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Sample records for agri-food quality ii

  1. Hyperspectral imaging for diagnosis and quality control in agri-food and industrial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Allende, P. Beatriz; Conde, Olga M.; Mirapeix, Jesus; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2010-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been utilized in various fields of science, industry and medicine, since each substance is discernible from all others by its spectral properties. However, optical spectroscopy traditionally generates information on the bulk properties of the whole sample, and mainly in the agri-food industry some product properties result from the heterogeneity in its composition. This monitoring is considerably more challenging and can be successfully achieved by the so-called hyperspectral imaging technology, which allows the simultaneous determination of the optical spectrum and the spatial location of an object in a surface. In addition, it is a nonintrusive and non-contact technique which gives rise to a great potential for industrial applications and it does not require any particular preparation of the samples, which is a primary concern in food monitoring. This work illustrates an overview of approaches based on this technology to address different problems in agri-food and industrial sectors. The hyperspectral system was originally designed and tested for raw material on-line discrimination, which is a key factor in the input stages of many industrial sectors. The combination of the acquisition of the spectral information across transversal lines while materials are being transported on a conveyor belt, and appropriate image analyses have been successfully validated in the tobacco industry. Lastly, the use of imaging spectroscopy applied to online welding quality monitoring is discussed and compared with traditional spectroscopic approaches in this regard.

  2. Applications of Computer Vision for Assessing Quality of Agri-food Products: A Review of Recent Research Advances.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wen-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An

    2016-01-01

    With consumer concerns increasing over food quality and safety, the food industry has begun to pay much more attention to the development of rapid and reliable food-evaluation systems over the years. As a result, there is a great need for manufacturers and retailers to operate effective real-time assessments for food quality and safety during food production and processing. Computer vision, comprising a nondestructive assessment approach, has the aptitude to estimate the characteristics of food products with its advantages of fast speed, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. Specifically, computer vision systems are feasible for classifying food products into specific grades, detecting defects, and estimating properties such as color, shape, size, surface defects, and contamination. Therefore, in order to track the latest research developments of this technology in the agri-food industry, this review aims to present the fundamentals and instrumentation of computer vision systems with details of applications in quality assessment of agri-food products from 2007 to 2013 and also discuss its future trends in combination with spectroscopy.

  3. Nanotechnology in agri-food sector.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology developments using nanodevices/nanomaterials opens up potential novel applications in agriculture and food sector. Smart delivery systems, biosensors, and nanoarrays are being designed to solve the problems faced in agriculture sector. Similarly, food sector is also benefited through the use of smart biosensors, packaging materials, and nanonutraceuticals. Despite the great potential of nanotechnology in agri-food sector, people are ambiguous about use in food applications because of suspected potential health risks and environmental concerns. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics, including small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. In this paper, we have made an attempt to give an overview of nanotechnology developments in agri-food sector, risks associated with nanomaterials and toxicity regulations for policy framework.

  4. Understanding the complexities of private standards in global agri-food chains as they impact developing countries.

    PubMed

    Henson, Spencer; Humphrey, John

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of private standards governing food safety, food quality and environmental and social impacts of agri-food systems has raised concerns about the effects on developing countries, as well as the governance of agri-food value chains more broadly. It is argued that current debates have been 'clouded' by a failure to recognise the diversity of private standards in terms of their institutional form, who develops and adopts these standards and why. In particular, there is a need to appreciate the close inter-relationships between public regulations and private standards and the continuing ways in which private standards evolve.

  5. Biotechnology in the global agri-food system.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Peter W B

    2002-09-01

    The advent of biotechnology presents fundamental challenges to the global agri-food industry. While the scientific base for agri-food production is being revolutionised, it is not clear if or how the technology will be used. Proponents of biotechnology and a large portion of agri-food policy makers around the world project a positive future in which technology overcomes food shortages, improves the environment, heals or eliminates disease and leads to a prosperous and healthy society. A smaller but significant array of policy makers, citizens and consumers fear that the technology will exacerbate food insecurity, threaten the environment, endanger human health and ultimately impoverish society itself. Although scientists and industry are convinced the fears are unfounded, it is not clear that our social institutions will be able to adapt, adopt and use the technology in a way that will satisfy society and improve social welfare.

  6. Effectiveness of commercial disinfectants for inactivating hepatitis A virus on agri-food surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jean, J; Vachon, J F; Moroni, O; Darveau, A; Kukavica-Ibrulj, I; Fliss, I

    2003-01-01

    Six commercial disinfectants were tested for their efficacy in inactivating hepatitis A virus in solution or attached to agri-food surfaces. Disinfectant I contains 10% quaternary ammonium plus 5% glutaraldehyde; disinfectant II contains 12% sodium hypochlorite; disinfectant III contains 2.9% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid plus 16% phosphoric acid; disinfectant IV contains 10% quaternary ammonium; disinfectant V contains 2% iodide; and disinfectant VI contains 2% stabilized chlorine dioxide. Among these, disinfectants I and II were shown to be the most effective in inactivating hepatitis A virus in solution. The efficacy of these disinfectants was further tested against hepatitis A virus attached to common agri-food surfaces, including polyvinyl chlorine, high-density polyethylene, aluminum, stainless steel, and copper. Disinfectant II was shown to be the most effective, with a maximum inactivation level of about 3 log10. The inactivation efficacy was shown to be affected by the concentration of the active ingredient, the contact time between the disinfectant and the contaminated surfaces, and the incubation temperature. In general, hepatitis A virus was shown to be highly resistant to most disinfectants tested, and high concentrations of active ingredient were needed to achieve acceptable inactivation levels.

  7. The application of knowledge synthesis methods in agri-food public health: recent advancements, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Wilhelm, Barbara; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge synthesis refers to the integration of findings from individual research studies on a given topic or question into the global knowledge base. The application of knowledge synthesis methods, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analysis, has increased considerably in the agri-food public health sector over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue. The objectives of our review were: (1) to describe the most promising knowledge synthesis methods and their applicability in agri-food public health, and (2) to summarize the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the use of systematic review and meta-analysis methods in this sector. We performed a structured review of knowledge synthesis literature from various disciplines to address the first objective, and used comprehensive insights and experiences in applying these methods in the agri-food public health sector to inform the second objective. We describe five knowledge synthesis methods that can be used to address various agri-food public health questions or topics under different conditions and contexts. Scoping reviews describe the main characteristics and knowledge gaps in a broad research field and can be used to evaluate opportunities for prioritizing focused questions for related systematic reviews. Structured rapid reviews are streamlined systematic reviews conducted within a short timeframe to inform urgent decision-making. Mixed-method and qualitative reviews synthesize diverse sources of contextual knowledge (e.g. socio-cognitive, economic, and feasibility considerations). Systematic reviews are a structured and transparent method used to summarize and synthesize literature on a clearly-defined question, and meta-analysis is the statistical combination of data from multiple individual studies. We briefly describe and discuss key advancements in the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, including: risk-of-bias assessments; an overall quality

  8. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  9. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  10. Curriculum Development for the Achievement of Multiple Goals in the Agri-Food Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehouse, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The agri-food industry is concerned with maximizing global food output while preventing environmental damage. Agricultural education focuses on multidisciplinary, holistic, and integrative approaches that enhance student capabilities to address this complex issue. (SK)

  11. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  12. Bio-transformation of agri-food wastes by newly isolated Neurospora crassa and Lactobacillus plantarum for egg production.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Li, J; Deng, Z

    2016-03-01

    Using bio-transferred feedstuff was a cost-effective approach to improve egg quality and production; particularly, the nutritive diet came from agri-food wastes. In this study, optimization of fermentation conditions and co-cultivation of Neurospora crassa with Lactobacillus plantarum was performed in a simple bioreactor. The optimized fermentation of beer lees substrates through N. crassa led to the hydrolysis rates of crude fiber increasing to 43.27%. Compared to that of using N. crassa alone, the combination of N. crassa and L. plantarum enhanced the content of amino acids (13,120 to 18,032 mg/100 g) on oil-tea seed cake substrates particularly. When hens were fed 10% fermented oil-tea seedcake substrate, the ratio of feed to egg decreased from 3.1 to 2.6, egg production ratio increased from 65.71 to 80.10%, and color of vitelline (Roche) increased from 8.20 to 10.20. Fifteen kinds of carotenoids were identified by HPLC in fermented oil-tea seed cake substrates. The results of this study highlighted that the mixed-fermentation by N. crassa and L. plantarum may be an effective way to convert agri-food wastes into high-valued biomass products, which could have a positive effect on hens and their eggs.

  13. Building Alternative Agri-Food Networks: Certification, Embeddedness and Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Vaughan; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of certification in alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs), which are "in the process" of building markets for their produce outside conventional supply chains. Drawing upon recent writing on "embeddedness", we argue that certification provides an important focus for exploring the relationship and…

  14. Blurring the Boundaries between Vocational Education, Business and Research in the Agri-Food Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.; Lans, Thomas; Kupper, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence and significance of new knowledge configurations within the Dutch agri-food context. Knowledge configurations can be characterised as arrangements between VET and (often regional) partners in business and research aimed at improving knowledge transfer, circulation or co-creation. Based on a literature review…

  15. Building Alternative Agri-Food Networks: Certification, Embeddedness and Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Vaughan; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of certification in alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs), which are "in the process" of building markets for their produce outside conventional supply chains. Drawing upon recent writing on "embeddedness", we argue that certification provides an important focus for exploring the relationship and…

  16. Blurring the Boundaries between Vocational Education, Business and Research in the Agri-Food Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.; Lans, Thomas; Kupper, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence and significance of new knowledge configurations within the Dutch agri-food context. Knowledge configurations can be characterised as arrangements between VET and (often regional) partners in business and research aimed at improving knowledge transfer, circulation or co-creation. Based on a literature review…

  17. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  18. Virtual water trade of agri-food products: Evidence from italian-chinese relations.

    PubMed

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Miglietta, Pier Paolo; Toma, Pierluigi; De Leo, Federica; Massari, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    At global scale, the majority of world water withdrawal is for the agricultural sector, with differences among countries depending on the relevance of agri-food sector in the economy. Virtual water and water footprint could be useful to express the impact on the water resources of each production process and good with the objective to lead to a sustainable use of water at a global level. International trade could be connected to the virtual water flows, in fact through commodities importation, water poor countries can save their own water resources. The present paper focuses on the bilateral virtual water flows connected to the top ten agri-food products traded between Italy and China. Comparing the virtual water flow related to the top 10 agri-food products, the virtual water flow from Italy to China is bigger than the water flow in the opposite direction. Moreover, the composition of virtual water flows is different; Italy imports significant amounts of grey water from China, depending on the different environmental strategies adopted by the two selected countries. This difference could be also related to the fact that traded commodities are very different; the 91% of virtual water imported by Italy is connected to crops products, while the 95% of virtual water imported by China is related to the animal products. Considering national water saving and global water saving, appears that Italy imports virtual water from China while China exerts pressure on its water resources to supply the exports to Italy. This result at global scale implies a global water loss of 129.29millionm3 because, in general, the agri-food products are traded from the area with lower water productivity to the area with the higher water productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: What Do Elementary Students Understand about the Agri-Food System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy of K-12 students is a national priority for both scientific and agricultural education professional organizations. Development of curricula to address this priority has not been informed by research on what K-12 students understand about the agri-food system. While students' knowledge of food and fiber system facts have been…

  1. Veterinary Public Health Approach to Managing Pathogenic Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the Agri-Food Chain.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Geraldine; McCabe, Evonne

    2014-10-01

    Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) comprises many diverse serogroups, but seven serogroups, O157, O26, O103, O145, O111, O21, and O45, have been most commonly linked to severe human infections, though illness has also been reported from a range of other VTEC serogroups. This poses challenges in assessing the risk to humans from the diverse range of VTEC strains that may be recovered from animals, the environment, or food. For routine assessment of risk posed by VTEC recovered from the agri-food chain, the concept of seropathotype can be used to rank the human risk potential from a particular VTEC serogroup on the basis of both serotype (top seven serogroups) and the presence of particular virulence genes (vt in combination with eae, or aaiC plus aggR). But for other VTEC serogroups or virulence gene combinations, it is not currently possible to fully assess the risk posed. VTEC is shed in animal feces and can persist in the farm environment for extended periods ranging from several weeks to many months, posing an ongoing reservoir of contamination for grazing animals, water courses, and fresh produce and for people using farmland for recreational purposes. Appropriate handling and treatment of stored animal waste (slurries and manures) will reduce risk from VTEC in the farm environment. Foods of animal origin such as milk and dairy products and meat may be contaminated with VTEC during production and processing, and the pathogen may survive or grow during processing operations, highlighting the need for well-designed and validated Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point management systems. This article focuses on a veterinary public health approach to managing VTEC, highlighting the various routes in the agri-food chain for transmission of human pathogenic VTEC and general approaches to managing the risk.

  2. The Seven Challenges for Transitioning into a Bio-based Circular Economy in the Agri-food Sector.

    PubMed

    Borrello, Massimiliano; Lombardi, Alessia; Pascucci, Stefano; Cembalo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop agri-food supply chains have a high potential to reduce environmental and economic costs resulting from food waste disposal. This paper illustrates an alternative to the traditional supply chain of bread based on the principles of a circular economy. Six circular interactions among seven actors (grain farmers, bread producers, retailers, compostable packaging manufacturers, insect breeders, livestock farmers, consumers) of the circular filière are created in order to achieve the goal of "zero waste". In the model, two radical technological innovations are considered: insects used as animal feed and polylactic acid compostable packaging. The main challenges for the implementation of the new supply chain are identified. Finally, some recent patents related to bread sustainable production, investigated in the current paper, are considered. Recommendations are given to academics and practitioners interested in the bio-based circular economy model approach for transforming agri-food supply chains.

  3. From agricultural modernisation to agri-food globalisation: the waning of national development in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Goss, J; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project.

  4. Elementary student and prospective teachers' agri-food system literacy: Understandings of agricultural and science education's goals for learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, Cary Jay

    1999-09-01

    Although rhetoric abounds in the agricultural education literature regarding the public's dearth of agri-food system literacy, problems arise when establishing educational interventions to help ameliorate illiteracy. Researchers do not fully know what individuals understand about the complex agri-food system. Hence, educational programs and curricula may focus on areas where students already possess well developed and scientifically accurate schemata, while ignoring other areas where incompatible or naive understandings persist. Democratic decisions about complex societal and environmental issues, such as trade-offs of our industrial agri-food system, require individuals to possess understandings of complex interrelationships. This exploratory qualitative study determines what two groups---elementary students and prospective elementary school teachers---understand about selected concepts foundational to agri-food system literacy. To ground the study in current national education curricular standards, a synthesis of both agricultural and science education benchmarks was developed. This helped structure interviews with the study's informants: nine elementary students and nine prospective elementary teachers. Analysis of discourse was based upon a conceptual change methodology. Findings showed that informant background and non-school experiences were linked to agri-food system literacy, while formal, in-school learning was not. For elementary students, high socio-economic status, gardening and not living in urban areas were correlates with literacy; the prospective teacher group exhibited similar trends. Informants understood that food came from farms where plants and animals were raised. For the majority, however, farms were described as large gardens. Additionally, informants lacked a clear understanding of the roles soil and fertilizers play in crop production. Further, few spoke of weeds as competitors with crops for growth requirements. Informants understood that

  5. Recent Advances in the Fabrication and Application of Screen-Printed Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors Based on Carbon Materials for Biomedical, Agri-Food and Environmental Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Gareth; Westmacott, Kelly; Honeychurch, Kevin C.; Crew, Adrian; Pemberton, Roy M.; Hart, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with their performance characteristics; the application of these devices for the measurement of selected naturally occurring biomolecules, environmental pollutants and toxins will be discussed. PMID:27690118

  6. Recent Advances in the Fabrication and Application of Screen-Printed Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors Based on Carbon Materials for Biomedical, Agri-Food and Environmental Analyses.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gareth; Westmacott, Kelly; Honeychurch, Kevin C; Crew, Adrian; Pemberton, Roy M; Hart, John P

    2016-09-28

    This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with their performance characteristics; the application of these devices for the measurement of selected naturally occurring biomolecules, environmental pollutants and toxins will be discussed.

  7. Water flows in the Spanish economy: agri-food sectors, trade and households diets in an input-output framework.

    PubMed

    Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio

    2012-06-19

    Seeking to advance our knowledge of water flows and footprints and the factors underlying them, we apply, on the basis of an extended 2004 Social Accounting Matrix for Spain, an open Leontief model in which households and foreign trade are the exogenous accounts. The model shows the water embodied in products bought by consumers (which we identify with the Water Footprint) and in trade (identified with virtual water trade). Activities with relevant water inflows and outflows such as the agrarian sector, textiles, and the agri-food industry are examined in detail using breakdowns of the relevant accounts. The data reflect only physical consumption, differentiating between green and blue water. The results reveal that Spain is a net importer of water. Flows are then related to key trading partners to show the large quantities involved. The focus on embodied (or virtual) water by activity is helpful to distinguish indirect from direct consumption as embodied water can be more than 300 times direct consumption in some food industry activities. Finally, a sensitivity analysis applied to changes in diets shows the possibility of reducing water uses by modifying households' behavior to encourage healthier eating.

  8. Direct and indirect economic impacts of drought in the agri-food sector in the Ebro River basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2013-10-01

    The economic evaluation of drought impacts is essential in order to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of a drought event on the agricultural sector and measure how they are transmitted from primary production to industrial output and related employment. We fit econometric models to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water storage. The direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity are measured through a direct attribution model. Indirect impacts on agricultural employment and the agri-food industry are evaluated through a nested indirect attribution model. The transmission of water scarcity effects from agricultural production to macroeconomic variables is measured through chained elasticities. The models allow for differentiating the impacts deriving from water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show that the importance of drought impacts are less relevant at the macroeconomic level, but are more significant for those activities directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. From a management perspective, implications of these findings are important to develop effective mitigation strategies to reduce drought risk exposure.

  9. Choice of mineral fertilizer substitution principle strongly influences LCA environmental benefits of nutrient cycling in the agri-food system.

    PubMed

    Hanserud, Ola Stedje; Cherubini, Francesco; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2017-09-30

    Increased nutrient cycling in the agri-food system is a way to achieve a healthier nutrient stewardship and more sustainable food production. In life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, use of recycled fertilizer products is often credited by the substitution method, which subtracts the environmental burdens associated with avoided production of mineral fertilizer from the system under study. The environmental benefits from avoided fertilizer production can make an important contribution to the results, but different calculation principles and often implicit assumptions are used to estimate the amount of avoided mineral fertilizer. This may hinder comparisons between studies. The present study therefore examines how the choice of substitution principles influences LCA results. Three different substitution principles, called one-to-one, maintenance, and adjusted maintenance, are identified, and we test the importance of these in a case study on cattle slurry management. We show that the inventory of avoided mineral fertilizer varies greatly when the different principles are applied, with strong influences on two-thirds of LCA impact categories. With the one-to-one principle, there is a risk of systematically over-estimating the environmental benefits from nutrient cycling. In a sensitivity analysis we show that the difference between the principles is closely related to the application rate and levels of residual nutrients in the soil. We recommend that LCA practitioners first and foremost state and justify the substitution method they use, in order to increase transparency and comparability with other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enabling a Sustainable and Prosperous Future through Science and Innovation in the Bioeconomy at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sara F; Poon, Jacquelyne S; Lepage, Etienne; Bilecki, Lori; Girard, Benoit

    2017-04-11

    Science and innovation are important components underpinning the agricultural and agri-food system in Canada. Canada's vast geographical area presents diverse, regionally specific requirements in addition to the 21st century agricultural challenges facing the overall sector. As the broader needs of the agricultural landscape have evolved and will continue to do so in the next few decades, there is a trend in place to transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy, contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emission and our dependency on non-renewable resources. We highlight some of the key policy drivers on an overarching national scale and those specific to agricultural research and innovation that are critical to fostering a supportive environment for innovation and a sustainable bioeconomy. As well, we delineate some major challenges and opportunities facing agriculture in Canada, including climate change, sustainable agriculture, clean technologies, and agricultural productivity, and some scientific initiatives currently underway to tackle these challenges. The use of various technologies and scientific efforts, such as Next Generation Sequencing, metagenomics analysis, satellite image analysis and mapping of soil moisture, and value-added bioproduct development will accelerate scientific development and innovation and its contribution to a sustainable and prosperous bioeconomy.

  11. Progress in Working Towards a More Sustainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human health and environmental issues related to food, feed, and bio-based systems, range widely from greenhouse gas emissions and energy use to land use, water availability, soil quality, water quality and quantity, biodi-versity losses, and chemical exposure. Threats that s...

  12. Progress in Working Towards a More Sustainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human health and environmental issues related to food, feed, and bio-based systems, range widely from greenhouse gas emissions and energy use to land use, water availability, soil quality, water quality and quantity, biodi-versity losses, and chemical exposure. Threats that s...

  13. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-12-01

    The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews

  14. Improving the utilization of research knowledge in agri-food public health: a mixed-method review of knowledge translation and transfer.

    PubMed

    Rajić, Andrijana; Young, Ian; McEwen, Scott A

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge translation and transfer (KTT) aims to increase research utilization and ensure that the best available knowledge is used to inform policy and practice. Many frameworks, methods, and terms are used to describe KTT, and the field has largely developed in the health sector over the past decade. There is a need to review key KTT principles and methods in different sectors and evaluate their potential application in agri-food public health. We conducted a structured mixed-method review of the KTT literature. From 827 citations identified in a comprehensive search, we characterized 160 relevant review articles, case studies, and reports. A thematic analysis was conducted on a prioritized and representative subset of 33 articles to identify key principles and characteristics for ensuring effective KTT. The review steps were conducted by two or more independent reviewers using structured and pretested forms. We identified five key principles for effective KTT that were described within two contexts: to improve research utilization in general and to inform policy-making. To ensure general research uptake, there is a need for the following: (1) relevant and credible research; (2) ongoing interactions between researchers and end-users; (3) organizational support and culture; and (4) monitoring and evaluation. To inform policy-making, (5) researchers must also address the multiple and competing contextual factors of the policy-making process. We also describe 23 recommended and promising KTT methods, including six synthesis (e.g., systematic reviews, mixed-method reviews, and rapid reviews); nine dissemination (e.g., evidence summaries, social media, and policy briefs); and eight exchange methods (e.g., communities of practice, knowledge brokering, and policy dialogues). A brief description, contextual example, and key references are provided for each method. We recommend a wider endorsement of KTT principles and methods in agri-food public health, but there are

  15. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system. PMID:26230334

  16. Implications of applying methodological shortcuts to expedite systematic reviews: three case studies using systematic reviews from agri-food public health.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai T; Waddell, Lisa; Rajić, Andrijana; Sargeant, Jan M; Papadopoulos, Andrew; McEwen, Scott A

    2016-12-01

    The rapid review is an approach to synthesizing research evidence when a shorter timeframe is required. The implications of what is lost in terms of rigour, increased bias and accuracy when conducting a rapid review have not yet been elucidated. We assessed the potential implications of methodological shortcuts on the outcomes of three completed systematic reviews addressing agri-food public health topics. For each review, shortcuts were applied individually to assess the impact on the number of relevant studies included and whether omitted studies affected the direction, magnitude or precision of summary estimates from meta-analyses. In most instances, the shortcuts resulted in at least one relevant study being omitted from the review. The omission of studies affected 39 of 143 possible meta-analyses, of which 14 were no longer possible because of insufficient studies (<2). When meta-analysis was possible, the omission of studies generally resulted in less precise pooled estimates (i.e. wider confidence intervals) that did not differ in direction from the original estimate. The three case studies demonstrated the risk of missing relevant literature and its impact on summary estimates when methodological shortcuts are applied in rapid reviews. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Nathalie; Baudrit, Cédric; Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system.

  18. Lutein in selected Canadian crops and agri-food processing by-products and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2006-04-21

    This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase solvent system consisting of hexane-ethanol-water (6:4.5:1.5, v/v/v) was developed for the purification of lutein from the saponification mixture of marigold flower extract. The purity of lutein prepared using this HSCCC method was 97%. Free lutein was found to be the predominant form in three squash varieties, and it was mostly found in the peel rather than the commonly consumed flesh. Sweet Mamma, Buttercup and Pepper squash varieties contained 25.4, 18.4 and 30.1mg/100g fresh weigh (FW) of lutein in the peels, respectively. These concentrations were significantly higher than that in spinach and kale (3.7 and 12.3 mg/100 g FW). beta-Carotene was found most in the peel of Sweet Mamma squash at 13.6 mg/100g FW, whereas it was below 2mg/100g FW in all other samples. Cooking increased extractable free lutein by 22-65% in squash peels. Lutein in Yukon Gold potato was at ca. 0.4 mg/100 g FW. Certain Yukon Gold was also found to contain violaxanthin (0.35 mg/100 g FW). Structures of lutein, beta-carotene and violaxanthin were identified by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS in positive ion mode, and by comparing the retention time and UV-vis spectral data with standards. Results from this study suggest the selected crops and agri-food industrial processing by-products of these can be a good source of free lutein.

  19. Software Quality Measurement Demonstration Project II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Report ............................... 1-7 1.4-4 Time Log .................................................. 1-8 2.0-1 ECOAEA Scores for Worksheet 1...34 Conduct independent software quality evaluation and validation to include goal specification, data collection, worksheet scoring, assessment of time logs ...8217n ’~’t"~ i m ’u ~ ~ ej 𔃺 vall-datc. s;Cores )..3SieL dd Spcf ’,t~ii,, it -~ L Th~ 1r 3QM prc:"d’:ae 1c ricvn r )o aL used i n measuring the cpaiity

  20. Immunofluorescent detection and quantitation of hepatitis A virus in sewage treatment effluent and on agri-food surfaces using scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Darveau, André; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2003-03-01

    An immunofluorescent (IF) assay was developed for specific detection and quantitation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in sewage treatment effluent or attached to stainless steel, copper, high density polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride surfaces. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in rabbits and characterized for specificity to HAV. Purified anti-HAV antibodies were used in combination with ALEXA-anti-rabbit conjugate and confocal microscopy for detection and quantitation of HAV in effluent samples. Using this immunological approach, as little as 2 x 10(5) PFU/ml were detected and the signal generated was proportional to the concentration of HAV up to 2 x 10(8) PFU/ml. Counts obtained by IF assay were highly correlated with those of the SYBR Green II nucleic acid labelling method (r(2)=0.995) and conventional plaque assay (r(2)=0.988). The IF assay described is rapid (3 h), sensitive, specific to HAV and suitable for qualitative as well as quantitative studies.

  1. Evaluation of APACHE II for cost containment and quality assurance.

    PubMed Central

    Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J A; Nelson, L D

    1990-01-01

    APACHE II (an acronym formed from acute physiology score and chronic health evaluation) has been proposed to limit intensive care unit (ICU) admissions ('cost containment') and to judge outcome ('quality assurance') of surgical patients. To judge its performance, a 6-month study of 372 surgical ICU patients was performed. When patients were divided by mean duration of stay, mortality rates rose from 1% (short stay) to 19% (long stay) (p less than 0.001) for patients with APACHE II scores less than 10, but decreased from 94% (short stay) to 60% (long stay) (p less than 0.01) for patients with APACHE II scores more than 24. Exclusion of patients by high or low APACHE scores would 'save' 6% of ICU days but risk increasing morbidity, hospital costs, and deaths. Grouped APACHE II scores did not correlate with total hospital charges (r = 0.05, p = 0.89) or ICU days used (r = 0.42, p = 0.17). Grouping by APACHE II score and duration of ICU stay showed neither symmetry nor uniformity of mortality rates. Surgical patients would not be well served by APACHE II for quality assurance or cost containment. PMID:2396881

  2. F-35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-11

    No. DODIG-2015-092 M A R C H 1 1 , 2 0 1 5 F ‑ 35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation Report Documentation...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation... F ‑ 35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation Objective We inspected the F - 35 Lightning II Program ( F - 35 Program) at

  3. Review process and quality assurance in the EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Within the scope of the ANL QA Programs, a QA Plan specifically for the EBR-II PRA was developed. The QA Plan covered all aspects of the PRA development, with emphasis on the procedures for document and software control, and the internal and external review process. The effort spent in the quality assurance tasks for the EBR-II PRA has reciprocated by providing acceptance of the work and confidence in the quality of the results.

  4. Review process and quality assurance in the EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Within the scope of the ANL QA Programs, a QA Plan specifically for the EBR-II PRA was developed. The QA Plan covered all aspects of the PRA development, with emphasis on the procedures for document and software control, and the internal and external review process. The effort spent in the quality assurance tasks for the EBR-II PRA has reciprocated by providing acceptance of the work and confidence in the quality of the results.

  5. Quality of Life. Volume II: Application to Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.; Siperstein, Gary N., Ed.

    This volume summarizes current policies and programmatic practices that are influencing the quality of life of persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part 1, "Service Delivery Application," contains: "Using Person-Centered Planning To Address Personal Quality of Life" (John Butterworth and others); "The Aftermath of…

  6. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  7. Determinants of Lighting Quality II: Research and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitch, Jennifer A.; Newsham, Guy R.

    The quality of indoor lighting can influence task performance, social interaction and communication, health and safety, visual comfort, student behavior, and aesthetic judgments. These by-products of lighting are examined in this literature review in an effort to define the conditions that are associated with good lighting quality. Lighting…

  8. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  9. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stipper harvester: Part II

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  10. Quality of Life. Volume II: Application to Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.; Siperstein, Gary N., Ed.

    This volume summarizes current policies and programmatic practices that are influencing the quality of life of persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part 1, "Service Delivery Application," contains: "Using Person-Centered Planning To Address Personal Quality of Life" (John Butterworth and others); "The Aftermath of…

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of the Utility of the "Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II" for Use in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Fester, Tarryn; Zazelis, Telly

    2011-01-01

    Background: The quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) can be an important influence on the quality of the support provided to people with disability who show challenging behaviours. The Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II (BSP-QE II) is one tool that may be useful in assessing the quality of behaviour support plans. It has…

  12. Volume II. Flying Qualities Phase. Chapter 3: Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    courses in aircraft flying qualities and linear control systems taught at the USAF Test Pilot School. Only analysis and solution techniques which have direct application for work at the School will be covered.

  13. Quality Assurance Assessment of the F-35 Lightning II Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Defense Contract Management Agency should: • Provide a comprehensive quality assurance oversight plan for Joint Program Office approval to be...included in the memorandum of agreement. • Audit the execution of the quality assurance oversight plan throughout the F-35 supply chain. Management... plans deferred the procurement of 410 aircraft until 2017. In March 2012, JPO established a new acquisition program baseline for the F-35 program

  14. "Chilled" pork--Part II. Consumer perception of sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare consumer perception of the sensory quality of grilled Canadian pork destined for Japanese and domestic markets, with particular reference to export selection criteria imposed by Japanese importers and transportation conditions. Consumers from Quebec, Canada tasted local and export quality pork subjected to "chilled" (aged 43 days at -1.7 °C) or conventional ageing (5 days at 3.1 °C). Consumers' scores (out of 10) were higher (P<0.05) in the "chilled" than conventionally aged pork for tenderness (6.8 vs 5.7), juiciness (6.6 vs 6.0), taste liking (6.4 vs 5.9) and overall acceptability (6.7 vs 6.1). When informed that the conventionally aged, domestic quality pork was destined for the domestic market, consumer scores increased significantly (P<0.05). No effect of information was observed on the perception of the 'chilled' export quality meat, perhaps a consequence of the high sensory quality observed prior to labelling.

  15. Indoor Air Quality: part II--what it does.

    PubMed

    Pike-Paris, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Newton, MA. A recent report indicated air quality samples taken from several rooms in the town's North High School had elevated CO2 levels of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) (Viser, 2004). State standards set 800 ppm as the optimum reading. Although not an immediate health issue, high CO2 levels are indicative of poor air circulation--clean air comes in but stale air is not vented out. Safety issues arise in the school setting when chemicals or toxic substances are in use and cannot be vented, therefore posing the health risk (Viser, 2004). Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in schools can result in decreased academic performance and days lost due to illness in the school age population (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2003). As the school nurse at North High School, what would you do?

  16. Objective assessment of sonographic: quality II acquisition information spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia Q; Abbey, Craig K; Insana, Michael F

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a task-based, information-theoretic approach to the assessment of image quality in diagnostic sonography. We expand the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric J, which quantifies the diagnostic information contained within recorded radio-frequency echo signals, into a spatial-frequency integral comprised of two spectral components: one describes patient features for low-contrast diagnostic tasks and the other describes instrumentation properties. The latter quantity is the acquisition information spectrum (AIS), which measures the density of object information that an imaging system is able to transfer to the echo data at each spatial frequency. AIS is derived based on unique properties of acoustic scattering in tissues that generate object contrast. Predictions made by the J integral expression were validated through Monte Carlo studies using echo-signal data from simulated lesions. Our analysis predicts the diagnostic performance of any sonographic system at specific diagnostic tasks based on engineering properties of the instrument that constitute image quality.

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with MPS II.

    PubMed

    Needham, Mary; Packman, Wendy; Quinn, Natasha; Rappoport, Maxwell; Aoki, Christa; Bostrom, Alan; Cordova, Matthew; Macias, Sandra; Morgan, Cynthia; Packman, Seymour

    2015-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. The National MPS Society (2013) reports that MPS II affects 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 150,000 males worldwide. Two distinct forms of the disease are based on age of onset and clinical course: attenuated and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Clinical manifestations can include progressive hearing loss, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. This study focuses on the health-related quality of life of individuals (HRQOL) with MPS II as measured by the parent and self-report versions of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). Both parents of patients with MPS II as well as patients themselves reported lower scores on all domains of the PedsQL™ (physical, emotional, social and school functioning) indicating that children with MPS II have an overall lower HRQOL when compared to a healthy sample. When compared with patients with other chronic illnesses (cancer, MSUD, galactosemia,), the MPS II sample had significantly lower scores on a number of PedsQL™ scales, suggesting an overall lower HRQOL. No significant relationships were found using scores from parent or self report PedsQL™ measures and length of time on ERT.

  18. Effect of peroxiredoxin II on the quality and mitochondrial activity of pre-implantation bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Fakruzzaman, Md; Ghanem, Nasser; Bang, Jae-Il; Ha, A-Na; Lee, Kyeong-Lim; Sohn, Sea-Hwan; Wang, Zhongde; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kong, Il-Keun

    2015-08-01

    Endogenous peroxiredoxin II (PRDX II) protein plays a vital role in early embryonic development. This study assessed the beneficial effects of exogenous PRDX II on bovine embryo development at the cellular and molecular levels. To this end, in vitro maturation (IVM) medium was supplemented with various concentrations of PRDX II (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100μg/mL). Of these, 12.5μg/mL PRDX II was the most effective and significantly promoted embryonic development. Therefore, this concentration of PRDX II was used in subsequent experiments. The percentage of embryos that developed into Day 8 blastocysts and the total number of cells per blastocyst (38.2% and 150.6±5.1) was higher in the PRDX II-treated group than in the control (26.4% and 128.9±3.9, respectively). Moreover, the percent of TUNEL positive cells was higher (P<0.05) in the control than in the PRDX II-treated. Furthermore, PRDX II added to the IVM media increased mitochondria content in blastocysts and decreased the intracellular ROS levels in oocytes and blastocysts compared with the control (P<0.05). The expression of genes associated with blastocyst quality (CDX2 and IFNτ), antioxidant activity (SOD2), and mitochondrial activity (TFAM) was higher, whereas the expression of a gene involved in the apoptotic pathway (c-FOS) was lower, in the PRDX II-treated than in the control group. In conclusion, supplementation of IVM medium with PRDX II promotes development to the blastocyst stage and improves blastocyst quality through reducing ROS, enhancing embryonic mitochondrial activity, and modulating development- related target genes expression.

  19. Guidelines in cardiac clinical practice: evaluation of their methodological quality using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Patel, Vanash; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Kirresh, Ali; Darzi, Ara; Chambers, John C; Malik, Iqbal; Kooner, Jaspal S; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical guidelines have an influential role in healthcare practice, their development process and the evidence they cite has been subject to criticism. This study evaluates the quality of guidelines in cardiac clinical practice by examining how they adhere to validated methodological standards in guideline development. A structured review of cardiac clinical practice guidelines published in seven cardiovascular journals between January 2001 and May 2011 was performed. The AGREE II assessment tool was used by two researchers to evaluate guideline quality. A total of 101 guidelines were identified. Assessment of guidelines using AGREE II found methodological quality to be highly variable (median score, 58.70%; range, 45.34–76.40%). ‘Scope and purpose’ (median score, 86.1%) and ‘clarity of development’ (median score, 83.3 %) were the two domains within AGREE II that received the highest scores. Applicability (median score, 20.80%; range, 4.20–54.20%) and editorial independence (median score, 33.30%; range, 0–62.50%) had the lowest scores. There is considerable variability in the quality of cardiac clinical practice guidelines and this has not improved over the last 10 years. Incorporating validated guideline assessment tools, such as AGREE II, may improve the quality of guidelines. PMID:23759888

  20. Evaluation of the Quality of Guidelines for Myasthenia Gravis with the AGREE II Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenchang; Guo, Jia; Su, Gang; Li, Jiong; Wu, Hua; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners in making decisions about appropriate healthcare in specific clinical circumstances. The methodological quality of CPGs for myasthenia gravis (MG) are unclear. Objective To critically evaluate the methodological quality of CPGs for MG using AGREE II instrument. Method A systematical search strategy on PubMed, EMBASE, DynaMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) was performed on September 20th 2013. All guidelines related to MG were evaluated with AGREE II. The software used for analysis was SPSS 17.0. Results A total of 15 CPGs for MG met the inclusion criteria (12 CPGs in English, 3 CPGs in Chinese). The overall agreement among reviews was moderate or high (ICC >0.70). The mean scores (mean ± SD) for al six domains were presented as follows: scope and purpose (60.93% ±16.62%), stakeholder involvement (40.93% ±20.04%), rigor of development (37.22% ±30.46%), clarity of presentation (64.26% ±16.36%), applicability (28.19% ±20.56%) and editorial independence (27.78% ±28.28%). Compared with non-evidence-based CPGs, evidence-based CPGs had statistically significant higher quality scores for all AGREE II domains (P<0.05). All domain scores appear slightly higher for CPGs published after AGREE II instrument development and validation (P>0.05). The quality scores of CPGs developed by NGC/AAN were higher than the quality scores of CPGs developed by other organizations for all domains. The difference was statistically significant for all domains with the exception of clarity of presentation (P = 0.07). Conclusions The qualities of CPGs on MG were generally acceptable with several flaws. The AGREE II instrument should be adopted by guideline developers, particularly in China. PMID:25402504

  1. Studying the Effect of Light Quality on the Size of the Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhoz, Romualdo; Quiles, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the effect of light quality on the size of the photosystem II (PSII) light harvesting complex (LHCII) is studied by measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by leaf sections of oat ("Avena sativa," var. Prevision) plants previously treated with either white light or with light filtered through blue, green, red or farred…

  2. Studying the Effect of Light Quality on the Size of the Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhoz, Romualdo; Quiles, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the effect of light quality on the size of the photosystem II (PSII) light harvesting complex (LHCII) is studied by measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by leaf sections of oat ("Avena sativa," var. Prevision) plants previously treated with either white light or with light filtered through blue, green, red or farred…

  3. Section II--Quality from the Perspective of Stakeholders: Quality in Early Childhood Programs? Underlying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin-Hee; Walsh, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Quality is a value-laden and context-bound concept. Drawing on cultural psychology, this study examines the nature of cultural values underlying definitions of quality in American early childhood programs. From semi-structured interviews with 15 teachers and 15 administrators in center-based early childhood programs, three themes emerged: (a)…

  4. ADHERENCE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS IN NORTHERN GREECE

    PubMed Central

    Zioga, Efrosini; Kazakos, Kyriakos; Dimopoulos, Evagelos; Koutras, Christos; Marmara, Kalliopi; Marmara, Eleni-Efrosini; Marmaras, Athanasios; Lavdaniti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adherence as a concept includes various types of health-related behavior. Better medical adherence leads to improved disease control and fewer diabetes–related complications. Quality of life and medication adherence are interrelated. Patients with diabetes who adhere to their treatment can experience an improvement in quality of life and vice versa. Aim: To assess treatment adherence in patients with type II diabetes, as well as the connection between adherence and quality of life. Methodology: A descriptive non-experimental study was conducted in a provincial hospital in Northern Greece. The sample examined was a convenience sample consisting of 108 patients with type II diabetes mellitus. They completed the “Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire” and SF-36 “Quality of Life Questionnaire”. Results: Participants demonstrated good adherence to diet and blood test / blood glucose test routines, but did not experience high levels of quality of life. The type of treatment affected the adherence to blood tests with a statistically significant difference (p=0,000). Also, marital status affected mental health with a statistically significant difference (p=0,032). The adherence sub scales are correlated with the all domains of quality of life. Conclusions: According to our findings, it is important to plan interventions to enhance adherence to other types of treatment and to help patients to further improve their quality of life. PMID:27698597

  5. ADHERENCE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS IN NORTHERN GREECE.

    PubMed

    Zioga, Efrosini; Kazakos, Kyriakos; Dimopoulos, Evagelos; Koutras, Christos; Marmara, Kalliopi; Marmara, Eleni-Efrosini; Marmaras, Athanasios; Lavdaniti, Maria

    2016-07-24

    Adherence as a concept includes various types of health-related behavior. Better medical adherence leads to improved disease control and fewer diabetes-related complications. Quality of life and medication adherence are interrelated. Patients with diabetes who adhere to their treatment can experience an improvement in quality of life and vice versa. To assess treatment adherence in patients with type II diabetes, as well as the connection between adherence and quality of life. A descriptive non-experimental study was conducted in a provincial hospital in Northern Greece. The sample examined was a convenience sample consisting of 108 patients with type II diabetes mellitus. They completed the "Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire" and SF-36 "Quality of Life Questionnaire". Participants demonstrated good adherence to diet and blood test / blood glucose test routines, but did not experience high levels of quality of life. The type of treatment affected the adherence to blood tests with a statistically significant difference (p=0,000). Also, marital status affected mental health with a statistically significant difference (p=0,032). The adherence sub scales are correlated with the all domains of quality of life. According to our findings, it is important to plan interventions to enhance adherence to other types of treatment and to help patients to further improve their quality of life.

  6. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  7. [Clinical practice guidelines in Peru: evaluation of its quality using the AGREE II instrument].

