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Sample records for agricole bon nombre

  1. BON-BONs: cyclic molecules with a boron-oxygen-nitrogen backbone. Computational studies of their thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Lawong, Aloysus K; Ball, David W

    2012-04-01

    Although they were first reported in 1963, molecules with a boron-oxygen-nitrogen dimeric backbone do not seem to have been investigated seriously in terms of thermodynamic properties. Here we report on the calculated structures and properties, including thermodynamics, of several so-called "BON-BON" molecules. With the popularity of nitrogen-containing substituents on new high-energy materials, nitro-substituted BON-BONs were a focus of our investigation. A total of 42 BON-BON molecules were evaluated, and thermochemical analysis shows a decrease in the specific enthalpy of combustion or decomposition with increasing NO(2) content, consistent with other systems.

  2. Cambodian Bon Om Touk stampede highlights preventable tragedy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Edbert B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-10-01

    The tragic nature of the human stampede that took place in Phnom Penh, Cambodia on November 22, 2010 claimed the lives of 347 people during the three-day-long Water Festival, known as Bon Om Touk. Described as the greatest tragedy that Cambodia has experienced since the collapse of the Khmer Rouge, the Bon Om Touk stampede ranks among the deadliest human stampede disasters during the past 30 years, a Class IV event exceeding 100 fatalities according to a recently proposed scale. 1 From the perspective of global health, the event shares many characteristics with preceding major crowd disasters and failures in event planning. It is essential for the international community to officially monitor human stampedes as it does other major disasters. Additional research on human stampedes is needed to improve our collective understanding of the causes of crowd disasters and how best to prevent them. Hsu EB , Burkle FM Jr . Cambodian Bon Om Touk stampede highlights preventable tragedy.

  3. Discourse Particles in French Conversation: "(eh) ben, bon, and enfin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Betsy K.

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of use of the French particles "bon, (eh) ben, and enfin" were analyzed in a corpus of spontaneous multispeaker conversation. Results show that each particle marks a particular type of discontinuity in the discourse. Turn-initial and turn-medial patterns are described for each. (17 references) (Author/MSE)

  4. Whole-exome characterization of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell lines BON-1 and QGP-1.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Timon; Peeters, Marc; Dogan, Fadime; Pauwels, Patrick; Van Assche, Elvire; Beyens, Matthias; Mortier, Geert; Vandeweyer, Geert; de Herder, Wouter; Van Camp, Guy; Hofland, Leo J; Op de Beeck, Ken

    2015-04-01

    The human BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines are two frequently used models in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) research. Data on the whole-exome genetic constitution of these cell lines is largely lacking. This study presents, to our knowledge, the first whole-exome profile of the BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines. Cell line identity was confirmed by short tandem repeat profiling. Using GTG-banding and a CytoSNP-12v2 Beadchip array, cell line ploidy and chromosomal alterations were determined in BON-1 and QGP-1. The exomes of both cell lines were sequenced on Ilumina's HiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions and deletions (indels) were detected using the Genome Analysis ToolKit. SNVs were validated by Sanger sequencing. Ploidy of BON-1 and QGP-1 was 3 and 4 respectively, with long stretches of loss of heterozygosity across multiple chromosomes, which is associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In BON-1, 57 frameshift indels and 1725 possible protein-altering SNVs were identified in the NGS data. In the QGP-1 cell line, 56 frameshift indels and 1095 SNVs were identified. ATRX, a PNET-associated gene, was mutated in both cell lines, while mutation of TSC2 was detected in BON-1. A mutation in NRAS was detected in BON-1, while KRAS was mutated in QGP-1, implicating aberrations in the RAS pathway in both cell lines. Homozygous mutations in TP53 with possible loss of function were identified in both cell lines. Various MUC genes, implicated in cell signaling, lubrication and chemical barriers, which are frequently expressed in PNET tissue samples, showed homozygous protein-altering SNVs in the BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines.

  5. TRPV6 modulates proliferation of human pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Skrzypski, Marek; Kołodziejski, Paweł A.; Mergler, Stefan; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Nowak, Krzysztof W.; Strowski, Mathias Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highly Ca2+ permeable receptor potential channel vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) modulates a variety of biological functions including calcium-dependent cell growth and apoptosis. So far, the role of TRPV6 in controlling growth of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) cells is unknown. In the present study, we characterize the expression of TRPV6 in pancreatic BON-1 and QGP-1 NET cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of TRPV6 on intracellular calcium, the activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and proliferation of BON-1 cells. TRPV6 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. TRPV6 mRNA expression and protein production were down-regulated by siRNA. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were detected by fluorescence calcium imaging (fura-2/AM). NFAT activity was studied by NFAT reporter assay; cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), MTT and propidium iodine staining. TRPV6 mRNA and protein are present in BON-1 and QGP-1 NET-cells. Down-regulation of TRPV6 attenuates BON-1 cell proliferation. TRPV6 down-regulation is associated with decreased Ca2+ response pattern and reduced NFAT activity. In conclusion, TRPV6 is expressed in pancreatic NETs and modulates cell proliferation via Ca2+-dependent mechanism, which is accompanied by NFAT activation. PMID:27450545

  6. TRPV6 modulates proliferation of human pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, Marek; Kołodziejski, Paweł A; Mergler, Stefan; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Strowski, Mathias Z

    2016-08-01

    Highly Ca(2+) permeable receptor potential channel vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) modulates a variety of biological functions including calcium-dependent cell growth and apoptosis. So far, the role of TRPV6 in controlling growth of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) cells is unknown. In the present study, we characterize the expression of TRPV6 in pancreatic BON-1 and QGP-1 NET cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of TRPV6 on intracellular calcium, the activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and proliferation of BON-1 cells. TRPV6 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. TRPV6 mRNA expression and protein production were down-regulated by siRNA. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were detected by fluorescence calcium imaging (fura-2/AM). NFAT activity was studied by NFAT reporter assay; cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), MTT and propidium iodine staining. TRPV6 mRNA and protein are present in BON-1 and QGP-1 NET-cells. Down-regulation of TRPV6 attenuates BON-1 cell proliferation. TRPV6 down-regulation is associated with decreased Ca(2+) response pattern and reduced NFAT activity. In conclusion, TRPV6 is expressed in pancreatic NETs and modulates cell proliferation via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism, which is accompanied by NFAT activation.

  7. CosmoBon, tree research team, for studying utilization of woody plant in space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Baba, Keiichi; Chida, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science, as Tree research team, TRT. Trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. We have the serious problem about their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We have been investigating the tension wood formation under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. CosmoBon is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. The tension wood formation in CosmoBon was confirmed as the same as that in the natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  8. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Charles

    Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

  9. Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Sin Nombre Virus Infection In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Netski, Dale M.; Krumpe, Peter; St. Jeor, Stephen C.

    2000-01-01

    Previous data indicate that immune mechanisms may be involved in developing capillary leakage during Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infection. Therefore, we investigated production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by human alveolar macrophages and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) after infection with SNV. In addition, we examined the effect of TNF-α on HUVEC monolayer leakage. Our results reveal that although TNF-α decreases accumulation of viral nucleoproteins, TNF-α levels do not change in SNV-infected cells. In addition, supernatants from SNV-infected human alveolar macrophages did not cause a significant increase in endothelial monolayer permeability. PMID:11090198

  10. CosmoBon for studying wood formation under exotic gravitational environment for future space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Funada, Ryo; Nakamura, Teruko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Cosmobon, Jstwg

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science. Japanese flowering cherry tree is one of a candidate for these studies. Mechanism behind sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively. Even molecular mechanism for the response of plant against gravity has been investigated quite intensively for various species, woody plants are left behind. Morphology of woody branch growth is different from that of stem growth in herbs. Morphology in tree is strongly dominated by the secondary xylem formation. Nobody knows the tree shape grown under the space environment. If whole tree could be brought up to space as research materials, it might provide important scientific knowledge. Furthermore, trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. The serious problem would be their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We can study secondly xylem formation, wood formation, under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. "CosmoBon" is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. It has been recognized that the reaction wood in CosmoBon is formed similar to natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  11. Analyse du comportement thermique du sol d'une serre agricole par simulation dynamique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, C.; Amouroux, M.

    1997-02-01

    The overall energetical behaviour of a greenhouse is significantly affected by diurnal storage and nocturnal release of energy inside the soil, which is the only element with high thermal capacitance. Its specific part is analysed with a pre-existing dynamic simulation model. The first part of this paper studies the effects of 4kinds of heating exchangers along each month of an entire cultivation period: hot air convector, aerial metallic pipes with hot water circulation, radiant mulch or buried pipes with warm water circulation. The second part develops the hourly behaviour of both greenhouse and soil during a cold standard-day with each of the 4exchangers. The third part is a sensibility study to various classes of factors in the case of hot air convector exchanger: climatic environment, control policy, intrinsic properties of the greenhouse (soil characteristics, crop density, cover transparency). Le comportement énergétique global d'une serre agricole est influencé de manière parfois importante par le stockage diurne et la restitution nocturne d'énergie au sein de son sol, seul élément à grande capacité thermique. Le rôle spécifique joué par le sol est analysé en appliquant un modèle de simulation dynamique déjà existant. Une première partie compare les effets de 4types d'échangeurs de chauffage sur chaque mois d'une période de culture : aérotherme, tubes aériens à circulation d'eau chaude, paillage radiant ou tubes enterrés à circulation d'eau tiède. Une seconde partie développe le comportement horaire de la serre et du sol pour une journée-type froide en présence de chacun des échangeurs. Une troisième partie précise la sensibilité du bilan thermique de la serre et du sol à différents types de facteurs dans le cas d'un échangeur par aérotherme: environnement climatique, politique de contrôle de la serre, propriétés intrinsèques de la serre (caractéristiques du sol, densité de culture, transparence de la couverture).

  12. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  13. Neutralizing Antibodies and Sin Nombre Virus RNA after Recovery from Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chunyan; Prescott, Joseph; Nofchissey, Robert; Goade, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Patients who later have a mild course of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are more likely to exhibit a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of HCPS, at the time of hospital admission. Because administering plasma from patients who have recovered from HCPS to those in the early stages of disease may be an advantageous form of passive immunotherapy, we examined the neutralizing antibody titers of 21 patients who had recovered from SNV infection. Even 1,000 days after admission to the hospital, 6 of 10 patients had titers of 800 or higher, with one sample retaining a titer of 3,200 after more than 1,400 days. None of the convalescent-phase serum samples contained detectable viral RNA. These results confirm that patients retain high titers of neutralizing antibodies long after recovery from SNV infection. PMID:15109416

  14. A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona.

    PubMed Central

    Kuenzi, A. J.; Morrison, M. L.; Swann, D. E.; Hardy, P. C.; Downard, G. T.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence. PMID:10081678

  15. Contact heterogeneity in deer mice: implications for Sin Nombre virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Christine A.; Lehmer, Erin M.; Previtali, Andrea; St. Jeor, Stephen; Dearing, M. Denise

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneities within disease hosts suggest that not all individuals have the same probability of transmitting disease or becoming infected. This heterogeneity is thought to be due to dissimilarity in susceptibility and exposure among hosts. As such, it has been proposed that many host–pathogen systems follow the general pattern whereby a small fraction of the population accounts for a large fraction of the pathogen transmission. This disparity in transmission dynamics is often referred to as ‘20/80 Rule’, i.e. approximately 20 per cent of the hosts are responsible for 80 per cent of pathogen transmission. We investigated the role of heterogeneity in contact rates among potential hosts of a directly transmitted pathogen by examining Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Using foraging arenas and powder marking, we documented contacts between wild deer mice in Great Basin Desert, central Utah. Our findings demonstrated heterogeneity among deer mice, both in frequency and in duration of contacts with other deer mice. Contact dynamics appear to follow the general pattern that a minority of the population accounts for a majority of the contacts. We found that 20 per cent of individuals in the population were responsible for roughly 80 per cent of the contacts observed. Larger-bodied individuals appear to be the functional group with the greatest SNV transmission potential. Contrary to our predictions, transmission potential was not influenced by breeding condition or sex. PMID:19129136

  16. Satellite imagery characterizes local animal reservoir populations of Sin Nombre virus in the southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Gregory E.; Yates, Terry L.; Fine, Joshua B.; Shields, Timothy M.; Kendall, John B.; Hope, Andrew G.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Li, Chung-Sheng; Patz, Jonathan A.; Mills, James N.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the risk of hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (HPS), as estimated from satellite imagery, and local rodent populations was examined. HPS risk, predicted before rodent sampling, was highly associated with the abundance of Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). P. maniculatus were common in high-risk sites, and populations in high-risk areas were skewed toward adult males, the subclass most frequently infected with SNV. In the year after an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), captures of P. maniculatus increased only in high-risk areas. During 1998, few sites had infected mice, but by 1999, 18/20 of the high-risk sites contained infected mice and the crude prevalence was 30.8%. Only 1/18 of the low-risk sites contained infected rodents, and the prevalence of infection was lower (8.3%). Satellite imagery identified environmental features associated with SNV transmission within its reservoir population, but at least 2 years of high-risk conditions were needed for SNV to reach high prevalence. Areas with persistently high-risk environmental conditions may serve as refugia for the survival of SNV in local mouse populations. PMID:12473747

  17. New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina; LaMonica, Rachel; Fay, Mary-Ellen; Hjelle, Brian; Schmaljohn, Connie; Shaw, Robert; Mackow, Erich R.

    1999-01-01

    New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive Peromyscus leucopus neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of ≥1/3,200 and ≤1/400, respectively (n = 12). Conversely, SN-specific rodent sera neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of <1/400 and 1/6,400, respectively (n = 13). Acute-phase serum from a New York HPS patient neutralized NY-1 (1/640) but not SN (<1/20), while sera from HPS patients from the southwestern United States had 4- to >16-fold-lower neutralizing titers to NY-1 than to SN. Reference sera to Hantaan, Seoul, and Prospect Hill viruses also failed to neutralize NY-1. These results indicate that SN and NY-1 define unique hantavirus serotypes and implicate the presence of additional HPS-associated hantavirus serotypes in the Americas. PMID:9854075

  18. Natural history of Sin Nombre virus infection in deer mice in urban parks in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Dizney, Laurie; Jones, Philip D; Ruedas, Luis A

    2010-04-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), one of at least 45 hantaviruses described worldwide, is hosted by the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, a common species throughout most of North America. Herein, we describe general life-history characteristics of deer mice and the ways in which these factors relate to the incidence of SNV infections among populations of this host species in and around Portland, Oregon. In total, 3,175 deer mice were captured from October 2002 to September 2005. Transmission of SNV appears to be associated with male breeding behaviors, as more males and adults were infected than expected by capture rate; spring and summer had the highest infection prevalence, as well as scrotal male captures. Wounding rates between infected and uninfected deer mice were not different in any age or sex class. Capture rates were significantly and positively related to the interaction of temperature departure from normal, total precipitation, and number of clear days from two seasons previous (P=0.029), while infection prevalence was significantly and negatively related to the capture rate of juveniles from two seasons previous (P=0.029).

  19. Satellite imagery characterizes local animal reservoir populations of Sin Nombre virus in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Gregory E; Yates, Terry L.; Fine, Joshua B.; Shields, Timothy M.; Kendall, John B.; Hope, Andrew G.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Peters, C.J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Li, Chung-Sheng; Patz, Jonathan A.; Mills, James N.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the risk of hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (HPS), as estimated from satellite imagery, and local rodent populations was examined. HPS risk, predicted before rodent sampling, was highly associated with the abundance of Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). P. maniculatus were common in high-risk sites, and populations in high-risk areas were skewed toward adult males, the subclass most frequently infected with SNV. In the year after an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), captures of P. maniculatus increased only in high-risk areas. During 1998, few sites had infected mice, but by 1999, 18/20 of the high-risk sites contained infected mice and the crude prevalence was 30.8%. Only 1/18 of the low-risk sites contained infected rodents, and the prevalence of infection was lower (8.3%). Satellite imagery identified environmental features associated with SNV transmission within its reservoir population, but at least 2 years of high-risk conditions were needed for SNV to reach high prevalence. Areas with persistently high-risk environmental conditions may serve as refugia for the survival of SNV in local mouse populations.

  20. Transmission ecology of Sin Nombre hantavirus in naturally infected North American deermouse populations in outdoor enclosures.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Towner, Jonathan S; Kuenzi, Amy J; Douglass, Richard J; Rollin, Pierre E; Waller, Lance A; Mills, James N

    2012-01-01

    Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV), hosted by the North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. Most transmission studies in the host were conducted under artificial conditions, or extrapolated information from mark-recapture data. Previous studies using experimentally infected deermice were unable to demonstrate SNV transmission. We explored SNV transmission in outdoor enclosures using naturally infected deermice. Deermice acquiring SNV in enclosures had detectable viral RNA in blood throughout the acute phase of infection and acquired significantly more new wounds (indicating aggressive encounters) than uninfected deermice. Naturally-infected wild deermice had a highly variable antibody response to infection, and levels of viral RNA sustained in blood varied as much as 100-fold, even in individuals infected with identical strains of virus. Deermice that infected other susceptible individuals tended to have a higher viral RNA load than those that did not infect other deermice. Our study is a first step in exploring the transmission ecology of SNV infection in deermice and provides new knowledge about the factors contributing to the increase of the prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen in its reservoir host and to changes in the risk of HPS to human populations. The techniques pioneered in this study have implications for a wide range of zoonotic disease studies.

  1. Deer mouse movements in peridomestic and sylvan settings in relation to Sin Nombre virus antibody prevalence.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Richard J; Semmens, William J; Matlock-Cooley, Stephanie Jo; Kuenzi, Amy J

    2006-10-01

    Prevalence of antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) has been found to be nearly twice as high in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in peridomestic settings as in sylvan settings in two studies in Montana and one in New Mexico. We investigated whether this difference may be related to a difference in deer mouse movements in the two settings. We used radiotelemetry to determine home range size and length of movement for 22 sylvan (1991-1992) and 40 peridomestic deer mice (1995-1999). We also determined the percentage of locations inside versus outside of buildings for peridomestic mice. Though variable, average home range size for female deer mice was significantly smaller for peridomestic deer mice than for sylvan deer mice. The smaller home range in peridomestic settings may concentrate shed SNV, and protection from solar ultraviolet radiation inside buildings may increase environmental persistence of SNV. Both these factors could lead to increased SNV exposure of deer mice within peridomestic populations and result in higher antibody prevalence. Peridomestic deer mice moved between buildings and outside areas, which is evidence that SNV can be transmitted between peridomestic and sylvan populations.

  2. Long-term dynamics of Sin Nombre viral RNA and antibody in deer mice in Montana.

    PubMed

    Kuenzi, Amy J; Douglass, Richard J; Bond, Clifford W; Calisher, Charles H; Mills, James N

    2005-07-01

    Infections with hantaviruses in the natural host rodent may result in persistent, asymptomatic infections involving shedding of virus into the environment. Laboratory studies have partially characterized the acute and persistent infection by Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in its natural host, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). However, these studies have posed questions that may best be addressed using longitudinal studies involving sequential sampling of individual wild-caught, naturally infected mice. Using enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of monthly blood samples, we followed the infection status of deer mice in a mark-recapture study in Montana for 2 yr. Only six of 907 samples without IgG antibody to SNV contained detectable SNV RNA, suggesting that there is a very brief period of viremia before the host develops detectable antibody. The simultaneous presence of both antibody and viral RNA in blood was detected in consecutive monthly samples for as long as 3 mo. However, chronic infection was typified by alternating characteristics of PCR positivity and PCR negativity. Two possible interpretations of these results are that 1) viral RNA may be consistently present in the blood of chronically infected deer mouse, but that viral RNA is near the limits of PCR detectability or 2) SNV RNA sporadically appears in blood as a consequence of unknown physiological events. The occurrence of seasonal patterns in the proportion of samples that contains antibody and that also contained SNV RNA demonstrated a temporal association between recent infection (antibody acquisition) and presence of viral RNA in blood.

  3. Sedimentological study of sandy and shaly deposits (Beglia Formation) in Cap Bon area

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjoub, M.N.; Khessibi, M.

    1988-08-01

    Sedimentological study of sandy and shaly deposits of the Beglia formation has been made in Cap Bon (northeast of Tunisia) to define a sedimentological and paleogeographical model which could be extrapolated into the Gulf of Hammamet. The main results follow. (1) The Beglia formation is serravalian in age and has a migratory deltaic complex facies which includes river and marine affinities (flood plain and tidal). (2) Three intervals within the Beglia have been studied in detail and indicate a northwest-southeast depositional trend which the authors consider the main direction of the middle Miocene detrital deposits in northeastern Tunisia. (3) The fine and well-sorted sandstones which extend up to hectometric and kilometric size, observed in outcrop, are the distal zones of the migratory fans and bars. (4) These sandstone bodies, because of their relative small size within their deltaic model, do not extend to the Gulf of Hammamet. The sandstones offshore have produced hydrocarbons in several areas. They are the distal equivalent of the poorly sorted and coarse channel deposits studied in the outcrops.

  4. Radioisotopic data of sediment collected in Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine the extent of natural and (or) anthropogenic impacts on the sedimentary records of Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama during the last 150 years. These bays are unique in that anthropogenic activities are generally widespread and span both the eastern and western shorelines. However, there is a clear distinction in the types of human development and infrastructure between the western and eastern shorelines. These activities and the differences in land-use and -change influence the overall supply and remobilization of sediment to and within the bay. These factors could subsequently threaten the health and integrity of these environments and their ability to mitigate against long-term processes associated with climate change. In an attempt to characterize long-term accretion rates within the Mobile Bay Estuarine System (MBES), seven box cores were collected and analyzed for excess lead-210 (210Pbxs, the difference between total and supported 210Pb) and cesium-137 (137Cs) activities. The MBES receives sediment and water from the Alabama and Tombigbee River watersheds, which converge into the Mobile-Tensaw River (MTR) system just prior to discharging into Mobile Bay. Riverine discharge from the MTR system to the bay is second only to the Mississippi River discharge to the Gulf of Mexico for the conterminous United States.

  5. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters▿

    PubMed Central

    Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Chapman, Jennifer; Asher, Ludmila; Fisher, Robert; Zimmerman, Michael; Larsen, Tom; Hooper, Jay W.

    2007-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) are rodent-borne hantaviruses that cause a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). There are no vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HPS, and the pathogenesis is not understood. Syrian hamsters infected with ANDV, but not SNV, develop a highly lethal disease that closely resembles HPS in humans. Here, we performed a temporal pathogenesis study comparing ANDV and SNV infections in hamsters. SNV was nonpathogenic and viremia was not detected despite the fact that all animals were infected. ANDV was uniformly lethal with a mean time to death of 11 days. The first pathology detected was lymphocyte apoptosis starting on day 4. Animals were viremic and viral antigen was first observed in multiple organs by days 6 and 8, respectively. Levels of infectious virus in the blood increased 4 to 5 logs between days 6 and 8. Pulmonary edema was first detected ultrastructurally on day 6. Ultrastructural analysis of lung tissues revealed the presence of large inclusion bodies and substantial numbers of vacuoles within infected endothelial cells. Paraendothelial gaps were not observed, suggesting that fluid leakage was transcellular and directly attributable to infecting virus. Taken together, these data imply that HPS treatment strategies aimed at preventing virus replication and dissemination will have the greatest probability of success if administered before the viremic phase; however, because vascular leakage is associated with infected endothelial cells, a therapeutic strategy targeting viral replication might be effective even at later times (e.g., after disease onset). PMID:17475651

  6. Modelling climate change impacts on tourism demand: A comparative study from Sardinia (Italy) and Cap Bon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Bird, David Neil

    2016-02-01

    Tourism represents an important source of income and employment in many Mediterranean regions, including the island of Sardinia (Italy) and the Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia). Climate change may however impact tourism in both regions, for example, by altering the regions' climatic suitability for common tourism types or affecting water availability. This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on tourism in the case study regions of Sardinia and Cap Bon. Direct impacts are studied in a quantitative way by applying a range of climate scenario data on the empirically estimated relationship between climatic conditions and tourism demand, using two different approaches. Results indicate a potential for climate-induced tourism revenue gains especially in the shoulder seasons during spring and autumn, but also a threat of climate-induced revenue losses in the summer months due to increased heat stress. Annual direct net impacts are nevertheless suggested to be (slightly) positive in both case study regions. Significant climate-induced reductions in total available water may however somewhat counteract the positive direct impacts of climate change by putting additional water costs on the tourism industry.

  7. Overexpression of wild-type PKD2 leads to increased proliferation and invasion of BON endocrine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Lindsey N.; Li Jing; Chen, L. Andy; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark . E-mail: mevers@utmb.edu

    2006-09-29

    Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors with a predilection for the gastrointestinal tract. Protein kinase D (PKD), a novel serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated in the regulation of transport processes in certain cell types. We have reported an important role for PKD in stimulated peptide secretion from a human (BON) carcinoid cell line; however, the role of PKD isoforms, including PKD2, in the proliferation and invasion of carcinoid tumors remains unclear. In the present study, we found that overexpression of PKD2 by stable transfection of BON cells with PKD2-wild type (PKD2{sub WT}) significantly increased proliferation and invasion compared to cells transfected with PKD2-kinase dead (PKD2{sub KD}) or pcDNA3 (control). Similarly, inhibition of PKD2 activity with small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased proliferation and invasion compared to cells transfected with non-targeting control (NTC) siRNA. These data support an important role for PKD2 in carcinoid tumor progression. Targeted inhibition of the PKD family may prove to be a novel treatment option for patients with carcinoid tumors.

  8. Petrography, palynology, and paleoecology of the Lower Pennsylvanian Bon Air coal, Franklin County, Cumberland Plateau, southeast Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, S.A.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.; Saussy, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Stratigraphy, palynology, petrography, and geochemistry of the Bon Air coal from the Armfield, Dotson, Rutledge, and Shakerag mine sites of Franklin County, Tennessee suggest that Bon Air seams at all sites were small (??? 1.0 mile, 1.6 km), spatially distinct paleomires that evolved from planar to domed within the fluviodeltaic Lower Pennsylvanian Raccoon Mountain Formation. Of observed palynoflora, 88-97% are from lycopsids prevalent in the Westphalian. Densosporites palynomorphs of small lycopsids (e.g., Omphalophloios) dominate at the shale-hosted Armfield site, while Lycospora palynoflora of large arboreous lycopsids (especially Lepidodendron, with lesser Lepidophloios harcourtii and Lepidophloios hallii) dominate where intercalated siltstone/sandstone/shale hosts the coal (all other sites). Palynoflora of other lycopsids (Sigillaria and Paralycopodites), tree ferns, seed ferns, small ferns, calamites, and cordaites are generally minor. Genera of clastic-associated Paralycopodites are most common in Shakerag's coal (??? 10%), yet quite rare in Rutledge or Dotson coals. Overall, the palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Bon Air paleomires were forest swamps, and Early Pennsylvanian in age (Westphalian A, Langsettian). Dominant macerals at all sites are vitrinites, with fine collodetrinite (from strongly decomposed plant debris) more common than coarser collotelinite (from well-preserved plant fragments), and with lesser inertinites (fusinite and semifusinite) and liptinites (dominantly sporinite). Shakerag's coal has greatest abundance (mineral-matter-free) of collotelinite (up to 47%) and total vitrinite (74-79%) of any sites, but lowest liptinite (12-14.5%) and inertinite (7-11%). The Dotson and Rutledge seams contain moderate liptinite (21-23%) and highest inertinite (36-37%), lowest vitrinite (??? 41%), and lowest collotelinite (13-15%). Armfield's seam has relatively high liptinite (26-28%) and vitrinite (56.5-62%), but rather low inertinite (12

  9. Seismic sequence stratigraphy of Miocene deposits related to eustatic, tectonic and climatic events, Cap Bon Peninsula, northeastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsalli, Ramzi; Zouaghi, Taher; Soussi, Mohamed; Chebbi, Riadh; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2013-09-01

    The Cap Bon Peninsula, belonging to northeastern Tunisia, is located in the Maghrebian Alpine foreland and in the North of the Pelagian block. By its paleoposition, during the Cenozoic, in the edge of the southern Tethyan margin, this peninsula constitutes a geological entity that fossilized the eustatic, tectonic and climatic interactions. Surface and subsurface study carried out in the Cap Bon onshore area and surrounding offshore of Hammamet interests the Miocene deposits from the Langhian-to-Messinian interval time. Related to the basin and the platform positions, sequence and seismic stratigraphy studies have been conducted to identify seven third-order seismic sequences in subsurface (SM1-SM7), six depositional sequences on the Zinnia-1 petroleum well (SDM1-SDM6), and five depositional sequences on the El Oudiane section of the Jebel Abderrahmane (SDM1-SDM5). Each sequence shows a succession of high-frequency systems tract and parasequences. These sequences are separated by remarkable sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces (SB and MFS) that have been correlated to the eustatic cycles and supercycles of the Global Sea Level Chart of Haq et al. (1987). The sequences have been also correlated with Sequence Chronostratigraphic Chart of Hardenbol et al. (1998), related to European basins, allows us to arise some major differences in number and in size. The major discontinuities, which limit the sequences resulted from the interplay between tectonic and climatic phenomena. It thus appears very judicious to bring back these chronological surfaces to eustatic and/or local tectonic activity and global eustatic and climatic controls.

  10. Which Factors Influence the Willingness to Pay for Electronic Library Services? A Study of the Portuguese Electronic Scientific Information Consortium B-On1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence the value for the users of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on (Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online). We used the contingent valuation method based on a willingness to pay scenario to estimate the value that each user is willing to pay. Data were collected through an…

  11. Activation of Type 1 CRH receptor isoforms induces serotonin release from human carcinoid BON-1N cells: an enterochromaffin cell model.

    PubMed

    Wu, S Vincent; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Lai, Jim; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Monica C; Ohning, Gordon V; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    CRH and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are expressed in human colonic enterochromaffin (EC) cells, but their interactions at the cellular level remain largely unknown. The mechanistic and functional relationship between CRH and 5-HT systems in EC cells was investigated in a human carcinoid cloned BON cell line (BON-1N), widely used as an in vitro model of EC cell function. First, we identified multiple CRH(1) splice variants, including CRH(1a), CRH(1c), CRH(1f), and a novel form lacking exon 4, designated here as CRH(1i), in the BON-1N cells. The expression of CRH(1i) was also confirmed in human brain cortex, pituitary gland, and ileum. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis confirmed that BON-1N cells were CRH(1) and 5-HT positive. CRH, urocortin (Ucn)-1, and cortagine, a selective CRH(1) agonist, all increased intracellular cAMP, and this concentration-dependent response was inhibited by CRH(1)-selective antagonist NBI-35965. CRH and Ucn-1, but not Ucn-2, stimulated significant ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells, CRH(1i) isoforms produced a significant increase in pERK1/2 in response to CRH(1) agonists that was sensitive to NBI-35965. CRH and Ucn-1 stimulated 5-HT release that reached a maximal increase of 3.3- and 4-fold at 10(-8) m over the basal level, respectively. In addition, exposure to CRH for 24-h up-regulated tryptophan hydroxylase-1 mRNA levels in the BON-1N cells. These findings define the expression of EC cell-specific CRH(1) isoforms and activation of CRH(1)-dependent pathways leading to 5-HT release and synthesis; thus, providing functional evidence of a link exists between CRH and 5-HT systems, which have implications in stress-induced CRH(1) and 5-HT-mediated stimulation of lower intestinal function.

  12. Sampling Frequency Differentially Influences Interpretation of Zoonotic Pathogen and Host Dynamics: Sin Nombre Virus and Deer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James N.; Kuenzi, Amy; Flietstra, Timothy; Douglass, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Reports of novel emerging and resurging wildlife and zoonotic diseases have increased. Consequently, integration of pathogen sampling into wildlife monitoring programs has grown. Sampling frequency influences interpretations of coupled host–pathogen dynamics, with direct implication to human exposure risk, but has received little empirical attention. To address this, a 15-year study, based on monthly sampling, of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations and Sin Nombre virus (SNV; a virulent disease in humans) dynamics was evaluated. Estimates of deer mouse abundance, number infected with SNV, and SNV prevalence from sampling less frequently than each month (achieved by deletion of months and recalculation of these parameters) were compared to monthly sampling frequencies. Deer mouse abundance was underestimated (10%–20%), SNV prevalence was overestimated when prevalence was high (>15%), and fewer annual extremes of abundance and infection were detected when sampling frequency was less than monthly. Effort necessary to detect temporal dynamics of SNV differed from effort to detect demographic patterns in deer mouse abundance. Findings here are applicable to sampling strategies for other host–pathogen dynamics and have direct implications for allocation of public health resources and intervention programs. PMID:20528169

  13. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  14. Truncated Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins for Serotyping Sin Nombre, Andes, and Laguna Negra Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Rodents▿

    PubMed Central

    Koma, Takaaki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Pini, Noemi; Safronetz, David; Taruishi, Midori; Levis, Silvana; Endo, Rika; Shimizu, Kenta; Yasuda, Shumpei P.; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Enria, Delia; Arikawa, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Andes virus (ANDV), and Laguna Negra virus (LANV) have been known as the dominant causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). ANDV and LANV, with different patterns of pathogenicity, exist in a sympatric relationship. Moreover, there is documented evidence of person-to-person transmission of ANDV. Therefore, it is important in clinical medicine and epidemiology to know the serotype of a hantavirus causing infection. Truncated SNV, ANDV, and LANV recombinant nucleocapsid proteins (trNs) missing 99 N-terminal amino acids (trN100) were expressed using a baculovirus system, and their applicability for serotyping SNV, ANDV, and LANV infection by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was examined. HPS patient sera and natural-reservoir rodent sera infected with SNV, ANDV, and LANV showed the highest optical density (OD) values for homologous trN100 antigens. Since even patient sera with lower IgM and IgG antibody titers were serotyped, the trN100s are therefore considered useful for serotyping with early-acute-phase sera. In contrast, assays testing whole recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigens of SNV, ANDV, and LANV expressed in Escherichia coli detected homologous and heterologous antibodies equally. These results indicated that a screening ELISA using an E. coli-expressed antigen followed by a serotyping ELISA using trN100s is useful for epidemiological surveillance in regions where two or more hantavirus species cocirculate. PMID:20335425

  15. Population density and seasonality effects on Sin Nombre virus transmission in North American deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in outdoor enclosures.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Douglass, Richard J; Alvarado, Arlene; Kuenzi, Amy J; Amman, Brian R; Waller, Lance A; Mills, James N

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of wildlife host-pathogen systems often document clear seasonal variation in transmission; conclusions concerning the relationship between host population density and transmission vary. In the field, effects of seasonality and population density on natural disease cycles are challenging to measure independently, but laboratory experiments may poorly reflect what happens in nature. Outdoor manipulative experiments are an alternative that controls for some variables in a relatively natural environment. Using outdoor enclosures, we tested effects of North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) population density and season on transmission dynamics of Sin Nombre hantavirus. In early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and fall 2007-2008, predetermined numbers of infected and uninfected adult wild deermice were released into enclosures and trapped weekly or bi-weekly. We documented 18 transmission events and observed significant seasonal effects on transmission, wounding frequency, and host breeding condition. Apparent differences in transmission incidence or wounding frequency between high- and low-density treatments were not statistically significant. However, high host density was associated with a lower proportion of males with scrotal testes. Seasonality may have a stronger influence on disease transmission dynamics than host population density, and density effects cannot be considered independent of seasonality.

