, some 13% of Earth’s land area. The discrepancy within the tropics alone involves a difference of 45.2 Gt C of biomass, valued at US$1 trillion. To more effectively link science and policy to ecosystems, we must now refine forest monitoring, reporting and verification to focus on ecological measurements that are more directly relevant to ecosystem function, to biomass and carbon, and to climate and biodiversity.

  8. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater based on a coupled agroeconomic - hydro(geo)logic model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, F.

    2010-12-01

    The fundamental objectives of the European Union-Water Framework Directive and the EU Groundwater Directive are to attain a good status of water and groundwater resources in the member states of the EU by 2015. For river basins, whose good status cannot be guaranteed by 2015, catchment wide operational plans and measurement programs have to be drafted and implemented until 2009. In the river basin district Weser, Germany, which comprises a catchment area of ca. 49.000 km2, the achievement of the good status is unclear, or rather unlikely for 63% of the groundwater bodies. Inputs from diffuse sources and most of all nitrate losses from agriculturally used land have been identified as the main reasons for exceeding the groundwater threshold value for nitrate (50 mg/l) and for failing the good qualitative status of groundwater. The achievement of good qualitative status of groundwater bodies entails a particular challenge as the complex ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological and agro-economic relationships have to be considered simultaneously. We used an interdisciplinary model network to predict the nitrogen intakes into groundwater at the regional scale using an area differentiated approach. The model system combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses from agriculture and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ/WEKU for describing the reactive nitrate transport in the soil-groundwater system. In a first step the model is used to analyze the present situation using N surpluses from agriculture for the year 2003. In many region of the Weser basin, particularly in the northwestern part which is characterized by high livestock densities, predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water exceed the EU groundwater quality standard of 50 mg/L by far. In a second step the temporal and spatial impacts of the common agricultural policy (CAP) of the EU, already implemented agri-environmental measures of the Federal States and the expected

  9. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  10. Measuring Compliance with Tobacco-Free Campus Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallin, Amanda; Murrey, Megan; Johnson, Andrew O.; Riker, Carol A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose is to describe psychometric testing and feasibility of the Tobacco-Free Compliance Assessment Tool (TF-CAT) to measure tobacco-free policy compliance at a public university and medical center. The aims are to (1) investigate concurrent validity by comparing the number of cigarette butts in areas covered by the policy with…

  11. Measuring Compliance with Tobacco-Free Campus Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallin, Amanda; Murrey, Megan; Johnson, Andrew O.; Riker, Carol A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose is to describe psychometric testing and feasibility of the Tobacco-Free Compliance Assessment Tool (TF-CAT) to measure tobacco-free policy compliance at a public university and medical center. The aims are to (1) investigate concurrent validity by comparing the number of cigarette butts in areas covered by the policy with…

  12. The alcohol policy environment and policy subgroups as predictors of binge drinking measures among US adults.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, Toben F; Heeren, Timothy; Oussayef, Nadia; Naimi, Timothy S

    2015-04-01

    We examined the relationships of the state-level alcohol policy environment and policy subgroups with individual-level binge drinking measures. We used generalized estimating equations regression models to relate the alcohol policy environment based on data from 29 policies in US states from 2004 to 2009 to 3 binge drinking measures in adults from the 2005 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. A 10 percentage point higher alcohol policy environment score, which reflected increased policy effectiveness and implementation, was associated with an 8% lower adjusted odds of binge drinking and binge drinking 5 or more times, and a 10% lower adjusted odds of consuming 10 or more drinks. Policies that targeted the general population rather than the underage population, alcohol consumption rather than impaired driving, and raising the price or reducing the availability of alcohol had the strongest independent associations with reduced binge drinking. Alcohol taxes and outlet density accounted for approximately half of the effect magnitude observed for all policies. A small number of policies that raised alcohol prices and reduced its availability appeared to affect binge drinking.

  13. The Alcohol Policy Environment and Policy Subgroups as Predictors of Binge Drinking Measures Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, Toben F.; Heeren, Timothy; Oussayef, Nadia; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships of the state-level alcohol policy environment and policy subgroups with individual-level binge drinking measures. Methods. We used generalized estimating equations regression models to relate the alcohol policy environment based on data from 29 policies in US states from 2004 to 2009 to 3 binge drinking measures in adults from the 2005 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Results. A 10 percentage point higher alcohol policy environment score, which reflected increased policy effectiveness and implementation, was associated with an 8% lower adjusted odds of binge drinking and binge drinking 5 or more times, and a 10% lower adjusted odds of consuming 10 or more drinks. Policies that targeted the general population rather than the underage population, alcohol consumption rather than impaired driving, and raising the price or reducing the availability of alcohol had the strongest independent associations with reduced binge drinking. Alcohol taxes and outlet density accounted for approximately half of the effect magnitude observed for all policies. Conclusions. A small number of policies that raised alcohol prices and reduced its availability appeared to affect binge drinking. PMID:25122017

  14. Iran Mortality and Measures of Risk: Rankings for Public policy

    PubMed Central

    Aalabaf-Sabaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper offers mortality risk rankings for Iranian mortality data. It extends methods to include mixed cohorts, tests changes in mortality risks, compares measures of risk and discusses public policy implications. Methods: The methodology used in risk measures takes current practice and extends it to include variations in population dynamics. The specification is presented and compared with existing literature. Results: Our findings confirm literature results in the re-ordering that takes place when different risk measures are used. In addition, we find there is consistency in risk rankings between 1999 and 2000 records of Iranian mortality data. Thus, these risk measures are stable, robust across time and relay risk information consistently. Conclusions: There are considerable implications in adopting particular risk measures for public policy. However, given properties of risk measures discussed here, it is clear that policy makers can select relevant risk measures depending on their priorities. PMID:23112989

  15. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis.

    PubMed

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2014-05-23

    There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured.

  16. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Methods Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. Results The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Conclusions Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured. PMID:24886092

  17. Measuring the Benefits from Research. Policy Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    To date, much thinking about research measurement and evaluation has been concentrated in the biomedical and health sciences. However, there is increasing recognition that funders of public research--in areas ranging from music to microbiology or from economics to engineering--need to justify their expenditure and demonstrate added value to the…

  18. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  19. Measuring the Benefits from Research. Policy Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    To date, much thinking about research measurement and evaluation has been concentrated in the biomedical and health sciences. However, there is increasing recognition that funders of public research--in areas ranging from music to microbiology or from economics to engineering--need to justify their expenditure and demonstrate added value to the…

  20. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  1. Alternative Measures of Teacher Performance. Policy-to-Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potemski, Amy; Baral, Mahua; Meyer, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    This Policy-to-Practice Brief introduces five current examples of measures of teacher performance. The goal is to assist regional comprehensive centers and state education agencies in building local capacity to incorporate the use of alternative measures of teacher performance into the overhaul of state evaluation systems--especially in states…

  2. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  3. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  4. Measuring Medicaid Physician Participation Rates and Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Kronick, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Policy makers continue to debate Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, and concerns remain about low provider participation in the program. However, there has been little research on how various measures of physician participation may reflect different elements of capacity for care within the Medicaid program and how these distinct measures correlate with one another across states. Our objectives were to describe several alternative measures of provider participation in Medicaid using recently publicly available data, to compare state rankings across these different metrics, and to discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of each measure for research and policy purposes. Overall, we find that Medicaid participation as measured by raw percentages of physicians taking new Medicaid patients is only weakly correlated with population-based measures that account for both participation rates and the numbers of physicians per capita or physicians per Medicaid beneficiary. Participation rates for all physicians versus primary care physicians also offer different information about state-level provider capacity. Policy makers should consider multiple dimensions of provider access in assessing policy options in Medicaid, and further research is needed to evaluate the linkages between these provider-based measures and beneficiaries' perceptions of access to care in the program. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  5. Measuring the Implementation of a School Wellness Policy.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; Malloy, Elizabeth; Van Dyke, Hugo; George, Stephanie; Schlicker, Sandra; Katz, Nancy Brenowitz

    2017-10-01

    With the rise in childhood obesity, school policies related to nutrition and physical activity have been written and implemented. In this paper, we present a model to evaluate the degree to which state legislation for school health policies are implemented at the school level. Using Washington, DC's Healthy Schools Act (HSA) and a self-report measure of the implementation of the HSA, we illustrate the process of developing a composite score that can be used to measure compliance with the provisions of the law. We calculated elementary and middle school composite scores based on the provisions within the HSA. Schools have been successful in implementing nutrition provisions; however, more resources are needed for schools to achieve the minutes of health and physical education. We found statistically significant differences between public charter and traditional public schools on the implementation of the provisions of the HSA. Understanding how schools are complying with school wellness policies is a next step to determining where additional resources or support are needed in order to support school-wide adoption of healthy policies. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. Improving State Health Policy Assessment: An Agenda for Measurement and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Diana

    2012-01-01

    We examine the scope of inquiry into the measurement and assessment of the state public health policy environment. We argue that there are gains to be made by looking systematically at policies both within and across health domains. We draw from the public health and public policy literature to develop the concepts of interdomain and intradomain policy comprehensiveness and illustrate how these concepts can be used to enhance surveillance of the current public health policy environment, improve understanding of the adoption of new policies, and enhance evaluations of the impact of such policies on health outcomes. PMID:22813417

  7. Measuring urban water conservation policies: Toward a comprehensive index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, David; Wold, Christopher; Worland, Scott C.; Hornberger, George M.

    2017-01-01

    This article (1) discusses existing efforts to measure water conservation policies (WCPs) in the United States (U.S.); (2) suggests general methodological guidelines for creating robust water conservation indices (WCIs); (3) presents a comprehensive template for coding WCPs; (4) introduces a summary index, the Vanderbilt Water Conservation Index (VWCI), which is derived from 79 WCP observations for 197 cities for the year 2015; and (5) compares the VWCI to WCP data extracted from the 2010 American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water and Wastewater Rates survey. Existing approaches to measuring urban WCPs in U.S. cities are limited because they consider only a portion of WCPs or they are restricted geographically. The VWCI consists of a more comprehensive set of 79 observations classified as residential, commercial/industrial, billing structure, drought plan, or general. Our comparison of the VWCI and AWWA survey responses indicate reasonable agreement (ρ = 0.76) between the two WCIs for 98 cities where the data overlap. The correlation suggests the AWWA survey responses can provide fairly robust longitudinal WCP information, but we argue the measurement of WCPs is still in its infancy, and our approach suggests strategies for improving existing methods.

  8. Consequential Validity and the Transformation of Tests from Measurement Tools to Policy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent U.S. policy has brought a shift in assessment use, from measurement tools to policy levers. In particular, testing has become a core part of teacher evaluation policies in many states, with test results becoming akin to a job evaluation. Purpose: To explore the notion of consequential validity in assessment use and…

  9. Consequential Validity and the Transformation of Tests from Measurement Tools to Policy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent U.S. policy has brought a shift in assessment use, from measurement tools to policy levers. In particular, testing has become a core part of teacher evaluation policies in many states, with test results becoming akin to a job evaluation. Purpose: To explore the notion of consequential validity in assessment use and…

  10. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  11. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  12. Evidence in Czech Research Evaluation Policy: Measured and Contested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sima, Karel

    2017-01-01

    The Czech research evaluation policy was rooted in an instrumental paradigm of policy process and evidence embodied in metrics-based cost-benefit logic. But this framework disintegrated when confronted with actual institutional interests. Based on the ethnography of university departments, this study shows how academics challenged the notion of…

  13. International Indicators as a Measure of National Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    National policies on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECEC) are usually evaluated by commentators in terms of their own history and context. However, the recent OECD family database offers comparative tables on a range of ECEC policies, and charts their impact on different socio-economic groups within countries. From a comparative point of view…

  14. Evidence in Czech Research Evaluation Policy: Measured and Contested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sima, Karel

    2017-01-01

    The Czech research evaluation policy was rooted in an instrumental paradigm of policy process and evidence embodied in metrics-based cost-benefit logic. But this framework disintegrated when confronted with actual institutional interests. Based on the ethnography of university departments, this study shows how academics challenged the notion of…

  15. International Indicators as a Measure of National Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    National policies on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECEC) are usually evaluated by commentators in terms of their own history and context. However, the recent OECD family database offers comparative tables on a range of ECEC policies, and charts their impact on different socio-economic groups within countries. From a comparative point of view…

  16. Gender Diversity Policies in Universities: A Multi-Perspective Framework of Policy Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmers, Tanya M.; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Tijdens, Kea G.

    2010-01-01

    Are policies to increase women's share among university professors effective? The importance of gender equality on the labor market has been well established, but our understanding of what kind of policy is effective to increase the share of women is still unclear. Three sets of factors explain women's low shares at higher job levels, notably…

  17. Overlap in attitudes to policy measures on alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ingunn O; Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Storvoll, Elisabet E

    2016-02-01

    Effective alcohol, tobacco and illegal drug policies reduce the harm to users and third parties. Knowledge about determinants and interrelations between attitudes held by the general public to different types of policy measures can benefit policy-makers who aim to increase acceptance for effective policy. The present study describes the level of support for various policy measures held by the general public, and investigates the association between attitudes to policy measures on alcohol, tobacco and illegal drug. A sample of the Norwegian general population aged 16-64 (N=1803) was interviewed by telephone. Respondents reported demographic information, personal substance use and attitudes to various policy measures. Associations between attitudes were assessed with correlation and regression analysis. Associations between attitudes were strongest for similar policy measures across substance groups (e.g. tax increases on alcohol and tobacco). There was a weaker association between attitudes to different policy measures aimed at the same substance (e.g. tax increase on alcohol and campaigns on alcohol). The degree to which people approve or disapprove of the use of particular types of policy measures is irrespective of the targeted substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    PubMed

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % (n = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  19. School Sun Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in Two Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected in 2005-2007 from public school districts that enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating a policy promotion program. METHODS Written policies were collected from 103 of 112 school districts in Colorado and Southern California prior to randomization. We developed methods for selecting policy headings/sections topics likely to contain sun safety policies for students and for assessing the presence, strength, and intent of policies. Trained coders assessed the content of each policy document. RESULTS Overall, 31% of districts had a policy addressing sun safety, most commonly, protective clothing, hats, sunscreen, and education at baseline. More California districts (51.9%) had these policies than Colorado districts (7.8%, p<.001). Policy scores were highest in districts with fewer Caucasian students (b=-0.02, p=.022) in Colorado (b=-0.02, p=.007) but not California (b=0.01, p=.299). CONCLUSION The protocol for assessing sun safety policy in board-approved written policy documents had several advantages over surveys of school officials. Sun protection policies were uncommon and limited in scope in 2005-2007. California has been more active at legislating school policy than Colorado. School district policies remain a largely untapped method for promoting the sun protection of children. PMID:23061553

  20. School sun-protection policies: measure development and assessments in 2 regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kim D; Buller, David B; French, Simone A; Buller, Mary K; Ashley, Jeff L

    2012-11-01

    In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected in 2005-2007 from public school districts that enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating a policy promotion program. Written policies were collected from 103 of 112 school districts in Colorado and Southern California prior to randomization. We developed methods for selecting policy headings/sections topics likely to contain sun-safety policies for students and for assessing the presence, strength, and intent of policies. Trained coders assessed the content of each policy document. Overall, 31% of districts had a policy addressing sun safety, most commonly, protective clothing, hats, sunscreen, and education at baseline. More California districts (51.9%) had these policies than Colorado districts (7.8%, p < .001). Policy scores were highest in districts with fewer Caucasian students (b = -0.02, p = .022) in Colorado (b = -0.02, p = .007) but not California (b = 0.01, p = .299). The protocol for assessing sun-safety policy in board-approved written policy documents had several advantages over surveys of school officials. Sun-protection policies were uncommon and limited in scope in 2005-2007. California has been more active at legislating school policy than Colorado. School district policies remain a largely untapped method for promoting the sun protection of children. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  1. Rethinking the evaluation and measurement of Health in all policies.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Nutbeam, Don

    2014-06-01

    Current international attention to Health in all policies (HiAP) has its origins in a more sophisticated understanding of the impact of public policies on health, and a recognition that policies across government have an impact on the social and environmental determinants of health and related inequalities in health. As an emerging field, there has been limited attention focused on comprehensive approaches to the evaluation of HiAP to date, and the research focus around HiAP has mainly examined the processes of cross-sectoral policy development, rather than their health-related impacts or outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore issues in assessing the implementation of HiAP and describe an expanded evaluation framework for assessing the potential intermediate and end-point effects of HiAP actions, using a planning logic model for 'complex programs'. This meets the needs of public sector policy-makers who express an interest in understanding the relationship between HiAP and health-related and social outcomes. The paper proposes applying a contribution analysis method to estimate and model the anticipated impacts of HiAP policies on intermediate and longer term outcomes, in advance of empirical studies of these outcomes, and as an innovative input into HiAP and evaluation planning. A broader long-term evaluation framework will enhance the political saliency of HiAP initiatives, especially from governments considering HiAP approaches in financially constrained environments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Towards a Sociology of Measurement in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has developed impressive machinery to produce international comparative data across more than 70 systems of education and these data have come to be used extensively in policy circles around the world. In many countries, national and international comparative data are used as the…

  3. Comparative Performance Measures, Globalising Strategies and Literacy Policy in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores one example of an international comparison -- the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) -- in order to investigate the power of numbers in both the shaping and the legitimisation of adult literacy policy using Scotland as a case study. It is argued that policy…

  4. Comparative Performance Measures, Globalising Strategies and Literacy Policy in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores one example of an international comparison -- the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) -- in order to investigate the power of numbers in both the shaping and the legitimisation of adult literacy policy using Scotland as a case study. It is argued that policy…

  5. Towards a Sociology of Measurement in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has developed impressive machinery to produce international comparative data across more than 70 systems of education and these data have come to be used extensively in policy circles around the world. In many countries, national and international comparative data are used as the…

  6. Value-Added and Other Measures of Teacher Quality: Policy Uses and Policy Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    School districts, individual schools, and education policies all contribute to student achievement. But it can be argued that the most important contributing factor is the quality of the teacher in the classroom. Evaluating teacher quality is complicated, yet it has become even more important with the testing and assessment focus of No Child Left…

  7. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  8. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  9. Measuring the Alignment between States' Finance and Accountability Policies: The Opportunity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della Sala, Matthew R.; Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this paper expands on attempts to conceptualize, measure, and evaluate the degree to which states have aligned their finance systems with their respective accountability policies. State education finance and accountability policies serve as levers to provide equal educational opportunities for all students--scholars have…

  10. Educator Evaluation Policy That Incorporates EVAAS Value-Added Measures: Undermined Intentions and Exacerbated Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, policies in forty states and D.C. incorporate student growth measures--estimates of student progress attributed to educators--into educator evaluation. The federal government positions such policies as levers for ensuring that more students are taught by effective teachers and that effective educators are more equitably…

  11. Cross-Level Measurement Invariance in School and Classroom Environment Surveys: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Measures of classroom and school environments are central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. These measures are often formed by aggregating individual survey responses to form group-level measures, and assume an invariant measurement model holds across the individual and group levels. This article explores the tenability of…

  12. Cross-Level Measurement Invariance in School and Classroom Environment Surveys: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Measures of classroom and school environments are central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. These measures are often formed by aggregating individual survey responses to form group-level measures, and assume an invariant measurement model holds across the individual and group levels. This article explores the tenability of…

  13. Measuring research influence on drug policy: a case example of two epidemiological monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the extent to which drug research influences and impacts upon policy decision-making needs to go beyond bibliometric analysis of academic citations. Policy makers do not necessarily access the academic literature, and policy processes are largely iterative and rely on interactions and relationships. Furthermore, media representation of research contributes to public opinion and can influence policy uptake. In this context, assessing research influence involves examining the extent to which a research project is taken up in policy documents, used within policy processes, and disseminated via the media. This three component approach is demonstrated using a case example of two ongoing illicit drug monitoring systems: the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) and the Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS). Systematic searches for reference to the IDRS and/or EDRS within policy documents, across multiple policy processes (such as parliamentary inquiries) and in the media, in conjunction with analysis of the types of mentions in these three sources, enables an analysis of policy influence. The context for the research is also described as the foundation for the approach. The application of the three component approach to the case study demonstrates a practical and systematic retrospective approach to measure drug research influence. For example, the ways in which the IDRS and EDRS were mentioned in policy documents demonstrated research utilisation. Policy processes were inclusive of IDRS and EDRS findings, while the media analysis revealed only a small contribution in the context of wider media reporting. Consistent with theories of policy processes, assessing the extent of research influence requires a systematic analysis of policy documents and processes. Development of such analyses and associated methods will better equip researchers to evaluate the impact of research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of the policy indicator checklist: a tool to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages across multiple settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Hallett, Allen M; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies.