    PubMed

    Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Balbin, Graciela; Perez-Gomez, Ángela; Florez, Iván D

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the methodological quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) put into practice by the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA), 17 CPGs from the ministry, published between 2009 and 2014, were independently evaluated by three methodologic experts using the AGREE II instrument. The score of AGREE II domains was low and very low in all CPGs: scope and purpose (medium, 44%), clarity of presentation (medium, 47%), participation of decision-makers (medium, 8%), methodological rigor (medium, 5%), applicability (medium, 5%), and editorial independence (medium, 8%). In conclusion, the methodological quality of CPGs implemented by the MINSA is low. Consequently, its use could not be recommended. The implementation of the methodology for the development of CPGs described in the recentlypublished CPG methodological preparation manual in Peru is a pressing need.

  8. Quality evaluation of the Finasteride polymorphic forms I and II in capsules.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lucélia Magalhães; Montanari, Cristina Martiniano; Santos, Olimpia Maria Martins; Cazedey, Edith Cristina Laignier; Ângelo, Marilene Lopes; de Araújo, Magali Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Finasteride (FNS) is a specific competitive inhibitor of steroid type-II 5α-reductase and is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and androgenetic alopecia. FNS has two polymorphic forms identified as Form I and Form II. It is known that polymorphism can cause significant differences in the physicochemical properties of a compound such as melting point, density, morphology, solubility, and color. Thus, proper qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the solid-state forms is crucial to ensure high-quality products. There are no published papers studying the influence of the FNS polymorphs on the physicochemical quality of capsules. Furthermore, the available analytical methods are time-consuming, expensive, use buffer or do not demonstrate stability-indicating capacity. The aim of this work was to validate a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to evaluate FNS in capsules and to study the physicochemical properties of polymorphic forms, evaluating their possible influence in the dissolution profile and stability of FNS in capsules. Capsules containing Forms I and II of FNS were prepared and subjected to quality control studies, dissolution profiles and a stability study at 50°C. A significant effect of polymorphism on the FNS solubility and dissolution properties was observed. These results suggest that changes in the effects of FNS can occur if a suitable control study is not performed on the raw material used to produce the capsules.

  9. Clinical guidelines in pediatric headache: evaluation of quality using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool is a validated questionnaire used to assess the methodological quality of clinical guidelines (CGs). We used the AGREE II tool to assess the development process, the methodological quality, and the quality of reporting of available pediatric CGs for the management of headache in children. We also studied the variability in responses related to the characteristics of eleven Italian neuropediatric centers, showing similarities and differences in the main recommendations reported in CGs. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted from January 2002 to June 2013 on Mediline, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse website and the NHS evidence search tool, using the following terms: headache, cephalalgia, guidelines and children (MESH or text words). Six CGs providing information on the diagnosis and management of headache and specific recommendations for children were selected. Eleven neuropediatric centers assessed the overall quality and the appropriateness of all available CGs using of the AGREE II instrument. Results Six CGs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and assessed by 11 reviewers. Our study showed that the NICE CGs was “strongly recommended” while the French and Danish CGs were mainly “not recommended”. The comparison between the overall quality score of the French CGs and the NICE CGs was statistically significant (6.54 ± 0.69 vs 4.18 ± 1.08; p =0.001). The correlation analysis between quality domain score and guideline publication date showed a statistically significant association only for the “editorial independence” domain (r = 0.842 p = 0.035). The intra-class coefficients showed that the 11 reviewers had the highest agreement for the Lewis CGs (r = 0.857), and the lowest one for the NICE CGs (r = 0.656). Statistical analyses showed that professionals from outpatient services

  10. Clinical guidelines in pediatric headache: evaluation of quality using the AGREE II instrument.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Carotenuto, Marco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Mariani, Rosanna; Papetti, Laura; Pavone, Piero; Savasta, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Toldo, Irene; Tozzi, Elisabetta; Verrotti, Alberto; Raucci, Umberto

    2014-09-01

    The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool is a validated questionnaire used to assess the methodological quality of clinical guidelines (CGs). We used the AGREE II tool to assess the development process, the methodological quality, and the quality of reporting of available pediatric CGs for the management of headache in children. We also studied the variability in responses related to the characteristics of eleven Italian neuropediatric centers, showing similarities and differences in the main recommendations reported in CGs. A systematic literature search was conducted from January 2002 to June 2013 on Mediline, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse website and the NHS evidence search tool, using the following terms: headache, cephalalgia, guidelines and children (MESH or text words). Six CGs providing information on the diagnosis and management of headache and specific recommendations for children were selected. Eleven neuropediatric centers assessed the overall quality and the appropriateness of all available CGs using of the AGREE II instrument. Six CGs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and assessed by 11 reviewers. Our study showed that the NICE CGs was "strongly recommended" while the French and Danish CGs were mainly "not recommended". The comparison between the overall quality score of the French CGs and the NICE CGs was statistically significant (6.54 ± 0.69 vs. 4.18 ± 1.08; p =0.001). The correlation analysis between quality domain score and guideline publication date showed a statistically significant association only for the "editorial independence" domain (r = 0.842 p = 0.035). The intra-class coefficients showed that the 11 reviewers had the highest agreement for the Lewis CGs (r = 0.857), and the lowest one for the NICE CGs (r = 0.656). Statistical analyses showed that professionals from outpatient services dedicated pediatric headache assigned a

  11. A longitudinal study of emotional adjustment, quality of life and adaptive function in attenuated MPS II.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Elsa G; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Steiner, Robert D; Delaney, Kathleen A; Yund, Brianna; King, Kelly; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Eisengart, Julie; Whitley, Chester B

    2016-06-01

    The behavioral, adaptive and quality of life characteristics of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have not been well studied. Understanding changes over time in the attenuated phenotype may assist in helping achieve better outcomes in long-term function. This longitudinal study investigates these outcomes in relation to age, somatic disease burden, and IQ. Specifically, somatic disease burden is a major challenge for these patients, even with treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. 15 patients, 10 between ages 6 and < 12 and 5 between ages ≥ 12 and 18, were selected who had at least 2 yearly visits. The occurrence of physical signs, the Physical Symptom Score, and IQ in these two groups was studied as well as the longitudinal association of age with standardized measures of quality of life, adaptive function, and behavioral symptoms as rated by parents and the child's self-report. Slopes by age across and within patients were calculated for these measures. All but one child had hearing loss, most had joint contractures and short stature. Somatic disease burden increased with age. IQ, although normal for most, also improved with age in those under 12 years of age. Physical quality of life decreased while psychosocial quality of life increased with age. Although other adaptive skills were in the broad average range, daily living skills were low at baseline relative to normative data and decreased over time. Behavior ratings indicated improvement in attention and hyperactivity over time. No patient had severe psychopathology, but older children reported an increasing sense of inadequacy and low self-esteem on self-report, presumably due to increasing awareness of differences from peers over time. Attenuated MPS II patients have increasing somatic disease burden and poor physical quality of life as they develop as well as decreasing self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Psychosocial quality of life, adaptive skills, and attention improve

  12. Monitoring water quality parameters for Case II waters in Cyprus using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoutsa, Christiana; Retalis, Adrianos; Toulios, Leonidas; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    Remote sensing technology has been widely used for monitoring water quality parameters such as suspended solids (turbidity), Secchi Disk, chlorophyll, and phosphorus. Suspended matter plays an important role in water quality management of several inland- (such as lakes and reservoirs) and coastal-water bodies and can be used to estimate the Trophic State Index of different water bodies. However synoptic information on water quality parameters at a systematic basis is difficult to be obtained from routine in situ monitoring programs since suspended matter, phosphorus, and chlorophyll are spatially inhomogeneous parameters. To meet this need, an integrated use of Landsat satellite images, in situ data and water quality models can be used. Several algorithms were developed at a previous stage using water quality data collected during the in situ sampling campaigns taken place in 2010 and 2011 over Asprokremmos Reservoir (Paphos District) for the assessment of turbidity, Secchi Disk, and Trophic State Index fluctuations using spectroradiometric data. Remotely sensed data were atmospherically corrected and water quality models for the estimation of both the turbidity- and Secchi Disk- concentrations were further calibrated using in situ data for the case of Asprokremmos Reservoir and several coastal over Cyprus coastline (Limassol and Paphos District Areas). This methodology can be used as a supporting monitoring tool for water management authorities "gaining" additional information regarding the spatial and temporal alterations of the turbidity- and Secchi Disk- concentrations and the Trophic State Index values over several Case II water bodies.

  13. Oral Impacts on Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Class I, II and III Malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Javed, Omair; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the social impact of malocclusion on quality of life between adult patients with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion. A total of 222 adult patients (139, 42 and 41 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion, respectively) were recruited voluntarily from those attending the Orthodontic Clinic of Khyber College of Dentistry in Pesh awar, Pakistan. Participants were asked to complete the Urdu version of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which was previously validated for this study. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare the seven OHIP-14 domains scores and the total score between patients with malocclusion Class I, II and III. Adults with Class III malocclusion had a significantly higher OHIP-14 total score than those with Class I malocclusion (a mean difference of 5 units between groups), but there were no differences between other Angle malocclusion groups. In addition, adults with Class III malocclusion reported greater impacts on the three OHIP-14 disability domains (physical, psychological and social) than those with Class I malocclusion. No significant interactions with sex and age were found. These findings suggest that adult patients with Class III malocclusion had a poorer quality of life than those with Class I malocclusion. Differences were mainly found in the physical, psychological and social disability domains of the OHIP-14 instrument.

  14. Translation, adaptation and validation of a Portuguese version of the Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II.

    PubMed

    Maciel, João; Infante, Paulo; Ribeiro, Susana; Ferreira, André; Silva, Artur C; Caravana, Jorge; Carvalho, Manuel G

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide. An assessment of the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) requires specific instruments. The Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II (MA-II) is a widely used instrument to assess HRQoL in morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to translate and validate a Portuguese version of the MA-II.The study included forward and backward translations of the original MA-II. The reliability of the Portuguese MA-II was estimated using the internal consistency and test-retest methods. For validation purposes, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the Portuguese MA-II and the Portuguese versions of two other questionnaires, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite).One hundred and fifty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese MA-II. Good internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80, and a very good agreement in terms of test-retest reliability was recorded, with an overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.88. The total sums of MA-II scores and each item of MA-II were significantly correlated with all domains of SF-36 and IWQOL-Lite. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the MA-II total score and BMI. Moreover, age, gender and surgical status were independent predictors of MA-II total score.A reliable and valid Portuguese version of the MA-II was produced, thus enabling the routine use of MA-II in the morbidly obese Portuguese population.

  15. Recommendations for Cycle II of National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Mallard, Gail E.; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.; Broshears, Robert E.; Evenson, Eric J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Prince, Keith R.

    1999-01-01

    The Planning Team for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program defines a successful NAWQA Program as one that makes a balanced contribution to study-unit issues, national issues, and to the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Using this criterion, NAWQA has been a success. The program has provided important new knowledge and understanding of scientific processes, and insights into the occurrence and distribution of contaminants that have been key to local and national policy decisions. Most of the basic design characteristics of NAWQA's first decade (1991-2000), hereafter called cycle I) remain appropriate as the program enters its second decade (cycle II) in 2001. In cycle II, the program has the opportunity to build on its successful base and to evolve to take advantage of the knowledge generated in cycle I. In addition to this expected evolution, NAWQA must also make some changes to compensate for the fact that program funding has not kept pace with inflation. An important theme for the second cycle of NAWQA will be the integration of knowledge across scales and across disciplines. The question that drove the NAWQA design in the first cycle was "How is water quality related to land use?" Cycle II will build upon what was learned in cycle I and use land-use and water-quality gradients to identify and understand potential sources of various constituents and the processes affecting transport and fate of those constituents and their effects on receptors. The understanding we gain from applying this approach will be relevant to the interests of policymakers, regulatory agencies, and resource managers.

  16. [Quality of life and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II].

    PubMed

    Kuwert, Philipp; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Rosenthal, Jenny; Dudeck, Manuela; Freyberger, Harald J; Spitzer, Carsten

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the quality of life and the sense of coherence in a sample of former German child soldiers of World War II. 103 participants were recruited by the press, then administered a Short-Form-Health-Survey (SF-12), a sense-of-coherence scale (SOC) and 2 qualitative questions on possible resources in the combat situation. The quality of life was not lowered compared to a comparison group of the same age. The sense of coherence was significantly higher than that of the comparison group. The participants belonged to a comparably unobtrusive group of veterans. A possible protective variable might be the high sense of coherence.

  17. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    PubMed

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  18. A Comparison of Type II Diabetic Patients With Healthy People: Coping Strategies, Hardiness, and Occupational Life Quality

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Safdar; Jaafari, Asghar; Ghamari, Mohammad; Esfandiary, Maryam; Salehi Mazandarani, Foroozan; Daneshvar, Sahar; Ajami, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the epidemiologic transition and a rise in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases different coping strategies have been studied and developed. These strategies may help the affected people to conduct a normal life style. Objectives This research was conducted in Qazvin, Iran to determine the relationship between coping strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in Type II diabetic patients and healthy people. Patients and Methods Questionnaires such as Valton’s on “occupational life quality,” Billings and Moos’ examination of “Coping strategies,” and Kobasa’s investigation of “hardiness” were applied to collect the data needed for the present study. In this regard, 80 people were randomly selected from employees of offices in Qazvin, Iran. Results The results of this research indicated that there is a significant relationship between problem-focused strategies, emotion-focused strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people (P ≤ 0.05). These results also indicated that hardiness does not predict occupational life quality of people suffering from Type II diabetes. Conclusions The results of the present study give some evidence that allows us to conclude that hardiness and coping strategies affect occupational life quality for both people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people. Therefore, it is proposed that people strengthen their hardiness and coping strategies, in order to improve their occupational life quality. PMID:27162758

  19. A bonding study toward the quality assurance of Belle-II silicon vertex detector modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K. H.; Jeon, H. B.; Park, H.; Uozumi, S.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaia, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    A silicon vertex detector (SVD) for the Belle-II experiment comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), assembled in a ladder-like structure. Each ladder module of the outermost SVD layer has four rectangular and one trapezoidal DSSDs supported by two carbon-fiber ribs. In order to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and minimize material budget, a novel chip-on-sensor "Origami" method has been employed for the three rectangular sensors that are sandwiched between the backward rectangular and forward (slanted) trapezoidal sensors. This paper describes the bonding procedures developed for making electrical connections between sensors and signal fan-out flex circuits (i.e., pitch adapters), and between pitch adapters and readout chips as well as the results in terms of the achieved bonding quality and pull force.

  20. Validation of the Greek translation of the obesity-specific Moorehead-Ardelt Quality-of-Life Questionnaire II.

    PubMed

    Charalampakis, Vasileios; Daskalakis, Markos; Bertsias, Georgios; Papadakis, John A; Melissas, John

    2012-05-01

    Morbid obesity adversely affects quality of life. The assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) needs specific measuring instruments. The Moorehead-Ardelt Quality-of-Life Questionnaire II (MA II) is an obesity-specific instrument widely used in bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to translate and validate the MA II in Greek language. The study included the translation of the MA II followed by cross-validation with the Greek version of 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in subjects visiting an obesity clinic. Internal consistency was indicated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was studied using Pearson's correlations between the MA II, the SF-36 and the VAS. A total of 175 patients were enrolled in the study. Test-retest analysis was applied to 40 patients with a 15-day interval. A very good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.85 was shown. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed with an overall ICC of 0.981. Significant correlations between the Greek MA II and the other instruments as well as of each item of the MA II with the scores of SF-36 and the VAS indicated high construct and convergent validity. A negative correlation between the translated MA II total score and BMI confirmed high clinical validity. The Greek version of the MA II questionnaire has been generated and shown to be valid and reliable in measuring HRQoL in morbidly obese patients before and after bariatric surgery.

  1. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014). This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs and PAN + PAN precursors) over 8 vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performances of the system are assessed daily, weekly and 3 monthly (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the median ensemble to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The time period of this case study is also used to illustrate that the median ensemble generally outperforms each of the individual models and that it is still robust even if two of the seven models are missing. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10 and show an overall improvement over time. The change of the skills of the ensemble over the past two summers for ozone and the past two winters for PM10 are discussed in the paper. While the evolution of the ozone scores is not significant, there are improvements of PM10 over the past two winters

  2. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Tarasson, L.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN+PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models

  3. Sleep and Alertness Management II: Effects on Sleep Pattern and Sleep Quality in Marmosets (slaap- en alertheidsmanagement II: effecten op slaapritme en slaapkwaliteit in marmosetapen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    II: Effects on F +31 15 284 39 91 sleep pattern and sleep quality in marmosets Info-DenV@tno.nf Date October 2006 Author(s) Dr I.l1.C.H.M. Philippens...5126 Summary In this study, the marmoset monkey model was validated using nocturnal electroencephalogram measurements for evaluating effects on sleep...the effects of the short acting hypnotic drugs temazepam, zolpidem and zaleplon on sleep were determined in the marmoset monkey. The results showed

  4. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasusi; Hori, Haruka; Kai, Suguru; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Ohnishi, Atsuki; Tsumura, Nodoka; Morita, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 μmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 μmol photons m-2 s-1). The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II. PMID:24194743

  5. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  6. [Self-estimation of the quality of life in adult patients after surgical correction of atrial septal defect type II (ASD II)].

    PubMed

    Konstanty, J; Guzik, B; Maleta, P; Korpanty, G; Pfitzner, R

    2001-01-01

    Health estimation was performed in 134 patients (where 67% were women), aged 17-70, mean 42 years, 2-3 years after surgical correction of atrial septal defect type II (ASD II). The study consists of clinical examination and self-estimation of the quality of life with help of a mall questionnaire, with return ratio of 90%. The improvement of health status was declared by 80% of patients, where 23% stated considerable improvement. While 15% did not confirm any significant changes and 5% noticed worsening quality of life status (mainly connected with postoperative pain). The physical condition improved similarly, with range of tolerable physical effort doubled. The frequency of dyspnea, chest pain and palpitation decreased from 72%, 67% and 87% to 47%, 43% and 47%, respectively, as well as their intensity. More over, the frequency of anxiety decreased from 70% to 62% with reduction of its intensity. Both, before and after surgery, the environmental estimation and self-estimation was very good (77% versus 78%, 78% versus 89%) respectively, and predominant were optimistic attitudes. Post-operative improvement of the quality of life correlating to the clinical state, confirms the suitableness of surgical correction of ASD II, independent of age.

  7. Appraising the quality of clinical practice guidelines in traditional Chinese medicine using AGREE II instrument: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yao, Liang; Chen, Yaolong; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Xiue; Wang, Yongfen; Guo, Tiankang; Yang, Kehu

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) published in journals and books using AGREE II instrument for further enhancing TCM CPG development. A systematic search of relevant guideline websites and literature databases (including Chinese Guideline Clearinghouse, PubMed Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, VIP Online Publishing Platform, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and SinoMed) was undertaken from inception to December, 2015 to identify and select CPGs related to TCM. Four independent reviewers assessed the eligible TCM CPGs using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. Their degree of agreement was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). From 2380 citations, 115 TCM CPGs were included. The mean scores for each AGREE II domain were as follows: (i) scope and purpose (mean±SD=41.1±19.6); (ii) stakeholder involvement (mean±SD=37.6±15.1); (iii) rigour of development (mean±SD=20.1±10.9); (iv) clarity and presentation (mean±SD=33.3±15.4); (v) applicability (mean±SD=10.5±4.5) and (vi) editorial independence (mean±SD=11.4±7.6). Only 10% (n=12) TCM CPGs were rated as "recommended". The ICC values for TCM CPGs appraisal using the AGREE II ranged from 0.76 to 0.93. The quality of TCM CPGs has remained suboptimal according to AGREE II instrument evaluation. The use of AGREE II in the development process ensures that these considerations are incorporated, and more efforts must be made to improve the quality of TCM CPGs. Therefore, an evidence-based method should be used, and reporting the full texts according to AGREE II checklists for the further TCM CPGs development to ensure the translation of evidence into practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Quality of life in systemic sclerosis: psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Marie; Steele, Russell; Taillefer, Suzanne; Baron, Murray

    2008-02-15

    To determine the validity of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patients enrolled in the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group registry participated in a standardized evaluation and completed the WHODAS II. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the WHODAS II with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), construct validity was assessed by examining how it relates to common measures of outcome in SSc, and discriminative validity was assessed by examining how it distinguishes patients with more severe disease from those with less severe disease. A total of 402 patients with SSc were included (mean +/- SD age 55 +/- 13 years, 87% women, mean +/- SD disease duration 11 +/- 9 years). The mean +/- SD WHODAS II score was 24.6 +/- 17.4, and the greatest impairments were in life activities and mobility. There were moderate to good correlations between the WHODAS II and the SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (r = -0.44), the SF-36 Mental Component Summary score (r = -0.41), and measures of function (r = 0.54), depression (r = 0.44), pain (r = 0.40), and fatigue (r = -0.49, P < 0.0001 for all). The WHODAS II was able to consistently distinguish patients with milder disease from those with more severe disease. The WHODAS II had good psychometric properties in patients with SSc and should be considered a valid measure of health-related quality of life in SSc.

  9. The relationship among air quality, mixing heights, and winds observed during the entire TexAQS-II field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C.; Knoderer, C. A.; Zahn, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS-II) was designed to provide support for State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions. The SIP revisions outline strategies for improving air quality to meet the new federal 8-hr ozone standard and regional haze requirements. As part of TexAQS-II, a field study was conducted to collect air quality and meteorological data throughout eastern Texas from May 1, 2005, through October 15, 2006. As part of the field study, various organizations made upper-air meteorological measurements at several locations. These measurements were collected by twelve 915-MHz radar wind profilers (RWPs), three 404 MHz RWPs, nine Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), two sodars, and one lidar. These instruments provide vertically, horizontally, and temporally resolved wind, virtual temperature (Tv), and mixing height information. This presentation will address the three-dimensional and temporal characteristics of these parameters throughout the study domain for the entire study period and how these characteristic vary by season, month, and synoptic weather pattern. The presentation will also address how these characteristics influence regional and local air quality conditions throughout the study domain, including the relationship among various transport statistics, mixing height characteristics (e.g., time of peak mixing, morning mixing height growth rate, peak mixing height, average morning mixing height, etc.) and air quality. In addition, case studies will illustrate the finer-scale details of the relationship among the evolution of mixing heights, diurnal variability of winds, and air quality.

  10. Appraising the methodological quality of the clinical practice guideline for diabetes mellitus using the AGREE II instrument: a methodological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Mahmoud; Rashidian, Arash; Takian, Amirhossein; Abou-Dagga, Sanaa; Elsous, Aymen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the methodological quality of the Palestinian Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes Mellitus using the Translated Arabic Version of the AGREE II. Design Methodological evaluation. A cross-cultural adaptation framework was followed to translate and develop a standardised Translated Arabic Version of the AGREE II. Setting Palestinian Primary Healthcare Centres. Participants Sixteen appraisers independently evaluated the Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes Mellitus using the Translated Arabic Version of the AGREE II. Main outcome measures Methodological quality of diabetic guideline. Results The Translated Arabic Version of the AGREE II showed an acceptable reliability and validity. Internal consistency ranged between 0.67 and 0.88 (Cronbach’s α). Intra-class coefficient among appraisers ranged between 0.56 and 0.88. The quality of this guideline is low. Both domains ‘Scope and Purpose’ and ‘Clarity of Presentation’ had the highest quality scores (66.7% and 61.5%, respectively), whereas the scores for ‘Applicability’, ‘Stakeholder Involvement’, ‘Rigour of Development’ and ‘Editorial Independence’ were the lowest (27%, 35%, 36.5%, and 40%, respectively). Conclusions The findings suggest that the quality of this Clinical Practice Guideline is disappointingly low. To improve the quality of current and future guidelines, the AGREE II instrument is extremely recommended to be incorporated as a gold standard for developing, evaluating or updating the Palestinian Clinical Practice Guidelines. Future guidelines can be improved by setting specific strategies to overcome implementation barriers with respect to economic considerations, engaging of all relevant end-users and patients, ensuring a rigorous methodology for searching, selecting and synthesising the evidences and recommendations, and addressing potential conflict of interests within the development group. PMID:28203385

  11. [Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia, Part II].

    PubMed

    Krug, B; Boettge, M; Reineke, T; Coburger, S; Zähringer, M; Harnischmacher, U; Lüngen, M; Lauterbach, K W; Lehmacher, W; Lackner, K

    2003-03-01

    In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. AllGPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32 % of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self-referrals by GPs, gastroenterologic radiology and

  12. The impact of learned resourcefulness on quality of life in type II diabetic patients: a cross-sectional correlational study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Chen, Hisu-Fung; Lai, Chien-Yu

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that patients with diabetes encounter a host of daily self-care issues, including controlling blood sugar and preventing and managing complications, which impact significantly upon quality of life. Studies have indicated that learned resourcefulness has a potentially positive effect in dealing with psychosocial and health problems. The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between learned resourcefulness and quality of life in type II diabetic patients. The mediating and moderating effects of learned resourcefulness on the relationship between metabolic control and quality of life of diabetic patients was also examined. This cross-sectional and correlational study included a convenience sample of 131 type II diabetic patients recruited from three hospitals in southern Taiwan. Data were collected through questionnaires, which included the Rosenbaum's Self Control Schedule and World Health Organization's Quality of Life (Short Version). Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze outcome predictors. Study findings include identification of a mediating effect of learned resourcefulness between metabolic control and quality of life. While most DM patients were not satisfied with their health, we found that those with greater learned resourcefulness enjoyed a better quality of life. Learned resourcefulness, gender, and HbA1C explained 35.2% of variance in DM patient quality of life. Male diabetic patients enjoyed a better quality of life than females, even though levels of learned resourcefulness between the two groups were not significantly different. Results indicate that poor metabolic control of diabetic patients has a detrimental effect on quality of life, and when diabetic patients use more self-control skills, they may achieve better quality of life. Results suggest that nurses who use cognitive behavior coping strategies (resourcefulness) may help diabetic patients achieve better metabolic control and promote better

  13. Water-quality data-collection activities in Colorado and Ohio; Phase II, Evaluation of 1984 field and laboratory quality-assurance practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, Carolyn J. Oblinger; Chaney, Thomas H.; Myers, Donna; Norris, J. Michael; Hren, Janet

    1987-01-01

    Serious questions have been raised by Congress about the usefulness of water-quality data for addressing issues of regional and national scope and, especially, for characterizing the current quality of the Nation's streams and ground water. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a pilot study in Colorado and Ohio to (1) determine the characteristics of current (1984) water-quality data-collection activities of Federal, regional, State, and local agencies, and academic institutions; and (2) determine how well the data from these activities, collected for various purposes and using different procedures, can be used to improve our ability to answer major broad-scope questions, such as:A. What are (or were) natural or near-natural water-quality conditions?B. What are existing water-quality conditions?C. How has water quality changed, and how do the changes relate to human activities?Colorado and Ohio were chosen for the pilot study largely because they represent regions with different types of waterquality concerns and programs. The study has been divided into three phases, the objectives of which are: Phase I--Inventory water-quality data-collection programs, including costs, and identify those programs that met a set of broad criteria for producing data that are potentially appropriate for water-quality assessments of regional and national scope. Phase II--Evaluate the quality assurance of field and laboratory procedures used in producing the data from programs that met the broad criteria of Phase I. Phase III--Compile the qualifying data and evaluate the adequacy of this data base for addressing selected water-quality questions of regional and national scope.Water-quality data are collected by a large number of organizations for diverse purposes ranging from meeting statutory requirements to research on water chemistry. Combining these individual data bases is an appealing and potentially cost-effective way to attempt to develop a data base adequate

  14. 78 FR 79340 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Stage II Vapor Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... worse. The EPA approved these rules on April 15, 1994 (59 FR 17940). The four areas where Stage II is... Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver, published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41731). Each year, non-ORVR... to and will soon surpass the emission reductions achieved by Stage II alone (see 77 FR 28772). In...

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-02-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, HCO3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and SO4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality of

  16. Your magical, mystical ways part II: a community forum on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2007-07-01

    This column presents the proceedings of a community forum for nursing sponsored by South Dakota State University College of Nursing in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The community forum was entitled Quality of Life & Healthcare Today and featured Dr. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse as the keynote speaker. Several panelists presented papers on quality of life including the following: "Quality of Life Issues for Returning Iraq Veterans," "Quality of Life Issues in the Student Experience," "Quality of Life Issues in an Acute Health Crisis," and "Quality of Life Issues in Nursing Leadership." Dr. Parse responded to each panelist's presentation with insights that expanded understanding of quality of life and human becoming.

  17. [Quality adjusted life years in assessment of preventive measures. Should blood donors be tested for HTLV-I/II infections?].

    PubMed

    Magnus, P; Stigum, H; Nord, E; Bjørndal, A; Samdal, H H; Skulberg, A; Heier, H E

    1996-04-20

    In planning preventive health measures, quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) are useful as a measure of benefit. As an example, the question of whether blood donors should be routinely tested for antibodies to the Human T-lymphotropic viruses I and II (HTLV I/II) is analysed. A mathematical model was set up to describe the consequences, in terms of lost life-years and years with disease due to transfusion-mediated infection (if testing is not performed) or years with reduced quality of life (in the case of testing). These future outcomes were discounted and converted to QALYs. The cost per QALY is about NOK 2.33 million when the prevalence is 1 per 50,000 blood donors, and is reduced to 190,000 per QALY when the prevalence is 10 per 50,000. Using QALYs in evaluation of preventive medicine can be complicated, and calls for cooperation between epidemiologists and health economists.

  18. Guidelines of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies: an overview and quality appraisal using AGREE II

    PubMed Central

    Vande veegaete, Axel; Borra, Vere; De Buck, Emmy; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To appraise the quality of guidelines developed by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) between 2001 and 2015. Study design Cross-sectional. Methods 2 authors independently assessed the quality of IFRC guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. Average domain scores were calculated and overall quality scores and recommendation for use were determined. Results Out of 77 identified guidelines, 27 met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. The domains with the highest average scores across guidelines were ‘scope and purpose’, ‘clarity of presentation’ and ‘applicability’. The lowest scoring domains were ‘rigour of development’ and ‘editorial independence’. No guideline can be ‘recommended for immediate use’, 23 guidelines are ‘recommended with modifications’ and 4 guidelines are ‘not recommended’. Conclusions The IFRC produces guidelines that should be adhered to by millions of staff and volunteers in 190 countries. These guidelines should therefore be of high quality. Up until now, the IFRC had no uniform guideline development process. The results of the AGREE II appraisal indicate that the quality of the guidelines needs to be improved. PMID:27678534

  19. Phase II Recommendations by the Air Quality Management Subcommittee to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The primary charge of the AQM Subcommittee was to develop recommendations to improve the air quality management system and address the air quality challenges in this country expected over the next 10 to 20 years. This report addresses those challenges.

  20. Alignment between chain quality management and chain governance in EU pork supply chains: a Transaction-Cost-Economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Wever, Mark; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques; Omta, Onno

    2010-02-01

    Although inter-firm coordination of quality management is increasingly important for meeting end-customer demand in agri-food chains, few researchers focus on the relation between inter-firm quality management systems (QMS) and inter-firm governance structures (GS). However, failure to align QMSs and GSs may lead to inefficiencies in quality management because of high transaction-costs. In addition, misalignment is likely to reduce the quality of end-customer products. This paper addresses this gap in research by empirically examining the relation between QMSs and GSs in pork meat supply chains. Transaction-Cost-Economic theory is used to develop propositions about the relation between three aspects of QMSs--ownership, vertical scope and scale of adoption--and the use of different types of GSs in pork meat supply chains. To validate the propositions, seven cases are examined from four different countries. The results show that the different aspects of QMSs largely relate to specific GSs used in chains in the manner predicted by the propositions. This supports the view that alignment between QMSs and GSs is important for the efficient coordination of quality management in (pork meat) supply chains.

  1. Enhancing processes for introduction, production, quality assurance, and delivery of US Title II food aid products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina; Webb, Patrick; Bagriansky, Jack; Johnson, Quentin; Rogers, Beatrice; Tilahun, Jessica; Masterson, Amelia Reese

    2011-09-01

    Enacted in 1950, Public Law 480 (PL480) dramatically increased the volume of U.S.food aid and the scope of interventions it supports. Billions of dollars have been invested, both to enhance the diets of chronically undernourished people in development settings, and to support nutritional needs during conflicts and natural disasters. Review the institutional processes-from procurement to delivery-that support this programming. We examined the systems that govern and oversee the many components of food aid programming and the extent to which they support a whole-of-government, multi-agency food aid agenda. We conducted consultations with US government employees and contractors, academics, industry representatives, donor agency staff United Nations personnel, and field-level food aid programming technical staff from many countries. A survey of USAID implementing partners conducted among 64 responding offices in 40 countries provided data on the use and effectiveness of enriched, fortified, or blended Title II commodities, the use of new commodities, and related procurement or logistics aspects. Expert panels provided input and feedback throughout the process. We identified potential improvements to overall delivery and cost-effectiveness of USAID programming to better meet the nutrition needs of beneficiaries. Options include changes in product formulation, the range of products provided, and/or the modes of product approval, processing, procurement, and distribution. This research points to several improvements in processes related to food aid: 1) Establish an interagency committee to oversee all government interests in the food aid agenda through an ongoing review process. 2) Enhance processes and quality assurance along the product value chain including the importance of effective interaction with the private sector to incorporate industry best practices and create public-private partnerships to promote product innovations. 3) Strengthen the evidence base for

  2. GREAT II Upper Mississippi River (Guttenberg, Iowa to Saverton, Missouri) Water Quality Work Group Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ACCOMPLISHM ENT .. .. ...... 19 A. Water Quality Assessment Report .. ..... ....... 19 B. Point Source Discharge Map .. .. ....... ...... 19 C. Dredge... Diversity . .. ...... ........ ... 128 X Summary of the Present Status of Water Quality in the Upper Mississippi River. .. .... .. 134 GLOSSARY...Suspended Sediment Plumes: A report on the water quality of the Upper Return flows at the Rock Island and Mississippi River and a point- source discharge

  3. Methodological quality of animal studies of neuroprotective agents currently in phase II/III acute ischemic stroke trials.

    PubMed

    Philip, Maria; Benatar, Michael; Fisher, Marc; Savitz, Sean I

    2009-02-01

    Numerous neuroprotective agents have proven effective in animal stroke studies, but every drug has failed to achieve its primary outcome when brought forward to clinical trials. We analyzed the quality and adequacy of animal studies supporting the efficacy of NXY-059 and other neuroprotective agents that are currently being investigated in phase II/III trials. We conducted a systematic search of all neuroprotective drugs in Phase II or III trials and collected data from animal studies of focal cerebral ischemia testing agents systemically administered within 24 hours of occlusion. The methodological rigor of each individual study was evaluated using 5 criteria derived from the STAIR guidelines. The adequacy of the preclinical "package" for each drug was then evaluated by combining the results of all studies for each drug to determine which of a further 5 STAIR criteria were met before moving forward from animal to human studies. Our search yielded 13 agents of which 10 had published data in peer-reviewed journals. There is substantial within-drug variability in the quality of preclinical studies as well as substantial variation in the completeness of the collective preclinical literature for different drugs. There has been little or no improvement in the quality of animal studies since NXY-059, and current agents have not been subjected to a more complete preclinical evaluation. There is significant heterogeneity in the quality of animal testing for neuroprotective agents in stroke. Drugs in the post-SAINT era have not been subjected to more thorough preclinical evaluation.

  4. Citrus fruits--varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma have been reviewed. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and

  5. Evaluation of indoor air quality using the decibel concept. Part II-ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Jokl, M V

    1997-03-01

    Weber-Fechner's law concerning the perception of sound by man with time expressed as a logarithmic function can also be used for the odour constituent used in the evaluation of indoor air quality in buildings. A new unit dB (odour) based on the concentration of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) is proposed as it is currently the basis for determining the air change rate. On the Psycho-Physical Scale according to Yaglou, the weakest odour that can be detected by the human smell sensors is equal to one and corresponds to the lower limit of percentage dissatisfaction (PD) of 5.8% and a threshold concentration (TVOC) of 50 micrograms/m3-0 dB (odour). The upper limit is determined by the initial value of toxicity TVOC -25,000 micrograms/m3-135 dB (odour). Optimal values corresponding to PD = 20% (according to EUR 14449 EN) and admissible values corresponding to PD = 30% (see Part I of this paper) are proposed, therefore the same values used to evaluate noise can be used to evaluate air quality and additionally the contribution of individual constituents (at present acoustic and odour) to the overall quality of the environment can be ascertained.

  6. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; Bay, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  7. Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...

  8. Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...

  9. [Production cycles and risk agents in the agri-food sector].

    PubMed

    L'abbate, N; Lorusso, A; Lasalvia, M

    2010-01-01

    Italian Food Processing Section includes primary sector (agriculture, fishing and farming), secondary industry and service sector (trade, transport and marketing). The whole process is structured in a sequence of production structures, which constitute a die. The most important food processing dies are fruit and vegetable, cereals, wine, oil, bovine, swine and avian breeding, fishing, milk and cheese. Every die presents very different production cycles, jobs and working professionals. Considering the heterogeneity of food processing dies, all occupational risk factors, such as chemical, biological, physical, ergonomic, psychosocial and injuries risks, are very frequent in such working activities. In a pilot study carried out in the province of Foggia (Apulia, Southern Italy) we showed that the major perceived risk factors where dust and physical overload in the cereal-pasta processing die, and noise and awkward postures in olive-oil die. However, perceived risk factors are biased by low risk perception due to poor information about health occupational hazards, this representing an important health safety problem. For this reason, the activity of preventive authorities at various levels is highly recommended.

  10. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Genome Engineering: Opportunities in Agri-Food-Nutrition and Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Subin Raj Cheri Kunnumal; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2015-05-01

    Recently developed strategies and techniques that make use of the vast amount of genetic information to perform targeted perturbations in the genome of living organisms are collectively referred to as genome engineering. The wide array of applications made possible by the use of this technology range from agriculture to healthcare. This, along with the applications involving basic biological research, has made it a very dynamic and active field of research. This review focuses on the CRISPR system from its discovery and role in bacterial adaptive immunity to the most recent developments, and its possible applications in agriculture and modern medicine.

  11. The potato in Ireland's evolving agrarian landscape and agri-food system.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Alice

    2010-01-01

    The scale, structure and impacts of food systems in Ireland have changed dramatically over the last several hundred years, predominantly since the mechanisation and intensification of farming began in the late nineteenth century. The transformation of the potato production system, which for the preceding century had dominated the Irish diet, was particularly dramatic. The time from the introduction of the potato c. 1600 to its catastrophic decline in the mid-1800s, represented a period of Irish agriculture distinctly at odds with what came before and after, involving as it did complete dependence on a single crop system. Despite devastating crop losses suffered in the nineteenth century and particularly associated with the Great Famine, the potato remained agriculturally significant in Ireland. From the late 1800s onwards the system underwent a transition towards the highly mechanised, specialised, intensive and market-oriented agri-industrial food systems of today. This new high input-high output system was accompanied by an expansion in environmental impacts extending from local to global scales. This article addresses that transition in the role and impacts of the potato in Ireland, from its introduction to the present day.

  12. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics II-Control Charts. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherland, Ryan M.

    An examination was conducted of the control chart as a quality improvement statistical method often used by Total Quality Management (TQM) practitioners in higher education. The examination used an example based on actual requests for information gathered for the Director of Human Resources at a medical center at a midwestern university. The…

  13. Stuttering Treatment Research 1970-2005: II. Systematic Review Incorporating Trial Quality Assessment of Pharmacological Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothe, Anne K.; Davidow, Jason H.; Bramlett, Robin E.; Franic, Duska M.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To complete a systematic review, incorporating trial quality assessment, of published research about pharmacological treatments for stuttering. Goals included the identification of treatment recommendations and research needs based on the available high-quality evidence. Method: Multiple readers reviewed 31 articles published between 1970…

  14. Stuttering Treatment Research 1970-2005: II. Systematic Review Incorporating Trial Quality Assessment of Pharmacological Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothe, Anne K.; Davidow, Jason H.; Bramlett, Robin E.; Franic, Duska M.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To complete a systematic review, incorporating trial quality assessment, of published research about pharmacological treatments for stuttering. Goals included the identification of treatment recommendations and research needs based on the available high-quality evidence. Method: Multiple readers reviewed 31 articles published between 1970…

  15. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  16. Visible and near-infrared calibrations for quality assessment of fresh phase I and II mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) compost.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G; Sturgeon, S; Archer, J; Moore, S; Cheung, L; Finegan, K

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that visible and near-infrared spectra (Vis-NIR) of dry and milled compost can be used for generating partial least squares (PLS) calibrations of phase II compost parameters including ammonia, nitrogen dry matter (NDM), dry matter (DM), pH, conductivity, carbon, microbial population, and potential productivity. The objective of this study was to develop robust calibrations for some of the key parameters from the spectra of fresh phase I and II composts. Samples of substrates from six commercial production yards were obtained during winter and summer months of 2000-2004 to monitor changes in quality and were analyzed for the test factors. Vis-NIR reflectance measurements of fresh samples (740) were made over the range of 400-2500 nm. After mathematical pretreatments, PLS calibrations of the key parameters were developed using the NIR (1100-2500 nm) and visible and NIR (400-2500 nm) regions and subsequently validated using an independent sample set of 123 phase I and II samples obtained during 2004-2005. The phase I and II standard errors of laboratory measurements of ammonia, pH, conductivity, DM, NDM, and ash were lower than the standard error of predictions of the same parameters, respectively, by the best NIR or Vis-NIR models. The degree of precision for some of the calibrations, especially ammonia, NDM, and DM, is suitable for composters to monitor changes in quality parameters during production. The laboratory measurement errors for phase I samples were greater than those of the phase II samples, except for ash, due to a higher degree of heterogeneity in the substrate. The calibrations, especially for pH, conductivity, and ash, need to be improved with new sample sets. A major advantage of NIR spectroscopy is the ability to assess substrate quality for a range of target parameters simultaneously, within a few hours of receiving the samples. The main drawbacks are the expensive instrumentation, expertise, and training necessary for

  17. 77 FR 28772 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    .... State and local agencies should also consider any transportation conformity impacts related to removing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Stage II Waiver AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The EPA has...

  18. Proceedings from the 2008 Wisconsin Quality and Safety Forum, part II.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    In 2008, quality and safety improvement initiatives in Wisconsin focused on developing an organization-wide culture of quality, and implementing processes to improve patient care and satisfaction. Below are descriptions of improvement projects undertaken by hospitals and other health care organizations, and showcased at the 2008 Wisconsin Quality & Safety Forum. The projects are broken into 6 categories: clinical improvement, customer service, infection control, medications, performance improvement, and safety. The first 3 categories appeared in Issue 8 of Volume 107 of the Wisconsin Medical Journal. (WMJ. 2008;107[8]:382-388).