  16. Application of the Bons-Azuma method and determination of grain growth mechanism in rolled Ti-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Tomoyuki; Matayoshi, Yusuke; Voskoboinikov, Roman

    2015-12-01

    Zr-containing Ti alloys have widely been developed owing to the infinite solid solubility of Zr in Ti and its avirulence, leading respectively to high strength and good biocompatibility. It is known that the Zr addition gives rise to grain refinement when rolled Ti-Zr alloys are annealed; nevertheless, the governing mechanism by which Zr addition in Ti can reduce grain size is not fully understood. In this study, the grain growth behaviour of rolled Zr-free and Zr-containing (Ti-10Zr, wt.%) alloys is analysed using analytical transmission electron microscopy and the classical and Bons-Azuma methods by evaluating the grain growth exponent. Irrespective of the evaluation technique and Zr content, the grain growth exponent is found to be close to ~0.3, indicating the occurrence of normal grain growth in the Zr-free alloy and solute drag mechanism in the Zr-containing alloy. It is found that the grain size and grain growth rate are significantly reduced by Zr segregation near grain boundaries, resulting from the solute drag mechanism.

  17. Structural characterization of the fracture systems in the porcelanites: Comparing data from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Aydin, Atilla; Wongseekaew, Kanitsorn; Maneelok, Wichanee

    2016-09-01

    The fractures in the porcelanites from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand were documented for a comparative study of their modes, distribution, and their relationship to other structures such as folds and bedding planes. Both formations consist in thinly bedded stiff units that are prone to folding, flexural slip, and cross-bedding brittle fracturing under compression. There are two assemblages in the porcelanites. The first assemblage includes commonly vertical high-angle opening mode fractures, left-lateral strike-slip faults, normal faults, and thrust faults. The second one is sub-horizontal fractures which are associated with folds, bedding slip, and thrusts faults in both Monterey and Sap Bon formations. The structural architectures of these rocks and the associated groups of structures are remarkably similar in terms of both opening and shearing modes and their relationships with the bedding due to their depositional architecture and the compressional tectonic regimes, in spite of the fact that the two locations are more than ten thousand kilometers apart and have very different ages of deformation.

  18. Trace element geochemistry and surface water chemistry of the Bon Air coal, Franklin County, Cumberland Plateau, southeast Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, S.A.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; McLamb, E.D.; Kuers, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mean contents of trace elements and ash in channel, bench-column, and dump samples of the abandoned Bon Air coal (Lower Pennsylvanian) in Franklin County, Tennessee are similar to Appalachian COALQUAL mean values, but are slightly lower for As, Fe, Hg, Mn, Na, Th, and U, and slightly higher for ash, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, REEs, Sr, and V, at the 95% confidence level. Compared to channel samples, dump sample means are slightly lower in chalcophile elements (As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, and V) and slightly higher in clay or heavy-mineral elements (Al, K, Mn, REEs, Th, Ti, U, and Y), but at the 95% confidence level, only As and Fe are different. Consistent abundances of clay or heavy-mineral elements in low-Br, high-S, high-ash benches that are relatively enriched in quartz and mire-to-levee species like Paralycopodites suggest trace elements are largely fluvial in origin. Factor analysis loadings and correlation coefficients between elements suggest that clays host most Al, Cr, K, Ti, and Th, significant Mn and V, and some Sc, U, Ba, and Ni. Heavy accessory minerals likely house most REEs and Y, lesser Sc, U, and Th, and minor Cr, Ni, and Ti. Pyrite appears to host As, some V and Ni, and perhaps some Cu, but Cu probably exists largely as chalcopyrite. Data suggest that organic debris houses most Be and some Ni and U, and that Pb and Sb occur as Pb-Sb sulfosalt(s) within organic matrix. Most Hg, and some Mn and Y, appear to be hosted by calcite, suggesting potential Hg remobilization from original pyrite, and Hg sorption by calcite, which may be important processes in abandoned coals. Most Co, Zn, Mo, and Cd, significant V and Ni, and some Mn probably occur in non-pyritic sulfides; Ba, Sr, and P are largely in crandallite-group phosphates. Selenium does not show organic or "clausthalite" affinities, but Se occurrence is otherwise unclear. Barium, Mn, Ni, Sc, U, and V, with strongly divided statistical affinities, likely occur subequally in multiple modes. For study area

  19. Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

  20. The effect of seasonality, density and climate on the population dynamics of Montana deer mice, important reservoir hosts for Sin Nombre hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Luis, Angela D; Douglass, Richard J; Mills, James N; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2010-03-01

    1. Since Sin Nombre virus was discovered in the U.S. in 1993, longitudinal studies of the rodent reservoir host, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated a qualitative correlation among mouse population dynamics and risk of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans, indicating the importance of understanding deer mouse population dynamics for evaluating risk of HPS. 2. Using capture-mark-recapture statistical methods on a 15-year data set from Montana, we estimated deer mouse survival, maturation and recruitment rates and tested the relative importance of seasonality, population density and local climate in explaining temporal variation in deer mouse demography. 3. From these estimates, we designed a population model to simulate deer mouse population dynamics given climatic variables and compared the model to observed patterns. 4. Month, precipitation 5 months previously, temperature 5 months previously and to a lesser extent precipitation and temperature in the current month, were important in determining deer mouse survival. Month, the sum of precipitation over the last 4 months, and the sum of the temperature over the last 4 months were important in determining recruitment rates. Survival was more important in determining the growth rate of the population than recruitment. 5. While climatic drivers appear to have a complex influence on dynamics, our forecasts were good. Our quantitative model may allow public health officials to better predict increased human risk from basic climatic data.

  1. A retrospective study of NENs and miR-224 promotes apoptosis of BON-1 cells by targeting PCSK9 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jian’an; Na, He; Hua, Xiumei; Wei, Yaling; Ye, Tian; Zhang, Yiqiang; Jian, Guo; Zeng, Weiwen; Yan, Lijun; Tang, Qiyun

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) represent relatively rare tumors. The lack of diagnostic, therapeutic method and prognostic factors makes them a challenge to us. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 205 NENs patients among which 157 cases were followed-up. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9), a regulator of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), was confirmed as a target gene of microRNA-224. We found an increased incidence of NENs from 2012 to 2015. Women were usually diagnosed at earlier stages than men (P < 0.05). Tumor grading was associated with primary tumor site, especially esophagus and cardia NENs all at G3 (P <0.001). Age, tumor grading and LDL-C levels were independent risk factors of digestive NENs. Low LDL-C level was significantly correlated with survival rate and median overall survival (OS, P < 0.05). MicroRNA-224 agomir and PCSK9 siRNA could promote apoptosis and suppress proliferation, invasion of BON-1 cells (P < 0.05), but increase the level of glucocorticoid (GC, P < 0.05). Taken together, age, tumor grading and LDL-C level are independent risk factors of NENs. The miR-224/PCSK9/GC axis binds to tumorigenesis and prognosis of pancreatic NENs (p-NENs). PMID:28036293

  2. Analyse thermique de systèmes de chauffage localisé à basse température dans les serres agricoles : paillage radiant et tubes enterrés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, C.; Amouroux, M.

    1993-10-01

    Greenhouse heating can be achieved using various systems, for the generator as well as for the exchanger. The exchanger characteristics involve quite different modes of energy distribution, with differing agronomic and economic consequences. This paper focuses on two ground-level heating systems with low temperature (20 40°C) water circulation: a “radiant mulch” exchanger, composed of a network of ground-level heating hoses, and a “buried pipes” exchanger, composed of a network of under-ground pipes. The first part of the paper develops a model for these exchangers and its integration into a previously described greenhouse global model. The second part compares the effects of these exchangers on the greenhouse energetical behaviour with those of classic aerial metallic pipes with hot (50 70°C) water circulation. Le chauffage des serres agricoles peut être réalisé avec divers types de systèmes, tant pour le générateur que pour l'échangeur situé au sein de la serre. Les caractéristiques de l'échangeur induisent des modes de distribution de l'énergie très différents, dont les conséquences agronomiques et économiques peuvent être importantes. Le présent article s'intéresse à deux types d'échangeurs à circulation d'eau “à basse température” (20 40°C) localisés au niveau du sol de la serre: chauffage par gaines en matière plastique posées à même le sol (ou “paillage radiant”), chauffage par réseau de tubes enterrés à faible profondeur dans le sol de la serre. Une première partie développe une modélisation de ces échangeurs et son intégration dans un modèle plus global de la serre agricole, déjà présenté par ailleurs. Une seconde partie exploite cette modélisation en effectuant une analyse comparative de ces échangeurs avec un échangeur de référence constitué de tubes métalliques aériens à circulation d'eau chaude (50 70°C), très classiquement utilisé dans les serres.

  3. Taxonomic revision of the moss salamander Nototriton barbouri (Schmidt (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with description of two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Josiah H

    2016-11-24

    Moss salamanders (genus Nototriton) are represented in northern Central America by nine putative species: N. barbouri, N. brodiei, N. lignicola, N. limnospectator, N. mime, N. picucha, N. saslaya, N. stuarti, and N. tomamorum. I estimate the phylogenetic relationships for these species based on data from three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S, cytochrome b, and COI), and compare morphological variation among putative taxa. As evidenced here and in previous studies, the taxon N. barbouri is paraphyletic with respect to populations from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in northern Honduras. I restrict this taxon to populations from the Sierra de Sulaco in central Yoro, Honduras, and describe two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios.

  4. Delayed density-dependent prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibody in Montana deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and implications for human disease risk.

    PubMed

    Madhav, Nita K; Wagoner, Kent D; Douglass, Richard J; Mills, James N

    2007-01-01

    American hantaviruses cause a severe respiratory disease known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In the United States, Sin Nombre virus (SNV), carried by the deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus), is the etiologic agent in the majority of HPS cases. The relationship between deer mouse population density and SNV infection prevalence in deer mice is poorly understood. Our purpose was to clarify this relationship by demonstrating the existence of delayed-density-dependent prevalence of SNV infection in populations of wild deer mice. We also explored the relationship between SNV infection in deer mouse populations and the incidence of human HPS. The study population was 3,616 deer mice captured on 10 mark-recapture grids in Montana during May and September, 1994-2004. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found a strong association between deer mouse population density in fall (September) and SNV antibody prevalence in deer mice the following spring (May). Other characteristics associated with SNV infection in deer mice in spring were: (1) presence of at least one infected deer mouse in the population the previous fall, (2) male gender, (3) adult age class, (4) presence of scars, (5) grassland and logged habitats, and (6) elevations below 1,300 m. There was a strong association between concurrently measured SNV antibody prevalence in deer mice and probable exposure of human HPS cases during the same time period. Human cases were more likely to occur during seasons when SNV antibody prevalence was at least 10% in deer mouse populations. These findings suggest that fall rodent population parameters could be used to help guide prevention efforts the following spring.

  5. Bon Mots for Bad Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    This article questions how the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze has been received and connected to the field of curriculum theory. In an effort to reconnect Deleuze-thought to its political force, this essay commences a series of arguments pertaining to the ways in which the revolutionary thought of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari have been…

  6. Understanding groundwater chemistry using multivariate statistics techniques to the study of contamination in the Korba unconfined aquifer system of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghibi, Adel; Merzougui, Amira; Zouhri, Lahcen; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    The Korba aquifer of Cap-Bon peninsula (North-east of Tunisia), which extends over 40 km and occupies an area of 438 km2, is of great economic importance. Its location in an often narrow plain with intense human activity (agriculture, industry, tourism, etc.) makes it particularly vulnerable from both a qualitative and quantitative alteration. The high salinization in some parts of the study area has been attributed to seawater intrusion process, because of the high and increasing contents of chloride ions and electric conductivity value distribution. However, recent studies of this aquifer have shown that the chemical characteristics of groundwaters are the result of different components: intruding seawater, direct cation exchange linked to seawater intrusion, dissolution processes associated with cations exchange and solute recycling through irrigation return flow. In this paper, we describe the hydrological processes in the Korba coastal plain using hydrochemical data, correlation matrices and factor analysis to provide evidence of salinization processes. Based on historical hydraulic heads data (1996-2005), salinization of fresh groundwater is highly associated with groundwater withdrawal. Thus, the piezometric survey confirmed the inversion of the groundwater flow in Diarr El Hojjaj and Tafelloun villages where a piezometric depression of 12 m was observed at 3000 m from the shoreline which accelerate seawater intrusion by reversing the hydraulic gradients. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: Ca-Cl, Na-Cl and SO4-mixed types. The groundwaters showed paths of hydrochemical evolution, from Ca-SO4 type to Na-Cl type; or from Ca- SO4 type directly to Na-Cl type. Geochemical data reveal frequent participation of seawater in the coastal and central areas water samples, showing a very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes. Also, we conclude that salinization has its origin in

  7. Combining hyperspectral imagery and legacy measured soil profiles to map subsurface soil properties in a Mediterranean area (Cap-Bon, Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagacherie, Philippe; Sneep, Anne-Ruth; Gomez, Cécile

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Visible Near InfraRed (Vis-NIR) Hyperspectral imagery is a cost-efficient way for mapping soil properties at fine resolutions (~5m) over large areas. However, such mapping is only feasible for soil surface since the effective penetration depths of optical sensors do not exceed several millimetres. This study aimed to extend the use of Vis-NIR hyperspectral imagery to the mapping of subsurface properties at three intervals of depth (15-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-100 cm) as specified by the GlobalSoilMap project. To avoid additional data collection, our basic idea was to develop an original Digital Soil Mapping approach that combines the digital maps of surface soil properties obtained from Vis-NIR hyperspectral imagery with legacy soil profiles of the region and with easily available images of DEM-derived parameters. The study was conducted in a pedologically-contrasted 300km² cultivated area located in the Cap Bon region (Northern Tunisia). AISA-Dual Vis-NIR hyperspectral airborne data were acquired over the studied area with a fine spatial resolution (5 m) and fine spectral resolution (260 spectral bands from 450 to 2500nm). Vegetated surfaces were masked to conserve only bare soil surface which represented around 50% of the study area. Three soil surface properties (clay and sand contents, Cation Exchange Capacity) were successfully mapped over the bare soils, from these data using Partial Least Square Regression models (R2 > 0.7). We used as additional data a set of images of landscape covariates derived from a 30 meter DEM and a local database of 152 legacy soil profiles from which soil properties values at the required intervals of depths were computed using an equal-area-spline algorithm. Our Digital Soil Mapping approach followed two steps: i) the development of surface-subsurface functions - linear models and random forests - that estimates subsurface property values from surface ones and landscape covariates and that

  8. A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

    PubMed

    Hooper, Jay W; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

    2013-09-13

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1-15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development.

  9. [Référentiel de bon usage and Thésaurus national de cancérologie digestive: analysis of non-conform prescriptions in Tenon hospital].

    PubMed

    Debrix, I; Sitbon, M; Khalil, A; Benomar, A; Becker, A; André, T

    2009-02-01

    The financial orders of French health insurance system for anticancer treatment are guided by the National recommendations of "Good Use" of anticancer treatment (law article dated August 25, 2005 for the good use of anticancer outside the classic financial hospitals). This law of "Good Use" is based on the recommendations of référentiels de bon usage (RBU). RBU include drugs with labelling or protocoles thérapeutiques temporaires (PTT). If the prescriptions do not conform with RBU, it will be considered as not confirmed and the prescriptor has to explain clearly his point of view in the medical file supported by national and international references and publications and also that of the experts' opinions. The objective of this study, made in 2007 in Tenon Hospital, Paris, was to evaluate the percentage of the prescriptions conform with RBU and the analysis of the other different prescriptions in regards to Thésaurus national de cancérologie digestive (TNCD). We found out that 25% of the anticancer prescriptions for digestive tumours in Tenon hospital are not known by the law of "Good Use". Half of these percentages were clearly recommended via the TNCD. The other half of these non-conform prescriptions were realized in an advanced disease in which there were no clear recommendations or references and there were no other choice. The TNCD validation by the National Cancer Institute can reduce the prescriptions, which are considered as non-conform. In the other hand, for the uncertain prescriptions (non-conform), the decision must be systematically discussed in multidisciplinary stuff with detailed argumentations and clear written explications in the medical file.

  10. Regen compressors power Capo Bon trans-med station

    SciTech Connect

    de Biasi, V.

    1981-11-01

    It is expected that Algeria will begin deliveries of natural gas from the Hassi-R'Mel gasfield in the Sahara Desert to Italy by the end of 1981 or early 1982. The main station for the Trans-Med natural gas pipeline, powered by five regenerative M5322R gas turbines, has a design throughput of some 1.6 million m/sup 3//hr and serves as the boost station for the submarine section of the pipeline.

  11. Let the Good Times Roll = Laissez les bons rouler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John P.; Morris, Bernadette

    This paper integrates learning about international culture through the avenue of dance, and focuses on learning about specific regions of France, and about French Canadians, and Louisiana Cajuns through dance selections. The international flavor is not limited to dances from France, but includes French-Canadian and Cajun dancing as well.…

  12. Les bons conseils de la naissance à la maternelle

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Constantin, Evelyn; Carsley, Sarah; Rourke, James; Li, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Donner un aperçu de la version 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR), qui comporte aussi des nouveautés dans son site web et de nouvelles initiatives connexes et qui intègre les données des ouvrages scientifiques récents sur les soins de santé préventifs à l’intention des enfants de 0 à 5 ans. Qualité des données À l’instar des versions antérieures du RPR, la nouvelle édition présente des recommandations identifiées comme se fondant sur des preuves suffisantes, acceptables ou consensuelles, selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs en 2011. Message principal De nouveaux renseignements et des recommandations sont présentés concernant la surveillance de la croissance, la nutrition et la vaccination contre la varicelle, les pneumocoques, les méningocoques et le rotavirus. Il y a maintenant de bonnes données probantes en faveur de l’adaptation canadienne des courbes de croissance de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé, du dépistage universel des problèmes d’audition chez le nouveau-né et du recours à des stratégies de réduction de la douleur liée à la vaccination. On a mis à jour les conseils anticipatoires concernant la sécurité durant le sommeil, la supervision de la santé des enfants en foyer d’accueil, le trouble du spectre de l’alcoolisation fœtale, les facteurs de risque nécessitant le dépistage du plomb et de l’anémie, les soins dentaires et la santé buccale. Parmi les nouvelles rubriques dans le site web du RPR, on peut mentionner une section présentant des ressources pour les parents, des modifications à l’intention de populations particulières, comme les personnes vivant au Nunavut, une version du RPR qui met en évidence en un coup d’œil les modifications à la version de 2009 et une expansion de la fonction d’exploration du RPR accompagnée des hyperliens connexes menant aux renseignements pertinents. On peut aussi avoir accès au RPR sous forme d’une page par visite. Le Collège des médecins de famille du Canada et la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ont donné leur aval au RPR de 2011. Les versions nationale et ontarienne sont disponibles en français et en anglais. Conclusion Le RPR de 2011 est un outil pratique, mis à jour, fondé sur des données probantes de transposition du savoir concernant les soins de santé préventifs aux enfants de la naissance à l’âge de 5 ans. Il propose des ressources exhaustives dans le web à l’intention des professionnels de la santé, des étudiants, des résidents et des parents.

  13. Farm Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de machines agricoles. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for farm equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  14. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    4 to 5 logs between days 6 and 8. Pulmonary edema was first detected ultrastructurally on day 6. Ultrastructural analysis of lung tissues revealed...leakage and kidney dysfunction are associated with HFRS, while HPS-associated hantaviruses cause acute pulmonary edema (16, 44). Cardiac dysfunction...logs between days 6 and 9. Pulomonary edema was first detected ultrastructurally on day 6. Ultrastructural analysis of lumg tisssues revealed the

  15. El nombre 'Forastero' no más: A new protocol for meaningful cacao germplasm classification.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The title of this article (The name ‘Forastero’ no more) is to convey an attempt in this paper to try to convince the cacao scientific community not to use the term Forastero to identify cacao germplasm of non-Criollo origin. The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro...

  16. Landslide mapping and analysis of Korbous area, Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Djbel Korbous is an important relief dominating the south-eastern edge of the Gulf of Tunis. It is an anticline truncated by a NS fault that passes through the axis of the fold, reason of the collapse of western slopes under the sea. This geometry gives the appearance of a large cased fold and the individualization of series of crests forming the massive of Korbous where altitudes exceed sometimes 400.0 m. Different types of landslides, with various origins and evolution, affect this area. Reactivated pre-existing structures, heterogeneity of lithology and water flow infiltration are the main agents of this phenomenon. The degradation of steep cliffs along the road is strongly accentuated by physico-chemical alteration due to the dissolution of rocks by the runoff flowing through a dense network of fractures and cracks and the spalling of the sandstone bar. The situation has become increasingly critical since 2009 when a large rock slide affected the slope over the sea, threatening, especially the only access to the village with heavy consequences for the population of the region (infrastructure, regional medical center, trade and tourism). The present study aims at defining (i) the main structurally controlled failure types;(ii) the detection of potential instabilities from steep slopes and cliff areas; (iii) the preliminary estimation of potential run-out areas. Geographical Information System GIS (generation of slope map and azimuth map), digital elevation modeling (DEM) are among the most useful tools used for a reliable analysis in this area. Additionally, field work in this paper includes a program of in situ recognition of inventoried instabilities (field measurements, discontinuities characterization, stereoplots and kinematic tests ) and digital photogrammetry using a Canon EOS 7D camera (construction of 3D models and discontinuity measurements were all achieved using VisualSFM and CloudCompare software). The application of those techniques on the area of Korbous showed different families of discontinuities NW-SE and NE-SW whose kinetic conditions allowed the identification of three main failure mechanisms: (1) wedge sliding (dense, intense and inter-crossed fracturing of two dominant directions oriented N075° and N140°); (2) toppling (located in the middle of the cliff where lithology is more less tender) and (3) circular sliding (affects the clay slopes which are sensitive to water and have apparent stability. It's where the main road MC128 passes and this presents the greatest threat facing these instabilities). The dense cutting, weathering and erosion of the whole study area lead, also, to loosen rock blocks from the slope. Their size is variable but the fall height still important reaching in many zones the sea and destroying the protection measures (retaining wall, gabion, drains, etc.). This continued landslide and its evolution in time and space are really alarming and need a more detailed diagnosis.

  17. Astronomie, écologie et poésie par Hubert Reeves

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Hubert ReevesL'astrophysicien donne une conférence puis s'entretient avec l'écrivain François Bon autour de :"Astronomie, écologie et poésie"Pour plus d'informations : http://outreach.web.cern.ch/outreach/FR/evenements/conferences.htmlNombre de places limité. Réservation obligatoire à la Réception du CERN : +41 22 767 76 76  Soirée diffusée en direct sur le Web : http://webcast.cern.ch/      

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 5548 43 year-long monitoring in Hβ (Bon+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, E.; Zucker, S.; Netzer, H.; Marziani, P.; Bon, N.; Jovanovic, P.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Komossa, S.; Gaskell, C. M.; Popovic, L. C.; Britzen, S.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Burenkov, A. N.; Sergeev, S.; La Mura, G.; Valdes, J. R.; Stalevski, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed 1600 spectra of NGC 5548 in the Hβ spectral interval, covering 43 years. We used: (a) archival spectra obtained by K.K. Chuvaev from 1972-1988 (Sergeev+ 2007ApJ...668..708S) prior to the International AGN Watch (IAW) campaigns. These early spectra were recorded on photographic plates acquired with an image tube at the 2.6m Shajn Telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. (b) The 13 year study (from 1988 to 2002) of the IAW program (Peterson+ 2002ApJ...581..197P), which provided 1530 optical continuum measurements and 1248 Hβ measurements. (c) A spectral monitoring program with the 6 and 1m telescopes of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Russia from 1996 to 2002, and the 2.1m telescope of Guillermo Haro Observatory (GHO) in Cananea, Mexico, from 1996 to 2003 (S04; Shapovalova+ 2004, J/A+A/422/925). (d) More recent, unpublished observations of the same program covering 2003-2013 observed at SAO (see Table 1), and a continuation of the monitoring campaign presented in S04. (e) Spectra from the new IAW campaign obtained at Asiago observatory in 2012, 2013, and 2015. (f) New unpublished observations from 2013 from the Asiago observatory (also given in Table 1). See section 2 for further details. (2 data files).

  19. 78 FR 3883 - The Bon-Ton Stores, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: It is the policy of the Commission to publish settlements which it provisionally accepts under the Consumer Product Safety Act in the Federal Register...

  20. Improvement of erosion risk modelling using soil information derived from aerial Vis-NIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to test the benefit of the hyperspectral imagery in soil surface properties characterisation for soil erosion modelling purposes. The research area is the Lebna catchment located in the in the north of Tunisia (Cap Bon Region). Soil erosion is evaluated with the use of two different soil erosion models: PESERA (Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment already used for the soil erosion risk mapping for the European Union, Kirkby et al., 2008) and Mesales (Regional Modelling of Soil Erosion Risk developed by Le Bissonnais et al., 1998, 2002); for that, different sources for soil properties and derived parameters such as soil erodibility map and soil crusting map have been evaluated with use of four different supports: 1) IAO soil map (IAO, 2000), 2) Carte Agricole - CA - (Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia), 3) Hyperspectral VIS-NIR map - HY - (Gomez et al., 2012; Ciampalini t al., 2012), and, 3) a here developed Hybrid map - CY - integrating information from Hyperspectral VIS-NIR and pedological maps. Results show that the data source has a high influence on the estimation of the parameters for both the models with a more evident sensitivity for Pesera. With regard to the classical pedological data, the VIS-NIR data clearly ameliorates the spatialization of the texture, then, the spatial detail of the results. Differences in the output using different maps are more important in Pesera model than in Mesales showing no-change ranges of about 15 to 41% and 53 to 67%, respectively.

  1. La signification du nombre et de la nature des microorganismes telluriques présents dans l'eau minérale a l'émergence.

    PubMed

    Ducluzeau, R

    1976-01-01

    Water of the best protected mineral sources always contains a small number (often less than 10/ml) of "authochtonous" bacteria which multiply and subsist infinitely in the underground sheets. These bacteria are psychrotrophic, able to multiply in the absence of detectable traces of organic matter, but grow better in the presence of organic matter. They are very sensitive to the antiseptic agents currently used to purify drinking water. For reasons that are still unknown, these bacteria rapidly multiply in bottled water. However, this multiplication never leads to appearance of a sufficiently great number of populations to affect the limpidity of the water. It has been demonstrated that these autochtonous bacteria are not able to become established., i.e. to multiply and subsist in a great number in the digestive tract of axenic mice receiving mineral water. The conclusion of this is that there are no risks for multiplication of this bacteria in the organism of the consumer. The absolute number of these bacteria in bottled water has therefore no sanitary significance for the consumer and it seems not to be justified to establish strandard recommendations with respect to this. In the water sheet, only an abrupt rise in the number of autochtonous bacteria beyond the usual level, which varies much according to sheets, represents an unfavourable indication. Indeed, this might correspond to an accidental infiltration of organic matter and consequently of pathogenic bacteria into the water sheet. Search for bacteria as indicators of fecal pollutions therefore remains the most reliable method for estimating the hygienic quality of mineral water or of any other food products.

  2. [A short biography of Paul Bonét-Maury (1900-1972) or parallel lives of a pharmacist: researcher and judoka].

    PubMed

    Grognet, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacist by training, doctor in sciences and student of Marie Curie, he will be between 1925 and 1965 one of the pioneers of radiobiology, science of the study of the interaction between ionizing radiations and living matter. He will be the initiator of the teaching on the use of radioelements in medicine and pharmacy. At the same time as he develops a scientific work of international level, he makes a commitment prematurely in the judo of which he will be one of the first four French black belts. He founds in 1946 the French Federation of this sport of which he will be president until 1956, year from which he becomes a general secretary of the International Federation of Judo until 1971.

  3. [Effects of forest gap on seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial biomass car- bon in Picea asperata forest in Miyaluo of Western Sichuan, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Gui; Hao, Kai-Jie; Li, Xian-Wei; Fan, Chuan; Chen, Yue-Lin; Liu, Yun-Ke; Wang, Xie

    2014-09-01

    Effects of gap sizes (50, 100 and 150 m2) on seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soil surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) were investigated in a 50-year old Picea asperata plantation in Miyaluo forest, Western Si- chuan, China. In the four seasons, the SOC and MBC contents were higher in the soil surface than in soil subsurface in the four treatments, and varied insignificantly in different seasons. Compared with the control, the SOC content increased by 35.4%, 21.2% and 10.3% in soil surface, and by 45.5%, 25.0% and 12.1% in soil subsurface with the forest gaps of 50, 100 and 150 m2, respectively. The MBC content increased by 26.7%, 16.7%, 11.3% and 24.4%, 12.6%, 7.3% in soil surface and subsurface, respectively. There were significant negative relationship between soil SOC content and the soil pH and moisture, and significant positive relationship between soil SOC content and soil temperature. Significant effects of SOC content, soil pH, soil temperature, soil moisture on MBC content were observed, suggesting that forest gaps could significantly affect envi- ronmental conditions, and increasing gaps could reduce microbial activity and decomposition rate and decrease soil SOC and MBC contents.

  4. Le POSSUM: un bon score pour prédire la mortalité du sujet âgé opéré en urgence?

    PubMed Central

    Mzoughi, Zeineb; Bayar, Rached; Djebbi, Achref; Talbi, Ghofrane; Romdhane, Hayfa; Aloui, Wafa; Lassaad, Gharbi; Khalfallah, Mohamed Taher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le POSSUM (Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) est un score prédictif de mortalité qui est largement utilisé en chirurgie aortique élective et abdominale. Le but de notre étude est une validation du POSSUM chez le sujet âgé (>70 ans) opéré pour une urgence digestive. Nous nous proposons d'étudier les meilleurs seuils du POSSUM, composé d'un score physiologique et d'un score opératoire, pour prédire la mortalité dans cette population. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective analytique de type cas témoin à partir d'une série de 291 patients d'âge ≥ 70 ans opérés pour une urgence digestive. Ces patients étaient répartis en deux groupes comportant 50 patients chacun. Le groupe "DC": patients décédés en post opératoire immédiat et le Groupe témoin "SURV" choisis par tirage au sort. Nous avons analysé la fiabilité du POSSUM pour prédire la mortalité et la morbidité. Par la suite, nous avons établi des courbes de ROC pour définir les seuils qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité. Résultats Le score physiologique, le score opératoire et les taux de morbidité et mortalité prédits par POSSUM et la mortalité prédit par P-POSSUM représentaient des facteurs prédictifs de mortalité (P <0,0001). Les valeurs seuils du score physiologique et du score opératoire qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité, étaient respectivement de 23 et 15. Conclusion Prédire la mortalité permet de cibler la prise en charge et d'informer le patient et sa famille des risques encourus. PMID:27795763

  5. Cles: Etes-vous bon detective?; Enigmes grammaticales; Problemes policiers; Kidnapping (Keys: Are You a Good Detective?; Grammatical Puzzles; Detective Mysteries; Kidnapping).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debyser, Francis; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of French classroom activities are presented: a mystery whose clues include two postcard messages; three puzzles with grammar-related clues; a mystery contained in three comic strip frames; and the solving of a kidnapping mystery. (MSE)

  6. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : La prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) pharmacorésistante au Viet Nam a bénéficié d'une accélération considérable depuis 2009.Objectifs : Documenter le nombre annuel de patients enrôlés pour un traitement de TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) entre 2010 et 2014, et déterminer les caractéristiques et les résultats du traitement des patients qui l'out commencé entre 2010 et 2012.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte basée sur les rapports nationaux et les données du système national de données électroniques pour la TB pharmacorésistante.Résultats : Le nombre de patients enrôlés chaque année pour traitement de TB-MDR a augmenté de 97 en 2010 à 1522 en 2014. La majorité des patients étaient des hommes d'âge moyen qui avaient une atteinte pulmonaire et chez qui un protocole de retraitement avait échoué ; 77% d'entre eux avaient reçu au moins deux traitements de TB. De bons résultats (guérison et achèvement du traitement) ont été obtenus chez 73% des patients. Les résultats défavorables incluaient les sujets perdus de vue (12,5%), les décès (8%) et les échecs (6,3%). Avoir eu plus de deux traitements préalables et être positif pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine étaient associés à des résultats défavorables.Conclusion : Un nombre croissant de patients est traité pour TB-MDR chaque année dans le cadre du programme national de prise en charge au Viet Nam, avec de bons résultats. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'augmenter la détection des cas (actuellement seulement 30% des 5100 cas de TB-MDR estimés par an), de réduire la proportion de résultats défavorables et d'améliorer le suivi et l'évaluation.