  15. Development of the Policy Indicator Checklist: A Tool to Identify and Measure Policies for Calorie-Dense Foods and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Across Multiple Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Allen M.; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O’Connor, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. Methods. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Results. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. Conclusions. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies. PMID:25790397

  16. Role of measurement in determining science and technology policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsworthy, John R.; Jang, Show-Ling

    1992-05-01

    The United States clearly needs an explicit policy toward research and development for high technology products and manufacturing processes. Gomory & Schmitt (1988) and Cohen & Zysman (1988) present qualitative arguments that this is so. Our research into the technology of semiconductors, computers, and telecommunication equipment (Norsworthy and Jang, 1992) provides concrete quantitative evidence as well. The costs of research and development and early manufacturing experience coupled with the nearly costless diffusion of the results of these activities, create special economic circumstances in most high technology industries. These circumstances are more complex than economies of scale, but equally powerful in their implications for market behavior. Like economies of scale, these circumstances will favor those organizations and countries whose competitive strategies acknowledge their existence, and most successfully exploit their effects. They involve aspects not only of scale economies, but of public goods, learning curves, the time value of information, and the after tax cost of capital. In this essay we attempt to describe the phenomena and illustrate them by reference to the semiconductor and related industries. It is generally understood that the benefits of research are difficult to capture by the company or industry that undertakes the research; the more basic the research, the more difficult it will generally be for the sponsoring agency to capture its benefits. Therefore, profit-seeking enterprises under conditions of competition will generally undertake less research than would be optimal from the point of view of society as a whole. A number of studies, confirm this general proposition (Griliches, 1987; Mansfield et al., 1982). Their estimates of the overall rate of return to R&D to the whole society is far above the return to private investment in general. These facts have been recognized in federal government policies that encourage research through

  17. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  18. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children: results of a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Marie-Jeanne; Schuit, Albertine J; van de Goor, Ien Am; van Oers, Hans Am

    2011-12-15

    Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector) policy measures at the local level that address environmental characteristics related to physical activity among children; and to assess the feasibility of these measures, as perceived by local policy makers. In four Dutch municipalities, a Delphi study was conducted among local policy makers of different policy sectors (public health, sports, youth and education, spatial planning/public space, traffic and transportation, and safety). In the first Delphi round, respondents generated a list of possible policy measures addressing three environmental correlates of physical activity among children (social cohesion, accessibility of facilities, and traffic safety). In the second Delphi round, policy makers weighted different feasibility aspects (political feasibility, cultural/community acceptability, technical feasibility, cost feasibility, and legal feasibility) and assessed the feasibility of the policy measures derived from the first round. The third Delphi round was aimed at reaching consensus by feedback of group results. Finally, one overall feasibility score was calculated for each policy measure. Cultural/community acceptability, political feasibility, and cost feasibility were considered most important feasibility aspects. The Delphi studies yielded 16 feasible policy measures aimed at physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity among children. Less drastic policy measures were considered more feasible, whereas environmental policy measures were considered less feasible. This study showed that the Delphi technique can be a useful tool in reaching consensus about feasible multi-sector policy measures. The study yielded several feasible policy measures aimed at

  19. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children: results of a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector) policy measures at the local level that address environmental characteristics related to physical activity among children; and to assess the feasibility of these measures, as perceived by local policy makers. Methods In four Dutch municipalities, a Delphi study was conducted among local policy makers of different policy sectors (public health, sports, youth and education, spatial planning/public space, traffic and transportation, and safety). In the first Delphi round, respondents generated a list of possible policy measures addressing three environmental correlates of physical activity among children (social cohesion, accessibility of facilities, and traffic safety). In the second Delphi round, policy makers weighted different feasibility aspects (political feasibility, cultural/community acceptability, technical feasibility, cost feasibility, and legal feasibility) and assessed the feasibility of the policy measures derived from the first round. The third Delphi round was aimed at reaching consensus by feedback of group results. Finally, one overall feasibility score was calculated for each policy measure. Results Cultural/community acceptability, political feasibility, and cost feasibility were considered most important feasibility aspects. The Delphi studies yielded 16 feasible policy measures aimed at physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity among children. Less drastic policy measures were considered more feasible, whereas environmental policy measures were considered less feasible. Conclusions This study showed that the Delphi technique can be a useful tool in reaching consensus about feasible multi-sector policy measures. The study yielded several

  20. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Putting Measurement First: Understanding "Grit" in Educational Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Non-cognitive dispositions have recently become psychological constructs of interest in the education, economics, philosophy, sociology, and psychology literature. In this article, I draw the distinction between property-first and measurement-first approaches to understanding the meaning of a particular non-cognitive disposition theoretical term,…

  2. Putting Measurement First: Understanding "Grit" in Educational Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Non-cognitive dispositions have recently become psychological constructs of interest in the education, economics, philosophy, sociology, and psychology literature. In this article, I draw the distinction between property-first and measurement-first approaches to understanding the meaning of a particular non-cognitive disposition theoretical term,…

  3. Encouraging Strong Family Relationships. Policy Matters: Setting and Measuring Benchmarks for State Policies. A Discussion Paper for the "Policy Matters" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyabwile, Thabiti

    2004-01-01

    "Policy Matters" is an initiative of the Center for the Study of Social Policy. The "Policy Matters" project is designed to develop and make available coherent, comprehensive information regarding the strength and adequacy of state policies affecting children, families, and communities. The project seeks to establish consensus among policy experts…

  4. Some Thoughts on Educational Testing: Measurement Policy Issues into the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    1993-01-01

    Key issues that educational measurement professionals must face in the next decade are explored. Questions of definition and localization of testing, teacher education, increased computer use, variation in types of assessment, and the effects of litigation are likely to be central in future measurement and policy decisions. (SLD)

  5. Overview of mitigation policies and measures in the forestry sector

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the author addresses questions on how the forestry sector can make a contribution to the general problem of greenhouse gases in the environment. Primarily this is in the form of carbon conservation and sequestering. There is a potential land area for conservation and sequestration estimated to be 700 Mha. The total carbon that could be sequestered and conserved globally by 2050 on this land is 60 - 87 GtC. Slowing deforestation, assisting regeneration, forestation and agroforestry are the primary mitigation measures for carbon conservation and sequestration. For long term success, enforcement to halt deforestation has to be accompained by economic and/or other benefits to the deforesters that equal or exceed their current remuneration. Making plantations a significant fuel for utility electricity generation will require higher biomass yields and thermal efficiency matching that of conventional plants. Significant reduction of global carbon emissions requires national governments to institute measures that provide local, national, economic and other benefits while conserving and sequestering carbon.

  6. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  7. Assessing integrated pest management adoption: measurement problems and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM-for whatever reason-and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption-weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management-and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  8. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Boyd, Erin

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  9. The Impact of Advanced Greenhouse Gas Measurement Science on Policy Goals and Research Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, L.; Clavin, C.; McKittrick, A.

    2016-12-01

    In support of the Paris agreement, accurate characterizations of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions estimates have been area of increased scientific focus. Over the last several years, the scientific community has placed significant emphasis on understanding, quantifying, and reconciling measurement and modeling methods that characterize methane emissions from petroleum and natural gas sources. This work has prompted national policy discussions and led to the improvement of regional and national methane emissions estimates. Research campaigns focusing on reconciling atmospheric measurements ("top-down") and process-based emissions estimates ("bottom-up") have sought to identify where measurement technology advances could inform policy objectives. A clear next step is development and deployment of advanced detection capabilities that could aid U.S. emissions mitigation and verification goals. The breadth of policy-relevant outcomes associated with advances in GHG measurement science are demonstrated by recent improvements in the petroleum and natural gas sector emission estimates in the EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory, ambitious efforts to apply inverse modeling results to inform or validate national GHG inventory, and outcomes from federal GHG measurement science technology development programs. In this work, we explore the variety of policy-relevant outcomes impacted by advances in GHG measurement science, with an emphasis on improving GHG inventory estimates, identifying emissions mitigation strategies, and informing technology development requirements.

  10. Making Health System Performance Measurement Useful to Policy Makers: Aligning Strategies, Measurement and Local Health System Accountability in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking them to accountability agreements. An evaluation of the implementation and of the effects of the policy intervention has been carried out through direct policy observation over three years, document analysis, interviews with decision-makers and systematic discussion of findings with other authors and external reviewers. Cascading strategies at health and local health system levels were identified, and a core set of health system and local health system performance indicators was selected and incorporated into accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks. despite the persistence of such challenges as measurement limitations and lack of systematic linkage to decision-making processes, these activities helped to strengthen substantially the ministry's performance management function. PMID:21286268

  11. The impact of pharmaceutical policy measures: an endogenous structural-break approach.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita; Nunes, Luis C

    2010-08-01

    Pharmaceutical spending in many countries has seen a steep increase in recent years. Governments have adopted several measures to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure growth, ranging from increased co-payments to price decreases determined administratively. Promotion of generic consumption has also ranked high in political priorities. We adopt a novel time series approach to the detection of which policy measures have a noticeable impact. The number and timing of the structural breaks are endogenously determined. As an illustration, we assess the overall impact of the several policy measures on total pharmaceutical spending, using monthly data from January 1995 to August 2008 for the Portuguese market. Our findings suggest that, in general, policy measures aimed at controlling pharmaceutical expenditure have been unsuccessful. Two breaks that were identified coincide with administratively determined price decreases. Measures aimed at increasing competition in the market had no visible effect on the dynamics of Government spending in pharmaceutical products. In particular, the introduction of reference pricing had only a transitory effect of less than one year, with historical growth resuming quickly. The consequence of this policy ineffectiveness is a transfer of financial burden from the Government to the patients, with no apparent effect on the dynamics of total pharmaceutical spending. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The revealed preferences of Baltic Sea governments: Goals, policy instruments, and implementation of nutrient abatement measures.

    PubMed

    Elofsson, Katarina; von Brömssen, Claudia

    2017-05-15

    Nitrogen and phosphorus loads are considered a major reason for the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. Until now, most of the abatement has been made at point sources while the implementation of policies for nonpoint sources has not led to equally large reductions in emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of how nutrient abatement measures are implemented by countries in the agricultural sector of the Baltic Sea region. We investigate how goal setting, policy instrument choice, and the level of implementation is determined by characteristics of the abatement measure as well as socio-economic characteristics of the country where it is implemented. Econometric analysis of a cross-sectional data set suggests that income, institutional capacity, and economies of scope in abatement and enforcement are important determinants of policies developed and their implementation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Finnish policy approach and measures for the promotion of sustainability in contaminated land management.

    PubMed

    Reinikainen, Jussi; Sorvari, Jaana; Tikkanen, Sarianne

    2016-12-15

    The importance of sustainability considerations in contaminated land management (CLM) is highlighted in policy frameworks all around the world. It means that while the reduction of risks to human health and the environment remains the main goal of CLM, a variety of other environmental factors as well as economic and social aspects have an increasing role in decision making. The success of finding the right balance between these considerations and incorporating them in the risk management approach defines the overall sustainability of the outcome. Although the concept and principles of sustainable CLM are already widely accepted, they have not been fully realized in national procedures. According to several studies this often results from the lack of explicit policy measures. A sound policy framework in conjunction with functional policy instruments is therefore a prerequisite for the attainment of sustainable practices. In Finland, the environmental administration along with other key stakeholder groups, including regional authorities, landowners, consultants, industries, research institutes and academia, has developed a national strategy and associated policy measures in order to promote sustainable CLM.

  14. State-Level Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking Cessation Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Cindy; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Kloska, Deborah D.; Emery, Sherry; Barker, Dianne; Giovino, Gary A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Research on the effects of state-level tobacco control policies targeted at youth has been mixed, with little on the effects of these policies and youth smoking cessation. This study explored the association between state-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation behaviors from 1991–2006. Methods The study design was a population-based, nested survey of students within states. Study participants were 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported smoking “regularly in the past” or “regularly now” from the Monitoring the Future study. Main cessation outcome measures were: any quit attempt; want to quit; non-continuation of smoking; and discontinuation of smoking. Results Results showed that cigarette price was positively associated with a majority of cessation-related measures among high school smokers. Strength of sales to minors’ laws was also associated with adolescent non-continuation of smoking among 10th and 12th graders. Conclusions Findings suggest that increasing cigarette price can encourage cessation-related behaviors among high school smokers. Evidence-based policy, such as tax increases on tobacco products, should be included as an important part of comprehensive tobacco control policy, which can have a positive effect on decreasing smoking prevalence and increasing smoking cessation among youth. PMID:20483500

  15. Measuring Teachers' Contributions to Student Learning Growth for Nontested Grades and Subjects. Research & Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goe, Laura; Holdheide, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The growing need for more information about measuring teachers' contributions to student learning growth, particularly in nontested subjects and grades, is the impetus for this Research & Policy Brief. Although the research base in this area is disappointingly limited, the brief includes considerations and suggestions based on current models…

  16. A Conceptual and Measurement Framework to Guide Policy Development and Systems Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a conceptual and measurement framework that provides a template for guiding policy development and systems change. The framework is built on the concepts of vertical and horizontal alignment, system-level processes, and organization-level practices. Application of the framework can structure the thinking and analytic…

  17. How Can We Measure the Success of National Science Policies in the Short or Medium Term?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotgreave, Peter; Davies, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    As science and engineering are taking on an increasing political importance in a knowledge-driven economy, there is growing need for Governments, scientists, industrialists and voluntary groups to measure the degree to which national science policies are contributing effectively to economic and social wellbeing. However, the long-term and diffuse…

  18. A Conceptual and Measurement Framework to Guide Policy Development and Systems Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a conceptual and measurement framework that provides a template for guiding policy development and systems change. The framework is built on the concepts of vertical and horizontal alignment, system-level processes, and organization-level practices. Application of the framework can structure the thinking and analytic…

  19. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  20. Measurable effects of local alcohol licensing policies on population health in England.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, F; Heron, Jon; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Mooney, John; Lock, Karen; Campbell, Rona; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    English alcohol policy is implemented at local government level, leading to variations in how it is put into practice. We evaluated whether differences in the presence or absence of cumulative impact zones and the 'intensity' of licensing enforcement--both aimed at regulating the availability of alcohol and modifying the drinking environment--were associated with harm as measured by alcohol-related hospital admissions. Premises licensing data were obtained at lower tier local authority (LTLA) level from the Home Office Alcohol and Late Night Refreshment Licensing data for 2007-2012, and LTLAs were coded as 'passive', low, medium or highly active based on whether they made use of cumulative impact areas and/or whether any licences for new premises were declined. These data were linked to 2009-2015 alcohol-related hospital admission and alcohol-related crime rates obtained from the Local Alcohol Profiles for England. Population size and deprivation data were obtained from the Office of National Statistics. Changes in directly age-standardised rates of people admitted to hospital with alcohol-related conditions were analysed using hierarchical growth modelling. Stronger reductions in alcohol-related admission rates were observed in areas with more intense alcohol licensing policies, indicating an 'exposure-response' association, in the 2007-2015 period. Local areas with the most intensive licensing policies had an additional 5% reduction (p=0.006) in 2015 compared with what would have been expected had these local areas had no active licensing policy in place. Local licensing policies appear to be associated with a reduction in alcohol-related hospital admissions in areas with more intense licensing policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  2. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  3. Workshop Explores How to Evaluate the Impact of School Policies on Childhood Obesity: Workshop for Experts on Measuring School Policies to Prevent Childhood Obesity. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisz, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    Samuels & Associates, a research and evaluation firm based in Oakland, California, organized the National Evaluation and Measurement Meeting on School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies, held on May 6 and 7, 2004 in San Francisco. The purpose of the meeting was to develop consensus regarding measures and tools to evaluate school-based…

  4. The development and evaluation of hospital performance measures for policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Ehreth, J L

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate hospital performance measures to include aspects of hospital behavior beyond the traditional use of hospital profit margins for policy analysis. A number of measures have been used in the literature that are purported to reflect a variety of hospital behaviors. The reliability and validity of these and new measures were assessed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis on a sample of hospitals for a 3-year period. The sample consisted of all hospitals for which there were Medicare Cost Report and balance sheet data during the federal fiscal years 1987 through 1989. Using a subset of three hospital groups, 33 measures were evaluated, from which five were selected to represent the critical aspects of hospital performance important for policy analysis. The measures are: TEM, a new technical efficiency measure using data envelopment analysis techniques; the current ratio, depicting short-term financial performance; the ratio of longterm debt-to-net fixed assets, representing long-term viability; total margin, portraying profitability; and Medicare margin, characterizing Medicare's contribution to hospital financial position. Each represents different aspects of hospital efficiency and financially viability.

  5. Informing outdoor smokefree policy: methods for measuring the proportion of people smoking in outdoor public areas.

    PubMed

    Thomson, George; Russell, Marie; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Patel, Vimal; Wilson, Nick

    2013-03-01

    To advance the design and implementation of outdoor smokefree area policies, we aimed to develop simple, low-cost methods for measuring smoking in a variety of public places. Two methods were developed and were used by solo observers during March 2011-February 2012 to measure the proportion of people smoking at a variety of sites. Both methods performed well (n=5553 people observed); the first at 58 sites in the UK and New Zealand (n=3191 observed); the second at 33 sites in New Zealand (n=2362 observed), with significant differences found between the smoking at types of sites and between countries. For the two countries combined, the proportions of people smoking (amongst those over 12 years) in children's play areas was significantly lower compared to all the other sites combined (risk ratio=0.39; 95%CI: 0.20 to 0.76; p=0.002). Solo observers can establish the proportion of people smoking in a range of outdoor sites. Such methods can inform outdoor smokefree area policymaking by providing baseline and post-policy data to enable location targeting and policy evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of Measures of Worksite Environmental and Policy Supports for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; van Bakergem, Margaret A.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Pamulapati, Surya C.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). Methods We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Results Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. Conclusion This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development. PMID:25950572

  7. Review of measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity and healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Hipp, J Aaron; Reeds, Dominic N; van Bakergem, Margaret A; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Pamulapati, Surya C; Hoehner, Christine M

    2015-05-07

    Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development.

  8. The evolution of HIV policy in Vietnam: from punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Ha, Pham; Pharris, Anastasia; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Brugha, Ruairi; Thorson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aim Policymaking in Vietnam has traditionally been the preserve of the political elite, not open to the scrutiny of those outside the Communist Party. This paper aims to analyse Vietnam's HIV policy development in order to describe and understand the policy content, policy-making processes, actors and obstacles to policy implementation. Methods Nine policy documents on HIV were analysed and 17 key informant interviews were conducted in Hanoi and Quang Ninh Province, based on a predesigned interview guide. Framework analysis, a type of qualitative content analysis, was applied for data analysis. Results Our main finding was that during the last two decades, developments in HIV policy in Vietnam were driven in a top-down way by the state organs, with support and resources coming from international agencies. Four major themes were identified: HIV policy content, the policy-making processes, the actors involved and human resources for policy implementation. Vietnam's HIV policy has evolved from one focused on punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach, encompassing harm reduction and payment of health insurance for medical costs of patients with HIV-related illness. Low salaries and staff reluctance to work with patients, many of whom are drug users and female sex workers, were described as the main barriers to low health staff motivation. Conclusion Health policy analysis approaches can be applied in a traditional one party state and can demonstrate how similar policy changes take place, as those found in pluralistic societies, but through more top-down and somewhat hidden processes. Enhanced participation of other actors, like civil society in the policy process, is likely to contribute to policy formulation and implementation that meets the diverse needs and concerns of its population. PMID:20824159

  9. The Quality of Teacher Educators in the European Policy Debate: Actions and Measures to Improve the Professionalism of Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoek, Marco; Swennen, Anja; van der Klink, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the contemporary European policy debate addresses the further development of the quality of teacher educators. A classification framework based on the literature on professionalism was used to compare European and Member State policy actions and measures on the quality of teacher educators through an analysis of seven…

  10. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  11. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  12. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  13. Value-Added Measures of Education Performance: Clearing Away the Smoke and Mirrors. Policy Brief 10-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2010-01-01

    In this policy brief, the author explores the problems with attainment measures when it comes to evaluating performance at the school level, and explores the best uses of value-added measures. These value-added measures, the author writes, are useful for sorting out-of-school influences from school influences or from teacher performance, giving…

  14. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment.

    PubMed

    Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The "ins" and "outs" of physical activity policy implementation: inadequate capacity, inappropriate outcome measures, and insufficient funds.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; Stevick, E Doyle

    2014-09-01

    Despite broad public support and legislative activity, policies intended to promote physical activity in schools have not produced positive outcomes in levels of physical activity or student health. What explains the broad failure of Physical Activity Policies (PAPs)? Thus far, PAP research has used limited quantitative methods to assess PAP outcomes. New paradigms of qualitative policy implementation research can make important contributions to explaining the causes of policy failure and to the future design of more efficacious PAP legislation. This analysis is a case study of South Carolina's 2005 Student Health and Fitness Act (SHFA). Written documents, investigators' observation and experience, and an interview with a key stakeholder were analyzed to for themes based on theoretical frameworks from education implementation research including (1) bottom-up and top-down perspectives, (2) conceptualizing policy as practice, and (3) the implementer as learner. "Weak policy signals" in SHFA undermined the implementation of PAP in 3 problematic areas: inadequate capacity development for implementers, inappropriate measures of implementation, and insufficient funding. These findings illustrate the contributions of qualitative research and establish the need for further qualitative research into PAP implementation processes. To ensure successful future physical activity policies, policymakers, and stakeholders need to consider implementation, evaluation, and funding from the beginning phases of policy development. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  16. When School Policies Backfire: How Well-Intended Measures Can Harm Our Most Vulnerable Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…

  17. 78 FR 25079 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... environmental data under the agreement. The Policy was originally approved on December 12, 2012 by the Science... of environmental data. Background/Authority The U.S. EPA Science Policy Council (now U.S. EPA Science... implementing an Agency-wide policy requiring organizations generating or using environmental data under...

  18. When School Policies Backfire: How Well-Intended Measures Can Harm Our Most Vulnerable Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…

  19. Evidence into Policy and Practice? Measuring the Progress of U.S. and U.K. Policies to Tackle Disparities and Inequalities in U.S. and U.K. Health and Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Exworthy, Mark; Bindman, Andrew; Davies, Huw; Washington, A Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Health policy in both the United States and the United Kingdom has recently shifted toward a much greater concern with disparities and inequalities in health and health care. As evidence for these disparities and inequalities mounts, the different approaches in each country present specific challenges for policy and practice. These differences are most apparent in the mechanisms by which the progress of such policies is measured. This article compares the United States' and United Kingdom's strategies to gauge the challenges for policymakers in order to inform policy and practice. A cross-national comparison of selected measurement mechanisms identifies lessons for policy and practice in both countries. PMID:16529569

  20. A Policy Analysis of the Federal Growth Model Pilot Program's Measures of School Performance: The Florida Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael J.; May, Henry

    2012-01-01

    As test-based educational accountability has moved to the forefront of national and state education policy, so has the desire for better measures of school performance. No Child Left Behind's (NCLB) status and safe harbor measures have been criticized for being unfair and unreliable, respectively. In response to such criticism, in 2005 the federal…

  1. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  2. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  3. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  4. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  5. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  6. Five-factor personality measures in Chinese university students: effects of one-child policy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Du, Wuying; Liu, Ping; Liu, Jianhui; Wang, Yehan

    2002-01-31

    Since the one-child policy was implemented in China in 1979, many investigators have studied the psychological consequences to children without siblings. Although the results are not conclusive, there is evidence that children who have siblings, rather than only children, have increased anxiety and depression. Whether the differences between students with and without siblings would continue when they reached university age is an interesting question. We used the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire to assess personality traits and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory to measure depressed mood in 134 university students with and 126 university students without siblings. Most students without siblings (93.7%) were reared in urban areas, while 90.3% of students with siblings came from rural areas. Parental professions were higher in social status and annual family incomes were higher in students without siblings. Increased neuroticism-anxiety, aggression-hostility, and depressed mood were found in students with siblings. Gender and annual family income were not significantly related to personality in the two groups, and birth-order position was not related to personality in the students with siblings. In contrast, the depression score was positively correlated with neuroticism-anxiety and aggression-hostility, but negatively correlated with parental occupation and annual family income. The greater competition to receive high education, reduced benefits from society, and lower level of social respect might nurture these personality traits in students with siblings. These findings might, in some limited aspects, indicate that the one-child policy affects personality traits and depressed mood in students with siblings.