  19. Marginal quality of tooth-colored restorations in class II cavities after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Manhart, J; Schmidt, M; Chen, H Y; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the proximal marginal adaptation of direct composite restorations with composite and ceramic inlays inserted with different resin cements. Standardized MOD Class II inlay cavities with one proximal box extending below and the other above the CEJ were cut in 48 extracted human molars and randomly assigned to six groups (n=8). Incrementally layered direct composite restorations (P60), composite inlays (P60) and ceramic inlays (Empress; Cerec Vitablocs Mark II) were placed in the cavities. Three different resin cements (RelyX ARC; Variolink II high viscosity; Panavia 21) were used for luting the composite inlays. All ceramic inlays were cemented with RelyX ARC. After finishing and polishing, the teeth were stored for 24 hours in Ringer solution at 37 degrees C before they were subjected to thermal and mechanical loading (5/55 degrees C, 2000x; 50 N vertical load, 50000x). Margins were evaluated on epoxy replicas using a scanning electron microscope at X200 magnification. Statistical analysis was performed with non-parametric test methods (alpha=0.05). The adhesive interfaces to enamel exhibited high percentages of perfect margins for all groups (91.8% to 96%) and a maximum of 5.2% marginal gap formation. Dentin-limited cavity segments demonstrated more marginal openings and less perfect margins than enamel-bound areas; however, this was only statistically significant for direct composite restorations and composite inlays inserted with Variolink II and Panavia 21. RelyXARC showed a significantly better adaptation to P60 inlays compared with the leucite-reinforced Empress ceramic but not the Vitablocs Mark II ceramic.

  20. Agricultural hydrology and water quality II: Introduction to the featured collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural hydrology and water quality is a multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding the interrelationship between modern agriculture and water resources. This paper summarizes a featured collection of 10 manuscripts emanating from the 2013 American Water Resources Association Specialty Co...

  1. Quality of Type II Diabetes Care in Primary Health Care Centers in Kuwait: Employment of a Diabetes Quality Indicator Set (DQIS).

    PubMed

    Badawi, Dalia; Saleh, Shadi; Natafgi, Nabil; Mourad, Yara; Behbehani, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is one of the major public health challenges, affecting more than 347 million adults worldwide. The impact of diabetes necessitates assessing the quality of care received by people with diabetes, especially in countries with a significant diabetes burden such as Kuwait. This paper aimed at piloting an approach for measuring Type II diabetes care performance through the use of a diabetes quality indicator set (DQIS) in primary health care. The DQIS for Kuwait was adapted from that developed by the National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance and the International Diabetes Federation. Five key care domains/measures were employed: (1) Blood glucose level measurement, (2) Cholesterol level measurement, (3) Blood pressure measurement, (4) Kidney function testing and (5) Smoking status check. The sample included the four major primary health care centers with the highest case load in Kuwait City, 4,241 patients in 2012 and 3,211 in 2010. Findings revealed the applicability and utility of employing performance indicators for diabetes care in Kuwait. Furthermore, findings revealed that many of the primary health care centers have achieved noteworthy improvement in diabetes care between 2010 and 2012, with the exception of smoking status check. The DQIS can help policymakers identify performance gaps and investigate key system roadblocks related to diabetes care in Kuwait.

  2. Quality of Type II Diabetes Care in Primary Health Care Centers in Kuwait: Employment of a Diabetes Quality Indicator Set (DQIS)

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Dalia; Saleh, Shadi; Natafgi, Nabil; Mourad, Yara; Behbehani, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is one of the major public health challenges, affecting more than 347 million adults worldwide. The impact of diabetes necessitates assessing the quality of care received by people with diabetes, especially in countries with a significant diabetes burden such as Kuwait. This paper aimed at piloting an approach for measuring Type II diabetes care performance through the use of a diabetes quality indicator set (DQIS) in primary health care. The DQIS for Kuwait was adapted from that developed by the National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance and the International Diabetes Federation. Five key care domains/measures were employed: (1) Blood glucose level measurement, (2) Cholesterol level measurement, (3) Blood pressure measurement, (4) Kidney function testing and (5) Smoking status check. The sample included the four major primary health care centers with the highest case load in Kuwait City, 4,241 patients in 2012 and 3,211 in 2010. Findings revealed the applicability and utility of employing performance indicators for diabetes care in Kuwait. Furthermore, findings revealed that many of the primary health care centers have achieved noteworthy improvement in diabetes care between 2010 and 2012, with the exception of smoking status check. The DQIS can help policymakers identify performance gaps and investigate key system roadblocks related to diabetes care in Kuwait. PMID:26176691

  3. Production quality characterisation techniques of sensors and prototypes for the BELLE II Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, P.; Andricek, L.; Koffmane, C.; Lehmann, R.; Liemann, G.; Moser, H.-G.; Ninkovic, J.; Richter, R. H.; Ritter, A.; Scheugenpflug, E.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Schnecke, M.; Valentan, M.; Wassatsch, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Belle II detector is a system currently under upgrade at the B-factory SuperKEKB in Tsukuba, Japan. The main novelty is the introduction of an additional position sensitive sub-detector in the vertex detector, between the beam pipe and the strip detector system. The sensor of choice for the Belle II Pixel Detector is the Depleted p-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) sensor. In this paper the latest production of sensors and prototypes performed at the semiconductor Laboratory of the Max Planck Society, i.e. the PXD9 and the Electrical Multi-Chip Module (EMCM), are described. Wafer-level characterisation methods and techniques for faults in the metal system are also reported.

  4. Targeting Lymph Node Retrieval and Assessment in Stage II Colon Cancer: A Quality Outcome Community-Based Cancer Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Thomas; Hughes, Amy H.; Rimmer, Cathy C.; Less, Dale A.; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Adequate lymph node evaluation is required for the proper staging of colon cancer. The current recommended number of lymph nodes that should be retrieved and assessed is 12. Methods The multidisciplinary Gastrointestinal Tumor Board at the Derrick L. Davis Forsyth Regional Cancer Center reviewed and recommended that a minimum of 12 lymph nodes be examined in all cases of colon cancer to ensure proper staging. This recommendation occurred at the end of the first quarter of 2005. To ensure this new standard was being followed, an outcomes study looking at the number of lymph nodes evaluated in stage II colon cancer was initiated. All patients with stage II colon cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 were reviewed. Results There was a statistically significant improvement in the number of stage II colon cancer patients with 12 or more lymph nodes evaluated. Before the Gastrointestinal Tumor Board's recommendation, 49% (40 out of 82 patients) had 12 or more lymph nodes sampled. The median number of lymph nodes evaluated was 11. After the Gastrointestinal Tumor Board's recommendation, 79% (70 out of 88 patients) had 12 or more lymph nodes sampled. The median number of lymph nodes was 16. Conclusion Multidisciplinary tumor boards can impact the quality of care of patients as demonstrated in this study. Although we do not yet have survival data on these patients, based on the previous literature referenced in this article, we would expect to see an improvement in survival rates in patients with 12 or more nodes retrieved and assessed. PMID:20856779

  5. Phase II simulation evaluation of the flying qualities of two tilt-wing flap control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1992-01-01

    A simulation study was initiated to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study, reported in this paper, introduced an alternate method for pilot control of the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. The results showed little difference among the three flap control configurations except during a longitudinal reposition task where the programmed flap configuration was the best. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization greatly enhanced the aircraft handling qualities. This paper describes the tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts, and presents the results of the second simulation experiment.

  6. Practical Functional Approach to Quality Assessment in Subtitling: "Pocahontas II--Case Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Alaa Eddin; Khuddro, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present research work deals with subtitling errors encountered by simulators and proof-readers. The resultant work is of significant contribution to problem decision makings in the field of quality assessment of audiovisual translation (AVT). The outcome of this paper is the result of accumulated working experience in this domain. The relevant…

  7. Feasibility Study on Fully Automatic High Quality Translation: Volume II. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Winifred P.; Stachowitz, Rolf

    This second volume of a two-volume report on a fully automatic high quality translation (FAHQT) contains relevant papers contributed by specialists on the topic of machine translation. The papers presented here cover such topics as syntactical analysis in transformational grammar and in machine translation, lexical features in translation and…

  8. Drawdown II: Water quality and ecological responses to a managed hydrologic drawdown during autumn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A water drawdown of Roundaway Lake, a tributary of the Big Sunflower River, was initiated in mid-autumn to alleviate critical low river flow. While water releases have been demonstrated to alleviate critical low flows, effects of these releases on water quality in contributing tributaries is necessa...

  9. Selected determinants of the quality of hospital care. II. Managing a therapeutic team.

    PubMed

    Sierpińska, Lidia; Ksykiewicz-Dorota, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The effects of teamwork depend to a large extent on the organizational skills of the manager. In health care units a physician/ward head is responsible for coordinating the work of a therapeutic team. The study was undertaken to discover to what extent doctors and nurses are aware that the ward head manages the work of the therapeutic team, and how they evaluate the skills of their managers. The study covered 161 doctors and 339 nurses from 4 hospitals with accreditation and 17 health units which did not possess the Quality Certificate. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey, and the technique was a questionnaire form. The results of the survey showed that charge nurses in hospitals with accreditation and ward heads in hospitals without the Quality Certificate significantly more often perceived the effectiveness of managing a therapeutic team by a ward head/manager of a clinic in positive terms. A greater number of negative evaluations were expressed by charge nurses in hospitals without accreditation and ward head nurses in hospitals with the Quality Certificate. It was confirmed that doctors and nurses from hospitals with accreditation significantly more frequently perceived the ward head as the manager of the therapeutic team, compared to the staff of hospitals without the Quality Certificate.

  10. ED Proposed Regulations to Title II of HEA: Comments from the Data Quality Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2015

    2015-01-01

    States are uniquely positioned to provide feedback to teacher preparation programs (TPPs) on the effectiveness of the teachers they train, and to provide information about the quality of TPPs to the public. States have been building the significant data capacity to reliably and securely link teachers with their students' achievement and growth…

  11. Analytical data from phases I and II of the Willamette River basin water quality study, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Howard E.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Rinella, Frank A.; Gasser, Timothy M.; Pogue, Ted R.

    1995-01-01

    The data were collected at 50 sites, representing runoff from agricultural, forested, and urbanized subbasins. In Phase I, water samples were collected during high and low flows in 1992 and 1993 to represent a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Bed-sediment samples were collected during low flows in 1993. In Phase II, water samples were collected in the spring of 1994 after the first high-flow event following the application of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides and in the fall during the first high-flow events following the conclusion of the agricultural season.

  12. Eastern Texas Air Quality Forecasting System to Support TexAQS-II and 8-hour Ozone Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The main objective of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) for 2005 and 2006 is to understand emissions and processes associated with the formation and transport of ozone and regional haze in Texas. The target research area is the more populated eastern half of the state, roughly from Interstate 35 eastward. Accurate meteorological and photochemical modeling efforts are essential to support this study and further enhance modeling efforts for establishing the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). An air quality forecasting (AQF) system for Eastern Texas has been developed to provide these data and to further facilitate retrospective simulations to allow for model improvement and increased understanding of ozone episodes and emissions. We perform two-day air quality forecasting simulations with the 12-km Eastern Texas regional domain, and the 4-km Houston-Galveston area (HGA) domain utilizing a 48-CPU Beowulf Linux computer system. The dynamic boundary conditions are provided by the 36-km resolution conterminous US (CONUS) domain CMAQ simulations. Initial meteorological conditions are provided by the daily ETA forecast results. The results of individual runs are stored and made available to researchers and state and local officials via internet to study the patterns of air quality and its relationship to weather conditions and emissions. The data during the pre- and post-processing stages are in tens of gigabytes and must be managed efficiently during both the actual real-time and the subsequent computation periods. The nature of these forecasts and the time at which the initial data is available necessitates that models be executed within tight deadlines. A set of complex operational scripts is used to allow automatic operation of the data download, sequencing processors, performing graphical analysis, building database archives, and presenting on the web.

  13. High beam quality and high power CO II lasers for technologies and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiltsov, V. V.; Berishvili, I. I.; Galushkin, M. G.; Golubev, V. S.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Ulyanov, V. A.; Zinina, N. N.; Vakhromeeva, M. N.; Vakhrameeva, A. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The technical characteristics of the new three models of diffusion-cooled multichannel waveguide industrial CO II lasers excited with acoustic-frequency ac discharge are presented. The industrial lasers of this type have been developed for years at ILIT RAS. Generation of low (to 400 W) average power proved to be technically realizable through air cooling of the oscillator, which makes the laser performance even more attractive. The above lasers can be used to advantage in the laser processing systems intended for precision cutting of metallic (thickness to 10 mm) and non-metallic (thickness to 40 mm) materials; welding; surfacing and fabrication of parts from composite and metallic powder materials. The paper also provides the description and the technical characteristics of intellectual medical cardio-surgery laser systems of "Perfocor" family, developed at ILIT RAS for the transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) which presents a promising method to cure the ischemic disease of heart. The clinical results (more than 800 operations) are presented. Owing to application of the TMLR technique the death rate at the A.N. Bakoulev Center is the lowest in the world. The project of a new CO II laser surgery plant "Khirurg" is discussed that would deliver up to 200 W power and is based on the model TL-300 with a system of biotissue diagnostics.

  14. Interleaving cerebral CT perfusion with neck CT angiography. Part II: clinical implementation and image quality.

    PubMed

    Oei, Marcel T H; Meijer, Frederick J A; van der Woude, Willem-Jan; Smit, Ewoud J; van Ginneken, Bram; Manniesing, Rashindra; Prokop, Mathias

    2017-06-01

    Feasibility evaluation of the One-Step Stroke Protocol, which is an interleaved cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and neck volumetric computed tomography angiography (vCTA) scanning technique using wide-detector computed tomography, and to assess the image quality of vCTA. Twenty patients with suspicion of acute ischaemic stroke were prospectively scanned and evaluated with a head and neck CTA and with the One-Step Stroke Protocol. Arterial enhancement and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the carotid arteries was assessed. Three observers scored artefacts and image quality of the cervical arteries. The total z-coverage was evaluated. Mean enhancement in the carotid bifurcation was rated higher in the vCTA (595 ± 164 HU) than CTA (441 ± 117 HU). CNR was rated higher in vCTA. Image quality scores showed no significant difference in the region of the carotid bifurcation between vCTA and CTA. Lower neck image quality scores were slightly lower for vCTA due to artefacts, although not rated as diagnostically relevant. In ten patients, the origin of the left common carotid artery was missed by 1.6 ± 0.8 cm. Mean patient height was 1.8 ± 0.09 m. Carotid bifurcation and origin of vertebral arteries were covered in all patients. The One-Step Stroke Protocol is feasible with good diagnostic image quality of vCTA, although full z-coverage is limited in tall patients. • Interleaving cerebral CTP with neck CTA (One-Step Stroke Protocol) is feasible • Diagnostic quality of One-Step Stroke Protocol neck CTA is similar to conventional CTA • One-Step Stroke Protocol neck CTA suffers from streak artefacts in the lower neck • A limitation of One-Step Stroke Protocol CTA is lack of coverage in tall patients • Precise planning of One-Step Stroke Protocol neck CTA is necessary in tall patients.

  15. Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part II. NPWE as a validated alternative for contrast detail analysis.

    PubMed

    Monnin, P; Marshall, N W; Bosmans, H; Bochud, F O; Verdun, F R

    2011-07-21

    Assessment of image quality for digital x-ray mammography systems used in European screening programs relies mainly on contrast-detail CDMAM phantom scoring and requires the acquisition and analysis of many images in order to reduce variability in threshold detectability. Part II of this study proposes an alternative method based on the detectability index (d') calculated for a non-prewhitened model observer with an eye filter (NPWE). The detectability index was calculated from the normalized noise power spectrum and image contrast, both measured from an image of a 5 cm poly(methyl methacrylate) phantom containing a 0.2 mm thick aluminium square, and the pre-sampling modulation transfer function. This was performed as a function of air kerma at the detector for 11 different digital mammography systems. These calculated d' values were compared against threshold gold thickness (T) results measured with the CDMAM test object and against derived theoretical relationships. A simple relationship was found between T and d', as a function of detector air kerma; a linear relationship was found between d' and contrast-to-noise ratio. The values of threshold thickness used to specify acceptable performance in the European Guidelines for 0.10 and 0.25 mm diameter discs were equivalent to threshold calculated detectability indices of 1.05 and 6.30, respectively. The NPWE method is a validated alternative to CDMAM scoring for use in the image quality specification, quality control and optimization of digital x-ray systems for screening mammography.

  16. Bottom Line II Conference. Quality -- The Vital Link in Production and Readiness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Business schools teach the concept, and popular books such as MEGATRENDS and IN SEARC CF MMECELT11E, reiterate it. Similarly, it is important that leaders...work the Quality problem. You rarely find it in universities - Dr. Hunter, talked to the issue, but if you go back and look at the business schools , or...biggest. We have developed some sloppy management practices in this country. I think our business schools have turned out people disciplined to think

  17. Quality of Bottled Water Brands in Egypt Part II: Biological Water Examination.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Al-Ghitany, Engy M; Kassem, Mohamed M

    2008-01-01

    People can survive several days without food, but just a few days without water. People buy bottled water for a variety of reasons, including convenience, fashion, and taste or because they think it is safer than tap water. The taste of the water has to do with the way it is treated and the quality of its source, including its natural mineral content. However, taste does not always indicate safeness. Refrigeration has a significant effect on the bacteriological quality of the purchased bottle. To asses the quality of bottled water in Egypt, samples of 14 Egyptian brands of uncarbonated natural bottled water were evaluated within 6 months. Biological examinations of a total of 84 samples were carried out using standard methods comparing them with the Egyptian standards No. 1589/2005. Also bacteriological examinations of 56 samples were carried out after "1-3" months and "3-6" months storage time at room temperature to detect the effect of storage on their quality. More than half (54.8%) of biological parameters were violated the Egyptian standards. A percentage of 28.6% of all bottled water samples were contaminated with coliform, but surprisingly fecal coliforms and E.coli were not detected. Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from 5.95% and 3.6%, respectively of all samples. Giardia lamblia cysts has been found in 2.4% of samples, while absence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in all samples was reported. More than half (52%) of the unrefrigerated samples were unacceptable compared to only 19.4% of the refrigerated bottles. These results suggest the need for continuous monitoring for evidence of contamination at source or during the bottling process.

  18. Quality control for digital mammography: Part II recommendations from the ACRIN DMIST trial

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, Martin J.; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.

    2006-03-15

    The Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), conducted under the auspices of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN), is a clinical trial designed to compare the accuracy of digital versus screen-film mammography in a screening population [E. Pisano et al., ACRIN 6652--Digital vs. Screen-Film Mammography, ACRIN (2001)]. Part I of this work described the Quality Control program developed to ensure consistency and optimal operation of the digital equipment. For many of the tests, there were no failures during the 24 months imaging was performed in DMIST. When systems failed, they generally did so suddenly rather than through gradual deterioration of performance. In this part, the utility and effectiveness of those tests are considered. This suggests that after verification of proper operation, routine extensive testing would be of minimal value. A recommended set of tests is presented including additional and improved tests, which we believe meet the intent and spirit of the Mammography Quality Standards Act regulations to ensure that full-field digital mammography systems are functioning correctly, and consistently producing mammograms of excellent image quality.

  19. Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005: II. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Anne K; Davidow, Jason H; Bramlett, Robin E; Franic, Duska M; Ingham, Roger J

    2006-11-01

    To complete a systematic review, incorporating trial quality assessment, of published research about pharmacological treatments for stuttering. Goals included the identification of treatment recommendations and research needs based on the available high-quality evidence. Multiple readers reviewed 31 articles published between 1970 and 2005, using a written data extraction instrument developed as a synthesis of existing standards and recommendations. Articles were then assessed using 5 methodological criteria and 4 outcomes criteria, also developed from previously published recommendations. None of the 31 articles met more than 3 of the 5 methodological criteria (M = 1.74). Four articles provided data to support a claim of short-term improvement in social, emotional, or cognitive variables. One article provided data to show that stuttering frequency was reduced to less than 5%, and 4 additional articles provided data to show that stuttering may have been reduced by at least half. Among the articles that met the trial quality inclusion criterion for the second stage of this review, none provided uncomplicated positive reports. None of the pharmacological agents tested for stuttering have been shown in methodologically sound reports to improve stuttering frequency to below 5%, to reduce stuttering by at least half, or to improve relevant social, emotional, or cognitive variables. These findings raise questions about the logic supporting the continued use of current pharmacological agents for stuttering.

  20. Exploratory analysis of population genetic assessment as a water quality indicator. II. Campostoma anomalum.

    PubMed

    Foré, S A; Guttman, S I; Bailer, A J; Altfater, D J; Counts, B V

    1995-02-01

    Biological monitoring programs to assess contaminant-induced impacts in aquatic systems are being developed and implemented by several federal agencies and many states. Genetic diversity and allozyme frequency may be valuable indicators of such impact because they are both sensitive to exposure and ecologically relevant in populations. The purpose of this study was to examine whether genetic diversity and structure of Campostoma anomalum populations could serve as effective biomarkers of exposure to anthropogenic stress by comparing genetic measures with other biological indicators of water quality. Fish were collected from 14 sites on seven streams by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency as part of their stream water quality evaluation program. Values for the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) and the Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) were determined for these 14 sites. Starch gel electrophoresis was used to collect genetic data for eight variable enzyme loci. Genetic diversity measures were not associated with site IBI or ICI values. However, the range of site IBI and ICI values was limited. Allele and genotype frequencies were significantly different at the point source compared to sites upstream and downstream indicating that genetic structure may be an indicator of water quality that is sensitive enough to detect change prior to species loss.

  1. Quality assurance guidelines for superficial hyperthermia clinical trials : II. Technical requirements for heating devices.

    PubMed

    Dobšíček Trefná, Hana; Crezee, Johannes; Schmidt, Manfred; Marder, Dietmar; Lamprecht, Ulf; Ehmann, Michael; Nadobny, Jacek; Hartmann, Josefin; Lomax, Nicolleta; Abdel-Rahman, Sultan; Curto, Sergio; Bakker, Akke; Hurwitz, Mark D; Diederich, Chris J; Stauffer, Paul R; Van Rhoon, Gerard C

    2017-05-01

    Quality assurance (QA) guidelines are essential to provide uniform execution of clinical trials with uniform quality hyperthermia treatments. This document outlines the requirements for appropriate QA of all current superficial heating equipment including electromagnetic (radiative and capacitive), ultrasound, and infrared heating techniques. Detailed instructions are provided how to characterize and document the performance of these hyperthermia applicators in order to apply reproducible hyperthermia treatments of uniform high quality. Earlier documents used specific absorption rate (SAR) to define and characterize applicator performance. In these QA guidelines, temperature rise is the leading parameter for characterization of applicator performance. The intention of this approach is that characterization can be achieved with affordable equipment and easy-to-implement procedures. These characteristics are essential to establish for each individual applicator the specific maximum size and depth of tumors that can be heated adequately. The guidelines in this document are supplemented with a second set of guidelines focusing on the clinical application. Both sets of guidelines were developed by the European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology (ESHO) Technical Committee with participation of senior Society of Thermal Medicine (STM) members and members of the Atzelsberg Circle.

  2. Aquatic life water quality criteria derived via the UC Davis method: II. Pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Fojut, Tessa L; Palumbo, Amanda J; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic life water quality criteria were derived for five pyrethroids using a new methodology developed by the University of California, Davis (TenBrook et al.2010). This methodology was developed to provide an updated, flexible, and robust water quality criteria derivation methodology specifically for pesticides. To derive the acute criteria, log-logistic SSDs were fitted to the medium-sized bifenthrin,cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin acute toxicity data sets while the X-cyhalothrin and permethrin acute data sets were larger, and Burr Type III SSDs could be fitted to these data sets. A review of the cyfluthrin acute criterion revealed that it was not protective of the most sensitive species in the data set, H. azteca, so the acute value was adjusted downward to calculate a more protective criterion. Similarly, the cypermethrin criteria were adjusted downward to be protective of H. azteca.Criteria for bifenthrin, X-cyhalothrin, and permethrin were calculated using the median fifth percentile acute values while the cyfluthrin and cypermethrin criteria were calculated with the next lowest acute value (median first percentile). Chronic data sets were limited in all cases, so ACRs were used for chronic criteria calculations, instead of statistical distributions. Sufficient corresponding acute and chronic data were not available for bifenthrin, cypermethrin, or permethrin, so a default ACR was used to calculate these chronic criteria while measured ACRs were used for cyfluthrin and X-cyhalothrin. A numeric scoring system was used to sort the acute and chronic data, based on relevance and reliability, and the individual study scores are included in the Supporting Information.According to the USEPA (1985) method, the data sets gathered for these five pyrethroids would not be sufficient to calculate criteria because they were each missing at least one of the eight taxa required by that method. The USEPA (1985)method generates robust and reliable criteria, and the goal of

  3. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

    PubMed

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM.

  4. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction

    PubMed Central

    Fassinou Hotegni, V. Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J. M.; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b) whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown) and internal quality attributes [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, translucent flesh]. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The associations between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots) explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed. PMID:25538714

  5. Improvements in vision‐related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jacque L; Arditi, Aries; da Cruz, Lyndon; Dagnelie, Gislin; Dorn, Jessy D; Ho, Allen C; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Barale, Pierre‐Olivier; Stanga, Paulo E; Thumann, Gabriele; Wang, Yizhong; Greenberg, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this analysis is to report the change in quality of life (QoL) after treatment with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis in patients with end‐stage retinitis pigmentosa. Methods The Vision and Quality of Life Index (VisQoL) was used to assess changes in QoL dimensions and overall utility score in a prospective 30‐patient single‐arm clinical study. VisQoL is a multi‐attribute instrument consisting of six dimensions (injury, life, roles, assistance, activity and friendship) that may be affected by visual impairment. Within each dimension, patients were divided into two groups based on how much their QoL was affected by their blindness at baseline (moderate/severe or minimal). Outcomes were compared within each dimension sub‐group between baseline and the combined follow‐up periods using the Friedman test. In addition, data from the six dimensions were combined into a single utility score, with baseline data compared to the combined follow‐up periods. Results Overall, 80 per cent of the patients reported difficulty in one or more dimensions pre‐implant. Composite VisQoL utility scores at follow‐up showed no statistically significant change from baseline; however, in three of the six VisQoL dimensions (injury, life and roles), patients with baseline deficits showed significant and lasting improvement after implantation with Argus II. In two of the three remaining dimensions (assistance and activity), data trended toward an improvement. In the final VisQoL dimension (friendship), none of the patients reported baseline deficits, suggesting that patients had largely adjusted to this attribute. Conclusion Patients whose vision negatively affected them with respect to three VisQoL dimensions (that is, getting injured, coping with the demands of their life and fulfilling their life roles) reported significant improvement in QoL after implantation of the Argus II retinal prosthesis. Furthermore, the benefit did not deteriorate at any

  6. Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacque L; Richards, Thomas P; Arditi, Aries; da Cruz, Lyndon; Dagnelie, Gislin; Dorn, Jessy D; Ho, Allen C; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Stanga, Paulo E; Thumann, Gabriele; Wang, Yizhong; Greenberg, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to report the change in quality of life (QoL) after treatment with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis in patients with end-stage retinitis pigmentosa. The Vision and Quality of Life Index (VisQoL) was used to assess changes in QoL dimensions and overall utility score in a prospective 30-patient single-arm clinical study. VisQoL is a multi-attribute instrument consisting of six dimensions (injury, life, roles, assistance, activity and friendship) that may be affected by visual impairment. Within each dimension, patients were divided into two groups based on how much their QoL was affected by their blindness at baseline (moderate/severe or minimal). Outcomes were compared within each dimension sub-group between baseline and the combined follow-up periods using the Friedman test. In addition, data from the six dimensions were combined into a single utility score, with baseline data compared to the combined follow-up periods. Overall, 80 per cent of the patients reported difficulty in one or more dimensions pre-implant. Composite VisQoL utility scores at follow-up showed no statistically significant change from baseline; however, in three of the six VisQoL dimensions (injury, life and roles), patients with baseline deficits showed significant and lasting improvement after implantation with Argus II. In two of the three remaining dimensions (assistance and activity), data trended toward an improvement. In the final VisQoL dimension (friendship), none of the patients reported baseline deficits, suggesting that patients had largely adjusted to this attribute. Patients whose vision negatively affected them with respect to three VisQoL dimensions (that is, getting injured, coping with the demands of their life and fulfilling their life roles) reported significant improvement in QoL after implantation of the Argus II retinal prosthesis. Furthermore, the benefit did not deteriorate at any point during the 36-month follow-up, suggesting a long

  7. Exploring the quality of latest sensor prototypes for the CMS Tracker Phase II Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, A.

    2017-02-01

    The luminosity of the LHC will be increased by a factor of five to seven after the third long shutdown (LS3) scheduled in the mid of the next decade. The significant increase in luminosity along with the limitations of the current Tracker require a complete renewal of the CMS Outer Tracker, the Tracker Phase-2 Upgrade, during the LS3. New types of modules called PS and 2S modules are foreseen offering enhanced functionality and radiation hardness. Milestones in sensor R&D for the 2S modules as well as first characterization results are presented. AC-coupled silicon strip sensors of two vendors, produced on 6-inch as well as on 8-inch wafers, are considered which both are in n-on-p technology. Global as well as single strip parameters were measured providing insights into the quality of the sensors.

  8. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include the following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image

  9. High image quality type-II superlattice detector for 3.3 μm detection of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Hedda; Gamfeldt, Anders; von Würtemberg, Rickard Marcks; Lantz, Dan; Asplund, Carl; Martijn, Henk

    2015-05-01

    Recent improvements in material quality, structure design and processing have made type-II superlattice a competing high end detector technology. This has also made it an attractive material of choice to meet the industrial need of high end gas detection, as for example detection of methane and other volatile organic compounds (VOC). A heterojunction structure with a cut off at 5 μm but intended for detection of VOC at 3.3 μm will be presented. The detector format is 320 × 256 pixels with 30 μm pitch using the ISC9705 read out circuit. The detector operability is 99.8% and NETD 12 mK (7 ms integration time, object temperature 30 °C and F#2.6, no cold filter used). The uniformity is at least on par with QWIP detectors. Anti-reflective coating is used and the substrate is fully removed. High quality imaging at operating temperature 110 K will be presented.

  10. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  11. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    The potential adverse human health impacts of emissions from UK airports have become a significant issue of public concern. We produce an inventory of UK airport emissions - including emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff operations, aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE) - with quantified uncertainty. Emissions due to more than 95% of UK passenger enplanements are accounted for. We apply a multi-scale air quality modelling approach to assess the air quality impacts of UK airports. Using a concentration-response function we estimate that 110 (90% CI: 72-160) early deaths occur in the UK each year (based on 2005 data) due to UK airport emissions. We estimate that up to 65% of the health impacts of UK airports could be mitigated by desulphurising jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single engine taxiing. Two plans for the expansion of UK airport capacity are examined - expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. Even if capacity is constrained, we find that the health impacts of UK airports still increases by 170% in 2030 due to an increasing and aging population, increasing emissions, and a changing atmosphere. We estimate that if Heathrow were to be expanded as per previous UK Government plans, UK-wide health impacts in 2030 would increase by 4% relative to the 2030 constrained case, but this increase could become a 48% reduction if emissions mitigation measures were employed. We calculate that 24% of UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths could be avoided in 2030 if Heathrow were replaced by a new airport in Thames Estuary because the location is downwind of London, where this reduction occurs notwithstanding the increase in aircraft emissions. A Thames hub airport would (isolated from knock-on effects at other airports) cause 60-70% fewer early deaths than an expanded Heathrow, or 55-63% fewer early deaths than an unexpanded Heathrow. Finally, replacing Heathrow by a

  12. The impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on immunization information system (IIS) data quality

    PubMed Central

    Woinarowicz, Mary; Howell, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on the quality of immunization data in the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). Methods: NDIIS doses administered data was evaluated for completeness of the patient and dose-level core data elements for records that belong to interoperable and non-interoperable providers. Data was compared at three months prior to electronic health record (EHR) interoperability enhancement to data at three, six, nine and twelve months post-enhancement following the interoperability go live date. Doses administered per month and by age group, timeliness of vaccine entry and the number of duplicate clients added to the NDIIS was also compared, in addition to, immunization rates for children 19 – 35 months of age and adolescents 11 – 18 years of age. Results: Doses administered by both interoperable and non-interoperable providers remained fairly consistent from pre-enhancement through twelve months post-enhancement. Comparing immunization rates for infants and adolescents, interoperable providers had higher rates both pre- and post-enhancement than non-interoperable providers for all vaccines and vaccine series assessed. The overall percentage of doses entered into the NDIIS within one month of administration varied slightly between interoperable and non-interoperable providers; however, there were significant changes between the percentage of doses entered within one day and within one week with the percentage entered within one day increasing and within one week decreasing with interoperability. The number of duplicate client records created by interoperable providers increased from 94 duplicates pre-enhancement to 10,552 at twelve months post-enhancement, while the duplicates from non-interoperable providers only increased from 300 to 637 over the same period. Of the 40 core data elements in the NDIIS, there was some difference in completeness between the interoperable versus

  13. The impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on immunization information system (IIS) data quality.

    PubMed

    Woinarowicz, Mary; Howell, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on the quality of immunization data in the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). Methods: NDIIS doses administered data was evaluated for completeness of the patient and dose-level core data elements for records that belong to interoperable and non-interoperable providers. Data was compared at three months prior to electronic health record (EHR) interoperability enhancement to data at three, six, nine and twelve months post-enhancement following the interoperability go live date. Doses administered per month and by age group, timeliness of vaccine entry and the number of duplicate clients added to the NDIIS was also compared, in addition to, immunization rates for children 19 - 35 months of age and adolescents 11 - 18 years of age. Results: Doses administered by both interoperable and non-interoperable providers remained fairly consistent from pre-enhancement through twelve months post-enhancement. Comparing immunization rates for infants and adolescents, interoperable providers had higher rates both pre- and post-enhancement than non-interoperable providers for all vaccines and vaccine series assessed. The overall percentage of doses entered into the NDIIS within one month of administration varied slightly between interoperable and non-interoperable providers; however, there were significant changes between the percentage of doses entered within one day and within one week with the percentage entered within one day increasing and within one week decreasing with interoperability. The number of duplicate client records created by interoperable providers increased from 94 duplicates pre-enhancement to 10,552 at twelve months post-enhancement, while the duplicates from non-interoperable providers only increased from 300 to 637 over the same period. Of the 40 core data elements in the NDIIS, there was some difference in completeness between the interoperable versus non

  14. Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, James T. III; Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Chen Ying

    2006-05-15

    Second in a two-part series comparing measurement techniques for the assessment of basic image quality metrics in digital radiography, in this paper we focus on the measurement of the image noise power spectrum (NPS). Three methods were considered: (1) a method published by Dobbins et al. [Med. Phys. 22, 1581-1593 (1995)] (2) a method published by Samei et al. [Med. Phys. 30, 608-622 (2003)], and (3) a new method sanctioned by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1, 2003), developed as part of an international standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency. In addition to an overall comparison of the estimated NPS between the three techniques, the following factors were also evaluated for their effect on the measured NPS: horizontal versus vertical directional dependence, the use of beam-limiting apertures, beam spectrum, and computational methods of NPS analysis, including the region-of-interest (ROI) size and the method of ROI normalization. Of these factors, none was found to demonstrate a substantial impact on the amplitude of the NPS estimates ({<=}3.1% relative difference in NPS averaged over frequency, for each factor considered separately). Overall, the three methods agreed to within 1.6%{+-}0.8% when averaged over frequencies >0.15 mm{sup -1}.

  15. Quality-by-Design II: Application of Quantitative Risk Analysis to the Formulation of Ciprofloxacin Tablets.

    PubMed

    Claycamp, H Gregg; Kona, Ravikanth; Fahmy, Raafat; Hoag, Stephen W

    2016-04-01

    Qualitative risk assessment methods are often used as the first step to determining design space boundaries; however, quantitative assessments of risk with respect to the design space, i.e., calculating the probability of failure for a given severity, are needed to fully characterize design space boundaries. Quantitative risk assessment methods in design and operational spaces are a significant aid to evaluating proposed design space boundaries. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a relatively simple strategy for design space definition using a simplified Bayesian Monte Carlo simulation. This paper builds on a previous paper that used failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) qualitative risk assessment and Plackett-Burman design of experiments to identity the critical quality attributes. The results show that the sequential use of qualitative and quantitative risk assessments can focus the design of experiments on a reduced set of critical material and process parameters that determine a robust design space under conditions of limited laboratory experimentation. This approach provides a strategy by which the degree of risk associated with each known parameter can be calculated and allocates resources in a manner that manages risk to an acceptable level.

  16. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC.

  17. Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part II-Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Air Quality Implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Ge, Su; Bai, Zhipeng

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct an integrated analysis of the energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality impacts of a new type of boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) in contrast to those of the raw coal from which the BB-coal was formulated (R-coal). The analysis is based on the source emissions data and other relevant data collected in the present study and employs approaches including the construction of carbon, energy, and sulfur balances. The results show that replacing R-coal with BB-coal as the fuel for boilers such as the one tested would have multiple benefits, including a 37% increase in boiler thermal efficiency, a 25% reduction in fuel demand, a 26% reduction in CO2 emission, a 17% reduction in CO emission, a 63% reduction in SO2 emission, a 97% reduction in fly ash and fly ash carbon emission, a 22% reduction in PM2.5 mass emission, and a 30% reduction in total emission of five toxic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) metals contained in PM10. These benefits can be achieved with no changes in boiler hardware and with a relatively small amount of tradeoffs: a 30% increase in PM10 mass emission and a 9-16% increase in fuel cost.

  18. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part II--Energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Ge, S; Bai, Z

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct an integrated analysis of the energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality impacts of a new type of boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) in contrast to those of the raw coal from which the BB-coal was formulated (R-coal). The analysis is based on the source emissions data and other relevant data collected in the present study and employs approaches including the construction of carbon, energy, and sulfur balances. The results show that replacing R-coal with BB-coal as the fuel for boilers such as the one tested would have multiple benefits, including a 37% increase in boiler thermal efficiency, a 25% reduction in fuel demand, a 26% reduction in CO2 emission, a 17% reduction in CO emission, a 63% reduction in SO2 emission, a 97% reduction in fly ash and fly ash carbon emission, a 22% reduction in PM2.5 mass emission, and a 30% reduction in total emission of five toxic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) metals contained in PM10. These benefits can be achieved with no changes in boiler hardware and with a relatively small amount of tradeoffs: a 30% increase in PM10 mass emission and a 9-16% increase in fuel cost.

  19. Quality of dredged material in the river Seine basin (France). II. Micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Hervé, D; Thévenot, D

    2002-11-01

    Dredging rivers is needed to ensure safe navigable waters, rivers and waterways. To anticipate the management of dredged materials in the case of the river Seine basin, the quality of the sediments in the river is checked every 3 years before dredging operations. The river Seine Basin is heavily submitted to pollution pressure from nearby industrial activities and urban expansion of Paris and its region. Here, the micropollutant content of the sediment sampled in 1996, 1999 and 2000 before dredging is discussed compared to regulatory standards. The results indicate that most of the sediment samples from the river Seine basin are lightly to moderately contaminated with organic and inorganic micropollutants (heavy metals, PAH, PCB), which makes the management after dredging easier. This pollution is strongly correlated with the organic matter content and to the fine fraction (<50 microm) of the sediment. These results can lead to other management options than the ones already used in the river Seine basin: (1) dumping of lightly to moderately polluted sediments in quarries; and (2) physical treatment (sieving, hydrocycloning) of contaminated sediments issued from 'hot spots'.

  20. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen L.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the HS-RHI SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  1. Cottonseed colour fixed pigments. Part II. Role of hexane isomers on oil quality.

    PubMed

    Osman, F; Zaher, F A; EL-Nockrashy, A S

    1976-01-01

    Colour fixed pigments can be detected in refined and bleached oils rather than in crude oils, since in the latter their absorption is masked up by the gossypol pigments. Isohexane is the most desirable hexane isomer. Though it produces darker crude oils, yet refinability and bleachability increases as the percentage of isohexane in normal hexan increases. It has also the advantage of extracting oils with lowest refining loss and with the highest gossypol content. Recovery of gossypol, which is alkali refinable, with the oil results in a superior quality of meal. Benzene, on the other hand, is the least desirable constituent in commercial hexane. Its presence with n-hexane results in darker coloured crude, refined and bleached oil colours, indicating the selectivity of benzene to colour fixed pigments. Highest refining loss were found in oils extracted with benzene or benzene-hexane solvent mixtures. Cyclohexane presence with n-hexane (35% to 60%) and methycyclopentane (6.0% to 12.0%) do not increase the degree of extraction of colour fixed pigments, however increase the refining loss of the extracted oils.

  2. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II. Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2013-10-04

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  3. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings II: Results

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    quality family planning services, to do so rapidly, and to see a dramatic increase in the percentage of users choosing long-acting reversible methods. PMID:25745118

  4. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-02-04

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  5. Perioperative management of patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: a quality improvement audit.

    PubMed

    Vijay, A; Grover, A; Coulson, T G; Myles, P S

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients continuing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers on the day of surgery are more likely to have significant intraoperative hypotension, higher rates of postoperative acute kidney injury, and lower incidences of postoperative atrial fibrillation. However, many of these studies were prone to bias and confounding, and questions remain over the validity of these outcomes. This observational, before-and-after quality improvement audit aimed to assess the effect of withholding these medications on the morning of surgery. We recruited 323 participants, with 83 (26%) having their preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) withheld on the day of surgery. There were only very small Spearman rank-order correlations between time since last dose of these medications (rho -0.12, P=0.057) and intraoperative and recovery room intravenous fluid administration (rho -0.11, P=0.042). There was no statistically significant difference between the continued or withheld groups in vasopressor (metaraminol use 3.5 [1.5-8.3] mg versus 3.5 [1.5-8.5] mg, P=0.67) or intravenous fluid administration (1000 ml [800-1500] ml versus 1000 [800-1500] ml, P=0.096), nor rates of postoperative acute kidney injury (13% vs 18%, P=0.25) or atrial fibrillation (15% versus 18%, P=0.71). This audit found no significant differences in measured outcomes between the continued or withheld ACEi/ARB groups. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to the possibility of confounding and an insufficient sample size. However, as the finding is in contrast to many previous studies, future prospective randomised clinical trials are required to answer this important question.