  7. Developpement numerique et implementation experimentale d'une methodologie d'identification de l'equation de dispersion dans les structures aeronautiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egreteau, Thomas

    Ce document contient les objectifs, le cheminement suivi et les résultats obtenus d'un projet visant à identifier le nombre d'onde sur différents types de plaques représentatives de ce qui est utilise en aéronautique. Dans une première partie, on y définit les enjeux du sujet, liés au domaine aéronautique et le contexte dans lequel ce projet se déroule. A la suite de quoi, est exposée la revue de l'état de l'art sur les méthodes existantes de mesure du nombre d'onde. Le projet en lui-même est ensuite défini avec un objectif principal fixé qui est de mesurer le nombre d'onde d'une plaque à partir de mesures vibratoires. Pour cela deux méthodes seront utilisées; la méthode de différence de phase permettant d'effectuer la mesure sur les plaques simples ou composites et la méthode du passage dans le domaine des nombres d'onde permettant cette même mesure sur des plaques plus complexes (plaque épaisse ou raidie par exemple). Pour chaque méthode, un cheminement équivalent est utilisé. Dans un premier temps, on développe et implémente la méthode choisie de manière basique, puis on réalise l'étude paramétrique permettant de connaitre les conditions optimales de fonctionnement des deux méthodes, enfin une validation expérimentale est réalisée. Dans ce document, les deux méthodes seront aussi comparées pour en déduire dans quelles conditions il faut utiliser l'une ou l'autre des méthodes. La méthode de la différence de phase donne de bons résultats dans le cas de plaques simples et composites si on est capable d'exciter suffisamment toutes la gamme de fréquence. La méthode du passage dans le domaine des nombres d'onde quant à elle est apte à mesurer le nombre d'onde sur tous types de plaques et dans toutes les directions si la zone de mesure est suffisamment grande. Mots-clés : Nombre d'onde, plaques, différence de phase, domaine des nombre d'onde, transformée de Fourier spatiale, Définition de projet de

  8. [New legislation from the Politique Agricole Commune passed in 1994 and its impact on the spread of ragweed. The public health laws are the responsibility of the mayor, the health department, the General Council and the State Council].

    PubMed

    Riotte-Flandrois, F; Déchamp, C

    1995-11-01

    Until recently, Ragweed tended to thrive on untended land, but now it is spreading even on cultivated soils. The Common Agricultural Policy, which instituted the fallow system, initially contributed thereby to the increase of Ragweed. However, this same policy prescribes the minimum upkeep of fallow zones to prevent weeds from becoming rampant, especially those harmful to public health such as Ambrosia. There are a series of regulations, from Parliament level down to local government level, from prevention to repression, designed to safeguard public health and hence to combat the proliferation of Ragweed.

  9. Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Kihara, A-B; Harries, A D; Bissell, K; Kizito, W; Van Den Berg, R; Mueke, S; Mwangi, A; Sitene, J C; Gathara, D; Kosgei, R J; Kiarie, J; Gichangi, P

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Une structure de santé privée rurale, le Ruby Medical Centre (RMC), participant à un système de bons de traitement de Maternité sans risques destiné à des femmes pauvres du conté de Kiambu au Kenya.Objectifs : Entre 2007 et 2013, déterminer 1) le nombre de femmes qui ont accouché au RMC, leurs caractéristiques et le devenir de leur grossesse, et 2) le nombre ne bénéficiant que d’un paquet de soins anténataux (ANC) incomplets et les facteurs associés.Schéma : Etude rétrospective transversale basée sur les données recueillies en routine dans les programmes.Résultats : Au cours de la période d’étude, 2635 femmes ont accouché au RMC : 50% étaient âgées de 16 à 24 ans, 60% avaient été transférées d’autres structures et 59% avaient débuté les ANC au cours du 3(e) trimestre. De ces 2635 femmes, 1793 (68%) avaient un paquet d’ANC incomplet : 347 (13%) ont manqué les principaux tests sanguins, 312 (12%) n’ont pas eu de vaccination anti-tétanique et 1672 (65%) ont eu moins de quatre consultations. Un démarrage tardif et des ANC débutés ailleurs étaient associés à un paquet d’ANC incomplet. Un décès lié à la grossesse est survenu et le taux de mortinatalité a été de 10/1000 naissances.Conclusion : Cette première évaluation du système de bons de traitement dans les zones rurales du Kenya a mis en évidence des problèmes de qualité des ANC. En dépit de l’évolution favorable des grossesses, il est nécessaire d’accroitre les efforts pour faire venir les femmes enceintes plus tôt, offrir des ANC complets et un suivi plus cohérent et précis des indicateurs et des interventions de santé reproductive.

  10. 75 FR 72788 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... administrative review (``AR'') with respect to Dongguan Bon Ten Furniture Co., Ltd. (``Bon Ten'') pursuant to 19... (``PRC'') to reflect the Department's redetermination to rescind the AR with respect to Bon Ten.\\2\\ \\1\\ See Dongguan Bon Ten Furniture Co., Ltd. v. United States, Court No. 09-00396: Final Results...

  11. Fiches pratiques: Fourchettes, et baguettes; La Revolution en mosaique; Bons Baisers, a bientot; Vieux Chat et jeune souris (Practical Ideas: Forks, and Bread; The Revolution in Mosaic; Hugs and Kisses, See You Later; Old Cat and Young Mouse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzeral, Isabelle; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Four classroom activities for French language instruction are described: an exercise focusing on differences in national cuisine and eating habits; a game about the French Revolution; analysis of and activities using a personal letter; and discussion based on a fable. (MSE)

  12. Réalisation d'un réseau de pièges annulaires : une première étape vers une porte logique quantique avec des atomes froids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dépret, B.; Verkerk, P.; Hennequin, D.

    2002-06-01

    L'objectif de ce projet est de réaliser une porte logique quantique basée sur l'interaction d'atomes dans deux sites voisins dans un réseau optique très désaccordé. Le principal obstacle rencontré vient du faible taux d'occupation des sites de tels réseaux. Nous proposons ici de mettre en oeuvre un nouveau type de réseaux optiques qui devraient pallier cette limitation. Il s'agit d'un réseau unidimensionnel de pièges annulaires “empilés” avec une période de λ/2. L'utilisation d'axicons conduit à une géométrie adaptée des faisceaux et donne le confinement radial dans les anneaux. Le mouvement azimutal peut également être limité par une force auxiliaire. Le bon taux d'occupation est lié au faible nombre de sites remplis à partir du nuage d'atomes froids initial.

  13. Les carcinomes de la thyroïde: profils épidémiologique, clinique et thérapeutique, à propos de 102 cas

    PubMed Central

    Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Aljalil, Abdelfettah; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Lahkim, Mohammed; Fihri, Jawad Al Fassi; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2015-01-01

    Les carcinomes thyroïdiens sont des tumeurs malignes assez rares, représentant 1% des cancers. Ils sont généralement de bon pronostic, et présentent des aspects cliniques et évolutifs variés selon leur origine histologique. Notre travail est une étude rétrospective portant sur 102 cas de carcinomes de la thyroïde, colligés sur un nombre total de 811 gestes chirurgicaux thyroïdiens, au service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech, sur une période de 8 ans, allant de janvier 2006 à décembre 2013. Les carcinomes thyroïdiens atteignent le sujet jeune avant l’âge de 50 ans, en particulier le sexe féminin. La tendance dans les pays en voie de développement, comme dans le monde entier est en croissance continue, ceci peut être expliqué par l'amélioration des outils d'imagerie et des moyens diagnostiques cytologiques et anatomo-pathologiques. PMID:26405495

  14. Angiomes plans et laser à colorant pulsé: étude des facteurs pronostiques dans une série marocaine de 74 cas

    PubMed Central

    Baghad, Bouchra; Chiheb, Soumiya; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2016-01-01

    Le laser à colorant pulsé (LCP) est actuellement le traitement de référence des Angiomes Plans (AP). Cependant, les critères cliniques prédictifs d'une bonne ou d'une mauvaise réponse ne sont pas encore clairement établis dans notre contexte. Notre but était de déterminer les facteurs de mauvaise /bonne réponse des AP traités par le LCP dans la population marocaine. Une étude rétrospective des patients suivis pour AP a été réalisée au service de dermatologie du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca entre Janvier 2008 et Décembre 2013. Nous avons collecté les paramètres cliniques suivants : âge, sexe, localisation, antécédents, paramètres utilisés, nombre de séances, phototype et la satisfaction des médecins soignants basée sur le blanchiment des lésions. La bonne réponse a été définie par le palissement de 50% des lésions au bout de la 6ème séance. Les patients ont été contactés par téléphone afin d'évaluer leur degré de satisfaction. Ces résultats ont été corrélés aux paramètres cliniques sus cités. Un seuil de signification de 0.05 a été utilisé. Soixante-quatorze patients ont été éligibles. Le sexe féminin représentait 69% et l'âge médian était de 18 ans. La localisation au visage était prédominante (94%). L'étude comparative des groupes bons / mauvais répondeurs a montré que l'âge moyen du groupe bon répondeur était inférieur au groupe mauvais répondeur avec une différence significative (p = 0.047). Le nombre de séances du groupe bon répondeur était plus élevé (p = 0.044). Les paramètres étaient variables d'un patient à un autre. Aucune différence n'a été notée concernant le type de peau entre les deux groupes. La localisation la mieux blanchie était la zone V2. Cette étude a montré que les AP pris en charge à un âge jeune en plusieurs séances avaient une réponse thérapeutique supérieure dans notre contexte. Ceci implique l'intérêt du diagnostic précoce et une prise en charge

  15. Une vie saine et active : des directives en matière d’activité physique chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’épidémie d’obésité juvénile augmente partout dans le monde. Même si les facteurs de risque d’obésité sont multifactoriels, bon nombre sont liés au mode de vie et se prêtent à une intervention. Ces facteurs incluent le comportement sédentaire et la thermogenèse sans activité physique, de même que la fréquence, l’intensité, la quantité et le type d’activité physique. Les dispensateurs de soins de première ligne sont en position idéale pour surveiller le taux d’activité physique des enfants, des adolescents et de leur famille, évaluer les choix liés au mode de vie et offrir des conseils pertinents. Le présent document de principes contient des directives visant à réduire le comportement sédentaire et à accroître le taux d’activité physique au sein de la population pédiatrique. Des recommandations d’activités physiques adaptées au développement et visant les nourrissons, les tout-petits, les enfants d’âge préscolaire, les enfants et les adolescents sont présentées. Des stratégies de promotion d’une vie saine et active sur les scènes locale, municipale, provinciale, territoriale et fédérale sont proposées.

  16. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  17. The zebrafish bonnie and clyde gene encodes a Mix family homeodomain protein that regulates the generation of endodermal precursors

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yutaka; Trinh, Le A.; Reiter, Jeremy F.; Alexander, Jonathan; Yelon, Deborah; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2000-01-01

    Vertebrate endoderm development has recently become the focus of intense investigation. In this report, we first show that the zebrafish bonnie and clyde (bon) gene plays a critical early role in endoderm formation. bon mutants exhibit a profound reduction in the number of sox17-expressing endodermal precursors formed during gastrulation, and, consequently, a profound reduction in gut tissue at later stages. The endodermal precursors that do form in bon mutants, however, appear to differentiate normally indicating that bon is not required at later steps of endoderm development. We further demonstrate that bon encodes a paired-class homeodomain protein of the Mix family that is expressed transiently before and during early gastrulation in both mesodermal and endodermal progenitors. Overexpression of bon can rescue endodermal gene expression and the formation of a gut tube in bon mutants. Analysis of a newly identified mutant allele reveals that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA recognition helix of the homeodomain creates a dominant interfering form of Bon when overexpressed. We also show through loss- and gain-of-function analyses that Bon functions exclusively downstream of cyclops and squint signaling. Together, our data demonstrate that Bon is a critical transcriptional regulator of early endoderm formation. PMID:10817762

  18. Review of National Work Programme on the Long Term Effects of Sustained High G on the Cervical Spine (Analyse du programme de travail national : les effets long terme sur la colonne cervicale d’un nombre de G lev et prolong )

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Prof. Karin Harms-Ringdahl, PhD, RPT Karolinska Institutet Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society Division of Physiotherapy 23100...Äng Karolinska Institutet Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society Division of Physiotherapy Alfred Nobels Allé 23100 SE-14183...report is in preparation. The RAF has an ongoing project (from August 2006 to September 2007) determining the need for physiotherapy for aircrew on the

  19. La Crise est arrivee: la croissance des programmes de francais langue seconde et ses repercussions sur la qualite et le nombre des enseignants (The Crisis Has Arrived: The Growth of French as a Second Language Programs and Repercussions for the Quality and Number of Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obadia, Andre A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of faculties of education in Canadian universities shows that the quality of French teacher training needs improvement and may run the risk of further deterioration. The tremendous student increase in French-as-a-Second-Language programs is already causing a gradual but serious shortage of French teachers. (Author/MSE)

  20. The Effects of Strong Shock Waves on Mortality Rates and Percentages of Pulmonary Lesions in Rats as a Function of the Number of Exposures (Etude des effets des ondes de choc fortes sur les taux de letalite et les pourcente ages de lesions pulmoneires chea le rat en fonotior du nombre d’expositions)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    This study of pulmonary lesions and mortality rates caused in rats by exposure to strong shock waves of constant duration revealed that with regard... mortality rates , it revealed that halving the overpressure of the wave crest is offset by a 20-fold increase in the number of exposures.

  1. Subspace Estimation Without Eigenvectors for Adaptive Beamforming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    rdsultats lorsque le nombre de brouilleurs est trts faible par rapport au nombre d𔃾ldments, la performance de la technique de Yeh se d6grade rapidement...lorsque le nombre de brouilleurs augmente. Nous am~liorons la mithode en lu ajoutant tin scuil cc qui permet d’optimiser la valeur de N en augmentant le

  2. Badhwar - O'Neill 2014 Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Slaba, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model is based on GCR measurements from particle detectors. The model has mainly been used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and the analysis of radiation health risks to astronauts in space missions. The BON14 model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model also incorporates an empirical time delay function to account for the lag of the solar activity to reach the boundary of the heliosphere. This technical paper describes the most recent improvements in parameter fits to the BON model (BON14). Using a comprehensive measurement database, it is shown that BON14 is significantly improved over the previous version, BON11.

  3. Evaluating the Role of Prices and R&D in Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    of physical capital associated with energy use and to gain experience in using new technologies that emit less car - bon. Firms would have an...countries, such as India and China. If a domestic carbon- 3. An exception to this would be if the net benefits of reducing car - bon emissions were too small...today’s emissions, car - bon pricing would give emitters an incentive to under- take reductions when the cost of doing so would be out- weighed by the

  4. Prediction of seasonal water-table fluctuations in La Pampa and Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanco, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The fluctuation of the water table east of La Pampa province and northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, influences agricultural production in the region because it is closely related to the alternation of dry and wet periods. Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies have been used as predictors to forecast atmospheric variables in different regions of the world. The objective of this work is to present a simple model to forecast seasonal rainfall using SST distribution in the Pacific Ocean as a predictor. Once the relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuations was established, a methodology for the prediction of water-table fluctuations was developed. A good agreement between observed and predicted water-table fluctuations was found when estimating water-table fluctuations in the summer and autumn seasons. Résumé. Les fluctuations de la nappe à l'est de la province de La Pampa et au nord-ouest de la province de Buenos Aires (Argentine) influence la production agricole de la région parce qu'elle est étroitement liée à l'alternance de saisons sèches et humides. Les anomalies de la température de surface de l'océan (SST) ont été utilisées comme prédicteurs pour prévoir les variables atmosphériques dans différentes régions du monde. L'objectif de ce travail est de présenter un modèle simple de prévision des précipitations saisonnières en utilisant comme prédicteur la distribution des SST dans l'Océan Pacifique. Une fois que la relation entre les fluctuations des précipitations et celles de la nappe a été établie, une méthodologie de prédiction des variations de la nappe a été mise au point. Un bon accord entre les variations de la nappe observées et celles prédites a été trouvé pour les estimations des variations de nappe en été et en automne. Resumen. La fluctuación del nivel freático al este de la provincia de La Pampa y al nordeste de la de Buenos Aires (Argentina) repercute en la producción agr

  5. La greffe de peau totale dans le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main et des doigts: A propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukind, S.; Droussi, H.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Dhaidah, O.; Ejjiyar, M.; Quaboul, M.; Dehhaze, A.; Fkhar, S.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective s’étendant de septembre 2004 à septembre 2012 sur les données de à propos de 84 patients présentant des séquelles de brûlure majeures de la main. Ces patients étaient traités chirurgicalement par une greffe de peau totale. Le but de cette étude est, donc, d’insister sur la simplicité de cette technique et surtout son efficacité et sa fiabilité. L’âge moyen de la survenue de la brûlure était de 4 ans. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 18,3 ans (2-62 ans), avec prédominance masculine dans 60% des cas. L’agent causal le plus fréquent était un agent thermique - le plus souvent un liquide chaud (56%). Le délai moyen entre la fin de la cicatrisation et la prise en charge des séquelles était de 36 mois (2 mois - 16 ans). Dans 69 cas (82.5%), les lésions étaient localisées au niveau de la face palmaire de la main. Les séquelles ont été dominées par les rétractions digitales (65%) dont le déficit fonctionnel est évident. Une greffe de peau totale a été réalisée chez tous nos patients après libération des brides et excision des placards cicatriciels. Les rétractions commissurales ont été traitées par des plasties en Z. Dans 95% des cas, le prélèvement de peau totale était réalisé au niveau du pli inguinal. Le recul moyen était de 5,5 ans (1-8 ans). 11 patients ont été perdus de vu. Les résultats après cicatrisation complète et rééducation ont été jugés satisfaisants (bons) dans 62 cas (85%), et assez bons dans 11 cas (15%). Un traitement initial bien conduit et effectué dans les meilleures conditions permet non seulement de réduire le nombre de séquelles des brûlures mais encore de les rendre moins sévères. PMID:26336368

  6. Sexual and gender minority peoples' recommendations for assisted human reproduction services.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Tarasoff, Lesley A; Anderson, Scott; Green, Datejie; Epstein, Rachel; Marvel, Stu; Steele, Leah S

    2014-02-01

    Objectif : Chercher à connaître les recommandations que formuleraient les personnes lesbiennes, gaies, bisexuelles, transgenres et allosexuelles (LGBTQ) en ce qui concerne l’offre de services de procréation assistée (PA) à leurs communautés. Méthodes : En utilisant un guide semi-structuré, nous avons interviewé un échantillon choisi à dessein de 66 personnes s’identifiant comme étant LGBTQ et provenant de partout dans la province de l’Ontario qui avaient utilisé ou qui avaient envisagé d’utiliser des services de PA depuis 2007. Résultats : Les participantes étaient principalement des femmes cisgenres (non transgenres), blanches, ayant une partenaire du même sexe et vivant en milieu urbain qui comptaient des niveaux relativement élevés de scolarité et de revenu. Les participantes ont formulé des recommandations visant l’apport de modifications aux aspects suivants de l’offre de services de PA : (1) accès à des renseignements pertinents pour les personnes LGBTQ, (2) adoption de pratiques axées sur la patiente par les fournisseurs de services de PA, (3) formation et éducation des fournisseurs de services à l’égard des enjeux et des besoins des personnes LGBTQ, (4) accroissement de la visibilité des personnes LGBTQ en milieu clinique et (5) octroi d’une attention aux lacunes en matière de services qui préoccupent particulièrement les personnes LGBTQ. Conclusion : Bon nombre des recommandations formulées par les participantes à l’étude illustrent la façon dont l’adoption de modèles axés sur la patiente pourrait combler les inégalités en ce qui concerne l’offre de services aux personnes LGBTQ et à d’autres patientes pouvant avoir des besoins particuliers en matière de PA. Nos résultats semblent indiquer que des ressources éducatives devraient être mises à la disposition des fournisseurs de services pour leur permettre de mettre en œuvre de telles pratiques axées sur les patientes et d’offrir des

  7. Treatment referral system for tuberculosis patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Hirayama, T; Islam, A; Ishikawa, N; Afsana, K

    2015-12-21

    Objectif : Evaluer le système de référence dans les programmes de DOTS urbains dans la ville de Dhaka, Bangladesh, et sa banlieue et à identifier les opportunités de renforcer ce système.Schéma : Une étude rétrospective de cohorte a interviewé les patients ayant eu un diagnostic de TB et les prestataires de soins des centres de diagnostic et de traitement (DOTS). Les outils de recherche ont inclus des questionnaires structurés pré testés et de registres de référence de patients TB.Résultats : Un total de 4974 patients TB a été référé aux différents centres de traitement. Seulement 1756 (35%) des fiches de référence des homologues ont été retournées. Parmi eux, 250 patients ont été sélectionnés au hasard pour un entretien. Parmi eux, 165 patients sont allés dans les centres DOTS, 69 n'y sont pas allés et 16 n'ont pas pu être retrouvés. On a découvert des variations statistiquement significatives en matière de niveau d'instruction, de lieu de résidence et d'identification du centre DOTS après conseil (P < 0,05). Les personnes ayant un revenu mensuel plus faible (RR = 7,84 ; RR = 5,03), la distance par rapport au centre (RR = 36,21) et prenant leur traitement dans une pharmacie et divers autres lieux ont eu un risque plus élevé (RR = 3 ; RR = 28,48) de prendre un traitement irrégulier.Conclusion : Un bon nombre de patients référés ont été enregistrés et ont mis en route le traitement mais ne sont pas retournés au centre de traitement indiqué. Un conseil adapté et le fait de tenir compte des préférences du patient pendant la référence sont essentiels pour répondre aux contraintes d'accès, pour l'adhésion au traitement et pour un meilleur résultat du traitement.

  8. Méningiome intracrânien multiple: expérience du service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne Rabat - Salé, à propos de 4 cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Karekezi, Claire; Moussé, Nabil; Doleagbenou, Agbéko Komlan; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Les méningiomes intracrâniennes multiples sont définies comme la présence d'au moins deux méningiomes sur des sites intracrâniens différents et ceci en absence de neurofibromatose. C'est une tumeur rare dont la prévalence varie entre 1-10%. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques d'une série de 4 patients porteurs de méningiome multiple et en déduire les facteurs de risques de survenue de cette pathologie. Préciser la qualité d'exérèse chirurgicale de la lésion selon la classification de Simpson. Rapporter les suites postopératoires ainsi que le suivie à long termes des patients afin de préciser leur qualité de vie. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 4 cas de Méningiomes intracrâniens multiples sur 174 patients opérés pour méningiome au CHU Avicenne entre Janvier 2000 à Décembre 2013. En s'aidant des données cliniques, imageries, chirurgicales, histologiques mentionnée dans le dossier médical de chaque patient. Notre série est constitué de 4 patients (3 femmes pour 1 homme), d'un âge allant de 42-50 ans (moyenne d’âge= 45,5 ans). Nous avons identifié 21 méningiomes (17 en sus tentoriel et 4 en sous tentoriel), aucun cas de décès ni d'infection postopératoire dans notre échantillon. Le pronostic reste bon malgré le nombre de lésion nécessitant parfois plusieurs interventions chirurgicales. PMID:25419331

  9. Observance thérapeutique de l’hypertension artérielle et ses facteurs dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Tokoin de Lomé

    PubMed Central

    Pio, Machihude; Baragou, Soodougoua; Afassinou, Yaovi; Pessinaba, Souleymane; Atta, Borgatia; Ehlan, Koffi; Goeh-Akue, Edem; Zoméni, Folly; Damorou, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evaluer l’observance thérapeutique de l’HTA et de déterminer les facteurs de mauvaise observance chez les hypertendus au CHU Tokoin de Lomé. Méthodes Nous avons effectué une étude transversale descriptive sur une durée de 6 mois en consultation externe dans le service de Cardiologie du CHU-Tokoin de Lomé. L’étude a concerné 363 patients hypertendus. L’évaluation de l’observance a été effectuée avec le test d’évaluation de l’observance de Girerd. Résultats Le revenu mensuel était inférieur à 50.000 FCFA chez 49,86% patients; 85,05% des patients n’avaient aucune assurance maladie. Le coût mensuel du traitement par patient était de 10.560 FCFA soit 37,74% du SMIG au Togo. Quatre-vingt et trois virgule soixante-quinze pour cent (83,75%) de nos patients avaient eu des difficultés à observer correctement leur traitement antihypertenseur. Parmi eux 52,34% étaient mauvais observants et 31,41% avaient de minimes problèmes d’observance. Seuls 16,25% étaient de bons observants. Les facteurs de mauvaises observances étaient: le revenu mensuel faible, l’absence d’assurance maladie, le nombre de comprimés et de prises de comprimés supérieurs à 3, et la tradithérapie. Conclusion L’observance thérapeutique a été mauvaise dans notre série. Les facteurs de cette mauvaise observance sont multiples et variés mais dominés pour la plupart par la pauvreté et l’absence d’assurance maladie. PMID:23560131

  10. Physical Activity Participation and Preferences: Developmental and Oncology-Related Transitions in Adolescents Treated for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Objet: Décrire la fonction motrice, la participation, les obstacles et les préférences en matière d'activité physique chez les adolescents avant et après un traitement du cancer et discuter de la promotion de l'activité physique dans le contexte des transitions du développement et du cancer. Méthode: Une étude transversale a utilisé les échelles d'autodéclaration et de déclaration par les parents du questionnaire Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) et des questions sur la participation et les préférences en matière d'activité physique afin de recueillir des données sur la mobilité des transferts, la mobilité de base, le fonctionnement dans les sports et le fonctionnement physique auprès de 80 adolescents et de 63 parents. Résultats: Les résultats du questionnaire PODCI pour les adolescents recevant un traitement étaient plus variables et considérablement plus bas que pour les adolescents qui avaient terminé leur traitement il y a plus de deux ans. La fatigue, la douleur, la santé en général et les recommandations du médecin étaient fréquemment désignées comme étant des obstacles à l'activité physique chez les adolescents qui reçoivent un traitement. Bon nombre d'entre eux n'atteignaient pas les niveaux d'activité physique recommandés. Les adolescents ont exprimé des préférences pour l'activité physique pratiquée avec des amis ou en famille, à la maison ou à l'école, dans l'après-midi ou le soir et dans des loisirs et des sports que les adolescents choisissent habituellement. Conclusions: Les capacités physiques, la participation et les obstacles en matière d'activité physique varient au cours du parcours du cancer. Les interventions devraient tenir compte de la variabilité ainsi que des préférences et des environnements des individus au cours des trajectoires et des transitions du traitement du cancer et du développement du jeune pour que ce dernier puisse adopter de saines habitudes de vie

  11. L'intervention de Castaing dans le traitement chirurgical de l'instabilité chronique latérale de la cheville (à propos d'une série continue de 52 cas)

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Jalal; Mojib, Rifi; Mezghani, Sami; Jaeger, Jean Henri

    2014-01-01

    L'instabilité chronique de la cheville est l'une des évolutions possibles dans l'histoire naturelle de l'entorse aigüe de cheville. Elle représente 10% à 30% des séquelles d'entorses. Le traitement chirurgical est réservé aux patients ayant une instabilité de cheville persistante après rééducation à l'origine d'une gêne invalidante. La technique de ligamentoplastie utilisant le court fibulaire selon Castaing est la plus répondue en France. La simplicité du geste et ses bons résultats nous ont incités à poursuivre cette voie. Il s'agit d´une étude rétrospective à propos de 52 patients ayant bénéficié d'une ligamentoplastie au court fibulaire selon Castaing entre Janvier 2000 et Décembre 2010. Le recul minimum était d'un an. L’évaluation des patients reposait sur le score de Karlson et le “Ankle score” Molander et Olerud. Les patients sont satisfaits ou très satisfaits de l'intervention dans 80% des cas revus. Les résultats fonctionnels de nos patients sont comparables à ceux publiés dans la littérature. Le prélèvement du transplant du court fibulaire ne semble pas avoir de retentissement sur la stabilité de la cheville. Les patients conservent une éversion du pied satisfaisante avec une force comparable au côté opposé. L’évolution arthrosique de la cheville ne semble pas significative après cette chirurgie. Le point faible de notre étude est le nombre des patients perdus de vue, cela est lié à la jeunesse de la population opérée et au recrutement du service d'envergure nationale. PMID:25469182

  12. Sur le chaos Lagrangien dans une cuve elliptique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatdjian, E.; Chassaing, M. I.; Midoux, N.; André, J. C.

    1995-02-01

    A viscous fluid is introduced into the annular space between two concentric, confocal ellipses. The inner and outer walls can be displaced along their circumference. A small quantity of fluorescent dye is introduced into the fluid and deformation and mixing are studied for the case of periodic boundary movement. An analytical solution in elliptical coordinates has been previously derived for creeping flow conditions. Poincaré sections for a given set of parameters indicate that counter-rotation leads to a more chaotic behaviour than co-rotation, this result is confirmed experimentally. This geometry can also be used as a heat exchanger. By a suitable choice of the parameters, the heat transfer for steady boundary motion can be increased by more than 50% with respect to the concentric cylinder system. If the inner and outer walls are displaced time-periodically, the heat transfer rate obtained can be more than double the rate obtained between concentric cylinders. Un fluide visqueux est introduit dans une cuve de géométrie elliptique, les parois interne et externe de cette cuve tournent suivant le périmètre de l'ellipse. Une petite quantité de traceur fluorescent est introduite dans le fluide et la déformation de l'élément marqué, lorsque le mouvement des deux parois est périodique, est étudiée. Pour cet écoulement où le nombre de Reynolds est très inférieur à 1 (régime de Stokes) et à partir d'une solution analytique récemmnent obtenue pour le cas stationnaire, des sections de Poincaré ont été tracées pour le cas d'une contra-rotation et d'une co-rotation. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que, pour un protocole de mélange discontinu approprié, cette géométrie mène vers un mélange chaotique après un petit nombre de périodes. Par ailleurs, il est préférable de faire tourner les ellipses en contra-rotation. Ce résultat, en contradiction avec ceux déjà obtenus dans l'espace annulaire entre cylindres excentrés tournants, est

  13. Profile of tuberculosis patients with delayed sputum smear conversion in the Pacific island of Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Fanai, S; Viney, K; Tarivonda, L; Roseveare, C; Tagaro, M; Marais, B J

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Programme national de lutte contre la tuberculose (PNT), Vanuatu.Objectif : Evaluer les tendances de la tuberculose (TB), caractériser les patients à crachats positifs avec une absence de conversion en 2 mois et évaluer le résultat de leur traitement.Schéma : Evaluation des données du PNT sur une période de 9 ans (2004–2012) comparant les patients sans conversion du frottis de crachats après 2 mois (conversion retardée) avec ceux ayant eu une conversion en 2011 et 2012.Résultats : Le nombre annuel de cas de TB est resté similaire tout au long de la période d'étude avec une moyenne de taux de notification de 58/100 000. Parmi les cas à frottis positifs, 74/417 (18%) ont eu une conversion retardée. Ces patients avaient plus souvent que les autres (88% contre 79%) des grades de frottis élevés avant leur traitement (OR 2,5 ; IC 95% 0,97–6,45). Parmi ces patients à conversion différée, l'adhésion au traitement était élevée (bonne dans 99% des cas), les résultats étaient généralement bons (90% de réussite thérapeutique, 85% de guérison, 4% d'échec thérapeutique) et aucune résistance au traitement n'a été détectée. Les décès étaient étonnamment fréquents (11/80 ; 14%) parmi les conversions et plus fréquents à Tafea qu'à Shefa (7/58 contre 2/80 ; OR 5,35 ; IC05% 1,07–26,79). La province de Tafea avait également le plus grand nombre de conversions retardées (30/74 ; 14,5%) et la plus haute incidence de TB.Conclusion : Une conversion retardée des frottis était relativement peu fréquente et n'était pas associée à des résultats médiocres ou à une résistance aux médicaments. Les différences régionales requièrent davantage d'investigations afin de mieux comprendre les facteurs locaux susceptibles de compromettre la prise en charge des patients.

  14. Extended Generation Profile - E.B.I.C. Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guermazi, S.; Toureille, A.; Grill, C.; El Jani, B.; Lakhoua, N.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a model for the calculation of the induced current due to an electron beam with an extended profile. As well as the number of absorbed and diffuse electrons as a function of the depth, the generation profile takes into account the lateral diffusion and the effect of defects, dislocations and recombination surfaces. The expression from the Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) is obtained by solving the continuity equation in permanent regime by the Green function method. In the case of a Schottky diode Au/InP, obtained by ionic scattering followed by a quick thermal treatment, the induced current profile is compared to the theoretical profiles whose analytical expressions are given by Van Roosbroeck and Bresse. The experimental current profile, measured by S.E.M provided us with the calculation of the diffusion length of the minority carriers, L_n=1 μm. The theoretical curve obtained from the proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental one for a surface recombination velocity of 104 cm s^{-1}. Our results are found to be consistent with those obtained by other experimental techniques on the same samples. Nous avons développé un modèle de calcul du courant induit par un faisceau d'électrons avec un profil de génération élargi. Le profil de génération tient compte, en plus du nombre d'électrons absorbés et du nombre d'électrons diffusés en fonction de la profondeur, de la diffusion latérale (en prenant en considération la diffusion angulaire), de l'effet des défauts, des dislocations et de la recombinaison à la surface. L'expression analytique du courant induit E.B.I.C est déterminée par résolution de l'équation de continuité en régime permanent par la méthode des fonctions de Green. Le profil de courant induit obtenu dans le cas d'une diode Schottky Au/InP dopé p et fabriqué par implantation suivit d'un recuit, est comparé au profil de courant théorique dont l'expression analytique est explicité par Van

  15. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  16. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings... Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon... State X South Dakota—NO2 (2010 1-Hour Standard) Designated area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora...

  17. Discovery of Host Factors and Pathways Utilized in Hantaviral Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    World” viruses of the Americas (Sin Nombre and Andes viruses). A goal of this project is to utilize high throughput genetic screens to define common...Hantavirus, Andes virus, Sin Nombre virus, Puumala virus, Dobrava virus, sterol regulatory complex, haploid genetic screen, cholesterol inhibitors...Americas (Sin Nombre and Andes viruses). A goal of this project is to utilize a powerful haploid cell genetic screening technology (3,4) to define

  18. What's a Fart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other gases like hydrogen (say: HY-druh-jen), carbon dioxide (say: KAR-bon dy-AHK-side, the gas ... make farts smell bad. Tiny amounts of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane combine with hydrogen sulfide (say: SUHL- ...