  7. Measuring the effect of food stamps on food insecurity and hunger: research and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Parke E

    2007-02-01

    The federal government has estimated the prevalence of household "food insecurity" and "food insecurity with hunger" since 1995. Early observers believed that the new measure could be used to assess and improve the Food Stamp Program (FSP). Ten years of research have tempered the initial optimism. The prevalence of food insecurity with hunger (12.3% of all low-income households in 2004) is much higher among food stamp participant households (18.6% in 2004) than among low-income nonparticipant households (10.1% in 2004), due to strong self-selection effects. Households facing greater hardship are more likely to join the program. This article reviews 6 types of nonexperimental research designs that have been used to address the self-selection problem. The results have been inconclusive and the authors have warned against drawing causal inferences from their research. Ethical random-assignment research designs may be required to satisfy the intense policy interest in measuring the antihunger impact of the FSP. The most promising ethical research designs would test the effects of offering eligibility to households that are currently ineligible or offering increased benefits to households that are currently eligible for small benefit amounts.

  8. Professional Development Policy and Politics across International Contexts: From Mutuality to Measurability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian; Ronnerman, Karin; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Salo, Petri; Forsman, Liselott

    2010-01-01

    This article reveals how educational policies and policy contexts in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Australia establish the circumstances which enable and constrain individual and collective teacher professional development as praxis. We provide insights into existing partnerships between universities and schools, and, municipalities and the state as…

  9. Conflict between Work and Family: An Investigation of Four Policy Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppanner, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Welfare states enact a range of policies aimed at reducing work-family conflict. While welfare state policies have been assessed at the macro-level and work-family conflict at the individual-level, few studies have simultaneously addressed these relationships in a cross-national multi-level model. This study addresses this void by assessing the…

  10. 78 FR 39283 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... organizations generating or using environmental data under certain Agency-funded assistance agreements to submit... beginning any work involving the generation or use of environmental data under the agreement. The Policy was originally approved on December 12, 2012 by the Science Technology Policy Council (STPC)....

  11. "Perform, Measure Accurately, Optimise": On the Constitution of (Evidence-Based) Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten; Masschelein, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article takes its point of departure in the current tendency of education policy to become more and more evidence-based. The use of statistics and numbers seems to be a prerequisite for conducting a policy that is both efficient and effective. The kind of knowledge thus produced is regarded as factual and scientific. This article tries to get…

  12. From Free to Fee: Neoliberalising Preferential Policy Measures for Minority Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Naomi C. F.

    2015-01-01

    In both China and in the United States, policies of "positive discrimination" were originally intended to lessen educational and economic inequalities, and to provide equal opportunities. As with affirmative action in the American context, China's "preferential policies" are broad-reaching, but are best known for taking ethnic…

  13. From Free to Fee: Neoliberalising Preferential Policy Measures for Minority Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Naomi C. F.

    2015-01-01

    In both China and in the United States, policies of "positive discrimination" were originally intended to lessen educational and economic inequalities, and to provide equal opportunities. As with affirmative action in the American context, China's "preferential policies" are broad-reaching, but are best known for taking ethnic…

  14. Conflict between Work and Family: An Investigation of Four Policy Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppanner, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Welfare states enact a range of policies aimed at reducing work-family conflict. While welfare state policies have been assessed at the macro-level and work-family conflict at the individual-level, few studies have simultaneously addressed these relationships in a cross-national multi-level model. This study addresses this void by assessing the…

  15. Validity of a measure to assess healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in Australian childcare services.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Pennie; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Wolfenden, Luke; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Williams, Amanda; Yoong, Sze Lin; Finch, Meghan; Nathan, Nicole; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2014-06-09

    Childcare services represent a valuable obesity prevention opportunity, providing access to a large portion of children at a vital point in their development. Few rigorously validated measures exist to measure healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in this setting, and no such measures exist that are specific to the childcare setting in Australia. This was a cross sectional study, comparing two measures (pen and paper survey and observation) of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in childcare services. Research assistants attended consenting childcare services (n = 42) across the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia and observed practices for one day. Nominated Supervisors and Room Leaders of the service also completed a pen and paper survey during the day of observation. Kappa statistics and proportion agreement were calculated for a total of 43 items relating to healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices. Agreement ranged from 38%-100%. Fifty one percent of items showed agreement of greater than or equal to 80%. Items assessing the frequency with which staff joined in active play with children reported the lowest percent agreement, while items assessing availability of beverages such as juice, milk and cordial, as well as the provision of foods such as popcorn, pretzels and sweet biscuits, reported the highest percent agreement. Kappa scores ranged from -0.06 (poor agreement) to 1 (perfect agreement). Of the 43 items assessed, 27 were found to have moderate or greater agreement. The study found that Nominated Supervisors and Room Leaders were able to accurately report on a number of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices. Items assessing healthy eating practices tended to have higher kappa scores than those assessing physical activity related policies or practices. The tool represents a useful instrument for public health researchers and policy makers working in this

  16. Validity of a measure to assess healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in Australian childcare services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childcare services represent a valuable obesity prevention opportunity, providing access to a large portion of children at a vital point in their development. Few rigorously validated measures exist to measure healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in this setting, and no such measures exist that are specific to the childcare setting in Australia. Methods This was a cross sectional study, comparing two measures (pen and paper survey and observation) of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in childcare services. Research assistants attended consenting childcare services (n = 42) across the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia and observed practices for one day. Nominated Supervisors and Room Leaders of the service also completed a pen and paper survey during the day of observation. Kappa statistics and proportion agreement were calculated for a total of 43 items relating to healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices. Results Agreement ranged from 38%-100%. Fifty one percent of items showed agreement of greater than or equal to 80%. Items assessing the frequency with which staff joined in active play with children reported the lowest percent agreement, while items assessing availability of beverages such as juice, milk and cordial, as well as the provision of foods such as popcorn, pretzels and sweet biscuits, reported the highest percent agreement. Kappa scores ranged from −0.06 (poor agreement) to 1 (perfect agreement). Of the 43 items assessed, 27 were found to have moderate or greater agreement. Conclusions The study found that Nominated Supervisors and Room Leaders were able to accurately report on a number of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices. Items assessing healthy eating practices tended to have higher kappa scores than those assessing physical activity related policies or practices. The tool represents a useful instrument for public health

  17. Validity of four measures in assessing school canteen menu compliance with state-based healthy canteen policy.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Kathryn; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Sutherland, Rachel; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-09-16

    Issue addressed: In order to assess the impact of healthy school canteen policies on food availability for students, valid methods of measuring compliance are needed that can be applied at scale. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and direct cost of four methods to assess policy compliance: 1) principal and 2) canteen manager self-report via a computer-assisted telephone interview; and 3) comprehensive and 4) quick menu audits by dietitians, compared with observations.Methods: A cross-sectional study took place in the Hunter region of NSW, Australia, in a sample of 38 primary schools that had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial to improve healthy canteen policy compliance. Policy compliance was assessed using the four methods specified above. Percentage agreement, kappa, sensitivity and specificity compared with observations was calculated together with the direct time taken and costs of each method. Indirect costs (including set-up costs) for all measures have not been included.Results: Agreement with observations was substantial for the quick menu audit (kappa=0.68), and moderate for the comprehensive menu audit (kappa=0.42). Principal and canteen manager self-report resulted in poor agreement and low specificity with the gold standard. The self-reported measures had the lowest cost, followed by the quick menu audit and lastly the comprehensive menu audit.Conclusion: The quick menu audit represents a valid and potentially low-cost method of supporting policy implementation at scale.So what?: This study demonstrates that a quick menu audit represents a valid measure of undertaking assessment of school canteen policy compliance at a population level.

  18. Financial crisis and austerity measures in Greece: their impact on health promotion policies and public health care.

    PubMed

    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2013-11-01

    This review study explores the available data relating to the impact of financial crisis and subsequently applied austerity measures on the health care, social services and health promotion policies in Greece. It is evident that Greece is affected more than any other European country by the financial crisis. Unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, poverty and increase of mental disorders are among the most serious consequences of crisis in the socioeconomic life. The health system is particularly affected by the severe austerity measures. The drastic curtailing of government spending has significantly affected the structure and functioning of public hospitals that cope with understaffing, deficits, drug shortage and basic medical supplies. Moreover, health promotion policies are constrained, inhibiting thus the relevant initiatives toward disease prevention and health promotion education practices. Overall, the current economic situation in Greece and its impact on real life and health care is quite concerning. Policy makers should not disregard the implications that austerity and fiscal policies have on the health sector. Greater attention is needed in order to ensure that individuals would continue getting public health care and having access to preventive and social support services. To face the economic hardship, policy makers are expected to implement human-centered approaches, safeguarding the human dignity and the moral values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Quality in Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care: Conceptual and Practical Issues. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Erin J.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of family, friend, and neighbor caregivers to the overall supply of child care and the care and education of our nation's youngest children is substantial. This brief explores, for policy and other audiences, some of the issues around measuring quality in family, friend, and neighbor care. The purpose is not to provide a…

  20. Implementation of China`s three synchronizations policy: Case studies of wastewater treatment measures at new and renovated factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkule, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Three Synchronizations Policy requires that the design, construction, and operation of a new factory, or an existing factory that expands or changes production processes, be synchronized with the design, construction and operation of appropriate waste treatment facilities. Under this policy, when a new factory is designed, wastewater treatment facilities must be included as part of the overall factory design: when the factory is constructed, the wastewater treatment facilities must be constructed along with construction of the production facilities; and finally, when the factory begins to operate, the waste treatment facilities must begin operation as well. This research includes case studies of wastewater treatment measures at sixteen factories in the Pearl River Delta Region of China. Implementation of the Three Synchronizations Policy is examined in detail for two of the factories: Fengfu Weaving and Dyeing Plant and Zhongguan Printing and Dyeing Plant. The results of this research suggest that the Three Synchronizations Policy has been an effective means of forcing new and renovated factories to comply with wastewater discharge standards, mainly because the Three Synchronizations Policy gives environmental protection bureaus authority to regulate at each step of a new industrial facility`s development. In practice, this authority has been exercised through formalizing the {open_quotes}synchronizations{close_quotes} into a management system with specific regulatory requirements, each of which requires EPB approval. EPBs ran stall operation by withholding its approval of certification of a factory`s wastewater treatment facilities; EPBs also use fines and limited time treatment orders to enforce the Three Synchronizations Policy. The research results demonstrate that the Three Synchronizations Policy was more important than the Pollutant Discharge Fee Program in motivating existing factories to build wastewater treatment facilities.

  1. Where are the food deserts? An evaluation of policy-relevant measures of community food access in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Hibbert, James D; Ma, Xiaoguang; Bell, Bethany A; Battersby, Sarah E

    Several recent United States (US) policies target spatial access to healthier food retailers. We evaluated two measures of community food access developed by two different agencies, using a 2009 food environment validation study in South Carolina as a reference. While the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service's (USDA ERS) measure designated 22.5% of census tracts as food deserts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) measure designated 29.0% as non-healthier retail tracts; 71% of tracts were designated consistently between USDA ERS and CDC. Our findings suggest a need for greater harmonization of these measures of community food access.

  2. Policy Measures to Support Palliative Care at Home: A Cross-Country Case Comparison in Three European Countries.

    PubMed

    Maetens, Arno; Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; Aubry, Régis; Radbruch, Lukas; Cohen, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The proportion of people in need of palliative care worldwide is rising, and the majority wish to receive this care at home. Many countries have created policy measures to support palliative care at home. To list and compare existing policy measures designed to support palliative care at home in addition to available primary care services in Belgium, France, and Germany. A cross-country case comparison based on expert consultation, governmental policy documents, and relevant scientific literature. All three countries have policy measures that allow informal caregivers to adapt their working patterns or take leave of absence to provide care without losing employee rights; however, only Belgium offers specific paid palliative care leave. All three countries offer various allowances to people who are dying at home and their caregivers. Cost-reductions for out-of-pocket expenses are available, based on the level of care dependency in Germany and on prognosis in Belgium, but are not provided in France. Mobile home support teams exist in all three countries and are free of charge for patients and caregivers; but only in Belgium and Germany, there are specialist multidisciplinary palliative home care teams. Belgium and Germany provide respite care for palliative patients. European countries with similar contextual characteristics offer comparable policy measures to support palliative care at home in addition to the available primary care services. However, important differences exist in the criteria for access and the extent of what is offered. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental support for policy measures and school-based efforts to address weight-based victimization of overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R M; Luedicke, J

    2014-04-01

    Despite research documenting weight-based victimization (WBV) toward overweight youth in the school setting, little work has examined parental perceptions of this problem or potential policy strategies to help protect youth who are teased and bullied about their weight. This study assessed parental reports of WBV in youth and parental support for potential measures to address this problem, including implementation of school-based resources, policies, and state and federal laws. A national sample of parents in the United States (N=919) completed an online questionnaire about their perceptions of WBV in the school setting, including whether or not their child had experienced or witnessed WBV. Parents were also asked the degree to which they would support potential policy strategies to address WBV in schools, including school-based policies and state and federal laws to address weight-based bullying in youth. Parents perceived overweight youth to be vulnerable to WBV at school, but less than half of parents perceived schools to be prepared to deal with instances of WBV. Parents (both with and without overweight children) agreed that schools should implement anti-bullying policies that include specific protections for students who are overweight or obese, increase resources available to youth who experience WBV at school, and promote awareness about this problem. Over two-thirds of parents agreed that state anti-bullying laws should include specific protections against weight-related bullying. These findings indicate that there is substantial support from parents, both with and without overweight children, to implement a range of policy measures to address this WBV at the school, state, and federal level.

  4. A knowledge brokerage approach for assessing the impacts of the setting up young farmers policy measure in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bournaris, Th.; Moulogianni, Ch.; Arampatzis, S.; Kiomourtzi, F.; Wascher, D.M.; Manos, B.

    2016-02-15

    This study explores Knowledge Brokerage (KB) aspects of an ex-post Impact Assessment (IA) for the Rural Development Programme (RDP) measure of setting up young farmers, under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), at the regional level in Northern Greece. The measure supports the entry of young farmers in agriculture by moving land from older to younger farmers. The aim of the study was to test a set of KB tools for improving the interaction between researchers and policy makers. Our analysis mainly focused on a suite of IA Support Modules to guide practitioners, and on a technical tool kit, a web-based contextualisation platform, to support the IA of the specific test case. Offering a structured approach towards IA, both the Support Modules and LIAISE-KIT allow framing the context, organisation, scheduling and method selection in the light of KB objectives. The evaluation of how IA Support Modules influence the Science Policy Interface (SPI), in the case of the ex-post assessment, demonstrated the high relevance of KB activities for facilitating the interaction between researchers and regional policy makers. The assessment bridges the gap between knowledge producers developing scientific output to be applied in a specific context, and knowledge users, who want clear messages regarding the policy challenges they face. Other conclusions include the need for specific guidelines and training for knowledge users, especially with regard to the use of tools. According to our findings, a consequent application of KB activities is a crucial pre-condition for successfully implementing IAs in future RDP measures.

  5. Measuring the progress of capacity building in the Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Raine, Kim D; Sosa Hernandez, Cristabel; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Reed, Shandy; Montemurro, Genevieve; Lytvyak, Ellina; MacLellan-Wright, Mary-Frances

    2014-07-01

    The Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention (APCCP) represents practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and community organizations working together to coordinate efforts and advocate for policy change to reduce chronic diseases. The aim of this research was to capture changes in the APCCP's capacity to advance its goals over the course of its operation. We adapted the Public Health Agency of Canada's validated Community Capacity-Building Tool to capture policy work. All members of the APCCP were invited to complete the tool in 2010 and 2011. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic content analysis. A group process for reaching consensus provided context to the survey responses and contributed to a participatory analysis. Significant improvement was observed in eight out of nine capacity domains. Lessons learned highlight the importance of balancing volume and diversity of intersectoral representation to ensure effective participation, as well as aligning professional and economic resources. Defining involvement and roles within a coalition can be a challenging activity contingent on the interests of each sector represented. The participatory analysis enabled the group to reflect on progress made and future directions for policy advocacy. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet search patterns have emerged as a novel data source for monitoring infectious disease trends. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of health policies across different regions in a more efficient and timely manner. Methods As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study. Results Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion. Conclusion These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies. PMID:20738850

  7. School Policy on Teaching and School Learning Environment: Direct and Indirect Effects upon Student Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2012-01-01

    School policy on teaching and the school learning environment (SLE) are the main school factors of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2008). A longitudinal study in which 50 primary schools, 108 classes, and 2369 students participated generated evidence supporting the validity of the dynamic model. This…

  8. The situation of population development, population policy and family planning measures of China.

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    China's birth and natural growth rates are expected to reach a peak in 1988, remain at record high levels until 1995, and then begin to show a gradual decline. This birth peak began in 1986, when there were over 21 million births. The current population growth is a result of dramatic increases in the number of women entering marriageable age. In 1988, there will be 297 million Chinese women in the childbearing age bracket and the age-specific birth peak has dropped from 25-29 years to 20-24 years. State policies aimed at minimizing the effects of the baby boom generation's coming of age include aggressive promotion of postponement of marriage, more rigorous enforcement of the 1-child policy, and improvements in the quality of surgical contraceptive methods. Successful implementation of the state's family planning policy depends on the strengthening and reconstruction of grass-roots units in the countryside and villages. Also needed is refinement of state policy with regard to the fertility of minority and disadvantaged sectors of the population. The overall goal of the Chinese Government is to keep the population from exceeding 1200 million before the end of the 20th century. To facilitate surveillance of the country's demographic situation, a group has been formed that includes representatives of the State Family Planning Commission, the Statistics Bureau, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Finance.

  9. School Policy on Teaching and School Learning Environment: Direct and Indirect Effects upon Student Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2012-01-01

    School policy on teaching and the school learning environment (SLE) are the main school factors of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2008). A longitudinal study in which 50 primary schools, 108 classes, and 2369 students participated generated evidence supporting the validity of the dynamic model. This…

  10. Measuring Teacher Quality: Continuing the Search for Policy-Relevant Predictors of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Logan, Joyce P.; Keiser, Clare M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential viability of the variable certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) as a policy-relevant predictor of student achievement. Because research has identified the teacher as the most important school-related predictor of student achievement, more research…

  11. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  13. Promoting Child Safety, Permanence, and Well-Being through Safe and Strong Families, Supportive Communities, and Effective Systems. Policy Matters: Setting and Measuring Benchmarks for State Policies. A Discussion Paper for the "Policy Matters" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Policy Matters" project provides coherent, comprehensive information regarding the strength and adequacy of state policies affecting children, families, and communities. The project seeks to establish consensus among policy experts and state leaders regarding the mix of policies believed to offer the best opportunity for improving…

  14. Haze, public health and mitigation measures in China: A review of the current evidence for further policy response.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinghong; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; Li, Liping; Xu, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Jun; Li, Jing; Cao, Lina; Liu, Xiaobo; Wu, Haixia; Liu, Qiyong

    2017-02-01

    With rapid economic development, China has been plagued by choking air pollution in recent years, and the frequent occurrence of haze episodes has caused widespread public concern. The purpose of this study is to describe the sources and formation of haze, summarize the mitigation measures in force, review the relationship between haze pollution and public health, and to discuss the challenges, potential research directions and policy options. Haze pollution has both natural and man-made causes, though it is anthropogenic sources that are the major contributors. Accumulation of air pollutants, secondary formation of aerosols, stagnant meteorological conditions, and trans-boundary transportation of pollutants are the principal causes driving the formation and evolution of haze. In China, haze includes gaseous pollutants and fine particles, of which PM2.5 is the dominant component. Short and long-term exposure to haze pollution are associated with a range of negative health outcomes, including respiratory diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, mental health problems, lung cancer and premature death. China has paid increasing attention to the improvement of air quality, and has introduced action plans and policies to tackle pollution, but many interventions have only temporary effects. There may be fierce resistance from industry groups and some government agencies, and often it is challenging to enforce relevant control measures and laws. We discuss the potential policy options for prevention, the need for wider public dialogue and the implications for scientific research.

  15. Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public Policy Issues, Options, and Strategies. A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane, Comp.; O'Brien, Colleen, Comp.

    This collection of papers is the result of a project by the Institute for Higher Education Policy designed to explore the public policy aspects of higher education cost measurement (expenditure analysis). Papers come from a 1-day seminar in 1999 that brought together individuals knowledgeable about cost measurement with institutional leaders and…

  16. Building Alternative Agri-Food Networks: Certification, Embeddedness and Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Vaughan; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of certification in alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs), which are "in the process" of building markets for their produce outside conventional supply chains. Drawing upon recent writing on "embeddedness", we argue that certification provides an important focus for exploring the relationship and…

  17. Building Alternative Agri-Food Networks: Certification, Embeddedness and Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Vaughan; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of certification in alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs), which are "in the process" of building markets for their produce outside conventional supply chains. Drawing upon recent writing on "embeddedness", we argue that certification provides an important focus for exploring the relationship and…

  18. Potato production systems in Maine: geospatial assessments of agri-environmental indicators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sustainability of Maine potato production systems has been a major concern for at least the past 35 years following release of a detailed soil loss investigation conducted in Aroostook County that indicated close to 80% of the most intensively farmed fields were shedding soil at rates of 6.7-190...

  19. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Vanessa; Allotey, Pascale; Mulholland, Kim; Markovic, Milica

    2009-02-03

    Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV) refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV) refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003). After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p policies and practices violating human rights norms are associated with

  20. A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures.

    PubMed

    Karakitsios, Spyros P; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis Α; Gotti, Alberto; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Pilidis, Georgios A

    2013-01-15

    The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose-response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several "what if" scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1·10(-5) compared to 23.4·10(-5) for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10-20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support.