  6. The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second phase of the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II) project evaluated common practices for developing and validating microarray-based models aimed at predicting toxicological and clinical endpoints. Thirty-six teams developed classifiers for 13 endpoints - some easy, som...

  7. The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second phase of the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II) project evaluated common practices for developing and validating microarray-based models aimed at predicting toxicological and clinical endpoints. Thirty-six teams developed classifiers for 13 endpoints - some easy, som...

  8. Education and technology used to improve the quality of life for people with diabetes mellitus type II.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Brooke; Heiland, Brianne; Kohler-Rausch, Elizabeth; Kovic, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (DMT2) is expected to continue to rise. Current research has analyzed various tools, strategies, programs, barriers, and support in regards to the self-management of this condition. However, past researchers have yet to analyze the education process; including the adaptation of specific strategies in activities of daily living and roles, as well as the influence of health care providers in the integration of these strategies. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify the strengths and limitations of the current model of diabetes education in the United States and hypothesize how technology can impact quality of life. Key informants on diabetes education were recruited from diabetes education centers through the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants. Health care practitioners convey limited knowledge of DMT2. Individuals with DMT2 often have limited understanding of the implications of poor self-management. There appears to be no consistent standard of care for how to effectively incorporate self-management strategies. There is limited education for the use of technology in self-management. Diabetes educators describe that technology could be beneficial. Findings suggest the importance of the role of care providers in emphasizing the implications of poor self-management strategies; that a multidisciplinary approach may enhance the education process; and a need for further developments in technology to address DMT2 self-management strategies.

  9. Cross-Validation of the Taiwan Version of the Moorehead–Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II with WHOQOL and SF-36

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Huang, Chih-Kun; Chang, Yu-Yin; Tai, Chi-Ming; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a major worldwide public health issue. There is a need for tools to measure patient-reported outcomes. The Moorehead–Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II (MA II) contains six items. The objective of this study was to translate the MA II into Chinese and validate it in patients with morbid obesity. Methods The MA II was translated into Chinese and back-translated into English by two language specialists to create the Taiwan version, which was validated by correlations with two other generic questionnaires of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF Taiwan version. The convergent validity was accomplished by a series of Spearman rank correlations. Reliability of the MA II Taiwan version was determined by internal consistency obtained by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test–retest reliability obtained by intraclass correlation coefficient. Results One hundred subjects with morbid obesity were enrolled to test the MA II Taiwan version convergent validity and internal consistency. Test–retest studies (2 weeks apart) were applied to 30 morbidly obese patients. Satisfactory internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.79. Good test–retest reliability was shown by intraclass correlations ranging from 0.73 to 0.91. The total sum of MA II scores was significantly correlated with all four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF and two major components of SF-36 (all correlations, p < 0.01; range, 0.44–0.64). All six MA II items showed significant correlations with each other (r = 0.34–0.69, p < 0.01), and the total sum of MA II scores was negatively correlated with body mass index (r = −0.31, p < 0.01), indicating a one-dimensional questionnaire of HRQOL. Conclusions The MA II Taiwan version is an obesity-specific questionnaire for QOL evaluation with satisfactory

  10. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men. Materials & Methods Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female) using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation. Results We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004) and sleep time (p = 0.014) for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001), sleep time (p<0.001), number of arousals (p = 0.04), sleep latency (p = 0.04), and sleep onset (p<0.001). Women separately (p = 0.02), but not men (p = 0.165), showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003), but not for women (p = 0.174). The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001), 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001), a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001), a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001), and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001), for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter’s darkness-phase. Conclusions Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an

  11. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in South Australian preschool children. II. Factors associated with indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Volkmer, R E; Ruffin, R E; Wigg, N R; Davies, N

    1995-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between indoor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in South Australian preschool children. Data were collected from 14,124 families with a child aged 4 years 3 months to 5 years of age. This sample represents 73% of the targeted State preschool population. At the time of a routine preschool health check, parents completed a questionnaire regarding: their child's respiratory health and place of residence (postcode), parental smoking, type of fuel used for cooking and heating and method used for home cooling. For preschool children residing in the greater Adelaide region, logistic regression analyses found that having a natural gas stove compared to an electric stove was significantly associated with increased prevalence rates for: (i) asthma (odds ratio [OR] 1.24); (ii) wheezing in the preceding 12 months (OR 1.16); excessive colds (OR 1.14); and hay fever (OR 1.13). The use of a liquid petroleum gas stove compared to an electric stove was not associated with any respiratory symptoms. The use of a flueless gas heater compared to other forms of heating was significantly associated with increased prevalence rates for dry cough (OR 1.26), ever having wheezed (OR 1.15) and wheezing in the preceding 12 months (OR 1.18). The use of a wood fire/heater compared to other forms of heating was significantly associated with a reduced prevalence rate for dry cough (OR 0.84) and ever having wheezed (OR 0.82). Parental smoking was significantly associated with increased prevalence rates for bronchitis (OR 1.21) and ever having wheezed (OR 1.24). The form of home cooling used was not associated with prevalence rates, after accounting for geographic location. Socio-economic status (postcode level) was not generally associated with prevalence rates. These results suggest that respiratory symptom prevalence is related to the fuel used for cooking and heating and parental smoking. Prospective investigation regarding indoor air

  12. Feasibility study of a lead(II) iodide-based dosimeter for quality assurance in therapeutic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Y. J.; Kim, K. T.; Oh, K. M.; Lee, Y. K.; Ahn, K. J.; Cho, H. L.; Kim, J. Y.; Min, B. I.; Mun, C. W.; Park, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The most widely used form of radiotherapy to treat tumors uses a linear accelerator, and the apparatus requires regular quality assurance (QA). QA for a linear accelerator demands accuracy throughout, from mock treatment and treatment planning, up to treatment itself. Therefore, verifying a radiation dose is essential to ensure that the radiation is being applied as planned. In current clinical practice, ionization chambers and diodes are used for QA. However, using conventional gaseous ionization chambers presents drawbacks such as complex analytical procedures, difficult measurement procedures, and slow response time. In this study, we discuss the potential of a lead(II) iodide (PbI2)-based radiation dosimeter for radiotherapy QA. PbI2 is a semiconductor material suited to measurements of X-rays and gamma rays, because of its excellent response properties to radiation signals. Our results show that the PbI2-based dosimeter offers outstanding linearity and reproducibility, as well as dose-independent characteristics. In addition, percentage depth dose (PDD) measurements indicate that the error at a fixed reference depth Dmax was 0.3%, very similar to the measurement results obtained using ionization chambers. Based on these results, we confirm that the PbI2-based dosimeter has all the properties required for radiotherapy: stable dose detection, dose linearity, and rapid response time. Based on the evidence of this experimental verification, we believe that the PbI2-based dosimeter could be used commercially in various fields for precise measurements of radiation doses in the human body and for measuring the dose required for stereotactic radiosurgery or localized radiosurgery.

  13. Assessment of the quality and content of national and international guidelines on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Madison, Anita; Barton, Andrew; Gillispie, Veronica; Bazzano, Lydia A L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-quality evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can guide diagnosis and treatment to optimise outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and content of national and international guidelines on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Data Sources: The MEDLINE database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse and several international databases were searched for appropriate guidelines from the past 10 years. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods: Six guidelines met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were evaluated using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. Results A total of 695 records were identified and screened by two authors. Disorder definitions, classifications, preventive measures and treatment recommendations were evaluated and compared among guidelines. AGREE II results varied widely across domains and categories. Only two guidelines received consistently high ratings across domains and few demonstrated a high level of methodological rigour. Recommendations regarding classification and treatment were similar across guidelines, while assessment of preventive measures varied widely. Conclusions Clinical practice guidelines for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy vary significantly in quality and with respect to assessment of preventive measures. PMID:26781503

  14. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients.

  15. Quality assessment of recent evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults using the AGREE II instrument.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Muhammad A; Al-Fahed, Ousama B; Arif, Samir I; Amer, Yasser S; Titi, Maher A; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

    2017-09-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide and national public health problem that has a great impact on the population in Saudi Arabia. High-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are cornerstones in improving the health care provided for patients with diabetes. This study evaluated the methodological rigour, transparency, and applicability of recently published CPGs. Our group conducted a systematic search for recently published CPGs for T2DM. The searching and screening for Source CPGs were guided by tools from the ADAPTE methods with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five reviewers using the second version of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) Instrument independently assessed the quality of the retrieved Source CPGs. Domains of Scope and purpose and Clarity of presentation received the highest scores in all CPGs. Most of the assessed CPGs (86%) were considered with high overall quality and were recommended for use. Rigour of development and applicability domains were together highest in 3 CPGs (43%). The overall high quality of DM CPGs published in the last 3 years demonstrated the continuous development and improvement in CPG methodologies and standards. Health care professionals should consider the quality of any CPG for T2DM before deciding to use it in their daily clinical practice. Three CPGs have been identified, using the AGREE criteria, as high-quality and trustworthy. Ideally, the resources provided by the AGREE trust including the AGREE II Instrument should be used by a clinician to scan through the large number of published T2DM CPGs to identify the CPGs with high methodological quality and applicability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Achieving Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging II: proceedings from the Second American College of Cardiology -- Duke University Medical Center Think Tank on Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Chen, Jersey; Gillam, Linda; Hendel, Robert; Hundley, W Gregory; Masoudi, Frederick; Patel, Manesh R; Peterson, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Despite rapid technologic advances and sustained growth, less attention has been focused on quality in imaging than in other areas of cardiovascular medicine. To address this deficit, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government agencies, the medical imaging industry, and experts in quality measurement met in the second Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging Think Tank. The participants endorsed the previous consensus definition of quality in imaging and proposed quality measures. Additional areas of needed effort included data standardization and structured reporting, appropriateness criteria, imaging registries, laboratory accreditation, partnership development, and imaging research. The second American College of Cardiology-Duke University Think Tank continued the process of the development, dissemination, and adoption of quality improvement initiatives for all cardiovascular imaging modalities.

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement II (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can locate instructional materials to meet very general or highly specific…

  18. Inter-comparison between HERMESv2.0 and TNO-MACC-II emission data using the CALIOPE air quality system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Marc; Pay, María Teresa; Martínez, Francesc; Soret, Albert; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Baldasano, José M.

    2014-12-01

    This work examines and compares the performance of two emission datasets on modelling air quality concentrations for Spain: (i) the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMESv2.0) and (ii) the TNO-MACC-II emission inventory. For this purpose, the air quality system CALIOPE-AQFS (WRF-ARW/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b) was run over Spain for February and June 2009 using the two emission datasets (4 km × 4 km and 1 h). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3) and particular matter (PM10) modelled concentrations were compared with measurements at different type of air quality stations (i.e. rural background, urban, suburban industrial). A preliminary emission comparison showed significant discrepancies between the two datasets, highlighting an overestimation of industrial emissions in urban areas when using TNO-MACC-II. However, simulations showed similar performances of both emission datasets in terms of air quality. Modelled NO2 concentrations were similar between both datasets at the background stations, although TNO-MACC-II presented lower underestimations due to differences in industrial, other mobile sources and residential emissions. At Madrid urban stations NO2 was significantly underestimated in both cases despite the fact that HERMESv2.0 estimates traffic emissions using a more local information and detailed methodology. This NO2 underestimation problem was not found in Barcelona due to the influence of international shipping emissions located in the coastline. An inadequate characterization of some TNO-MACC-II's point sources led to high SO2 biases at industrial stations, especially in northwest Spain where large facilities are grouped. In general, surface O3 was overestimated regardless of the emission dataset used, depicting the problematic of CMAQ on overestimating low ozone at night. On the other hand, modelled PM10 concentrations were less underestimated in urban areas when applying HERMESv2.0 due to the inclusion of road dust

  19. Mean Hα+[N ii]+[S ii] EW inferred for star-forming galaxies atz ˜ 5.1-5.4 using high-qualitySpitzer/IRAC photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasappu, N.; Smit, R.; Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Stark, D. P.; Ellis, R. S.; Oesch, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Recent Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometric observations have revealed that rest-frame optical emission lines contribute significantly to the broad-band fluxes of high-redshift galaxies. Specifically, in the narrow redshift range z ˜ 5.1-5.4 the [3.6]-[4.5] colour is expected to be very red, due to contamination of the 4.5 μm band by the dominant Hα line, while the 3.6 μm filter is free of nebular emission lines. We take advantage of new reductions of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging over the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North+South fields (Labbé et al. 2015) to obtain a clean measurement of the mean Hα equivalent width (EW) from the [3.6]-[4.5] colour in the redshift range z = 5.1-5.4. The selected sources either have measured spectroscopic redshifts (13 sources) or lie very confidently in the redshift range z = 5.1-5.4 based on the photometric redshift likelihood intervals (11 sources). Our zphot = 5.1-5.4 sample and zspec = 5.10-5.40 spectroscopic sample have a mean [3.6]-[4.5] colour of 0.31 ± 0.05 and 0.35 ± 0.07 mag, implying a rest-frame EW (Hα+[N II]+[S II]) of 665 ± 53 and 707 ± 74 Å, respectively, for sources in these samples. These values are consistent albeit slightly higher than derived by Stark et al. at z ˜ 4, suggesting an evolution to higher values of the Hα+[N II]+[S II] EW at z > 2. Using the 3.6 μm band, which is free of emission line contamination, we perform robust spectral energy distribution fitting and find a median specific star formation rate of sSFR = 17_{-5}^{+2} Gyr-1, 7_{-2}^{+1}× higher than at z ˜ 2. We find no strong correlation (<2σ) between the Hα+[N II]+[S II] EW and the stellar mass of sources. Before the advent of JWST, improvements in these results will come through an expansion of current spectroscopic samples and deeper Spitzer/IRAC measurements.

  20. Using Quality of Life Measures in a Phase I Clinical Trial of Noni in Patients with Advanced Cancer to Select a Phase II Dose

    PubMed Central

    Issell, Brian F.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, A. Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a Phase I study of noni in patients with advanced cancer. Quality of life measures were examined as an alternate way to select a Phase II dose of this popular dietary supplement. Patients and Methods Starting at two capsules twice daily (2 grams), the dose suggested for marketed products, dose levels were escalated by 2 grams daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed QLQ-C30 Quality of Life, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at four week intervals. Scopoletin was measured in blood and urine collected at baseline and at approximately four week intervals. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. Seven capsules four times daily (14 grams) was the maximum tolerated dose. No dose limiting toxicity was found but four of eight patients at this level withdrew from the study due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There was a dose response for self reported physical functioning and the control of pain and fatigue. Patients taking four capsules four times daily experienced less fatigue than patients taking lower or higher doses. A relationship between noni dose and blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations was found. Conclusion Measuring quality of life to determine a dose for subsequent Phase II testing is feasible. A noni dose of four capsules four times daily (8 grams) is recommended for Phase II testing where controlling fatigue and maintaining physical function is the efficacy of interest. Scopoletin is a measurable noni ingredient for pharmacokinetic studies in patients with cancer. PMID:22435516

  1. Synergism between hydrogen peroxide and seventeen acids against five agri-food-borne fungi and one yeast strain.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Maris, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20 °C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium. Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Mycotoxins that affect the North American agri-food sector: state of the art and directions for the future

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper summarises workshop discussions at the 5th international MYCORED meeting in Ottawa, Canada (June 2012) with over 200 participants representing academics, government and industry scientists, government officials and farming organisations (present in roughly equal proportions) from 27 count...

  3. EU-Level Competence Development Projects in Agri-Food-Environment: The Involvement of Sectoral Social Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The European Commission and social partner organisations at EU level encourage the lifelong development of qualifications and competence. This is reflected in many policy reports and reviews. This paper seeks to show the involvement of social partner organisations at the level of EU-funded competence development projects.…

  4. PTR-MS in Italy: a multipurpose sensor with applications in environmental, agri-food and health science.

    PubMed

    Cappellin, Luca; Loreto, Francesco; Aprea, Eugenio; Romano, Andrea; del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2013-09-09

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological advances and new fundamental indications. In this review we describe this activity on the basis of the available literature. The Italian scientific community has been active mostly in food science and technology, plant physiology and environmental studies and also pioneered the applications of the recently released PTR-ToF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry) in food science and in plant physiology. In the very last years new results related to bioprocess monitoring and health science have been published as well. PTR-MS data analysis, particularly in the case of the ToF based version, and the application of advanced chemometrics and data mining are also aspects characterising the activity of the Italian community.

  5. EU-Level Competence Development Projects in Agri-Food-Environment: The Involvement of Sectoral Social Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The European Commission and social partner organisations at EU level encourage the lifelong development of qualifications and competence. This is reflected in many policy reports and reviews. This paper seeks to show the involvement of social partner organisations at the level of EU-funded competence development projects.…

  6. PTR-MS in Italy: A Multipurpose Sensor with Applications in Environmental, Agri-Food and Health Science

    PubMed Central

    Cappellin, Luca; Loreto, Francesco; Aprea, Eugenio; Romano, Andrea; del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological advances and new fundamental indications. In this review we describe this activity on the basis of the available literature. The Italian scientific community has been active mostly in food science and technology, plant physiology and environmental studies and also pioneered the applications of the recently released PTR-ToF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry) in food science and in plant physiology. In the very last years new results related to bioprocess monitoring and health science have been published as well. PTR-MS data analysis, particularly in the case of the ToF based version, and the application of advanced chemometrics and data mining are also aspects characterising the activity of the Italian community. PMID:24021966

  7. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: Understanding for Democratic Participation in Renewing the Agri-Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture poses ecological problems and opportunities, which defy simple democratic reform without an educated citizenry. Developing an educated citizenry can be accomplished by further developing agricultural literacy in elementary education. While benchmarks for agricultural literacy have been produced, relatively little attention has…

  8. A critical appraisal of the quality of adult dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry guidelines in osteoporosis using the AGREE II tool: An EuroAIM initiative.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Bignotti, Bianca; Bazzocchi, Alberto; Phan, Catherine M; Tagliafico, Alberto; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2017-06-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used technique to measure bone mineral density (BMD). Appropriate and accurate use of DXA is of great importance, and several guidelines have been developed in the last years. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of published guidelines on DXA for adults. Between June and July 2016 we conducted an online search for DXA guidelines, which were evaluated by four independent readers blinded to each other using the AGREE II instrument. A fifth independent reviewer calculated scores per each domain and agreement between reviewers' scores. Four out of 59 guidelines met inclusion criteria and were included. They were published between 2005 and 2014. Three out of four guidelines reached a high level of quality, having at least five domain scores higher than 60%. Domain 1 (Scope and Purpose) achieved the highest result (total score = 86.8 ± 3.7%). Domain 6 (Editorial Independence) had the lowest score (total score = 54.7 ± 12.5%). Interobserver agreement ranged from fair (0.230) to good (0.702). Overall, the quality of DXA guidelines is satisfactory when evaluated using the AGREE II instrument. The Editorial Independence domain was the most critical, thus deserving more attention when developing future guidelines. • Three of four guidelines on DXA had a high quality level (>60%). • Scope/purpose had the highest score (86.8 ± 3.7%). • Editorial Independence had the lowest score (54.7 ± 12.5%). • Interobserver agreement ranged from fair (0.230) to good (0.702).

  9. Impact of piglet birth weight, birth order, and litter size on subsequent growth performance, carcass quality, muscle composition, and eating quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, A D; Aalhus, J L; Williams, N H; Patience, J F

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P < 0.05), but had no effect on within litter variability or carcass quality (P > 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P < 0.05). Birth weight had limited effects on carcass quality, weight of primal cuts, objective quality, and overall palatability of the meat at the same slaughter weight (P > 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight

  10. Ensemble and Bias-Correction Techniques for Air-Quality Model Forecasts of Surface O3 and PM2.5 during the TEXAQS-II Experiment of 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several air quality forecasting ensembles were created from seven models, running in real-time during the 2006 Texas Air Quality (TEXAQS-II) experiment. These multi-model ensembles incorporated a diverse set of meteorological models, chemical mechanisms, and emission inventories...

  11. Ensemble and Bias-Correction Techniques for Air-Quality Model Forecasts of Surface O3 and PM2.5 during the TEXAQS-II Experiment of 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several air quality forecasting ensembles were created from seven models, running in real-time during the 2006 Texas Air Quality (TEXAQS-II) experiment. These multi-model ensembles incorporated a diverse set of meteorological models, chemical mechanisms, and emission inventories...

  12. Overview of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II) and the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, D. D.; Allen, D. T.; Bates, T. S.; Estes, M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Feingold, G.; Ferrare, R.; Hardesty, R. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Pierce, R. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Williams, E. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II) was conducted in eastern Texas during 2005 and 2006. This 2-year study included an intensive field campaign, TexAQS 2006/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), conducted in August-October 2006. The results reported in this special journal section are based on observations collected on four aircraft, one research vessel, networks of ground-based air quality and meteorological (surface and radar wind profiler) sites in eastern Texas, a balloon-borne ozonesonde-radiosonde network (part of Intercontinental Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-06)), and satellites. This overview paper provides operational and logistical information for those platforms and sites, summarizes the principal findings and conclusions that have thus far been drawn from the results, and directs readers to appropriate papers for the full analysis. Two of these findings deserve particular emphasis. First, despite decreases in actual emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) and some improvements in inventory estimates since the TexAQS 2000 study, the current Houston area emission inventories still underestimate HRVOC emissions by approximately 1 order of magnitude. Second, the background ozone in eastern Texas, which represents the minimum ozone concentration that is likely achievable through only local controls, can approach or exceed the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppbv for an 8-h average. These findings have broad implications for air quality control strategies in eastern Texas.

  13. Effects of MboII and BspMI polymorphisms in the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene on sperm quality in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Na; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Li-Guo

    2011-06-01

    The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) plays an essential physiological role in reproductive function, which triggers the synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of polymorphisms of GnRHR gene on the quality of fresh and frozen semen in Holstein bulls. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect G286A and T340C transitions determining MboII and BspMI polymorphisms, respectively, in the exon I of bovine GnRHR gene and evaluated its associations with sperm quality traits in 131 Holstein bulls. In polymorphic locus 286, bulls with the GA genotype had significantly higher sperm motility in frozen semen (FMOT) than GG genotype (P < 0.01). In polymorphic locus 340, bulls with heterozygote CT genotype had significantly higher sperm motility (MOT), semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), and lower abnormal spermatozoa rate (ASR) than homozygote TT genotype (P < 0.05). Bulls contained one A allele or C allele had a favorable, positive effect on sperm quality traits. These results indicate that GnRHR gene can be a potential marker for improving sperm quality traits, and imply that bulls with GA or CT genotype should be selected in breeding program.

  14. Diet Quality Index as a predictor of short-term mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Jennifer D; Calle, Eugenia E; Flagg, Elaine W; Coates, Ralph J; Ford, Earl S; Thun, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    The Diet Quality Index (DQI) was developed to measure overall dietary patterns and to predict chronic disease risk. This study examined associations between DQI and short-term all-cause, all-circulatory-disease, and all-cancer mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a cohort of US adults aged 50-79 years enrolled in a prospective study. After 4 years of follow-up (1992-1996), there were 869 deaths among 63,109 women and 1,736 deaths among 52,724 men. All study participants reported being disease free at baseline in 1992-1993. In age-adjusted Cox models, a higher DQI, which was indicative of a poorer quality diet, was positively related to all-cause and all-circulatory-disease mortality rates in both women and men and to cancer mortality in men only. However, in fully adjusted Cox models, only circulatory disease mortality was clearly positively related to DQI and only in women (medium-low-quality diet vs. highest-quality diet: rate ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.89). Although trend tests indicated significant positive relations between DQI and all-cause mortality, effects were small (rate ratios

  15. Exercise Hemodynamics and Quality of Life after Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis in the Elderly Using the Hancock II Bioprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Theodore; Lopez, Becky M.; Berberian, Christopher; Cunningham, Mark J.; Starnes, Vaughn A.; Cohen, Robbin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. While aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis can be performed safely in elderly patients, there is a need for hemodynamic and quality of life evaluation to determine the value of aortic valve replacement in older patients who may have age-related activity limitation. Materials and Methods. We conducted a prospective evaluation of patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis with the Hancock II porcine bioprosthesis. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and completed the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Results. From 2004 to 2007, 33 patients were enrolled with an average age of 75.3 ± 5.3 years (24 men and 9 women). Preoperatively, 27/33 (82%) were New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification 3, and postoperatively 27/33 (82%) were NYHA Functional Classification 1. Patients had a mean predicted maximum VO2 (mL/kg/min) of 19.5 ± 4.3 and an actual max VO2 of 15.5 ± 3.9, which was 80% of the predicted VO2. Patients were found to have significant improvements (P ≤ 0.01) in six of the nine SF-36 health parameters. Conclusions. In our sample of elderly patients with aortic stenosis, replacing the aortic valve with a Hancock II bioprosthesis resulted in improved hemodynamics and quality of life. PMID:25544931

  16. Ten-year quality of life outcomes among patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder II. Predictive value of psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, Michael S; Arbitman, Marina; Lisker, Alexander; Ponizovsky, Alexander M

    2012-08-01

    To identify psychosocial predictors of change in health-related quality of life among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective (SA) disorders over a 10-year period. In a naturalistic longitudinal design, 108 patients with SZ/SA disorders completed a comprehensive rating scale battery including self-reported quality of life, emotional distress symptoms, coping styles, sense of self-efficacy, and social support, as well as observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, and general functioning at 2 time points, baseline and 10 years later. Regression models revealed that reduction in self-reported symptoms of depression, sensitivity or anxiety along with increase in self-efficacy, social support, and emotion-oriented coping scores predicted improvement in domain-specific perceived quality of life. Adjustment of the psychosocial models for the effects of disorder-related factors (psychopathology, functioning, and medication side effects) confirmed the above findings and amplified their statistical power. In the long-term course of severe mental disorders (SZ/SA), changes in the psychosocial factors are stronger predictors of subjective quality of life outcome than disorder-related changes. The findings enable better understanding of the combined effects of psychopathology and psychosocial factors on quality of life outcome over a 10-year period.

  17. Using quality of life measures in a Phase I clinical trial of noni in patients with advanced cancer to select a Phase II dose.

    PubMed

    Issell, Brian F; Gotay, Carolyn C; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to determine a maximum tolerated dose of noni in cancer patients and whether an optimal quality of life-sustaining dose could be identified as an alternative way to select a dose for subsequent Phase II efficacy trials. Dose levels started at two capsules twice daily (2 g), the suggested dose for the marketed product, and were escalated by 2 g daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed subscales of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 quality of life (physical functioning, pain, and fatigue) the brief fatigue inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood and urine were collected at baseline and at approximately 4-week intervals for measurement of scopoletin. Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. The maximum tolerated dose was six capsules four times daily (12 g). Although no dose-limiting toxicity was found, seven of eight patients at the next level (14 g), withdrew due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There were dose-related differences in self-reported physical functioning and pain and fatigue control. Overall, patients taking three or four capsules four times daily experienced better outcomes than patients taking lower or higher doses. Blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations related to noni dose. We concluded that it is feasible to use quality of life measures to select a Phase II dose. Three or four capsules four times daily (6-8 g) is recommended when controlling fatigue, pain, and maintaining physical function are the efficacies of interest. Scopoletin, a bioactive component of noni fruit extract, is measurable in blood and urine following noni ingestion and can be used to study the pharmacokinetics of noni in cancer patients.

  18. A Quality Improvement Customer Service Process and CSS [Customer Service System]. Burlington County College Employee Development Series, Volumes I & II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlington County Coll., Pemberton, NJ.

    Prepared for use by staff in development workshops at Burlington County College (BCC), in New Jersey, this handbook offers college-wide guidelines for improving the quality of service provided to internal and external customers, and reviews key elements of BCC's Customer Service System (CSS), a computerized method of recording and following-up on…

  19. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  20. Image quality and radiation exposure with a low tube voltage protocol for coronary CT angiography results of the PROTECTION II Trial.

    PubMed

    Hausleiter, Jörg; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Pschierer, Iris; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Catalán-Sanz, Paz; Czermak, Benedikt; Meyer, Tanja S; Hein, Franziska; Bischoff, Bernhard; Kuse, Miriam; Schömig, Albert; Achenbach, Stephan

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dose using a 100 kVp tube voltage scan protocol compared with standard 120 kVp for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Concerns have been raised about radiation exposure during coronary CTA. The use of a 100 kVp tube voltage scan protocol effectively lowers coronary CTA radiation dose compared with standard 120 kVp, but it is unknown whether image quality is maintained. We enrolled 400 nonobese patients who underwent coronary CTA: 202 patients were randomly assigned to a 100 kVp protocol and 198 patients to a 120 kVp protocol. The primary end point was to demonstrate noninferiority in image quality with the 100 kVp protocol, which was assessed by a 4-point grading score (1 = nondiagnostic, 4 = excellent image quality). For the noninferiority analysis, a margin of -0.2 image quality score points for the difference between both scan protocols was pre-defined. Secondary end points included radiation dose and need for additional diagnostic tests during follow-up. The mean image quality scores in patients scanned with 100 kVp and 120 kVp were 3.30 ± 0.67 and 3.28 ± 0.68, respectively (p = 0.742); image quality of the 100 kVp protocol was not inferior, as demonstrated by the 97.5% confidence interval of the difference, which did not cross the pre-defined noninferiority margin of -0.2. The 100 kVp protocol was associated with a 31% relative reduction in radiation exposure (dose-length product: 868 ± 317 mGy × cm with 120 kVp vs. 599 ± 255 mGy × cm with 100 kVp; p < 0.0001). At 30-day follow-up, the need for additional diagnostic studies did not differ (13.4% vs. 19.2% for 100 kVp vs. 120 kVp, respectively; p = 0.114). A coronary CTA protocol using 100 kVp tube voltage maintained image quality, but reduced radiation exposure by 31% as compared with the standard 120 kVp protocol. Thus, 100 kVp scan protocols should be considered for nonobese patients to keep radiation exposure as low as

  1. Scalable, sustainable cost-effective surgical care: a model for safety and quality in the developing world, part II: program development and quality care.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alex; Restrepo, Carolina; Mackay, Don; Sherman, Randy; Varma, Ajit; Ayala, Ruben; Sarma, Hiteswar; Deshpande, Gaurav; Magee, William

    2014-09-01

    The Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) is committed to free medical and surgical care to patients afflicted with facial deformities in Assam, India. A needs-based approach was utilized to assemble numerous teams, processes of care, and systems aimed at providing world-class care to the most needy of patients, and to assist them with breaking through the barriers that prohibit them from obtaining services. A team of international professionals from various disciplines served in Guwahati full time to implement and oversee patient care and training of local counterparts. Recruitment of local professionals in all disciplines began early in the scheme of the program and led to gradual expansion of all medical teams. Emphasis was placed on achieving optimal outcome for each patient treated, as opposed to treating the maximum number of patients. The center is open year round to offer full-time services and follow-up care. Along with surgery, GCCCC provides speech therapy, child life counseling, dental care, otolaryngology, orthodontics, and nutrition services for the cleft patients under one roof. Local medical providers participated in a model of graded responsibility commiserate with individualized skill and progress, and gradually assumed all leadership positions and now account for 92% of the workforce. Institutional infrastructure improvements positioned and empowered teams of skilled local providers while implementing systemized perioperative processes. This needs-based approach to program development in Guwahati was successful in optimization of quality and safety in all clinical divisions.

  2. Quality assessment of neutron delivery system for small-angle neutron scattering diffractometers of the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at the FRM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, Aurel; Pipich, Vitaliy; Ioffe, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Following the shutdown of FRJ-2 research reactor in Jülich, the pinhole small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1 and KWS-2 have been moved to the research reactor FRM II in Garching. The installation of these 40 m long instruments required the design and setup of new neutron guides with geometrical and optical features imposed by the instruments' positioning in the neutron guide hall, such as, the predetermined length and beam height as well as the foreseen improvement of the instrument performance. We report here about the quality assessment of the newly constructed neutron guides with respect to the optical, geometrical and alignment characteristics and the positioning of the velocity selector integrated in the neutron guide system by comparing the features of the measured neutron beams (in terms of neutron flux, intensity distribution and beam profile) with the results of the simulations of optimal neutron guide systems.

  3. Indoor air quality in a middle school, Part II: Development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Scheff, P A; Paulius, V K; Curtis, L; Conroy, L M

    2000-11-01

    A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, Illinois, with no known air quality problems, was selected for a baseline indoor air quality survey. The study was designed to measure and evaluate air quality at the middle school with the objective of providing a benchmark for comparisons with measurements in schools with potential air quality problems. The focus of this article is on the development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols. The school was characterized as having no health complaints and good maintenance schedules. Four indoor locations including the cafeteria, a science classroom, an art classroom, the lobby outside the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February 1997. Integrated samples (eight-hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements (two-minute samples, three times per day) for bioaerosols were collected on three consecutive days at each of the sampling sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the lobby area. A linear relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. A completely mixed space, one compartment mass balance model with estimated CO2 generation rates and actual CO2 and particulate matter concentrations was used to model ventilation and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors for occupancy were represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy scatter plots. The following particle and bioaerosol emission factors were derived from the indoor measurements: total particles: 1.28 mg/hr/person-hr; respirable particles: 0.154 g/hr/person-hr; total fungi: 167 CFU/hr/person-min; thermophilic fungi: 35.8 CFU/hr/person-min; mesophilic fungi: 119 CFU/hr/person-min; total

  4. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations II: Pilot study of a new system

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, David; Briss, Peter A; Eccles, Martin; Flottorp, Signe; Guyatt, Gordon H; Harbour, Robin T; Hill, Suzanne; Jaeschke, Roman; Liberati, Alessandro; Magrini, Nicola; Mason, James; O'Connell, Dianne; Oxman, Andrew D; Phillips, Bob; Schünemann, Holger; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Vist, Gunn E; Williams, John W

    2005-01-01

    Background Systems that are used by different organisations to grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations vary. They have different strengths and weaknesses. The GRADE Working Group has developed an approach that addresses key shortcomings in these systems. The aim of this study was to pilot test and further develop the GRADE approach to grading evidence and recommendations. Methods A GRADE evidence profile consists of two tables: a quality assessment and a summary of findings. Twelve evidence profiles were used in this pilot study. Each evidence profile was made based on information available in a systematic review. Seventeen people were given instructions and independently graded the level of evidence and strength of recommendation for each of the 12 evidence profiles. For each example judgements were collected, summarised and discussed in the group with the aim of improving the proposed grading system. Kappas were calculated as a measure of chance-corrected agreement for the quality of evidence for each outcome for each of the twelve evidence profiles. The seventeen judges were also asked about the ease of understanding and the sensibility of the approach. All of the judgements were recorded and disagreements discussed. Results There was a varied amount of agreement on the quality of evidence for the outcomes relating to each of the twelve questions (kappa coefficients for agreement beyond chance ranged from 0 to 0.82). However, there was fair agreement about the relative importance of each outcome. There was poor agreement about the balance of benefits and harms and recommendations. Most of the disagreements were easily resolved through discussion. In general we found the GRADE approach to be clear, understandable and sensible. Some modifications were made in the approach and it was agreed that more information was needed in the evidence profiles. Conclusion Judgements about evidence and recommendations are complex. Some subjectivity

  5. The nursing work environment and quality of care: A cross-sectional study using the Essentials of Magnetism II Scale in England.

    PubMed

    Oshodi, Titilayo O; Crockett, Rachel; Bruneau, Benjamin; West, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    To explore the structure of the Essentials of Magnetism II (EOMII) scale using data from nurses working in England; and to describe the impact of different aspects of the nursing work environment on nurse-assessed care quality (NACQ). The EOMII Scale was developed in the United States to measure nursing work environments. It has been widely used in the United States and in a number of other countries, but has not yet been used in the UK. Cross-sectional study. Registered nurses (n = 247) providing direct patient care in two National Health Service hospitals in England completed the EOMII scale and a single-item measuring NACQ. Principal components analysis was used to assess the structure of the scale. Correlation and regression analyses were used to describe the relationships between factors and NACQ. A solution with explanatory variance of 45.25% was identified. Forty items loaded on five factors, with satisfactory consistency: (i) ward manager support; (ii) working as a team; (iii) concern for patients; (iv) organisational autonomy; and (v) constraints on nursing practice. While in univariate analyses, each of the factors was significantly associated with NACQ, in multivariate analyses, the relationship between organisational autonomy and NACQ no longer reached significance. However, a multiple mediation model indicated that the effect of organisational autonomy on NACQ was mediated by nurse manager support, working as a team and concern for patients but not constraints on nursing practice. Subscales of the EOMII identified in an English sample of nurses measured important aspects of the nursing work environment, each of which is related to NACQ. The EOMII could be a very useful tool for measuring aspects of the nursing work environment in the English Trusts particularly in relation to the quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Age-specific administration of chemotherapy and long-term quality of life in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients: a population-based prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Hoffmeister, Michael; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Koch, Moritz; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the age-specific pattern of administration of chemotherapy and its association with long-term survival and quality of life (QoL) in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients. Chemotherapy allocation according to disease and patient characteristics was investigated in a population-based cohort of 562 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients. Five years after diagnosis, survival was determined and QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 Items and a tumor specific module. The association among chemotherapy, survival, and QoL was examined while controlling for potential confounders. Chemotherapy was administered in 71% of patients aged <60 years and in only 20% of patients aged ≥80 years. A significant association between chemotherapy and longer survival time was found for stage III cancer only. Chemotherapy was associated with higher symptom levels for trouble with taste, anxiety, and hair loss. In age-specific analyses, younger survivors (<70 years at time of follow-up) with a history of chemotherapy reported significantly lower physical, role, and cognitive functioning and higher pain, appetite loss, hair loss, and trouble with taste symptom levels. In contrast, for older survivors (≥70 years), only two (hair loss and dry mouth) out of 38 QoL scores were significantly associated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is associated with lower long-term QoL, especially in younger survivors. In cases of uncertain survival benefits of chemotherapy, consideration of its long-term effects on QoL should be incorporated into final decisions on treatment.

  7. Inpatient Falls: Defining the Problem and Identifying Possible Solutions. Part II: Application of Quality Improvement Principles to Hospital Falls.

    PubMed

    Cumbler, Ethan U; Simpson, Jennifer R; Rosenthal, Laura D; Likosky, David J

    2013-10-01

    In this 2 part series, analysis of the risk stratification tools that are available and definition of the scope of the problem and potential solutions through a review of the literature is presented. A systematic review was used to identify articles for risk stratification and interventions. Three risk stratification systems are discussed, STRATIFY, Morse Fall Scale, and the Hendrich Fall Risk Model (HFRM). Of these scoring systems, the HFRM is the easiest to use and score. Predominantly, multifactorial interventions are used to prevent patient falls. Education and rehabilitation are common themes in studies with statistically significant results. The second article presents a guide to implementing a quality improvement project around hospital falls. A 10-step approach to Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles is described. Specific examples of problems and analysis are easily applicable to any institution. Furthermore, the sustainability of interventions and targeting new areas for improvement are discussed. Although specific to falls in the hospitalized patient, the goal is to present a stepwise approach that is broadly applicable to other areas requiring quality improvement.

  8. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Josef; Karthaus, Meinolf; Mineur, Laurent; Greil, Richard; Letocha, Henry; Hofheinz, Ralf; Fernebro, Eva; Gamelin, Erick; Baños, Ana; Köhne, Claus-Henning

    2012-09-29

    Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59); most (98%) experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]). Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56%) compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%). Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78), health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0) and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7) were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion), respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404.

  9. Writing interventions in older adults and former children of the World War II: impact on quality of life and depression.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Silke; Hahm, Stefanie; Freitag, Simone

    2017-06-05

    The aim of the current study was to analyze whether biographical writing interventions have an impact on depression and QoL compared to daily diary writing. We also wanted to investigate differential effects between structured and unstructured interventions. In two Northern regions of Germany, 119 older adults aged 64-90 were randomly assigned to three different types of narrative writing interventions: written structured and unstructured biographical disclosure as well as daily diary writing. Depression (PHQ-9), QoL (SF-12, EUROHIS) and trauma-related symptoms (PCL-C) were obtained pre- and post-interventions as well as at three-month follow-up. Follow-up measures were obtained from 85 participants (29% loss to follow-up; mean age = 73.88; 68.2% female). Results of repeated measurement analysis demonstrated a significant effect on depression with the daily diary writing group showing lower depressive symptoms than structured biographical writing. We did not find a significant impact on QoL. Post-hoc analyses showed that posttraumatic symptoms lead to increases in depressive symptoms. In a non-clinical sample of community-dwelling older adults, biographical writing interventions were not favorable to daily diary writing concerning the outcomes of the study. This might be related to the association of traumtic reminiscences of former children of World War II and outcome measures.

  10. Ozone Air Quality over North America: Part II-An Analysis of Trend Detection and Attribution Techniques.

    PubMed

    Porter, P Steven; Rao, S Trivikrama; Zurbenko, Igor G; Dunker, Alan M; Wolff, George T

    2001-02-01

    Assessment of regulatory programs aimed at improving ambient O3 air quality is of considerable interest to the scientific community and to policymakers. Trend detection, the identification of statistically significant long-term changes, and attribution, linking change to specific clima-tological and anthropogenic forcings, are instrumental to this assessment. Detection and attribution are difficult because changes in pollutant concentrations of interest to policymakers may be much smaller than natural variations due to weather and climate. In addition, there are considerable differences in reported trends seemingly based on similar statistical methods and databases. Differences arise from the variety of techniques used to reduce nontrend variation in time series, including mitigating the effects of meteorology and the variety of metrics used to track changes. In this paper, we review the trend assessment techniques being used in the air pollution field and discuss their strengths and limitations in discerning and attributing changes in O3 to emission control policies.

  11. An Observational and modeling strategy to investigate the impact of remote sources on local air quality: A Houston, Texas case study from the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II)

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, W. W.; Pierce, R.; Sparling, L. C.; Osterman, G.; McCann, K.; Fischer, M. L.; Rappengluck, B.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Kittaka, C.; Evans, K.; Biraud, S.; Lefer, Barry; Andrews, A.; Oltmans, S.