  19. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  20. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  1. Evaluation experimentale et theorique du comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metiche, Slimane

    La demande croissante en poteaux pour les differents reseaux d'electricite et de telecommunications a rendu necessaire l'utilisation de materiaux innovants, qui preservent l'environnement. La majorite des poteaux electriques existants au Canada ainsi qu'a travers le monde, sont fabriques a partir de materiaux traditionnels tel que le bois, le beton ou l'acier. Les motivations des industriels et des chercheurs a penser a d'autres solutions sont diverses, citons entre autre: La limitation en longueur des poteaux en bois ainsi que la vulnerabilite des poteaux fabriques en beton ou en acier aux agressions climatiques. Les nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites se presentent comme de bons candidats a cet effet, cependant; leur comportement structural n'est pas connu et des etudes theoriques et experimentales approfondies sont necessaires avant leur mise en marche a grande echelle. Un programme de recherche intensif comportant plusieurs projets experimentaux, analytiques et numeriques est en cours a l'Universite de Sherbrooke afin d'evaluer le comportement a court et a long termes de ces nouveaux poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF). C'est dans ce contexte que s'inscrit la presente these, et notre recherche vise a evaluer le comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux tubulaires coniques fabriques en materiaux composites par enroulement filamentaire et ce, a travers une etude theorique, ainsi qu'a travers une serie d'essais de flexion en "grandeur reelle" afin de comprendre le comportement structural de ces poteaux, d'optimiser la conception et de proposer une procedure de dimensionnement pour les utilisateurs. Les poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF) etudies dans cette these sont fabriques avec une resine epoxyde renforcee de fibres de verre type E. Chaque type poteaux est constitue principalement de trois zones ou les proprietes geometriques (epaisseur, diametre) et les proprietes mecaniques sont differentes d'une zone a l'autre. La difference

  2. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  3. Radioiodide treatment after sodium iodide symporter gene transfer is a highly effective therapy in neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Meike L; Weber, Alexander; Béhé, Martin; Göke, Rüdiger; Joba, Werner; Schmidt, Harald; Bert, Till; Simon, Babette; Arnold, Rudolf; Heufelder, Armin E; Behr, Thomas M

    2003-03-15

    This study evaluates the possibility of treating Bon1 and QGP pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells with radioactive iodide ((131)I) after stable transfection with the thyroid sodium iodide symporter (NIS). NIS expression was driven either by the strong viral cytomegalovirus promoter or by the tissue-specific chromogranin A promoter. Using either approach, NIS expression was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Uptake of radioactive iodide was increased approximately 20-fold by chromogranin A promoter-driven NIS expression and approximately 50-fold by cytomegalovirus promoter-driven NIS expression. Maximal uptake was reached within 15 min in QGP cells and 30 min in Bon1 cells. Effective half-life was 5 min in QGP and 30 min in Bon1 cells. No evidence of organification was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. (131)I was a highly effective treatment in NIS-expressing QGP and Bon1 cells, reducing clone formation by 99.83 and 98.75%, respectively, in the in vitro clonogenic assay. In contrast, clone formation was not reduced in QGP and Bon1 cells without NIS expression after incubation with the same activity concentration of (131)I as compared with mock treated cells. Absorbed doses to QGP and Bon1 cells are up to 150 and 30 Gy, respectively. In addition, a direct cytotoxic effect of radioiodide was demonstrated in NIS-expressing Bon1 cells after (131)I incubation. In conclusion, radioiodide treatment after NIS gene transfer appears to be a promising novel approach in the therapy of neuroendocrine tumors if its highly encouraging in vitro effectiveness can be transferred to the in vivo situation.

  4. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  5. NASA Galactic Cosmic Radiation Environment Model: Badhwar-O'Neill (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Slaba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux model is used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and in the analysis of radiation health risks for human space flight missions. Of special interest to NASA is the kinetic energy region below 4.0 GeV/n due to the fact that exposure from GCR behind shielding (e.g., inside a space vehicle) is heavily influenced by the GCR particles from this energy domain. The BON model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model utilizes a GCR measurements database from various particle detectors to determine the boundary conditions. By using an updated GCR database and improved model fit parameters, the new BON model (BON14) is significantly improved over the previous BON models for describing the GCR radiation environment of interest to human space flight.

  6. NASA Galactic Cosmic Radiation Environment Model: Badhwar - O'Neill (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golge, S.; O'Neill, P. M.; Slaba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux model has been used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and in the analysis of radiation health risks for human space flight missions. Of special interest to NASA is the kinetic energy region below 4.0 GeV/n due to the fact that exposure from GCR behind shielding (e.g., inside a space vehicle) is heavily influenced by the GCR particles from this energy domain. The BON model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model utilizes a comprehensive database of GCR measurements from various particle detectors to determine boundary conditions. By using an updated GCR database and improved model fit parameters, the new BON model (BON14) is significantly improved over the previous BON models for describing the GCR radiation environment of interest to human space flight.

  7. IGF-1 drives chromogranin A secretion via activation of Arf1 in human neuroendocrine tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Münzberg, Christin; Höhn, Katharina; Krndija, Denis; Maaß, Ulrike; Bartsch, Detlef K; Slater, Emily P; Oswald, Franz; Walther, Paul; Seufferlein, Thomas; von Wichert, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Hypersecretion is the major symptom of functional neuroendocrine tumours. The mechanisms that contribute to this excessive secretion of hormones are still elusive. A key event in secretion is the exit of secretory products from the Golgi apparatus. ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are known to control vesicle budding and trafficking, and have a leading function in the regulation of formation of secretory granula at the Golgi. Here, we show that Arf1 is the predominant Arf protein family member expressed in the neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines BON and QGP-1. In BON cells Arf1 colocalizes with Golgi markers as well as chromogranin A, and shows significant basal activity. The inhibition of Arf1 activity or expression significantly impaired secretion of chromogranin A. Furthermore, we show that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a major regulator of growth and secretion in BON cells, induces Arf1 activity. We found that activation of Arf1 upon IGF-1 receptor stimulation is mediated by MEK/ERK signalling pathway in BON and QGP-1 cells. Moreover, the activity of Arf1 in BON cells is mediated by autocrinely secreted IGF-1, and concomitantly, autocrine IGF1 secretion is maintained by Arf1 activity. In summary, our data indicate an important regulatory role for Arf1 at the Golgi in hypersecretion in neuroendocrine cancer cells. PMID:25754106

  8. IGF-1 drives chromogranin A secretion via activation of Arf1 in human neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Münzberg, Christin; Höhn, Katharina; Krndija, Denis; Maaß, Ulrike; Bartsch, Detlef K; Slater, Emily P; Oswald, Franz; Walther, Paul; Seufferlein, Thomas; von Wichert, Götz

    2015-05-01

    Hypersecretion is the major symptom of functional neuroendocrine tumours. The mechanisms that contribute to this excessive secretion of hormones are still elusive. A key event in secretion is the exit of secretory products from the Golgi apparatus. ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are known to control vesicle budding and trafficking, and have a leading function in the regulation of formation of secretory granula at the Golgi. Here, we show that Arf1 is the predominant Arf protein family member expressed in the neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines BON and QGP-1. In BON cells Arf1 colocalizes with Golgi markers as well as chromogranin A, and shows significant basal activity. The inhibition of Arf1 activity or expression significantly impaired secretion of chromogranin A. Furthermore, we show that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a major regulator of growth and secretion in BON cells, induces Arf1 activity. We found that activation of Arf1 upon IGF-1 receptor stimulation is mediated by MEK/ERK signalling pathway in BON and QGP-1 cells. Moreover, the activity of Arf1 in BON cells is mediated by autocrinely secreted IGF-1, and concomitantly, autocrine IGF1 secretion is maintained by Arf1 activity. In summary, our data indicate an important regulatory role for Arf1 at the Golgi in hypersecretion in neuroendocrine cancer cells.

  9. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates in cancer: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Cesar A; Epstein, Joel B; Abt, Elliot; Berenson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis (BON) is a complication that almost exclusively affects the jaw bones. The clinical presentation of BON often mimics that of other conditions, such as routine dental disease, osteoradionecrosis or avascular necrosis; therefore, diagnosis can be difficult. As this complication has only been recognized within the past 10 years, management strategies for patients with BON are poorly defined. Physicians must choose between continuing the bisphosphonate therapy (to reduce the risk of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic bone disease or osteoporosis) and discontinuing the drug (to possibly improve the odds for tissue healing). A conservative or aggressive management strategy must be chosen with limited evidence that the outcome of either strategy will be successful. BON is most prevalent in patients with cancer using intravenous nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. The pathobiology of this complication is not fully understood and the diagnosis relies on the clinical manifestations of the condition. Future research should focus on the pathobiological mechanisms involved in the development of BON, which could help explain why this complication affects only a small number of those who use bisphosphonates, and also suggest strategies for prevention and management.

  10. Coupled Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Instability, Chaos and Turbulence in an Axisymmetric Jet Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    parabolique (a trois termes). 17 13. Bifurcation de Hopf: evolution des valeurs propres parametree par le nombre de Reynolds 14. Fonctions de transfert des...position et d’un nombre de Reynolds critiques Pour une position correcte de la sonde de feedback, la creation d’une boucle fermee provoque l’instauration...d’oscillations auto-entretenues harmoniques. L’excitation du jet depend fortement de la valeur du gain total de la boucle de retour (l’amplification

  11. C-Dot Generated Bioactive Organosilica Nanospheres in Theranostics: Multicolor Luminescent and Photothermal Properties Combined with Drug Delivery Capacity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra K; Patel, Kapil D; Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Kang, Min Sil; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-09-21

    Biocompatible nanomaterials that allow for labeling cells and tissues with the capacity to load and deliver drug molecules hold great promise for the therapeutic-diagnostic purposes in tissue repair and disease cure. Here a novel nanoplatform, called C-dot bioactive organosilica nanosphere (C-BON), is introduced to have excellent theranostic potential, such as controlled drug delivery, visible-light imaging, and NIR photothermal activity. C-dots with a few nanometers were in situ generated in the Ca-containing organosilica mesoporous nanospheres through the sol-gel and thermal-treatment processes. The C-BON exhibited multicolor luminescence over a wide visible-light range with strong emissions and high photostability over time and against acidity and the possible in vivo optical imaging capacity when injected in rat subcutaneous tissues. Moreover, the C-BON showed a photothermal heating effect upon the irradiation of near-infrared. The C-BON, thanks to the high mesoporosity and existence of Ca(2+) ions, demonstrated excellent loading capacity of anticancer drug doxorubicin (as high as 90% of carrier weight) and long-term (over a couple of weeks) and pH/NIR-dependent release ability. The C-BON preserved the compositional merit of Ca-Si glass, having excellent bioactivity and cell compatibility in vitro. Taken all, the multifunctional properties of C-BON-multicolor luminescence, photothermal activity, and high drug loading and controlled release-together with its excellent bioactivity and cell compatibility potentiate the future applications in theranostics (chemotherapy and photothermal therapy with optical imaging).

  12. Constant-Round Concurrent Zero Knowledge From Falsifiable Assumptions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    black-box zero knowledge. J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 72(2):321–391, 2006. [Bon03] Dan Boneh , editor. Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2003, 23rd Annual...certificates that are not certified by a higher-level certificate; we refer to these as “ dan - gling” certificates. See Figure 2 for an illustration of the tree...Nao03] Moni Naor. On cryptographic assumptions and challenges. In Boneh [Bon03], pages 96–109. [Pas03a] Rafael Pass. On deniability in the common

  13. Betons durables a base de cendres d'ecorces de riz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William

    De nos jours, le développement durable est devenu une nécessité dans l'ensemble des sphères d'activité de notre monde, et particulièrement dans le domaine du béton. En effet, le développement des sociétés passe inévitablement par l'augmentation des infrastructures; le béton est le matériau principalement utilisé et son empreinte environnementale considérable gagnerait à être diminuée. L'industrie et la recherche sont très actives à ce niveau et la science des bétons durables est en pleine expansion. Dans ce contexte, une piste de solution est l'utilisation de résidus industriels ou agricoles comme ajouts cimentaires, ce qui permet de remplacer partiellement le ciment très polluant, tout en produisant des bétons avec une meilleure durabilité. Les cendres d'écorce de riz (RHA) présentent ainsi un potentiel cimentaire similaire aux meilleurs ajouts cimentaires actuellement utilisés, mais les applications concrètes de ce nouveau matériau demeurent peu développées à ce jour. Le présent projet a donc été conçu afin d'illustrer le potentiel des RHA d'une part dans les pays industrialisés pour améliorer la durabilité des bétons hautes performances (BHP) et pour améliorer les propriétés à l'état frais des bétons autoplaçants (BAP); et d'autre part, dans les pays en développement pour démocratiser les bétons durables produits avec des technologies adaptées aux réalités locales. Une première phase réalisée avec des RHA de haute qualité (RHAI) a ainsi été consacrée aux applications en pays industrialisés. La caractérisation des RHAI a indiqué une composition de 90% de silice amorphe, des particules légèrement plus grossières que le ciment, et une microstructure très poreuse et absorbante. Afin de pallier à cette absorption d'eau, l'optimisation du type de superplastifiant a permis de déterminer que l'utilisation du Plastol 5000 ou de l'Adva 405 avec les RHAI favorise un

  14. Measuring the Economic Value of the Electronic Scientific Information Services in Portuguese Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    This article has three main objectives: i) to describe the use patterns of electronic and traditional resources in Portuguese academic libraries; ii) to estimate the value of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on by using two alternative valuation methodologies; iii) to relate the use patterns with the valuation of b-on.…

  15. Multifunctional Poly(2,5-benzimidazole)/Carbon Nanotube Composite Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    electronic, electromagnetic- shielding, to smart materials.1 Typically, they are prepared by dispersing rigid and strong fibers such as glass and car...bon fibers in a polymer matrix, and their resulting properties (primarily because of the surface area and aspect ratio limi- tations associated with the...high-performance polybenzazoles (PBXs) such as rigid-rod polymers: polybenzobisthiazole (PBZT), polybenzobisoxazole (PBO), and polybenzobisimidazole

  16. Documentary hails partnership. Introduces combination of New Jersey "faith-based institutions".

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Three venerable north New Jersey hospitals, formerly rivals, recently became partners under the name Bon Secours and Canterbury Partnership for Care. The historic theme of the event was inspired by holding the ceremony in an historic public building. A 13-minute video documentary sets the stage for cordiality and pride in the new partnership.

  17. Electronically Induced Phase Transformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ries (w hen the Slater free-electron exchange is used). A systematic the active researcher. study of relativistic electron densities and isomer...comp:wrees aux mesures actuelles d’effet dHvA d’Arko et Schirber. Le calu; du facteur de forme neutronique en presence d’un champ magnetique est en bon

  18. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  19. Soy protein isolates prevent loss of bone quantity associated with obesity in rats through regulation of insulin signaling in osteoblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In both rodents and humans, excessive consumption of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol during postnatal life is known to result in disruption of energy metabolism, development of obesity and of insulin resistance. However, how these high fat, energy dense diets affect bon...

  20. Conducting and non-conducting biopolymer composites produced by particle bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report, we introduce two types of processes for the production of biopolymer composites: one is fabricated by bonding biopolymers with corn protein or wheat protein and the other by bonding starch with a synthetic polymer. These two types of biopolymer composites make use of the strong bon...

  1. Are regulations more consumer-friendly when boards of nursing are the sole regulators of nurse practitioners?

    PubMed

    Rudner Lugo, Nancy; O'Grady, Eileen T; Hodnicki, Donna; Hanson, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    The widely varied regulations in the 50 states often limit consumer access to nurse practitioners (NPs). In 22 states, the Board of Nursing (BON) must share NP regulatory authority with another profession, usually physicians. This study examines the relationship between the BON as the sole authority regulating NPs or sharing that authority with another profession and the NP regulatory environment. Independent t tests compared the NP regulatory environments for consumer access and choice in states with sole BON regulation with those in states with involvement of another profession. The states' NP regulatory environments were quantified with an 11-measure tool assessing domains of consumer access to NPs, NP patients' access to service, and NP patients' access to prescription medications. BON-regulated states were less restrictive (P < .01, effect size 1.02) and supported NP professional autonomy. Entry into practice regulations did not differ in the two groups of states. Having another profession involved in regulation correlates with more restrictions on consumer access to NPs and more restrictions to the full deployment of NPs.

  2. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  3. The Ready Reserve Force: Is It Capable of Performing Its Mission?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    with the ship. This inventory should closely follow the Builder’s Allowance List ( BAL ). The second is the shore-based spare parts inventory. As of...Tacoma, WA .4 SS Cape Bon San Pedro, CA S Cape Borda Richmond, CA SS Cape Bover Richmond, CA SS Cape Breton San Francisco, CA MV Cape Ducato San Pedro

  4. Introductory Concepts in Information Science. ASIS Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Melanie J.

    This book is an introduction to the practical and theoretical concepts of information science. The author draws on recent research into the field of information science, as well as from scholarly and trade publications, and includes articles by Harold Borko, Klause Otten, and Anthony DeBons to emphasize the long-standing dissension in the field.…

  5. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  6. The role of osteocalcin in human glucose metabolism: marker or mediator?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence supports an association between the skeleton and energy metabolism. These interactions are mediated by a variety of hormones, cytokines, and nutrients. Here, the evidence for a role of osteocalcin in the regulation of glucose metabolism in humans is reviewed. Osteocalcin is a bon...

  7. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown... Aurora County Unclassifiable/Attainment Beadle County Unclassifiable/Attainment Bennett...

  8. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown... Aurora County Unclassifiable/Attainment Beadle County Unclassifiable/Attainment Bennett...

  9. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown...-Hour Standard) Designated area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora County...

  10. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown...-Hour Standard) Designated area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora County...

  11. Long-term acquired everolimus resistance in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours can be overcome with novel PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, Timon; Beyens, Matthias; de Beeck, Ken Op; Dogan, Fadime; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Pauwels, Patrick; Mortier, Geert; Vangestel, Christel; de Herder, Wouter; Van Camp, Guy; Peeters, Marc; Hofland, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mTOR-inhibitor everolimus improves progression-free survival in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs). However, adaptive resistance to mTOR inhibition is described. Methods: QGP-1 and BON-1, two human PNET cell lines, were cultured with increasing concentrations of everolimus up to 22 weeks to reach a dose of 1 μM everolimus, respectively, 1000-fold and 250-fold initial IC50. Using total DNA content as a measure of cell number, growth inhibitory dose–response curves of everolimus were determined at the end of resistance induction and over time after everolimus withdrawal. Response to ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors OSI-027 and AZD2014, and PI3K-mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 was studied. Gene expression of 10 PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway-related genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (RT–qPCR). Results: Long-term everolimus-treated BON-1/R and QGP-1/R showed a significant reduction in everolimus sensitivity. During a drug holiday, gradual return of everolimus sensitivity in BON-1/R and QGP-1/R led to complete reversal of resistance after 10–12 weeks. Treatment with AZD2014, OSI-027 and NVP-BEZ235 had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in both sensitive and resistant cell lines. Gene expression in BON-1/R revealed downregulation of MTOR, RICTOR, RAPTOR, AKT and HIF1A, whereas 4EBP1 was upregulated. In QGP-1/R, a downregulation of HIF1A and an upregulation of ERK2 were observed. Conclusions: Long-term everolimus resistance was induced in two human PNET cell lines. Novel PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway-targeting drugs can overcome everolimus resistance. Differential gene expression profiles suggest different mechanisms of everolimus resistance in BON-1 and QGP-1. PMID:26978006

  12. Expression of dopamine receptors and transporter in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, K; Ahnert-Hilger, G; Höpfner, M; Hoegerle, S; Faiss, S; Grabowski, P; Jockers-Scherübl, M; Riecken, E O; Zeitz, M; Scherübl, H

    2002-06-28

    C-11- or F-18-DOPA positron emission tomography (DOPA PET) is a new sensitive imaging technique for small neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors which evaluates the decarboxylase activity. To further characterize the dopaminergic system in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells, we investigated the expression of both dopamine receptors and the transmembrane dopamine transporter (DAT) in the human neuroendocrine pancreatic cell line BON and in the neuroendocrine gut cell line STC-1. Both BON and STC-1 cells expressed mRNA of the dopamine receptors D2-D5 and DAT. mRNA of the dopamine receptor D1 was detected in BON cells only. Both in BON and STC-1 cells, expression of D2 and D5 receptors and DAT was also demonstrated immunocytochemically. For functional receptor characterization intracellular cAMP levels ([cAMP]i) were determined. Whereas in STC-1 cells dopamine and the D1-like (D1/D5) receptor agonist SKF 38393 increased [cAMP]i, [cAMP]i was decreased by dopamine or the D2-like (D2-D4) receptor agonist quinpirole in BON cells. Functional DAT activity was, however, not detected in either cell line. The presence of both dopamine receptors and of the DAT suggests an autocrine and/or paracrine function of dopamine in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells. Yet neither the transmembrane dopamine transporter nor dopamine receptors are likely to contribute to positive DOPA PET imaging of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors. However, these molecules may be of diagnostic importance when applying other dopaminergic system tracers.

  13. GCR Environmental Models III: GCR Model Validation and Propagated Uncertainties in Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Xu, Xiaojing; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2014-01-01

    This is the last of three papers focused on quantifying the uncertainty associated with galactic cosmic rays (GCR) models used for space radiation shielding applications. In the first paper, it was found that GCR ions with Z>2 and boundary energy below 500 MeV/nucleon induce less than 5% of the total effective dose behind shielding. This is an important finding since GCR model development and validation have been heavily biased toward Advanced Composition Explorer/Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer measurements below 500 MeV/nucleon. Weights were also developed that quantify the relative contribution of defined GCR energy and charge groups to effective dose behind shielding. In the second paper, it was shown that these weights could be used to efficiently propagate GCR model uncertainties into effective dose behind shielding. In this work, uncertainties are quantified for a few commonly used GCR models. A validation metric is developed that accounts for measurements uncertainty, and the metric is coupled to the fast uncertainty propagation method. For this work, the Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) 2010 and 2011 and the Matthia GCR models are compared to an extensive measurement database. It is shown that BON2011 systematically overestimates heavy ion fluxes in the range 0.5-4 GeV/nucleon. The BON2010 and BON2011 also show moderate and large errors in reproducing past solar activity near the 2000 solar maximum and 2010 solar minimum. It is found that all three models induce relative errors in effective dose in the interval [-20%, 20%] at a 68% confidence level. The BON2010 and Matthia models are found to have similar overall uncertainty estimates and are preferred for space radiation shielding applications.

  14. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A.

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  15. Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Armstrong, Lori R.; Childs, James E.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Khabbaz, Rima; Peters, C.J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Rodents are the principal hosts of Sin Nombre virus, 4 other hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America, and the 3 North American arenaviruses. Serum samples from 757 persons who had worked with rodents in North America and handled neotomine or sigmodontine rodents were tested for antibodies against Sin Nombre virus, Whitewater Arroyo virus, Guanarito virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Antibodies against Sin Nombre virus were found in 4 persons, against Whitewater Arroyo virus or Guanarito virus in 2 persons, and against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in none. These results suggest that risk for infection with hantaviruses or arenaviruses usually is low in persons whose occupations entail close physical contact with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in North America. PMID:17553266

  16. On the Proportion of Digits in Redundant Numeration Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-08

    naturels par une somme de nombres de Fibonacci ou de nombres de Lucas ,” Bull. Soc. Royale Sci. Liege 41 (1972) pp. 179-82. A.M.S. Classification Numbers : 05A15, 05A16, 68R05 ...numeration system around 3000 B.C.. Instead of powers of 2’s, if Fibonacci numbers are used, then an alternate numeration system (viz. Zeckendorf [14...is the ith Fibonacci number . For example, 1000 = 0110 = 5 in the Fibonacci numeration system, where 5 is equivalent to both F5 and F4 + F3. It is

  17. Fluid Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Shear Flows and Transition: Conference Proceedings of the Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel Held in Cesme (Turkey) on 3-6 October 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Analyse des essais effectues - Etude de l’influence du nombre de Reynolds. RTS 8:3072 AY 002 Meyer, W. D., Jennett, L . A. 1985. In flight surface oil flow...Fig. 26 Distributions do nombre do MACH sur 1e corps 4.2. Effets des riblets sur l 𔄀coulement tine premid re analyse de 1’effet des riblets est...26 1989 -. DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY TFSAE~ o ON BACK COVER A A l AGARD-CP-438 NORTH ATLANTIC" TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE

  18. Nouvelles approches en theorie du champ moyen dynamique: le cas du pouvoir thermoelectrique et celui de l'effet orbital d'un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-Francois

    Les applications reliees a la generation d'energie motivent la recherche de materiaux ayant un fort pouvoir thermoelectrique (S). De plus, S nous renseigne sur certaines proprietes fondamentales des materiaux, comme, par exemple, la transition entre l'etat coherent et incoherent des quasi-particules lorsque la temperature augmente. Empiriquement, la presence de fortes interactions electron-electron peut mener a un pouvoir thermoelectrique geant. Nous avons donc etudie le modele le plus simple qui tient compte de ces fortes interactions, le modele de Hubbard. La theorie du champ moyen dynamique (DMFT) est tout indiquee dans ce cas. Nous nous sommes concentres sur un systeme tridimensionnel (3d) cubique a face centree (fcc), et ce, pour plusieurs raisons. A) Ce type de cristal est tres commun dans la nature. B) La DMFT donne de tres bons resultats en 3d et donc ce choix sert aussi de preuve de principe de la methode. C) Finalement, a cause de la frustration electronique intrinseque au fcc, celui-ci ne presente pas de symetrie particule-trou, ce qui est tres favorable a l'apparition d'une grande valeur de S. Ce travail demontre que lorsque le materiau est un isolant a demi-remplissage a cause des fortes interactions (isolant de Mott), il est possible d'obtenir de grands pouvoirs thermoelectriques en le dopant legerement. C'est un resultat pratique important. Du point de vue methodologique, nous avons montre comment la limite de frequence infinie de S et l'approche dite de Kelvin, qui considere la limite de frequence nulle avant la limite thermodynamique pour S, donnent des estimations fiables de la vraie limite continue (DC) dans les domaines de temperature appropriee. Ces deux approches facilitent grandement les calculs en court-circuit ant la necessite de recourir a de problematiques prolongements analytiques. Nous avons trouve que la methode de calcul a frequence infinie fonctionne bien lorsque les echelles d'energie sont relativement faibles. En d'autres termes

  19. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    ême lorsque des fractures et des failles existaient dans certains des intervalles d'essais. Ces mesures sont conformes aux données hydrogéologiques tirées du recoupement des argiles à Opalinus par dix tunnels du Jura plissé du nord de la Suisse. Malgré une tectonique intense, peu de manifestations de faibles venues d'eau ont été rencontrées dans plus de 6600 m de tunnel. Toutes les venues d'eau se sont produites dans des sections de tunnel où le recouvrement est inférieur à 200 m. Les données hydrauliques sont en bon accord avec les données hydrochimiques et isotopiques de l'eau porale des argiles. En se basant sur le grand nombre de données hydrogéologiques, qui portent en partie sur les environnements géologiques particulièrement peu propices, on peut avancer que le transport advectif le long des failles et des fractures n'est pas un facteur susceptible de remettre en question le choix de l'argile à Opalinus comme roche hôte pour le stockage de déchets radioactifs en formation géologique profonde. Resúmen. Dentro del programa suizo de eliminación de residuos radiactivos de alta actividad, se está investigando la posibilidad de utilizar unos esquistos Jurásicos (Arcilla Opalina) como depósito geológico. Las observaciones efectuadas en pozos en arcilla y los resultados de un programa de estudio alemán sobre eliminación de residuos peligrosos han demostrado que, a profundidades de entre 10 y 30 m, la permeabilidad de la Arcilla Opalina decrece en varios órdenes de magnitud. Los ensayos hidráulicos realizados en sondeos más profundos (en intervalos situados a más de 300 m) proporcionaron conductividades hidráulicas inferiores a 10-12 m/s, pese a que algunos de los intervalos interceptaban juntas y fallas. Estas medidas son coherentes con los datos hidrogeológicos de las secciones de Arcilla Opalina existentes en 10 túneles del Jurásico Plegado, al norte de Suiza. A pesar de las fallas extensivas, apenas se hallaron indicios de entrada de

  20. Critical Appraisal Skills Among Canadian Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents: How Do They Fare?

    PubMed

    Bougie, Olga; Posner, Glenn; Black, Amanda Y

    2015-07-01

    taient déjà parvenus à faire publier un article (RC 1= ,82). Bon nombre de ces résidents (68 %) étaient peu à l’aise / n’étaient pas à l’aise en ce qui concerne l’application des résultats de la recherche à la pratique clinique. Le degré d’aisance connaissait une hausse considérable au fil des années de formation (P < 0,001) et en présence d’une formation officielle en épidémiologie au cours de la résidence (RC.= 2,01). Le score moyen des 355 résidents quant aux questions sur l’évaluation des connaissances a été de 69,8 %. Le niveau d’expérience était associé à une amélioration du rendement global pendant le test (P = 0,02). Parmi les rubriques ayant donné lieu au rendement le plus faible, on trouvait la méthode d’étude analytique (9,9 %), le devis d’étude (36,9 %) et la taille d’échantillon (42,0 %). La plupart des résidents (84,4 %) souhaitaient obtenir plus de formation en épidémiologie. Conclusion : Bien que les résidents canadiens en obstétrique-gynécologie détiennent les connaissances requises en biostatistique et en épidémiologie pour interpréter les résultats publiés dans la littérature, ils manquent d’aisance quant à l’application de ces connaissances en milieu clinique. La plupart des résidents souhaitent obtenir plus de formation dans ces domaines; les programmes de résidence devraient donc inclure une telle formation aux curriculums officiels, et ce, en vue d’accroître la confiance des résidents et de les préparer à pratiquer une médecine factuelle tout au long de leur carrière.

  1. Crustal evolution of Eocene paleo arc around Ogasawara region obtained by seismic reflection survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishizuka, O.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. The existence of two paleo arc which consists of Oligocene and Eocene paleo age is known in IBM forearc region by geological and geophysical studies. The Ogasawara ridge is also known to locate the initial structure of arc evolution from geologic sampling of research submersible. In this region, IODP drilling site: IBM-2 is proposed in order to understand the temporal and spatial change in arc crust composition from 50 to 40Ma magmatism. Site IBM-2 consists of two offset drilling holes (BON-1, BON-2). BON-1 designed to first encounter forearc basalt and will reach the sheeted dykes. BON-2 will start in boninites and finish in fore arc basalts. The purpose of these drilling is sampling the full volcanic stratigraphy from gabbro to boninite. There is no seismic data around BON-1 and BON-2, therefore it is need to conduct the multi-channel seismic reflection survey. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey and wide-angle reflection survey using 7,800 cu.in. air gun, 5 km streamer with 444 ch hydrophones and 40 OBSs in March 2011. We obtained two seismic reflection profiles of lines KT06 and KT07 along the paleo arc around Ogasawara ridge. Line KT06 located the north side of Ogasawara ridge. Line KT07 located the trench side of Ogasawara ridge. Lines KT06 is also deployed the OBSs every 5 km interval. Thin sediments are covered with basement in both survey lines. There are some sediment filled in depression topography. The low-frequency reflection from the top of subducting Pacific plate is recognized in line KT06. The continuity of this reflection is not clear due to the complicated bathymetry. The displacement of basement in northern side of Ogasawara ridge is identified along the lineament of bathymetry in Line 06. This structure is

  2. Total meltwater volume since the Last Glacial Maximum and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle inferred from relative sea level changes at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf and GIA-induced J˙2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-02-01

    Inference of globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) highly depends on the interpretation of relative sea level (RSL) observations at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf, Australia, which are sensitive to the viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Here we examine the RSL changes at the LGM for Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}), differential RSL for both sites (Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}}) and rate of change of degree-two harmonics of Earth's geopotential due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process (GIA-induced J˙2) to infer the ESL component and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Differential RSL, Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} and GIA-induced J˙2 are dominantly sensitive to the lower-mantle viscosity, and nearly insensitive to the upper-mantle rheological structure and GIA ice models with an ESL component of about (120-130) m. The comparison between the predicted and observationally derived Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} indicates the lower-mantle viscosity higher than ˜2 × 1022 Pa s, and the observationally derived GIA-induced J˙2 of -(6.0-6.5) × 10-11 yr-1 indicates two permissible solutions for the lower mantle, ˜1022 and (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. That is, the effective lower-mantle viscosity inferred from these two observational constraints is (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. The LGM RSL changes at both sites, {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}, are also sensitive to the ESL component and upper-mantle viscosity as well as the lower-mantle viscosity. The permissible upper-mantle viscosity increases with decreasing ESL component due to the sensitivity of the LGM sea level at Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}) to the upper-mantle viscosity, and inferred upper-mantle viscosity for adopted lithospheric thicknesses of 65 and 100 km is (1-3) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜130 m and (4-10) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜125 m. The former solution of (1-3) × 1020

  3. The Development of Spanish Airpower Doctrine (1910-1936)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    in Spain, including civil and commercial airlines, social air mindedness, national industry, and military aviation. “Reorganización y nuevos ... Proyecto de Reorganización de la Sección y Dirección de Aeronáutica en un Centro único con el nombre de Dirección. Signed by Gen Francisco Echague, as

  4. National Economic Development Procedures Manual. Recreation. Volume 3. A Case Study Application of the Contingent Valuation Method for Estimating Urban Recreation Use and Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    fully consider the recreation potential that may be provided at Corps Civil Works projects. Formulated plans should, therefore, be responsive to... formulario en el sobre adjunto para nuevamente enviarle uno escrito en espaiiol. Nombre Direccion * College of Agriculture Texas Agricultural Experiment

  5. A Touch of...Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatlain, Harvey; Sotiriadis, Caterina

    1985-01-01

    Describes educational games for teaching French as a second language (with one game to teach German). These include: "Comiques," for grades 7-12; "Battleship," for grades 7-8; "Scrabble au tableau," for grades 7-9""Baseball a l'interieur,""Phrase," for grades 7-12""Food-Enjoyment!" for grade 8; "Mon Nombre Secret;" and "Hallowe'en Activity." (SED)

  6. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Shores quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Shores topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, Oyster Bay, and the Bon Secour River, in Alabama. Most beachfront homes in the Gulf Shores area and most homes fronting on Little Lagoon in western Gulf Shores were either destroyed or heavily damaged. All beachfront motels were severly damaged. Damage to homes and other buildings in the Oyster Bay-Bon Secour area was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  7. Biosynthesis of the respiratory toxin bongkrekic acid in the pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia gladioli.