  1. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  2. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  3. How effective is greening policy in reducing GHG emissions from agriculture? Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Solazzo, Roberto; Donati, Michele; Tomasi, Licia; Arfini, Filippo

    2016-12-15

    Agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for more than 10% of total CO2 emissions in the EU-28 area. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) plays an important role in promoting environmentally and climate friendly practices and needs to respond to the new environmental challenges by better integrating its objectives with other EU policies. In this respect, the recent CAP reform 2014-2020 made a further step, making a large part of direct payments conditional on new agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment, i.e. "greening". In this study we estimate the potential environmental benefits from greening in terms of GHG emissions in four regions of Northern Italy, one of the major European agricultural areas in terms of emissions. The emissions were quantified and broken down into the three main GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) per production process. This information was subsequently used in a Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) farm-based model on more than 3,000 farms, to estimate the effects of greening on regional land use and its contribution in reducing the total emissions. The new agri-environmental constraints produce a modest abatement of total emissions of greenhouse gases (-1.5%) in the analyzed area. The model estimates a reduction in CO2 emissions of about 2%. Emissions from nitrous oxide show a decrease of 2.1% and the reduction in the methane is about 0.4% compared to the observed scenario. The process of "lightening" that affected the greening during the CAP negotiation has inevitably resulted in missing an opportunity to introduce a significant positive change of behaviour into agriculture, in line with the expectations and needs of society for EU agriculture as a provider of public goods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. POPEYE: A river-load oriented model to evaluate the efficiency of environmental policy measures for reducing phosphorus losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisan, Dominique; Quétin, Philippe; Barbet, Denis; Dorioz, Jean Marcel

    2012-07-01

    SummaryWatershed losses of phosphorus (P) have been a topic of concern for water resource managers over recent decades. To evaluate environmental policies or before implementing mitigation options at the watershed (catchment area) scale, stakeholders often need to analyze the patterns of point and diffuse sources of phosphorus. This information is often not easy to obtain in field conditions. Several statistical modeling approaches have been developed in recent years to respond to this basic operational demand. Point and diffuse sources are often evaluated from power functions established between phosphorus concentration and water discharge. Such models do not explicitly account for in-stream processes which control P concentrations in the hydrographic network and differentiate the P export dynamics of the various forms and inputs of P. To identify the phosphorus sources and evaluate their change in response to environmental policies, we developed a simple and loaded-oriented model (POPEYE - PhOsPhorus, Evaluation of the efficiencY of Environmental policy measures) that computes retention, settling and re-suspension rates of fine and coarse P fractions and their relation to P concentration of bed sediments. The model is calibrated to a long-term database (25 years), and describes the weekly water and chemical fluxes of a tributary of Lac Léman (Lake Geneva, Venoge river watershed, 240 km2). It adequately predicts observed values of fine and particulate phosphorus and reflects the gradual decrease of point and diffuse inputs over the studied period due to agricultural and sewage treatment policies implemented for the control of lake pollution.

  5. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Robert M; Urzua, Sergio S

    2009-09-01

    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest.

  6. Historical perspective on asbestos: policies and protective measures in World War II shipbuilding.

    PubMed

    Corn, J K; Starr, J

    1987-01-01

    Current public health consequences of poorly controlled utilization of asbestos in the past can be traced back, in part, to decisions made 45 or more years ago. This paper focuses on the extensive use of asbestos as a fireproofing and insulating material in shipbuilding in the 1940s, when World War II industrial expansion brought about a hitherto unprecedented rise in the amount of asbestos utilized. Twenty years after World War II, asbestos diseases began to manifest themselves, affecting thousands of shipyard workers as well as other workers who had been exposed in the 1940s and during the postwar period. By scrutinizing past actions, the paper argues that social forces, as well as science and technology, affect the setting of priorities and the determination of policy regarding needed but hazardous materials.

  7. Measuring stages of health in all policies on a local level: the applicability of a maturity model.

    PubMed

    Storm, Ilse; Harting, Janneke; Stronks, Karien; Schuit, Albertine J

    2014-02-01

    Many local governments are trying to establish health in all polices (HiAP), but no sensitive tool is available to measure HiAP growth processes. This study explores the applicability of a general maturity model to classify stages of HiAP and to characterize its manifestations and conditions. Based on other maturity models we have developed a maturity model for HiAP (MM-HiAP), which consists of six maturity levels and 14 corresponding key characteristics. This model was applied to assess HiAP growth processes within 16 municipalities in the Netherlands. We used municipal policies on health inequalities as a case. Empirical data was gathered based on document analysis, a questionnaire and interviews. Using this model we were able to classify HiAP growth processes by several characteristics, such as the recognition of the importance of HiAP (Stage I; four municipalities), HiAP described in policy documents and collaboration with sectors present (Stage II; seven municipalities), concrete collaboration agreements and structural consultations forms (Stage III; four municipalities), and a broad, shared vision on HiAP (Stage IV; two municipalities). Examples of necessary conditions were sufficient support and resources. This study shows that it is possible to apply a maturity model to classify stages of HiAP in municipalities. Use of the MM-HiAP as a formal measuring instrument depends on further operationalization and validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Aytur, Semra A; Jones, Sydney A; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation's health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  10. Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use.

  11. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. Methods We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV) refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV) refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Results Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003). After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p ≤ 0.001) amongst Iraqi refugees. Qualitative data revealed that TPV refugees generally felt socially isolated and lacking in control over their life circumstances, because of their experiences in detention and on a temporary visa. This sense of powerlessness and, for some, an implicit awareness they were being denied basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Conclusion Government asylum policies and practices violating

  12. Policy plans and management measures to restore eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, V. N.; de Jong, D. J.; van Katwijk, M. M.

    2000-07-01

    The Dutch Wadden Sea has been changed dramatically over the last centuries by human activities like land reclamation and different forms of fishery. This has, amongst other things, led to changes in the number of biological communities. One of the changes was the near extinction of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The deterioration of the area led to policy plans in the late 1980s that aimed at restoring the original natural communities of which the eelgrass community was one. This paper presents a restoration strategy which contains a selection procedure for suitable transplantation sites. The selection procedure is based on factors such as sediment composition, exposure time, current velocity and wave action. These were combined in a GIS-based map integrating these factors. One important action in the restoration process is to increase the number of freshwater discharge points to meet the requirements of the brackish water community in general and the growing conditions for eelgrass in particular.

  13. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation *

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Urzua, Sergio S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest. PMID:20436953

  14. Measuring mental health and wellbeing outcomes for children and adolescents to inform practice and policy: a review of child self-report measures.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against

  15. Choosing a Measure of Support Need: Implications for Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, H. K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Bielska, I.; Elliott, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The paradigm surrounding the delivery of care for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) is shifting from a deficit-based approach to a support-based approach. However, it is unclear whether measures of support act as a proxy for adaptive functioning. Methods: A sample of 40 staff or family members of individuals with ID…

  16. Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Policy Brief. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to recognizing effective teaching. The project's goal is to help build fair and reliable systems for teacher observation and feedback to help teachers improve and administrators make better personnel decisions.…

  17. Measuring Education Inequality: Gini Coefficients of Education. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Vinod; Wang, Yan; Fan, Xibo

    This paper aims at developing a measure for educational inequality for a large number of countries over time, using the concept of education Gini index based on school attainment data of the concerned population (or labor force). Education Gini could be used as one of the indicators of welfare, complementing average educational attainment, health…

  18. Defining and measuring chronic conditions: imperatives for research, policy, program, and practice.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard A; Posner, Samuel F; Huang, Elbert S; Parekh, Anand K; Koh, Howard K

    2013-04-25

    Current trends in US population growth, age distribution, and disease dynamics foretell rises in the prevalence of chronic diseases and other chronic conditions. These trends include the rapidly growing population of older adults, the increasing life expectancy associated with advances in public health and clinical medicine, the persistently high prevalence of some risk factors, and the emerging high prevalence of multiple chronic conditions. Although preventing and mitigating the effect of chronic conditions requires sufficient measurement capacities, such measurement has been constrained by lack of consistency in definitions and diagnostic classification schemes and by heterogeneity in data systems and methods of data collection. We outline a conceptual model for improving understanding of and standardizing approaches to defining, identifying, and using information about chronic conditions in the United States. We illustrate this model's operation by applying a standard classification scheme for chronic conditions to 5 national-level data systems. Although the literature does not support a single uniform definition for chronic disease, recurrent themes include the non-self-limited nature, the association with persistent and recurring health problems, and a duration measured in months and years, not days and weeks--Thrall. So far, many different approaches have been used to measure the prevalence and consequences of chronic diseases and health conditions in children, resulting in a wide variability of prevalence estimates that cannot be readily compared--van der Lee et al.

  19. Measuring physicians' trust: A scoping review with implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Adam S; Platt, Jodyn E

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly, physicians are expected to work in productive, trusting relationships with other health system stakeholders to improve patient and system outcomes. A better understanding of physicians' trust is greatly needed. This study assesses the state of the literature on physicians' trust in patients, other health care providers, institutions, and data systems or technology, and identifies key themes, dimensions of trust considered, quantitative measures used, and opportunities for further development via a scoping review. Peer-reviewed, English-language research articles were identified for inclusion in this study based on systematic searches of the Ovid/Medline, Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Elsevier, and Web of Science databases. Search terms included "trust" along with "physician," "doctor," "primary care provider," "family practitioner," "family practice," "generalist," "general practitioner," "general practice," "internist," "internal medicine," or "health professional," and plausible variants. Among the relevant articles identified (n = 446), the vast majority focused on patient trust in physicians (81.2%). Among articles examining physicians' trust, rigorous investigations of trust are rare, narrowly focused, and imprecise in their discussion of trust. Robust investigations of the effects of trust or distrust-as opposed to trust's determinants-and studies using validated quantitative trust measures are particularly rare. Studies typically measured trust using the language of confidence, effective communication, or cooperation, rarely or never capturing other important dimensions of trust, such as fidelity, the trustee's reputation, social capital, vulnerability, and acceptance. Research employing new, validated measures of physicians' trust, especially trust in institutions, may be highly informative to health system leaders and policymakers seeking to hone and enhance tools for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care system

  20. Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have adopted these methods en masse in recent years in an attempt to objectively quantify teaching effectiveness and…

  1. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  2. The Relationship among State Laws, District Policies, and Elementary School-Based Measurement of Children's Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Anna; Turner, Lindsey; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Tortorelli, Megan; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based measurement of children's body mass index (BMI) is a useful tool for tracking childhood obesity rates, and may be an effective intervention strategy for reducing the increasing trends in obesity. This article examines the relationship between state law, district policy, and school-level BMI measurement practices.…

  3. The Relationship among State Laws, District Policies, and Elementary School-Based Measurement of Children's Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Anna; Turner, Lindsey; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Tortorelli, Megan; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based measurement of children's body mass index (BMI) is a useful tool for tracking childhood obesity rates, and may be an effective intervention strategy for reducing the increasing trends in obesity. This article examines the relationship between state law, district policy, and school-level BMI measurement practices.…

  4. Definition, measurement, and correlates of quality of life in nursing homes: toward a reasonable practice, research, and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Kane, Rosalie A

    2003-04-01

    This article identifies challenges in defining, measuring, and studying quality of life of nursing home residents. A theoretical analysis was conducted based on literature and the author's own large-scale studies of quality of life of nursing home residents. Measuring quality of life is a relatively low priority in nursing homes because of focus on markers of poor quality of care, pervasive sense that nursing homes are powerless to influence quality of life, and impatience with research among those dedicated to culture change. The research argues that the resident voice must be sought in reaching operational definitions for quality of life and as reporters on the quality of their own lives, and that resident burden is a spurious concern that should not deter direct interviews with residents. Five challenges in measuring quality of life were identified: (a) designing questions with appropriate response categories and time frames, (b) developing a sampling strategy, (c) aggregating information at the individual and facility level, (d) validating what are ultimately subjective constructs, and (e) developing an approach using observations and proxies to assess quality of life for approximately the 40% of the residents who will be impossible to interview. Although residents' perceived quality of life is partly a product of their health, social supports, and personalities, nursing homes can directly influence quality of life through their policies, practices, and environments, and, indirectly, through their approaches to family and community. A research agenda is needed, which includes both methodological research and studies of the correlates of quality of life.

  5. Practice policy and quality initiatives quality improvement and confirmation projects: facilitating rapid, measurable performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C Matthew; Alsip, Christopher N; Pryor, Rebecca M; Leach, Alan D; Larson, David B

    2013-01-01

    As radiology departments continue to increase in size and complexity, the process of improving and maintaining excellent performance is becoming increasingly challenging. In response, a systematic process for efficiently implementing and sustaining measurable improvement in our radiology department has been developed, which targets focused aspects of individual performance that contribute to overall departmental quality. Projects designed to achieve such improvements have been called quality improvement and confirmation (QuIC) projects. The QuIC project process involves a project champion, medical expert, technical expert, quality improvement technologist specialist, and appropriate leaders, managers, and support personnel. The project champion conducts a preliminary investigation and organizes team members, who define the desired performance through consensus, establish data collection and analysis procedures, and prepare to launch the project. Once launched, the QuIC project process follows an execution period that is divided into four phases: (a) project launch phase, (b) support phase, (c) transition phase, and (d) maintenance phase. The first three phases focus on education, group-level feedback, and individual feedback, respectively. Weekly audits are performed to track performance improvement. Data collection, analysis, and dissemination processes are automated to the extent possible. To date, four such projects have been successfully conducted. The QuIC project concept is an attempt to apply the principles of process improvement to the process of process improvement by enabling any member of a radiology department to efficiently and reliably spearhead a quality improvement project. We consider this to be a work in progress and continue to refine the process with the goal of eventually being able to conduct many projects simultaneously. © RSNA, 2013.

  6. The development of ORACLe: a measure of an organisation's capacity to engage in evidence-informed health policy.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Steve R; Turner, Tari; Williamson, Anna; Louviere, Jordan; Redman, Sally; Haynes, Abby; Green, Sally; Brennan, Sue

    2016-01-14

    Evidence-informed policymaking is more likely if organisations have cultures that promote research use and invest in resources that facilitate staff engagement with research. Measures of organisations' research use culture and capacity are needed to assess current capacity, identify opportunities for improvement, and examine the impact of capacity-building interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop a comprehensive system to measure and score organisations' capacity to engage with and use research in policymaking, which we entitled ORACLe (Organisational Research Access, Culture, and Leadership). We used a multifaceted approach to develop ORACLe. Firstly, we reviewed the available literature to identify key domains of organisational tools and systems that may facilitate research use by staff. We interviewed senior health policymakers to verify the relevance and applicability of these domains. This information was used to generate an interview schedule that focused on seven key domains of organisational capacity. The interview was pilot-tested within four Australian policy agencies. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was then undertaken using an expert sample to establish the relative importance of these domains. This data was used to produce a scoring system for ORACLe. The ORACLe interview was developed, comprised of 23 questions addressing seven domains of organisational capacity and tools that support research use, including (1) documented processes for policymaking; (2) leadership training; (3) staff training; (4) research resources (e.g. database access); and systems to (5) generate new research, (6) undertake evaluations, and (7) strengthen relationships with researchers. From the DCE data, a conditional logit model was estimated to calculate total scores that took into account the relative importance of the seven domains. The model indicated that our expert sample placed the greatest importance on domains (2), (3) and (4). We utilised

  7. Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review and Critique of U.S. Data Collection Efforts and Implications for Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Margaret; Wells, Brooke; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; Renson, Audrey; Grov, Christian

    2016-12-23

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2020 goals sought to improve health outcomes among sexual minorities; HHS acknowledged that a dearth of sexual orientation items in federal and state health surveys obscured a broad understanding of sexual minority-related health disparities. The HHS 2011 data progression plan aimed to advance sexual orientation data collection efforts at the national level. Sexual orientation is a complex, multidimensional construct often composed of sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, thus posing challenges to its quantitative and practical measurement and analysis. In this review, we (a) present existing sexual orientation constructs; (b) evaluate current HHS sexual orientation data collection efforts; (c) review post-2011 data progression plan research on sexual minority health disparities, drawing on HHS survey data; (d) highlight the importance of and (e) identify obstacles to multidimensional sexual orientation measurement and analysis; and (f) discuss methods for multidimensional sexual orientation analysis and propose a matrix for addressing discordance/branchedness within these analyses. Multidimensional sexual orientation data collection and analysis would elucidate sexual minority-related health disparities, guide related health policies, and enhance population-based estimates of sexual minority individuals to steer health care practices.

  8. The "Ins" and "Outs" of Physical Activity Policy Implementation: Inadequate Capacity, Inappropriate Outcome Measures, and Insufficient Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Erin K.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite broad public support and legislative activity, policies intended to promote physical activity in schools have not produced positive outcomes in levels of physical activity or student health. What explains the broad failure of Physical Activity Policies (PAPs)? Thus far, PAP research has used limited quantitative methods to…

  9. Litigating Personnel Measurement Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharf, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews history and application of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to argue that adverse impact definition of test discrimination embodied in unanimous 1971 Supreme Court decision in Griggs versus Duke Power Company and its progeny is the product of successful advocacy of unelected bureaucrats rather than a product of public…

  10. Litigating Personnel Measurement Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharf, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews history and application of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to argue that adverse impact definition of test discrimination embodied in unanimous 1971 Supreme Court decision in Griggs versus Duke Power Company and its progeny is the product of successful advocacy of unelected bureaucrats rather than a product of public…

  11. A modelling approach for the assessment of the effects of Common Agricultural Policy measures on farmland biodiversity in the EU27.

    PubMed

    Overmars, Koen P; Helming, John; van Zeijts, Henk; Jansson, Torbjörn; Terluin, Ida

    2013-09-15

    In this paper we describe a methodology to model the impacts of policy measures within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on farm production, income and prices, and on farmland biodiversity. Two stylised scenarios are used to illustrate how the method works. The effects of CAP measures, such as subsidies and regulations, are calculated and translated into changes in land use and land-use intensity. These factors are then used to model biodiversity with a species-based indicator on a 1 km scale in the EU27. The Common Agricultural Policy Regionalised Impact Modelling System (CAPRI) is used to conduct the economic analysis and Dyna-CLUE (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects) is used to model land use changes. An indicator that expresses the relative species richness was used as the indicator for biodiversity in agricultural areas. The methodology is illustrated with a baseline scenario and two scenarios that include a specific policy. The strength of the methodology is that impacts of economic policy instruments can be linked to changes in agricultural production, prices and incomes, on the one hand, and to biodiversity effects, on the other - with land use and land-use intensity as the connecting drivers. The method provides an overall assessment, but for detailed impact assessment at landscape, farm or field level, additional analysis would be required.

  12. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  13. Effect of policy-induced measures on suspended sediments and total phosphorus concentrations from three Norwegian agricultural catchments.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Marianne; Stålnacke, Per

    2005-05-15

    In Norway, agricultural subsidies have, since the late 1980s, been targeted to reduce soil erosion, transfer of soil particles and phosphorus (P) losses. The subsidies led to, e.g., a fourfold increase in the area not ploughed from 1991 to 2001 and a reduced P fertiliser consumption by 60%, especially in areas with high livestock density. Moreover, in the late 1980s agricultural point sources of P from storage facilities of manure and fodder were reduced. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of these policy-induced measures and changed agricultural practices on suspended sediment (SS) and total P (TP) concentrations in three agricultural catchments (1, 3 and 87 km2). Results from the statistical trend analyses for the study period (14-17 years) showed weak, but statistically significant (p<0.05), downward trends in concentrations of TP and SS in the two streams with a high initial TP or SS concentration. In the stream with low initial concentrations of TP and SS, however, no statistically significant trends were shown. The stream with the highest initial concentration of SS showed a statistically significant downward trend in both TP and SS concentrations. The catchment with low initial concentration of SS and medium livestock density showed no detectable trends, while the catchment with high livestock density and low concentrations of SS in the stream showed a statistically significant downward trend in TP concentrations. The results from this study suggest that subsidies and mitigation measures can reduce concentrations of TP and SS in streamwater in highly polluted catchments, although the reduction is small compared to the variations between catchments.

  14. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R.; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Repace, James L.; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2016-01-01

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts. PMID:26805860

  15. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development.

    PubMed

    Klepeis, Neil E; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M; Repace, James L; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2016-01-20

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  16. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  17. Sound Arguments and Power in Evaluation Research and Policy-Making: A Measuring Instrument and Its Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Igno M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes an instrument for assessing the extent to which either sound arguments or power are found in scientific and political discussions. Empirical research is described that investigated the relation between the quality of evaluation research and the quality of discussion in policy-making processes in which the research is used. (Contains 47…

  18. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  19. Bio-safe, A Policy and Legislation Based Model For The Assessment of Impacts of Flood Prevention Measures On Biodiversity In River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nooij, R. J. W.; Bio-Safe Team

    Within the framework of IRMA-SPONGE, a transnational version of the model BIO- SAFE (Spreadsheet Application For Evaluation of BIOdiversity) for the rivers Rhine and Meuse was developed. The model was specifically designed for policy and leg- islation based impact assessment of flood risk reduction measures on biodiversity in floodplains. BIO-SAFE is an assessment model that quantifies the policy and legisla- tion status of species in river basins for several taxonomic groups. The model uses data on presence of species and ecotopes. Results show that the BIO-SAFE method enables the user to express politically and legally based biodiversity values in quantitative terms and to compare biodiversity values for various taxonomic groups, landscape- ecological units (e.g. ecotopes) and physical planning scenarios. BIO-SAFE gives in- formation regarding the degree to which floodplain designs, observed or predicted trends of floodplain developments or actual values meet goals set in (inter)national agreements. Assessments with BIO-SAFE, in an early stage of the planning process, of actual situations and different scenarios for an area can help direct the planning process in the stage where this is still possible. Because of its policy-based character, BIO-SAFE yields complementary information to more established ecological biodi- versity indices and to single- species habitat models and ecological network analysis. Flood defence measures can lead to an increase of policy and legislation based bio- diversity values if already very valuable ecotopes are conserved and an increase of diversity of ecotopes is realised. Flood defence measures can also endanger these val- ues. In order to achieve optimal results regarding the attuning of conservation and development of biodiversity values on the one hand and flood defence measures on the other, it is recommended to aim at a balance between creating space in width and creating space in the depth. Uniform solutions must be avoided

  20. Take-home naloxone to prevent fatalities from opiate-overdose: Protocol for Scotland's public health policy evaluation, and a new measure to assess impact

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Mahesh K. B.; Strang, John

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Scotland was the first country to adopt take-home naloxone (THN) as a funded public health policy. We summarise the background and rigorous set-up for before/after monitoring to assess the impact on high-risk opiate-fatalities. Methods: Evidence-synthesis of prospectively monitored small-scale THN schemes led to a performance indicator for distribution of THN-kits relative to opiate-related deaths. Next, we explain the primary outcome and statistical power for Scotland's before/after monitoring. Results: Fatality-rate at opiate overdoses witnessed by THN-trainees was 6% (9/153, 95% CI: 2–11%). National THN-schemes should aim to issue 20 times as many THN-kits as there are opiate-related deaths per annum; and at least nine times as many. Primary outcome for evaluating Scotland's THN policy is reduction in the percentage of all opiate-related deaths with prison-release as a 4-week antecedent. Scotland's baseline period is 2006–10, giving a denominator of 1970 opiate-related deaths. A priori plausible effectiveness was 20–30% reduction, relative to baseline, in the proportion of opiate-related deaths that had prison-release as a 4-week antecedent. A secondary outcome was also defined. Conclusion: If Scotland's THN evaluation shifts the policy ground seismically, our new performance measure may prove useful on how many THN-kits nations should provide annually. PMID:26045638

  1. Public Preferences for the Use of Taxation and Labelling Policy Measures to Combat Obesity in Young Children in Australia.