    2010-01-05

    Quantifying the impacts of remote sources on individual air quality exceedances remains a significant challenge for air quality forecasting. One goal of the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II) was to assess the impact of distant sources on air quality in east Texas. From 23-30 August 2006, retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from NASA’s Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) reveal the transport of CO from fires in the United States Pacific Northwest to Houston, Texas. This transport occurred behind a cold front and contributed to the worst ozone exceedance period of the summer in the Houston area. We present supporting satellite observations from the NASA A-Train constellation of the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and CO. Ground-based in situ CO measurements in Oklahoma and Texas track the CO plume as it moves south and indicate mixing of the aloft plume to the surface by turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer and convection during the day. Ground-based aerosol speciation and lidar observations do not find appreciable smoke aerosol transport for this case. However, MODIS aerosol optical depths and model simulations indicate some smoke aerosols were transported from the Pacific Northwest through Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Chemical transport and forward trajectory models confirm the three major observations: (1) the AIRS envisioned CO transport, (2) the satellite determined smoke plume height, and (3) the timing of the observed surface CO increases. Further, the forward trajectory simulations find two of the largest Pacific Northwest fires likely had the most significant impact.

  12. Hemiparesis after Operation of Astrocytoma Grade II in Adults: Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory-Motor Behavior and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haibo; Schröder, Sven; Li, Zhifeng; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xingxian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on hemiparesis and quality of life for adults with brain astrocytoma grade II, we conducted a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to standard rehabilitation (SR) therapy without acupuncture (n = 20), SR plus standard acupuncture (SA) (n = 19), and SR plus individualized acupuncture (IA) (n = 19). SA points were PC6, SP6, HT1, LU5, BL40, and ST36, while a special concept called “connecting and regulation Ren and Du” and “Jin-3-needling” served as IA. This treatment was individualized according to the clinical syndrome. The outcome was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), the Fugl-Meyer scale (FM), and the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) with the Brain Cancer Module (BCM20). IA + SR reached significantly higher BI scores than SA + SR, which reached significantly higher BI scores than SR. IA + SR was significantly superior to SA + SR and to SR at the 8th week for the scores of FM motor and sensory assessments and most QLQ-C30-BCM20 items. In conclusion, the individualized acupuncture concept of “connecting and regulating Ren and Du” combined with “Jin-3-needling” offers a promising possibility for the treatment of hemiparesis due to astrocytoma, but further evaluation is mandatory. PMID:23864900

  13. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Smulders, F J M; Hiesberger, J; Hofbauer, P; Dögl, B; Dransfield, E

    2006-09-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recovery and recycling. The purpose of this report was to evaluate an alternative storage system in containers using modified atmospheres at reduced pressure (approximately 25 kPa). The quality of the meat for both container- and vacuum-packed treatments was measured during chilled storage for up to 3 wk. Storage time had the most significant effect on quality characteristics, irrespective of the packaging method. Storage in containers under a 70%N2:30%CO2 gas mixture gave characteristics similar to beef stored under vacuum. Storage in containers under 100% CO2 produced less drip loss than under 70%N2:30%CO2, but generally container storage produced 3 times as much drip loss as vacuum packaging. Shear force of the LM was unaffected by the type of packaging, and at d 2 after slaughter (i.e., before the storage trial was begun), sarcomere lengths of muscles intended for container storage were similar to those destined for vacuum storage. During the packaging treatment, the comparison between the storage systems was always done within 1 animal using one carcass-half for container storage and the other half for vacuum packaging; all bulls were shackled from the left hindleg during bleeding. The majority of the muscles from the left sides had lower shear force values than those from the right sides at the earlier storage times (2 and 9 d after slaughter) but had similar values after longer storage (16 and 23 d after slaughter). This is the first report that shackling beef carcasses from

  14. Divergent selection for intramuscular fat content in rabbits. II. Correlated responses on carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zomeño, C; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2013-09-01

    Correlated responses on carcass and meat quality characteristics after 3 generations of divergent selection for intramuscular fat (IMF) content were assessed by comparing the high and low lines. Selection was based on the phenotypic value of IMF content of LM, measured in 2 full sibs of the first parity. Traits measured were: BW, HCW, commercial carcass weight (CCW), reference carcass weight (RCW), scapular (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) content, meat-to-bone ratio (M:B) of the hind leg, pH of LM, color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; and yellowness, b*) of the carcass and of a LM section, protein content, and fatty acid (FA) composition of LM. A total of 174 records was used to estimate the correlated selection response. Data were analyzed using Bayesian methodology. We considered one-third of the phenotypic SD of a trait as a relevant value for the difference between lines. Then, the probability of the difference being greater than a relevant value (PR) was calculated. A low PR implies that the lines compared are similar. Carcass weights (PR between 0.24 and 0.31) and M:B of the hind leg (PR = 0.15) were not modified by selection for IMF content. There was a slight negative correlated response for BW, although evidence of its relevance was low (PR = 0.48). Scapular fat content was similar between lines (PR = 0.03). There were differences for PF content, although there was low evidence for showing its relevance (PR = 0.47). Color traits of the carcass were not affected by selection (PR between 0.04 and 0.30). In muscle, L* was also similar between lines (PR = 0.26). There were differences for a* and b*, although there was little evidence of their relevance (PR = 0.35 and 0.40, respectively). There was a positive correlated response on muscle pH and differences could be relevant (PR = 0.77). Protein content of LM was similar between lines (PR = 0.13), whereas FA composition was affected by selection. There were relevant differences between lines for MUFA (PR = 0.99), n-3

  15. The effectiveness of the quality program Pac-IficO to improve pain management in hospitalized cancer patients: a before-after cluster phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Prandi, Cesarina; Costantini, Massimo; Perfetti, Elisa; Pellegrini, Fabio; Visentin, Marco; Garrino, Lorenza; De Luca, Anna; Pessi, Maria Adelaide; Peruselli, Carlo

    2014-03-29

    Cancer-related pain continues to be a major healthcare issue worldwide. Despite the availability of effective analgesic drugs, published guidelines and educational programs for Health Care Professionals (HCPs) the symptom is still under-diagnosed and its treatment is not appropriate in many patients. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of the Pac-IFicO programme in improving the quality of pain management in hospitalised cancer patients. This is a before-after cluster phase II study. After the before assessment, the experimental intervention - the Pac-IFicO programme - will be implemented in ten medicine, oncology and respiratory disease hospital wards. The same assessment will be repeated after the completion of the intervention. The Pac-IFicO programme is a complex intervention with multiple components. It includes focus group with ward professionals for identifying possible local obstacles to optimal pain control, informative material for the patients, an educational program performed through guides from the wards, and an organisational intervention to the ward. The primary end-point of the study is the proportion of cancer patients with severe pain. Secondary end-points include opioids administered in the wards, knowledge in pain management, and quality of pain management. We plan to recruit about 500 cancer patients. This sample size should be sufficient, after appropriate statistical adjustments for clustering, to detect an absolute decrease in the primary end-point from 20% to 9%. This trial is aimed at exploring with an experimental approach the efficacy of a new quality improvement educational intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02035098.

  16. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  17. Long-term impact of acid resin waste deposits on soil quality of forest areas II. Biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Buegger, Franz; Fuss, Roland; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of two acid resin deposits on the soil microbiota of forest areas by means of biomass, microbial activity-related estimations and simple biological ratios. The determinations carried out included: total DNA yield, basal respiration, intracellular enzyme activities (dehydrogenase and catalase) and extracellular enzyme activities involved in the cycles of C (beta-glucosidase and chitinase), N (protease) and P (acid-phosphatase). The calculated ratios were: total DNA/total N; basal respiration/total DNA; dehydrogenase/total DNA and catalase/total DNA. Total DNA yield was used to estimate soil microbial biomass. Results showed that microbial biomass and activity were severely inhibited in the deposits, whilst resin effects on contaminated zones were variable and site-dependant. Correlation analysis showed no clear effect of contaminants on biomass and activities outside the deposits, but a strong interdependence with natural organic matter related parameters such as total N. In contrast, by using simple ratios we could detect more stressful conditions in terms of organic matter turnover and basal metabolism in contaminated areas compared to their uncontaminated counterparts. These results stress that developed ecosystems such as forests can buffer the effects of pollutants and preserve high functionality via natural attenuation mechanisms, but also that acid resins can be toxic to biological targets negatively affecting soil dynamics. Acid resin deposits can therefore act as contaminant sources adversely altering soil processes and reducing the environmental quality of affected areas despite the solid nature of these wastes.

  18. Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part II: Efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviewed the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews to support the efficacy of certain herbal extracts and dietary supplements in particular conditions. However, many other preparations remain untested. Strictly speaking, evidence of efficacy (and safety) for herbal medicines should be considered to be extract specific. Pharmacovigilance for complementary medicines is in its infancy. Data are lacking in several areas relevant to safety. Standard pharmacovigilance tools have additional limitations when applied to investigating safety concerns with complementary medicines. PMID:12680880

  19. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  20. UDP-GLC:GLYCOPROTEIN GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE-GLUCOSIDASE II, THE YING-YANG OF THE ER QUALITY CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Cecilia; Caramelo, Julio J.; Parodi, Armando J.

    2010-01-01

    The N-glycan-dependent quality control of glycoprotein folding prevents endoplasmic to Golgi exit of folding intermediates, irreparably misfolded glycoproteins and incompletely assembled multimeric complexes. It also enhances folding efficiency by preventing aggregation and facilitating formation of proper disulfide bonds. The control mechanism essentially involves four components, resident lectin-chaperones that recognize monoglucosylated polymannose glycans, a lectin-associated oxidoreductase acting on monoglucosylated glycoproteins, a glucosyltransferase that creates monoglucosytlated epitopes in protein-linked glycans and a glucosidase that removes the glucose units added by the glucosyltransferase. This last enzyme is the only mechanism component sensing glycoprotein conformations as it creates monoglucosylated glycans exclusively in not properly folded species or in not completely assembled complexes. The glucosidase is a dimeric heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit and an additional one that is partially responsible for the ER localization of the enzyme and for the enhancement of the deglucosylation rate as its mannose 6-phosphate receptor homologous domain presents the substrate to the catalytic site. This review deals with our present knowledge on the glucosyltransferase and the glucosidase. PMID:20045480

  1. Fish Oil Supplementation and Quality of Life in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients: A 24-Month Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cari; Xun, Pengcheng; Fly, Alyce D; Luo, Juhua; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that cancer survivors have an interest in lifestyle changes following a diagnosis. However, few studies have prospectively investigated whether these changes result in positive outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between fish oil supplementation and quality of life (QoL), cancer recurrence, and all-cause mortality in Stage 2 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients following diagnosis. Four hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled from the North Carolina Cancer Registry from 2009 to 2011. Data on demography, treatment, and health behaviors were collected at diagnosis, 12-, and 24 mo postdiagnosis. Generalized estimating equations were performed to examine fish oil supplementation in relation to QoL, recurrence, and all-cause mortality. An increase in fish oil supplementation over 24 mo postdiagnosis was associated with an increase in the physical component score of the 12-item Medical Outcomes Short Form (β = 2.43, 95% CI: 0.10-4.76). Supplementation showed no association with the Functional Assessment of Cancer-Colorectal, cancer recurrence or mortality across the 24-mo follow-up. This study suggests that fish oil supplementation may improve symptom-related QoL (i.e., physical functioning) in Stage 2 CRC patients following diagnosis. Future research should address the dose-dependent effects of this relationship.

  2. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  3. Computerized symptom and quality-of-life assessment for patients with cancer part II: acceptability and usability.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kristin H; Berry, Donna L; Zierler, Brenda K

    2004-09-01

    To determine the acceptability and usability of a computerized quality-of-life (QOL) and symptom assessment tool and the graphically displayed QOL and symptom output in an ambulatory radiation oncology clinic. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Radiation oncology clinic located in an urban university medical center. 45 patients with cancer being evaluated for radiation therapy and 10 clinicians, who submitted 12 surveys. Acceptability of the computerized assessment was measured with an online, 16-item, Likert-style survey delivered as 45 patients undergoing radiation therapy completed a 25-item QOL and symptom assessment. Usability of the graphic output was assessed with clinician completion of a four-item paper survey. Acceptability and usability of computerized patient assessment. The patient acceptability survey indicated that 70% (n = 28) liked computers and 10% (n = 4) did not. The program was easy to use for 79% (n = 26), easy to understand for 91% (n = 30), and enjoyable for 71% (n = 24). Seventy-six percent (n = 25) believed that the amount of time needed to complete the computerized survey was acceptable. Sixty-six percent (n = 21) responded that they were satisfied with the program, and none of the participants chose the very dissatisfied response. Eighty-three percent (n = 10) of the clinicians found the graphic output helpful in promoting communication with patients, 75% (n = 9) found the output report helpful in identifying appropriate areas of QOL deficits or concerns, and 83% (n = 10) indicated that the output helped guide clinical interactions with patients. The computer-based QOL and symptom assessment tool is acceptable to patients, and the graphically displayed QOL and symptom output is useful to radiation oncology nurses and physicians. Wider application of computerized patient-generated data can continue in various cancer settings and be tested for clinical and organizational outcomes.

  4. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  5. Interactive effects of dietary ractopamine HCl and L-carnitine on finishing pigs: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments using 1,356 pigs (C22 × 336 PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Experiments were arranged as factorials with main effects of L-carnitine and RAC; L-carnitine levels were 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 and 0 or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 3, and RAC levels of 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 0 or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 2 and 3. Dietary L-carnitine was fed from 38 kg to slaughter (109 and 118 kg in Exp. 1 and 3, respectively) or for 4 wk before slaughter (109 kg in Exp. 2). Ractopamine HCl was fed for 4 wk in all experiments. Exp. 1 and 2 were conducted at university research facilities (2 pigs per pen), and Exp. 3 was conducted in a commercial research barn (23 pigs per pen). In Exp. 1, an L-carnitine × RAC interaction (P < 0.02) was observed for LM visual color, L*, and a*/b*. In pigs fed RAC, increasing L-carnitine decreased L* and increased visual color scores and a*/b* compared with pigs not fed RAC. Ultimate pH tended to increase (linear, P < 0.07) with increasing L-carnitine. Drip loss decreased (linear, P < 0.04) in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine. In Exp. 2, firmness scores decreased in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine when not fed RAC, but firmness scores increased and drip losses decreased with increasing L-carnitine when RAC was added to the diet (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.04). Percentage lean was greater (P < 0.01) for pigs fed RAC in Exp. 2. In Exp. 3, fat thickness decreased and lean percentage increased in pigs fed L-carnitine or RAC, but the responses were not additive (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.03). Furthermore, pigs fed L-carnitine tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased LM drip loss percentage whereas pigs fed RAC had decreased (P < 0.05) 10th rib and average backfat and decreased drip loss than pigs fed diets without RAC. These results suggest that dietary RAC increased carcass

  6. Predicting effective caloric value of nonnutritive factors: I. Pellet quality and II. Prediction of consequential formulation dead zones.

    PubMed

    McKinney, L J; Teeter, R G

    2004-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted with male broilers to 1) establish a methodology for predicting effective caloric value (ECV), defined as dietary caloric density (CD) necessary for broilers to achieve specific BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) combinations under standardized conditions and 2) quantify the ECV attributable to pellet quality (PQ), defined as the pellet to pellet fines ratio in the feeder. In experiment 1, chicks were reared to 56 d on diets varying in CD. Dietary caloric densities examined ranged from 2,650 to 3,250 kcal of MEn/kg. Pen BW, feed intake, and FCR were measured at 21, 42, and 56 d. On 42 and 56 d, carcass traits were measured. Increasing CD significantly enhanced BW, energy consumption, and FCR. Feed intake remained similar across the upper 3 CD treatments to 42 d. By d 56, feed consumption tended to decline as CD increased. Increasing CD beyond 3,066 kcal of MEn/kg diet did not increase lean tissue accretion, while fat deposition rose disproportionately. Experiment 1 results enabled development of equations whereby CD, hence ECV, might be predicted using BW and FCR. In experiment 2, 38-d-old broilers were used to evaluate PQ effects on growth, feed intake, FCR, and behavior in a 7-d FCR assay. The BW gain and FCR were significantly enhanced by pelleting and were positively correlated with PQ. Feed intake was not affected by PQ. The experiment 1 model was validated for experiment 2, as it closely estimated the CD for diets of similar PQ used in experiment 1. Results suggest pelleting contributes 187 kcal/kg of diet at 100% PQ and that the ECV declines curvilinearly as PQ falls. Birds were observed eating less and resting more as PQ increased, suggesting that ECV of pelleting is mediated by energy expenditure for activity. These studies provide a method for estimating ECV of nonnutritive factors that impact BW, FCR, or both. Further, the application reveals potential for creation of formulation "dead zones" whereby dietary changes to

  7. Examination of the effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators on health-related quality of life: based on results from the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Trial-II.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Katia; Corona, Ethan; Veazie, Peter; Dick, Andrew W; Zhao, Hongwei; Moss, Arthur J

    2009-01-01

    While implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) improve survival, their benefit in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is negligible. To examine how shocks and congestive heart failure (CHF) mediate the effect of ICDs on HRQOL. The US patients from the MADIT-II (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Trial-II) trial (n = 983) were randomized to receive an ICD or medical treatment only. HRQOL was assessed using the Health Utility Index 3 at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months following randomization. Logistic regressions were used to test for the effect of ICDs on the CHF indicator, and linear regressions were used to examine the effect of ICD shocks and CHF on HRQOL in living patients. We used a Monte Carlo simulation and a parametric Weibull distribution survival model to test for the effect of selective attrition. Observations were clustered by patients and robust standard errors (RSEs) were used to control for the non-independence of multiple observations provided by the same patient. Patients in the ICD arm had 41% higher odds of experiencing CHF since their last assessment compared with those in the control arm (RSE = 0.19, p = 0.01). Developing CHF reduced HRQOL at the subsequent visit by 0.07 (p < 0.01). Having ICD shocks reduced overall HRQOL by 0.04 (p = 0.04) at the subsequent assessment. The negative effect of ICD firing on HRQOL was an order of magnitude greater than the effect of CHF. A higher prevalence of CHF and shocks among patients with ICDs and their negative effect on HRQOL may partially explain the lack of HRQOL benefit of ICD therapy.

  8. Impact of individualized yoga therapy on perceived quality of life performance on cognitive tasks and depression among Type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Satish, Latha; Lakshmi, V Subbu

    2016-01-01

    Context: An individualized approach of providing yoga support can address many of the disease-related concerns indicated in the management of diabetes, specifically the impact on other life activities and long-term functional wellbeing. Aim: To analyze the role of regular yoga practice as a self-management approach to achieve glycemic control and psychological wellbeing in Type II diabetic patients. Methods: Ninety-one subjects of both sexes responded to the announcement and consented to participate in the study. This was a single group, before and after yoga evaluation without control comparison. The fasting and postprandial blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c), cognitive tasks, depression, cognitive failure, and diabetic-related quality of life (QOL) were measured as pretest. The subjects underwent one-to-one individualized yoga therapy sessions, which included 12 supervised sessions spread over a 3-month period. The posttest data were analyzed using paired t-test and Wilcoxon paired rank test. Results: Showed significant reduction in fasting blood sugar. QOL of the diabetic patients had improved significantly. There was a significant reduction in the frequency (mean difference of 7.58, P > 0.01) of depressive symptoms and intensity of depression (mean difference 1.66, P > 0.05). Concentration and attention span improved significantly and mean discrepancy score reduced (mean difference 3.42, P > 0.01). There were no marked changes in the postprandial blood sugar and HBA1c. Conclusion: Yoga practice enhances the subjective wellbeing, QOL, improves mood and concentration, and facilitates achievement of adequate glycemic control among Type II diabetic patients. PMID:27512320

  9. Influence of Cavity Margin Design and Restorative Material on Marginal Quality and Seal of Extended Class II Resin Composite Restorations In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sebastian; Preidl, Reinhard; Karl, Sabine; Hofmann, Norbert; Krastl, Gabriel; Klaiber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of three cavity designs on the marginal seal of large Class II cavities restored with low-shrinkage resin composite limited to the enamel. One hundred twenty (120) intact human molars were randomly divided into 12 groups, with three different cavity designs: 1. undermined enamel, 2. box-shaped, and 3. proximal bevel. The teeth were restored with 1. an extra-low shrinkage (ELS) composite free of diluent monomers, 2. microhybrid composite (Herculite XRV), 3. nanohybrid composite (Filtek Supreme XTE), and 4. silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane). After artificial aging by thermocycling and storage in physiological saline, epoxy resin replicas were prepared. To determine the integrity of the restorations' approximal margins, two methods were sequentially employed: 1. replicas were made of the 120 specimens and examined using SEM, and 2. the same 120 specimens were immersed in AgNO3 solution, and the dye penetration depth was observed with a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn-Bonferroni tests. After bevel preparation, SEM observations showed that restorations did not exhibit a higher percentage of continuous margin (SEM-analysis; p>0.05), but more leakage was found than with the other cavity designs (p<0.05). The lowest percentage of continuous margin was observed in ELS restorations (p<0.05). More fractured margins were observed in the undermined enamel cavity design groups (p<0.05). Bevel preparation failed to improve margin quality in large Class II composite restorations and is no longer recommended. However, undermined enamel should be removed to prevent enamel fractures.

  10. Predictors of Long-Term Quality of Life for Survivors of Stage II/III Rectal Cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Mary E.; Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Lin, Chi; Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Juarez, Grelda Yazmin; Pendergast, Jane F.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Many patients do not receive guideline-recommended neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resectable rectal cancer. Little is known regarding long-term quality of life (QOL) associated with various treatment approaches. Our objective was to determine patient characteristics and subsequent QOL associated with treatment approach. Methods: Our study was a geographically diverse population- and health system–based cohort study that included adults age 21 years or older with newly diagnosed stage II/III rectal cancer who were recruited from 2003 to 2005. Eligible patients were contacted 1 to 4 months after diagnosis and asked to participate in a telephone survey and to consent to medical record review, with separate follow-up QOL surveys conducted 1 and 7 years after diagnosis. Results: Two hundred thirty-nine patients with stage II/III rectal cancer were included in this analysis. Younger age (< 65 v ≥ 65 years: odds ratio, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.33 to 4.65) was significantly associated with increased odds of receiving neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The adjuvant chemoradiotherapy group had significantly worse mean EuroQol-5D (range, 0 to 1) and Short Form-12 physical health component scores (standardized mean, 50) at 1-year follow-up than the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group (0.75 v 0.85; P = .002; 37.2 v 43.3; P = .01, respectively) and the group that received only one or neither form of treatment (0.75 v 0.85; P = .02; 37.2 v 45.1; P = .008, respectively). Conclusion: Neoadjuvant treatment may result in better QOL and functional status 1 year after diagnosis. Further evaluation of patient and provider reasons for not pursuing neoadjuvant therapy is necessary to determine how and where to target process improvement and/or education efforts to ensure that patients have access to recommended treatment options. PMID:26080831

  11. A Multi-Model Assessment for the 2006 and 2010 Simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of Column Variable Predictions Using Satellite Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three on...

  12. A Multi-Model Assessment for the 2006 and 2010 Simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of Column Variable Predictions Using Satellite Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three on...

  13. Aerosol Retrievals from Individual AVHRR Channels. Part II: Quality Control, Probability Distribution Functions, Information Content, and Consistency Checks of Retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Stowe, Larry

    2002-02-01

    This second part of a two-part study evaluates retrievals of aerosol optical depths, 1 and 2, in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels 1 and 2 centered at 1 = 0.63 and 2 = 0.83 m, and an effective Ångström exponent, , derived therefrom as = ln(1/2)/ln(1/2). The retrievals are made with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model from four NOAA-14 AVHRR datasets, collected between February 1998 and May 1999 in the latitudinal belt of 5°-25°S. A series of quality control (QC) checks applied to the retrievals to identify outliers are described. These remove a total of 1% of points, which presumably originate from channel misregistration, residual cloud in AVHRR cloud-screened pixels, and substantial deviations from the assumptions used in the retrieval model (e.g., bright coastal and high altitude inland waters). First, from examining histograms of the derived parameters it is found that and are accurately fit by lognormal and normal probability distribution functions (PDFs), respectively. Second, the scattergrams 1 versus 2 are analyzed to see if they form a coherent pattern. They do indeed converge at the origin, as expected, but frequently are outside of the expected domain in 1-2 space, defined by two straight lines corresponding to = 0 and = 2. This results in a low bias in , which tends to fill in an interval of [1, 1] rather than

  14. DO-BOD modeling of River Yamuna for national capital territory, India using STREAM II, a 2D water quality model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Singh, Ram Karan

    2009-12-01

    The study illustrates the utility of STREAM II as a modeling package to determine the pollution load due to organic matter in the River Yamuna during its course through the National Capital Territory that is Delhi, India. The study was done for a period from 1995-2005. Model simulates the dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand parameters in a two-dimensional fashion by performing the numerical solution to a set of differential equations representing aquatic life with the help of Crank-Nicholson finite difference method. The model was simulated and calibrated through the field water-quality primary data and the secondary data which were taken from Central Pollution Control Board. The main reasons for the high river pollution is increasing population of Delhi and other states, leading to generation of huge amounts of domestic sewage into the river Yamuna. The model gave a good agreement between calibrated and observed data, thus, actualizing the validity of the model. However, discrepancies noticed during model calibrations were attributed to the assumptions adopted in the model formulation and to lack of field data.

  15. Insight into the Development of Dissolution Media for BCS Class II Drugs: A Review from Quality Control and Prediction of In Vivo Performance Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunnuan; Liu, Yan; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2016-01-01

    To assess in vivo behavior through in vitro method, the dissolution test is mostly used, both for quality control (QC) and for development purpose. In view of the fact that a dissolution test can hardly achieve two goals at the same time, the design of dissolution testing generally varies along with the development stage of drug products and therefore the selection of dissolution media may change with the goals of the dissolution test. To serve the QC purpose, a dissolution medium is designed to provide a sink condition; for development purpose, the dissolution medium is required to simulate the physiological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract as far as possible. In this review, we intended to provide an initial introduction to the various dissolution media applied for QC and formulation development purposes for poorly water soluble drugs. We focused on these methods like addition of cosolvents, surfactants and utilization of biphasic media, applied to provide sink conditions which are difficult to be achieved by simple aqueous buffers for lipophilic drugs, and introduced the development of physiologically relevant media for human and animals like dog and rat with respect to the choice of buffers, bile salts, lipids and so on. In addition, we further discussed the influence of biorelevant dissolution media on the modification of drug Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) classification, especially for BCS class II drugs with low solubility and high permeability, the solubility of which is relatively sensitive to the presence of bile salts and lipids.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of high-quality type-II CdTe/CdSe quantum dots with near-infrared fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Han, Heyou

    2010-11-01

    A simple hydrothermal method is developed for the synthesis of high-quality, water-soluble, and near-infrared (NIR)-emitting type-II core/shell CdTe/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by employing thiol-capped CdTe QDs as core templates and CdCl(2) and Na(2)SeO(3) as shell precursors. Compared with the original CdTe core QDs, the core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs exhibit an obvious red-shifted emission, whose color can be tuned between visible and NIR regions (620-740 nm) by controlling the thickness of the CdSe shell. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of CdTe/CdSe QDs with an optimized thickness of the CdSe shell can reach up to 44.2% without any post-preparative treatment. Through a thorough study of the core/shell structure by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the as-prepared CdTe/CdSe QDs demonstrate good monodispersity, hardened lattice structure and excellent photostability, offering a great potential for biological application.

  17. Gender, race, BMI, and social support in relation to the health-related quality of life of cancer survivors: a report from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors II (SCS-II).

    PubMed

    Westby, Ruth P; Berg, Carla J; Leach, Corinne

    2016-02-01

    We examined the main and interactive effects of race, BMI, and social support on physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among male and female cancer survivors using the stress and coping theory to inform findings. HRQoL issues among 1768 cancer survivors were examined using the American Cancer Society's cross-sectional Study of Cancer Survivors II. Two-step multiple linear regressions were conducted to assess the physical and mental HRQoL of male and female cancer survivors, respectively. The average age of participants was 67.36 (SD = 11.51); the majority were female (53.3 %; n = 941) and non-Hispanic White (85.9 %; n = 1517). The average BMI measurement for participants was 28.33 (SD = 5.90), with 41.3 % (n = 729) overweight and 30.3 % (n = 535) obese. Higher BMI was significantly associated with lower physical HRQoL across gender, while social support had significant main effects on physical and mental HRQoL across gender. Race moderated the relationship between social support and physical HRQoL among female cancer survivors and between BMI and mental HRQoL for both genders. The results of this study contribute a unique gender- and racial-specific perspective to cancer survivorship research. While the buffering hypothesis of the stress and coping theory was not supported, the main effects of BMI and social support on HRQoL were different across gender and race.

  18. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part II. Quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.

    PubMed

    Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2005-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. Validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. However, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. Continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in performance. For this purpose, several charting methods have been developed and implemented. This paper compares the Shewhart and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts with respect to the day to day monitoring of internal quality control samples for the foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both chart types are equally sensitive to shifts, but the EWMA method seems to provide the best balance between false rejection and false acceptance.

  19. Limiting Radiotherapy to the Contralateral Retropharyngeal and High Level II Lymph Nodes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma is Safe and Improves Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Christopher R.; Gay, Hiram A.; Haughey, Bruce H.; Nussenbaum, Brian; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wildes, Tanya M.; DeWees, Todd A.; Lewis, James S.; Thorstad, Wade L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation treatment volumes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are controversial. Here we report the outcomes, failures, and quality of life (QOL) of patients treated using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that eliminated treatment of contralateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLN) in the clinically uninvolved neck. Methods A prospective institutional database identified patients with primary oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and unknown primary HNSCC treated using IMRT. There were three temporal groups (G1-3). G1 received comprehensive neck IMRT with parotid sparing, G2 eliminated the contralateral high level II (HLII) lymph nodes, and G3 further eliminated the contralateral RPLN in the clinically uninvolved neck. Patterns of failure and survival analyses were completed and QOL data measured by the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) was compared in a subset of patients from G1 and G3. Results There were 748 patients identified. Of the 488 patients treated in G2 or G3, 406 had a clinically uninvolved contralateral neck. There were no failures in the spared RPLNs (95% CI; 0-1.3%) or high contralateral neck (95% CI; 0-0.7%). QOL data was compared between 44 patients in G1 and 51 patients in G3. QOL improved both globally and in all domains assessed for G3 in which reduced radiotherapy volumes were used (p < 0.007). Conclusions For patients with locally advanced HNSCC, eliminating coverage to the contralateral HLII and contralateral RPLN in the clinically uninvolved side of the neck is associated with minimal risk of failure in these regions and significantly improved patient-reported QOL. PMID:25143048

  20. Sequential FOLFIRI.3 + Gemcitabine Improves Health-Related Quality of Life Deterioration-Free Survival of Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anota, Amélie; Mouillet, Guillaume; Trouilloud, Isabelle; Dupont-Gossart, Anne-Claire; Artru, Pascal; Lecomte, Thierry; Zaanan, Aziz; Gauthier, Mélanie; Fein, Francine; Dubreuil, Olivier; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Taieb, Julien; Bonnetain, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Background A randomized multicenter phase II trial was conducted to assess the sequential treatment strategy using FOLFIRI.3 and gemcitabine alternately (Arm 2) compared to gemcitabine alone (Arm 1) in patients with metastatic non pre-treated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. It concludes that the sequential treatment strategy appears to be feasible and effective with a PFS rate of 43.5% in Arm 2 at 6 months (26.1% in Arm 1). This paper reports the results of the longitudinal analysis of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as a secondary endpoint of this study. Methods HRQoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline and every two months until the end of the study or death. HRQoL deterioration-free survival (QFS) was defined as the time from randomization to a first significant deterioration as compared to the baseline score with no further significant improvement, or death. A propensity score was estimated comparing characteristics of partial and complete responders. Analyses were repeated with inverse probability weighting method using the propensity score. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors influencing QFS. Results 98 patients were included between 2007 and 2011. Adjusting on the propensity score, patients of Arm 2 presented a longer QFS of Global Health Status (Hazard Ratio: 0.52 [0.31-0.85]), emotional functioning (0.35 [0.21–0.59]) and pain (0.50 [0.31 – 0.81]) than those of Arm 1. Conclusion Patients of Arm 2 presented a better HRQoL with a longer QFS than those of Arm 1. Moreover, the propensity score method allows to take into account the missing data depending on patients’ characteristics. Trial registration information Eudract N° 2006-005703-34. (Name of the Trial: FIRGEM). PMID:26010884

  1. Do Substance Use Norms and Perceived Drug Availability Mediate Sexual Orientation Differences in Patterns of Substance Use? Results from the California Quality of Life Survey II

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Grella, Christine E.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Illicit drug and heavy alcohol use is more common among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals. This difference has sometimes been attributed to more tolerant substance use norms within the gay community, although evidence is sparse. The current study investigated the role of perceived drug availability and tolerant injunctive norms in mediating the linkage between minority sexual orientation status and higher rates of prior-year substance use. Method: We used data from the second California Quality of Life Survey (Cal-QOL II), a followback telephone survey in 2008–2009 of individuals first interviewed in the population-based 2007 California Health Interview Survey. The sample comprised 2,671 individuals, oversampled for minority sexual orientation. Respondents were administered a structured interview assessing past-year alcohol and illicit drug use, perceptions of perceived illicit drug availability, and injunctive norms concerning illicit drug and heavier alcohol use. We used structural equation modeling methods to test a mediational model linking sexual orientation and substance use behaviors via perceptions of drug availability and social norms pertaining to substance use. Results: Compared with heterosexual individuals, sexual minorities reported higher levels of substance use, perceived drug availability, and tolerant social norms. A successfully fitting model suggests that much of the association between minority sexual orientation and substance use is mediated by these sexual orientation–related differences in drug availability perceptions and tolerant norms for substance use. Conclusions: Social environmental context, including subcultural norms and perceived drug availability, is an important factor influencing substance use among sexual minorities and should be addressed in community interventions. PMID:22630806

  2. Quality of Life of Young Adult Survivors of Pediatric Burns Using World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II and Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief: A Comparison.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary Elizabeth; Holzer, Charles E; Richardson, Lisa M; Epperson, Kathryn; Ojeda, Sylvia; Martinez, Erin M; Suman, Oscar E; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine long-term psychological distress and quality of life (QOL) in young adult survivors of pediatric burns using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) and the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B). Fifty burn survivors 2.5 to 12.5 years postburn (16-21.5 years old; 56% male, 82% Hispanic) completed the WHODAS and BSHS-B. The WHODAS measures health and disability and the BSHS-B measures psychosocial and physical difficulties. Scores were calculated for each instrument, and then grouped by years postburn, TBSA, sex, burn age, and survey age to compare the effects of each. Next, the instruments were compared with each other. The WHODAS disability score mean was 14.4 ± 2.1. BSHS-B domain scores ranged from 3 to 3.7. In general, as TBSA burned increased, QOL decreased. Female burn survivors, survivors burned prior to school entry, and adolescents who had yet to transition into adulthood reported better QOL than their counterparts. In all domains except Participation, the WHODAS consistently identified more individuals with lower QOL than the BSHS-B. Young adult burn survivors' QOL features more disability than their nonburned counterparts, but score in the upper 25% for QOL on the BSHS-B. This analysis revealed the need for long-term psychosocial intervention for survivors with larger TBSA, males, those burned after school entry, and those transitioning into adulthood. Both instruments are useful tools for assessing burn survivors' QOL and both should be given as they discern different individuals. However, the WHODAS is more sensitive than the BSHS-B in identifying QOL issues.

  3. Effect of Eischens Yoga During Radiation Therapy on Prostate Cancer Patient Symptoms and Quality of Life: A Randomized Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Ben-Josef, Avital Mazar; Chen, Jerry; Wileyto, Paul; Doucette, Abigail; Bekelman, Justin; Christodouleas, John; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha

    2017-08-01

    A randomized phase II study was performed to measure the potential therapeutic effects of yoga on fatigue, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and overall quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy (RT). The participants were randomized to yoga and no-yoga cohorts (1:1). Twice-weekly yoga interventions were offered throughout the 6- to 9-week courses of RT. Comparisons of standardized assessments were performed between the 2 cohorts for the primary endpoint of fatigue and the secondary endpoints of erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and QOL before, during, and after RT. From October 2014 to January 2016, 68 eligible PCa patients underwent informed consent and agreed to participate in the study. Of the 68 patients, 18 withdrew early, mostly because of treatment schedule-related time constraints, resulting in 22 and 28 patients in the yoga and no-yoga groups, respectively. Throughout treatment, those in the yoga arm reported less fatigue than those in the control arm, with global fatigue, effect of fatigue, and severity of fatigue subscales showing statistically significant interactions (P<.0001). The sexual health scores (International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire) also displayed a statistically significant interaction (P=.0333). The International Prostate Symptom Score revealed a statistically significant effect of time (P<.0001) but no significant effect of treatment (P=.1022). The QOL measures had mixed results, with yoga having a significant time by treatment effect on the emotional, physical, and social scores but not on functional scores. A structured yoga intervention of twice-weekly classes during a course of RT was associated with a significant reduction in pre-existing and RT-related fatigue and urinary and sexual dysfunction in PCa patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  5. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here.

  6. Monitoring the effects of air-quality on forests: An overview of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest ICP-Level II Site

    Treesearch

    Peter E. Koestner; Karen A. Koestner; Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    The Sierra Ancha International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests study site or (SAEF-ICP II) is part of an international network of cooperative forest monitoring sites spread throughout Europe and the United States. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe established the ICP II network in 1985 to monitor long...

  7. Improvements in agricultural sciences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This editorial provides insight on investigations regarding advancements in agri-food quality and testing of eco-friendly organic farming methodologies. The discussion elaborates on the advantages of recent farming techniques and their impact on improved crop yield, crop quality, and minimization of...

  8. Membrane processes for gas separations: Part I. Removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from low-quality natural gas. Part II. Enrichment of krypton in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jibin

    1998-12-01

    I. The objective of this study was to determine the process design characteristics and economics of membrane separation processes for reducing the concentrations of H2S and CO2 in low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of the two acid gases to pipeline specifications ( ≤ 2 mole-% CO2 and ≤ 4 ppm H2S). The new processes considered the simultaneous use of two different types of polymer membranes for the above application, namely, one with higher CO2/CH4 selectivity and the other with higher H2S/CH4 selectivity. The performance and economics of membrane process configurations comprising one, two, and three permeation stages, with and without recycle streams, were examined and optimized via extensive computer simulations. Most computations assumed as a "base-case", the processing of a medium-size natural gas stream of 35 MMSCFD at 800 psia. The natural gas was taken to contain ≤ 10 mole-% H2S and ≤ 40 mole-% CO2. The most economical process configuration was two permeation stages in series, with H2S-selective membranes in the first stage and CO2-selective membranes in the second stage. The most economical process configurations for upgrading natural gas containing either only substantial amounts of H2S or of CO2 were also determined. The sensitivity of the process economics to feed flow rate, feed pressure, membrane module cost, and wellhead cost of natural gas was studied. A comparison of the processing cost of membrane processes with that of conventional gas absorption processes utilizing diethanolamine as solvent was also investigated. II. A membrane process for enrichment of Kr in air was studied experimentally as a technique of improving the accuracy of Kr analysis. "Asymmetric" silicone rubber membranes were found to be most suitable for this application. The study was investigated with a feed gas mixture containing 0.99 mole-% Kr, 20.70 mole-% O2, and 78.30 mole-% N2. The Kr concentration could be increased from 0.99 to 2.23 mole-% in a

  9. Utilization of Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide as an effective sequestrator to trap Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution impacted by water quality parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meng; Linghu, Wensheng; Hu, Jun; Jiang, Gongyi; Sheng, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Recently, Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide (Mg2Al-LDH) has been extensively studied as promising candidates to trap metal ions due to their high complexation and adsorption capacity. Herein, Mg2Al-LDH was utilized as an effectiveness sequestrator to trap Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by an adsorption process using batch technique under ambient conditions. The results showed that Cu(II) adsorption on Mg2Al-LDH increases with pH increasing and maintains a high level at pH>7.0. The adsorption of Cu(II) was obviously affected by ionic strength at low pH, which was not dependent on ionic strength at high pH. The presence of HA or FA promotes the adsorption of Cu(II) on Mg2Al-LDH at low pH values, while reduces the adsorption of Cu(II) at high pH values. The adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) on Mg2Al-LDH at three different temperatures were simulated by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) models very well. The thermodynamic parameters were determined from the temperature-dependent adsorption, and the results showed that Cu(II) adsorption on Mg2Al-LDH was exothermic and the process was favored at high temperature. The results suggest that Mg2Al-LDH is suitable as a sorbent material for the recovery and attenuation of Cu(II)-polluted wastewater.

  10. Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Linda C.; Gies, Donna; Thompson, Emmanuel; Thomas, Bejoy

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy's questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from using

  11. Randomized control trial: evaluating aluminum-based antiperspirant use, axilla skin toxicity, and reported quality of life in women receiving external beam radiotherapy for treatment of Stage 0, I, and II breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Linda C; Gies, Donna; Thompson, Emmanuel; Thomas, Bejoy

    2012-05-01

    Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy's questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from using antiperspirants during their treatment

  12. The Social Practice of Sustainable Agriculture under Audit Discipline: Initial Insights from the ARGOS Project in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Christopher; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the most interesting recent developments in global agri-food systems has been the rapid emergence and elaboration of market audit systems claiming environmental qualities or sustainability. In New Zealand, as a strongly export-oriented, high-value food producer, these environmental market audit systems have emerged as an important pathway…

  13. The Social Practice of Sustainable Agriculture under Audit Discipline: Initial Insights from the ARGOS Project in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Christopher; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the most interesting recent developments in global agri-food systems has been the rapid emergence and elaboration of market audit systems claiming environmental qualities or sustainability. In New Zealand, as a strongly export-oriented, high-value food producer, these environmental market audit systems have emerged as an important pathway…

  14. Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part II: Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) brought together seventeen modeling groups from Europe and North America, running eight operational online-coupled air quality models over Europe and North America on common emissions and bound...

  15. Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part II: Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) brought together seventeen modeling groups from Europe and North America, running eight operational online-coupled air quality models over Europe and North America on common emissions and bound...