    PubMed

    Moebius, Nadine; Ross, Claudia; Scherlach, Kirstin; Rohm, Barbara; Roth, Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-09-21

    Bongkrekic acid (BA), an infamous respiratory toxin of the pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia gladioli, causes lethal intoxications when tempe bongkrek is produced with contaminated Rhizopus oligosporus cultures. Genome sequencing of B. gladioli pathovar cocovenenans unveiled the genetic basis for BA biosynthesis, and pointed to a homologous bon gene cluster in a B. gladioli strain from an infected rice plant. For functional genetics in B. gladioli λ Red recombination was established. Dissection of the modular type I polyketide synthase (a trans-AT PKS) provided insights into complex polyketide assembly. Isoprenoid-like β-branching events and a six-electron oxidation of a methyl group to a carboxylic acid give rise to the unique branched tricarboxylic fatty acid. The role of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, BonL, was proven by structural elucidation of deoxybongkrekic acid from a mutant.

  8. Suitable utilization of woody plants for hibitation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been investigating the usefulness of woody plants for habitation on Mars. During our research, we have found that woody plants have several properties which can be utilized for therapy and materials for enrage and construction even on Mars. Japanese people traditionally believe that "Bonsai" have therapeudic properties. Trees can become carbon fuel which can be used as energy on Mars. Tree materials could be used as a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as for the purification and/or separation of solutions in an environment in space. Here, we will show some results of their abilities, the water leakage and vacuum seal test, separation of solutions using carbon materials made from trees. At the initiation of this research, we named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments "CosmoBon", small bonsai tree. To establish our research, as the first step, we will try to do the experiment using "CosmoBon".

  9. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period, and World War II. Volume 3. World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    complementary demand to create pipelines since the truck fleet rapidly exhausted the very gas It was supposed to be carrying to stalled armored divisions...look for 3 3 295. the enemy west of Sardinia . On bon th occasions the attackers got away virtually untouched, and neither fiasco taught the Comando...who demanded Inmediate deploymen regazdlesi. of consequences. I Even In Ztaly, Sicily, and Sardinia , the Air Force’s ground organization and Industrial

  10. Feasibility of Renewable Energy Technology at the Afghanistan National Security University: A Site-Specific Study Focused on Potential Renewable Energy Technologies in Northwest Kabul, Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-26

    bon dioxide rich biogas that can replace fossil fuels. Figure 8 shows the stages in the anaerobic digestion process. The first stage in the process...maintain the peak digestion process, with any additional biogas being used to provide electricity to the complex. ( Anaerobic digestion is discussed...all buildings require heating only, this expenditure would be cost-ineffective. Anaerobic Digestion A simple payback >20 yrs; takes 50 yrs for SIR

  11. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Films for Lithium Battery Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    All the graphitic forms of car- bon including zero-dimensional fullerenes, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and three-dimensional graphite are...graphene structures have attracted consid- erable interest in the field of electronics .2628 Like other doped carbon forms, nitrogen-doped graphene is...represent carbon atoms, blue spheres repre- sent graphitic N atoms, orange spheres represent pyridinic N atoms and pink spheres represent pyr- rolic N

  12. On the underlying assumptions of threshold Boolean networks as a model for genetic regulatory network behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van; McCall, Matthew N.; McMurray, Helene R.; Almudevar, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Boolean networks (BoN) are relatively simple and interpretable models of gene regulatory networks. Specifying these models with fewer parameters while retaining their ability to describe complex regulatory relationships is an ongoing methodological challenge. Additionally, extending these models to incorporate variable gene decay rates, asynchronous gene response, and synergistic regulation while maintaining their Markovian nature increases the applicability of these models to genetic regulatory networks (GRN). We explore a previously-proposed class of BoNs characterized by linear threshold functions, which we refer to as threshold Boolean networks (TBN). Compared to traditional BoNs with unconstrained transition functions, these models require far fewer parameters and offer a more direct interpretation. However, the functional form of a TBN does result in a reduction in the regulatory relationships which can be modeled. We show that TBNs can be readily extended to permit self-degradation, with explicitly modeled degradation rates. We note that the introduction of variable degradation compromises the Markovian property fundamental to BoN models but show that a simple state augmentation procedure restores their Markovian nature. Next, we study the effect of assumptions regarding self-degradation on the set of possible steady states. Our findings are captured in two theorems relating self-degradation and regulatory feedback to the steady state behavior of a TBN. Finally, we explore assumptions of synchronous gene response and asynergistic regulation and show that TBNs can be easily extended to relax these assumptions. Applying our methods to the budding yeast cell-cycle network revealed that although the network is complex, its steady state is simplified by the presence of self-degradation and lack of purely positive regulatory cycles. PMID:24376454

  13. Time Resolved Measurements of Light Produced by Onset of Plasma Formation on Electrodes of Fast Pulsed High Voltage Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-10

    by Charles M. Wright Captain , United States Army B.S., United States Military Academy, 1983 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for...Bn . Av" 15.60mV At- 6. BOns Paired Previous TO0 Dots Menu /At - 166.7MHz AvAt - 2.680V/s, W4;49. SO~n46. iOne Figure 5.5 Light Signal for a 75 kV

  14. Interaction of 02 with the Fe.84 Cr.16 (001) Surface Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-15

    11 2. Binding Energies of Fel,,Cr 2.XO4 Spinels .................................................................... 32 6 1...form of oxidized iron and oxidized chromium ) and 7% car- bon (in carbidic form) within the XPS analysis depth (i.e., within an effective escape depth of...deconvolved metal and oxide components, are shown in Figure 2. For the initial 1 L oxygen exposure, neither the iron-oxide nor chromium -oxide peak areas

  15. Interaction of O2 with the Fe(.84)Cr(.16)(001) Surface Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-15

    11 2. Binding Energies of Fe,+,Cr2 -xO4 Spinels ................................................................... 32...oxygen (in the form of oxidized iron and oxidized chromium ) and 7% car- bon (in carbidic form) within the XPS analysis depth (i.e., within an effective...ratios, including deconvolved metal and oxide components, are shown in Figure 2. For the initial 1 L oxygen exposure, neither the iron-oxide nor chromium

  16. Apprendre à apprendre

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Comment aider les enfants à réussir à l’école et, plus généralement, à développer leurs capacités intellectuelles ? Les résultats de travaux fondamentaux en psychologie et en neurosciences permettent de proposer des méthodes pédagogiques efficaces, bien qu’elles semblent parfois aller contre le bon sens. PMID:20936089

  17. Investigation of Optical Fibers for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Spectroscopy in Reacting Flows (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    hydrocar- bon-fueled combustors . 1 Introduction Various nonlinear spectroscopic techniques exist for measuring temperature, velocity, and chemical...CARS signal. Hence, performing state-of-the-art CARS measurements based on free-stand- ing optics in harsh environments such as combustors and gas...practical combustor , with a focal spot diameter of *100 lm and an interaction length of *1.5 mm, it was observed that the optimal energy for a 8- to 10-ns

  18. Probing HER2-PUMA and EGFR-PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0600 TITLE: Probing HER2- PUMA and EGFR- PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive...COVERED 1 Sep 2011 – 31 Aug 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probing HER2- PUMA and EGFR- PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Cancer 5b...on novel significant findings made from the initial Idea Award. We discovered that proapoptotic PUMA protein is highly expressed in the breast cancer

  19. Physical-Chemical Properties of Articulated Rodlike Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Metzger, Ph.D. Thesis , Carnegie-Mellon University, 1979. 76 Table 1 Sample Preparation for PBO Copolymers Preparation 1. stock solution in MSA 5. emission...uncentrifuged * centrifuged 209 m .I . QDO 00- 0 00 5 /5 °..o... bon% 0 , a Om 0 0 0CCDcQ 0 0. 0 o g.w o0 0o.mo0 9. 000D•00 T 0 1-A 00%00,0000 Figure

  20. Gaithersburg Nike Control and Launch Area Preliminary Assessment/Site Inspection Gaithersburg, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    aniline/ furfuryl alcohol , later replaced by unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). The NIKE Hercules missile, introduced in 1958, gradually...fluids (UDMH, aniline, and furfuryl alcohol ); oxidizer (IRFNA); hydrocar- bons (motor oil, hydraulic fluid, diesel fuel, gasoline, heating oil); solvents...consisted of JP-4 and IRFNA. IRFNA consists of nitrogen dioxide dissolved in nitric acid. 2-3 Aniline- furfuryl alcohol , later replaced by UDMH, was used as a

  1. Proceedings of the Tri-Service Gun Tube Wear and Erosion Symposium, ARRADCOM, Dover, NJ, 29-31 March 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    comparative purposes a number of tests were performed on AISI 304 stainless steel and AISI 1020 car- bon steel . Typical nominal compositions and room...These tests were performed at approximately constant conbustor con- ditions. As shown in Fig. 4, the carbon steel (AISI 1020 ) eroded the least, followed...carbon steel AISI 1020 which also has the highest thermal conductivity. Thus, crack dimensions are seen to be inversely dependent upon the thermal

  2. PubMed

    Diamond, Adele

    2009-02-01

    Comment aider les enfants à réussir à l'école et, plus généralement, à développer leurs capacités intellectuelles ? Les résultats de travaux fondamentaux en psychologie et en neurosciences permettent de proposer des méthodes pédagogiques efficaces, bien qu'elles semblent parfois aller contre le bon sens.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Active-Matrix Backplanes for Conformal Electronics and Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-03

    strips;14,15 printed semiconducting nanowires (NWs);1618 and single-walled car- bon nanotubes ( SWNTs ).19,20 Each of these material systems presents...unique opportunities and challenges for large-area electronics. For instance, randomly deposited films of SWNTs are attractive candidates given their...semiconductor and metallic SWNTs .24 In this regard, highly semiconductor-enriched (99%) SWNTs have been recently reported and commercialized through

  4. Deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through genetic or epigenetic alterations in human neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B.Mark

    2013-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that are increasing in incidence. Mutation and altered expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling components have been described in many tumors but have not been well-studied in NETs. Here, we observed accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus in 25% of clinical NET tissues. By mutational analysis, the mutations of β-catenin (I35S) and APC (E1317Q, T1493T) were identified in NET cells and the tissues. Expression of representative Wnt inhibitors was absent or markedly decreased in BON, a human pancreatic carcinoid cell line; treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) increased expression levels of the Wnt inhibitors. Methylation analyses demonstrated that CpG islands of SFRP-1 and Axin-2 were methylated, whereas the promoters of DKK-1, DKK-3 and WIF-1 were unmethylated in four NET cells. Aberrant methylation of SFRP-1 was particularly observed in most of clinical NET tissues. In addition, the repression of these unmethylated genes was associated with histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in BON cells. Together, 5-aza-CdR treatment inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the protein levels of H3K9me2 and G9a. Moreover, a novel G9a inhibitor, UNC0638, suppressed BON cell proliferation through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Overexpression of the inhibitory genes, particularly SFRP-1 and WIF-1 in BON cells, resulted in suppression of anchorage-independent growth and inhibition of tumor growth in mice. Our findings suggest that aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling, through either mutations or epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonists, contributes to the pathogenesis and growth of NETs and have important clinical implications for the prognosis and treatment of NETs. PMID:23354304

  5. Error Processing Techniques for the Modified Read Facsimile Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    MARSHALL L . CAIN Senior Electronics Engineer Assistant Manager Office of NCS Technology (Technology and Standards) and Standards National Communications...headed by National Communications System Assistant Manager Marshall L . Cain, is responsible for the managemene of the Federal Tele- communications...projet,et comporte obligatoirement un bon analyste attacti. A P’ap- plication. It - L ’!MIPLANTATION GEOGRAPHIQUE D’UN RESEAU JNFORtMATtQUE PERFORMANT

  6. Technical Assistance. Mass Spectrometer Oil Monitoring System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-12

    and collecting the stripped, volatile organics by adsorption on activated car- bon. The adsorbed compounds were removed by soaking the carbon in 1 ml... Adsorption Column for Concentrating Samples ... ...... 2-27 2-15. Dissolved Nonspecific Pollutants, Test No. 1 ..... ... 2-35 2-16. Dissolved Nonspecific...This stage functions as a final refinement or polishing stage. The three stages are constructed of carbon steel and each stage is equipped with a

  7. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    numerous natural harbors and is largely devoid of chokepoints and extreme weather conditions. It is also rich in hydrocar- bons, fish , and other...be il- legal, unregulated, or unreported, West Africa’s waters also endure the highest level of illegal fishing in the world.4 Trade partners have...17 citations for illegal fish - ing that resulted in hefty fines in Cameroon alone.15 There is an ongoing effort to consummate an Economic Community

  8. Tunisia's production peaks, exploration busy

    SciTech Connect

    Mrad, R.; M'Rabet, A.; Chine, N. ); Davies, W.C.

    1991-12-23

    This paper reports on the oil and gas exploration industry in Tunisia which is continuing to experience an almost unprecedented boom as the effects of the favorable fiscal and legislative regime work through the recent discoveries come on stream. Perhaps the most significant of the new discoveries is 1 Belli on Cap Bon, which Marathon tested at a rate of 6,800 b/d of oil with reported potential of as much as 15,000 b/d.

  9. Oceanic Chemistry and Biology Group (ONR Code 422CB) Program Science Report, FY 81,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    emphasized that an understanding of the chemical oceanographic characteristics of the anti-fouling agent employed is required to prevent degradation...effectiveness of conventionally used toxic heavy metals and halogenated hydrocar- bons, in blocking the fouling sequence in Haliotis larvae. Non-toxic agents ...acridine orange -stained sub-samples. Lyophilized fractions are currently being analyzed for compounds implicated in the dissolution of CaCO 3. Results to

  10. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-09

    methodology has been adapted for use with hantaviruses , and has been utilized to identify virus in naturally infected animals. This provides a method...exposure to hantaviruses , by ELISA. None were found to be positive. In addition, another 64 patients from the dialysis populations at JHH, Bon Secours, and...primary diagnoses of hypertensive renal disease. Thus, infection with hantaviruses is associated with 8.6% of the cases of patients with end stage renal

  11. Human Behaviour Representation in Constructive Modelling (Representation du comportement humain dans des modelisations creatives)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    aspects of Effects Based Operations and non-kinetic warfare. The second keynote presentation, by Mr. Mike Greenley , CAE Inc. provided an industry...faite par Mr. Mike Greenley , de CAE Inc., a donné le point de vue industriel, en indiquant le besoin pour une approche des bons usages de la...Drive Suite 200 Kanata, Ontario K2K 3G7 CANADA Presenter: Mr. Mike Greenley Vice President Modelling and Simulation CAE Inc. 8585 Côte de

  12. Sustainability Indicators for the Army Installation Management Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    offset by carbon sequestration , re- newable energy sources, and car- bon-neutral energy sources. Points awarded on a graduated scale ranging from...one- half from new renewable energy sources. Carbon neutral instal- lation Credit 4 Calculation showing annual GHG emissions/energy consumption is...list due to actions by the in- stallation. Sustainable forest management Credit 4 The installation’s forests meet the requirements of the Forest

  13. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-30

    Under low voltage El conditions sample sensitivity may drop by I or 2 orders of magnitude. In the negative ion mode, polyaromatic hydrocar- bons either...preparation involved placing a drop of solution con- taining the sample in a suitable solvent on the surface of the emitter using a 10 ut syringe...tween Ions and Molecules", P. Ausloos, Ed., Plenum Press, N. Y. (1974). 31. Eyring, C. F.; Mackeown, S. S.; and Millikan , R. A., Phys. Rev., (1928

  14. Nanocomposite Prepared from In Situ Grafting of Polypyrrole to Aminobenzoyl-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Its Electrochemical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the functionalization of multiwalled car- bon nanotube (MWCNT) with 4-aminobenzoic acid by a ‘‘direct’’ Friedel – Crafts acylation reaction in a mild...functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with 4-aminobenzoic acid by a ??direct?? Friedel ? Crafts acylation reaction in a mild polyphosphoric...chemical modification of various CNMs by ‘‘direct’’ Friedel – Crafts acylation reaction in a mild polyphosphoric acid (PPA)/ phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5

  15. Conservation of the Notch1 signaling pathway in gastrointestinal carcinoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Traeger, Kelly; Chen, Herbert

    2005-10-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid cells secrete multiple neuroendocrine (NE) markers and hormones including 5-hydroxytryptamine and chromogranin A. We were interested in determining whether activation of the Notch1 signal transduction pathway in carcinoid cells could modulate production of NE markers and hormones. Human pancreatic carcinoid cells (BON cells) were stably transduced with an estrogen-inducible Notch1 construct, creating BON-NIER cells. In the present study, we found that Notch1 is not detectable in human GI carcinoid tumor cells. The induction of Notch1 in human BON carcinoid cells led to high levels of functional Notch1, as measured by CBF-1 binding studies, resulting in activation of the Notch1 pathway. Similar to its developmental role in the GI tract, Notch1 pathway activation led to an increase in hairy enhancer of split 1 (HES-1) protein and a concomitant silencing of human Notch1/HES-1/achaete-scute homolog 1. Furthermore, Notch1 activation led to a significant reduction in NE markers. Most interestingly, activation of the Notch1 pathway caused a significant reduction in 5-hydroxytryptamine, an important bioactive hormone in carcinoid syndrome. In addition, persistent activation of the Notch1 pathway in BON cells led to a notable reduction in cellular proliferation. These results demonstrate that the Notch1 pathway, which plays a critical role in the differentiation of enteroendocrine cells, is highly conserved in the gut. Therefore, manipulation of the Notch1 signaling pathway may be useful for expanding the targets for therapeutic and palliative treatment of patients with carcinoid tumors.

  16. Development of Short Gate FET’s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    bubblers to the manufacturer for analysis. Flame spectrochemical analysis revealed approximately 50ppm Fe, 20ppm Si and a few ppm traces of KS and other...deep car- bon acceptons to more adequately compensate shallow Si donor and other acceptor levels. The mole fraction effect shows great promise in...Metal Specialities, Inc., Fairfield Ct. 06430 *5. Raytheon Co., SMDO Division, Northboro MA 01532 6. G.B. See et.al., "Spectroscopic Studies of Si

  17. Handling and Use of Fluorine and Fluorine - Oxygen Mixtures in Rocket Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    formation of chemical complexes by hydrogen fluoride or trace amounts of other system contaminants. Figures 3-5 to 3-9 generally show a film formation in...found to contain car- bon dioxide, oxygen fluoride , silicon tetrafluoride, sulfur hexafluoride , and sulfuryl fluoride . The presence of contaminants in...4 Silicon tetrafluoride -------- ɘ.05 3 Hydrogen fluoride ----------- ɘ.5 4 Sulfur hexafluoride --------- ɘ.1 4 Nitrogen trifluoride

  18. Larvicidal activity and effects on post embrionary development of laboratory reared Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), treated with Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) spore suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vitor Dos S B; Barcellos, Isadora da S; Carramaschi, Isabel N; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Zahner, Viviane

    2016-06-01

    The application of a spore suspension of Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) (strain Bon707), at a concentration of 1.94×10(9)CFU/mL in the diet, induced a level of 70% mortality in larvae of Musca domestica. No sublethal effects, upon feeding activity or development were recorded. However, electron microscopic examination of the digestive tract of larvae fed with B. laterosporus, revealed cellular vacuolization and cytoplasmic disorganization.

  19. Data Selection for Fast Projection Techniques: A Comparative Study of Direction Finding Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    de brouilleurs . Ces algorithmes utilisent un crit~re pour ]a selection de bons vecteurs de donndes A la sortie d’une antenne rdseau. Les vecteurs...sdlectionnds sont utilisds dans des algorithmes de projection rapides afin d’estimer le sous-espace des brouilleurs et ainsi calculer 1’estimateur spectral...diffdrents qui dvaluent le pouvoir de r6solution et l’effet de la puissance des brouilleurs . * III EXECUTIVE SULMMARY Accurate angular location and

  20. AquiferEx: Results of the Optical and Radar Airborne Campaign in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, R.; Hajnsek, I.; Horn, R.; Oppelt, N.; Mauser, W.; Baccar, B. B.; Bianchi, R.

    2007-03-01

    In November 2005 an ESA funded airborne campaign was conducted in Southern Tunisia to generate a data base of high resolution optical and radar data in support of science product development with respect to water management applications in semi-arid areas. Both the optical (AVIS of LMU) and radar sensor (E-SAR of DLR) were operated quasi-simultaneously from the same aircraft. In parallel a ground measurement campaign was conducted with the support of the Tunisian organisations CRDA (Commissariat Regional des Development Agricole) and IRA (Institut des Regiones Arides). This paper describes the acquired optical, radar, and ground reference data, the adopted processing methodologies as well as the results obtained in the frame of this project from the radar data.

  1. Proteomic analysis of pancreatic endocrine tumor cell lines treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Daniela; Donadelli, Massimo; Rinalducci, Sara; Zolla, Lello; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Scarpa, Aldo; Palmieri, Marta; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2007-05-01

    Effects of the histone-deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the growth of three different human pancreatic endocrine carcinoma cell lines (CM, BON, and QGP-1) have been assessed via dosage-dependent growth inhibition curves. TSA determined strong inhibition of cell growth with similar IC(50) values for the different cell lines: 80.5 nM (CM), 61.6 nM (BON), and 86 nM (QGP-1), by arresting the cell cycle in G2/M phase and inducing apoptosis. 2DE and nano-RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed 34, 33, and 38 unique proteins differentially expressed after TSA treatment in the CM, BON, and QGP-1 cell lines, respectively. The most important groups of modulated proteins belong to cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis classes (such as peroxiredoxins 1 and 2, the diablo protein, and HSP27). Other proteins pertain to processes such as regulation of gene expression (nucleophosmin, oncoprotein dek), signal transduction (calcium-calmodulin), chromatin, and cytoskeleton organization (calgizzarin, dynein, and lamin), RNA splicing (nucleolin, HNRPC), and protein folding (HSP70). The present data are in agreement with previous proteomic analyses performed on pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell lines (Cecconi, D. et al.., Electrophoresis 2003; Cecconi, D. et al., J. Proteome Res. 2005) and place histone-deacetylases inhibitors among the potentially most powerful drugs for the treatment of pancreatic tumors.

  2. Combined therapy with RAD001 e BEZ235 overcomes resistance of PET immortalized cell lines to mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Passacantilli, Ilaria; Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Calabretta, Sara; Caldarola, Sara; Loreni, Fabrizio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Sette, Claudio

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are characterised by an indolent behaviour in terms of tumor growth. However, most patients display metastasis at diagnosis and no cure is currently available. Since the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis is deregulated in PETs, the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 represents the first line treatment. Nevertheless, some patients do not respond to treatments and most acquire resistance. Inhibition of mTOR leads to feedback re-activation of PI3K activity, which may promote resistance to RAD001. Thus, PI3K represents a novel potential target for PETs. We tested the impact of three novel PI3K inhibitors (BEZ235, BKM120 and BYL719) on proliferation of PET cells that are responsive (BON-1) or unresponsive (QGP-1) to RAD001. BEZ235 was the most efficient in inhibiting proliferation in PET cells. Furthermore, combined treatment with BEZ235 and RAD001 exhibited synergic effects and was also effective in BON-1 that acquired resistance to RAD001 (BON-1 RR). Analysis of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway showed that RAD001 and BEZ235 only partially inhibited mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of 4EBP1. By contrast, combined therapy with the two inhibitors strongly inhibited phosphorylation of 4EBP1, assembly of the translational initiation complex and protein synthesis. Thus, combined treatment with BEZ235 may represent suitable therapy to counteract primary and acquired resistance to RAD001 in PETs.

  3. Combined therapy with RAD001 e BEZ235 overcomes resistance of PET immortalized cell lines to mTOR inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Passacantilli, Ilaria; Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Calabretta, Sara; Caldarola, Sara; Loreni, Fabrizio; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Sette, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are characterised by an indolent behaviour in terms of tumor growth. However, most patients display metastasis at diagnosis and no cure is currently available. Since the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis is deregulated in PETs, the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 represents the first line treatment. Nevertheless, some patients do not respond to treatments and most acquire resistance. Inhibition of mTOR leads to feedback re-activation of PI3K activity, which may promote resistance to RAD001. Thus, PI3K represents a novel potential target for PETs. We tested the impact of three novel PI3K inhibitors (BEZ235, BKM120 and BYL719) on proliferation of PET cells that are responsive (BON-1) or unresponsive (QGP-1) to RAD001. BEZ235 was the most efficient in inhibiting proliferation in PET cells. Furthermore, combined treatment with BEZ235 and RAD001 exhibited synergic effects and was also effective in BON-1 that acquired resistance to RAD001 (BON-1 RR). Analysis of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway showed that RAD001 and BEZ235 only partially inhibited mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of 4EBP1. By contrast, combined therapy with the two inhibitors strongly inhibited phosphorylation of 4EBP1, assembly of the translational initiation complex and protein synthesis. Thus, combined treatment with BEZ235 may represent suitable therapy to counteract primary and acquired resistance to RAD001 in PETs. PMID:25026292

  4. Differential expression and tumorigenic function of neurotensin receptor 1 in neuroendocrine tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Tae; Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Lee, Eun Y.; Weiss, Heidi L.; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neurotensin (NTS), localized predominantly to the small bowel, stimulates the growth of a variety of cancers, including neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), mainly through its interaction with the high-affinity NTS receptor 1 (NTSR1). Here, we observed increased expression of NTSR1 in almost all tested clinical NET samples, but not in normal tissues. Through RT-PCR analysis, we found that the expression of NTSR1 and NTSR2 was either variable (NTSR1) or absent (NTSR2) in human NET cell lines. In contrast, NTSR3 and NTS were expressed in all NET cells. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, increased levels of NTSR1 and NTSR2 suggesting that DNA methylation contributes to NTSR1/2 expression patterns, which was confirmed by methylation analyses. In addition, we found that knockdown of NTSR1 decreased proliferation, expression levels of growth-related proteins, and anchorage-independent growth of BON human carcinoid cells. Moreover, stable silencing of NTSR1 suppressed BON cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion. Our results show that high expression of NTSR1 is found in clinical NETs and that promoter methylation is an important mechanism controlling the differential expression of NTSR1 and silencing of NTSR2 in NET cells. Furthermore, knockdown of NTSR1 in BON cells suppressed oncogenic functions suggesting that NTSR1 contributes to NET tumorigenesis. PMID:26298774

  5. Antidromic latency of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular (Blue-ON) geniculocortical relay cells in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Soon Keen; Johannes Pietersen, Alexander Nicolaas

    2014-05-01

    We studied the functional connectivity of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) with the primary visual cortex (V1) in anesthetized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The LGN sends signals to V1 along parallel visual pathways called parvocellular (P), magnocellular (M), and koniocellular (K). To better understand how these pathways provide inputs to V1, we antidromically activated relay cells in the LGN by electrically stimulating V1 and measuring the conduction latencies of P (n = 7), M (n = 14), and the "Blue-ON" (n = 5) subgroup of K cells (K-BON cells). We found that the antidromic latencies of K-BON cells were similar to those of P cells. We also measured the response latencies to high contrast visual stimuli for a subset of cells. We found the LGN cells that have the shortest latency of response to visual stimulation also have the shortest antidromic latencies. We conclude that Blue color signals are transmitted directly to V1 from the LGN by K-BON cells.

  6. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  7. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  8. Testing and Validation of High Density Resequencing Microarray for Broad Range Biothreat Agents Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-11

    Competing Interests: One of the contributing authors : Clark Tibbetts, is the Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of Tessarae, LLC...Detection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...N/A 1021 ng No detection Sin nombre Bunyaviridae III 1021 ng Pulmonary syndrome hantavirus strain Convict Creek 107 1CCHFV = Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic

  9. Everest

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-20

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  10. Aircraft Response to Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    rique et son influence our le pilotage et les charges ont 6tf ralentles -slnon ebandonnies- dana beaucoup de pays :lee mfthodes de certification...donno - le nombre d’heures do vol effectugos cheque mole par chaquo avion d’un typo donnfi ; le tableau I prisente cotta Information, pour los 50...d’informations pour cheque fivinoment observi, qui comprend, par colonnes successivos ( tableau 111): - le typo do l’avion, - le numfiro repire de 1’avion

  11. Rapid parallel flow cytometry assays of active GTPases using effector beads.

    PubMed

    Buranda, Tione; BasuRay, Soumik; Swanson, Scarlett; Agola, Jacob; Bondu, Virginie; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2013-11-15

    We describe a rapid assay for measuring the cellular activity of small guanine triphosphatases (GTPases) in response to a specific stimulus. Effector-functionalized beads are used to quantify in parallel multiple GTP-bound GTPases in the same cell lysate by flow cytometry. In a biologically relevant example, five different Ras family GTPases are shown for the first time to be involved in a concerted signaling cascade downstream of receptor ligation by Sin Nombre hantavirus.

  12. Redundant Multiple-Valued Number Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    Fibonacci ou de nombres de Lucas ,” Bull. Soc. Royale Sci. Liege 41, 1972, pp. 179-182. 14-1 ABSTRACT We survey number systems in which the...Figure 5. The 4-Bit One’s Complement Number System. E. FIBONACCI NUMBER SYSTEM The Fibonacci number system is the second example of a redundant number ...instead of powers of 2 or -2, Fibonacci numbers are used as the base. In such a number system, there are many redundant representatives. Fig.

  13. Aluminum Alloy Forgings Property/Performance Attributes; Focus: Fatigue and Durability Service Capabilities (les Pieces forgees en alliage d’aluminium les attributs de performance/caracteristiques themes: fatigue et durabilite capacites en service)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    de specifications precises en matiere de charges statiques et dynamiques, ainsi que d’un certain nombre d’autres criteres fonctionnels. Pour etre...haute resistance adaptes pour ces applications. Aujourd’hui, les avionneurs remplacent les pieces forgees traditionnelles par des pieces en tole forte...structures. Ce document demontre que l’excellence en matiere de longevite et de tolerance aux dommages subis decoule directement de la microstructure forges

  14. Recent Advances in Long Range and Long Endurance Operation of Aircraft (Les Progres Recents dans le Domaine des Operations Aeriennes a Longue Distance et de Longdue Duree)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    I_____________________ 9_ naturels . mais elles sont localisdes en altitude et concentrdes prts des zones adroportuaires. Aujourd’hui de fortes pressiona...un grand nombre de ls conception d’une derive laminaira tasteýe donndes concernant ls laminarite naturelle an vol sur FALCON 50 (1985-1987), et pour...montrer qu’il etait possible de faire fonctionner en vol une section de _ýý JCRSSFDMWvoilure en LAMINARITE NATURELLE ,et --- d’acqudrir des donnees en

  15. Use or Reduction of Propagation and Noise Effects in Distributed Military Systems: Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel Symposium Held in Rethymno, Crete, Greece on 15-18 October 1990 (Utilisation ou Reduction des Effets de la Propagation et du Bruit dans les Systemes Militaires Distribues)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    6liminables est une fonction croissante du nombre de capteurs du reseau, les systtmes La Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques ’basses...cozmmo cola oat naturel dana le cas AVAReat ~temin6A patirde toisoi lVon traite un prof il do liaison parambtros qui d~finissent les types be...varitiondesm~dineshoraresdirect., cosine cola oat naturel locales sur un profil do liaison loraque Vlon consid~ro des probl&Mes donn6, au cours du temnps

  16. Frequency Assignment, Sharing and Conservation in Systems (Aerospace). (l’Attribution, le partage et la conservation des frequences pour les systemes aeronautiques et spatiales)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    naturels du terrain (helicopteres et missiles de croisiere) et/ou des vitesse tres elevees, • des potentialites de contre mesure electroniques...pour les besoins de CEM. Concernant l’impact de remission radar sur les systemes de communication, le diagramme naturel d’antenne permet de...in RTO MP-13. 8-2 le faible nombre de capteur des antennes exploitees. AIRSYS a valide, avec le concours du SPOTI, les performances d’algorithmes

  17. Operations Research Support for Critical Infrastructure Resilience in the Province of British Columbia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    importance of problem formulation as well as the associated challenges, it is an iterative process and will continue to evolve as the project...trust by association ) and over time trust has increased through regular interactions. Information Sharing Legislation varies from province to...collaboration avec l’EMBC et le comité directeur des infrastructures essentielles en C.-B. Un certain nombre de problèmes liés à la gouvernance , à la

  18. Precision Airdrop (Largage de precision)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    largage de précision. Il donne une description générale d’un certain nombre de systèmes de largage de précision disponibles dans le commerce et de...sont souhaitables. Si vous souhaitez recevoir une notification électronique de la disponibilité des rapports de la RTO au fur et à mesure de leur

  19. Everest

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  20. Using Cognitive Task Analysis to Develop Scenario-Based Training for House-Clearing Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-22

    scenario. ß For an advanced scenario, incorporate several Why Difficults. For a basic-level scenario, use fewer. ß There is a lot of loud music playing. ß...l’urbanisation a eu pour effet d’augmenter le nombre d’opérations militaires en terrain urbain (OMTU), dans lesquelles les unités se trouvent à œuvrer dans des

  1. Data Selection for Fast Projection Techniques Applied to Adaptive Nulling: A Comparative Study of Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    point de vue d’annulation des brouilleurs, le dernier 6tant moins rapide mais donnant une meilleure annulation. En effet , ces algorithmes donnent un...techniques avec celui de la technique "sample matrix inversion ou SMI" pour trois scenarios diffdrents; ces trois derniers ddmontrent les effets du nombre de...eigenvector analysis, such as the MUSIC technique [2], are effective for both interference suppression and spectral estimation. These techniques yield

  2. Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 10 on Calculation of 3D Separate Turbulent Flows in Boundary Layer Limit (Le Calcul des Ecoulements Turbulents, Decolles Tridimensionnels en Couche Limite)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    sufficient inspiration to appreciate the work performed by the various members of the Working Group and their co-workers. The participants’ names are given...Depuis la premiere reunion, organis&c vera la fin de l’annee 1985, un certain nombre de problimes d’ordre technique et logistique se sont poses et le...96503-0007 1. INTRODUCTION Flow separation plays a dominant role in the high lift performance of combat aircraft, invariably limiting takeoff and

  3. Torleif Ericson 60th Birthday

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-09

    Plusieurs discours à l'occasion du 60me anniversaire de Torleif Ericson, physicien né à Lund (Suède), et remerciements pour son travail et son effort de relier la physique des particules à la physique nucléaire. A la fin de la cérémonie un document scientifique de 400 pages "die Festschrift" lui est remis comme cadeau d'anniversaire avec un grand nombre de contributions d'amis etc...