    PubMed

    Comans, Tracy; Moretto, Nicole; Byrnes, Joshua

    2017-03-21

    Objective: Childhood obesity is a serious concern for developed and developing countries. This study aimed to assess the level of support in Australia for regulation and to assess whether systematic differences occur between individuals who support increased regulation and individuals who oppose it. Methods: An online survey (n = 563) was used to assess parental/caregiver preferences for taxation policy options and nutrition labelling designed to address the incidence of childhood obesity. Participants were parents or caregivers of young children (3 to 7 years) who were actively enrolled in an existing birth cohort study in South-East Queensland, Australia. Results: The majority of the parents (over 80%) strongly agreed or agreed with labelling food and drink with traffic light or teaspoon labelling. Support for taxation was more variable with around one third strongly supporting and a further 40% of participants equivocal about using taxation; however, a quarter strongly rejected this policy. Cluster analysis did not detect any socio-demographic differences between those who strongly supported taxation and those who did not. Conclusions: Better food labelling would be welcomed by parents to enhance food choices for their children. Taxation for health reasons would not be opposed by most parents. Implications for Public Health: Governments should consider taxation of unhealthy drinks and improved labelling to encourage healthy food purchasing.

  2. Measuring the effects of excluded variables in the LLNL energy-policy model: report on a model integration

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.; Rambo, J.; Wood, D.O.

    1981-10-01

    The LLNL Energy Policy Model (EPM) is a large network model (80,000 nodes) of the US energy system. The model accounts for the production, transport, conversion, and distribution of primary energy for end-use applications. Given end-use demands and associated model data, a model solution consists of the equilibrium prices and quantities of primary, intermediate, and final energy forms, as well as investment requirements and characteristics of production, conversion, and end-use technologies. A characteristic of the EPM (as well as similar energy system process models) is that not all goods and services used in production and consumed by households are considered. The assmption is made that energy forms and energy-related capital are separable from other goods and services, and that the substitution possibilities between these two sets of variables is zero. Results are presented of an effort to integrate the EPM with a simple aggregate model of US manufacturing input factor demands, including capital and energy, which relaxes the zero-elasticity assumption. After describing the approach to integration, simulation results that demonstrate the effects on EPM results of considering the originally excluded inputs are presented. The energy costs and consumption implications of several national energy policy scenarios are also analyzed.

  3. Public Preferences for the Use of Taxation and Labelling Policy Measures to Combat Obesity in Young Children in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Comans, Tracy; Moretto, Nicole; Byrnes, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity is a serious concern for developed and developing countries. This study aimed to assess the level of support in Australia for regulation and to assess whether systematic differences occur between individuals who support increased regulation and individuals who oppose it. Methods: An online survey (n = 563) was used to assess parental/caregiver preferences for taxation policy options and nutrition labelling designed to address the incidence of childhood obesity. Participants were parents or caregivers of young children (3 to 7 years) who were actively enrolled in an existing birth cohort study in South-East Queensland, Australia. Results: The majority of the parents (over 80%) strongly agreed or agreed with labelling food and drink with traffic light or teaspoon labelling. Support for taxation was more variable with around one third strongly supporting and a further 40% of participants equivocal about using taxation; however, a quarter strongly rejected this policy. Cluster analysis did not detect any socio-demographic differences between those who strongly supported taxation and those who did not. Conclusions: Better food labelling would be welcomed by parents to enhance food choices for their children. Taxation for health reasons would not be opposed by most parents. Implications for Public Health: Governments should consider taxation of unhealthy drinks and improved labelling to encourage healthy food purchasing. PMID:28335575

  4. Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Holly E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E.; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance “core” habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14–29% (95% CI: 4–46%). However, a conservation strategy that includes the “core area” policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9–15% (95% CI: 3–32%), cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines

  5. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation: a novel framework to quantify the benefits of sage-grouse conservation policy and easements in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Holly E; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance "core" habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14-29% (95% CI: 4-46%). However, a conservation strategy that includes the "core area" policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9-15% (95% CI: 3-32%), cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines provides estimates

  6. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN).

    PubMed

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R

    2011-03-01

    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  7. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p < 0.05) and cycling (p < 0.01) for at least 30 minutes on 5 days/week. The PAL-T has acceptable internal consistency and good concurrent and discriminant validity. Measuring public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and

  8. Measure Twice: The Impact on Graduation Rates of Serving Pell Grant Recipients. A Policy Bulletin for HEA Reauthorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in leveraging Title IV student aid to improve college completion. Advocates have proposed linking funding in the Pell and Campus-Based Programs to measures of college performance. However, to do so in an equitable and efficient manner, raw measures of college output, such as rates of graduation and academic progress, must…

  9. Policy Measures and Reimbursement for Emergency Medical Imaging in the Era of Payment Reform: Proceedings From a Panel Discussion of the 2015 AEM Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Berdahl, Carl; Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Fisher, Nancy L.; Burstin, Helen; Pines, Jesse M.

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 is expanding the use of quality measurement and promulgating new payment models that place downward pressure on health care utilization and costs. As emergency department (ED) computed tomography utilization has tripled in the past decade, stakeholders have identified advanced imaging as an area where quality and efficiency measures should expand. On May 12, 2015, Academic Emergency Medicine convened a consensus conference titled “Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization.” As part of the conference, a panel of health care policy leaders and emergency physicians discussed the effect of the ACA and other quality programs on ED diagnostic imaging, specifically the way that quality metrics may affect ED care and how ED diagnostic imaging fits in the broader strategy of the U.S. government. This article discusses the content of the panel’s presentations. PMID:26568025

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    PubMed

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO)

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Mújica-Rosales, Ricardo; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor; Lee, Evan; Waugh, Craig; Guajardo, Lucía; Torres-Beltrán, Braulio; Quijano-González, Úrsula; López-Mendez, Mauricio; Atkinson, Elena Rose

    2017-01-01

    Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM), or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals—about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL), and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL). However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should consider the need for

  12. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO).

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Mújica-Rosales, Ricardo; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor; Lee, Evan; Waugh, Craig; Guajardo, Lucía; Torres-Beltrán, Braulio; Quijano-González, Úrsula; López-Mendez, Mauricio; Atkinson, Elena Rose

    2017-02-20

    Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM), or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals-about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL), and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL). However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should consider the need for

  13. Productivity Measurement. Instructor's Manual. Module Number Eight of Policy/Program Analysis and Evaluation Techniques, Package VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Elaine

    This packet contains the materials necessary for presentation of the eighth of ten modules that comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. This module focuses on productivity measurement which is the evaluation of the efficiency with which resources are consumed within the…

  14. The Stability of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Quality and Implications for Teacher Compensation Policy. Brief 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    There is little doubt that teacher quality is a key determinant of student achievement, but finding ways to identify and reward the best teachers has proven illusive. This research brief considers the stability of value-added measures of teacher effectiveness over time and the resulting implications for the design and implementation of…

  15. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  16. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  17. Outcomes, health policy, and managed care: relationships between patient-reported outcome measures and clinical measures in outpatients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Lin, Li; Ellis, Stephen J; Russell, Stuart D; Spertus, John A; Whellan, David J; Piña, Ileana L; Fine, Lawrence J; Schulman, Kevin A; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2009-10-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used to assess the efficacy of new treatments. Understanding relationships between these and clinical measures can facilitate their interpretation. We examined associations between patient-reported measures of health-related quality of life and clinical indicators of disease severity in a large, heterogeneous sample of patients with heart failure. Patient-reported measures, including the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and clinical measures, including peak VO(2), 6-minute walk distance, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, were assessed at baseline in 2331 patients with heart failure. We used general linear models to regress patient-reported measures on each clinical measure. Final models included for significant sociodemographic variables and 2-way interactions. The KCCQ was correlated with peak VO(2) (r = .21) and 6-minute walk distance (r = .27). The VAS was correlated with peak VO(2) (r = .09) and 6-minute walk distance (r = .11). Using the KCCQ as the response variable, a 1-SD difference in peak Vo(2) (4.7 mL/kg/min) was associated with a 2.86-point difference in the VAS (95% CI, 1.98-3.74) and a 4.75-point difference in the KCCQ (95% CI, 3.78-5.72). A 1-SD difference in 6-minute walk distance (105 m) was associated with a 2.78-point difference in the VAS (95% CI, 1.92-3.64) and a 5.92-point difference in the KCCQ (95% CI, 4.98-6.87); NYHA class III was associated with an 8.26-point lower VAS (95% CI, 6.59-9.93) and a 12.73-point lower KCCQ (95% CI, 10.92-14.53) than NYHA class II. These data may inform deliberations about how to best measure benefits of heart failure interventions, and they generally support the practice of considering a 5-point difference on the KCCQ and a 3-point difference on the VAS to be clinically meaningful.

  18. Proliferation Security Initiative: Agencies Have Adopted Policies and Procedures but Steps Needed to Meet Reporting Requirement and to Measure Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Participation, Fiscal Years 2009-2011 12 Figure Figure 1: Sample Logic Model 18 Abbreviations 9/11 Act Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11...has previously identified such frameworks, called logic models , that agencies could adopt even if they face performance measurement challenges similar...31A logic model is an evaluation tool used to describe a program’s—or initiative’s, in the case of PSI—components and

  19. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  20. POLICY EVALUATION FOR THE EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION MEASURES OF EXTENSIVE USED SPACES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF KUMAMOTO CITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Egawa, Taichi

    Recently, The Open-air Parkin g increases in city center. Therefore, the decline of th e central area is caused as a results and the number of those who visit th e town has decreased. Purposes of research are as follows. It clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use. It examines that support plan that the administration should do to straighten out that problem. Various support plans are examined from the cost benefit analysis, revenue, and value of support plan. The composition is as follows. In Chapte r 2, it clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use from "Land use intention investigation". In Chapter 3, the effective profit use usage selection model is presumed. In Chapter 4, the simulation analysis that measures the effect and the value of the support plan is done.

  1. Policy & Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Policy documents represent EPA's official interpretation or view of specific issues. Guidance documents are published to further clarify regulations and to assist in implementation of environmental regulations.

  2. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  3. Internet Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-17

    activities. F. Responsibilities 1. The CIO shall: a. Approve, for the OIG, DoD, policies implementing laws and guidelines on Internet use . IGDINST 4630.2 3 b...Provide leadership to manage Internet use within the OIG, DoD. c. Authorize monitoring. d. Oversee the promulgation of policies and guidance to ensure

  4. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness: An Overview of State Policies and Practices Related to Pre-K-12 Teacher Effectiveness or Teacher Evaluation. AACC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Carole; Rabinowitz, Stanley; Yeagley, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of state policies and practices related to Pre-K-12 teacher effectiveness or teacher evaluation. The state policies and practices are presented according to the following tables: (1) National Council on Teacher Quality 2009 Survey Ratings; (2) "Education Week's Quality Counts" 2010 Indicators; and (3) Other…

  5. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  6. A comparative study of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, with special emphasis on policy measures for nonindustrial private forests in Norway and the United States.

    Treesearch

    Berit Hauger. Lindstad

    2002-01-01

    In recognition of the cultural, economic, and ecological importance of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, this paper compares forest resource data, ownership patterns, management issues, and the impact the forest sector has on the national economies of these four countries. There is particular emphasis on the analysis of policy measures that...

  7. Contributions of a Nonprofit Educational Measurement Organization to Education Policy Research. Research Report. ETS RR-13-06. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Richard J.; Goertz, Margaret E.; Wilder, Gita Z.

    2013-01-01

    As part of its mission, Educational Testing Service (ETS) has conducted education policy research focused on promoting equal opportunity for all individuals from early childhood through adulthood. This report provides a sampler of this extensive work in three areas chosen to represent major historical foci: (1) Analyzing, evaluating, and informing…

  8. Nutrition policy in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Männistö, Satu; Valsta, Liisa M; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa

    2010-06-01

    The present study describes the main actions in Finnish nutrition policy during the past decades. The main actor is the National Nutrition Council, which provides nutritional recommendations and action programmes, and sets up expert groups to solve nutritional problems in the population. The main fortification programmes have been the iodization of table salt, supplementation of selenium to fertilizers and the vitamin D fortification programme. As an example of national legislation, labelling the salt content of foods is described. Finnish nutrition policy is based on a good monitoring system of nutrition and risk factors of chronic diseases, as well as active epidemiological research. However, the authorities have not often taken proposed fiscal measures seriously but have instead considered agricultural and economic policies more important than health policy.

  9. Acquisition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vore, Helen L.

    1970-01-01

    A policy to insure acquisition of primary international libraries' collections for a library system pertaining to the environmental sciences was prepared by a newly formed Technical Processes Section, Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA). (Author/NH)

  10. Faculty Compensation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silander, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…

  11. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. An exploration of the theoretical concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs at the Swedish public health arena.

    PubMed

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Fossum, Bjöörn

    2009-12-01

    In John Kingdon's Policy Streams Approach policy formation is described as the result of the flow of three 'streams', the problem stream, the policy stream and the politics stream. When these streams couple, a policy window opens which facilitate policy change. Actors who promote specific solutions are labelled policy entrepreneurs. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of the Policy Streams Approach by verifying whether the theoretical concepts 'policy windows' and 'policy entrepreneurs' could be discernable in nine specified cases. Content analyses of interviews and documents related to child health promoting measures in three Swedish municipalities were performed and nine case studies were written. The policy processes preceding the municipal measures and described in the case studies were scrutinized in order to find statements related to the concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. All conditions required to open a policy window were reported to be present in eight of the nine case studies, as was the most important resource of a policy entrepreneur, sheer persistence. This study shows that empirical examples of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs could be identified in child health promoting measures in Swedish municipalities. If policy makers could learn to predict the opening of policy windows, the planning of public health measures might be more straightforward. This also applies to policy makers' ability to detect actors possessing policy entrepreneur resources.

  13. Demography, destiny and population policies.

    PubMed

    Findlay, A M; Borgegard, L E

    1995-07-01

    This article considers the aftermath of the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the later Laxon, Sweden meeting of about 40 academic geographers, who addressed the implications of the Plan of Action for national policy. A recent International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) member synthesized conference impact on member nations. Martens from IUSSP offered the critique that the 381 recommendations were philosophically incoherent and poorly integrated and did not distinguish between government as a "doer of things" from government as "organizer and guarantor of a legal-institutional framework for allowing individuals and voluntary groups to seek improvements." This article discusses the apparent gulf between the views of population researchers and that of policy makers. It is reasoned that population policies do matter. The Club of Rome world model confirmed rapid population growth during 1972-90. Population policies in the past emphasized a societal perspective rather than an individual one. Policies impact on individual decision making. Most population geographers emphasize four features of social change. 1) Policy must address suitable measures for easing social, economic, and political tensions that arise in the temporary experience of high population growth. 2) More sensitive models of demographic behavior need to be developed, in order to account for the highly uneven patterns of fertility and mortality. Policy should not focus exclusively on family planning and should take into account the cultural and socioeconomic context. 3) Migration pressures from poor to rich countries have increased. Policy should address international migration. 4) People adapt quickly to new policy measures and apply policies effectively in their own life. Policies fail when the top-down approach does not include adequate research into values and behavior of the persons most affected by policy. These four points were discussed throughout this

  14. Pants, policies and paranoia...

    PubMed

    Dancer, S J

    2010-01-01

    In response to the rising tide of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in UK hospitals, governmental health departments have introduced dress codes for healthcare staff. These include measures such as the use of short sleeves, no wristwatches or jewellery, and avoidance of ties and white coats. Although hospital pathogens have been found on such items, there is no evidence that they play a major role in transmitting HAIs and these policies have received much criticism. This Leader examines the evidence underpinning the new dress codes and concludes that there is insufficient evidence to justify recent policies. Dress codes appear to have been imposed more for political purposes than in deference to effective infection control. In addition, the UK 'zero tolerance' mandate towards HAI does not balance personal accountability against a failing healthcare system. These policies may try to impose good practice but over-reliance on cheap, short-term solutions will not adequately address longer-term problems with HAI.

  15. Population policies and development.

    PubMed

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  16. Reconsidering Conceptualisations of Farm Conservation Activity: The Case of Conserving Hay Meadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Changes to agri-environmental policy, with an emphasis on encouraging more environmentally friendly farming practices, have been paralleled in the last two decades by a body of research into agri-environment scheme adoption. To date much of this research has considered conservation behaviour as a static issue across whole farms, and viewed…

  17. Connecting Payments for Ecosystem Services and Agri-Environment Regulation: An Analysis of the Welsh Glastir Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne-Jones, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and…

  18. Reconsidering Conceptualisations of Farm Conservation Activity: The Case of Conserving Hay Meadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Changes to agri-environmental policy, with an emphasis on encouraging more environmentally friendly farming practices, have been paralleled in the last two decades by a body of research into agri-environment scheme adoption. To date much of this research has considered conservation behaviour as a static issue across whole farms, and viewed…

  19. Connecting Payments for Ecosystem Services and Agri-Environment Regulation: An Analysis of the Welsh Glastir Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne-Jones, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and…

  20. Board Policies on Policy Development. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This is the 16th in a continuing series of kit-booklets issued to help school boards develop written policies in key subject areas. The material supports the contention that a set of well-defined policies on board policy development and administrative execution of policies reduces the likelihood of trouble and tends to eliminate instant, sloppy,…

  1. Internet Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  2. ''When Cost Measures Contradict''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

    2003-05-09

    When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  3. Measuring $\

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  4. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  5. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  6. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    PubMed

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in

  7. Does conservation on farmland contribute to halting the biodiversity decline?

    PubMed

    Kleijn, David; Rundlöf, Maj; Scheper, Jeroen; Smith, Henrik G; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-09-01

    Biodiversity continues to decline, despite the implementation of international conservation conventions and measures. To counteract biodiversity loss, it is pivotal to know how conservation actions affect biodiversity trends. Focussing on European farmland species, we review what is known about the impact of conservation initiatives on biodiversity. We argue that the effects of conservation are a function of conservation-induced ecological contrast, agricultural land-use intensity and landscape context. We find that, to date, only a few studies have linked local conservation effects to national biodiversity trends. It is therefore unknown how the extensive European agri-environmental budget for conservation on farmland contributes to the policy objectives to halt biodiversity decline. Based on this review, we identify new research directions addressing this important knowledge gap.

  8. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  9. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E.; Huda, Tanvir M.; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  10. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and

  11. Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on Efficiency and Policy Measures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Olden, Julian D.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.; Miller, William M.; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V.; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18–24%, going from 1,993,000–2,628,000 Mm3 in 2010 to 2,359,000–3,271,000 Mm3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700–46,400 Mm3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000–58,400 Mm3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27–36 m3GJ−1 (0.1–0.5 m3GJ−1 consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4–0.7 m3GJ−1 (0.2–0.3 m3GJ−1 consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm3 (20,300 Mm3 consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in

  12. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  13. Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

  14. Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

  15. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  16. The Federal Energy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1976-01-01

    There is no federal energy policy. There is a fuel use policy of sorts, but that policy is related as much to foreign policy as to domestic needs, with the United States public paying the large bill. Neither presidential candidate has yet offered a plan for a coherent energy policy. (Editor/BT)

  17. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  18. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  19. Evaluating, Developing, and Enhancing Domain-Specific Measures of Child Care Quality. Research-to-Policy Research-to-Practice Brief. Publication #2009-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Vick, Jessica; Halle, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Measures of quality are now in widespread use across states as part of quality improvement initiatives. For example, many states are currently using global measures of quality that were first developed for research and practice purposes (such as the Environmental Rating Scales) in their Quality Rating Systems (QRSs). Although global quality…

  20. The Concept of Fiscal Effort in the Illinois General Purpose Educational Grant-in-Aid: Some Legal and Measurement Problems. A Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickrod, G. Alan; Hubbard, Ben C.