  16. Fe-As sludge stability and effluent quality for a two-stage As-contaminated water treatment with Fe(II) and aeration.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J Ming; Hobenshield, Evan; Walsh, Tony

    2009-02-01

    A two-stage (I and II) lab-scale treatment system has been studied for arsenic removal from water using Fe(II) and lignosulphonates with aeration. In stage I, using an Fe/As mole ratio of 1.5-2.5 at a pH of around 6.5-7.5, the dissolved arsenic can be reduced with Fe(II) oxidation-precipitation from an initial 72 mg L(-1) to < 2 mg L(-1). The generated sludge is entirely recycled to the second tank of stage II. In the first tank of stage II, the water is further treated with the same amount of Fe(II) as that used in stage I, in the presence of lignosulphonates and aeration. The air-oxidization of Fe(II) to Fe(III) is continued for about 30 minutes at a pH of around 7.0-8.0. The water output from the first tank is transferred to the second tank in which mixing under aeration occurs with the sludge recycled from stage I. Accordingly, the dissolved arsenic in the effluent is reduced to < 0.1 mg L(-1). The results show that this two-stage process can save more than 50% of total chemical costs, and reduce the amount of sludge by more than 50%, in comparison with the conventional Fe(III)/lime-treatment process. According to US EPA regulations, the final Fe-As sludge is classified as non-hazardous materials by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. But, the study shows that the instability of Fe-As sludge could be influenced by some factors, such as higher pH levels, a longer water-leaching time and larger water-leaching volume, leading to the liberation of more dissolvable As species. After being treated with Ligmet stabilizer, the Fe-As sludge showed an improved stability under varying pH conditions and large amounts of water leaching. The treated Fe-As sludge is suitable for landfill disposal.

  17. Proceedings: 1995 water quality technology conference. Part I - Sunday seminars through Session 3E includes poster presentations. Part II - Session 4A through ST7

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the 1995 Water Quality Technology Conference sponsored by the American Water Works Association held November 12-16, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Topics covered in the presentations include technology developments in improved treatment of drinking water, management and protection of municipal drinking water supplies, laboratory analytical methods for detection of various contaminants and impurities, and quality control and quality assurance in environmental laboratories. Many other topics concerning treatment technologies of waste water, drinking water, and contaminated ground and surface waters are also included.

  18. Quality in School Environments: A Multiple Case Study of the Diagnosis, Design and Management of Environmental Quality in Five Elementary Schools in the Baltimore City Public Schools from an Action Research Perspective. Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackney, Jeffery A.

    Environmental factors are being increasingly recognized as playing a role in school effectiveness and educational outcomes. Volume 1 examines what is known concerning the diagnosis, design, and management of environmental quality in schools, and the perceived relationship between environmental quality and educational outcomes, as revealed in an…

  19. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  20. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  1. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of high-quality type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots with dark red emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    A hydrothermal method was used to synthesize type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) using the thilglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs as cores, which show a number of advantages. Because of the spatial separation of carriers the low excited states of CdTe/CdSe QDs, they exhibit many novel properties that are fundamentally different from the type-I QDs. On the other hand, our experiment results show that the wave function of the hole of the exciton in the CdTe core extends well into the CdSe shell. The results also reveal that a thick shell can confine the electrons inside the particles and thereby improve the PL efficiency and prolong the lifetime of the core/shell QDs. We use the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectrum measurements on growing particles in detail. We found that the fluorescence of the CdTe/CdSe QDs was strongly dependent on the thick of the shell and size of the core as well as the unique type-II heterostructure, which make the type-II core/shell QDs more suitable in photovoltaic or photoconduction applications.

  3. Multiplex Dipstick Technologies for Rapid and Simultaneous Screening of Analytes of Importance in Agri-Food-Nutrition and Health Care: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Manoj; Rajendran, Subin R C K; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Dipstick test kits are being widely used for the rapid screening of a range of antigens or toxins in food, agriculture, and health care. They provide specific results on-site within 10 min with suitable accuracy and are, therefore, cost-effective. Multiplex dipsticks also provide the opportunity for simultaneous detection of multiple antigens in the target sample without using expensive instrumentation, minimizing the cost of analysis as well as the duration of assay. Because of these benefits, dipstick kits are widely being used in the simultaneous detection of several antigens/toxins in large number of samples and in high-throughput manner. This review focuses on the current status of developed multiplex strips and its working principles and future direction of the technology in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and health care sectors.

  4. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Goufo, Piebiep; Barros, Ana; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Trindade, Henrique; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The growing awareness of the relevance of food composition for human health has increased the interest of the inclusion of high proportions of fruits and vegetables in diets. To reach the objective of more balanced diets, an increased consumption of legumes, which constitutes a sustainable source of essential nutrients, particularly low-cost protein, is of special relevance. However, the consumption of legumes also entails some constraints that need to be addressed to avoid a deleterious impact on consumers' wellbeing and health. The value of legumes as a source of nutrients depends on a plethora of factors, including genetic characteristics, agro-climatic conditions, and postharvest management that modulate the dietary effect of edible seeds and vegetative material. Thus, more comprehensive information regarding composition, especially their nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds, digestibility, and alternative processing procedures is essential. These were the challenges to write this review, which focusses on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, an emerging crop all over the world intended to provide a rational support for the development of valuable foods and feeds of increased commercial value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Potential use of secondary products of the agri-food industry for topical formulations and comparative analysis of antioxidant activity of grape leaf polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Roger Remy; Dresch, Maria Terezinha Kreinecker; Biegelmeyer, Renata; Argenta, Débora Fretes; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2017-04-13

    The aim of the present study was to develop a phytocosmetic using Vitis waste by-products, for use as a topical formulation for skin protection against ultraviolet radiation damage. The study also evaluates the free radical scavenger activity of the crude extracts of dried leaves of Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca, as well as the anthocyanins, flavonoid fraction and isolated compounds. Next, release and permeation studies of hydrogels were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Flavonoid acted more intensively in TRAP and conjugated dienes antioxidant assays, whereas anthocyanins had higher antioxidant activity in hydroxyl and nitric oxide assay. Only quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (5) was released from hydrogels, and the flavonoid retention in porcine ear skin after eight hours of permeation was below of limit of quantification for this compound. The polyphenols present in Vitis are capable of absorbing UV and visible light, justifying their potential as sunscreens for the development of a phytocosmetic.

  6. Development of a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire for patients with aplastic anemia and/or paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (QLQ-AA/PNH)-report on phases I and II.

    PubMed

    Groth, Martha; Singer, Susanne; Niedeggen, Cathrin; Petermann-Meyer, Andrea; Röth, Alexander; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Höchsmann, Britta; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Panse, Jens

    2017-02-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are interrelated ultra-rare diseases. Quality of life (QoL) evaluation tools used in studies for AA and PNH are unspecific and designed for cancer patients (e.g., the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-C30). Given the complexity of AA and PNH, variation in symptoms and treatments, younger age of many patients, and the fact that AA and PNH are not classified as malignant diseases, it is likely that cancer-specific questionnaires are inappropriate. We generate an AA/PNH-specific QoL questionnaire (QLQ-AA/PNH), performed according to EORTC guidelines. QoL issues were obtained from the literature and interviews with patients and physicians (phase I), then ranked by patients and physicians. In phase II, items were created. Patients in more than 25 German and Swiss cities were interviewed face to face. In phase I, interviews of 19 patients and 8 physicians specialized in AA/PNH treatment resulted in 649 QoL issues; these were condensed to 175 and graded according to their importance by 30 patients and 14 physicians (phase II). Five physicians took part in phases I and II. Altogether, 97 issues were rated important. Twelve EORTC QLQ-C30 items were not rated important, while several new QoL aspects were brought up. Modifications in wording and phrasing led to two questionnaires with 77 items regarding general QoL aspects and 20 items regarding medical care. Important QoL aspects of PNH/AA patients are inappropriately captured with available QoL tools. Developing a new QoL questionnaire specific for this patient group is warranted.

  7. Diffusion MRI quality control and functional diffusion map results in ACRIN 6677/RTOG 0625: A multicenter, randomized, phase II trial of bevacizumab and chemotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    ELLINGSON, BENJAMIN M.; KIM, EUNHEE; WOODWORTH, DAVIS C.; MARQUES, HELGA; BOXERMAN, JERROLD L.; SAFRIEL, YAIR; McKINSTRY, ROBERT C.; BOKSTEIN, FELIX; JAIN, RAJAN; CHI, T. LINDA; SORENSEN, A. GREGORY; GILBERT, MARK R.; BARBORIAK, DANIEL P.

    2015-01-01

    Functional diffusion mapping (fDM) is a cancer imaging technique that quantifies voxelwise changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Previous studies have shown value of fDMs in bevacizumab therapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aim of the present study was to implement explicit criteria for diffusion MRI quality control and independently evaluate fDM performance in a multicenter clinical trial (RTOG 0625/ACRIN 6677). A total of 123 patients were enrolled in the current multicenter trial and signed institutional review board-approved informed consent at their respective institutions. MRI was acquired prior to and 8 weeks following therapy. A 5-point QC scoring system was used to evaluate DWI quality. fDM performance was evaluated according to the correlation of these metrics with PFS and OS at the first follow-up time-point. Results showed ADC variability of 7.3% in NAWM and 10.5% in CSF. A total of 68% of patients had usable DWI data and 47% of patients had high quality DWI data when also excluding patients that progressed before the first follow-up. fDM performance was improved by using only the highest quality DWI. High pre-treatment contrast enhancing tumor volume was associated with shorter PFS and OS. A high volume fraction of increasing ADC after therapy was associated with shorter PFS, while a high volume fraction of decreasing ADC was associated with shorter OS. In summary, DWI in multicenter trials are currently of limited value due to image quality. Improvements in consistency of image quality in multicenter trials are necessary for further advancement of DWI biomarkers. PMID:25672376

  8. Battling Costs for Quality and Quantity: Emerging Responses in Early Childhood Care and Education. Notes, Comments...(Child, Family, Community). Digest No. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakasha, Veda

    This digest explores the possibilities of cost reduction in extending the coverage and upgrading the quality of preschool education especially in developing countries. The digest also seeks to highlight the importance of community participation in developing and managing preschool institutions and programs. Chapters cover the following topics: the…

  9. High Performing Colleges. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award as a Framework for Improving Higher Education. Volume I: Theory and Concepts [and] Volume II: Case and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Daniel, Ed.; And Others

    This publication provides research-based discussion in 20 chapters of possible extension of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award to honor high performing colleges. Chapters are organized into two volumes, the first exploring a broad range of issues from a scholarly point of view and the second emphasizing the practical application of a…

  10. Status of Improving Teacher Quality State Grants--Title II, Part A, No Child Left Behind. Commission Report 04-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This item provides an overview of projects in California's current portfolio of K-12 teacher professional development activities funded under the federal Dwight D. Eisenhower Professional State Grant and the Improving Teacher Quality (ITQ) State Grant Programs. Under the two federal initiatives, since 1986 the Commission has received approximately…

  11. Responses of legumes and grasses to non-, moderate, and dense shade in Missouri, USA. II. Forage quality and its species-level plasticity

    Treesearch

    Kejia Pang; J.W. Van Sambeek; Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Chung-Ho Lin; Shibu Jose; H. E. Garrett

    2017-01-01

    From a series of shade tolerance screening trials conducted in an outdoor Shade Tolerance Screening Laboratory, 22 forages (16 grasses and 6 legumes) were selected for quality evaluation. The forages were grown under non-shade (100% of full sun, the control), moderate shade (45%), and dense shade (20%) with adequate water and nutrients and free of competition from...

  12. Making A Difference: What Communities Can Do To Prevent Mental Handicap and Promote Lives of Quality. Volume II: The Well-Being of Babies and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappel, Bruce; McWhorter, Alan

    The second of five volumes on the means by which Canadian communities can reduce the incidence of mental retardation, minimize existing impairment, and improve the quality of life of the mentally retarded, this booklet focuses on needed action to assure the health of babies, young children, and families. After an introduction, sections deal with…

  13. High Performing Colleges. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award as a Framework for Improving Higher Education. Volume I: Theory and Concepts [and] Volume II: Case and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Daniel, Ed.; And Others

    This publication provides research-based discussion in 20 chapters of possible extension of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award to honor high performing colleges. Chapters are organized into two volumes, the first exploring a broad range of issues from a scholarly point of view and the second emphasizing the practical application of a…

  14. Effects of breed and a concentrate or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages. II: Meat stability and flavour.

    PubMed

    Warren, H E; Scollan, N D; Nute, G R; Hughes, S I; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the effect of breed and diet on meat quality, defined as lipid stability, colour shelf life and sensory quality. Ninety-six steers were used, half Aberdeen Angus (AA) cross and half Holstein-Friesian (HF). They were reared from 6 months of age on a standard concentrate diet or grass silage and slaughtered at 14, 19 or 24 months of age. Breed had small effects on quality with lower lipid stability in muscle of 24 month-old HF (P<0.05). Sensory scores were similar between the breeds, the few differences being in favour of AA. Diet had the biggest effects on meat quality, in all 3 age groups. The grass silage diet produced higher plasma and muscle levels of vitamin E, lower lipid oxidation in loin steaks measured at 4 and 7 days of retail display and better colour stability (saturation) during shelf life in MAP (O(2):CO(2); 75:25) (all P<0.001). The high values for lipid oxidation in the concentrate-fed steers were linked to high muscle PUFA concentrations and low levels of vitamin E.

  15. Making A Difference: What Communities Can Do To Prevent Mental Handicap and Promote Lives of Quality. Volume II: The Well-Being of Babies and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappel, Bruce; McWhorter, Alan

    The second of five volumes on the means by which Canadian communities can reduce the incidence of mental retardation, minimize existing impairment, and improve the quality of life of the mentally retarded, this booklet focuses on needed action to assure the health of babies, young children, and families. After an introduction, sections deal with…

  16. The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leming; Campbell, Gregory; Jones, Wendell D; Campagne, Fabien; Wen, Zhining; Walker, Stephen J; Su, Zhenqiang; Chu, Tzu-Ming; Goodsaid, Federico M; Pusztai, Lajos; Shaughnessy, John D; Oberthuer, André; Thomas, Russell S; Paules, Richard S; Fielden, Mark; Barlogie, Bart; Chen, Weijie; Du, Pan; Fischer, Matthias; Furlanello, Cesare; Gallas, Brandon D; Ge, Xijin; Megherbi, Dalila B; Symmans, W Fraser; Wang, May D; Zhang, John; Bitter, Hans; Brors, Benedikt; Bushel, Pierre R; Bylesjo, Max; Chen, Minjun; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Jing; Chou, Jeff; Davison, Timothy S; Delorenzi, Mauro; Deng, Youping; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Dix, David J; Dopazo, Joaquin; Dorff, Kevin C; Elloumi, Fathi; Fan, Jianqing; Fan, Shicai; Fan, Xiaohui; Fang, Hong; Gonzaludo, Nina; Hess, Kenneth R; Hong, Huixiao; Huan, Jun; Irizarry, Rafael A; Judson, Richard; Juraeva, Dilafruz; Lababidi, Samir; Lambert, Christophe G; Li, Li; Li, Yanen; Li, Zhen; Lin, Simon M; Liu, Guozhen; Lobenhofer, Edward K; Luo, Jun; Luo, Wen; McCall, Matthew N; Nikolsky, Yuri; Pennello, Gene A; Perkins, Roger G; Philip, Reena; Popovici, Vlad; Price, Nathan D; Qian, Feng; Scherer, Andreas; Shi, Tieliu; Shi, Weiwei; Sung, Jaeyun; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thodima, Venkata; Trygg, Johan; Vishnuvajjala, Lakshmi; Wang, Sue Jane; Wu, Jianping; Wu, Yichao; Xie, Qian; Yousef, Waleed A; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xuegong; Zhong, Sheng; Zhou, Yiming; Zhu, Sheng; Arasappan, Dhivya; Bao, Wenjun; Lucas, Anne Bergstrom; Berthold, Frank; Brennan, Richard J; Buness, Andreas; Catalano, Jennifer G; Chang, Chang; Chen, Rong; Cheng, Yiyu; Cui, Jian; Czika, Wendy; Demichelis, Francesca; Deng, Xutao; Dosymbekov, Damir; Eils, Roland; Feng, Yang; Fostel, Jennifer; Fulmer-Smentek, Stephanie; Fuscoe, James C; Gatto, Laurent; Ge, Weigong; Goldstein, Darlene R; Guo, Li; Halbert, Donald N; Han, Jing; Harris, Stephen C; Hatzis, Christos; Herman, Damir; Huang, Jianping; Jensen, Roderick V; Jiang, Rui; Johnson, Charles D; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kahlert, Yvonne; Khuder, Sadik A; Kohl, Matthias; Li, Jianying; Li, Li; Li, Menglong; Li, Quan-Zhen; Li, Shao; Li, Zhiguang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhichao; Meng, Lu; Madera, Manuel; Martinez-Murillo, Francisco; Medina, Ignacio; Meehan, Joseph; Miclaus, Kelci; Moffitt, Richard A; Montaner, David; Mukherjee, Piali; Mulligan, George J; Neville, Padraic; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Ning, Baitang; Page, Grier P; Parker, Joel; Parry, R Mitchell; Peng, Xuejun; Peterson, Ron L; Phan, John H; Quanz, Brian; Ren, Yi; Riccadonna, Samantha; Roter, Alan H; Samuelson, Frank W; Schumacher, Martin M; Shambaugh, Joseph D; Shi, Qiang; Shippy, Richard; Si, Shengzhu; Smalter, Aaron; Sotiriou, Christos; Soukup, Mat; Staedtler, Frank; Steiner, Guido; Stokes, Todd H; Sun, Qinglan; Tan, Pei-Yi; Tang, Rong; Tezak, Zivana; Thorn, Brett; Tsyganova, Marina; Turpaz, Yaron; Vega, Silvia C; Visintainer, Roberto; von Frese, Juergen; Wang, Charles; Wang, Eric; Wang, Junwei; Wang, Wei; Westermann, Frank; Willey, James C; Woods, Matthew; Wu, Shujian; Xiao, Nianqing; Xu, Joshua; Xu, Lei; Yang, Lun; Zeng, Xiao; Zhang, Jialu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Chen; Puri, Raj K; Scherf, Uwe; Tong, Weida; Wolfinger, Russell D

    2010-08-01

    Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, >30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis.

  17. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  18. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  19. Analysis for the Accuracy Definition of the Air Quality Assessment Model (AQAM) at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona. Volume II Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    VERIFICATION OF SHORT-’TtERM AIP QUALITY MODELS USING THE GAUSSIAN DISPERSION APPROACH by Karl ZcIler, EPA* (January 1977) 1. INTRODUCTION A need exists to... modeling of complex gi.o- metric situations, it is currently necessary to use empirical dispersion parameter values (standard deviations of plume spread as a...subjective modifications. For example, models used for airports or highways use the same dispersion parameters as models used for elevated area or point

  20. Tennessee Valley Authority/Bonneville Power Administration Indoor Air Quality Study, Phase II : Final Report for Indoor Air Quality Studies Conducted by TVA During Winters 1983, 1984, and 1985.

    SciTech Connect

    Tennessee Valley Authority. Energy Use Test Facility Staff.

    1985-12-01

    This study expanded the existing data base on indoor-outdoor air quality and provided specific information on the use of wood-burning heaters in a weatherized home having a low air exchange rate. Through research efforts such as these, BPA continues to address the various concerns raised regarding environmental issues related to its conservtion programs.

  1. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  2. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  3. Causes of toxicity to Hyalella azteca in a stormwater management facility receiving highway runoff and snowmelt. Part II: salts, nutrients, and water quality.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, A J; Rochfort, Q; Brown, L R; Marsalek, J

    2012-01-01

    The Terraview-Willowfield Stormwater Management Facility (TWSMF) features a tandem of stormwater management ponds, which receive inputs of multiple contaminants from highway and residential runoff. Previous research determined that benthic communities in the ponds were impacted by poor habitat quality, due to elevated sediment concentrations of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), and salinity in the overlying water, but did not address seasonal changes, including those caused by the influx of contaminants with the snowmelt. In order to address this issue, water and sediment samples were collected from the TWSMF during the fall and spring, and four-week sediment toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca. The effects of metals and PAHs are discussed in a companion paper; the effects of road salt, nutrients, and water quality are discussed here. After exposure to fall samples, survival of Hyalella was reduced (64-74% of controls) at three out of four sites, but growth was not negatively affected. After exposure to spring samples, survival was 0-75% of controls at the two sites furthest downstream, and growth was significantly lower in four out of five sites when comparing Hyalella exposed to site water overlying site sediment versus control water overlying site sediment. Toxicity appeared to be related to chloride concentrations: little or no toxicity occurred in fall samples (200 mg Cl(-)/L), and significant effects on survival and growth occurred in spring samples above 1550 mg Cl(-)/L and 380 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Sodium chloride toxicity tests showed similar results: four-week LC50s and EC25s (growth) were 1200 and 420 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Although water quality and nutrients were associated with effects observed in the TWSMF, chloride from road salt was the primary cause of toxicity in this study. Chloride persists during much of the year at concentrations representing a significant threat to benthic communities in the TWSMF.

  4. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  5. Effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on the relationships between ambulatory blood pressure and anti-hypertensive effects, autonomic function, and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yasuko; Tamura, Kouichi; Masuda, Shinitirou; Ozawa, Motoko; Tochikubo, Osamu; Umemura, Satoshi

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between the anti-hypertensive effects, autonomic function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following treatment of hypertensive subjects with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in hypertensives. Nineteen patients with hypertension were assigned randomly to daily treatment with ARBs. After 16 weeks of treatment, blood pressure (BP) and 24 h the ratio of low frequency to high frequency component (LF/HF), an index of sympathovagal balance were decreased by ARBs. The HRQOL scores improved during the study. In this study, ARB therapy was associated with an improvement in BP, autonomic function, and HRQOL.

  6. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  7. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  8. Influence of High Nitrogen Flux on Crystal Quality of Plasma-Assisted MBE Grown GaN Layers Using Raman Spectroscopy: Part-II

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, M.; Hussain, I.; Islah u din; Saleemi, F.

    2007-05-09

    We have investigated lattice properties of plasma assisted MBE grown hexagonal GaN layers at varying nitrogen and gallium fluxes using Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature Raman spectra of Ga-rich layers and stoichiometric GaN are similar showing excitation modes at 434 cm-1, 567 cm-1 and 729 cm-1 identified as residual laser line, E{sub 2}{sup H} and A1(LO) mode, respectively. Similarity of Ga-rich and stoichiometric GaN layers is interpreted as the indication of comparable crystal quality of both GaN layers. In contrast, Raman scattering associated with N-rich GaN samples mere exhibit a broad band of excitations in the range of 250-650cm-1 leaving out A1(LO) mode. This typical observation along with intensity distribution of the peaks, is correlated with rough surface, bad crystal quality and high concentration of defects. Based on atomic displacement scheme, the broad band is identified as Ga- vacancies.

  9. River Water Quality Model no. 1 (RWQM1): case study II. Oxygen and nitrogen conversion processes in the River Glatt (Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Reichert, P

    2001-01-01

    Various simplifications of the river water quality model no. 1 are applied to data sets from the river Glatt in Switzerland. In a first application, the biomass responsible for nitrogen and oxygen conversion processes is quantified based on known reaeration rates, measured concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and oxygen and assumed growth parameters of algae and bacteria. In a second application, the model is extended to calculate chemical equilibria of inorganic carbon compounds dissolved in the water and daily variations in pH. The influence of partially unknown inflow concentrations and of calcite precipitation on fluctuations in electrical conductivity and pH are discussed. In the last model, the processes of growth of sessile algae and bacteria, detachment of algae, and grazing by benthic organisms are introduced. Due to lack of data for quantifying these processes, this last model application is speculative. Nevertheless, it is interesting because it shows a direction to which river water quality modelling would have to proceed in order to increase its predictive capabilities.

  10. Clinical trials in orthodontics II: assessment of the quality of reporting of clinical trials published in three orthodontic journals between 1989 and 1998.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J E

    2003-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that the quality of reporting of orthodontic clinical trials is insufficient to allow readers to assess the validity of the trial. A retrospective observational study. The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), the British Journal of Orthodontics (BJO) and European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO). Clinical trials published between 1989 and 1998. A hand search was performed to identify all clinical trials. The concealment of allocation, whether the trial was randomized, double blind, and whether there was a description of withdrawals and dropouts was recorded. One hundred and fifty-five trial reports were identified of which 4 (2.6%) were adequately concealed, 85 (54.8%) were described as being randomized, 10 (6.5%) as double-blind, and 44 (28.4%) gave a description of withdrawals and drop-outs from the trial. The type of randomization was considered appropriate in 78 (50.3%) reports and in 57 (36.8%) reports the level of blinding was considered appropriate. When assessed for the risk of bias in the reported trials,(1) one trial (0.6%) had a low risk of bias, 17 (11%) a moderate risk, and 137 (88.4%) a high risk. In general the quality of reporting orthodontic clinical trials was insufficient to allow readers to assess the validity of the trials. Reporting of clinical trials could be improved by orthodontic journals adopting the CONSORT statement(2,)(3) to ensure that all relevant information is provided.

  11. Oxycline formation induced by Fe(II) oxidation in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage modeled using a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality model - CE-QUAL-W2.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ester; Galván, Laura; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Soria-Píriz, Sara; Arbat-Bofill, Marina; Nardi, Albert; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-08-15

    The Sancho reservoir is an acid mine drainage (AMD)-contaminated reservoir located in the Huelva province (SW Spain) with a pH close to 3.5. The water is only used for a refrigeration system of a paper mill. The Sancho reservoir is holomictic with one mixing period per year in the winter. During this mixing period, oxygenated water reaches the sediment, while under stratified conditions (the rest of the year) hypoxic conditions develop at the hypolimnion. A CE-QUAL-W2 model was calibrated for the Sancho Reservoir to predict the thermocline and oxycline formation, as well as the salinity, ammonium, nitrate, phosphorous, algal, chlorophyll-a, and iron concentrations. The version 3.7 of the model does not allow simulating the oxidation of Fe(II) in the water column, which limits the oxygen consumption of the organic matter oxidation. However, to evaluate the impact of Fe(II) oxidation on the oxycline formation, Fe(II) has been introduced into the model based on its relationship with labile dissolved organic matter (LDOM). The results show that Fe oxidation is the main factor responsible for the oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion of the Sancho Reservoir. The limiting factors for green algal growth have also been studied. The model predicted that ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate were not limiting factors for green algal growth. Light appeared to be one of the limiting factors for algal growth, while chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentrations could not be fully described. We hypothesize that dissolved CO2 is one of the limiting nutrients due to losses by the high acidity of the water column. The sensitivity tests carried out support this hypothesis. Two different remediation scenarios have been tested with the calibrated model: 1) an AMD passive treatment plant installed at the river, which removes completely Fe, and 2) different depth water extractions. If no Fe was introduced into the reservoir, water quality would significantly improve in only two years

  12. Daily and alternate-day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminants consuming low-quality forage: II. Effects on site of digestion and microbial efficiency in steers.

    PubMed

    Currier, T A; Bohnert, D W; Falck, S J; Schauer, C S; Bartle, S J

    2004-05-01

    Five steers (491 +/- 21 kg BW) were used in an incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square with four 24-d periods to determine the influence of supplemental non-protein N (NPN) source and supplementation frequency (SF) on nutrient intake and site of digestion in steers consuming low-quality grass straw (4% CP). Treatments (TRT) included an unsupplemented control and a urea- or biuret-containing supplement placed directly into the rumen daily (D) or every other day (2D) at 0700. The NPN treatments were formulated to provide 90% of the estimated degradable intake protein requirement. Daily TRT were supplemented CP at 0.04% of BW/d, whereas the 2D TRT were supplemented at 0.08% of BW every other day. Therefore, all supplemented TRT received the same quantity of supplemental CP over a 2-d period. Forage OM intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by NPN supplementation, NPN source, or SF; however, total OM and N intake were increased (P < 0.01) with CP supplementation. Duodenal flow of N was greater (P = 0.04) with CP supplementation compared with the control. In addition, duodenal bacterial N flow was increased with CP supplementation (P = 0.04) and for biuret compared with urea (P < 0.01). Bacterial efficiency (g bacterial N/kg OM truly digested in the rumen) was greater (P = 0.05) for biuret than for urea. Apparent total-tract N digestibility was increased with NPN supplementation (P < 0.01) but not affected by NPN source or SF. These results suggest that urea or biuret can be used effectively as a supplemental N source by steers consuming low-quality forage.

  13. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ≤ 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ≥ 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P < 0.01) in bellies from BT15- than YG15-fed pigs. In contrast, proportions of linoleic acid, all PUFA, and iodine value were greater (P < 0

  14. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  15. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  16. Delta II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  17. Stabilisation of red fruit-based smoothies by high-pressure processing. Part II: effects on sensory quality and selected nutrients.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Adriana; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Picouet, Pierre; Jofré, Anna; Ros, José María; Bañón, Sancho

    2017-02-01

    Non-thermal pasteurisation by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. The resulting products need to be validated from a sensory and nutritional standpoint. The objective was to assess a mild HPP treatment to stabilise red fruit-based smoothies in a wide (sensory quality and major nutrients) study. HPP (350 MPa/ 10 °C/ 5 min) provided 'fresh-like' smoothies, free of cooked-fruit flavours, for at least 14 days at 4 °C, although their sensory stability was low compared with the TP-smoothies (85 °C/ 7 min). In HPP-smoothies, the loss of fresh fruit flavour and reduced sliminess were the clearest signs of sensory deterioration during storage. Furthermore, HPP permitted the higher initial retention of vitamin C, although this vitamin and, to a lesser extent, total phenols, had a higher degradation rate during storage. The content of sugar present was not affected by either processing treatment. Mild HPP treatment did not alter the sensory and nutritional properties of smoothies. The sensory and nutritional losses during storage were less than might be expected, probably due to the high antioxidant content and the natural turbidity provided by red fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Bereaved HIV-Positive Adults: Relationships between HIV Symptoms, Grief, Social Support, and Axis II Indication

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Connell, Christian M.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated a model of the impact of borderline and antisocial personality disorder indications on HIV symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in AIDS-bereaved adults, accounting for grief severity, social support and years since HIV diagnosis. Design Structural Equation modeling was used to test the proposed model in a sample of 268 HIV-seropositive adults enrolled in an intervention for coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Main Outcome Measures Functional Assessment of HIV Infection, HIV symptoms. Results The proposed model demonstrated excellent fit with study data and all hypothesized paths were supported. Personality disorder indication was directly related to HIV symptoms and HRQoL, and indirectly related through both social support and grief severity. Social support was negatively related to HIV symptoms and positively related to HRQoL, while grief severity was positively related to HIV symptoms and negatively related to HRQoL. Finally, HIV symptoms had a direct negative relationship with HRQoL. Conclusion Personality disorders have a direct negative effect on HIV symptoms and HRQoL, and indirect effects through grief severity and social support. PMID:19290717

  19. Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood scale. Part II: traffic pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level.

    PubMed

    Gromke, Christof; Blocken, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Flow and dispersion of traffic-emitted pollutants were studied in a generic urban neighborhood for various avenue-tree layouts by employing 3D steady RANS simulations with the realizable k-ε turbulence model. In comparison to the tree-free situation quantitative and qualitative changes with flow reversal in the wind field were observed. Low to moderate increases (<13.2%) in the neighborhood-averaged pollutant concentration were found at pedestrian level. An approximately 1% increase in the neighborhood-averaged concentration was obtained with each percent of the street canyon volumes being occupied by vegetation for occupation fractions between 4 and 14%. The overall pattern of concentration changes relative to the tree-free situation was similar for all avenue-tree layouts. However, pronounced locally restricted decreases or increases in concentration (-87 to +1378%) occurred. The results indicate the necessity to account for existing or planned avenue-trees in neighborhood scaled is dispersion studies. Their consideration is prerequisite for reliable urban air quality assessment.

  20. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  1. Quality Requirements for the early Fetal Ultrasound Assessment at 11-13+6 Weeks of Gestation (DEGUM Levels II and III).

    PubMed

    von Kaisenberg, C; Chaoui, R; Häusler, M; Kagan, K O; Kozlowski, P; Merz, E; Rempen, A; Steiner, H; Tercanli, S; Wisser, J; Heling, K-S

    2016-06-01

    The early fetal ultrasound assessment at 11 - 13(+6) weeks of gestation remains the cornerstone of care despite the progress in diagnosing fetal chromosomal defects using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from the maternal circulation. The measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) allows the risk calculation for the fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 but also gives information on those fetal chromosomal defects which are at present unable to be detected using cffDNA. Nuchal translucency is the only auditable parameter at 11 - 13(+6) weeks and gives thus information on the quality of the first trimester anomaly scan. In addition it gives indirect information on the risks for fetal defects and for cardiac anomalies. Also the chances for a healthy live baby can be estimated. As experience with first trimester anomaly scanning increases, and the resolution of the ultrasound equipment has increased substantially, more and more details of the fetal anatomy become accessible at the first trimester scan. Therefore fetal anatomical defects and complex anomalies have become amenable to examination in the first trimester. This guideline describes compulsory and optional parameters for investigation at the first trimester scan and outlines a structured method of examining a first trimester fetus at 11 - 13(+6) weeks of gestation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of public health through quality public ground-water systems is the responsibility of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri, through the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Program. Approximately 95 percent of the public-water supplies in Missouri use ground water as their source of drinking water through more than 3,700 public wells. Karst terrain, intensive agricultural operations, extensive numbers of on-site sewage systems, and poor well construction can lead to chemical and microbiological contamination of the contributing aquifers. Sitespecific studies and routine regulatory monitoring have produced information on the overall quality and potability of the State's public-drinking-water supplies, but little is known about the presence of viruses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, sampled 109 public-water supplies to characterize the physical, chemical, bacterial, and viral conditions in southern Missouri. During April to July 1998, these wells were sampled for nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, indicator bacteria, enteric viruses, and ribonucleic acid and somatic coli phages. These constituents indicate possible surface contamination of the sampled aquifer. Selection of the wells to be sampled depended on the age of the well (pre-1970), land use, geohydrology, and well construction. None of the physical or chemical constituents measured or analyzed exceeded Missouri's Drinking Water Standards set by the Public Drinking Water Program of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The majority of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite, and phosphorus concentrations were below the laboratory's minimum reporting levels. There were a greater number of detects above the minimum reporting level with respect to the nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and total organic carbon concentrations. Analyses

  3. Supplementation based on protein or energy ingredients to beef cattle consuming low-quality cool-season forages: II. Performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Moriel, P; Keisler, D H; Bohnert, D W

    2014-06-01

    This experiment evaluated the influence of supplement composition on performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of Angus × Hereford heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage (8.7% CP and 57% TDN). Sixty heifers (initial age = 226 ± 3 d) were allocated into 15 drylot pens (4 heifers/pen and 5 pens/treatment) and assigned to 1) supplementation with soybean meal (PROT), 2) supplementation with a mixture of cracked corn, soybean meal, and urea (68:22:10 ratio, DM basis; ENER), or 3) no supplementation (CON). Heifers were offered meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay for ad libitum consumption during the experiment (d -10 to 160). Beginning on d 0, PROT and ENER were provided daily at a rate of 1.30 and 1.40 kg of DM/heifer to ensure that PROT and ENER intakes were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hay and total DMI were recorded for 5 consecutive days during each month of the experiment. Blood was collected every 10 d for analysis of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples collected on d -10, 60, 120, and 150 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, NEFA, and leptin. Liver samples were collected on d 100 from 2 heifers/pen and analyzed for mRNA expression of genes associated with nutritional metabolism. No treatment effect was detected (P = 0.33) on forage DMI. Total DMI, ADG, and mean concentrations of glucose, insulin, and IGF-I as well as hepatic mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater (P ≤ 0.02) for PROT and ENER compared with CON and similar between PROT and ENER (P ≥ 0.13). Mean PUN concentrations were also greater (P < 0.01) for PROT and ENER compared with CON, whereas PROT heifers had greater (P < 0.01) PUN compared with ENER. Plasma leptin concentrations were similar between ENER and PROT (P ≥ 0.19) and greater (P ≤ 0.03) for ENER and PROT compared with CON on d 120 and 150 (treatment × day interaction, P = 0.03). Hepatic mRNA expression of

  4. Quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: II. Relative effects on selling price.

    PubMed

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    Relative effects of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls on selling price at auction was evaluated during 2008. The presence and severity of 23 BQA-related traits were determined during sales in Idaho, California, and Utah. Overall, 18,949 unique lots consisting of 23,479 animals were assessed during 125 dairy sales and 79 beef sales. Mean sale price ± SD (per 45.5 kg) for market beef cows, beef bulls, dairy cows, and dairy bulls was $45.15 ± 9.42, $56.30 ± 9.21, $42.23 ± 12.26, and $55.10 ± 9.07, respectively. When combined, all recorded traits explained 36% of the variation in selling price in beef cows, 35% in beef bulls, 61% in dairy cows, and 56% in dairy bulls. Premiums and discounts were determined in comparison with a "par" or "base" animal. Compared with a base BCS 5 beef cow (on a 9-point beef scale), BCS 1 to 4 cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas premiums (P < 0.05) were estimated for BCS 6 to 8. Compared with a base BCS 3.0 dairy cow (on a 5-point dairy scale), more body condition resulted in a premium (P ≤ 0.001), whereas a less-than-desirable BCS of 2.0 or 2.5 was discounted (P < 0.0001). Emaciated or near-emaciated cows (beef BCS 1 or 2; dairy BCS 1.0 or 1.5) were discounted (P < 0.0001). Compared with base cows weighing 545 to 635 kg, lighter BW beef cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier beef cows received (P < 0.05) a premium. Compared with a base dairy cow weighing 636 to 727 kg, lighter BW cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier cows (727 to 909 kg) received a premium (P < 0.01). Beef and dairy cows with any evidence of lameness were discounted (P < 0.0001). Presence of ocular neoplasia in the precancerous stage discounted (P = 0.05) beef cows and discounted (P < 0.01) dairy cows, whereas at the cancerous stage, it discounted (P < 0.0001) all cows. Hide color influenced (P < 0.0001) selling price in beef cattle but had no effect (P = 0.17) in dairy cows. Animals

  5. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  6. Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne Conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler—Part II: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion pose a serious thread to public health and impose the need for an improved monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a major class of persistent organic pollutants. For this purpose, utilization of evergreen conifers offers significant biomonitoring potential. In part I of this series we inspected the load of combustion derived magnetic particles in pine needles from 43 locations of the Cologne Conurbation, Germany; we here report the corresponding PAH concentrations and distribution patterns. Concentrations (dry weight) of summed 3-6-ring PAH range between 51 and 410 ng g -1 with a median of 123.8 ng g -1; thus being in agreement with other urban studies. Phenanthrene was the dominating PAH with median concentrations of 47 ng g -1 followed by fluoranthene and pyrene at 22 and 13 ng g -1, respectively. The major proportion of PAH was attributed to traffic sources, with minor contribution from power plant, domestic heating, industrial, and vegetation burn emissions. Significant differences between major and minor roads were not observed indicating a thorough mixing of PAH-loaded air masses in the Cologne Conurbation. Needles in inner city parks gave much higher PAH concentrations than those in suburban green areas. Although distribution patterns of PAH were variable a PAH source reconciliation based on isomer compositions is difficult, due to thorough mixing of air masses and associated loss of source specificity. Ambient air monitoring in urban areas based on persistent organic pollutant load of vegetation is a feasible and cost effective way of controlling environmental quality.

  7. [Medico-legal opinions in cases for annulment of testament. Part II. Final conclusions of opinions. Quality of medical documentation. Evaluation of witnesses' testimonies].

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Klimberg, Aneta

    2007-01-01

    The percentage of cases, in which devisors were unable to devise properly was high, what was mostly associated with the frequent drawing up of testaments by chronically ill individuals immediately before death. Grounds for pronouncing the devisor lacking in testamentary capacity were observed in 46.6% of cases, while 39.7% of devisors were found to lack free expression of will. Medical records were available in all the cases, including psychiatric records in 20.5% of cases and neurological records in 20.5%. In the majority of instances, the low quality of medical records hindered formulating expert opinions. The fact that in the majority of cases, the testimonies of witnesses were highly divergent indicated that they were either unable to assess the mental state of the devisor or else were themselves interested in the settlement of the case. Frequently, attending physicians from non-psychiatric wards were unable to answer questions on the mental state of the devisor, what resulted from their focusing on the somatic cause of hospitalization and the fact that their contact with the patient was very limited in time. Problems with certification on the basis of medical records were mainly associated with lacking psychiatric or neurological consults performed at the time the testament was drawn up; in some instances, the entire medical records from that period were missing. For this reason, individuals desiring to prepare a last will should be advised to undergo voluntary psychiatric assessment in this period. Medico-legal opinions in testament cases are difficult and time-consuming, but pleading one's case before the court is even more tedious and difficult.

  8. Responses of future air quality to emission controls over North Carolina, Part II: Analyses of future-year predictions and their policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Huan; Olsen, Kristen M.; Wang, Wen-Xing; Do, Bebhinn A.; Bridgers, George M.

    2010-07-01

    The MM5/CMAQ system evaluated in Part I paper is applied to study the impact of emission control on future air quality over North Carolina (NC). Simulations are conducted at a 4-km horizontal grid resolution for four one-month periods, i.e., January, June, July, and August 2009 and 2018. Simulated PM 2.5 in 2009 and 2018 show distribution patterns similar to those in 2002. PM 2.5 concentrations over the whole domain in January and July reduced by 5.8% and 23.3% in 2009 and 12.0% and 35.6% in 2018, respectively, indicating that the planned emission control strategy has noticeable effects on PM 2.5 reduction in this region, particularly in summer. More than 10% and 20% of 1-h and 8-h O 3 mixing ratios are reduced in July 2009 and 2018, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of emission control for O 3 reduction in summer. However, O 3 mixing ratios in January 2009 and 2018 increase by more than 5% because O 3 chemistry is VOC-limited in winter and the effect of NO x reduction dominates over that of VOC reduction under such a condition. The projected emission control simulated at 4-km will reduce the number of sites in non-attainment for max 8-h O 3 from 49 to 23 in 2009 and to 1 in 2018 and for 24-h average PM 2.5 from 1 to 0 in 2009 and 2018 based on the latest 2008 O 3 and 2006 PM 2.5 standards. The variability in model predictions at different grid resolutions contributes to 1-3.8 ppb and 1-7.9 μg m -3 differences in the projected future-year design values for max 8-h O 3 and 24-h average PM 2.5, respectively.