  4. Evaluation of the 2008 Predictions of Run-Timing and Survival of Wild Migrant Yearling Chinook and Steelhead on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, W. Nicholas; Iltis, Susannah; Anderson, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Columbia Basin Research uses the COMPASS model on a daily basis during the outmigration of Snake River Chinook and steelhead smolts to predict downstream passage and survival. Fish arrival predictions and observations from program RealTime along with predicted and observed environmental conditions are used to make in-season predictions of arrival and survival to various dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. For 2008, calibrations of travel and survival parameters for two stocks of fish-Snake River yearling PIT-tagged wild chinook salmon (chin1pit) and Snake River PIT-tagged steelhead (lgrStlhd)-were used to model travel and survival of steelhead and chinook stocks from Lower Granite Dam (LWG) or McNary Dam (MCN) to Bonneville Dam (BON). This report summarizes the success of the COMPASS/RealTime process to model these migrations as they occur. We compared model results on timing and survival to data from two sources: stock specific counts at dams and end-of-season control survival estimates (Jim Faulkner, NOAA, pers. comm. Dec. 16, 2008). The difference between the predicted and observed day of median passage and the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between predicted and observed arrival cumulative distributions are measures of timing accuracy. MAD is essentially the average percentage error over the season. The difference between the predicted and observed survivals is a measure of survival accuracy. Model results and timing data were in good agreement from LWG to John Day Dam (JDA). Predictions of median passage days for the chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks were 0 and 2 days (respectively) later than observed. MAD for chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks at JDA were 2.3% and 5.9% (respectively). Between JDA and BON modeling and timing data were not as well matched. At BON, median passage predictions were 6 and 10 days later than observed and MAD values were 7.8% and 16.0% respectively. Model results and survival data were in good agreement from LWG to MCN. COMPASS predicted

  5. Co-Targeting the PI3K and RAS Pathways for the Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Joseph D.; Li, Jing; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y.; Mustain, W. Conan; Elliott, Victoria A.; Kim, Ji Tae; Harris, Jennifer W.; Campbell, Katherine; Weiss, Heidi; Wang, Chi; Song, Jun; Anthony, Lowell; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background The precise involvement of the PI3K/mTOR and RAS/MEK pathways in carcinoid tumors is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the role these pathways play in carcinoid cell proliferation, apoptosis, and secretion and to determine the effects of combined treatment on carcinoid tumor inhibition. Methods The human neuroendocrine cell lines BON (pancreatic carcinoid), NCI-H727 (lung carcinoid), and QGP-1 (somatostatinoma) were treated with either the pan-PI3K inhibitor, BKM120, or the dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitor, BEZ235, alone or in combination with the MEK inhibitor, PD0325901; proliferation, apoptosis, and protein expression were assessed. Peptide secretion was evaluated in BON and QGP-1 cells. The anti-proliferative effect of BEZ235, alone or combined with PD0325901, was then tested in vivo. Results Both BKM120 and BEZ235 decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis; combination with PD0325901 significantly enhanced the antineoplastic effects of either treatment alone. In contrast, neurotensin (NT) peptide secretion was markedly stimulated with BKM120 treatment, but not BEZ235. The combination of BEZ235 + PD0325901 significantly inhibited the growth of BON xenografts without systemic toxicity. Conclusions Both BKM120 and BEZ235 effectively inhibited NET cell proliferation and stimulated apoptosis. However, inhibition of the PI3K pathway alone with BKM120 significantly stimulated NT peptide secretion; this did not occur with the dual inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR using BEZ235 suggesting that this would be a more effective treatment regimen for NETs. Moreover, the combination of BEZ235 and the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 was a safe and more effective therapy in vivo compared with single agents alone. PMID:24443523

  6. ClC-3 expression enhances etoposide resistance by increasing acidification of the late endocytic compartment.

    PubMed

    Weylandt, Karsten H; Nebrig, Maxim; Jansen-Rosseck, Nils; Amey, Joanna S; Carmena, David; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Higgins, Christopher F; Sardini, Alessandro

    2007-03-01

    Resistance to anticancer drugs and consequent failure of chemotherapy is a complex problem severely limiting therapeutic options in metastatic cancer. Many studies have shown a role for drug efflux pumps of the ATP-binding cassette transporters family in the development of drug resistance. ClC-3, a member of the CLC family of chloride channels and transporters, is expressed in intracellular compartments of neuronal cells and involved in vesicular acidification. It has previously been suggested that acidification of intracellular organelles can promote drug resistance by increasing drug sequestration. Therefore, we hypothesized a role for ClC-3 in drug resistance. Here, we show that ClC-3 is expressed in neuroendocrine tumor cell lines, such as BON, LCC-18, and QGP-1, and localized in intracellular vesicles co-labeled with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1. ClC-3 overexpression increased the acidity of intracellular vesicles, as assessed by acridine orange staining, and enhanced resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug etoposide by almost doubling the IC(50) in either BON or HEK293 cell lines. Prevention of organellar acidification, by inhibition of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, reduced etoposide resistance. No expression of common multidrug resistance transporters, such as P-glycoprotein or multidrug-related protein-1, was detected in either the BON parental cell line or the derivative clone overexpressing ClC-3. The probable mechanism of enhanced etoposide resistance can be attributed to the increase of vesicular acidification as consequence of ClC-3 overexpression. This study therefore provides first evidence for a role of intracellular CLC proteins in the modulation of cancer drug resistance.

  7. Gastrointestinal hormones stimulate growth of Foregut Neuroendocrine Tumors by transactivating the EGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Alessia; Sancho, Veronica; Moreno, Paola; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Jensen, Robert T

    2013-03-01

    Foregut neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] usually pursuit a benign course, but some show aggressive behavior. The treatment of patients with advanced NETs is marginally effective and new approaches are needed. In other tumors, transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by growth factors, gastrointestinal (GI) hormones and lipids can stimulate growth, which has led to new treatments. Recent studies show a direct correlation between NET malignancy and EGFR expression, EGFR inhibition decreases basal NET growth and an autocrine growth effect exerted by GI hormones, for some NETs. To determine if GI hormones can stimulate NET growth by inducing transactivation of EGFR, we examined the ability of EGF, TGFα and various GI hormones to stimulate growth of the human foregut carcinoid,BON, the somatostatinoma QGP-1 and the rat islet tumor,Rin-14B-cell lines. The EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, AG1478 strongly inhibited EGF and the GI hormones stimulated cell growth, both in BON and QGP-1 cells. In all the three neuroendocrine cell lines studied, we found EGF, TGFα and the other growth-stimulating GI hormones increased Tyr(1068) EGFR phosphorylation. In BON cells, both the GI hormones neurotensin and a bombesin analogue caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in EGFR phosphorylation, which was strongly inhibited by AG1478. Moreover, we found this stimulated phosphorylation was dependent on Src kinases, PKCs, matrix metalloproteinase activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. These results raise the possibility that disruption of this signaling cascade by either EGFR inhibition alone or combined with receptor antagonists may be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of foregut NETs/PETs.

  8. Gastrointestinal hormones stimulate growth of Foregut Neuroendocrine Tumors by transactivating the EGF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Di Florio, Alessia; Sancho, Veronica; Moreno, Paola; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Jensen, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Foregut Neuroendocrine Tumors[NETs] usually pursuit a benign course, but some show aggressive behavior. The treatment of patients with advanced NETs is marginally effective and new approaches are needed. In other tumors, transactivation of the EGF receptor(EGFR) by growth factors, gastrointestinal(GI) hormones and lipids can stimulate growth, which has led to new treatments. Recent studies show a direct correlation between NET malignancy and EGFR expression, EGFR inhibition decreases basal NET growth and an autocrine growth effect exerted by GI hormones, for some NETs. To determine if GI hormones can stimulate NET growth by inducing transactivation of EGFR, we examined the ability of EGF, TGFα and various GI hormones to stimulate growth of the human foregut carcinoid, BON, the somatostatinoma QGP-1 and the rat islet tumor, Rin-14B-cell lines. The EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, AG1478 strongly inhibited EGF and the GI hormones stimulated cell growth, both in BON and QGP-1 cells. In all the three neuroendocrine cell lines studied, we found EGF, TGFα and the other growth-stimulating GI hormones increased Tyr1068 EGFR phosphorylation. In BON cells, both the GI hormones neurotensin and a bombesin analogue caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in EGFR phosphorylation, which was strongly inhibited by AG1478. Moreover, we found this stimulated phosphorylation was dependent on Src kinases, PKCs, matrix metalloproteinase activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. These results raise the possibility that disruption of this signaling cascade by either EGFR inhibition alone or combined with receptor antagonists may be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of foregut NETs/PETs. PMID:23220008

  9. Résultats fonctionnels des lésions des tendons fléchisseurs de la main: à propos de 90 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boussakri, Hassan; Azarkane, Mohamad; Elidrissi, Mohamad; Shimi, Mohamad; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2013-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent une série de 90 patients, présentant une section tendineuse des fléchisseurs de la main, et suivis avec un recul moyen de 8 mois (min: 2 mois; max: 13 mois). La lésion était localisée dans 12% des cas en zone I, 46% des cas en zone II, 2% en zone III et 25% des cas en zone IV et V. Pour le pouce (13 patients), 10 cas en zone T2 et 3 cas en zone T3. La technique opératoire utilisée était les sutures tendineuses en cadre de Kessler modifié, associée à un surjet épitendineux. Nous avons obtenus 54% de très bons résultats, 34% de résultats moyens et 12% de mauvais résultats. Pour le pouce les résultats semble moins bons avec un taux de résultats médiocre de 48%. Certes les chiffres de cette série sont moins bons que ceux des autres séries publiées dans la littérature. Les facteurs influençant les résultats sont d'abord l'utilisation d'immobilisation postopératoire systématique ainsi que le mécanisme d'agression, et la localisation à la zone II et au pouce. Les complications mécaniques sont représentées par 7% de rupture, toutes au niveau de pouce, et 31% des adhérences tendineuses (soit 30 cas), dont 19 en zone II, l'infections (22%) et 4% des cas d'algodystrophies. PMID:23847698

  10. Place de l’embrochage fasciculé selon Hackethal dans le traitement des fractures de l’humérus: à propos de 80 cas

    PubMed Central

    Margad, Omar; Boukhris, Jalal; Sallahi, Hicham; Daoudi, Mohamed; Azriouil, Ouahb; Koulali, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Le débat principal autour des fractures de l’humérus se centre sur les indications thérapeutiques car tout type de stabilisation orthopédique ou chirurgicale trouve des défenseurs parfois inconditionnels et véhéments. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous avons revu 80 patients traités initialement par embrochage fasciculé centromédullaire selon Hackethal au service de traumatologie orthopédie de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne entre janvier 2000 et janvier 2012. Les fractures ont été classées selon la classification AO et selon la classification de Hackethal modifiée par De La Caffinière. L’évaluation fonctionnelle a utilisé la classification de Stewart et Hundley modifiée. Nous avons obtenu 60 très bons résultats, 6 bons résultats, 2 assez bons résultats et 2 mauvais résultats. Les deux mauvais résultats étaient des cas de pseudarthrose. Nous n’avons pas noté de paralysie radiale iatrogène, ni d’infection, ni de migration de broches. Le délai moyen de consolidation a été de 9semaines et 6 jours. C’est une méthode fiable, de réalisation facile et à faible cout économique, qui fournit une bonne stabilisation du foyer de fracture permettant ainsi la mobilisation précoce avec des résultats fonctionnels excellents. PMID:27800106

  11. Principles of data integration and interoperability in the GEO Biodiversity Observation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarenmaa, Hannu; Ó Tuama, Éamonn

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to link existing information systems into a global and flexible network to address nine areas of critical importance to society. One of these "societal benefit areas" is biodiversity and it will be supported by a GEOSS sub-system known as the GEO Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). In planning the GEO BON, it was soon recognised that there are already a multitude of existing networks and initiatives in place worldwide. What has been lacking is a coordinated framework that allows for information sharing and exchange between the networks. Traversing across the various scales of biodiversity, in particular from the individual and species levels to the ecosystems level has long been a challenge. Furthermore, some of the major regions of the world have already taken steps to coordinate their efforts, but links between the regions have not been a priority until now. Linking biodiversity data to that of the other GEO societal benefit areas, in particular ecosystems, climate, and agriculture to produce useful information for the UN Conventions and other policy-making bodies is another need that calls for integration of information. Integration and interoperability are therefore a major theme of GEO BON, and a "system of systems" is very much needed. There are several approaches to integration that need to be considered. Data integration requires harmonising concepts, agreeing on vocabularies, and building ontologies. Semantic mediation of data using these building blocks is still not easy to achieve. Agreements on, or mappings between, the metadata standards that will be used across the networks is a major requirement that will need to be addressed early on. With interoperable metadata, service integration will be possible through registry of registries systems such as GBIF's forthcoming GBDRS and the GEO Clearinghouse. Chaining various services that build intermediate products using workflow

  12. An observational study of consumers' accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Christina A; Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-05-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions.

  13. [Psychiatric Archives: Archive for which History? The Writings and Drawings of René L.

    PubMed

    Artières, Philippe

    The archives of the psychiatric institutions are often mobilized to investigate the history of the treatment of mental disorders and its modalities in our societies. From a patient's record, interned in the Hôpital du Bon Sauveur in the department of Manche in France in 1963, this article shows how these archives are part of writing a different story that of decolonization and particularly the independence of Algeria and the end of French colonization. In particular, studied the drawings by this patient and the way it reflects the collective history.

  14. Charisma, crowd psychology and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, C

    1992-09-01

    This paper argues that an interpretive meaning-centered analysis is not adequate for understanding collective behavior that is outside the range of calculating rationality. Alternative approaches to collective irrational action are drawn from the work of Weber and Durkheim, as well as from the crowd psychologists Le Bon and Tarde. These approaches are then illustrated in a short analysis of the trajectories and recruitment techniques of two contemporary American religious annunications: est and Scientology, and the findings applied to the general social formation.

  15. A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude

  16. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on peut s’interroger sur l’adquation des moyens engages ausceptiblea do se manifester naturellement au cours du A Ia complexit6 du probl~me... capteur d’Helmoltz; de pression lorsque Ia fr~quence vanet. Calcul num~rique et mithode expdrimentale donnent des irdsultats en bon accord, c’cst-i... naturellement , avec des niveaux stabilis~s moddr~s. mod~le de combustion (r~f. 30) et des limites de L’opinion est r~pandue que la segmentation peut l’approche

  17. Diversity and spatial distribution of surname structure in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik

    2015-11-01

    We studied the population structure of South Korea by using the distributions of surnames for all 246 administrative regions. Every 4,177 surnames are distinguished by their bon-gwan which indicates the place of their family clans. Using Fisher's Alpha, we found that the level of inbreeding increases as the distance from the capital Seoul increases. We introduced the Shannon index to measure the level of spatial diffusion for each surname population, and the geographical clusters based on similarities of the surname compositions among the regions show almost exact agreement with those at the administrative districts.

  18. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  19. Platinum group elements in a 3.5 Ga nickel-iron occurrence - Possible evidence of a deep mantle origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tredoux, Marian; Hart, Rodger J.; Lindsay, Nicholas M.; De Wit, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of new field observations and the geochemical analyses for the area of the Bon Accord (BA) (the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa) Ni-Fe deposit, with particular consideration given to the trace element, platinum-group element, and isotopic (Pb, Nd, and Os) compositions. On the basis of these data, an interpretation of BA is suggested, according to which the BA deposit is a siderophile-rich heterogeneity remaining in the deep mantle after a process of incomplete core formation. The implications of such a model for the study of core-mantle segregation and the geochemistry of the lowermost mantle are discussed.

  20. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Bladens River Dam (CT 00602), Naugatuck River Basin, Seymour, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    DCUMNTATON GEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT*$ CATALOG NUMBER 4 TILE wd~ulito)S. TYPE Of’ REPORT*S PERIOD COVEREO...left 12 ?i l - - spillway wall. Some evidence of seepage in the form of rust staining on the masonry was observed at the base of the wall, n1-wnstrcim...Suggestion Inierepartment Message SAVE TIME Ila. ,,,ite.. ,- eia ami a ,t SIC 01rdeparfm 3s 󈨍 $ I[Uie car bon if you feally nced a top) If Jpt’Ar fli,- q

  1. Air Weather Service Support to the United States Army Tet and the Decade After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Alpine Friendship 77...........................129-30 Tactical Weather System............................134 TSgt Henderson, M -561 Gama Goat, and M ...SWPT OWANEATION DEUM OF n*AWMT~N OF THE AltFR AUS " .weahe WIN Groupnnta U.S ryUUAy .. m .. m Army Cewad W Europe Pbife ed Cu6bon (CONARC) (USAREUR) I...Units In U.S. Ins 64u In Ane In "l Gummy Jopus Csrthbeon Frace Korea Italy Howell Army CoAma Ciurna a&= - -am m m m mAr Foroo Coammrd Chueie 00.00000

  2. Gavins Point Dam/Lewis and Clark Lake Master Plan. Missouri River, Nebraska and South Dakota: Update of Design Memorandum MG-123

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    AUG 55 MG-50 DM, Relocation of County Highway-Knox County , NE MAY 55 AUG 55 MG-51 DM, Relocation of County Highway-Bon Homme County JUN 55 AUG...highways parallel both sides of the reservoir and are intersected by county roads that lead to the public use areas. In Nebraska, State Highway 12 is an...Nebraska recreation areas can be reached on Knox County Road R54C. In South Dakota, State Highways 50 and 52 are located approximately 4 miles north of

  3. La Vie Politique sous la Restauration a Travers ’Le Rouge et le Noir’ de Stendahl (The Political Life during the Restauration as Depicted in Le Rouge et le Noir by Stendahl)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Valenod et Moirod, qul hissent le drapeau lib6ral uniquenient pour aznoIiorer leurs propres 20 conditions. Ils n’ont ni souci pour les paysans ni... propre benefice. Le lecteur est introduit a M. Valenod tres t~t dans le livre. 11 est le directeur du depot de mendicit6 A Verrlieres qui craint la visite... propres desse ins. Le groupe de vrais lib~t-aux stendhal lens comprend Fouqu6 qui est le bon ami de Julilen Sorel , le phi losophe Saint- Giraud. et

  4. Decision Support for Attack Submarine Commanders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    AD-AO95 892 DECISION SCIENCE CONSORTIUM INC FALLS CHURCH VA F./e 12/2 DECISION SUPPORT FOR ATTACK SUBMARINE COMMANDERS. (U) OCT 80 M S COHEN, R V...BROWN N00014-80-C-0046 UNCLASSIFIED TR-8S-11 ML DECISIN IEN$CE CUIVSURTiUM, MrC. DECISION SUPPORT FOR A TTA CK SUBMARINE COMMANDERS Marvin S . Cohen and...on reverse) DDI ,o..ŕ 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OISOLCTZ Unclassified S /N 0102-014-6601 1 SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF TNIS PAGE (10bon DW& tateo* 01

  5. Top-Down Statistical Estimation on a Database,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    prepared by: A NEIL C. ROWE Associate Professor of 4 Computer Science Reviewed by: Released by: DAVID K. HSIAO Charan KNEALE T. MAvm]ALL Department of...known about the Adriatic except that it is a part of the Mediterranean.] S, 18 References [11 Doug Bates, Haran Bon, and David J. DeWitt,. A Framework...Very Large Data Baes, Cannes, France, 1981. 181 Douglas . LenaL The Nature of Heuristics. Artificial Intelligence 19:189-249, 196 191 J. McDermott, A

  6. Tumeur pseudopapillaire et solide du pancréas: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Jakhlal, Nabil; Njoumi, Noureddine; Hachi, Hafid; Bougtab, Abdesslam

    2016-01-01

    Les tumeurs pseudopapillaires et solides du pancréas sont des tumeurs rares, d’étiopathogénie encore incertaine, et surviennent surtout chez la jeune femme. Leur pronostic reste bon surtout après exérèse complète. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'une jeune femme, révélée par des douleurs abdominales. Le diagnostic est porté sur l’étude histologique associée à l'immuno-histochimie de la pièce de spléno-pancréatectomie caudale. PMID:27642443

  7. An IF (Intermediate Frequency) Clutter Signal Generator for the DREO EW (Electronic Warfare) Engagement Simulation Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Wardle DTIC ELECTE MAY 14 l 9 ?U D D BON~Q SqT.7Eit r APProved for public rejeoel Dl~tibution UnLimited DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT OTTAWA REPORT...design are gratefully acknowledged, as is his implementation of the 0/1800 SPDT circuit. Accesoi For NTiS CRA&I % OTIC TAB i U a c,-3 . :i-c d _] B . t...presents envelope detected waveform plots and histograms. This work has applications in accurate modelling of radar performance in low-altitude engagements

  8. Dry Chemical Development - A Model for the Extinction of Hydrocarbon Flames.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-08

    OBsoLETE S/ N 0102-014- 411 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF TNI PAGE (IWhe Doe Smfltet ’LA ~ ~* ~- N .. ~ *% ;;~~~ ~ ’pC ~.. * - SECUMITV CLASSIVICATIO OF TugS...PACE (whe D.e L£ n e’d) -suffcient heat has been removed by the extinguishant to reduce the temperature io a limit value. This limit is the minimum...the N ., 0 and H2 dissociations. When the equation above is restricted to saturated hydrocar- bon air flames, it becomes M,Q, " Cpo2 + Mq~cpF

  9. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony

    2014-01-01

    ée devraient se voir offrir des services de counseling génétique / clinique et un dépistage génétique visant la fibrose kystique avant la tenue d’une fécondation in vitro-injection intracytoplasmique d’un spermatozoïde. (II-2) 3. La grossesse multiple constitue le facteur prédictif le plus puissant en ce qui concerne les issues indésirables maternelles, obstétricales et périnatales. Les couples devraient bénéficier de services de counseling exhaustifs au sujet des risques importants que posent les grossesses multiples associées aux traitements de procréation assistée, tous types confondus. (II-2A) 4. Les avantages et les taux cumulatifs de grossesse associés au transfert sélectif d’un seul embryon soutiennent la mise en œuvre d’une politique en instaurant l’utilisation chez les couples qui présentent un bon pronostic de réussite; le recours au transfert sélectif d’un seul embryon devrait être fortement encouragé chez cette population. (II-2) 5. Pour réduire l’incidence de la grossesse multiple, la mise en œuvre de politiques de santé soutenant le financement public de la procréation assistée (le tout s’accompagnant de règlements faisant la promotion de l’adoption de pratiques optimales à l’égard du transfert sélectif d’un seul embryon) devrait être fortement encouragée. (II-2A) 6. Dans le cas des grossesses monofœtales, les techniques de procréation assistée sont associées à un risque accru de connaître un accouchement préterme et d’obtenir un enfant présentant un faible poids de naissance, et le déclenchement de l’ovulation est associé à un risque accru d’obtenir un enfant présentant un faible poids de naissance. Jusqu’à ce qu’un nombre suffisant de recherches aient été menées pour clarifier les rôles indépendants de l’infertilité et des traitements contre l’infertilité, les couples devraient bénéficier de services de counseling au sujet des risques associés au traitement. (II-2B

  10. Etude du Photochromisme et de la Photorefractivite dans le Poly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghailane, Fatima

    1995-11-01

    Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'utiliser un materiau organique, le poly(vinylcarbazole) comme milieu de stockage optique de masse en temps reel. Ce materiau dope aux photochromes presente un potentiel non negligeable pour l'holographie de volume en temps reel. Plusiers cycles, Ecriture-Lecture-Effacement, ont ete enregistres dans cette matrice polymerique avec une resolution assez elevee. Une etude a ete menee afin d'obtenir la valeur des parametres comme l'epaisseur du film et l'intensite d'ecriture pour un angle d'enregistrement theta_{ acute ecriture} donne qui permettent d'obtenir les meilleures efficacites diffractionelles tout en preservant ce milieu de tout effet de fatigue ou de degradation. Ce polymere devient photorefractif une fois melange avec un bon accepteur de charge, le trinitrofluorenone et un bon chromophore non-lineaire, le disperse orange 25. Nous avons etudie experimentalement la conductivite en obscurite et la photoconductivite de ce materiau. Des simulations numeriques ont ete realisees en se basant sur le modele de Poole-Frenkel. Nous avons aussi etudie l'implantation de faisceaux d'ions d'oxygene d'energie 200 keV pour inscrire dans le PVCz un guide d'onde plan a profil d'indice. Une etude ESCA complete cette partie afin de savoir les modifications induites par implementation ionique a l'interieur du film polymerique.

  11. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2014-05-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed of nails" (BON). A 2 mm thick × 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ~2.5 us, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress strain curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  12. More Limitations to Monolingualism: Bilinguals Outperform Monolinguals in Implicit Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E.; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    To succeed at cross-situational word learning, learners must infer word-object mappings by attending to the statistical co-occurrences of novel objects and labels across multiple encounters. While past studies have investigated this as a learning mechanism for infants and monolingual adults, bilinguals’ cross-situational word learning abilities have yet to be tested. Here, we compared monolinguals’ and bilinguals’ performance on a cross-situational word learning paradigm that featured phonologically distinct word pairs (e.g., BON-DEET) and phonologically similar word pairs that varied by a single consonant or vowel segment (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT, respectively). Both groups learned the novel word-referent mappings, providing evidence that cross-situational word learning is a learning strategy also available to bilingual adults. Furthermore, bilinguals were overall more accurate than monolinguals. This supports that bilingualism fosters a wide range of cognitive advantages that may benefit implicit word learning. Additionally, response patterns to the different trial types revealed a relative difficulty for vowel minimal pairs than consonant minimal pairs, replicating the pattern found in monolinguals by Escudero et al. (2016) in a different English accent. Specifically, all participants failed to learn vowel contrasts differentiated by vowel height. We discuss evidence for this bilingual advantage as a language-specific or general advantage. PMID:27574513

  13. Interferon α/β Receptor-Deficient Mice as a Model for Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jennifer M; Froude, Jeffery W; Prugar, Laura I; Bakken, Russell R; Zak, Samantha E; Daye, Sharon P; Wilhelmsen, Catherine E; Dye, John M

    2015-10-01

    A major obstacle in ebolavirus research is the lack of a small-animal model for Sudan virus (SUDV), as well as other wild-type (WT) ebolaviruses. Here, we expand on research by Bray and by Lever et al suggesting that WT ebolaviruses are pathogenic in mice deficient for the type 1 interferon (IFN) α/β receptor (IFNα/βR-/-). We examined the disease course of several WT ebolaviruses: Boneface (SUDV/Bon) and Gulu variants of SUDV, Ebola virus (EBOV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Taï Forest virus, and Reston virus (RESTV). We determined that exposure to WT SUDV or EBOV results in reproducible signs of disease in IFNα/βR-/- mice, as measured by weight loss and partial lethality. Vaccination with the SUDV or EBOV glycoprotein (GP)-expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis viral replicon particle vaccine protected these mice from SUDV/Bon and EBOV challenge, respectively. Treatment with SUDV- or EBOV-specific anti-GP antibodies protected mice from challenge when delivered 1-3 days after infection. Serial sampling experiments revealed evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in the livers of mice infected with the Boneface variant of SUDV, EBOV, and BDBV. Taken together, these data solidify the IFNα/βR-/- mouse as an important and useful model for the study of WT EBOV disease.

  14. Hydatidose cérébrale multiple d'origine cardiaque: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Dianka, Mamadou Bata; El Hamdani, Tarek; Kaba, Ibrahima; Naja, Abdessamad; Ibahioin, Khadidia; El Azhari, Abdessamad

    2015-01-01

    L'hydatidose cérébrale est très rare, de bon pronostic après le traitement chirurgical. La forme multiple de l'hydatidose cérébrale rend difficile la prise en charge chirurgicale et altère le bon pronostic de cette pathologie. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une hydatidose cérébrale multiple d'origine cardiaque chez une fillette de 06 ans amenée aux urgences pour crises convulsives généralisées et un syndrome d'hypertension intracrânienne. L'examen clinique était normal, la tomodensitométrie a révélé 8 kystes hydatiques cérébraux se situant à la fois en sus et sous tentoriel et des deux côtés de la faux du cerveau. Elle fut opérée en deux temps avec une bonne amélioration clinique. Nous soulignons à travers ce cas, la rareté et la difficulté de la prise en charge chirurgicale de l'hydatidose cérébrale multiple. PMID:26600914

  15. High-performance flexible all-solid-state microbatteries based on solid electrolyte of lithium boron oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Lee, Ki-Chang; Park, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly growing interest and demand for wearable electronics require the development of flexible and lightweight all-solid-state batteries as power sources that guarantee high performance and safety with the absence of the risk of fire or explosion that can occur with traditional liquid electrolyte systems. Herein, we successfully fabricate new flexible all-solid-state microbatteries integrating a solid electrolyte film of lithium boron oxynitride (LiBON) on a flexible substrate using sophisticated thin-film fabrication technology. The new microbattery of Li/LiBON/LiCoO2 exhibits excellent mechanical integrity even under severe bending and twisting test conditions, enabling the realization of flexible microbatteries. The microbatteries demonstrate superior electrochemical cycling stability relative to conventional batteries, delivering an outstanding capacity retention of 90% on the 1000th cycle. Furthermore, operation at various temperatures from -10 °C to +60 °C and fast charging within 3-6 min are achieved. With various types of flexible substrates, the microbatteries can provide diverse opportunities for flexible and wearable electronics.

  16. Identification of SNPs in growth-related genes in Colombian creole cattle.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Rocha, J F; Bejarano, D; Gomez, Y; Abuabara, Y; Gallego, J

    2016-09-19

    Colombian creole cattle have important adaptation traits related to heat tolerance and reproductive and productive efficiency. Romosinuano (ROMO) and Blanco Orejinegro (BON) are the most common breeds used by Colombian cattle breeders. Growth traits are of prime importance in these animals, which are mainly raised for beef production. Genes encoding growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, homeobox protein, insulin growth factor binding protein 3, leptin, and myostatin have been associated with physiological growth pathways in cattle and other species. We therefore aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes in ROMO, BON, and Zebu cattle. DNA regions of these genes were sequenced in 386 animals; 47 new SNPs were found, of which 14 were located in the exonic regions, thereby changing the protein sequence. An association of SNPs with weaning weight (WW), daily weight gain at weaning (DWG), and weight at 16 months (W16M) traits was deduced. The genetic analysis revealed several SNPs related to these traits. The SNP GhRE06.2 had a significant association with WW and the SNP Lep03.4 was highly associated with DWG and W16M. Other polymorphisms were significantly associated with WW and DWG, although they did not surpass the Bonferroni significance threshold. The new mutations identified may indicate important points of genetic control in the DNA that could be responsible for changes in the expression of the analyzed traits. These SNPs might be used in future breeding programs to improve the productive performance of cattle in beef farms.

  17. A low-tech analytical method for diethylcarbamazine citrate in medicated salt.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Abigail; Brown, Patrick; Huey, Shannon; Magallon, Marco; Bollman, E Brennan; Mares, Dominique; Streit, Thomas G; Lieberman, Marya

    2011-02-08

    The World Health Organization has called for an effort to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) around the world. In regions where the disease is endemic, local production and distribution of medicated salt dosed with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been an effective method for eradicating LF. A partner of the Notre Dame Haiti program, Group SPES in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, produces a medicated salt called Bon Sel. Coarse salt is pre-washed and sprayed with a solution of DEC citrate and potassium iodate. Iodine levels are routinely monitored on site by a titrimetric method. However, the factory had no method for monitoring DEC. Critical analytical issues include 1) determining whether the amount of DEC in each lot of Bon Sel is within safe and therapeutically useful limits, 2) monitoring variability within and between production runs, and 3) determining the effect of a common local practice (washing salt before use) on the availability of DEC. This paper describes a novel titrimetric method for analysis of DEC citrate in medicated salt. The analysis needs no electrical power and requires only a balance, volumetric glassware, and burets that most salt production programs have on hand for monitoring iodine levels. The staff of the factory used this analysis method on site to detect underloading of DEC on the salt by their sprayer and to test a process change that fixed the problem.

  18. Non-supersymmetric D1/D5, F/NS5 and closed string tachyon condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Roy, Shibaji; Wang, Zhao-Long; Wu, Rong-Jun

    2009-09-01

    We construct the intersecting non-supersymmetric (non-susy) D1/D5 solution of type IIB string theory. While, as usual, the solution is charged under an electric two-form and an electric six-form gauge field, it also contains a non-susy chargeless (non-BPS) D0-brane. The S-dual of this solution is the non-susy F/NS5 solution. We show how these solutions nicely interpolate between the corresponding black (or non-extremal) solutions and the Kaluza-Klein (KK) "bubble of nothing" (BON) by continuously changing some parameters characterizing the solutions from one set of values to another. We show, by a time symmetric general bubble initial data analysis, that the final bubbles in these cases are static and stable and the interpolations can be physically interpreted as closed string tachyon condensation. As special cases, we recover the transition of two charge black F-string to BON, considered by Horowitz, and also the transition from AdS 3 black hole to global AdS 3.