    Recent legal action and research raise doubts about the advisability of measuring fiscal effort in the Illinois general grant-in-aid program by using the simple school district tax rate for operational purposes. Various logical, and perhaps legal, considerations might be sufficient to compel adjustment of the measurement of effort. Beyond these…

  1. Evaluating, Developing, and Enhancing Domain-Specific Measures of Child Care Quality. Research-to-Policy Research-to-Practice Brief. Publication #2009-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Vick, Jessica; Halle, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Measures of quality are now in widespread use across states as part of quality improvement initiatives. For example, many states are currently using global measures of quality that were first developed for research and practice purposes (such as the Environmental Rating Scales) in their Quality Rating Systems (QRSs). Although global quality…

  2. Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Marburger, III

    2008-11-18

    Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

  3. Policy Measures and Reimbursement for Emergency Medical Imaging in the Era of Payment Reform: Proceedings From a Panel Discussion of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Berdahl, Carl; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Fisher, Nancy L; Burstin, Helen; Pines, Jesse M

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 is expanding the use of quality measurement and promulgating new payment models that place downward pressure on health care utilization and costs. As emergency department (ED) computed tomography utilization has tripled in the past decade, stakeholders have identified advanced imaging as an area where quality and efficiency measures should expand. On May 12, 2015, Academic Emergency Medicine convened a consensus conference titled "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." As part of the conference, a panel of health care policy leaders and emergency physicians discussed the effect of the ACA and other quality programs on ED diagnostic imaging, specifically the way that quality metrics may affect ED care and how ED diagnostic imaging fits in the broader strategy of the U.S. government. This article discusses the content of the panel's presentations. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  5. Transparency and oversight in local wellness policies.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-02-01

    Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger policy addressing nutrition and physical activity. Policies for school year 2007-2008 were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 641 districts and analyzed for their applicability to elementary, middle, and high school levels. Main outcome measures included (1) policy transparency (online availability), (2) advisory council requirements, and (3) overall policy strength. T-tests assessed variability in policy strength by transparency and advisory council requirements. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses controlled for district size, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, region, and locale; models of advisory council/policy strength relationships also controlled for state advisory council requirements. More than 41% of districts posted wellness policies online and more than 43% required advisory councils. Transparency was less likely in small-/medium-sized and non-southern districts; and, for elementary school policies, most common in majority Hispanic districts. Advisory council requirements were less likely in small-/medium-sized districts for middle/high school policies and more likely in majority Hispanic districts for elementary school policies. After adjusting for all covariates, transparency was not associated with policy strength, but advisory council requirements significantly predicted policy strength. Transparency may facilitate awareness, but it does not mean that wellness policies will be stronger; however, advisory council requirements may be a marker for stronger policies. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  6. Measuring regional and district variations in the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in Ghana: challenges, opportunities and implications for maternal and newborn health policy and programmes.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Edward; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Quansah Asare, Gloria; Koram, Kwadwo A; Grobbee, Diederick; Agyepong, Irene A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the quality of health management information system (HMIS) data needed for assessment of local area variation in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) incidence and to describe district and regional variations in PIH incidence. A retrospective review of antenatal and delivery records of 2682 pregnant women in 10 district hospitals in the Greater Accra and Upper West regions of Ghana was conducted in 2013. Quality of HMIS data was assessed by completeness of reporting. The incidence of PIH was estimated for each district. Key variables for routine assessment of PIH such as blood pressure (BP) at antenatal visits, weight and height were 95-100% complete. Fundal height, gestational age and BP at delivery were not consistently reported. The incidence of PIH differed significantly between Greater Accra region (6.1%) and Upper West region (3.2%). Prevalence of obesity among pregnant women in Greater Accra region (13.9%) was significantly higher than that of women in Upper West region (2.2%). More attention needs to be given to understanding local area variations in PIH and possible relationships with urbanisation and lifestyle changes that promote obesity, to inform maternal and newborn health policy. This can be done with good quality routine HMIS data. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Space Policy and Humanities Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2005-05-01

    In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

  8. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  9. Privacy Policy | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) respects the privacy of users of its websites. This is why we have taken the time to disclose our privacy policy and information collection practices. NCI does not disclose, give, sell, or transfer any personal information about visitors unless required to do so by law. NCI automatically collects a limited amount of information about the use of websites for statistical purposes — that is, to measure the numbers of visitors. This information may be helpful when considering changes that improve our websites for future visitors.

  10. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. 'Policy triangle framework' was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. The policies of "pupil liaisons" and "safety belt" were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For 'pupil liaisons' policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is responsible for the implementation of the policies, and

  11. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  12. Measuring the Relationship between Attribution for "The Gap" and Educational Policy Attitudes: Introducing the Attributions for Scholastic Outcomes Scale-Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Rick; Vaughan, Phillip W.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides empirical support for the Attributions for Scholastic Outcomes Scale-Black (ASO-B) as an instrument for measuring two latent traits that influence causal reasoning about the Black-White achievement gap: culture-blaming and structure-blaming. Within this conceptual framework, culture-blaming refers to the belief that Black…

  13. Professional Capacity and Organizational Change as Measures of Educational Effectiveness: Assessing the Impact of Postgraduate Education in Development Policy and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hazel; Thomas, Alan

    2004-01-01

    We tend to measure educational performance by students' attainment in coursework or examinations. In the case of professional education, the impact of the educational programme on the students' own capacities to enhance their work practices, and the wider organizational effects of the students' education and training, are also key 'products' of…

  14. Education Funding and Student Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework for Measurement of the Alignment of State Education Finance and Academic Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of education finance equity and adequacy has engaged researchers for more than three decades. At the same time, calls for increased academic accountability and higher student achievement in K-12 public education have reached new levels at both the national and state levels. Aligning these represents an…

  15. Education Funding and Student Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework for Measurement of the Alignment of State Education Finance and Academic Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of education finance equity and adequacy has engaged researchers for more than three decades. At the same time, calls for increased academic accountability and higher student achievement in K-12 public education have reached new levels at both the national and state levels. Aligning these represents an…

  16. Measuring the Relationship between Attribution for "The Gap" and Educational Policy Attitudes: Introducing the Attributions for Scholastic Outcomes Scale-Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Rick; Vaughan, Phillip W.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides empirical support for the Attributions for Scholastic Outcomes Scale-Black (ASO-B) as an instrument for measuring two latent traits that influence causal reasoning about the Black-White achievement gap: culture-blaming and structure-blaming. Within this conceptual framework, culture-blaming refers to the belief that Black…

  17. Linking birds, fields and farmers.

    PubMed

    Swagemakers, Paul; Wiskerke, Han; Van Der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

    2009-05-01

    The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers' experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers' discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers' views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with 'an eye for birds', i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms.

  18. ROK Military Policy Recommendations Toward North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S...last year ( 2011 ), North Korea’s navy attacked a South Korean warship and fired artillery against Yeonpyung Island. But the ROK armed forces showed...restraint and did not take aggressive measures against North Korea. This military policy was a part of the political policy. This paper traces the

  19. The Urban Policy Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Highlights a comparison of a 30-year legacy of urban policy making with 25 years of policy making on environmental problems to demonstrate how weak policy development has been in dealing with the urban crisis. Several principles designed to guide future urban policies are discussed. (GR)

  20. Developing a Policy Brief.

    PubMed

    Keepnews, David M

    2016-05-01

    A policy brief is a document that provides a succinct explanation and analysis of a policy issue or problem, together with policy options and recommendations for addressing that issue or problem. This article provides an explanation of what a policy brief is, how it is used, and how it is developed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  2. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: Becoming Policy Aware, Policy Wise and Policy Active.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis," this article describes the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Here, I illustrate that traditionally teachers have been, to a certain degree, involved in policy processes. However, the degree to which…

  3. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. A Tutorial on Methods to Estimating Clinically and Policy-Meaningful Measures of Treatment Effects in Prospective Observational Studies: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Peter C; Laupacis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), treatment assignment is unconfounded with baseline covariates, allowing outcomes to be directly compared between treatment arms. When outcomes are binary, the effect of treatment can be summarized using relative risks, absolute risk reductions and the number needed to treat (NNT). When outcomes are time-to-event in nature, the effect of treatment on the absolute reduction of the risk of an event occurring within a specified duration of follow-up and the associated NNT can be estimated. In observational studies of the effect of treatments on health outcomes, treatment is frequently confounded with baseline covariates. Regression adjustment is commonly used to estimate the adjusted effect of treatment on outcomes. We highlight several limitations of measures of treatment effect that are directly obtained from regression models. We illustrate how both regression-based approaches and propensity-score based approaches allow one to estimate the same measures of treatment effect as those that are commonly reported in RCTs. The CONSORT statement recommends that both relative and absolute measures of treatment effects be reported for RCTs with dichotomous outcomes. The methods described in this paper will allow for similar reporting in observational studies. PMID:22848188

  5. Alternative Policy Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    CpRE CENTER FOR POLICY RESEARCH IN EDUCATION Alternative Policy o Instruments I Lorraine M. McDonnell Richard F. Elmore November 1987 DTICELECTE...03 Alternative Policy Instruments Lorraine M. McDonnell The RAND Corporation Richard F. Elmore Michigan State University November 1987 THRAND...range of policy instruments available or on the political and organizational conditions needed for each to work as intended. Policy decisions would

  6. Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications

    PubMed Central

    Godman, Brian; Wettermark, Bjorn; van Woerkom, Menno; Fraeyman, Jessica; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Berg, Christian; Bishop, Iain; Bucsics, Anna; Campbell, Stephen; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Fürst, Jurij; Garuoliene, Kristina; Herholz, Harald; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Piessnegger, Jutta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Vlahović-Palčevski, Vera V.; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Vončina, Luka; Malinowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilization. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. Objective: Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance prescribing efficiency before a decision to prescribe a particular medicine. Subsequently utilize the findings to suggest potential future initiatives that countries could consider. Method: An analysis of different methodologies involving cross national and single country retrospective observational studies on reimbursed use and expenditure of PPIs, statins, and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs among European countries. Results: Nature and intensity of the various initiatives appreciably influenced prescribing behavior and expenditure, e.g., multiple measures resulted in reimbursed expenditure for PPIs in Scotland in 2010 56% below 2001 levels despite a 3-fold increase in utilization and in the Netherlands, PPI expenditure fell by 58% in 2010 vs. 2000 despite a 3-fold increase in utilization. A similar picture was seen with prescribing restrictions, i.e., (i) more aggressive follow-up of prescribing restrictions for patented statins and ARBs resulted in a greater reduction in the utilization of patented statins in Austria vs. Norway and lower utilization of patented ARBs vs. generic ACEIs in Croatia than Austria. However, limited impact of restrictions on esomeprazole in Norway with the first prescription or recommendation in hospital where restrictions do not apply. Similar findings when generic losartan became available in Western Europe. Conclusions: Multiple demand-side measures are needed to influence prescribing patterns. When combined with supply-side measures, activities can realize appreciable savings. Health authorities cannot rely on a “spill over” effect between classes to affect changes in

  7. [[On population policy in Japan

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y

    1995-05-01

    "In this paper, the author presents his idea on the concept of population policy, emphasizing the importance of indirect measures. As an example the child allowance system in Japan is explained and evaluated by comparing [it] with those in Western countries." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  8. Bare ground as a crucial habitat feature for a rare terrestrially foraging farmland bird of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagmann-Ioset, Aline; Schaub, Michael; Reichlin, Thomas S.; Weisshaupt, Nadja; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-02-01

    Most farmland birds have declined significantly throughout the world due to agricultural intensification. Agri-environmental policies could not halt the decline of ground-foraging insectivorous farmland birds in Europe, indicating a gap in knowledge of species' ecological requirements. This represents a major impediment to the development of efficient, evidence-based agri-environmental measures. Using radio-tracking we studied habitat selection by farmland Hoopoes, a rare terrestrially foraging bird in Central Europe, and assessed habitat preferences of their main prey (Molecrickets), with the aim to identify optimal foraging habitat profiles in order to guide farmland management. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling of habitat descriptors at actual foraging locations vs. random locations within the home ranges of 13 males showed that the availability of bare ground was the principal determinant of foraging activity, with an optimum of 60-70% bare ground at patch scale. This ideal habitat configuration, which facilitates birds' terrestrial hunting, was found primarily in intensively farmed fruit tree plantations which dominated the landscape matrix: this habitat offers extensive strips of bare ground due to systematic removal of ground vegetation along tree rows. In contrast, dense grassland and cropland were avoided. Another important habitat feature was the availability of nongravelly soil, which enabled Hoopoes to probe the earth with their long, curved bill in search of underground invertebrates. The role of Molecrickets, however, appeared secondary to foraging patch selection, suggesting that prey accessibility was per se more important than prey abundance. Creating patches of bare ground within modern farmland where sufficient supplies of suitable invertebrate prey exist will support Hoopoe populations.

  9. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Preservation Compliance Costs policy and a draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation... execution of EHP mitigation measures. The draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation...

  10. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. National Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 edition of the "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) third annual review of state laws, rules and regulations that govern the teaching profession. This year's report is a comprehensive analysis of the full range of each state's teacher policies, measured against a realistic…

  11. 15 CFR 1170.3 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... extent economically feasible by the end of the fiscal year 1992, use the metric system of measurement in...) Federal agencies shall coordinate and plan for the use of the metric system in their procurements, grants... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE METRIC CONVERSION POLICY FOR FEDERAL AGENCIES § 1170.3 General policy. The...

  12. 15 CFR 1170.3 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... extent economically feasible by the end of the fiscal year 1992, use the metric system of measurement in...) Federal agencies shall coordinate and plan for the use of the metric system in their procurements, grants... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE METRIC CONVERSION POLICY FOR FEDERAL AGENCIES § 1170.3 General policy. The...

  13. 15 CFR 1170.3 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... extent economically feasible by the end of the fiscal year 1992, use the metric system of measurement in...) Federal agencies shall coordinate and plan for the use of the metric system in their procurements, grants... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE METRIC CONVERSION POLICY FOR FEDERAL AGENCIES § 1170.3 General policy. The...

  14. Language Tests as Language Policy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2007-01-01

    This paper contextualizes language tests in relation to educational and national language policies by demonstrating how these language measures may be used as mechanisms for affecting "de facto" language policies. This phenomenon is of special relevance given current controversies in nation states between multilingual and multicultural realities…

  15. 33 CFR 203.71 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 203.71 Section 203.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Advance Measures § 203.71 Policy....

  16. 33 CFR 203.71 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 203.71 Section 203.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Advance Measures § 203.71 Policy....

  17. 33 CFR 203.71 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 203.71 Section 203.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Advance Measures § 203.71 Policy....

  18. 33 CFR 203.71 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 203.71 Section 203.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Advance Measures § 203.71 Policy....

  19. 33 CFR 203.71 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 203.71 Section 203.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Advance Measures § 203.71 Policy....

  20. Modelling public support for wildland fire policy

    Treesearch

    J.D. Absher; J.J. Vaske

    2007-01-01

    Theoretically grounded explanations of wildland fire policy can be improved by empirically documenting the causal influences of support for (or opposition to) management alternatives. This chapter proposes a model based on the specificity principle (i.e. correspondence between measured variables to empirically examine four common wildland fire policies in relation to...

  1. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hunink, J E; Droogers, P; Kauffman, S; Mwaniki, B M; Bouma, J

    2012-11-30

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental policy indicators: A systems model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Leslie Edwards; Cayer, N. Joseph

    1993-09-01

    This article describes and tests a systems theory-based policy indicators model. The framework is used to examine propositions about linkages between states' ecological-spatial characteristics and subsequent selected solid waste management (SWM) -related environmental policies. It was hypothesized that state characteristics of: (1) population density (used as a garbage-per-land area index), (2) population convergence within urban areas, and (3) percent population change in the interval 1980 1985, could jointly explain state variation in both the number and the vigor of SWM policy outputs. Greater levels of spatial pressure were proposed to be related directly to more numerous, more convincing policies. Proposals are grounded in the literature of organizational search theory, crisis stimulation, and technological pressure. Results revealed that the sociospatial model in fact could explain a reasonable proportion of policy variation across states. However, not all hypotheses are supported. Population change shows an indirect, rather than the anticipated direct, relationship with policy output levels. In addition, when used in the model as a pollution intensity index, population density failed to contribute significantly to an explanation of differences in state SWM policy levels. The analysis raises questions about changes occurring over time in the nature and direction of linkages between sociospatial measures and policy responses. This study suggests that strengthening policy indicator models may require questioning key assumptions and theoretical bases, conducting longitudinal studies, and factoring in political, economic, and other policy environment forces.

  3. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency.

  4. Policy About Policy: Some Thoughts and Projections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    In order to perform their proper functions without getting sidetracked by administrative details, school boards must establish a policy about policy. More is required than a set of rules codifying existing procedures. A school board must consider the educational focus of its decision-making responsibilities, the political factors affecting its…

  5. Decentralization and Policy Design. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, New Brunswick, NJ.

    This policy brief focuses on design issues surrounding decentralization policies, drawing from the following three reports: "Working Models of Choice in Public Education," by Richard F. Elmore; "Diversity Amidst Standardization: State Differential Treatment of Districts," by Susan H. Fuhrman; and "School District Restructuring in Santa Fe, New…

  6. Impact of role models and policy exposure on support for tobacco control policies in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Anderson, James G; Yang, Tingzhong

    2014-03-01

    To examine how expectations of role models concerning smoking and exposure to tobacco control policies are associated with people's support for smoking bans. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using multistage sampling. Employed structural equation modeling to examine the relationships and multi-group analysis to compare cross-group difference between smokers and non-smokers. Expectations of role models were found to be significantly associated with support for FCTC policies related to smoking. Policy exposure indirectly relates to policy support. Cross-group differences between smokers and non-smokers were not significant. Expectations of role models are strong predictors of support for FCTC tobacco control policy among Chinese urban residents; policy exposure is associated with policy support indirectly through the influence of expectations of role models. Policymakers should utilize social roles to promote tobacco control measures.

  7. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  8. Public policy and pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, H G

    1982-09-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures.

  9. Public Policy and Pharmaceutical Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Henry G.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures. PMID:10309721

  10. Do infrastructures impact on alcohol policy making?

    PubMed

    König, Claudia; Segura, Lidia

    2011-03-01

    The importance of building and strengthening effective infrastructures within the field of public health has increasingly been recognized. A wide variety of actors and structures can be identified for alcohol policy, including systems for policy development, monitoring, research and work-force development, but too little is known about the complex systems of infrastructure available across European countries and their impact on alcohol policy. This study is part of the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) project, and aims to map existing infrastructures, but also to examine the relationship between infrastructures and alcohol policy change. A survey of alcohol policy infrastructure and infrastructure needs at the national level will be conducted using an updated and adapted questionnaire based on the Health Promotion (HP) Source Project tool. Case studies involving in-depth interviews will be conducted for a selection of countries. Data will be analysed descriptively, mapping alcohol policy infrastructure and identifying needs to reveal any relationship between infrastructure and alcohol policy. This study can contribute to building the scientific knowledge base on this topic as well to policy development. First, the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance will produce an extended map of alcohol policy infrastructures in a wide range of European countries. Secondly, the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance will foster a better understanding and expand the knowledge base on the role and influence of infrastructure on alcohol policy and practice. Recommendations deriving from this study will identify the need for better utilization of existing infrastructures and for the development of new infrastructures, necessary to develop and implement effective alcohol policy from a public health perspective. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  12. State Energy Policy Newsletter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page allows users to sign up for a weekly summary of state energy policy news for state agency staff involved in advancing clean energy opportunities and developing climate change mitigation policies and programs.

  13. 78 FR 23247 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... control system to monitor ongoing performance with measurable criteria. The plan must also include an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Policy Statement Concerning Assistance AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation....

  14. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  15. Economics and obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  16. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  17. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  18. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  19. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  20. Teacher Evaluation Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, John M.

    This study investigated the degree of teacher evaluation policy implementation in Alberta, the events that influenced teacher evaluation policy adoption, and the variables that affected the policy implementation process. The first phase of the study was primarily qualitative, using semistructured interviews with selected key decision-makers and…

  1. Essays in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jed Thomas

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

  2. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  3. Innovation in social policy: collaborative policy advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sherraden, Margaret S; Slosar, Betsy; Sherraden, Michael

    2002-07-01

    In a time of policy devolution, social workers have a unique opportunity to develop a significant voice in constructing state social welfare policy. This article examines a method of collaborative policy advocacy led by social work researchers, practitioners, advocates, and students. It is illustrated with a five-year project to reduce wealth inequality through community economic development. Researchers brought expertise in ideas and analysis to real-world applications. Social work practitioners brought essential "on the ground" expertise. Students brought much-needed assistance and a fresh perspective to the social policy process. Advocates, working in social welfare advocacy organizations, bridged these perspectives and provided experience in policy advocacy. Working with coalition partners, social workers successfully placed asset-based community economic development strategies on the state agenda and were instrumental in passage of innovative legislation. The article demonstrates that the policy-making process is open to influence by social workers, especially if they come prepared with innovative and promising ideas about long-standing social issues. Social workers can and should take the lead and become significant actors in state policy development.

  4. Excursions in technology policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archibald, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    This technical report presents a summary of three distinct projects: (1) Measuring economic benefits; (2) Evaluating the SBIR program; and (3) A model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. the first project deals with the Technology Applications Group (TAG) at NASA Langley Research Center. The mission of TAG is to assist firms interested in commercializing technologies. TAG is a relatively new group as is the emphasis on technology commercialization for NASA. One problem faced by TAG and similar groups at other centers is measuring their effectiveness. The first project this summer, a paper entitled, 'Measuring the Economic Benefits of Technology Transfer from a National Laboratory: A Primer,' focused on this measurement problem. We found that the existing studies of the impact of technology transfer on the economy were conceptually flawed. The 'primer' outlines the appropriate theoretical framework for measuring the economic benefits of technology transfer. The second project discusses, one of the programs of TAG, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. This program has led to over 400 contracts with Small Business since its inception in 1985. The program has never been evaluated. Crucial questions such as those about the extent of commercial successes from the contracts need to be answered. This summer we designed and implemented a performance evaluation survey instrument. The analysis of the data will take place in the fall. The discussion of the third project focuses on a model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. At present several powerful forces are combining to change the environment for science and technology policy. The end of the cold war eliminated the rationale for federal support for many projects. The new- found Congressional conviction to balance the budget without tax increases combined with demographic changes which automatically increase spending for some politically popular programs

  5. Excursions in technology policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archibald, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    This technical report presents a summary of three distinct projects: (1) Measuring economic benefits; (2) Evaluating the SBIR program; and (3) A model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. the first project deals with the Technology Applications Group (TAG) at NASA Langley Research Center. The mission of TAG is to assist firms interested in commercializing technologies. TAG is a relatively new group as is the emphasis on technology commercialization for NASA. One problem faced by TAG and similar groups at other centers is measuring their effectiveness. The first project this summer, a paper entitled, 'Measuring the Economic Benefits of Technology Transfer from a National Laboratory: A Primer,' focused on this measurement problem. We found that the existing studies of the impact of technology transfer on the economy were conceptually flawed. The 'primer' outlines the appropriate theoretical framework for measuring the economic benefits of technology transfer. The second project discusses, one of the programs of TAG, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. This program has led to over 400 contracts with Small Business since its inception in 1985. The program has never been evaluated. Crucial questions such as those about the extent of commercial successes from the contracts need to be answered. This summer we designed and implemented a performance evaluation survey instrument. The analysis of the data will take place in the fall. The discussion of the third project focuses on a model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. At present several powerful forces are combining to change the environment for science and technology policy. The end of the cold war eliminated the rationale for federal support for many projects. The new- found Congressional conviction to balance the budget without tax increases combined with demographic changes which automatically increase spending for some politically popular programs

  6. National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2001-December 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the National Council on Disability surveys major legal and policy developments during the year 2002 and offers recommendations for legal/policy measures and for research. The first chapter identifies legal and policy issues that cross traditional areas, focusing on six themes: (1) the mainstreaming of disability issues; (2)…

  7. New Lenses for Viewing Educational Policy: Insights through Imaginative Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara J.