  9. Using a profiling process to insure program quality: Volume II - support materials. Final progress report, May 15, 1991--November 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kaser, J.S.; Roody, D.S.; Raizen, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Center for Improving Science Education (National Center) developed a system for ongoing evaluation of K-12 educational programs in the DOE-supported national energy Laboratories. As part of the formative evaluation component of this collaborative endeavor, field staff in the Laboratories began creating profiles of their programs. However, many individuals within DOE Headquarters were not familiar with this profiling process and were unprepared to use the valuable information that the profiles generated. This manual was produced to orient Headquarters staff to profiling. It focuses on how Headquarters staff can use the profiling process to help their funded programs establish and/or maintain high quality. Its purpose, then, is not to train Headquarters staff to become proficient in profiling, but to show them how to draw on the Laboratories` use of profiling to bring about program improvement. Profiling is the process of systematically examining and describing a program`s elements against a set of components that define Effective Practice. The instrument used to capture the data for analysis is called a template, and most of this manual focuses on the templates and how to read and interpret them. However, since it is important to understand these data in context, the authors also describe what should accompany each template in a complete profiling packet and offer guidelines for reviewing complete packets and providing feedback to program managers. This document consists of Support Materials for the manual: exercise answer keys; templates; guidelines for reviewing templates; a complete profiling packet; guidelines for the trainer.

  10. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    August 6 to12, 2000. A 24-hour sample collection effort was conducted the weekend of July 15 and 16, 2000, to investigate the effect that large numbers of swimmers, canoeists, and tubers had on fecal coliform densities in the Jacks Fork. Five or six samples were collected at six sites between Saturday morning and the following Sunday afternoon. No fecal coliform density at any of the sites sampled exceeded the whole-body-contact recreation standard. Because bacteria survive longer in stream-bed sediments than in water, a source of bacteria in the water column could be from resuspension of accumulated bacteria from streambed sediments. Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected at three sites on August 3, 2000, 1 week before a trail ride and again at three sites on 2 Assessment of Possible Sources of Microbiological Contamination of the Jacks Fork, Missouri?Phase II August 8, 2000, during a trail ride. Results indicate that fecal coliform bacteria densities increased substantially in the streambed sediment and the water column during the trail ride.Sixty-five Escherichia coli isolates obtained from water samples collected at 9 sites and 23 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from stream-bed-sediment samples collected at 5 sites were submitted for ribotyping analysis. Samples were collected in 2000 during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses, including trail rides, canoeing, tubing, and swimming. Of the 65 isolates from water samples, 40 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 29 percent from horse, 11 percent from cow, and 20 percent from an unknown source. Of the 23 isolates from streambed-sediment samples, 39 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 35 percent from horse, 13 percent from cow, and 13 percent from unknown sources.Analysis of physical property (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature) and nutrient (dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorus) data

  11. Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ho, Henry C Y; Mui, Moses; Wan, Alice; Ng, Yin-Lam; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-07-29

    Most positive psychology interventions conducted in the West have been focused on the individual. Family relationships are highly valued in the Chinese collectivist culture, and it is of interest to know whether family-focused interventions can improve the well-being of Chinese people. We have previously reported the effectiveness of a positive psychology family intervention in terms of family well-being. Based on the data derived from the Happy Family Kitchen II project, this paper examines the effectiveness of a community-based positive psychology family intervention on subjective happiness and health-related quality of life. Thirty-one social service units and schools organized intervention programs for 2070 participants in Hong Kong. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, participants were randomly assigned on the basis of computer-generated numbers into the intervention group or the control group. The intervention programs emphasized one of five positive psychology themes: joy, gratitude, flow, savoring, and listening. The control group engaged in activities unrelated to the intervention, such as arts and crafts workshops. Subjective happiness and mental and physical quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks and 12 weeks postintervention. Data of 1261 participants were analyzed. The results showed that the intervention was more effective than the control condition in improving subjective happiness, with a small effect size, at 12 weeks postintervention (β = .15, p = .020, Cohen's d = .16). However, there were no improvements in mental and physical quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group at 4 weeks (β = .39, p = .494, d = .05; β = -.10, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively) and 12 weeks postintervention (β = .71, p = .233, d = .08; β = -.05, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively). Furthermore, the booster session was no more effective than the tea

  12. Educational Quality Assessment Phase II Findings: Phase II Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, James F.; And Others

    Procedures for implementing the Pennsylvania Plan (see TM 000 608) are detailed, and the method of achieving representative sampling is described. Functions of school representatives involved in the data collection are listed, and their training is outlined. Procedures for collecting school and teacher information, and administering tests and…

  13. Quality of life, morbidity, and mortality results of a prospective phase II study of intermittent androgen suppression for men with evidence of prostate-specific antigen relapse after radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bruchovsky, Nicholas; Klotz, Laurence; Crook, Juanita; Phillips, Norman; Abersbach, Jonas; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2008-03-01

    Observations of quality of life (QOL), morbidity, and mortality were obtained from the results of a prospective phase II study of intermittent androgen suppression for recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy. Patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate and a rising serum prostate-specific antigen level after external-beam radiation of the prostate were treated intermittently with a 36-week course of cyproterone and leuprolide. At predetermined intervals, QOL was assessed using the Southwest Oncology Group 9346 QOL and the American Urological Association symptom score questionnaires. Progression-free and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Parameters related to progression were explored with univariate and multivariate analyses. The incidence of adverse events was higher when patients were on treatment. Fatigue, dyspnea, and hematuria were the most common symptoms and signs recorded (50.5%, 24.8%, and 17.4%, respectively). Less frequent were myocardial infarction (7.3%), cerebrovascular accident (6.4%), and deep vein thrombosis (5.5%). Quality of life improved when off treatment, as indicated by a shift toward baseline levels in the scales depicting physical and work functions, hot flashes, impotence, sexual performance, urgency, and nocturia. Biochemical recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 70%, with a median > 6 years. The overall 5-year survival was 80%, similar to that of an age-matched population of normal men. Intermittent androgen suppression is a potentially useful treatment for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy with QOL benefits in the off-treatment interval and no apparent deleterious effects on short- to medium-term survival.

  14. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  15. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  16. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  17. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.

  18. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part II. Future trend analysis and impacts of projected anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Following a comprehensive evaluation of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU), Part II describes the projected changes in the future state of the atmosphere under the representative concentration partway scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5) by 2100 for the 2050 time frame and examine the impact of climate change on future air quality under both scenarios, and the impact of projected emission changes under the RCP4.5 scenario on future climate through aerosol direct and indirect effects. Both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations predict similar changes in air quality by the 2050 period due to declining emissions under both scenarios. The largest differences occur in O3, which decreases by global mean of 1.4 ppb under RCP4.5 but increases by global mean of 2.3 ppb under RCP8.5 due to differences in methane levels, and PM10, which decreases by global mean of 1.2 μg m-3 under RCP4.5 and increases by global mean of 0.2 μg m-3 under RCP8.5 due to differences in dust and sea-salt emissions under both scenarios. Enhancements in cloud formation in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and increases of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in central Africa and South Asia dominate the change in surface radiation in both scenarios, leading to global average dimming of 1.1 W m-2 and 2.0 W m-2 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Declines in AOD, cloud formation, and cloud optical thickness from reductions of emissions of primary aerosols and aerosol precursors under RCP4.5 result in near surface warming of 0.2 °C from a global average increase of 0.7 W m-2 in surface downwelling solar radiation. This warming leads to a weakening of the Walker Circulation in the tropics, leading to significant changes in cloud and precipitation that mirror a shift in climate towards the negative phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  19. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  20. Relationship between physician-adjudicated adverse events and patient-reported health-related quality of life in a phase II clinical trial (NCT01143402) of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Thomas M; Hay, Jennifer L; Shoushtari, Alexander; Li, Yuelin; Paucar, Daniel J; Smith, Sloane C; Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Doyle, Austin; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Quevedo, Jorge Fernando; Milhem, Mohammed M; Joshua, Anthony M; Linette, Gerald P; Gajewski, Thomas F; Lutzky, Jose; Lawson, David H; Lao, Christopher D; Flynn, Patrick J; Albertini, Mark R; Sato, Takami; Lewis, Karl; Marr, Brian; Abramson, David H; Dickson, Mark Andrew; Schwartz, Gary K; Carvajal, Richard D

    2017-03-01

    Clinical trials commonly use physician-adjudicated adverse event (AE) assessment via the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) for decision-making. Patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data are becoming more frequent in oncology; however, the relationship between physician-adjudicated AE assessment and HRQoL is understudied. Data from a phase II trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01143402) where patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were randomized to receive selumetinib, an oral MEK inhibitor, or chemotherapy were analyzed. Patients reported HRQoL at baseline, after 1 month, and end of treatment (n = 118), whereas physicians adjudicated AEs via CTCAE. Mean HRQoL scores were compared between patient randomization arms, as well as between those patients who did/did not receive dose modifications. Ninety-four percent had a CTCAE grade ≥1 for at least one treatment-associated AE, with 18% undergoing dose modification due to toxicity. Mean HRQoL scores did not significantly differ at each of the three time points. Patient and physician-adjudicated reports of nausea were significantly correlated at the start (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) and end of treatment (r = 0.42, p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations between need for dose modification and HRQoL scores. Despite the high rate of physician-adjudicated AEs and need for dose modifications with selumetinib, patient-reported HRQoL was not impacted by treatment. Since HRQoL did not differ in the subgroup of patients who received dosage reductions due to AEs, patients may be willing to tolerate select AEs without dose modification (if medically appropriate). More research is needed to determine how to best integrate HRQoL data into clinical trial conduct.

  1. Quality of Life of Young Adult Survivors of Pediatric Burns Using World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) and Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B): A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary Elizabeth; Holzer, Charles E.; Richardson, Lisa M.; Epperson, Kathryn; Ojeda, Sylvia; Martinez, Erin M.; Suman, Oscar E.; Herndon, David N.; Meyer, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine long term psychological distress and quality of life (QOL) in young adult survivors of pediatric burns using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) and the Burn Specific Health Scale- Brief (BSHS-B). Methods Fifty burn survivors 2.5–12.5 years post-burn (16–21.5 years old; 56% male, 82% Hispanic) completed the WHODAS and BSHS-B. The WHODAS measures health and disability and the BSHS-B measures psychosocial and physical difficulties. Scores were calculated for each instrument, and then grouped by years post-burn, TBSA, sex, burn age, and survey age to compare the effects of each. Next, the instruments were compared to each other. Results The WHODAS disability score mean was 14.4 ± 2.1. BSHS-B domain scores ranged from 3–3.7. In general, as Total Body Surface Area Burned (TBSA) increased, QOL decreased. Female burn survivors, survivors burned prior to school entry and adolescents who had yet to transition into adulthood reported better QOL than their counterparts. In all domains except Participation, the WHODAS consistently identified more individuals with lower QOL than the BSHS-B. Conclusions Young adult burn survivors’ QOL features more disability than their non-burned counterparts, but score in the upper 25% for QOL on the BSHS-B. This analysis revealed the need for long term psychosocial intervention for survivors with larger TBSA, males, those burned after school entry, and those transitioning into adulthood. Both instruments are useful tools for assessing burn survivors’ QOL and both should be given as they discern different individuals. However, the WHODAS is more sensitive than BSHS-B in identifying QOL issues. PMID:25167373

  2. Total Quality Management in Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Non M-M to TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION Icc I FCHARLES C. MILLER I A REPORT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COMMIITTEE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF...Ii I I TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION I I BY CHARLES C. MILLER A REPORT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COMMITTEE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL...Figures iii Introduction 1 Chapter 1 - Defining Total Quality Management 4 Philosophy 4 The Team Concept 20 Quality Improvement Process 27 Chapter 2

  3. Riparian Land Use/Land Cover Data for Three Study Units in Group II of the Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical Study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Dickinson, Ross G.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Tranmer, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This data set was developed as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical (NEET) study. This report is concerned with three of the eight NEET study units distributed across the United States: Ozark Plateaus, Upper Mississippi River Basin, and Upper Snake River Basin, collectively known as Group II of the NEET study. Ninety stream reaches were investigated during 2006-08 in these three study units. Stream segments, with lengths equal to the base-10 logarithm of the basin area, were delineated upstream from the stream reaches through the use of digital orthophoto quarter-quadrangle (DOQQ) imagery. The analysis area for each stream segment was defined by a streamside buffer extending laterally to 250 meters from the stream segment. Delineation of landuse and land-cover (LULC) map units within stream-segment buffers was completed using on-screen digitizing of riparian LULC classes interpreted from the DOQQ. LULC units were classified using a strategy consisting of nine classes. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data were used to aid in wetland classification. Longitudinal riparian transects (lines offset from the stream segments) were generated digitally, used to sample the LULC maps, and partitioned in accord with the intersected LULC map-unit types. These longitudinal samples yielded the relative linear extent and sequence of each LULC type within the riparian zone at the segment scale. The resulting areal and linear estimates of LULC extent filled in the spatial-scale gap between the 30-meter resolution of the 1990s National Land Cover Dataset and the reach-level habitat assessment data collected onsite routinely for NAWQA ecological sampling. The resulting data consisted of 12 geospatial data sets: LULC within 25 meters of the stream reach (polygon); LULC within 50 meters of the stream reach (polygon); LULC within 50 meters of the stream segment (polygon); LULC within 100 meters of the stream segment (polygon

  4. Quality control of Photosystem II: where and how does the degradation of the D1 protein by FtsH proteases start under light stress?--Facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Miho; Yamamoto, Yasusi

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of the reaction center-binding D1 protein of Photosystem II is central in photoinhibition of Photosystem II. In higher plant chloroplasts, Photosystem II complexes are abundant in the grana. It has been suggested that the Photosystem II complexes containing photodamaged D1 protein migrate for their repair from the grana to the non-appressed stroma thylakoids, where the photodamaged D1 protein is degraded by a specific protease(s) such as filamentation temperature sensitive H (FtsH) protease. There are several possible ways to activate the FtsH proteases. As FtsH is a membrane-bound ATP-dependent metalloprotease, it requires ATP and zinc as essential part of its catalytic mechanism. It is also suggested that a membrane protein(s) associated with FtsH is required for modulation of the FtsH activity. Here, we propose several possible mechanisms for activation of the proteases, which depend on oligomerization of the monomer subunits. In relation to the oligomerization of FtsH subunits, we also suggest unique distribution of active FtsH hexamers on the thylakoids: hexamers of the FtsH proteases are localized near the Photosystem II complexes at the grana. Degradation of the D1 protein probably takes place in the grana rather than in the stroma thylakoids to circumvent long-distance migration of both the Photosystem II complexes containing the photodamaged D1 protein and the proteases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ARICH for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusa, Y.

    2014-10-01

    We report development and current status of Aerogel Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter (ARICH) which is a particle identification detector in the next generation B-factory experiment, the Belle II. The main components of the ARICH are aerogel radiator and photon sensor. When a charged particle goes through the radiator, it emits Cherenkov light photons to the direction which depends on the particle velocity. Combining observables in the Belle II detector, such as a momentum measured with tracker installed inside of the ARICH, and directions of the Cherenkov light photons with the ARICH, we obtain the charged particle mass information. A new photon sensor named Hybrid Avalanche Photon Detector (HAPD) is used to collect a small number of the Cherenkov light photons distributed in the large area effectively. We set up a small part of the ARICH detector and perform the measurement using electron and hadron beam lines at KEK, CERN and DESY. From the obtained results, we expect that it is possible to separate K- and π-mesons by more than 5σ significance level with the ARICH design. The HAPD and its readout electronics production has been started and several kinds of the quality testing for them are ongoing. We also simulate the whole ARICH detector with a GEANT4-based program and expected performance of the particle identification is sufficient for charged tracks in a wide momentum range. After finishing the production of the all components, the construction of the ARICH detector will start in this year and installation to the Belle II detector will be completed in 2015.

  6. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  7. Standards for Quality Agricultural Occupations Programs as Validated by the Agricultural Occupations Teachers in the Secondary and Area Vocational Centers of Illinois. Part I and Part II. [A Final Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    This report details the process of the Illinois Standards Project to develop, adopt, and implement standards of quality for agricultural occupation programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels throughout Illinois. Part I, standards for quality programs in area vocational centers excluding metropolitan areas, is divided into three…

  8. Status of the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S. Rolli

    2002-08-14

    The status of the CDF II experiment is described. Since operations start-up for run II data taking in March 2001, the CDF detector has been commissioned using about 20 pb{sup -1} of data provided by the Tevatron (utilized about 4-8). Most detector components are ready for physics quality data. The goal is to present the first physics results by summer-fall 2002.

  9. Synthesis and surface chemistry of high quality wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as a new tin source.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Gryszel, Maciej; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Zukowska, Grazyna Z; Agnese, Fabio; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2015-08-21

    A novel synthesis method for the preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is presented using a liquid precursor of tin, namely tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, which yields small and nearly monodisperse NCs either in the kesterite or in the wurtzite phase depending on the sulfur source (elemental sulfur in oleylamine vs. dodecanethiol).

  10. The key role of the meat industry in transformation to a low-carbon, climate resilient, sustainable economy.

    PubMed

    Rijsberman, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Climate change, air pollution and refugees have become key global challenges threatening sustainability of lifestyles, economies and ecosystems. Agri-food systems are the number one driver of environmental change. Livestock production is the world's largest land user, responsible for half of greenhouse gas emissions from agri-food systems, and the source of repeated health crises. Poor diets have become the number one cause of ill health. Recommendations for a healthy diet emphasize plant-based food. Rapidly falling costs in information technology, biotechnology, renewable energy and battery technology will disrupt current energy and transportation systems and offer opportunities for responsible meat production. Growing consumer interest in healthy food, combined with innovative information systems, offer opportunities to create value through quality control and consumer information in integrated value chains. Meat scientists have a major role to play in the necessary transformation of global agri-food systems towards a new model of green economic growth that is climate resilient, sustainable and provides green jobs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Total Quality Management (TQM) Awareness Seminar. Revision 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-18

    TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Awareness Seminar 0 Copyright 1990, BoozAllen & Hamilton Inc. PREPARED FOR...additional TOM training and Identify potential sources for TOM training. Total Quality Management ii1 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) AWARENESS SEMINAR I...DOD Path to Total Quality Management 11. UNDERSTANDING TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT : THE TQM IMPERATIVE " Exercise: Bead Box * History of

  12. 42 CFR 422.152 - Quality improvement program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... benefit utilization rates, or timeliness of referrals or treatment). (ii) Improvement in beneficiary..., quality of life indicators, depression scales, or chronic disease outcomes). (iii) Staff implementation...

  13. 42 CFR 422.152 - Quality improvement program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... benefit utilization rates, or timeliness of referrals or treatment). (ii) Improvement in beneficiary..., quality of life indicators, depression scales, or chronic disease outcomes). (iii) Staff implementation...

  14. 42 CFR 422.152 - Quality improvement program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benefit utilization rates, or timeliness of referrals or treatment). (ii) Improvement in beneficiary..., quality of life indicators, depression scales, or chronic disease outcomes). (iii) Staff implementation...

  15. 42 CFR 422.152 - Quality improvement program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefit utilization rates, or timeliness of referrals or treatment). (ii) Improvement in beneficiary..., quality of life indicators, depression scales, or chronic disease outcomes). (iii) Staff implementation...

  16. 42 CFR 422.152 - Quality improvement program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... treatment). (ii) Improvement in beneficiary health status as evidenced by measures from functional, psychosocial, or clinical domains (for example, quality of life indicators, depression scales, or...

  17. Quality Programming in H.P.E.R. Volume II. Selected Papers Presented at the Convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (British Columbia, Canada, June 10-13, 1981). Physical Education Series Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John J., Ed.; Turkington, H. David, Ed.

    This volume contains 27 edited papers, and abstracts of 14 papers, presented during the 1981 convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Subjects discussed are listed in 10 categories: (1) working together for quality programs; (2) challenges facing the physical education teacher; (3) skill development and…

  18. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  19. Quality Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Michael

    The quality manual is the “heart” of every management system related to quality. Quality assurance in analytical laboratories is most frequently linked with ISO/IEC 17025, which lists the standard requirements for a quality manual. In this chapter examples are used to demonstrate, how these requirements can be met. But, certainly, there are many other ways to do this.

  20. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  1. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. 30 Years of Extragalactic H II Region Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, D.

    2000-11-01

    The study of extragalactic H II regions has provided key data on ISM abundan ces in star-forming galaxies, and on the properties and physical mechanisms associated with starbursts. Manuel Peimbert and Silvia Torres-Peimbert were early pioneers in obtaining high-quality on physical conditions in extragalactic H II regions. In this review I will highlight their contributions to the field and our present-day understanding of giant H II regions and starbursts.

  4. BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-02

    Image taken on card 8 during BASS-II flame test session with reduced O2 partial pressure. Session conducted on GMT 213. The Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) investigation examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The BASS-II experiment will guide strategies for materials flammability screening for use in spacecraft as well as provide valuable data on solid fuel burning behavior in microgravity. BASS-II results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  5. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners.

  6. Process For Autoclaving HMW PMR-II Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Cifani, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Parts made of graphite-reinforced, high-molecular-weight (HMW) PMR-II polyimide easy to fabricate by autoclaving. Study showed autoclaved HMW PMR-II parts equal in quality to those made by compression molding. Well suited to use at temperatures up to 700 degrees F (371 degrees C). In aircraft engines, they offer advantages of strength and light weight.

  7. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  8. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE`s efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public`s perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations.

  9. The effect of parameter variability in the allometric projection of leaf growth rates for eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) II: the importance of data quality control procedures in bias reduction.

    PubMed

    Echavarría-Heras, Héctor; Leal-Ramírez, Cecilia; Villa-Diharce, Enrique; Cazarez-Castro, Nohe R

    2015-12-01

    Eelgrass grants important ecological benefits including a nursery for waterfowl and fish species, shoreline stabilization, nutrient recycling and carbon sequestration. Upon the exacerbation of deleterious anthropogenic influences, re-establishment of eelgrass beds has mainly depended on transplantation. Productivity estimations provide valuable information for the appraisal of the restoration of ecological functions of natural populations. Assessments over early stages of transplants should preferably be nondestructive. Allometric scaling of eelgrass leaf biomass in terms of matching length provides a proxy that reduces leaf biomass and productivity estimations to simple measurements of leaf length and its elongation over a period. We examine how parameter variability impacts the accuracy of the considered proxy and the extent on what data quality and sample size influence the uncertainties of the involved allometric parameters. We adapted a Median Absolute Deviation data quality control procedure to remove inconsistencies in the crude data. For evaluating the effect of parametric uncertainty we performed both a formal exploration and an analysis of the sensitivity of the allometric projection method to parameter changes. We used parameter estimates obtained by means of nonlinear regression from crude as well as processed data. We obtained reference leaf growth rates by allometric projection using parameter estimates produced by the crude data, and then considered changes in fitted parameters bounded by the modulus of the vector of the linked standard errors, we found absolute deviations up to 10% of reference values. After data quality control, the equivalent maximum deviation was under 7% of corresponding reference rates. Therefore, the addressed allometric method is robust. Even the smaller sized samples in the quality controlled dataset produced better accuracy levels than the whole set of crude data. We propose quality control of data as a highly recommended

  10. 42 CFR 438.240 - Quality assessment and performance improvement program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involve the following: (i) Measurement of performance using objective quality indicators. (ii) Implementation of system interventions to achieve improvement in quality. (iii) Evaluation of the effectiveness... and effectiveness of each MCO's and PIHP's quality assessment and performance improvement program. The...

  11. Comparison of the clinical success rates and quality of life effects of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% and betaxolol 0.25% suspension in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Brimonidine Outcomes Study Group II.

    PubMed

    Javitt, J; Goldberg, I

    2000-10-01

    To compare the clinical effectiveness and the impact on quality of life of twice-daily brimonidine 0.2% with those of twice-daily betaxolol 0.25% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. A prospective, double-masked, randomized, comparative, multicenter, 4-month "real-life" clinical trial involving 188 patients. Medications were instilled twice daily. Efficacy was determined through measurement of intraocular pressure; safety and tolerability were measured using reports of adverse events, a quality of life survey (Glaucoma Disability Index), heart rate, and blood pressure. Patients with an inadequate response in intraocular pressure after 1 month or those who experienced significant adverse events in the first month were switched to the alternative study arm and remained taking the alternative medication for a total of 4 months or left the study. The main outcome measure was clinical success, as determined by evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of drug treatment, and was achieved when the investigator recommended that the patient continue the treatment after completion of the study. As initial therapy, clinical success was achieved in 74% of patients treated with brimonidine, as compared with 57% of patients treated with betaxolol (P = 0.027). The overall mean decrease in intraocular pressure from baseline was 5.9 mm Hg with brimonidine and 3.8 mm Hg with betaxolol. Both treatments were well tolerated, and there were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of adverse events or in the quality of life summary scores. Twice-daily brimonidine 0.2% and betaxolol 0.25% suspension were safe and effective as first-line therapy for glaucoma and ocular hypertension. In this study, brimonidine showed clinical effectiveness superior to that of betaxolol.

  12. Sharply notch cylindrical tension specimen for screening plane-strain fracture toughness. I - Influence of fundamental testing variables on notch strength. II Applications in aluminum alloy quality assurance of fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.; Bucci, R. J.; Collis, S. F.; Kohm, R. F.; Kaufman, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of studies which have been conducted to establish an improved technology base for a use of the sharply notched cylindrical specimen in quality assurance tests of aluminum alloy products. The results are presented of an investigation of fundamental variables associated with specimen preparation and testing, taking into account the influence of the notch root radius, the eccentricity of loading, the specimen diameter, and the notch depth on the sharp notch strength. Attention is given to the statistical procedures which are necessary to establish correlations between the sharp notch strength and the plane-strain fracture toughness for high-strength aluminum alloys.

  13. Quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results.

  14. Water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  15. A mechanism for regulation of chloroplast LHC II kinase by plastoquinol and thioredoxin.

    PubMed

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith

    2011-06-23

    State transitions are acclimatory responses to changes in light quality in photosynthesis. They involve the redistribution of absorbed excitation energy between photosystems I and II. In plants and green algae, this redistribution is produced by reversible phosphorylation of the chloroplast light harvesting complex II (LHC II). The LHC II kinase is activated by reduced plastoquinone (PQ) in photosystem II-specific low light. In high light, when PQ is also reduced, LHC II kinase becomes inactivated by thioredoxin. Based on newly identified amino acid sequence features of LHC II kinase and other considerations, a mechanism is suggested for its redox regulation.

  16. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  17. Assuring quality.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Reynolds, P A; Mason, R; Cardell, R

    2008-08-09

    All those involved in education have a strong motivation to ensure that all its aspects, including content and teaching practice, are of the highest standard. This paper describes how agencies such as the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) and the General Dental Council (GDC) have established frameworks and specifications to monitor the quality of education provided in dental schools and other institutes that provide education and training for dentists and dental care professionals (DCPs). It then considers quality issues in programme and course development, techniques for assessing the quality of education, including content and presentation, and the role of students. It goes on to review the work that has been done in developing quality assessment for distance learning in dentistry. It concludes that, to date, much of the work on quality applies to education as a whole and that the assessment of the quality of e-learning in dentistry is in its infancy.

  18. Photosensitization of HNS II

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoton, N.O.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of photosensitization of HNS II was evaluated using an electrically driven flyer in vacuum, air and xenon. Preliminary experiments, without HNS II acceptors, indicated increased ultraviolet light generation by the flyer in argon, krypton and xenon atmospheres relative to air while no ultraviolet light was detectable in vacuum. HNS II initiation threshold tests in vacuum, air and xenon showed only a slight difference in threshold level between air and vacuum, and a higher threshold level in xenon. Thus no relationship was evident from these tests between ultraviolet energy level and the initiation sensitivity of HNS II.

  19. TRUPACT-II Operating and Maintenance Instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division

    1999-12-31

    ) Attaching a site-specific cover page/letter to this document stating that these are the instructions to be used at their location, or (3) Sites may prepare their own document using the steps in this document word-for-word, in-sequence, including Notes and Cautions. Site specific information may be included as deemed necessary. Submit the document to WID National TRU Programs for approval. Any revision made subsequent to WID TRU Program's approval shall be reviewed and approved by WID TRU Programs. A copy of the approval letter from WID National TRU Programs should be available for audit purposes. Users shall develop site-specific procedures addressing leak testing, preoperational activities, quality assurance, hoisting and rigging, and radiation health physics to be used in conjunction with the instructions contained in this document. Users desiring to recommend changes to this document may submit their recommendations to the WID National TRU Programs for evaluation. If approved, the change(s) will be incorporated into this document for use by all TRUPACT-II users. User sites will be audited to this document to ensure compliance within one year from the effective date of this revision. This document discusses operating instructions, required inspections and maintenance for the following: TRUPACT-II packaging, and Miscellaneous packaging, special tools, and equipment. Packaging and payload handling equipment and transport trailers have been specifically designed for use with the TRUPACT-II Packaging. This document discusses the required instructions for use of the following equipment in conjunction with the TRUPACT-II Packaging: TRUPACT-II Mobile Loading Unit (MLU), Adjustable Center-of-Gravity Lift Fixture (ACGLF), and TRUPACT-II Transport Trailer. Attachment E contains the various TRUPACT-II packaging interface control drawings, leak-test and vent-port tool drawings, ACGLF drawings, and tie-down drawings that identify the various system components.

  20. Analysis of regional meteorology and surface ozone during the TexAQS II field program and an evaluation of the NMM-CMAQ and WRF-Chem air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, James M.; Djalalova, Irina; McKeen, Stuart; Bianco, Laura; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Georg; Peckham, Steven; Mathur, Rohit; McQueen, Jeff; Lee, Pius

    2009-04-01

    This study examines meteorological conditions associated with regional surface ozone using data collected during the summer Second Texas Air Quality Experiment, and the ability of the Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model-Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (NMM-CMAQ) and the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) models to simulate the observed meteorology and surface ozone. The surface ozone data consist of 118 sites that are part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Aerometric Information Retrieval Now (AIRNow) network, while the meteorological data came from a network of eleven 915-MHz wind profilers with RASS temperatures and supporting surface meteorological stations. High and low 8-h maximum ozone occurrences most frequently develop as regional events, with similar ozone concentration patterns across all of east Texas, allowing for a separate analysis of high- and low-ozone day conditions. The ability of the NMM-CMAQ and WRF-Chem models to simulate the meteorologically distinct high- and low-ozone events is analyzed. Histograms of surface ozone show that both the NMM-CMAQ and WRF-Chem models underpredict the full range found in the observations. For low ozone values, the analysis indicates that the models have a positive bias because of too large of an ozone inflow boundary condition value over the Gulf of Mexico. In contrast, the models have a negative bias for very high ozone values that occur mostly in Houston and Dallas, which suggests that the urban emissions and/or chemistry is misrepresented in the models.

  1. Emission sources sensitivity study for ground-level ozone and PM2.5 due to oil sands development using air quality modelling system: Part II - Source apportionment modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; McEachern, Preston; Shah, Tejas; Johnson, Jeremiah; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

    2012-08-01

    We conducted four source apportionment simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) photochemical grid modelling system in order to investigate and assess the relative importance of specific emissions sources and/or geographic regions on ambient ozone and PM air quality in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR). Local point and area sources, medium range transport of mobile sources and biogenic emissions were examined. The elimination of emissions from local stationary point sources reduced 8-h ozone concentrations and greatly reduces the PM2.5 concentrations in AOSR; similar results are seen in the local area source zero-out simulations but with less ozone and PM2.5 reductions than seen in the local point source zero-out run. Although the mobile source medium-range transport reduced 8-h ozone concentrations in the urban plume from Edmonton that results in some ozone and PM2.5 concentration reductions in the southern part of the AOSR, it has little effect on the elevated ozone and PM2.5 concentrations in the oil sands development area of the AOSR where the highest ozone and PM2.5 concentrations are estimated. The elimination of all anthropogenic emissions in Alberta so that only biogenic emissions remained resulted in large reductions in 8-h ozone concentrations in the AOSR, with the highest remaining ozone in the 50-52 ppb range occurring south of Fort McMurray; very low PM2.5 concentrations are also estimated across Alberta, including the AOSR, when anthropogenic emissions are eliminated in Alberta.

  2. CDF - Run II Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Paulini

    2003-03-17

    After a five year upgrade period, the CDF detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is back in operation taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report on the status of the CDF experiment in Run II and discuss the start-up of the Tevatron accelerator. First physics results from CDF are presented. We also discuss the prospects for B physics in RunII, in particular the measurements of B{sub S}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and CP violation in B decays.

  3. Methodological Report: Transnational European Evaluation Project II (TEEP II). ENQA Occasional Papers 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The second Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP II) was undertaken between August 2004 and June 2006. A methodology for evaluating transnational programmes had previously been tested during 2002-2003 by ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) in the first Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP I).…

  4. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  9. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  11. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  12. Health-related quality of life in a multicenter randomized controlled comparison of telephonic disease management and automated home monitoring in patients recently hospitalized with heart failure: SPAN-CHF II trial.

    PubMed

    Konstam, Varda; Gregory, Douglas; Chen, Jie; Weintraub, Andrew; Patel, Ayan; Levine, Daniel; Venesy, David; Perry, Kathleen; Delano, Christine; Konstam, Marvin A

    2011-02-01

    Although disease management programs have been shown to provide a number of clinical benefits to patients with heart failure (HF), the incremental impact of an automated home monitoring (AHM) system on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. We performed a prospective randomized investigation, examining the additive value of AHM to a previously described nurse-directed HF disease management program (SPAN-CHF), with attention to HRQL, in patients with a recent history of decompensated HF. A total of 188 patients were randomized to receive the SPAN-CHF intervention for 90 days, either with (AHM group) or without (NAHM, standard-care group) AHM, with a 1:1 randomization ratio after HF-related hospitalization. HRQL, measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Physical, Emotional, and Total scores on MLHFQ) was assessed at 3 time points: baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Although both treatments (AHM and NAHM) improved HRQL at 45 and 90 days compared with baseline with respect to Physical, Emotional, and Total domain scales, no significant difference emerged between AHM and NAHM groups. AHM and NAHM treatments demonstrated improved HRQL scores at 45 and 90 days after baseline assessment. When comparing 2 state-of the-art disease management programs regarding HRQL outcomes, our results did not support the added value of AHM. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Total Quality Management (TQM). Implementers Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-15

    SHEE’T :s t’ii ,rrl DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE May 15, 1990 Lfl CN I TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Implementers Workshop © Copyright 1990 Booz.Allen...must be continually performed in order to achieve successful TQM implementation. 1-5 = TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Implementers Workshop Course Content...information, please refer to the student manual, Total Quality Management (TOM) Awareness Seminar, that was provided for the Awareness Course. You may

  14. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  15. Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains five sections that cover the following topics: (1) importance of reliability; (2) meaning of quality assurance; (3) historical development of quality assurance; (4) statistical…

  16. Water Quality

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Maluk; Thomas A. Abrahamsen; Richard H. Day

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) in 1991 to describe the status of and long-term trends in the quality of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources. The study of the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages began in 1994 and included about 60800 km2 in North Carolina and...

  17. Afterschool Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles; Akiva, Tom; McGovern, Gina; Peck, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses efforts to define and improve the quality of afterschool services, highlighting areas of agreement and identifying leading-edge issues. We conclude that the afterschool field is especially well positioned to deliver high-quality services and demonstrate effectiveness at scale because a strong foundation has been built for…

  18. Afterschool Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles; Akiva, Tom; McGovern, Gina; Peck, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses efforts to define and improve the quality of afterschool services, highlighting areas of agreement and identifying leading-edge issues. We conclude that the afterschool field is especially well positioned to deliver high-quality services and demonstrate effectiveness at scale because a strong foundation has been built for…

  19. Quality measurement

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Amy E.; Cohen, Adam B.; Bever, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is shifting from volume-based to value-based reimbursement of health care services. Measuring the value of health care requires measurement of quality and cost. We provide an overview of quality measurement and review a well-known and widely used conceptual model for assessing quality: structure, process, and outcome. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using these types of metrics. We then use this conceptual model to describe prominent CMS programs such as the Physician Quality Reporting System, Physician Compare Web site, and the Medicare Shared Savings Plan. We highlight 2 recent trends: the increasing use of outcome measures to supplement process measures and the public reporting of quality. PMID:25317378

  20. Supplementation of corn dried distillers' grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage: II. Impacts on uterine blood flow, circulating estradiol-17β and progesterone, and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, V C; Mordhorst, B R; Gaspers, J J; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Lemley, C O; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS) during late gestation on uterine blood flow (BF), circulating steroid hormones and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzymes, and calf and placental weights. Multiparous beef cows were randomly divided into a control group (CON; = 15) consuming a diet containing 90% corn stover and 10% corn silage (DM basis) for ad libitum intake and a treatment group (SUP; = 12) consuming the same diet and DDGS (0.3% of BW). Corn silage inclusion was increased to 30% as gestation progressed to meet increasing caloric requirements. Ipsilateral and contralateral uterine BF and cross-sectional area (CSA) of each uterine artery were measured by Doppler ultrasonography on d 180, 216, and 246 of pregnancy. Contralateral BF and CSA increased ( < 0.01) as gestation advanced. Ipsilateral BF and CSA was affected by a treatment × day of gestation interaction ( < 0.05). A main effect of treatment ( = 0.02) and day ( < 0.01) was observed for total BF; BF increased over time and SUP cows had greater BF than CON cows. Circulating concentrations of both progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2) were affected by an interaction of treatment and day ( < 0.01). Concentrations of circulating E2 steadily increased throughout the study and were greater in CON cows than in SUP cows by d 242. Concentrations of P4 also increased over time; P4 of CON cows was greater than that of SUP cows by d 242. Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity increased with advancing gestation ( < 0.01). There was greater UGT activity ( < 0.05) and a trend for greater CYP1A activity ( = 0.06) in SUP cows than in CON cows. Activity of cytochrome P450 3A was greater ( < 0.01) in SUP cows and decreased ( < 0.05) with advancing gestation. Supplementing DDGS to cows fed low-quality forage during late gestation increased uterine BF but decreased circulating E2 and P4

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis for high-quality glutathione-capped Cdx Zn1 - x Se and Cdx Zn1 - x Se/ZnS alloyed quantum dots and its application in Hg(II) sensing.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lu; Sheng, Si-Yu; Mei, Ping; Liu, Yi; Guo, Qing-Lian

    2017-03-01

    High-quality Cdx Zn1 - x Se and Cdx Zn1 - x Se/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) emitting in the violet-green spectral range have been successfully prepared using hydrothermal methods. The obtained aqueous Cdx Zn1 - x Se and Cdx Zn1 - x Se/ZnS QDs exhibit a tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission (from 433.5 nm to 501.2 nm) and a favorable narrow photoluminescence bandwidth [full width at half maximum (FWHM): 30-42 nm]. After coating with a ZnS shell, the quantum yield increases from 40.2% to 48.1%. These Cdx Zn1 - x Se and Cdx Zn1 - x Se/ZnS QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. To further understand the alloying mechanism, the growth kinetics of Cdx Zn1 - x Se were investigated through measuring the fluorescence spectra and X-ray diffraction spectra at different growth intervals. The results demonstrate that the inverted ZnSe/CdSe core/shell structure is formed initially after the injection of Cd(2)(+) . With further heating, the core/shell structured ZnSe/CdSe is transformed into alloyed Cdx Zn1 - x Se QDs with the diffusion of Cd(2)(+) into ZnSe matrices. With increasing the reaction temperature from 100 °C to 180 °C, the duration time of the alloying process decreases from 210 min to 20 min. In addition, the cytotoxicity of Cdx Zn1 - x Se and Cdx Zn1 - x Se/ZnS QDs were investigated. The results indicate that the as-prepared Cdx Zn1 - x Se/ZnS QDs have low cytotoxicity, which makes them a promising probe for cell imaging. Finally, the as-prepared Cdx Zn1 - x Se/ZnS QDs were utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg(2)(+) ions with a low detection limit (1.8 nM). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An explorative study to assess the association between health-related quality of life and the recommended phase II dose in a phase I trial: idarubicin-loaded beads for chemoembolisation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Anota, Amélie; Boulin, Mathieu; Dabakuyo-Yonli, Sandrine; Hillon, Patrick; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Minello, Anne; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Paoletti, Xavier; Bedenne, Laurent; Guiu, Boris; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the recommended phase 2 dose in a phase I clinical trial according to the Time to HRQoL deterioration approach (TTD). Setting This is a phase I dose-escalation trial of transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) with idarubicin-loaded beads performed in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients had to complete the EORTC QLQ-C30 HRQoL questionnaire at baseline and at days 15, 30 and 60 after TACE. Participants Patients aged ≥18 years with HCC unsuitable for curative treatments were evaluated for the study (N=21). Primary and secondary outcome measurements The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of idarubicin loaded after a single TACE session. MTD was defined as the dose level closest to that causing dose-limiting toxicity in 20% of patients. HRQoL was the secondary end point. Results Between March 2010 and March 2011, 9, 6 and 6 patients were included at idarubicin dose levels of 5, 10 and 15 mg, respectively. Calculated MTD of idarubicin was 10 mg. At the 10 mg idarubicin dose, patients presented a longer TTD than at 5 mg, for global health status (HR=0.91 (95% CI 0.18 to 4.72)), physical functioning (HR=0.38 (0.04 to 3.22)), fatigue (HR=0.67 (0.18 to 2.56)) and pain (HR=0.47 (0.05 to 4.24)). Conclusions These HRQoL results were consistent with the estimated MTD, with a median TTD for global health status of 41 days (21 to NA) at 5 mg, 23 days (20 to NA) at 10 mg and 25 days (17 to NA) at 15 mg. These results show the importance of studying HRQoL in phase I trials. Trial registration number NCT01040559; Post-results. PMID:27342239

  3. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    SciTech Connect

    Fedurin, M.; Jing, Y.; Stratakis, D.; Swinson, C.

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  4. Rural water safety from the source to the on-farm tap.

    PubMed

    Corkal, Darrell; Schutzman, W C; Hilliard, Clint

    For those Canadians who live in metropolitan areas, good quality water for domestic use and consumption is readily available, and perhaps taken for granted. However, for over 4 million Canadians who rely on private water supplies, access to water that is safe for consumption and suitable for domestic use is a very real issue. This is also true in the agriculture and agri-food sector. Many of these private water supplies are in rural areas, where water is taken from surface or ground sources. These supplies may be of naturally poor quality, or may have had their quality affected by municipal, industrial, or agricultural activities. Options to protect and enhance the quality of private water supplies include source protection using best management practices (BMPs), source enhancement, and water treatment using innovative small-scale systems. With funding from the Canada-Saskatchewan Agri-Food Innovation Fund, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has conducted applied research into effective and affordable BMPs (remote livestock watering, low-drift nozzles for spraying farm chemicals, methods to reduce agro-chemical runoff or leaching, etc.). Source enhancement strategies were studied using aeration for farm ponds or preventive maintenance procedures for ground water wells. Various water treatment technologies were adapted to the small-scale needs of farms, including coagulation, biological sand and biological carbon filtration, membrane filtration using microfilters, nanofilters or reverse osmosis processes, and disinfection systems using chlorination or ultra violet light. Each research project included a technology transfer component, to ensure that the knowledge gained from the research was available to those that needed the information, and to help decision makers address rural water quality problems.