  19. Dual Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR Signaling Pathways Decreases Human Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor (PNET) Metastatic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Djukom, Clarisse; Porro, Laura J.; Mrazek, Amy; Townsend, Courtney M.; Hellmich, Mark R.; Chao, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) have limited therapeutic options. RAD001, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, has been shown to increase progression-free survival, but not overall survival, indicating a need to identify additional therapeutic targets. Inhibition of mTORC1 by RAD001 may induce upstream AKT upregulation. We hypothesized that dual inhibition of AKT along with mTOR will overcome the limited activity of RAD001 alone. Methods The BON cell line has been used as a model to study PNET cell biology. Western blots and cell growth assays were performed with mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (50 nM), MEK inhibitor PD0325901 (50 nM), PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (25 μM) or vehicle control. Nude mice were treated daily for 6 weeks with RAD001 (oral gavage), LY29400 (SQ) one week after intrasplenic injection of BON cells. Results Cellular proliferation was most attenuated with the combination therapy LY29400 and RAD001. Similarly, the volume of liver metastasis was lowest in the group treated with both LY29400 (100 mg/kg/week, SQ) and RAD001 (2.5 mg/kg/d) compared to vehicle (p=0.04). Conclusion The combination LY29400 and RAD001 decreased the cell growth in vitro and progression of liver metastasis in vivo compared vehicle or to single drug. PMID:24263107

  20. Novel Creation of a Rum Flavor Lexicon Through the Use of Web-Based Material.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Chelsea M; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-04-11

    Flavor lexicons help both manufacturers and consumers communicate the intricacies of flavor nuances they experience within a product. Lexicon development typically requires the use of a trained sensory panel to evaluate a representative sample set of the product category to generate terms that describe certain product attributes. In the case of rum, there is considerable variation in terms of style, flavor characteristics, and the sheer number of rums produced making it difficult to create a lexicon in this manner. Furthermore, sensory fatigue from the high alcohol content can also hinder lexicon development. This is the first study to create a rum flavor lexicon using web-based material (comprising blogs, company descriptions, and review websites) to minimize the time and cost and to allow for the inclusion of a greater number of rum products. Reviews for over 1000 different rums were utilized, comprising evaluations that described an array of rums, including white, gold, aged, and agricole. Each evaluation was coded for aroma, aroma-by-mouth, and taste attributes using NVivo(TM) software to amass the sensory terms. Word frequency analysis was conducted on coded attributes. The analysis yielded 147 terms, sorted into 22 different categories. The most prominent terms included vanilla, oak, caramel, fruity, molasses, and baking spices.

  1. Communication and social capital in the control of avian influenza: lessons from behaviour change experiences in the Mekong Region.

    PubMed

    Waisbord, S R; Michaelides, T; Rasmuson, M

    2008-01-01

    International development agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations are increasingly collaborating with local civil society groups in mounting behaviour change communication (BCC) interventions. Even in countries with weakened civil societies, the social capital of local organizations can be a fundamental communication resource. The experience of three programmes in the Mekong Region that used BCC to prevent and control outbreaks of avian influenza bore out this finding. These programmes worked with the Vietnam Women's Union to mobilize local women as conduits for education; worked with the Centre d'Etude et de Developpement Agricole Cambodgien (CEDAC), in Cambodia, to educate and train village health promoters and model farmers; and worked with the Lao Journalists Association to educate and build skills among print and broadcast journalists to enhance avian influenza coverage. Collaborating with civil society organizations can enhance communication reach, trust, and local ownership, but poses many challenges, particularly institutional capacity. Our experience, nevertheless, holds promise for a measured approach that views social capital as a set of communication resources at the community level that can be mobilized to promote complex behaviours, particularly in a rapidly changing outbreak situation.

  2. Comparaison des Champs de Pression Instationnaires Calcules et Mesures sur le Modele ZKP (Comparison of Unstable Pressure Fields Calculated and Measured on the ZKP Model),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    mime au bard d ’attaque et au bord de fuite. Le nombre de Mach Man’est donc d~fini qu’entre deux limites et seule I’expdrience peut nous permettre de...vabien dans ie Sans de ce qui eat observ6 expdrimentalement mais Is correction eat trop importante principsiement au bord d’attaque. On peut donc penser...Si ion consid~re lea valeurs de Ia portance at du moment quart avant pour ce cas on obtient le tableau suivant: CC rsn Module Phase Module Phase P.P.T

  3. Forward Air Controller: Task Analysis and Development of Team Training Measures for Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    d’AAR, ainsi que de déterminer les mesures adéquates pour évaluer le rendement de l’équipe. À cette fin, on a effectué une analyse hiérarchique des...certain nombre de recommandations visant à améliorer l’instrument avant son application aux exercices futurs de simulation répartie. Les...assessing the team’s performance as a whole. To that end, the contractor constructed hierarchical task analyses for the principal members of this team, the

  4. Canadian Forces Training and Mental Preparation for Adversity: Empirical Review of Stoltz ’Adversity Quotient (AQ) Training for Optimal Response to Adversity’, A Review of the AQ Literature and Supporting Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    critique des ouvrages lies au QA et A d’autres sujets connexes a montr6 que le concept du QA est fond6 sur un certain nombre de thdories sens~es sur la...already existing constructs (e.g., hardiness, dispositional optimism, the Attributional Style Questionnaire , etc.); "* The mechanism(s) through which AQ...analytique figure 6galement en annexe afin de donner un aperqu des ouvrages disponibles sur la question. Jusqu’A maintenant, notre examen des ouvrages

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Hypersonic Flows (Les Methodes Theoriques et Experimentales pour l’Etude Des Ecoulements Hypersoniques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    figure 5 presente une comparaison entre la ripartition de avantages qiac l’on petit tirer d’une recompression naturelle nombre de Mach stir l’axe de...pressions paridtales ont Wt d’Electrons [1111. La figure 7 illustre cos techniques. 11 s’agit mosur~es 118J A ]’aide do capteurs diffdrentiels A self...Lors de visualisations r~alis~es autour d’un barreau cylindrique do ces essais, lea capteurs Etaient situ~s dana le caisson dispose transversalement

  6. Double protection passive pour les equipages de l’helicoptere d’attaque "Tigre" : Concept et etude experimentale (Design and Experimental Study of the Passive Double Hearing Protection for the Crew of the Attack Helicopter "Tiger")

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    propre, la protection complémentaire offerte par les bouchons d’oreille passifs s’est naturellement imposée comme axe de travail. Préalablement évalués... naturelle de la tête et réduire les risques de cervicalgies et de fatigue. Le respect de ces critères amène naturellement le concepteur à alléger...nombre de coups tirés durant le vol, voire 24 heures. L’utilisation d’armes est naturellement limitée dans le temps, même pour une mission de combat. On

  7. Human Factors in the 21st Century(Les facteurs humains au 21th siecle)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    acteurs et de leurs activités puisse avoir une valeur écologique. Dans ce contexte, le concept du « capteur humain » peut être utilisé, car il peut être...était possible d’effectuer une surveillance quasiment en temps réel, en prenant en compte les paramètres essentiels en provenance de capteurs du...commerce, avec un traitement approprié de ces données. Ceci sans être obligé de placer un grand nombre de capteurs et sans nuire à la protection de la vie

  8. Physiopathologie et Pathologie des Affections du Rachis en Medecine Aerospatiale (Physiopathology and Pathology of Affections of the Spine in Aerospace Medicine),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    partant du principe que le nucleus eat un capteur de force. Ils ont 6tabli que la pression du milieu liquide A 1’int~rieur du nucl6us 6tait directement li~e...si is tampa de isont~e en acc6l~ration eat court par rapport aux p~riodes naturelles dti corps ( jolt 6lev6) on pourra assistar & des ph~nomtns d...phiques et des cadavres 6quip6s d’acc6ldrombtres, de jauges de contrainte et de capteurs d’ef fort, ii a 6t6 possible de tirer un certain nombre de

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Information Centres and Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    que pratique. Des cas pratiques sont exanuis, afin dillustrer un certain nombre de projets d ’&valuation qui ont 6t6 entrepris avec succis par...aspects politiques, d’organisation et pratiques des projets d 𔄀valuation, vu sous l’angle d’un contexte 6largi. LIST OF ALTHORS/SPEAKERS Lecture Series...diffifrents pays, en mettant l’accent sur des m~thodes et des actions d ’~valuation sp~ciflques. Ainsi, lea presentations constituent non seulement des bases

  10. Hantavirus infection in children in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pini, N C; Resa, A; del Jesús Laime, G; Lecot, G; Ksiazek, T G; Levis, S; Enria, D A

    1998-01-01

    Clinical hantavirus infection was diagnosed in five Argentine children ages 5 to 11 years by immunoglobulin M (IgM)- capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Sin Nombre virus (SNV) antigens. Death in three of the children was associated with absence of detectable IgG to SNV antigens. An additional two cases in healthy children were studied: one, a breast-fed 15-month-old whose mother died of suspected hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) 8 months previously, had hantavirus IgG (> 1:6400); a second, whose mother survived HPS during month three of pregnancy, apparently had maternal antibodies no longer detectable 1 year after birth.

  11. Screening difficult-to-reach populations for tuberculosis using a mobile medical unit, Punjab India.

    PubMed

    Binepal, G; Agarwal, P; Kaur, N; Singh, B; Bhagat, V; Verma, R P; Satyanarayana, S; Oeltmann, J E; Moonan, P K

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : En Inde, la Mission nationale santé a fourni une unité médicale mobile (MMU) par district dans l'état du Penjab afin d'offrir des services de soins de santé primaires aux populations difficilement accessibles.Objectifs : Déterminer le nombre de patients présumés atteints de la tuberculose (TB) et le nombre de cas de TB détectés et traités parmi les patients qui ont utilisé les services de la MMU de mai à décembre 2012 dans le district de Mohali de l'état du Penjab, Inde.Méthodes : Une étude transversale a été réalisée et l'étude des registres des consultations, du laboratoire, de la radiologie et des services de TB de la MMU a permis de compter le nombre de personnes présumées atteintes de TB et le nombre de personnes ayant eu un diagnostic de TB.Résultats : Un total de 8346 patients ont fréquenté la MMU, dont 663 (8%) avaient des symptômes suggérant une TB. Parmi ces derniers, 540 (81%) ont bénéficié d'une recherche de TB pulmonaire grâce à un examen de l'expectoration ou à une radiographie pulmonaire. Au total, 58 (11%) patients ont eu des preuves cliniques ou biologiques de TB pulmonaire, dont 21 (36%) ont mis en route un traitement de la tuberculose.Conclusion : Comme les MMU font partie intégrante du système de santé publique général, ces unités ont le potentiel de détecter les cas de TB parmi les populations « difficiles à atteindre ». De plus amples recherches sont requises afin d'optimiser le diagnostic de la TB dans les MMU pour accélérer la mise en route du traitement de la TB.

  12. Recent Results from the Standoff Detection of Radiological Materials by Passive FTIR Radiometry. 2004-2005 Summary Report for the Canadian Safeguards Support Program of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    of radiological materials, including several oxides of uranium ( UO2 , UO3, U3O8 ), the oxides of cobalt (CoO and Co2O3), iridium oxide (IrO2), thorium...diffuse obtenues en laboratoire, on montre qu’un certain nombre de matériaux radiologiques, c.-à-d. oxydes d’uranium ( UO2 , UO3, U3O8 ), oxydes de cobalt...this work to measure the reflectance from powdered samples of UO2 , UO3, U3O8 , CoO, Co2O3, and IrO2. The uranium samples were supplied by Cameco

  13. The trend of tuberculosis cases over 60 years in Fiji's largest treatment centre: 1950-2010.

    PubMed

    Tamani, T; Bissell, K; Tayler-Smith, K; Gounder, S; Linh, N N; Graham, S M

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Hôpital P J Twomey, Programme National contre la Tuberculose, Fidji.Objectifs : Revoir les tendances des nombres de cas de tuberculose (TB) enregistrés chaque année de 1950 à 2010 à l'Hôpital P J Twomey, le plus grand centre de traitement de la TB et l'unité centrale du pays. Les tendances sont interprétées en fonction des différentes étapes de la lutte contre la TB.Schéma : Etude descriptive des données des dossiers médicaux et des registres de TB, notamment l'âge, le sexe, l'origine ethnique, le diagnostic et le résultat du frottis.Résultats : Entre 1950 et 2010, 14 616 cas ont été enregistrés à l'Hôpital P J Twomey. Parmi eux, 58% étaient de sexe masculin, 70% étaient des indigènes des îles Fidji (i-taukei) et 64% étaient âgés entre 15 et 49 ans. Le nombre de cas a chuté de façon brutale dans les années 1960 et a poursuivi sa descente progressive depuis 1990. Des résultats de frottis étaient disponibles dans 91% des cas. Entre 1950 et 1985, 19% des cas avaient un frottis positif ; cette proportion est passée à 41% après 1985 à la suite du recyclage des laborantins. Le nombre de cas à frottis de crachats positifs enregistré chaque année a augmenté au cours de la dernière décennie.Conclusion : Il y a eu des changements marquants du volume des cas dans le plus grand centre de traitement de la TB au Fidji au cours des 60 dernières années. L'accroissement récent des cas à frottis de crachats positifs alors que le nombre total de cas a diminué requiert de plus amples investigations.

  14. Torleif Ericson 60th Birthday

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plusieurs discours à l'occasion du 60me anniversaire de Torleif Ericson, physicien né à Lund (Suède), et remerciements pour son travail et son effort de relier la physique des particules à la physique nucléaire. A la fin de la cérémonie un document scientifique de 400 pages "die Festschrift" lui est remis comme cadeau d'anniversaire avec un grand nombre de contributions d'amis etc...

  15. Benefits of Computer Assisted Translation to Information Managers and End-Users (L’Interet de la Traduction Assistee par Ordinateur Pour les Responsables de Centres d’Information et Pour Les Utilisateurs Finaux)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    couramment en anglais, tine analyse purement utitisis, lermetlant tinc utiLisation - grammaticale L’aisse subsister ban nombre interactive avec tine...l’indust’riaLisation pour de texte et autres outits Linguistiques se placer dans tin environne ment utiLises pour La TAO scront de toute facon op eritiannet...Llindexation automatique des textes en angtala ou en fran~ais, Ainsi Le texte-peut provenir d’une bande L’aLimentation automatique d’une base de magnetique

  16. Development of Extended Content Standards for Biodiversity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim; Schmidt, Jochen; Saarenmaa, Hannu

    2013-04-01

    Interoperability in the field of Biodiversity observation has been strongly driven by the development of a number of global initiatives (GEO, GBIF, OGC, TDWG, GenBank, …) and its supporting standards (OGC-WxS, OGC-SOS, Darwin Core (DwC), NetCDF, …). To a large extent, these initiatives have focused on discoverability and standardization of syntactic and schematic interoperability. Semantic interoperability is more complex, requiring development of domain-dependent conceptual data models, and extension of these models with appropriate ontologies (typically manifested as controlled vocabularies). Biodiversity content has been standardized partly, for example through Darwin Core for occurrence data and associated taxonomy, and through Genbank for genetic data, but other contexts of biodiversity observation have lagged behind - making it difficult to achieve semantic interoperability between distributed data sources. With this in mind, WG8 of GEO BON (charged with data and systems interoperability) has started a work programme to address a number of concerns, one of which is the gap in content standards required to make Biodiversity data truly interoperable. The paper reports on the framework developed by WG8 for the classification of Biodiversity observation data into 'families' of use cases and its supporting data schema, where gaps, if any, in the availability if content standards have been identified, and how these are to be addressed by way of an abstract data model and the development of associated content standards. It is proposed that a minimum set of standards (1) will be required to address the scope of Biodiversity content, aligned with levels and dimensions of observation, and based on the 'Essential Biodiversity Variables' (2) being developed by GEO BON . The content standards are envisaged as loosely separated from the syntactic and schematic standards used for the base data exchange: typically, services would offer an existing data standard (DwC, WFS

  17. Effets du stress familial lié au diabète sur le contrôle glycémique chez les jeunes diabétiques de type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouli, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Darviri, Christina; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectif Examiner la façon dont le stress familial influence le contrôle glycémique chez les patients diabétiques de moins de 18 ans. Sources des données Une recherche des études pertinentes publiées depuis 1990 a été réalisée dans PubMed et Scopus à l'aide des mots-clés suivants en anglais: diabetes type 1, glycemic control, family stress, family conflict et family function. Sélection des études La recension initiale a permis de cerner un total de 1 478 articles. La synthèse finale portrait sur 6 études de cohortes, 3 études transversales et 1 étude qualitative dans lesquelles le stress familial était évalué à l'aide d'instruments de mesure des conflits spécifiquement reliés au diabète et le contrôle glycémique était mesuré en fonction de l'hémoglobine glycosylée. Synthèse Dans la plupart des études, il existait une corrélation négative entre le stress familial et le contrôle glycémique des patients. Le bon fonctionnement familial était fortement relié à un bon contrôle glycémique des patients, tandis que les conflits familiaux étaient associés à un mauvais contrôle glycémique. Les familles dont la situation socioéconomique était défavorisée, celles ayant des adolescents atteints de diabète et les familles monoparentales étaient plus enclines à vivre un stress relié au diabète et étaient, par conséquent, plus susceptibles de connaître un moins bon contrôle glycémique. Conclusion Les interventions psychologiques thérapeutiques et les programmes éducatifs peuvent aider à atténuer le stress familial relié au diabète et amélioreront probablement le contrôle glycémique.

  18. Zoonotic infections in communities of the James Bay Cree territory: An overview of seroprevalence.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Lévesque, Benoit; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Côté, Suzanne; Serhir, Bouchra; Ward, Brian J; Libman, Michael D; Drebot, Michael A; Makowski, Kai; Dimitrova, Kristina; Ndao, Momar; Dewailly, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Cree communities of James Bay are at risk for contracting infectious diseases transmitted by wildlife. Data from serological testing for a range of zoonotic infections performed in the general population (six communities), or trappers and their spouses (one community), were abstracted from four population-based studies conducted in Cree territory (Quebec) between 2005 and 2009. Evidence of exposure to Trichinella species, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Leptospira species, Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis was verified in all communities, whereas antibodies against Sin Nombre virus and California serogroup viruses (Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses) were evaluated in three and six communities, respectively. Seroprevalence varied widely among communities: snowshoe hare virus (1% to 42%), F tularensis (14% to 37%), Leptospira species (10% to 27%), Jamestown Canyon virus (9% to 24%), C burnetii (0% to 18%), T gondii (4% to 12%), T canis (0% to 10%), E granulosus (0% to 4%) and Trichinella species (0% to 1%). No subject had serological evidence of Sin Nombre virus exposure. These data suggest that large proportions of the Cree population have been exposed to at least one of the targeted zoonotic agents. The Cree population, particularly those most heavily exposed to fauna, as well as the medical staff living in these regions, should be aware of these diseases. Greater awareness would not only help to decrease exposures but would also increase the chance of appropriate diagnostic testing.

  19. Perspective sur les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments en établissement de santé de 2006 à 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Jean-François; Chiveri, Andrei; Lebel, Denis

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte: Si les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments font partie de la réalité de la pratique pharmaceutique depuis plusieurs décennies, elles deviennent une préoccupation quotidienne pour les pharmaciens dans les années 2000 et dépassent les frontières de la littérature pharmaceutique. Objectif: L’objectif principal de cette étude était de quantifier le nombre de médicaments en rupture de stock par année et la durée de ces interruptions. L’objectif secondaire visait à décrire le nombre de médicaments en rupture de stock par fabricant et par classe thérapeutique. Méthode: Cette étude descriptive et rétrospective des ruptures d’approvisionnement en médicaments a porté sur l’ensemble des médicaments à contrat pour les hôpitaux des régions administratives de Montréal, de Laval et de l’Estrie, au Québec. Le nombre de ruptures de stocks, le nombre de jours de rupture de stock et leur durée moyenne par année ont été calculés par fabricant et par classe thérapeutique. De plus, la proportion de produits en rupture de stock et la proportion de jours de rupture de stocks ont été déterminées par classe thérapeutique. Les données ont été analysées à l’aide de statistiques descriptives (c.-à-d. somme, moyenne, écart-type, médiane, intervalle). Résultats: Entre le 1er janvier 2006 et le 31 août 2010 (une période de 56 mois), 2400 ruptures de stocks ont été dénombrées pour un total de 258 105 jours de rupture de stocks (durée moyenne de 108 jours, écart-type de 130 jours et intervalle de 5 à 1623 jours). Un total de 70 fabricants étaient impliqués dans la survenue de toutes les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments relevées durant cette période. Cinquante pour cent (50 %) des ruptures de stocks et des jours de rupture de stocks provenaient de quatre fabricants. Les interruptions étudiées touchaient la majorité des classes thérapeutiques de médicaments disponibles sur le

  20. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Arienti, Marco; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Kopacz, Adrian M; Geier, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  1. Essential biodiversity variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  2. A propos d'un cas de grossesse abdominale très prolongée

    PubMed Central

    Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Umba, Elie Kilolo Ngoy; Cibuabua, Deddy Kalonji; Ilunga, Clovis Mwamba; Ndolo, Adellard Umba; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Mwenze

    2013-01-01

    Un cas de grossesse abdominale prolongée d'environ 18 mois avec mort fœtale, vécu à l'hôpital général de référence de Mulongo dans la province du Katanga, en République Démocratique du Congo, est rapporté dans ce papier. Ce cas clinique d’évolution étonnante permet de faire la revue de la littérature, de rappeler l'importance d'un bon suivi clinique et échographique de la grossesse et de s'interroger sur le niveau d’éducation de la femme ainsi que la qualité des soins prénataux en milieu rural congolais. PMID:24570787

  3. Blended Learning Ecologies in the Military: Comparative Studies for CombatMedics and Their Instructors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Demonstration-Making a Blanket and Pole Litter 0.2 (DM) Demonstration-Making a Poncho and Pole Litter 0.6 (PE) Student Practice Summary...C DE 1:40 0 1 0 1 0 0 9/C PE 1:10 4 0 0 4 0 0 Lesson Total 4 1 0 5 0 0 NSN (LIN) Total 4 1 0 5 0 0 NSN (LIN): 8405-01-100-0976 Poncho NSN Quantity: EA...Unusual thirst PosiBon the Casualty for Shock What could I do if the weather is hot? A.  Move the casualty to shade B.  Improvise shade using a poncho

  4. Biodiversity and ecosystem services science for a sustainable planet: the DIVERSITAS vision for 2012-20.

    PubMed

    Larigauderie, Anne; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène; Mace, Georgina M; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold A; Brussaard, Lijbert; Cooper, David; Cramer, Wolfgang; Daszak, Peter; Díaz, Sandra; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Faith, Daniel P; Jackson, Louise E; Krug, Cornelia; Leadley, Paul W; Le Prestre, Philippe; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Palmer, Margaret; Perrings, Charles; Pulleman, Mirjam; Reyers, Belinda; Rosa, Eugene A; Scholes, Robert J; Spehn, Eva; Turner, Bl; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2012-02-01

    DIVERSITAS, the international programme on biodiversity science, is releasing a strategic vision presenting scientific challenges for the next decade of research on biodiversity and ecosystem services: "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Science for a Sustainable Planet". This new vision is a response of the biodiversity and ecosystem services scientific community to the accelerating loss of the components of biodiversity, as well as to changes in the biodiversity science-policy landscape (establishment of a Biodiversity Observing Network - GEO BON, of an Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services - IPBES, of the new Future Earth initiative; and release of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020). This article presents the vision and its core scientific challenges.

  5. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. PMID:27699202

  6. Tumeur phyllode chez une jeune adolescente de 12 ans: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Issara, Karima; Houjami, Majdouline; Sahraoui, Souha; Bouchbika, Zineb; Benchakroun, Nadia; Jouhadi, Hassan; Tawfiq, Nezha; Benider, Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    Les tumeurs phyllodes du sein sont des tumeurs très rares et restent exceptionnelles chez les enfants et les adolescents, leurs traitement est basé sur la chirurgie et la radiothérapie, avec un bon pronostic. Nous rapportons le cas d'une adolescente âgée de 12 ans, qui s'est présentée pour une masse du sein gauche. Le diagnoctic d'une tumeur phyllode a été retenu après bilan et histologie. Le traitement a consisté en une tumorectomie large sans traitement adjuvant ; avec une bonne évolution à un recul de deux ans. PMID:28154712

  7. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  8. Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    press) 7 Thug; tudents may pas school-b=e exame (a distinctive pot of the School Mulur) but stil n0t be able use a domlts conceptual lools in aberic...prlbly a #cos for lie oealnt e oxpressed bore bO.N"qn hMs caculMM. He wau able tom te pe and Its resouton in terms of tme measum pa . Gun boed aM hWe...eat l pa "ueee fins. pSi). truOsed UetaMi problem atil offt consMeo 01thei rato n and p o-lding them wit an w.nest kaiwomk JPFO sx p P11i - -seen

  9. Ostéochondrome volumineux de l'omoplate: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Karabila, Mohamed Amine; Otmani, Leila; Azouz, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Younes; Hmouri, Ismail; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed; Lahlou, Abdou; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Salehberrada, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'un ostéochondrome de l'omoplate ayant un aspect radiologique et une localisation inhabituelle chez un jeune homme de 24 ans qui consulte pour une déformation de son épaule gauche avec une bosse postérieure refoulant son omoplate. Un bilan radiologique standard a montré une exostose pédiculée à la partie supérieure de l'omoplate. La tomodensitométrie était en faveur d'une exostose volumineuse. La résection chirurgicale de la tumeur et l'examen anatomo-pathologique ont permis de confirmer le diagnostic d'un ostéochondrome. Après un recul de dix mois, les résultats fonctionnels étaient très bons. PMID:26985278

  10. Dietary phosphorus requirement of channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Robinson, E H; Gatlin, D M; Poe, W E

    1982-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to reevaluate the dietary phosphorus requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Basal diets containing either casein with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.5% total calcium or egg albumin with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.75% total calcium yielded similar requirement data. Eleven-week growth, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus, bone ash, bone calcium and bon phosphorus data indicate that 0.33% apparent available dietary phosphorus is adequate for maximum growth and bone mineralization. Based on these data and previous findings, we would suggest a value of 0.4% apparent available phosphorus be used in formulating catfish feeds. The apparent availability of phosphorus from soybean meal, as determined by the chromic oxide indicator method, was 29% for channel catfish.

  11. Periodic Variability of MRK501 in Optical Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivest, L. Joseph; Osborne, McKay; Moody, J. Ward; Holden, Marcus; Hintz, Eric G.; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Joner, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    We present data for Mrk501 from 2009-2016 taken by ROVOR and WMO in Johnson B, V, and R filters. An aperture of radius 5" was used for all data. Photometry was referenced to the same ensemble of stars in all frames. We find strong evidence for a regular light curve that is the combination of a sine wave of amplitude around 0.08mag in V and R with a period of ~2000±200 days and a linear combination of sine waves having periods of ~113±3days and ~70±5 days both with amplitudes of approximately 0.03mag. These amplitudes tend to be larger in the B filter. These results are consistent with X-ray data and are qualitatively similar to the light curve found for NGC5548 (Bon et al, 2016).

  12. Nonflammable Hydraulic Power System for Tactical Aircraft. Volume 1. Aircraft System Definition, Design and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    200- 00400 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 24.100 28.00 32.00 36.00 40.00 44.00 48.00 Distance - in. Figure 54. Abex - Pump Staning Wave Pressure Plot at 3350...37,100 lb)’ 33,000 lb TENSION pecification LOAD -. Performance0 (lbs) -10.. Test System Performance(1,5 lb Neutral LOAD (lbs) 3.92 in.3.2i. 0...ALIF RIchrgoTub* WmWr. Oierrido | F V .Poi bon 7~ Ir.icutct ( RED ) 2225u Figure 97. Parker Metal Bellows - Reservoir Detail Drawing 5.5.3 Hydraulic

  13. Quartz Channel Fabrication for Electrokinetically Driven Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.W.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Bailey, C.G.; Kravitz, S.H., Warren, M.E.; Matzke, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    For well resolved electrokinetic separation, we L tilize crystalline quartz to micromachine a uniformly packe Q&iKLmnel. Packing features are posts 5 Vm on a side with:} pm spacing and etched 42 Vm deep. In addition to anisotropic wet etch characteristics for micromachining, quartz propmties are compatible with chemical soiutioits, ekctrokinetic high voltage operation, and stationary phase film depositions. To seal these channels, we employ a room temperature silicon-oxynhride deposition to forma membrane, that is subsequently coated for mechanical stability. Using this technique, particulate issues and global warp, that make large area wafer bon ding methods difficult, are avoided, and a room temperature process, in contrast to high temperature bonding techniques, accommodate preprocessing of metal films for electrical interconnect. After sealing channels, a number of macro-assembly steps are required to attach a micro-optical detection system and fluid interconnects. Keywords: microcharmel, integrated channel, micromachined channel, packed channel, electrokinetic channel, eleetrophoretic channel

  14. Fracture unicondylienne latérale sagittale du fémur associée à une fracture homolatérale verticale de la patella

    PubMed Central

    Sasbou, Youness; Boussaidane, Mohammed; Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Azzouz, Mohammed; Mhammdi, Youness; Benchebba, Driss; Chagar, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Un patient de 24 ans a subit un traumatisme du genou droit suite à un accident de la voie publique occasionnant une fracture simultanée uni condylienne latérale et patellaire verticale. Cette association est exceptionnelle et aucun cas n'as été retrouvé dans la littérature. Un diagnostic précis clinique et radiologique suivi d'une prise en charge précoce et adaptée par une ostéosynthèse interne et une rééducation fonctionnelle ont permis d'obtenir de bons résultats à long terme. PMID:26113949

  15. Culinary nationalism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.

  16. Arrêt cardiocirculatoire par accidents d’électrisations: intérêt du défibrillateur semi-automatique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures par accidents électriques sont graves car elles peuvent entraîner le décès par arrêt cardiocirculatoire. Les arrêts cardiocirculatoires induits par le courant de basse tension sont en règle générale dûs à une fibrillation ventriculaire, plutôt de bon pronostic si la chaîne des secours est efficace. Il faut donner la priorité à la défibrillation systématique d’emblée en utilisant un défibrillateur semi-automatique. La défibrillation électrique est susceptible de procurer immédiatement une restauration de l’activité circulatoire spontanée. PMID:21991238

  17. Assessing collective affect recognition via the Emotional Aperture Measure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Bartel, Caroline A; Rees, Laura; Huy, Quy

    2016-01-01

    Curiosity about collective affect is undergoing a revival in many fields. This literature, tracing back to Le Bon's seminal work on crowd psychology, has established the veracity of collective affect and demonstrated its influence on a wide range of group dynamics. More recently, an interest in the perception of collective affect has emerged, revealing a need for a methodological approach for assessing collective emotion recognition to complement measures of individual emotion recognition. This article addresses this need by introducing the Emotional Aperture Measure (EAM). Three studies provide evidence that collective affect recognition requires a processing style distinct from individual emotion recognition and establishes the validity and reliability of the EAM. A sample of working managers further shows how the EAM provides unique insights into how individuals interact with collectives. We discuss how the EAM can advance several lines of research on collective affect.

  18. A propos d’un cas de grossesse ovarienne

    PubMed Central

    Nday, David Kakez; Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Nfundi, Jimmy Ngoie; Salumu, Gabriel; Kameya, Patrick Nduwa; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba; Tshamba, Henry Mundongo

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas de grossesse ovarienne gauche découverte de manière passive en consultation externe à l'hôpital général de référence de Dilolo en République Démocratique du Congo. Le diagnostic a été confirmé à l'échographie, la prise en charge chirurgicale et les suites opératoires bonnes. La femme enceinte et le personnel médical devront être conscients de l'importance du bon suivi clinique et échographique de la grossesse pour le diagnostic précoce des implantations anormales. PMID:28292137

  19. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    PubMed

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses.

  20. Mesozoic lacustrine system in the Parnaíba Basin, northeastern Brazil: Paleogeographic implications for west Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Alexandre Ribeiro; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Abrantes, Francisco Romério; Rabelo, Cleber Eduardo Neri

    2017-03-01

    The fragmentation of the West Gondwana during Early Triassic to Cretaceous was marked by intense climatic changes, concomitant with the establishment of extensive desertic/lacustrine systems. These deposits succeeded the emplacement and extrusion of lava flows, related to the pre-rift phase and initial opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The thermal phase is recorded in the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Pastos Bons Formation, exposed mainly in southeast parts of the Parnaíba Basin, Northeastern Brazil. The sedimentary facies of this unit were grouped in two facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system, influenced by episodic hyperpycnal and oscillatory flows. Central lake facies association (FA1) is composed by laminated mudstone (Ml), sandstone/mudstone rhythmite (S/Mr) and sandstone with even-parallel lamination (Sel). Flysch-like delta front (FA2) consists in sandstones with wave structures (Sw), sandstones with even-parallel stratification (Ses), massive sandstones (Sm), sandstones with soft-sediment deformation structures (Sd) and laminated mudstones (Ml). FA1 was deposited in the deepest portions of the lake, characterized by low energy, episodically disturbed by siliciclastic influx. FA2 presents sandy deposits generated by unconfined flow, probably fed by ephemeral stream flows that generated thickening upward of tabular sandstone beds. The progressive filling of the lake resulted in recurrent shoaling up of the water level and reworking by wave action. The installation of Pastos Bons lakes was controlled by thermal subsidence, mainly in restricted depocenters. The siliciclastic fluvial inflow can be related to the adjacent humid desertic facies, formed under climatic attenuation, typical of post-Triassic period, with reduced biological activity. Smectite and abundant feldspars, in lacustrine facies, corroborate an arid climate, with incipient chemical weathering. The new facies and stratigraphic data present in this

  1. Exome-level comparison of primary well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and their cell lines.

    PubMed

    Boora, Ganesh K; Kanwar, Rahul; Kulkarni, Amit A; Pleticha, Josef; Ames, Matthew; Schroth, Gary; Beutler, Andreas S; Banck, Michaela S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine cancer cell lines are used to investigate therapeutic targets in neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and have been instrumental in the design of clinical trials targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, VEGF inhibitors, and somatostatin analogues. It remains unknown, however, whether the genomic makeup of NET cell lines reflect that of primary NET since comprehensive unbiased genome sequencing has not been performed on the cell lines. Four bronchopulmonary NET (BP-NET)-NCI-H720, NCI-H727, NCI-H835, and UMC11-and two pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET)-BON-1 and QGP1-were cultured. DNA was isolated, and exome sequencing was done. GATK and EXCAVATOR were used for bioinformatic analysis. We detected a total of 1,764 nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants at a rate of 8 per Mb in BP-NET and 4.3 per Mb in panNET cell lines, including 52 mutated COSMIC cancer genes in these cell lines, such as TP53, BRCA1, RB1, TSC2, NOTCH1, EP300, GNAS, KDR, STK11, and APC but not ATRX, DAXX, nor MEN1. Our data suggest that mutation rate, the pattern of copy number variations, and the mutational spectra in the BP-NET cell lines are more similar to the changes observed in small cell lung cancer than those found in primary BP-NET. Likewise, mutation rate and pattern including the absence of mutations in ATRX/DAXX, MEN1, and YY1 in the panNET cell lines BON1 and QGP1 suggest that these cell lines do not have the genetic signatures of a primary panNET. These results suggest that results from experiments with BP-NET and panNET cell lines need to be interpreted with caution.