    This paper calls for an alternative view of educational policy, a departure from the macroperspective currently dominating policy analysis. The latter perspective tends to focus on policy development and implementation issues of politics and control, compliance and measurement, and relationship structures and influences among groups and actors.…

  8. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  9. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  10. Cultural Value, Measurement and Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dave

    2015-01-01

    No matter what the national context, the question of how to understand the impact of government programmes, particularly in terms of value for money, has emerged as a complex problem to be solved by social scientific management. This article engages with these trends in two ways. It focuses on the UK to understand how these tools and technologies…

  11. Spectrum Measurement and Policy Reform Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Snowe, Olympia J. [R-ME

    2010-07-19

    Senate - 07/19/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Cultural Value, Measurement and Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dave

    2015-01-01

    No matter what the national context, the question of how to understand the impact of government programmes, particularly in terms of value for money, has emerged as a complex problem to be solved by social scientific management. This article engages with these trends in two ways. It focuses on the UK to understand how these tools and technologies…

  13. Child and adolescent mental health policy: promise to provision.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gordon; Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu

    2008-06-01

    Mental health policy enables the translation of the knowledge base of 'how' to help children and families into the actual 'provision' of help. Amid competing pressures to leave the allocation of services to the market, policy is required to define needs, select priorities, match resources with need, and to measure what has been accomplished. Crafting policy requires balancing contrasting goals and approaches, here spelled out. Public mental health policy can be compared to other forms of continuous quality improvement (CQI).

  14. 48 CFR 11.002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... seq.), designates the metric system of measurement as the preferred system of weights and measures for United States trade and commerce, and it requires that each agency use the metric system of measurement... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 11.002 Section 11...

  15. Climate policy to defeat the green paradox.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Stefan; Nyström, Johan

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions have accelerated since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol. This discouraging development may partly be blamed on accelerating world growth and on lags in policy instruments. However, it also raises serious question concerning whether policies to reduce CO2 emissions are as effective as generally assumed. In recent years, a considerable number of studies have identified various feedback mechanisms of climate policies that often erode, and occasionally reinforce, their effectiveness. These studies generally focus on a few feedback mechanisms at a time, without capturing the entire effect. Partial accounting of policy feedbacks is common in many climate scenarios. The IPCC, for example, only accounts for direct leakage and rebound effects. This article attempts to map the aggregate effects of different types of climate policy feedback mechanisms in a cohesive framework. Controlling feedback effects is essential if the policy measures are to make any difference on a global level. A general conclusion is that aggregate policy feedback mechanisms tend to make current climate policies much less effective than is generally assumed. In fact, various policy measures involve a definite risk of 'backfiring' and actually increasing CO2 emissions. This risk is particularly pronounced once effects of climate policies on the pace of innovation in climate technology are considered. To stand any chance of controlling carbon emissions, it is imperative that feedback mechanisms are integrated into emission scenarios, targets for emission reduction and implementation of climate policy. In many cases, this will reduce the scope for subsidies to renewable energy sources, but increase the scope for other measures such as schemes to return carbon dioxide to the ground and to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases from wetlands and oceans. A framework that incorporates policy feedback effects necessitates rethinking the design of the national and regional emission

  16. Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panem, Sandra, Ed.

    This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the…

  17. Education Policy Influence Efficacy: Teacher Beliefs in Their Ability to Change Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant-Crawford, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) this study sought to understand how teachers view themselves as educational policy actors and to construct an instrument that measures teacher beliefs about their aptitude to advocate for changes in educational policy. This study employed a sequential explanatory design, characterized by quantitative data…

  18. Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panem, Sandra, Ed.

    This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the…

  19. Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and the Role of Tax Policy in Preserving the Stock of Low-Income Housing. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    This document comprises testimony delivered before the House Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures on the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit created by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, and on the role of tax policy in preserving the stock of low-income housing. The effectiveness of the low-income credit program is discussed and strategies to improve it…

  20. Do Social and Economic Policies Influence Health? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects. PMID:25984439

  1. Do Social and Economic Policies Influence Health? A Review.

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2014-09-01

    Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects.

  2. Policy as intervention: environmental and policy approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, T L; Pratt, M; Howze, E

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease, from individual health education approaches to broader community education efforts and, finally, to comprehensive and integrated programs addressing environmental, policy, and individual behavior change. Policies are divided into two areas: legislation/regulation and organizational policy. Environmental strategies are measures that alter or control the physical or social environment. Dimensions along which these strategies might be implemented are provided. Policy and environmental approaches can be justified on economic, strategic, and theoretical grounds. Experiences from other fields and other countries provide a framework for conceptualizing cardiovascular disease prevention approaches. PMID:7661226

  3. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    PubMed

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  4. Structural adjustment and health policy in Africa.

    PubMed

    Loewenson, R

    1993-01-01

    World Bank/International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) have been introduced in over 40 countries of Africa. This article outlines their economic policy measures and the experience of the countries that have introduced them, in terms of nutrition, health status, and health services. The evidence indicates that SAPs have been associated with increasing food insecurity and undernutrition, rising ill-health, and decreasing access to health care in the two-thirds or more of the population of African countries that already lives below poverty levels. SAPs have also affected health policy, with loss of a proactive health policy framework, a widening gap between the affected communities and policy makers, and the replacement of the underlying principle of equity in and social responsibility for health care by a policy in which health is marketed commodity and access to health care becomes an individual responsibility. The author argues that there is a deep contradiction between SAPs and policies aimed at building the health of the population. Those in the health sector need to contribute to the development and advocacy of economic policies in which growth is based on human resource development, and to the development of a civic environment in Africa that can ensure the implementation of such policies.

  5. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    PubMed

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  6. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    American energy policy is examined using a format of five primary presentations, each followed by a panel commentary and debate with audience questioning. The five parts are on: challenges (an overview of the global and domestic energy situation, and a discussion of the political process and energy); social implications of energy policies; economic consequences of energy policies; international attitudes toward US oil policies; and social/economic and environmental impacts of alternative energy sources. In the summary, changes in US economy and the impact of the market pricing system are considered.

  7. Federalism and health policy.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  8. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  9. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  10. Norwegian heat pump status and policy review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stene, J.; Eggen, G.; Aarlien, R.; Evenmo, K.

    1994-02-01

    This report is the Norwegian National Position Paper on heat pumps prepared for the IEA Heat Pump Centre's 1994 analysis, 'International Heat Pump Status and Policy Review'. The main objectives of this analysis is to provide an authoritative assessment of: the achievements of policy measures regarding heat pumps, the current and expected penetration of heat pumps in all market segments, and the technological status of various heat pumping technologies.

  11. The epidemiology of college alcohol and gambling policies

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Howard J; Donato, Anthony N; LaBrie, Richard A; Kidman, Rachel C; LaPlante, Debi A

    2005-01-01

    Background This article reports the first national assessment of patterns of drinking and gambling-related rulemaking on college campuses (e.g., punitive versus recovery oriented). Analyses relating school policies to known school rates of drinking or gambling identified potentially influential policies. These results can inform and encourage the development of guidelines, or "best practices," upon which schools can base future policy. Methods The college policy information was collected from handbooks, Web sites and supplemental materials of 119 scientifically selected colleges included in the fourth (2001) Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). A coding instrument of 40 items measured the scope and focus of school alcohol and gambling policies. This instrument included items to measure the presence of specific policies and establish whether the policies were punitive or rehabilitative. A total of 11 coders followed a process of information extraction, coding and arbitration used successfully in other published studies to codify policy information. Results Although all schools had a student alcohol use policy, only 26 schools (22%) had a gambling policy. Punitive and restrictive alcohol policies were most prevalent; recovery-oriented policies were present at fewer than 30% of schools. Certain alcohol and gambling policies had significant relationships with student binge drinking rates. Conclusions The relative lack of college recovery-oriented policies suggests that schools might be overlooking the value of rehabilitative measures in reducing addictive behaviors among students. Since there are few college gambling-related policies, schools might be missing an opportunity to inform students about the dangers of excessive gambling. PMID:15703082

  12. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  13. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  14. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  15. Basic Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

    This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

  16. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  17. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  18. Procedures and Policies Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  19. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  20. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  1. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  2. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  3. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  4. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  5. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  6. Cultural Policies in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opondo, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the challenges that arise when government policies are implemented with the goal of promoting culture, tradition, heritage, and identity in society. Focuses specifically on music education. Examines the impact and effects of the post-independence cultural policies in Kenya. Provides recommendations for restructuring present cultural…

  7. Social Policy Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 2001 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "Youth Civic Development: Implications of Research for Social Policy and Programs"…

  8. Creativity, Content, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Creativity, content, and policy have multiple relationships. Creativity and disciplinary content are inextricably linked. In dealing with creativity, the first education policy choice is whether to recognize and act on that fact. Care is needed in using the term "creativity" in advocacy contexts, lest the relationship between creativity and…

  9. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  10. School Library Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Instructional Resources Branch.

    The School Library Policy Statement for Manitoba schools begins with the mission statement of Manitoba Education and Training and the Goals of Learning for Manitoba. Statements of Manitoba's School Library Policy and the Philosophy of the School Library Program are also provided, together with an outline of the responsibilities of both Manitoba's…

  11. Sexuality Rights Protection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1991

    This booklet presents the policy of the Colorado Developmental Disabilities Planning Council to affirm and promote the sexuality rights and responsibilities of persons with disabilities. The purpose of the policy is to guide the community and empower persons with disabilities in Colorado to ensure that their inherent sexual rights and basic human…

  12. Rethinking Mental Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.

    Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…

  13. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  14. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  15. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  16. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  17. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  18. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  19. Materials Selection Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulsa City-County Library System, OK.

    The emphasis of the revised Tulsa (Oklahoma) City-County Library System selection policy is on meeting needs of the community rather than balancing the collection in any one library. The policy includes the "Library Bill of Rights" and covers objectives, responsibilities, maintenance of the collection, controversial materials, gifts,…

  20. Intercultural Policies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  1. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  2. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  3. Cultural Policy in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majstorovic, Stevan

    This text, one of a series focusing on various UNESCO Member States, examines how cultural policies are planned and implemented within those nations. The study is limited in scope to institutions and activity directly concerned with the arts. The focus of attention is directed to examination of the principles and methods of cultural policy,…

  4. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  5. Mentoring, Policy and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this policy brief, former P/PV President Gary Walker asks, "Is mentoring now a durable part of American social policy? If so, is this unalloyed good news?" Adapted from an article that first appeared in "The Handbook of Youth Mentoring" (DuBois and Karcher, ed. 2005), the brief reflects on the impact and appeal of mentoring, addresses various…

  6. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  7. Policy as Assemblage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  8. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  9. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  10. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  11. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  12. Parameter-exploring policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Sehnke, Frank; Osendorfer, Christian; Rückstiess, Thomas; Graves, Alex; Peters, Jan; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    We present a model-free reinforcement learning method for partially observable Markov decision problems. Our method estimates a likelihood gradient by sampling directly in parameter space, which leads to lower variance gradient estimates than obtained by regular policy gradient methods. We show that for several complex control tasks, including robust standing with a humanoid robot, this method outperforms well-known algorithms from the fields of standard policy gradients, finite difference methods and population based heuristics. We also show that the improvement is largest when the parameter samples are drawn symmetrically. Lastly we analyse the importance of the individual components of our method by incrementally incorporating them into the other algorithms, and measuring the gain in performance after each step.

  13. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  14. Qualitative science policy.

    PubMed

    Mitcham, Carl

    2007-12-01

    Qualitative research struggles against a tide of quantitative methods. To assist in this struggle, it is useful to consider the historical and philosophical origins of quantitative methods as well as criticisms that have been raised against them. Although these criticisms have often been restricted to discussions in the philosophy of science, they have become increasingly prominent in debates regarding science policy. This article thus reviews current science policy debates concerning scientific autonomy and the linear model of science-society relationships. Then, having considered the multiple meanings of quality, it argues for a science policy reassessment of quantitative research, for deeper engagements between science policy and the social sciences, and finally, for a more explicit alliance between science policy and qualitative methods.

  15. Geoscience and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Many current public policy issues have a geoscience component: climate change, natural hazards, energy, and mineral resources to name just a few. In addition, Congress makes decisions that directly affect scientists, such as funding allocations and visa and travel policy. Yet few geoscientists are engaged in the policy-making process. Members of Congress have called on scientists to become more active, including Ph.D. physicist and former-Representative Vernon Ehlers (R-MI). In an address at the 2010 AAAS Forum on Science and Technology Policy, he told scientists, "The gulf between the scientifically minded and those who are not scientifically minded is still tremendous. I think we are keeping far too quiet about what we know and how we would go about solving problems. We have so much to offer this country à solutions to various difficulties." This talk will provide information on avenues for geoscientists to more effectively engage in the public policy arena.

  16. RCRA NPL listing policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-10

    The directive discusses that on 6/10/86, EPA announced the first phase of a new policy for listing RCRA Subtitle C facilities on the NPL (51 FR 21057-21062 and 21109-21112). The document presents interim guidance for implementation of the new policy and solicits information from the Regions to assist in the final policy development. Specifically this includes the final and proposed RCRA/NPL listing policy; provides a questionnaire for an initial screening of potential NPL sites with respect to their RCRA status; solicits suggestions about effective policy development and implementation from the Regional Offices; and identifies an interim course of action until more definitive guidance is available.

  17. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  18. Evidence-based policy: implications for nursing and policy involvement.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Alistair

    2008-11-01

    Evidence-based policy making is espoused as a central feature of government in the United Kingdom. However, an expectation that this will improve the quality of policy produced and provide a path to increased involvement of nurses in the policy process is misplaced. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the emphasis on evidence-based policy is problematic and cannot be regarded as a "new model" of policy making. Also, it could deflect attention from more practical approaches to policy involvement on the part of nurses. Policy development activities, acquisition of skills in policy analysis, and other forms of involvement are needed if nurses are to move along the continuum from policy literacy, through policy acumen, to policy competence. This involves taking a critical stance on the notion of evidence-based policy.

  19. Research in geosciences policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    The general task was to look beyond the adverse physical impacts and to defining the policy problem. In order for policy actions to be effective, they must address the right policy problems, which will be different from and broader than the physical problems. We will work on defining the policy problems with a view to indicating how practical solutions might be implemented. In particular, public officials need advice on what should be said, and done, and for what purposes. That advice needs to be based on systematic analysis of: (1) the scholarly literature in the social sciences, and related disciplines; (2) the charging content of the policy debate at the center of attention; and (3) how citizens perceive and understand issues related to global change. We will conduct this analysis. Chapter 1 and 2 each reports work on defining the policy problem and analyzing the scholarly literature. Chapters 3 and 4, respectively, address the policy debate and citizen viewpoints in issues related to global change.

  20. A rainfall simulation experiment on soil and water conservation measures - Undesirable results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hösl, R.; Strauss, P.

    2012-04-01

    . These plots had a mulch cover of more than 70%. The mulching techniques exhibited a mean erosion rate of 2.2 kg.h-1 and mean surface runoff of 174 l.h-1 .and were thus prone to more erosion and runoff compared to the conventional plots with a mean erosion rate of 1.0 kg.h-1 and a mean surface runoff of 93 l.h-1. We identified two reasons for this unexpected behaviour. The soil cover of the mulch seed plots only amounted to about 8%. In addition the deep ploughing of the conventional plots caused higher infiltration rates than the mulching techniques with shallow soil management. This was also shown by an earlier runoff start on the shallow managed plots. About 18% of the arable land in Austria is cultivated with maize. Within this 18% about 40% is cultivated with mulching techniques; this conservation measure is part of the funded agri-environmental programme and is subsidised. To prove the practical effectiveness of the conservation measures employed at regional level, we surveyed soil cover of all fields cultivated with mulching techniques for a headwater catchment with 260 ha size where the experiments had taken place. Only one field with a satisfying mulch cover of about 50% was detected, mulch cover of all other fields was around 10%. These results are probably a result of climate, amount and type of cover crop - it was a rather wet year, cover crops were sawn late and could not fully develop and the type of cover crop chosen may have been not adequate for generating an effective mulch cover. This demonstrates that mulching may be an effective means of soil protection. However, for a successful use in agricultural practice, the quality of the mulch cover are a key for successful implementation and have to get more attention whenever talking about mulching as an effective conservation measure.

  1. Cracking the Books: Policy Measures to Contain Textbook Costs. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    As parents and students struggle with increasing college costs, one issue receiving considerable attention over the past several years has been the rising price of textbooks. The question of whether a relationship exists between textbook pricing and the overall cost of college has attracted notice from consumer interest groups and, subsequently,…

  2. Reflections on science and the governance of alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Gual, Antoni

    2011-03-01

    To consider, briefly, science's role in informing alcohol policy, and how science could help reframe the present governance of alcohol policy. Expression of the two project coordinators' reflections based on discussions during project meetings of the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) project. Three endeavours are considered important for science's role in informing alcohol policy: modelling studies that help predict the outcomes of differing policy approaches; studying the impact of live policy changes as a powerful set of natural experiments; and, improved study of the impact of integrated, coordinated and joined up alcohol policies, as opposed to the impact of individual alcohol policy measures. Three areas where science can contribute to strengthened alcohol policy governance include: analysis of different governance architectures that might promote joined-up actions between different sectors; the design of better metrics that measure the impact of public and private sector actions on health; and, by identifying incentives that help consumers make choices on the use of alcohol that improve health. The impact of science on better alcohol policy governance can only happen if there is more and better dialogue between scientists and those who design alcohol policy. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    PubMed

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  4. Evidence-Based Policy Making: Assessment of the American Heart Association's Strategic Policy Portfolio: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Goldstein, Larry B; Antman, Elliott M; Arnett, Donna K; Fonarow, Gregg C; Alberts, Mark J; Hayman, Laura L; Khera, Amit; Sallis, James F; Daniels, Stephen R; Sacco, Ralph L; Li, Suhui; Ku, Leighton; Lantz, Paula M; Robinson, Jennifer G; Creager, Mark A; Van Horn, Linda; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Whitsel, Laurie P

    2016-05-03

    CVD and stroke events, determination of the cost-effectiveness of policy interventions, and measurement of the extent to which vulnerable populations are reached must be assessed for all policies. Additional attention should be paid to the social determinants of health outcomes. AHA's public policies are generally robust and well aligned with its 2020 CVH metrics and CVD indicators. Areas for further policy development to fill gaps, overarching research strategies, and topic-specific priority areas are proposed. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Evaluating the demand for carbon sequestration in olive grove soils as a strategy toward mitigating climate change.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Entrena, Macario; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Gómez-Limón, José A; Espinosa-Goded, María; Castro-Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-12-15

    In this paper we present an estimate of the economic value of carbon sequestration in olive grove soils derived from the implementation of different agricultural management systems. Carbon sequestration is considered jointly with other environmental co-benefits, such as enhanced erosion prevention and increased biodiversity. The estimates have been obtained using choice experiments and show that there is a significant demand from society for these environmental services. From a policy perspective, an agri-environmental scheme that delivers the highest level of each environmental service would be valued by society at 121 Euros per hectare. If we focus on carbon sequestration, each ton of CO(2) would be valued at 17 Euros. These results show that there is scope to include agricultural soil carbon sequestration in climate change mitigation strategies and to provide guidance for setting payments for agri-environmental schemes promoting soil management changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High level security policies for Healthcare Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Katsikas, Sokratis; Kokolakis, Spyros

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare Establishments (HCE) have are today highly dependent upon Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). This increasing reliance upon ICT has stressed the need to foster security in Healthcare Information Systems (HIS). Security policies may have a significant contribution to this effort, but they could become the cause of portability and interoperability problems. Moreover, policies that fail to take into account all the aspects of HIS security, the legal and regulatory requirements, and the existence of several stakeholders may lead to ineffective or inefficient security measures. Policies of a special category, named Generic Security Policies (GSPs), should be developed to provide policy-level harmonisation and guidance to policy-makers within HCEs. Five such policies are comparatively reviewed herein.

  7. High level security policies for health care establishments.

    PubMed

    Katsikas, Sokratis; Kokolakis, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Health Care Establishments (HCE) are today highly dependent upon Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). This increasing reliance upon ICT has stressed the need to foster security in Healthcare Information Systems (HIS). Security policies may have a significant contribution to this effort, but they could become the cause of portability and interoperability problems. Moreover, policies that fail to take into account all the aspects of HIS security, the legal and regulatory requirements, and the existence of several stakeholders may lead to ineffective or inefficient security measures. Policies of a special category, named Generic Security Policies (GSP), should be developed to provide policy-level harmonisation and guidance to policy-makers within HCE. Six such policies are comparatively reviewed herein.

  8. Policy: Palatable forest conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Current policies to reduce emissions from forest loss could mean that rising demand for food is not met. A new approach to forest conservation that reduces emissions while meeting demand for agricultural products may be feasible, but more expensive.

  9. Voucher Programs. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2017-01-01

    This education Policy Analysis provides a comprehensive look at eligibility requirements, accountability and funding for voucher programs across the states, and includes research findings and legal challenges for this private school choice option.

  10. Configuration Management Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Policy establishes an Agency-wide Configuration Management Program and to provide responsibilities, compliance requirements, and overall principles for Configuration and Change Management processes to support information technology management.