  5. First-line cisplatin with docetaxel or vinorelbine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a quality of life directed phase II randomized trial of Gruppo Oncologico Italia Meridionale.

    PubMed

    Gebbia, Vittorio; Lorusso, Vito; Galetta, Domenico; Caruso M, Michele; Palomba, Giuseppe; Riccardi, Fernando; Borsellino, Nicolò; Carrozza, Francesco; Leo, Silvana; Ferraù, Francesco; Cinieri, Saverio; Mancuso, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Sergio; Colucci, Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has gained greater importance in the management of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer due to the palliative nature of treatment. Docetaxel (DCT) and cisplatin (CDDP) doublet has been reported to be associated to a better QoL than the weekly vinorelbine (VNR) and CDDP regimen. Recently a newer more tolerated schedule of the VNR/CDDP regimen has been published and is widely employed in medical practice. The impact of these regimens on patients' QoL as well as symptoms control and type and grading chemo-related side-effects has been compared prospectically. Patients received CDDP 75 mg/m(2) plus DCT 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 every weeks (arm A) or CDDP 80 mg/m(2) on day 1 plus VNR 30 mg/m(2) day 1 and 8 every 3 weeks (arm B). G-CSF and/or EPO were employed as needed. Health-related QoL was assessed at entry and after every cycle by the EORTC-QLQ-C30 and LC13 questionnaires, toxicity by the NCI-NCCN CTC vs 2, and intent-to-treat objective response by the Recist criteria. The QoL questionnaires were completed by 37 pts (88%) in the DCT/CDDP arm and 39 pts (87%) in the VNR/CDDP one. Baseline mean scores and rates at which pts failed to complete QoL assessment were similar in the two arms. Global health status of the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale and specific symptoms control (LC13 module) improved during treatment without any statistically significant difference between the two arms. Emotional functioning remained stable in both groups during treatment, whereas physical and role improved slightly. In the DCT/CDDP arm 14 pts (33%; 95%CL 24-40%) had PR, and 10 (24%) SD for a 57% TGCR. In the VNR/CDDP arm 12 pts (27%) achieved PR, 18 (41%) SD a 68% TGCR. Differences were not statistically significant. Median time-to-progression was 4.2 months in the DCT/CDDP arm and 4.5 months in the VNR/CDDP one, and median overall survival was 12.1 (range 1-26+ months) and 12.5 months (range 1-28+ months) for DCT/CDDP and VNR/CDDP arms, respectively. Febrile neutropenia rate was

  6. FIRE II Cirrus Info

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-03-18

    ... Page:  FIRE II Main Grouping:  Cirrus Description:  First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Data Products:  Cirrus ...

  7. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects include: Dizziness Elevated blood potassium level (hyperkalemia) Localized swelling of tissues (angioedema) There have been ... 31, 2016. Townsend RR. Major side effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. http://www.uptodate. ...

  8. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  9. START II and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1996-10-01

    The second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), signed by President George Bush and Russian President Boris yeltsin in January 1993, was ratified by the US Senate in January 1996 by and overwhelming vote of 87-4. The treaty, which will slash the strategic arsenals of the United States and Russia to 3,000-3,500 warheads each, is now before the two houses of the Russian Parliament (the Duma and the Federation Council) awaiting ratification amidst confusion and criticism. The Yeltsin administration supports START II and spoke in favor of Russian ratification after the Senate acted on the treaty. The Russian foreign minister and the Russian military believed that START II should be ratified as soon as possible. During the recent presidential campaign and his subsequent illness, President Yeltsin has been virtually silent on the subject of START II and nuclear force reductions. Without a push from the Yeltsin administration, the tone among Duma members, has been sharply critical of START II. Voices across the Russian political spectrum have questioned the treaty and linked it to constraints on highly capable theater missile defense (TMD) systems and the continued viability of the ABM Treaty. And urged that START II ratification be held hostage until NATO abandons its plans to expand eastward. Although the START I and START II accords have generated the momentum, opportunity and expectation-both domestic and international-for additional nuclear arms reductions, the current impasse over ratification in the Duma has cast a shadow over the future of START II and raised questions about the chances for any follow-on (START III) agreement.

  10. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  11. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  12. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  13. Quality time.

    PubMed

    Serafini, M W

    1997-05-24

    With health care costs soaring, almost everyone rushed into managed care plans to save money. But consumers have discovered that price isn't everything. And business, government and unions increasingly have embarked on a quest for health care quality.

  14. Quality Circles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-09

    wi11. examine the origin, the elements +or a sucCessful program and problems in managing Luality Circles. END NOTES 1. Olga L. Crocker. Johnny...detailed plans are prepared for formal presentation to management. 15 END NOTES t J. M. Juran. "The 4C Circle Fhenomenon" In Quality Circles Selected...Management must advertise its commitment not to lay off employees as a result of quality circle sugqestions. 22 END NOTES 1. La-wrence J. Korb. "Progress

  15. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  16. Quality improvement.

    PubMed

    2014-10-30

    Ready to Lead at tinyurl.com/pd9mmuy is a collection of a short series of articles by senior improvement manager at Healthcare Improvement Scotland Steven Wilson. The collection is aimed at drawing out some of the key behaviours, skills and attributes necessary for successful quality improvement leadership. It is not intended as a comprehensive examination, but offers some alternative and creative ideas about what makes effective quality improvement leaders.

  17. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  18. A Phase II Trial of Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Using a Non-Robotic Linear Accelerator and Real-Time Target Tracking: Report of Toxicity, Quality of Life, and Disease Control Outcomes with 5-Year Minimum Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Mantz, Constantine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Herein, we report the results of an IRB-approved phase II trial of Varian Trilogy/TrueBeam-based stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) monotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer using the Calypso® System to provide real-time electromagnetic tracking of the prostate’s position during treatment delivery. Materials/Methods: A total of 102 low-risk patients completed protocol treatment between January 2007 and May 2009. A total dose of 40.0 Gy in 5 every-other-day fractions of 8.0 Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume. Target setup and tracking procedures were as follows: (1) the Calypso® System was used to achieve target setup prior to each fraction; (2) conebeam CT imaging was then used for correction of setup error and for assessment of target and organs-at-risk deformations; (3) after treatment delivery was initiated, the Calypso® System then provided real-time intrafractional target tracking. The NCI CTCAE v3.0 was used to assess urinary and rectal toxicity during treatment and at defined follow-up time points. Biochemical response and quality of life measurements were made at concurrent follow-up points. Results: Urinary toxicities were most common. At 6 months, 19.6, 2.9, and 4.9% of patients reported grades 1–2 urinary frequency, dysuria, and retention, respectively. Rectal toxicities were uncommon. By 12 months, 2.9% of patients reported painless rectal bleeding with subsequent symptom resolution without requiring invasive interventions. Quality of life measurements demonstrated a significant decline over baseline in urinary irritative/obstructive scores at 1 month following SABR but otherwise did not demonstrate any difference for bowel, bladder, and sexual function scores at any other follow-up time point. One patient suffered biochemical recurrence at 6 years following SABR. Conclusion: At 5 years, minimum follow-up for this favorable patient cohort, prostate SABR resulted in favorable toxicity

  19. Keck II status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald M.

    1997-03-01

    The second of two 10-meter telescopes comprising the W. M. Keck Observatory is nearing completion. Functionally, the Keck II telescope is a twin of Keck I, but in detail, many improvements have been made. Observatory and scientific instrument budgets are presented for the two telescopes. A new software system was developed for Keck II using EPICS-based architecture. Computer architecture for Keck II was also completely changed from the Keck I design using VMS and VAX computers to UNIX and SUN computers. The new telescope is completely assembled on the site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Design, construction, and testing of the Keck II telescope has taken significantly less time due to the experience and tools developed for the first telescope. An adaptive optics system is currently being developed for Keck II. Preliminary design of this system is complete and the system is expected to be commissioned in 1998. Configuration of the twin 10-meter telescopes was designed to allow combining of the optical beams from the two telescopes and to add smaller satellite telescopes for interferometry. Plans for this phase are being developed in detail.

  20. Topoisomerase II and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, MaryJean; Lindsey, R. Hunter; Felix, Carolyn A.; Grimwade, David; Osheroff, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that modulate DNA under- and overwinding, knotting, and tangling. Beyond their critical physiological functions, these enzymes are the targets for some of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs (topoisomerase II poisons) in clinical use. Topoisomerase II poisons kill cells by increasing levels of covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complexes that are normal reaction intermediates. Drugs such as etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone are frontline therapies for a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, their use is also associated with the development of specific leukemias. Regimens that include etoposide or doxorubicin are linked to the occurrence of acute myeloid leukemias that feature rearrangements at chromosomal band 11q23. Similar rearrangements are seen in infant leukemias and are associated with gestational diets that are high in naturally occurring topoisomerase II–active compounds. Finally, regimens that include mitoxantrone and epirubicin are linked to acute promyelocytic leukemias that feature t(15;17) rearrangements. The first part of this article will focus on type II topoisomerases and describe the mechanism of enzyme and drug action. The second part will discuss how topoisomerase II poisons trigger chromosomal breaks that lead to leukemia and potential approaches for dissociating the actions of drugs from their leukemogenic potential. PMID:24495080

  1. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  2. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  3. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  4. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  5. Atomic-Scale Characterization of II-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David J.

    2013-11-01

    Alloys of II-VI compound semiconductors with suitable band gap selection potentially provide broad coverage of wavelengths for photodetector applications. Achievement of high-quality epitaxial growth is, however, essential for successful development of integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices. Atomic-scale characterization of structural defects in II-VI heterostructures using electron microscopy plays an invaluable role in accomplishing this goal. This paper reviews some recent high-resolution studies of II-VI compound semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure, as grown epitaxially on commonly used substrates. Exploratory studies using aberration-corrected electron microscopes are also briefly considered.

  6. Academic Service Quality and Instructional Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Keith; Westbrook, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between academic service quality and instructional quality in higher education. Found a high correlation between academic service and instructional quality, with academic service overlapping instructional quality in three dimensions: enthusiasm, organization, and rapport. (EV)

  7. Academic Service Quality and Instructional Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Keith; Westbrook, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between academic service quality and instructional quality in higher education. Found a high correlation between academic service and instructional quality, with academic service overlapping instructional quality in three dimensions: enthusiasm, organization, and rapport. (EV)

  8. Standard portrait image and image quality assessment: II. Triplet comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Keiichi; Kanafusa, Kunihiko; Umemoto, Hiroshi; Takemura, Kazuhiko; Urabe, Hitoshi; Hirai, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Hatada, Toyohiko

    2000-12-01

    We have already proposed a standard portrait for the assessment of preferable skin tone. The present report describes a psycho physical experimental method, i.e., simultaneous triplet comparison that has been developed for the assessment of skin tone by using the portrait and that is characterized not only by a scalability, stability and reproducibility of the resulting scale values, but also by a reduce stress on observers. We have confirmed that the present simultaneous triplet comparison has a degree of scalability and stability almost equivalent to that of paired comparison that is most widely used for similar purposes, and that the stress on observers is about half as much as that of paired comparison.

  9. Computer Systems Acquisition Metrics Handbook. Volume II. Quality Factor Modules.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD- A120 376 SYSTEMS ARCH4ITECTS INC RtANDOLPH MASS F/ O 9/2CCOM4PUTER SYSTEMS ACQUISITION METRICS MAN09M@. VOLUME It. QUALI -ETC iuMAT 82 FIft2 8-C...components of the "COMPUTER SYSTEMS ACQUISITION METRICS HANDBOOK". le Cj co-i " z/%a 4 • \\ // INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR CORRECTNESS MODULE...rr LE ~M M 1inT DRS4I- UALTG i MSIGNUT M0 JI PJM.DGIWn MaN TU IE ESD PIRMJCrS, FOR TEST AND INTEGRATION PHASE Apply the Preliminary Design Worksheets

  10. Multisite evaluation of APEX for water quality: II. Regional parameterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus (P) index assessment requires independent estimates of long-term average annual P loss from multiple locations, management practices, soils, and landscape positions. Because currently available measured data are insufficient, calibrated and validated process-based models have been propos...

  11. [Measurement of CO diffusion capacity (II): Standardization and quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R; de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H

    2015-08-01

    The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted.

  12. Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Data from the Third Annual Report of the United States Council of Environmental Quality are used in an editorial advocating the use of some of the money committed to cleaning air and water to create a more adequate knowledge base for action. (AL)

  13. Teaching Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    This issue is the last in a three-part series on teaching quality. The first examined the effectiveness of various approaches to recruiting, educating, and inducting teachers. This report discusses the school environment and role of teachers' working conditions in attracting and retaining good teachers, noting several disparate factors that…

  14. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  15. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  16. Reflections on Excellence II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the book "Excellence II," the new version of "Excellence in Art Education: Ideas and Initiatives," by summarizing each of the nine chapters. Identifies the new features and/or discussions; in particular, the additions of two chapters, one on multiculturalism and cultural pluralism and another on modernism and postmodernism. (CMK)

  17. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  18. A la Mode II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Richard A.

    This paper describes two modes of educational decision-making: Mode I, in which the instructor makes such decisions as what to teach, to whom, when, in what order, at what pace, and at what complexity level; and Mode II, in which the learner makes the decisions. While Mode I comprises most of what is regarded as formal education, the learner in…

  19. Class II Microcins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  20. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  1. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  2. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  3. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  4. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.

    2010-02-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  5. Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardi, Silvio; de Nardo, Guglielmo; Russo, Guido; Belle II computing Group

    2016-04-01

    The existence of large matter-antimatter asymmetry (CP violation) in the b-quark system as predicted in the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory was established by the B-Factory experiments, Belle and BaBar. However, this cannot explain the magnitude of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe we live in today. This indicates undiscovered new physics exists. The Belle II experiment, the next generation of the B-Factory, is expected to reveal the new physics by accumulating 50 times more data (˜ 50ab-1) than Belle by 2023. The Belle II computing system has to handle an amount of beam data eventually corresponding to several tens of PetaByte per year under an operation of the SuperKEKB accelerator with a designed instantaneous luminosity. Under this situation, it cannot be expected that one site, KEK, will be able to provide all computing resources for the whole Belle II collaboration including the resources not only for the raw data processing but also for the MC production and physics analysis done by users. In order to solve this problem, Belle II employed the distributed computing system based on DIRAC, which provides us the interoperability of heterogeneous computing systems such as grids with different middleware, clouds and the local computing clusters. Since the last year, we performed the MC mass production campaigns to confirm the feasibility and find out the possible bottleneck of our computing system. In parallel, we also started the data transfer challenge through the transpacific and transatlantic networks. This presentation describes the highlights of the Belle II computing and the current status. We will also present the experience of the latest MC production campaign in 2014.

  6. Inhibitory role of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) on cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying-Hao; Kim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2005-08-29

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in all oxygen-utilizing organisms. Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) as one of antioxidant enzymes may play a protective role against the oxidative damage caused by ROS. In order to define the role of Prx II in organismal aging, we evaluated cellular senescence in Prx II(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). As compared to wild type MEF, cellular senescence was accelerated in Prx II(-/-) MEF. Senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal)-positive cell formation was about 30% higher in Prx II(-/-) MEF. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment attenuated SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation. Prx II(-/-) MEF exhibited the higher G2/M (41%) and lower S (1.6%) phase cells as compared to 24% and 7.3% [corrected] in wild type MEF, respectively. A high increase in the p16 and a slight increase in the p21 and p53 levels were detected in PrxII(-/-) MEF cells. The cellular senescence of Prx II(-/-) MEF was correlated with the organismal aging of Prx II(-/-) mouse skin. While extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) MEF, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) skin. These results suggest that Prx II may function as an enzymatic antioxidant to prevent cellular senescence and skin aging.

  7. DPSC (Defense Personnel Support Center) Total Quality Management Master Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DPSC Total Quality Management Master Plan 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) B. PERFORMING...quality supported solider, sailor, airman and marine. % j cl 1 14. SUBJECT TERMS I 1S. NUMBER OF PAGES TQM ( Total Quality Management ), Continuous...THE COMMANDER ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT i SECTION I INTRODUCTION 1 II CONCEPTS 6 TQM Basics 7 Continuous Process Improvement 7 DoD TQM Philosophy 9

  8. [Quality classification standard of Scrophularia ningpoensis seedlings].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Chen, Da-xia; Tan, Jun; Li, Long-yun

    2015-03-01

    The morphological indexes of the Scuophularia ningpoensis seedlings including the longth, diameter and weight were measured, clustering analysis was used to set up the standard quality grading of seedlings of S. Ningpoensis by SPSS. Field experiment was carried out to measure the indicators of plants growth and development, the yield and the quality. The results showed that the growth and yield of class I seedlings were better than those of class II and III. The content of main active ingredients was affected barely by seedlings classification. To ensure the quality, class II seedlings or above should be used for plantation. The established quality classification standard of S. ningpoensis seedlings was scientific and feasible, and provides the basis for the standardized cultivation of S. ningpoensis.

  9. Quality Leadership and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Badrick, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Different quality control rules detect different analytical errors with varying levels of efficiency depending on the type of error present, its prevalence and the number of observations. The efficiency of a rule can be gauged by inspection of a power function graph. Control rules are only part of a process and not an end in itself; just as important are the trouble-shooting systems employed when a failure occurs. 'Average of patient normals' may develop as a usual adjunct to conventional quality control serum based programmes. Acceptable error can be based on various criteria; biological variation is probably the most sensible. Once determined, acceptable error can be used as limits in quality control rule systems. A key aspect of an organisation is leadership, which links the various components of the quality system. Leadership is difficult to characterise but its key aspects include trust, setting an example, developing staff and critically setting the vision for the organisation. Organisations also have internal characteristics such as the degree of formalisation, centralisation, and complexity. Medical organisations can have internal tensions because of the dichotomy between the bureaucratic and the shadow medical structures. PMID:18568046

  10. European Telecommunications Satellite II (EUTELSAT II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laemmel, G.; Brittinger, P.

    1991-01-01

    EUTELSAT II is a regional public telecommunications system for Europe. The services which will be provided are telephone and television. The satellites will be placed at a geostationary orbit within the arcs of 6 degrees east to 19 degrees east or 26 degrees to 36 degrees east. The designed lifetime is 7 years. After separation of the satellites from the launch vehicles, telemetry, telecommand, and ranging will be performed within the S-band frequencies. After positioning of the satellite at its final geostationary orbit, the Ku-band telecommunication equipment will be activated. From this time on, all satellite control operations will be performed in Ku-band. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas at Goldstone and Canberra as prime support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of a 7-day period, plus 14 days of contingency support. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  11. Groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.; Giger, W.; McCarty, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a collection of 28 selected papers presented at the First International Conference on Groundwater Quality Research, at Rice University in October 1981. Several studies provide an overview of chemical and microbial contamination. Local groundwater pollution problems in the Netherlands and metals motility in New Zealand are described. In addition, the effects to groundwater quality due to the discharge of treated wastewaters in the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Houston, Texas are described. Mathematical models are presented that can be used to simulate and predict the transport of contaminants in a saturated groundwater system. Studies describing the sorption of halogenated hydrocarbons, the survival and transport of pathogenic bacteria, the biodegradation of contaminants, and anaerobic transformation in subsurface environments are included. Other topics of discussion include methods for obtaining representative groundwater samples, methods for assessing groundwater problems, methods for designing and constructing microcosms and the microbial characterization of subsurface systems.

  12. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  13. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  14. Environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The potential use of space systems to help determine the current state of air, water, and land environments was examined; the effects of man's activities on these parameters were also examined. Data are limited to pollutants introduced into the major environmental media, environmental changes manifested by such pollutants, and the effectiveness of abatement and control methods. Data also cover land quality as related to land use and public health.

  15. Quality Attributes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    FMEA ) that uses a more formal criticality analysis. fault — the adjudged or hypothesized cause of an error. fault avoidance — see fault prevention ...Communities Have Addressed Quality Attributes There are different schools /opinions/traditions concerning the properties of critical systems and the best...Analysis Performance analysis methods seem to have grown out of two separate schools of thought, queueing theory and scheduling theory. Queueing theory

  16. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  17. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  18. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  19. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II Cirrus was conducted in southeastern Kansas. It was designed to improve the ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE ...

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... is most often with a tumor called a pheochromocytoma . Involvement of the thyroid gland is most often ...

  1. Marine Resiliency Study II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-06

    the Army Study of Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS) program, by evaluating the physical , family, social, cognitive and mental health status of...MRS II) is to identify the individual, social. and deployment factors that predict trajectories of mental health response, particularly posttraumatic...with an overarching ob ject ive co develop a platform to provide an early analysis of predictors of mental health outcomes , such as Post Traumatic

  2. Operation Everest II.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a V(O)(2)max of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) of approximately 28 and approximately 10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation-perfusion inequality and O(2) diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake-expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain mechanism or significance. OE II was unique in the diversity and complexity of studies carried out on a single, courageous cohort of subjects. These studies could never have been carried out in the field, and thus complement studies such as the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest (AMREE) that, although more limited in scope, serve as benchmarks and reality checks for chamber studies like OE II.

  3. Enabling nutrient security and sustainability through systems research.

    PubMed

    Kaput, Jim; Kussmann, Martin; Mendoza, Yery; Le Coutre, Ronit; Cooper, Karen; Roulin, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Human and companion animal health depends upon nutritional quality of foods. Seed varieties, seasonal and local growing conditions, transportation, food processing, and storage, and local food customs can influence the nutrient content of food. A new and intensive area of investigation is emerging that recognizes many factors in these agri-food systems that influence the maintenance of nutrient quality which is fundamental to ensure nutrient security for world populations. Modeling how these systems function requires data from different sectors including agricultural, environmental, social, and economic, but also must incorporate basic nutrition and other biomedical sciences. Improving the agri-food system through advances in pre- and post-harvest processing methods, biofortification, or fortifying processed foods will aid in targeting nutrition for populations and individuals. The challenge to maintain and improve nutrient quality is magnified by the need to produce food locally and globally in a sustainable and consumer-acceptable manner for current and future populations. An unmet requirement for assessing how to improve nutrient quality, however, is the basic knowledge of how to define health. That is, health cannot be maintained or improved by altering nutrient quality without an adequate definition of what health means for individuals and populations. Defining and measuring health therefore becomes a critical objective for basic nutritional and other biomedical sciences.

  4. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, L.; And Others

    This teacher's guide is written to accompany the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which effect the quality of a water resource. The teacher's guide provides…

  5. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, L.; And Others

    This teacher's guide is written to accompany the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which effect the quality of a water resource. The teacher's guide provides…

  6. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  7. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, L.; And Others

    Instructions for using the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT are contained in this resource handbook. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which affect the quality of a water resource. The output is…

  8. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, L.; And Others

    Instructions for using the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT are contained in this resource handbook. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which affect the quality of a water resource. The output is…

  9. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wagner, Peter D. Operation Everest II. High Alt. Med. Biol. 11:111–119, 2010.—In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland,xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document} \\begin{align*} \\dot{\\rm V}{\\sc O}_2{\\rm max} \\end{align*} \\end{document} of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial Po2 and Pco2 of ∼28 and ∼10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation–perfusion inequality and O2 diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake–expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VVV survey Galactic Bulge Pop. II Cepheids (Bhardwaj+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Surot, F.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Romaniello, M.; Kanbur, S. M.; Singh, H. P.

    2017-07-01

    We present a combined OGLE-III and VVV catalogue with periods, classification, mean magnitudes and extinction for 264 Galactic bulge population II Cepheids having good-quality Ks-band light curves. (1 data file).

  11. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen.

    PubMed

    Gorrec, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  12. 78 FR 58884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements... Kentucky, through the Kentucky Division for Air Quality (KDAQ) on April 25, 2013, for the purpose of exempting an Enterprise Holdings, Inc., facility from the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) Stage II vapor control...

  13. Quality improvement in neurology: AAN Parkinson disease quality measures

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, E.M.; Tonn, S.; Swain-Eng, R.; Factor, S.A.; Weiner, W.J.; Bever, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Measuring the quality of health care is a fundamental step toward improving health care and is increasingly used in pay-for-performance initiatives and maintenance of certification requirements. Measure development to date has focused on primary care and common conditions such as diabetes; thus, the number of measures that apply to neurologic care is limited. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) identified the need for neurologists to develop measures of neurologic care and to establish a process to accomplish this. Objective: To adapt and test the feasibility of a process for independent development by the AAN of measures for neurologic conditions for national measurement programs. Methods: A process that has been used nationally for measure development was adapted for use by the AAN. Topics for measure development are chosen based upon national priorities, available evidence base from a systematic literature search, gaps in care, and the potential impact for quality improvement. A panel composed of subject matter and measure development methodology experts oversees the development of the measures. Recommendation statements and their corresponding level of evidence are reviewed and considered for development into draft candidate measures. The candidate measures are refined by the expert panel during a 30-day public comment period and by review by the American Medical Association for Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) II codes. All final AAN measures are approved by the AAN Board of Directors. Results: Parkinson disease (PD) was chosen for measure development. A review of the medical literature identified 258 relevant recommendation statements. A 28-member panel approved 10 quality measures for PD that included full specifications and CPT II codes. Conclusion: The AAN has adapted a measure development process that is suitable for national measurement programs and has demonstrated its capability to independently develop quality measures. GLOSSARY

  14. [Quality of vocational education in speech therapy - development and implementation of a quality assurance programme].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, A; Kawski, S; Koch, U; Härter, M

    2014-12-01

    The provision of high-quality health-services is only possible if it is based on vocational education of corresponding quality. To promote the quality of vocational education in speech therapy, a quality assurance programme was developed in a scientifically supervised multi-step process. The main goals of the quality assurance programme include: (i) external review of the quality of education by means of well-defined criteria, (ii) certification of schools that meet the requirements, and (iii) provision of feedback to schools about their results. A total of 208 quality indicators cover the essential aspects of vocational education in speech therapy, and apply to the structural, process and outcome quality. These indicators are based on a literature survey as well as on expert opinion, and are calibrated by data. The data are collected by using questionnaires (school management, teachers in speech therapy, students, consecutive patient sample) and are validated by specific document analyses and telephone audits. Each school receives an individual quality report of its achieved results benchmarked to other schools. Since the initial implementation in 2008, a total of 50 schools participated in the quality assurance programme and 41 achieved certification. Therefore, the defined set of quality criteria has been disseminated and utilized by about half of all German schools for vocational education in speech therapy. The evaluation of the data on quality collected across all schools highlights the strengths and weaknesses of vocational education as well as the demands for quality improvement.

  15. The Concepts of Quality, Quality Assurance and Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to critically review and discuss different definitions of the concepts of quality, quality assurance (QA) and quality enhancement (QE) in higher education (HE) with presenting critical perspectives of the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper looks at literature concerns with the meaning of quality, QA and QE,…

  16. Total Quality Training: The Quality Culture and Quality Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brian

    This book examines the application of total quality management (TQM) principles to training and development. It contains 10 chapters on the following topics: the quality revolution (the nature of and rationale for quality); major barriers to achieving quality (supplier-led approaches, problems with customers, throughput orientation, variable…

  17. The Concepts of Quality, Quality Assurance and Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to critically review and discuss different definitions of the concepts of quality, quality assurance (QA) and quality enhancement (QE) in higher education (HE) with presenting critical perspectives of the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper looks at literature concerns with the meaning of quality, QA and QE,…

  18. Total Quality Training: The Quality Culture and Quality Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brian

    This book examines the application of total quality management (TQM) principles to training and development. It contains 10 chapters on the following topics: the quality revolution (the nature of and rationale for quality); major barriers to achieving quality (supplier-led approaches, problems with customers, throughput orientation, variable…

  19. AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Schotz, S.; Calkins, J.; Gockel, B.; Ortiz, C.; Peter, R.

    2012-12-01

    AWIPS II Technology Infusion is a multiphase program. The first phase is the migration of the Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and River Forecast Centers (RFCs) AWIPS I capabilities into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), referred to as AWIPS II. AWIPS II is currently being deployed to Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) and other select deployment sites. The subsequent phases of AWIPS Technology Infusion, known as AWIPS II Extended, include several projects that will improve technological capabilities of AWIPS II in order to enhance the NWS enterprise and improve services to partners. This paper summarizes AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery project and reports on its status. Data Delivery enables AWIPS II users to discover, subscribe and access web-enabled data provider systems including the capability to subset datasets by space, time and parameter.

  20. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  1. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  2. Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from single-metal, binary-metal, and industrial wastewater systems by surfactant-modified alumina.

    PubMed

    Khobragade, Moni U; Pal, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Batch adsorption was carried out to investigate the possibility of utilizing surfactant-modified alumina (SMA) as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from single-metal and binary-metal solutions. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of SMA before and after metal removal from single-metal matrix, showed no significant changes, whereas energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) studies confirmed the incorporation of Cu(II) (∼ 0.74 atomic%) and Ni(II) (∼ 0.64 atomic%) on the adsorbent surface. The removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II), using SMA depends on contact time, adsorbent dose and medium pH. The sorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model for Cu(II). However, for Ni(II), either pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order model is applicable. The batch experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm, and based on the correlation coefficient value (R(2)), the adsorption could be described more precisely by the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity from Langmuir isotherm of Cu(II) was 9.34 mg g(-1) and for Ni(II) 6.87 mg g(-1). In a synthetic binary mixture of Cu(II) and Ni(II), having a concentration of 10 mg L(-1) each, removal of Cu(II) was better. The treatment method was further applied to real wastewater from an electroplating industry. The batch experiment results showed that SMA was effective in the simultaneous removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) to a significant extent, with additional improvement of water quality of the industrial effluent considered.

  3. Educational Quality Assessment: Manual for Interpreting School Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Educational Quality Assessment.

    The results of the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment program, Phase II, are interpreted. The first section of the manual presents a statement of each of the Ten Goals of Quality Education which served as the basis of the assessment. Also included are the key items on the questionnaires administered to 5th and 11th grade students. The…

  4. The Belle II Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  5. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrec, Fabrice

    2015-06-27

    MORPHEUS II is a 96-condition initial crystallization screen formulated de novo. The screen incorporates reagents selected from the Protein Data Bank to yield crystals that are not observed in traditional conditions. In addition, the formulation facilitates the optimization and cryoprotection of crystals. High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  6. Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Yiming Sun

    2001-09-19

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M&O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  7. Densities, temperatures, pressures, and abundances derived from O II recombination lines in H II regions and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peimbert, Antonio; Peimbert, Manuel E-mail: peimbert@astro.unam.mx

    2013-12-01

    Based on high-quality observations of multiplet V1 of O II and the NLTE atomic computations of O II, we study the density and temperature of a sample of H II regions. We find that the signature for oxygen-rich clumps of high density and low temperature is absent in all objects of our sample: one extragalactic and eight Galactic H II regions. The temperatures derived from (1) recombination lines (RLs) of O II, and (2) RLs of H I together with Balmer continua are lower than those derived from forbidden lines, while the densities derived from RLs of O II are similar or smaller than densities derived from forbidden lines. Electron pressures derived from collisionally excited lines are about two times larger than those derived from RLs. These results imply that the proper abundances are those derived from RLs and suggest that other processes in addition to direct photoionization, such as dissipation of turbulent energy in shocks, magnetic reconnection, and shadowed regions, might be responsible for the large abundance discrepancy factor and t {sup 2} values observed in H II regions.

  8. Truck design optimization project. Phase II: Type II Truck test results report. Technical report Apr-Dec 80

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, R.A.; Gibson, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of the Type II Truck Test Program was to obtain performance data on several Type II (or premium) freight car trucks in order to characterize their operational behavior. Data were acquired in the performance regimes of curve negotiation, lateral stability, trackability, and ride quality. Tests were also conducted to obtain rolling resistance data as part of the fuel consumption study. Data on the Longitudinal coupler forces were used to compare the relative ability of various trucks to reduce rolling resistance and flanging forces, thus improving fuel consumption. The test program was designed to provide direct comparison measurements, wherever possible, with the Type I Truck tested earlier in TDOP Phase II. Seven Type II trucks were tested over the same test zones used during Type I testing. This report documents the changes to the instrumentation and equipment developed for Type I testing which were made for testing Type II trucks. Descriptions of the testing of each truck are presented, as are the procedures for data acquisition and reduction. Additionally, the report contains five appendices: Wheelset Calibration Data, Bearing Adapter Calibration Data, Type II Truck Test Plan and Procedure, Data Reduction Equations, and Transducer Location Measurement Data. The performance data gathered during testing will be used to formulate performance specifications for Type II trucks.

  9. Quality of Life and Health-Related Quality of Life of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Livingston, Michael H.; Palisano, Robert J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 203 adolescents with cerebral palsy (111 males, 92 females; mean age 16y [SD 1y 9mo]). Participants were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), as Level I (n=60), Level II (n=33), Level III (n=28), Level IV (n=50), or Level V…

  10. Quality of Life and Health-Related Quality of Life of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Livingston, Michael H.; Palisano, Robert J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 203 adolescents with cerebral palsy (111 males, 92 females; mean age 16y [SD 1y 9mo]). Participants were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), as Level I (n=60), Level II (n=33), Level III (n=28), Level IV (n=50), or Level V…

  11. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  12. II Zwicky 23 and Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, E. H.; Gallagher, J. S.; Rudie, G. C.; Cigan, P. J.

    II Zwicky 23 (UGC 3179) is a luminous (MB ~ -21) nearby compact narrow emission line st arburst galaxy with blue optical colors and strong emission lines. We present a photometric and morphological study of II Zw 23 and its interacting companions using data obtained with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona. II Zwicky 23 has a highly disturbed outer structure with long trails of debris that may be feeding tidal dwarfs.

  13. Belle II Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, T.; Ritter, M.; Belle Software Group, II

    2016-10-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development.

  14. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  15. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  16. Mode II fatigue crack propagation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.

  17. He II-Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    A small fraction of star-forming galaxies at redshift, 3, show He II at 1640 A as a narrow emission line (Cassata et al. 2012), but the source of this emission is not understood. Does the He II emission arise in the stars or in the surrounding nebula? To answer this question, we use I Zw 18, a well studied blue compact dwarf galaxy showing narrow He II line emission as a test case. We consider if/how He II narrow emission lines could originate in the nearby nebulosity, or in the winds of hot, massive stars, both those on the main sequence and post-MS evolutionary phases.

  18. Multi-tasking, quality and pay for performance.

    PubMed

    Kaarboe, Oddvar; Siciliani, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    We present a model of optimal contracting between a purchaser and a provider of health services when quality has two dimensions. We assume that: (i) the provider is (at least to some extent) altruistic; (ii) one dimension of quality is verifiable (dimension 1) and one dimension is not verifiable (dimension 2); (iii) the two quality dimensions can be either substitutes or complements. Our main result is that setting the price equal to the marginal benefit of the verifiable quality dimension can be optimal even if the two quality dimensions are substitutes.

  19. Inter-Comparison of ILAS-II Version 1.4 Aerosol Extinction Coefficient at 780 nm with SAGE II, SAGE III, and POAM III Aerosol Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Hayashida, S.; Sugita, T.; Nakajima, H.; Yokota, T.; Hayashi, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kanzawa, H.; Ejiri, M. K.; Irie, H.; Tanaka, T.; Terao, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Sasano, Y.; Bevilacqua, R.; Randall, C.; Thomason, L.; Taha, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) II on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) II observed stratospheric aerosol in visible/near-infrared/infrared spectra over high latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Observations were taken intermittently from January to March, and continuously from April through October, 2003. We assessed the data quality of ILAS-II version 1.4 aerosol extinction coefficients at 780 nm from comparisons with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, SAGE III, and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III aerosol data. At heights below 20 km in the Northern Hemisphere, aerosol extinction coefficients from ILAS-II agreed with those from SAGE II and SAGE III within 10%, and with those from POAM III within 15%. From 20 to 26 km, ILAS-II aerosol extinction coefficients were smaller than extinction coefficients from the other sensors; differences between ILAS-II and SAGE II ranged from 10% at 20 km to 34% at 26 km. ILAS-II aerosol extinction coefficients from 20 to 25 km in February over the Southern Hemisphere had a negative bias (12-66%) relative to SAGE II aerosol data. The bias increased with increasing altitude. Comparisons between ILAS-II and POAM III aerosol extinction coefficients from January to May in the Southern Hemisphere (defined as the non-Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) season ) yielded qualitatively similar results. From June to October (defined as the PSC season ), aerosol extinction coefficients from ILAS-II were smaller than those from POAM III above 17 km, as in the case of the non-PSC season; however, ILAS-II and POAM III aerosol data were within 15% of each other from 12 to 17 km.

  20. Automatic gram-staining with the microstainer II.

    PubMed

    Burdash, N M; West, M E; Bannister, E R

    1976-01-01

    A comparison was made between the Microstainer II, an automatic staining machine, and the traditional, manual gram-staining method using clinical material and known organisms in a double blind study. Gram-reactions were in agreement with 98.4% of the organisms. The machine-stained microorganisms were generally found to be of the same or better quality than manually-stained organisms. Transfer of bacteria from slide to slide or smear to smear was not a significant problem. The Microstainer II would appear to be a useful addition to the large volume bacteriology laboratory.

  1. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Quality, for implementing all of the required activities including monitoring, reporting, emission... commitments. 52.146 Section 52.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...) The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality has committed to comply with the PM-10 Group II...

  2. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  3. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  4. GEOSS Clearinghouse Quality Metadata Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masó, J.; Díaz, P.; Ninyerola, M.; Sevillano, E.; Pons, X.

    2012-04-01

    . Nevertheless, one important thing to highlight is the diversity of quality indicators used, beyond the positional accuracy. In that sense, the completeness, the consistency and the temporal accuracy, represent 35.71%, 19.78% and 6.81% respectively on the quality indicators analysed. The indicators can be classified in quality measures, 25944 indicators (49.71%) have an associated measure. The measures are quantitative (22275 - 85.86%), conformance with some specifications, in our case mainly to INSPIRE (3669 - 14.14%) and coverage result, according to ISO19115-2 extension (5 - 0.02%), i.e. the quality is represented in a additional raster file, unfortunately, the link to the file is missing. The lineage is composed by production processes (LI_ProcessStep) and sources used in elaborating a dataset (LI_Source), this information can be combined in several ways. (i) Direct list of the data sources (LI_Lineage: LI_Source); there are 3771 metadata records (3.88%) of this group. (ii) Direct list of the processes (LI_Lineage: LI_ProcessStep) involved in data production; there are 9261 metadata records (9.53%) of this group. (iii) Description of more complete provenance, consisting in describing the processes and the sources involved on each process (LI_Lineage: LI_ProcessStep with LI_Source); there are 1226 metadata records (1.26%) of this group. The MD_Usage is an entity part of the identification information package, 1133 records (1.17%) contain usage information, but, only the mandatory specificUsage and userContactInfo elements are described. These results demonstrate that the documentation of quality indicators and lineage is far from general in the Earth observation data but current status is enough to start developing tools for exposing and exploiting the quality data that is already present in catalogues. Also, usage information has to be extended and its use generalized.

  5. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  6. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  7. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  8. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046391 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  9. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046381 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  10. Hopkins during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046393 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  11. Hopkins during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046394 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  12. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046387 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  13. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  15. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  16. SAM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-06

    SAM II Data and Information Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, which flew on board the Nimbus-7 satellite, are used to ... Guide Readme Files:  Data Set (Text file) Read Software Files :  C Code ...

  17. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Donald B.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Webb, David F.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Kosovichev, Alexander; von Steiger, Rudolf

    Division II of the IAU provides a forum for astronomers and astrophysicists studying a wide range of phenomena related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system. Division II encompasses three Commissions, 10, 12 and 49, and four Working Groups.

  18. Technology II: Implementation Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are facing a number of challenges, including the explosive use of the Internet, the digital divide, the need for integrating technology into teaching and learning, the impact of Tidal Wave II, and the need to ensure that technology is accessible to persons with disabilities. The CCCs' Technology II Strategic…

  19. Nonequilibrium Positive Column II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingold, John H.

    1998-10-01

    Previous work has shown that the first principles nonlocal kinetic method [1] is closely approximated by the nonlocal moment method [2] in positive column analysis. In the present paper, the nonlocal moment method is compared with two of the most often used local moment methods: (i) local moment method with Maxwell EEDF; (ii) local moment method with 0D EEDF. The form of the Boltzmann equation for electrons in a positive column discharge suggests that each gas has a characteristic curve of positive column E/N versus NR (E is axial electric field, N is gas density, and R is tube radius). This characteristic curve affords a systematic way of comparing various methods because its course depends on the form of the EEDF used to calculate transport coefficients and inelastic collision rates, on whether or not it is assumed that the electrons are in equilibrium with the axial field, on whether or not ion inertia is taken into account, etc. Using an argon-like gas for illustration, it is shown that the characteristic curve based on equilibrium with 0D EEDF is a poor approximation to that based on nonequilibrium for NR less than 1× 10^17 cm-2 (PR<3 Torr-cm), while that based on equilibrium with Maxwell EEDF is an extremely poor approximation at any value of NR. [1]D. Uhrlandt and R. Winkler, J. Phys. D 29, 115 (1996). [2]J. H. Ingold, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5932 (1997).

  20. Photoinhibition of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-01-01

    Photoinhibition of Photosystem II (PSII) is the light-induced loss of PSII electron-transfer activity. Although photoinhibition has been studied for a long time, there is no consensus about its mechanism. On one hand, production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) by PSII has promoted models in which this reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to act as the agent of photoinhibitory damage. These chemistry-based models have often not taken into account the photophysical features of photoinhibition-like light response and action spectrum. On the other hand, models that reproduce these basic photophysical features of the reaction have not considered the importance of data about ROS. In this chapter, it is shown that the evidence behind the chemistry-based models and the photophysically oriented models can be brought together to build a mechanism that confirms with all types of experimental data. A working hypothesis is proposed, starting with inhibition of the manganese complex by light. Inability of the manganese complex to reduce the primary donor promotes recombination between the oxidized primary donor and Q(A), the first stable quinone acceptor of PSII. (1)O(2) production due to this recombination may inhibit protein synthesis or spread the photoinhibitory damage to another PSII center. The production of (1)O(2) is transient because loss of activity of the oxygen-evolving complex induces an increase in the redox potential of Q(A), which lowers (1)O(2) production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.