  11. Environmental Auditing Policy Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's policy on the use of environmental auditing by regulated entities to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations, as well as to help identify and correct unregulated environmental hazards.

  12. Bilingualism: research and policy.

    PubMed

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of this evidence, I assert that we should embrace more informed policies and practice. Researchers should also work toward new and more complex research approaches to delve more deeply into how the brain organizes and reorganizes with language learning. Despite the continuing need for more research, we know enough to put in place (and study) informed policies and practices that can benefit all children. Now is the time for evidence-based practice, evidence-based policies, and integrative research on bilingualism and education. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 2016 EEO Policy Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Policy on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's commitment to equal employmentopportunity in the workplace. Fostering a diverse and inclusive work environment through equalemployment is essential to our work and our service to the American people.

  14. Bullying Policies and Laws

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  15. Effective Vaccination Policies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, L.; Spears, W.; Billings, L.; Maxim, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This “importance factor” was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years. PMID:21057602

  16. EPA Policy and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The policy establishes the principles for accessible Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) and complying with Section 508 requirements. The guidance defines EIT and the technical and functional performance criteria necessary for compliance.

  17. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  18. National fire management policy

    SciTech Connect

    Wakimoto, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    A Fire Management Policy Review Team was established in 1988, with representatives from the US Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, with the purpose of reviewing current policies governing national park and wilderness fire management. The author outlines the goals of the review team and discusses the seven final issues that summarized the team's findings.

  19. Exploration and Policy Reuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Keywords: Reinforcement Learning , Policy Reuse, Exploration Strategies. Abstract...introduce reusing of past policies in Reinforcement Learning as an exploration bias during a learning process. However, it is still a challenge, given that... reinforcement learning with the MAXQ value function decomposition. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 13:227–303, 2000. [6] Fernando Fernández and

  20. National Security Policy: Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    military service or government agency. ------- NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY: MEXICO L TIC BY OELEc-re LIEUTENANT COLONEL HUGH SCRUGGS JUL 2 8 96 DISTRIBUTION...PERIOD COVERED National Security Policy: Mexico SMDENr EnSAY 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NLMBER 7. AUTNOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) LTC Hugh...national security and sovereignty of Mexico and to determine the capability of the Nexican armed forces to meet these threats. Through literary research

  1. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  2. Impact and compliance: OSHA Carcinogen Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.F. Jr.; Crowder, C.; Wisniewski, S.; Russell, T.; Senn, K.

    1980-06-26

    This document provides an examination of various aspects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Carcinogen Policy. To satisfy the dimensions of the Policy's broad, general nature, a two-fold approach was taken. Throughout, the focus is on the possible effects of the Policy's implementation, but this is first approached as it generally will effect research and compliance activities across broad industry sectors, while specific impacts on DOE are addressed separately. To overview and integrate these approaches, and to provide a quick reference for further information, an outline of information is presented. General or industry-wide applications are addressed both in the Summary and Overview of the Policy (Chapters I and II) and in the discussion of the Model Standard (Chapter V). Also included is a copy of the Policy itself in the General Industry Standards and interpretations Change 10. Sections specifically addressed to the major concerns of DOE and its contractors are a discussion of implications for action regarding the synthetic fuels program, a comparison of the OSHA Model Regulations and the FE OSH Manual Standards for Carcinogens, and finally, a list of known carcinogens in coal gasification/liquefaction. Together, these elements illustrate the broad scope of the policy's impact, which economic and other constraining consequences begin to become visible. Measures to minimize these consequences are a common underlying theme to each of the sections.

  3. Population distribution policies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, H W

    1983-01-01

    Population distribution policies have received increasing attention in recent years, especially in developing countries. One reason is that, especially in heavily primate developing countries, the spacial distribution of population (and economic activity) has generated conditions that conflict with important societal goals, such as interpersonal and interregional equity, national security, political stability, improvement in the quality of life, optimal resource exploitation, and long-term economic efficiency. Moreover, in many cases, the overall development strategy as reflected in macro and sectoral policies, has strong implicit spatial impacts that have, more often than not, reinforced an "unfavorable" population distribution, that is, one that conflicts with national goals and priorities. The only way to correct that is to modify the overall development strategy or to implement offsetting explicit population distribution policies. Many countries have adopted population distribution policies in recent years, but they have varied greatly in degree of implementation. Clear failures have been very common, and there have been almost no undiluted successes. This indifferent success should not be used as an argument against planned population distribution. The present article provides an overview of population distribution policies with special but not total reference to developing countries. Population goals are analyzed and the argument that rural-metropolitan migration is excessive is critically discussed. Policy instruments to influence the location of both households and firms are evaluated. It is argued that strategies to control primate city growth, to promote small towns and secondary cities and to implement rural-development programs are complementary rather than alternatives. Partial strategies, such as relocation of the national capital, countermagnets, new towns, border region policies and land colonization schemes, should be adopted only in rare cases

  4. Flood Damage Prevention Services of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: An Evaluation of Policy Changes and Program Outcomes during 1970-1983 Measured against Criteria of Equity, Efficiency, and Responsiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Economic Analysis of Public Investment D ~ecisions: Interest Rate Policy and Discounting Analysis, Joint Committee Print, 90th Cong., 2d sess., 1968...direct benefits accruing from public investments designed to meet economic and social goals. Senators Symington, Jordan (Idaho), and Percy also had...essential to my completing the dissertation. I..c -------- --- - - QUA L ITY INSPECTED 4 D / - V.V * . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I

  5. Energy policy in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, G.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite Taiwan's scarcity of natural energy resources, the energy demand for its high growth economy soared over the past 20 years. For the next two decades, the government's new socioeconomic development policy aims at balancing economic growth, which had been the country's highest priority, against improved social welfare and environmental protection. Energy policy for Taiwan was introduced during the first oil crisis in 1973 to ensure the stability of availability and prices. Between the two oil crises, the supply and demand for world energy changed significantly and the crude oil price rose sharply. The energy policy was therefore revised to intensify energy conservation. World oil prices started to drop in February 1983. In this period, due to great concerns over the domestic energy price rationalization, coal mining safety, energy-related environment pollution, and the movement to improve social welfare and environmental protection for the next two decades, Taiwan's energy policy was again revised. Some results for energy policy implementation and key tasks for energy conservation in Taiwan are described.

  6. [Public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  7. Creating a Cultural Policy for Namibia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mans, Minette E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the importance of a national cultural policy for Namibia. Describes how the policy was developed and addresses the draft policy. Discusses the purpose of a cultural policy and the concerns and recommendations for the implementation of the policy. (CMK)

  8. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  9. Water policy bill debated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    “Federal water-related policy is extremely fragmented and haphazard and prevents us from dealing with our water problems in an expeditious and coordinated fashion,” said Mark O. Hatfield (R-Oreg.), member of the Senate committee on Energy and Natural Resources and sponsor of the Western Water Policy Review Act.At a September 19 hearing on the proposed legislation, Hatfield pointed out that there are currently at least 13 congressional committees, 8 Cabinet-level departments, 6 independent agencies, and 2 White House offices with some form of responsibility relating to national water management policy. As a result of this fragmentation, coordinating solutions to water problems remains difficult. Jurisdiction disputes between federal and state governments and between states must be resolved, Hatfield believes.

  10. Alternative defence policy

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book considers key questions connected with the present crisis, questions such as Would conventional deterrence really be effective. Just what is the Labour Party's policy. How precisely might Britain be transformed into a non-aligned, non-military state. The future of British defence policy is an issue of major concern not just in Britain but throughout the world, especially in the United States where there are major anxieties in the Pentagon about what will happen if the Labour Party wins an election outright. British defence policy is currently in a state of crisis. The former position where a reasonably united establishment on one hand confronted nuclear disarmers on the other has been replaced by a position where a wide spectrum of different opinions is held not just by the peace movement and the opposition parties but by many people in the Conservative party and the military also.

  11. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  12. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  13. Policies for Higher Education. General Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) organized a Conference on Future Structure of Post-Secondary Education, Paris, June 1973. The central concern of the conference was to examine the advent of mass higher education in its main patterns and characteristics and to identify alternative policy measures for facilitating the…

  14. Language and Education Policies in Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagzibekova, Mehrinisso

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the language and education policies currently functioning in the Republic of Tajikistan, the demographic and sociolinguistic situation in the country, and language use in education and the media. Particular attention is paid to the decrease in Russian-language competence and the measures undertaken to address this…

  15. Education and Health. Policy Brief #9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, David M.; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    A large and persistent association between education and health has been well-documented in many countries and time periods and for a wide variety of health measures. In their paper, "Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence," presented at the National Poverty Center conference "The Health Effects of Non-Health Policy," David M.…

  16. 15 CFR 273.3 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the fiscal year 1992, use the metric system of measurement in its procurements, grants, and other... the use of the metric system in their procurements, grants and other business-related activities... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE METRIC CONVERSION POLICY FOR FEDERAL AGENCIES METRIC...

  17. 43 CFR 5420.0-6 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 5420.0-6 Section 5420.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... shall be sold at less than the appraised value. Measurement shall be by tree cruise, log scale,...

  18. Eastern Europe: Pronatalist Policies and Private Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Henry P.

    1982-01-01

    This bulletin reviews recent fertility-related trends in the nine Eastern European socialist countries where official policy is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees in all but Yugoslavia. That fertility was generally higher here than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell below…

  19. 33 CFR 240.6 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application to allocated flood control costs in a multiple purpose project.) Measures (structural or... GENERAL CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.6 General policy. (a) Section 104 is applicable only to projects specificially authorized by the Congress (not to projects authorized by the Chief of Engineers under continuing...

  20. 33 CFR 240.6 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application to allocated flood control costs in a multiple purpose project.) Measures (structural or... GENERAL CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.6 General policy. (a) Section 104 is applicable only to projects specificially authorized by the Congress (not to projects authorized by the Chief of Engineers under continuing...

  1. 33 CFR 240.6 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application to allocated flood control costs in a multiple purpose project.) Measures (structural or... GENERAL CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.6 General policy. (a) Section 104 is applicable only to projects specificially authorized by the Congress (not to projects authorized by the Chief of Engineers under continuing...

  2. 33 CFR 240.6 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application to allocated flood control costs in a multiple purpose project.) Measures (structural or... GENERAL CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.6 General policy. (a) Section 104 is applicable only to projects specificially authorized by the Congress (not to projects authorized by the Chief of Engineers under continuing...

  3. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  4. Policies of Inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The racial politics of immigration have punctuated national discussions about immigration at different periods in US history, particularly when concerns about losing an American way of life or American population have coincided with concerns about infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the main theme running through American immigration policy is one of inclusion. The United States has historically been a nation reliant on immigrant labor and, accordingly, the most consequential public policies regarding immigration have responded to disease and its economic burdens by seeking to control the behavior of immigrants within our borders rather than excluding immigrants at our borders. PMID:15053996

  5. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  6. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  7. US energy policies: Will they be responsive to future needs?

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews the history of early US energy policy as a prescription for failure, the evolution of national goals in energy, and the basic principles of energy policy (market based, clean energy alternatives should receive recognition; energy and environment planning coordinated; progress measured and adjustments made; technology transfer encouraged; government assistance should support economic and environmental objectives).

  8. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  9. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  10. A Research Strategy for Analyzing the Impacts of Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas J.; Scioli, Frank P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Presents a research strategy for measuring policy impacts based on the principles of experimental design methodology. The strategy is illustrated through the application of a multivariate factorial design to the area of air pollution control. The overall approach is discussed in terms of its general utility for policy impact analysis. (Author)

  11. Tracing Consequences of Policy Action: A Basis for Disadvantage Arguments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.

    1984-01-01

    The growth in the popularity and importance of disadvantage arguments in debate has been, in some measure, due to the growing belief that debate should be viewed from a policy-making perspective. And, with the focus of contemporary debate shifting to the consequences of policy actions, there has been a concurrent increase in the sophistication of…

  12. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  13. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  14. Language Policies in North and South Korea: Divergence and Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the language policies in North and South Korea are in some respects divergent and in others convergent. The North uses more nativized words, while the South retains Sino-Korean words. Awareness of each other's policies and their implications in the event of reunification is evident in the regressive measures taken. (23 references) (CK)

  15. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Engstroem, Rebecka Nilsson, Mans Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-05-15

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  16. Public policy, private landholders: perspectives on policy mechanisms for sustainable land management.

    PubMed

    Cocklin, Chris; Mautner, Naomi; Dibden, Jacqui

    2007-12-01

    A variety of tools can be employed in support of environmental policy objectives, but achieving preferred outcomes also requires the cooperation of private landholders and others with vested interests in the land. The Land Stewardship project in the state of Victoria, Australia, is an initiative devoted to exploring the ways in which private landholders could be encouraged towards more sustainable land management. Following the view that the success of policy initiatives is contingent on effective stakeholder engagement, a component of the Land Stewardship project involved a dialogue with landholders about policy tools (e.g., regulation, economic instruments) that might be deployed to encourage improved land management practices. This paper provides an account of the views and attitudes of landholders, as revealed in a series of three workshops, which consisted of discussions about the factors influencing agriculture, participants' interpretations of sustainability, and policy methods. The focus of the paper is on what landholders believe to be the strengths and limitations of standard policy tools, and the essential requirements for these tools to deliver the best land management outcomes. One of the main findings of the project was a 'preference hierarchy' in respect of policy methods, according to which the strongest support was expressed for voluntary and education-based tools, followed by market-based instruments, with command-and-control regulation identified as a measure of 'last resort'. In the paper we reflect also on how the views and outlook of landholders should be positioned relative to other inputs in the design of policy interventions.

  17. Taming the Beast: Categorizing State Welfare Policies--A Typology of Welfare Policies Affecting Recipient Job Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan Signe-Mary; Bernstein, Jen; Fender, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overall approach, statistical techniques, and a public-use database that can be used for understanding state welfare policies and measuring their relationship with key outcomes of interest, all while learning helpful statistical techniques. We use descriptive statistics and correlations to describe state policies. We find…

  18. School, parent, and student perspectives of school drug policies.

    PubMed

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2007-03-01

    Schools use a number of measures to reduce harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use by students. One important component is the school's drug policy, which serves to set normative values and expectations for student behavior as well as to document procedures for dealing with drug-related incidents. There is little empirical evidence of how policy directly or indirectly influence students' drug taking. This study compares how effectively schools communicate school drug policies to parents and students, how they are implemented, and what policy variables impact students' drug use at school and their perceptions of other students' drug use at school. Data were obtained from 3876 students attending 205 schools from 2 states in the United States and Australia, countries with contrasting national drug policy frameworks. School policy data were collected from school personnel, parents, and students. Schools' policies and enforcement procedures reflected national policy approaches. Parents and students were knowledgeable of their school's policy orientation. When delivered effectively, policy messages are associated with reduced student drug use at school. Abstinence messages and harsh penalties convey a coherent message to students. Strong harm-minimization messages are also associated with reduced drug use at school, but effects are weaker than those for abstinence messages. This smaller effect may be acceptable if, in the longer term, it leads to a reduction in harmful use and school dropout within the student population.

  19. A survey of policies and local ordinances supporting physical activity in Hawaii counties.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Johnson, Courtney B; Jokura, Yuka; Nett, Blythe; Maddock, Jay E

    2008-01-01

    Features of the built environment that influence physical activity behavior characterize Active Community Environments. Whether Active Community Environments policies exist in the state of Hawaii's four counties is unknown. The purpose of this study was to provide a baseline assessment of these policies in Hawaii. A survey assessing policies in six domains (i.e., sidewalks, bike lanes, greenways, recreational facilities, commercial buildings, and shared-use paths) was completed by employees of Hawaii planning departments. Honolulu County had the most policies (n = 13), followed by Maui County (n = 6), Kauai County (n = 2), and Hawaii County (n = 1). Written policies were most prevalent in Honolulu County (n = 15), followed by Kauai County (n = 14), Hawaii County, (n = 4), and Maui County (n = 3). Sidewalk policies were reported for Honolulu County, Maui County (no written policies were found for Maui County), and Kauai County. Bike lane and greenway policies were found for Honolulu County (reported and written) and Kauai County (written). Recreation facility and pedestrian shared-use path policies existed for all counties, although only Honolulu and Kauai counties had written policies for commercial buildings (Maui County reported having policies). Few policies directly addressed physical activity promotion. The most populous county, Honolulu, had the most policies in place, although discrepancies existed between reported and written policies. This baseline measure of physical activity-related policies will help focus efforts of county coalitions to increase opportunities for physical activity. Additional policies should be tracked with population behavior surveillance.

  20. Racial disparities in incarceration increase acceptance of punitive policies.

    PubMed

    Hetey, Rebecca C; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    During the past few decades, punitive crime policies have led to explosive growth in the United States prison population. Such policies have contributed to unprecedented incarceration rates for Blacks in particular. In this article, we consider an unexamined relationship between racial disparities and policy reform. Rather than treating racial disparities as an outcome to be measured, we exposed people to real and extreme racial disparities and observed how this drove their support for harsh criminal-justice policies. In two experiments, we manipulated the racial composition of prisons: When the penal institution was represented as "more Black," people were more concerned about crime and expressed greater acceptance of punitive policies than when the penal institution was represented as "less Black." Exposure to extreme racial disparities, then, can lead people to support the very policies that produce those disparities, thus perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  1. Origins and elements of the population policies of Cameroon Republic.

    PubMed

    Gwan Achu, E

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses the pro-natalist policies of Cameroon, measures that are not explicit population policies but are instead implied in other government policies and pronouncements. It is argued that "this pronatalist policy partly has its roots in the inherent cultures of the people which have been forged from several years of ravages from epidemic and endemic diseases, inter-tribal conflicts and slave trade. These have been further authenticated, constitutionalised and perpetuated by official policy which bears the stamp of its French colonial masters...." These policies include "legislation against contraception and abortions, discriminatory taxation in favour of married persons, family allowances and other travel, leave, transfer, retirement, housing and educational benefits and concessions for persons with large families as well as an elaborate network of mother and child health care centers." Attention is also given to the establishment of family planning and family care clinics, contraceptive availability, and illegal abortions. (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  2. Policy research for disease prevention: challenges and practical recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Newschaffer, C J; Ali-Abarghoui, F

    1997-01-01

    Policy approaches to health promotion and disease prevention hold great potential, as several community-based projects have illustrated. Policy interventions, despite their wide-spread use, frequently lack a systematic framework for implementation and evaluation. The authors propose a four-stage framework for the formation and evaluation of public health policy. The stages are identification of health risks and preventive options; intervention development; policy development; and policy enactment and assurance. A strong focus on evaluation is included within the framework. In addition, a series of practical implications and recommendations are given under the broad headings of evaluation issues and linkages. It is hoped that the issues described will lead to more systematic implementation and evaluation of public health policy measures. PMID:9184498

  3. Austerity Resistant Social Policies to Protect Employment.

    PubMed

    Gelormino, Elena; Marino, Maurizio; Leombruni, Roberto; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    During the worse phase of the economic downturn, few social policies resisted to the austerity measures imposed to Italy by the European Union. Among them, the most important is the Wage Supplementation Fund, to protect workers and entrepreneurs from bankruptcy and unemployment. Adopting a realist methodology we studied the social mechanisms which are the roots of some political and administrative choices in that period; the public policy decision making approach gave us a theoretical base. Some main mechanisms have been discovered: technical and economic mechanisms overcame politics, social attitudes pushed political choices, the fear of political and social instability drove all parties.

  4. Evidence and Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom; Jochems, Wim; Moos, Lejf; van Zanten, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    The EERJ roundtable took as its point of departure the experience of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in carrying out policy research. CERI has conducted four reviews of national educational research and development (in New Zealand, England, Mexico and…

  5. Social Policy Report, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy G., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These three newsletter issues present scholarly developmental research results pertaining to social and public policies that affect children. The first 1995 issue, "Escaping Poverty: The Promise of Higher Education" (Erika Kates), discusses results of a study that explored the ways in which institutions of higher education provide a…

  6. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state…

  7. Race and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Ernest R.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the connection between race and education policy in the United States, focusing on the interplay between the U.S. population's belief in democracy, national racist beliefs, and the inability of many white citizens to comprehend the depth of racism in the United States. (SLD)

  8. Youth Employment. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on youth employment from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). An introduction briefly explains the role of the NCY with regard to youth employment and describes the types of programs and services supported by NCY. A section on background provides statistics on teenagers and employment from the Bureau…

  9. Community Energy Policy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Thomas B.

    The general procedures, techniques for implementing, and results of a citizen-based "grass-roots" program in Ohio for the development and analysis of community energy policies are described. The program emphasizes citizen input and employs the nominal group process to build consensus. Small group discussions are used to generate…

  10. Astronomy and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

  11. Privacy Policy | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Lab. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Lab will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may collect and store

  12. Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles about educational and school policies, primarily related to equality of educational opportunity. "Texas Legislature Considers Much for Education, Accomplishes Little" (Albert Cortez, Anna Alicia Romero) summarizes educational legislation considered by the Texas legislature in the session ending in…

  13. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    Thorium Energy Security Act of 2010. Authorizes regulations and demonstration projects for thorium -fueled reactors . Introduced March 3, 2010...include federal incentives for new commercial reactors , radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety...and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks. Significant incentives for new commercial reactors were

  14. Policy for Instructional Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Joseph I.

    An examination of the general uses of video in instruction helps to formulate appropriate policy for maximizing video production and use. Wide use of instructional television makes advanced knowledge more usable and increases public awareness of new discoveries, reduces the time lag between conception and application of ideas which change society,…

  15. Model Wellness Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, PL 105-268, the U.S. Congress established a new requirement for all local agencies with a federally funded National School Lunch program. The local agencies are required to develop and implement wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity by the start of the 2006-07…

  16. Critical Endowment Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    Governing boards and administrations wrestle with complex endowment policy decisions that will determine current institutional quality and future institutional viability. This chapter presents data from the 2006 NACUBO Endowment Study (published in 2007), divided into the following issues of endowment management: historical returns; endowment…

  17. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  18. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular…

  19. Policies for Apprenticeship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reubens, Beatrice G.

    This report, prepared by the Education Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), analyzes current trends and issues in apprenticeship and in policies for apprenticeship in member countries. Apprenticeship is analyzed in countries where it is the most important activity of young people after leaving compulsory…

  20. Public Policy Agenda, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…