  2. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections.

  3. Generation of ramp waves using variable areal density flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ramp loading using graded density impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacturing technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed-of-nails" (BON). A 2.5-mm-thick × 99.4-mm-diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 5.5 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 and 1100 m/s using the 100-mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College London. In each experiment, a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry (Het-V) was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ˜ 2.5 μs, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  4. The FGFR4-G388R single-nucleotide polymorphism alters pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor progression and response to mTOR inhibition therapy.

    PubMed

    Serra, Stefano; Zheng, Lei; Hassan, Manal; Phan, Alexandria T; Woodhouse, Linda J; Yao, James C; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), also known as islet cell tumors, exhibit a wide range of biologic behaviors ranging from long dormancy to rapid progression. Currently, there are few molecular biomarkers that can be used to predict recurrence/metastasis or response to therapy. This study examined the predictive and prognostic value of a single nucleotide polymorphism substituting an arginine (R) for glycine (G) in codon 388 of the FGFR4 transmembrane domain. We established the FGFR4 genotype of 71 patients with pNETs and correlated genotype with biologic behavior. We created an in vivo model of pNET with BON1 cells and transfected them with either FGFR4-G388 or FGFR4-R388 to determine the mechanism of action and to examine response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. We then validated the predictive results of experimental studies in a group of patients treated with everolimus. FGFR4-R388 is associated with more aggressive clinical behavior in patients with pNETs with a statistically significant higher risk of advanced tumor stage and liver metastasis. Using an orthotopic mouse xenograft model, we show that FGFR4-R388 promotes tumor progression by increasing intraperitoneal spread and metastatic growth within the liver. Unlike FGFR4-G388, FGFR4-R388 BON1 tumors exhibited diminished responsiveness to everolimus. Concordantly, there was a statistically significant reduction in response to everolimus in patients with FGFR4-R388. Our findings highlight the importance of the FGFR4 allele in pNET progression and identify a predictive marker of potential therapeutic importance in this disease.

  5. Gravitational fractionation of solutes and isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    In a stagnant pore fluid, dissolved heavy components tend to gravitate downwards, while light components concentrate towards the top of the reservoir. This gravitational gravitation (Bons & Gomez-Rivas, 2013) is counteracted by Fickian diffusion, which strives to equalize concentrations of all components. Numerical simulations show that gravitational fractionation can be significant in crustal fluid reservoirs, provided the fluid is stagnant for prolonged periods of times (tens of millions of years) and that the vertical connectivity of the pores extends over at least a few kilometres. In that case, up to double digit shifts in hydrogen and oxygen isotopic signatures can develop and, for example, Cl/Br ratios can be modified by more than a factor of two. Stagnant fluid reservoirs can be expected in basement rocks under unconformities, such as the Variscan basement in Western Europe during the Mesozoic. Published fluid ages based on halogen isotopes confirm that basement fluids can be tens of millions of years old (e.g. Fehn & Snyder, 2005). Considering that fluid compositions (isotopic signatures, halogen ratios, etc.) are commonly used to determine origin of fluids and the processes that may have modified them, recognizing the potential modification of fluid signatures by gravitational fractionation is of importance in models for crustal fluid flow and ore formation. Bons, P.D., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. Gravitational fractionation of isotopes and dissolved components as a first-order process in hydrothermal crustal fluids. Economic Geology 108, 1195-120. Fehn, U., and Snyder, G.T. 2005. Residence times and source ages of deep crustal fluids: interpretation of 129I and 36Cl results from the KTB-VB drill site, Germany. Geofluids 5, 42-51.

  6. Activation of AMPK Stimulates Neurotensin Secretion in Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Weiss, Heidi L.; Weiss, Todd; Townsend, Courtney M.

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical fuel-sensing enzyme, regulates the metabolic effects of various hormones. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide predominantly localized in enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel and released by fat ingestion. Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, the mechanisms regulating NT release are not fully defined. We previously reported that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) increases NT secretion and gene expression through activation of the MEK/ERK pathway. Here, we show that activation of AMPK increases NT secretion from endocrine cell lines (BON and QGP-1) and isolated mouse crypt cells enriched for NT-positive cells. In addition, plasma levels of NT increase in mice treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, a pharmacologic AMPK activator. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα decrease, whereas overexpression of the subunit significantly enhances, NT secretion from BON cells treated with AMPK activators or oleic acid. Similarly, small interfering RNA knockdown of the upstream AMPK kinases, liver kinase B1 and Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, also attenuate NT release and AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, AMPK activation increases NT secretion through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Together, our findings show that AMPK activation enhances NT release through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, thus demonstrating an important cross talk regulation for NT secretion. PMID:26528831

  7. Activation of AMPK Stimulates Neurotensin Secretion in Neuroendocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Weiss, Heidi L; Weiss, Todd; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical fuel-sensing enzyme, regulates the metabolic effects of various hormones. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide predominantly localized in enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel and released by fat ingestion. Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, the mechanisms regulating NT release are not fully defined. We previously reported that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) increases NT secretion and gene expression through activation of the MEK/ERK pathway. Here, we show that activation of AMPK increases NT secretion from endocrine cell lines (BON and QGP-1) and isolated mouse crypt cells enriched for NT-positive cells. In addition, plasma levels of NT increase in mice treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, a pharmacologic AMPK activator. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα decrease, whereas overexpression of the subunit significantly enhances, NT secretion from BON cells treated with AMPK activators or oleic acid. Similarly, small interfering RNA knockdown of the upstream AMPK kinases, liver kinase B1 and Ca(2+) calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, also attenuate NT release and AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, AMPK activation increases NT secretion through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Together, our findings show that AMPK activation enhances NT release through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, thus demonstrating an important cross talk regulation for NT secretion.

  8. Characterization of Promoter Elements Regulating the Expression of the Human Neurotensin/Neuromedin N Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofu; Gulhati, Pat; Li, Jing; Dobner, Paul R.; Weiss, Heidi; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the gene encoding neurotensin/neuromedin N (NT/N) is mostly limited to the brain and specialized enteroendocrine N cells in the distal small intestine. We have identified key regulatory elements in the promoter region that are involved in human NT/N (hNT/N) gene expression in the novel human endocrine cell line, BON, which resembles intestinal N cells in several important aspects including NT/N precursor protein processing, ratios of different NT/N mRNA isoforms, and high levels of constitutive expression of the NT/N gene. In this study, we demonstrated multiple cis-regulatory elements including a proximal region containing a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)/AP-1-like element that binds both the AP-1 and CRE-binding protein (CREB)/ATF proteins (c-Jun, ATF-1, ATF-2, JunD, and CREB). Similar to the rat NT/N gene, this region is critical for constitutive hNT/N gene expression. Moreover, we identified a novel region that binds the orphan hormone receptor, NR2F2. We have demonstrated that the C terminus of NR2F2 strongly represses hNT/N transcription, whereas an N-terminal domain antagonizes this repressive effect. Regulation of NT/N expression by NR2F2 may have important consequences for lipid metabolism. We speculate that a complex interplay between the proximal CRE/AP-1-like motif and NR2F2 binding region exists to regulate hNT/N expression, which is critical for the high level of constitutive expression of NT/N in enteroendocrine cells. Finally, the BON cell line provides a unique model to characterize the factors regulating expression of the hNT/N gene and to better understand the mechanisms responsible for terminal differentiation of the N cell lineage in the gut. PMID:21030593

  9. A novel approach in the treatment of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors: Additive antiproliferative effects of interferon-γ and meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    PubMed Central

    Höpfner, Michael; Sutter, Andreas P; Huether, Alexander; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Scherübl, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options to effectively inhibit growth and spread of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors are still limited. As both meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) cause antineoplastic effects in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of the combination of IFNγ and non-radiolabeled MIBG in neuroendocrine gut STC-1 and pancreatic carcinoid BON tumor cells. Methods and results IFNγ receptors were expressed in both models. IFNγ dose- and time-dependently inhibited the growth of both STC-1 and of BON tumor cells with IC50-values of 95 ± 15 U/ml and 135 ± 10 U/ml, respectively. Above 10 U/ml IFNγ induced apoptosis-specific caspase-3 activity in a time-dependent manner in either cell line and caused a dose-dependent arrest in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, IFNγ induced cytotoxic effects in NE tumor cells. The NE tumor-targeted drug MIBG is selectively taken up via norepinephrine transporters, thereby specifically inhibiting growth in NE tumor cells. Intriguingly, IFNγ treatment induced an upregulation of norepinephrine transporter expression in neuroendocrine tumors cells, as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Co-application of sub-IC50 concentrations of IFNγ and MIBG led to additive growth inhibitory effects, which were mainly due to increased cytotoxicity and S-phase arrest of the cell cycle. Conclusion Our data show that IFNγ exerts antiproliferative effects on neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and cytotoxicity. The combination of IFNγ with the NE tumor-targeted agent MIBG leads to effective growth control at reduced doses of either drug. Thus, the administration of IFNγ alone and more so, in combination with MIBG, is a promising novel approach in the treatment of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors. PMID:15154969

  10. Extensive survey of molecules related to wood formation and gravity for space agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Kyohei; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Furukawa, Jun; Sato, Seigo; Suzuki, Toshisada; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Japanese Space Tree Working Group

    Most, if not all, terrestrial subjects are under the influence of gravity. Since the gravitational force is proportional to the mass of subject, gravity is dominant for larger masses. The response of a plant against gravity is not an exception in this respect even it shows rather complicated features. For the angiosperm tree, its shape is determined by the forming tension wood, which induces more tensile stress in the xylem than in the normal wood. The mechanism of tension wood formation and its relevance to gravity have been extensively studied. Gibberellin is known to be responsible for this phenomenon in angiosperm tree, for example, the Japanese cherry tree, Prunus jamasakura. However, full understanding of the mechanisms has not yet been clarified. For an extensive survey of molecules related to tension wood formation, we induced an artificial tension wood formation and examined the tension wood formation by microscopic observations with double-staining. This enables the screening of really functional molecules in the space environment for future space agriculture. We demonstrated that Prunus incise is suitable for this research as a test material based on several reasons. We focused our attention in the region of the branch, i.e., the CosmoTree in CosmoBon, and established an experimental system to analyze the real functional factors of the tension wood. This study might ensure wood formation in a space environment and use woody plants as a material for space development. ("CosmoBon" is the Bonsai small tree for our space experiments. "CosmoTree" is a small branch/tree.)

  11. Influence of mechanical rock properties and fracture healing rate on crustal fluid flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel; de Riese, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow in the Earth's crust is very slow over extended periods of time, during which it occurs within the connected pore space of rocks. If the fluid production rate exceeds a certain threshold, matrix permeability alone is insufficient to drain the fluid volume and fluid pressure builds up, thereby reducing the effective stress supported by the rock matrix. Hydraulic fractures form once the effective pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the rock matrix and act subsequently as highly effective fluid conduits. Once local fluid pressure is sufficiently low again, flow ceases and fractures begin to heal. Since fluid flow is controlled by the alternation of fracture permeability and matrix permeability, the flow rate in the system is strongly discontinuous and occurs in intermittent pulses. Resulting hydraulic fracture networks are largely self-organized: opening and subsequent healing of hydraulic fractures depends on the local fluid pressure and on the time-span between fluid pulses. We simulate this process with a computer model and describe the resulting dynamics statistically. Special interest is given to a) the spatially and temporally discontinuous formation and closure of fractures and fracture networks and b) the total flow rate over time. The computer model consists of a crustal-scale dual-porosity setup. Control parameters are the pressure- and time-dependent fracture healing rate, and the strength and the permeability of the intact rock. Statistical analysis involves determination of the multifractal properties and of the power spectral density of the temporal development of the total drainage rate and hydraulic fractures. References Bons, P. D. (2001). The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics, 336, 1-17. Miller, S. a., & Nur, A. (2000). Permeability as a toggle switch in fluid-controlled crustal processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 183(1-2), 133-146. Sachau, T., Bons, P. D

  12. Fresh from the Ornamental Garden: Hips of Selected Rose Cultivars Rich in Phytonutrients.

    PubMed

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Weber, Nika; Jakopic, Jerneja; Zupan, Anka; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Morphological parameters (size, weight, color), the content of sugars, organic acids, lycopene, β-carotene, and phenolics were determined in hips of Rosa canina (RCA), Rosa sweginzowii (RSW), Rosa rugosa (RUG), and selected ornamental Rosa cultivars Fru Dagmar Hastrup (FDH), Repandia (REP), Veilchenblau (RVB), Aloha (RAL), Bonica (BON), and Golden Gate (RGG). Although traditionally used RCA hips contained the highest amount of cyanidin-3-glucoside (83 μg/g DW) and were the reddest (h° = 17.5), they did not stand out in other analyzed parameters. RGG climber had the biggest hips (8.86 g), which also contained highest sugar levels (50.9 g/100 g DW). RAL stood out as the cultivar rich in organic acids (33.9 g/100 g DW), mainly because of high quinic acid content (17.6 g/100g DW). FDH and RSW hips were characterized by particularly high ascorbic acid levels (4325 mg/100 g DW and 4711 mg/100 g DW). Other ornamental cultivars contained low amounts of ascorbic acid compared to the analyzed species. The phenolic profile was species/cultivars-specific. The greatest diversity of phenolic compounds was detected in RUG and FDH hips (55 and 54 different tentatively identified compounds with HPLC/MS). Flavanols represented the main phenolic class in most of the investigated species/cultivars and RGG hips contained the highest amount of catechin and proanthocyandin derivatives (15855 μg/g DW). Altogether RAL hips contained the highest quantity of phenolics (44746 μg/g DW) mainly due to high levels of hydrolysable tannins compared to other species/cultivars. Although small, hips of BON and REP were most abundant regarding β-carotene and lycopene content, respectively.

  13. Les ruptures traumatiques du tendon quadricipital: à propos de 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    Benyass, Youssef; Chafry, Bouchaib; Koufagued, Kaldadak; Bouabid, Salim; Chagar, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Les ruptures traumatiques du tendon quadricipital sont rares, elles surviennent préférentiellement après 40 ans, suite à un traumatisme indirect chez le sportif (flexion contrariée du genou) ou traumatisme banal chez le sédentaire. La tendinopathie préexistante est fréquente. La rupture est le plus souvent totale et siège au corps du tendon 60% des cas ou décallotement quadricipital au bord supérieur de la rotule (40% des cas). Le diagnostic est essentiellement clinique. Les examens complémentaires (échographie et imagerie par résonance magnétique) sont utiles et appuient le diagnostique, mais sont souvent faussement rassurants hormis la radiographie qui montre une rotule basse. Le traitement essentiellement chirurgical associé à la rééducation fonctionnelle donne des résultats largement meilleurs. Le délai d'intervention est un facteur pronostic très important. Les auteurs rapportent 03cas de rupture de tendon quadricipital. L’âge moyen est de 50ans. Ils ont été traités chirurgicalement et revus régulièrement, avec un recul de 16 mois pour apprécier l’évolution. Les résultats ont été très bons chez 02 cas et bon chez 01 cas. L'amélioration a été très nette selon les critères: marche, douleur et reprise d'activité physique. PMID:26985261

  14. Déshumidification de l'air d'une serre par contact direct à courants croisés avec une solution hygroscopique organique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraibi, A.; Jaffrin, A.; Makhlouf, S.; Bentounes, N.

    1995-07-01

    Greenhouse air can be dehumidified by direct contact with a desicant fluid on a trickle exchanger. The water vapour extraction rate depends on the hygroscopicity of the fluid and on the exchanger efficiency. An organic fluid, the triethylene glycol (TEG) at 90% concentration, has been tested. Cross corrugated cellulosic pads, of the type used in cooling, irrigated with TEG, were placed in a wind channel to dehumidify air at various speeds and temperatures. A semi-analytical model, based on energy and mass conservation, correctly reproduces the water vapor extraction rate and the enthalpy change of both fluids. It is shown that TEG trickling through a ventilated pad of 1 m^2 area and 0.1 m thickness can be used to extract 3 to 5 kg of water vapor per hour in greenhouse climate control applications. Several pads arranged in series can be used to decrease more efficiently the absolute humidity of the air, for other applications like food drying or industrial compressed air. Une technique de déshumidification de l'air des serres consiste à le soumettre au contact d'une solution hygroscopique au sein d'un échangeur ruisselant. Le taux d'extraction de vapeur d'eau dépend à la fois du pouvoir hygroscopique de la solution et de l'efficacité de l'échangeur. Une solution hygroscopique organique, le triéthylène glycol à 90% de concentration, a été expérimentée. Un échangeur ruisselant constitué de parois de cellulose ondulées à corrugations croisées, du type “cooling pad” pour serres agricoles, a été testé pour déshumidifier de l'air dans une soufflerie expérimentale. Un modèle semi-analytique, basé sur les équations de conservation de l'énergie et de masse, permet de rendre compte des échanges et de déduire les paramètres de sortie des deux fluides en contact, à partir des caractéristiques d'entrée. Cette étude permet de chiffrer à environ 3 à 5kg/h la capacité de déshumidification d'un panneau d'un mètre carré et de 10cm d

  15. The relation between type of farming and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among agricultural workers in five french districts

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Spinosi, Johan; Dupupet, Jean-Luc; Delabre, Laurène; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective assessment of pesticide exposure is complex; however, patterns of pesticide use strongly depend on farming type, which is easier to assess than pesticide exposure. Our aim was to estimate Parkinson’s disease (PD) prevalence in five French districts in 2007 among affiliates of Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) and to investigate the relation between PD prevalence and farming type. We identified PD cases from administrative files as persons who used levodopa and/or benefited from free health care for PD. Densities of 16 farming types were defined at the canton of residence level (1988 French agricultural census). We used logistic regression to study the relation between PD prevalence and density of farming types and a semi-Bayes approach to deal with correlated exposures. We identified 1,659 PD cases, yielding an age- and sex-standardized PD prevalence of 3.01/1,000. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in men than women. We found a higher PD prevalence among affiliates living in cantons characterized by a higher density of farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops (multivariable semi-Bayes model: OR4+5 vs 1+2+3 quintiles = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08–1.36; test for trend, P = 0.035). In France, farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops rank first in terms of insecticide use per hectare. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting an association between PD and insecticide use and show that workers in farms specialized in fruits or permanent crops may be an occupational group at higher PD risk. PMID:21412834

  16. Capteur de CO{2} à fibres optiques par absorption moléculaire à 4,3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendamardji, S.; Alayli, Y.; Huard, S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a remote optical fibre sensor for the carbon dioxide detection by molecular absorption in the near infrared (4.3 μm) corresponding to fundamental mode ν3. To overcome the problem of the strong attenuation signal of optical fibre in the near infrared, we have used the opto-suppling technique which changes the working wavelength from 4.3 μm to 860 nm and permits the use of standard optical fibre 50/125. The simulation of absorption has been obtained by original modelisation of the absorption spectrum and the establishment of the calibration curves takes to the sensor to detect a partial pressures greater than 100 μbar with a minimal error margin of 100 μbar, which is acceptable considering the future use of the device. The sensor has been designed to monitor the CO{2} rate in enriched greenhouses. Cet article décrit un capteur à fibres optiques de gaz carbonique par absorption moléculaire dans l'infrarouge moyen (4,3 μm) correspondant au mode fondamental ν3. La liaison entre le site de mesure et le site de contrôle est assurée par un fibre optique standard 50/125 après une transposition de longueur d'onde de 4,3 μm à 860 nm par opto-alimentation. La simulation de l'absorption a été obtenue par modélisation originale du spectre d'absorption et l'établissement des courbes d'étalonnage prévoit une marge d'erreur minimale de 100 μbar, ce qui est suffisant pour l'application du dispositif à la régulation de taux CO{2} dans les serres agricoles enrichies par de gaz.

  17. How to measure the agroecological performance of farming in order to assist with the transition process.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Meriam; Mandart, Elisabeth; Le Grusse, Philippe; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant protection products enables farmers to maximize economic performance and yields, but in return, the environment and human health can be greatly affected because of their toxicity. There are currently strong calls for farmers to reduce the use of these toxic products for the preservation of the environment and the human health, and it has become urgent to invest in more sustainable models that help reduce these risks. One possible solution is the transition toward agroecological production systems. These new systems must be beneficial economically, socially, and environmentally in terms of human health. There are many tools available, based on a range of indicators, for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems on conventional farm holdings. These methods are little suitable to agroecological farms and do not measure the performance of agroecological transition farms. In this article, we therefore develop a model for the strategic definition, guidance, and assistance for a transition to agroecological practices, capable of assessing performance of this transition and simulating the consequences of possible changes. This model was built by coupling (i) a decision-support tool and a technico-economic simulator with (ii) a conceptual model built from the dynamics of agroecological practices. This tool is currently being tested in the framework of a Compte d'Affectation Spéciale pour le Développement Agricole et Rural (CASDAR) project (CASDAR: project launched in 2013 by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, on the theme "collective mobilisation for agroecology," http://agriculture.gouv.fr/Appel-a-projets-CASDAR ) using data from farms, most of which are engaged in agroenvironmental process and reducing plant protection treatments since 2008.

  18. Agricultural contaminants in Quaternary aquitards: A review of occurrence and fate in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodvang, S. J.; Simpkins, W. W.

    2001-01-01

    The intensity of agriculture has increased significantly during the past 30 years, resulting in increased detection of agricultural contaminants (nutrients, pesticides, salts, trace elements, and pathogens) in groundwater. Till, glaciolacustrine, and loess deposits of Quaternary age compose the most common surficial deposits underlying agricultural areas in North America. Quaternary aquitards generally contain higher concentrations of solid organic carbon (SOC, as much as 1.4%), dissolved organic carbon (DOC, as much as 205 mg/L), and reduced sulfur (as much as 0.9%) than do aquifers. Their potential to sorb pesticides increases with the percent of older SOC, because diagenesis increases Koc. Denitrification consistently reduces nitrate to non-detectable levels in unweathered Quaternary aquitards. Organic carbon of Quaternary age is a more labile electron donor than carbon from shale clasts. Pyrite is a more labile electron donor than carbon in many instances. Unweathered Quaternary aquitards provide a high degree of protection for underlying aquifers, due to their large reserves of SOC and reduced sulfur for sorption and denitrification, combined with their typically low hydraulic conductivity. In contrast, agricultural contaminants are common in weathered Quaternary aquitards. Lower reserves of reduced sulfur and sorptive/labile organic carbon, and a higher bulk K due to fractures, limit their ability to attenuate nitrate and pesticides. Subsurface drainage, which is common in Quaternary aquitards because of high water tables, bypasses the attenuation capacity of Quaternary aquitards and facilitates the transport of agricultural contaminants to surface water. Résumé. L'agriculture s'est significativement accrue au cours des dernières 30 années, provoquant une détection plus fréquente dans les eaux souterraines de contaminants agricoles (engrais, pesticides, sels, éléments en traces et germes pathogènes). Les moraines, les formations glacio-lacustres et

  19. Feasibility of a pedometer-based walking program for survivors of breast and head and neck cancer undergoing radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Pantea Amin; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Haennel, Robert; Parliament, Matthew B; McNeely, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    Objet: Cette étude pilote a évalué la faisabilité et l'acceptabilité d'un programme de marche à base de podomètre pour les personnes qui ont un cancer du sein et un cancer de la tête et du cou (CTC), et qui suivent une radiothérapie. Méthodes: Les participants ont reçu un podomètre et on leur a prescrit un programme de marche à domicile comportant un nombre personnalisé de pas par semaine à effectuer au cours de la radiothérapie d'une durée de 3 à 5 semaines. On a déterminé la faisabilité en calculant le taux d'inscription, le taux d'achèvement et le taux d'observation. Les résultats secondaires ont inclus la distance parcourue pendant le test de marche de 6 minutes (TM6M), le nombre de pas, le niveau d'activité physique (AP) et les résultats psychologiques liés à la dépression, au bonheur, à l'estime de soi et à la qualité du sommeil. Résultats: Au total, 21 participants ont été recrutés. Tous les participants ont terminé l'étude et avaient effectué le nombre de pas prescrit dans une proportion de 91% au moment du suivi. L'analyse a révélé une amélioration importante du bonheur mesuré au moyen du questionnaire d'Oxford sur le bonheur (différence moyenne de 0,3, p=0,003) et une amélioration significative limite de la distance parcourue pendant le TM6M (différence moyenne de 35 m, p=0,008). Conclusion: Cette étude pilote a démontré la faisabilité d'un programme de marche à base de podomètre pour les survivants d'un cancer du sein et d'un CTC qui suivent une radiothérapie.

  20. Two methods for setting child-focused tuberculosis care targets.

    PubMed

    Yuen, C M; Jenkins, H E; Chang, R; Mpunga, J; Becerra, M C

    2016-06-21

    Objectif : Pour allouer des ressources aux recherches de contacts domiciliaires, les programmes de lutte contre la tuberculose (TB) ont besoin d'estimations du nombre d'enfants contacts nécessitant une prise en charge.Schéma : Nous avons élaboré deux méthodes afin d'estimer les nombres annuels d'enfants contacts âgés de 0–14 ans requérant une évaluation et un traitement. La Méthode 1 combine des données locales utilisant des formules simples. En utilisant les données disponibles publiquement, la Méthode 2 se sert d'un modèle de régression linéaire basé sur les données de l'Enquête Démographie et Santé et celles de la Banque Mondiale afin d'estimer le nombre d'enfants dans chaque famille, puis de combiner ces résultats avec ceux de la déclaration des cas et des estimations de risque de maladie et d'infection.Résultats : En appliquant la Méthode 1 aux données du Malawi, nous avons abouti à ce que ~21 000 enfants contacts par an requéraient une évaluation et ~1900 devraient avoir un diagnostic de TB. Appliquer la Méthode 2 à tous les pays a suggéré que, dans le monde, 2,41 millions d'enfants âgés de <5 ans (intervalle d'incertitude [II] à 95% 2,36–2,46 millions) et 5,07 millions (II95% 4,81–5,34 millions) d'enfants âgés de 5–14 ans vivent dans des foyers comprenant un patient adulte atteint de TB chaque année. Parmi eux, 239 014 (II95% 118 649–478 581) et 419 816 (II95% 140 600–1 268 805), respectivement, auront la TB et 848 453 autres enfants (II95% 705838–1017 551) et 2660 885 (II95% 2080 517–3413 189) seront infectés.Conclusion : Il est possible d'utiliser les données disponibles pour établir des objectifs d'évaluation programmatique et de traitement afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des enfants contacts de patients tuberculeux.

  1. Embarrure suite à l'utilisation de la têtière de Mayfield chez l'adulte: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Moutaoukil, Mohamed; Bensghir, Mustapha; Eddik, Soukaina; Jaafari, Abdelhamid; Ahtil, Redouane; Meziane, Mohammed; Haimeur, Charki

    2016-01-01

    Un grand nombre d'interventions neurochirurgicales nécessitent l'utilisation d'une têtière à broches pour immobiliser la tête du patient. Nous rapportons le cas d'une embarrure chez un adulte secondaire à l'utilisation de la têtière de Mayfeild. Le diagnostic a été posé en postopératoire d'une résection chirurgicale d'un médulloblastome par une tomodensitométrie cérébrale. Plusieurs facteurs semblent contribuer à augmenter le risque de complications dues à l'utilisation de la têtière de Mayfield. Les mesures de prévention sont discutées à travers une revue de littérature. PMID:27642467

  2. Détection et exaltation de la luminescence de molécules biologiques individuelles en solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, E.; Lenne, P. F.; Rigneault, H.

    2002-06-01

    La Spectroscopie de Corrélation de Fluorescence (FCS) est une technique d'analyse statistique des fluctuations de luminescence produites par des molécules fluorescentes diffusant librement dans un volume de collection de quelque μm^3. Une limitation fondamentale de la technique provient de l'ouverture numérique limitée des systèmes optiques conventionnels qui ne collectent qu'une faible partie des photons émis. Nous présentons des résultats relatifs à l'augmentation du nombre de photons collectés en utilisant le concept du contrôle de l'émission spontanée par des structures photoniques de type miroir diélectrique.

  3. Signature spectrale des grains interstellaires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, A.

    Notre connaissance de la nature des grains interstellaires reposait sur un nombre très restreint de signatures spectrales dans la courbe d'extinction du milieu interstellaire. Une information considérable est contenue dans les 40 bandes interstellaires diffuses dans le visible, mais reste inexploitée. L'interprétation récente des cinq bandes IR en émission, en terme de molécules d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques, est développée. Elle permet l'utilisation d'une information spectroscopique comparable, à elle seule, à ce sur quoi était basée jusqu'alors notre connaissance de la matière interstellaire condensée. Différentes implications de cette mise en évidence sont proposées.

  4. Seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in California.

    PubMed Central

    Jay, M.; Ascher, M. S.; Chomel, B. B.; Madon, M.; Sesline, D.; Enge, B. A.; Hjelle, B.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Rollin, P. E.; Kass, P. H.; Reilly, K.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to Sin Nombre virus. All nonrodent species were antibody negative. Among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. Of 1,921 Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. The highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among P. maniculatus on Santa Cruz Island, off the southern California coast. Prevalence of antibodies among deer mice trapped near sites of human cases (26.8% of 164) was significantly higher than that of mice from other sites (odds ratio = 4.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 11.6). Antibody prevalence increased with rising elevation (> 1,200 meters) and correlated with a spatial cluster of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the Sierra Nevada. PMID:9204301

  5. Anesthésie d’un greffé cardiaque en chirurgie non cardiaque: à propos d’un cas clinique et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Nassirou, Oumarou Mahamane Mamane; Jaafari, Abdelhamid; Chlouchi, Abdellatif; Bensghir, Mustapha; Haimeur, Charki

    2016-01-01

    Le nombre et la durée de survie des patients transplantés cardiaque sont en augmentation. Une partie de ces patients se présentent régulièrement pour une chirurgie générale en dehors de la transplantation cardiaque. L’anesthésie chez ces patients peut être difficile en raison des particularités physiologiques du cœur dénervé et de la gestion du traitement immunosuppresseur avec le risque de rejet et d’infection. Nous discutons la prise en charge anesthésique à travers un cas d’un patient âgé de 60 ans transplanté cardiaque devant subir une chirurgie de cure d’éventration abdominale et une revue de la littérature. PMID:28154639

  6. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  7. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers.

  8. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  9. Génération de photons uniques monomodes par une boite quantique d'InAs en microcavité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J. M.; Robert, I.; Moreau, E.; Abram, I.

    2002-06-01

    Nous présentons la première source solide monomode de photons uniques; constituée par une boîte quantique semiconductrice placée dans une microcavité optique. Cette source exploite la forte interaction coulombienne entre porteurs piégés pour contrôler le nombre de photons, et l'effet Purcell pour collecter et préparer dans un état donné (même mode spatial, même polarisation) les photons émis. Nous discutons plus particulièrement les performances et l'intérêt potentiel de cette nouvelle source dans le contexte de la distribution de clefs quantiques.

  10. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bisordi, Ivani; Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pereira, Luiz E.; Souza, Renato P.; Sugahara, Teresa K.N.; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Souza, Luiza T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat). PMID:15663849

  11. Kyste hydatique pulmonaire bilateral

    PubMed Central

    Lahroussi, Meriem; Khattabi, Wiam El; Souki, Nihal; Jabri, Hasna; Afif, Hicham

    2016-01-01

    L'hydatidose est la cestodose humaine la plus fréquente. La localisation pulmonaire vient au 2ème rang des localisations viscérales après la localisation hépatique. L'imagerie joue un rôle important dans le diagnostic et le bilan d'extension. Elle renseigne sur le nombre, le siège, l'aspect et la taille des kystes hydatiques pulmonaires. Le but de notre observation consiste à soulever une stratégie diagnostique hiérarchisée devant une présentation radiologique particulière d'un kyste hydatique pulmonaire bilatérale. PMID:28154635

  12. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  13. Novel Application of FTIR Spectroscopy for the Passive Standoff Detection of Radiological Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    laboratory measurements of the diffuse reflectance from a number of radiological or related products, including UO2 , UO3, U3O8 , CoO, Co2O3, IrO2, ThO2...d’un certain nombre de produits radiologiques ou associés, tels que UO2 , UO3, U3O8 , CoO, Co2O3, IrO2, ThO2, SrO, I2O5, La2O3 et le ”yellow cake”. Les...uranium ( UO2 , UO3, U3O8 ), the oxides of cobalt (CoO and Co2O3), iridium oxide (IrO2), thorium oxide (ThO2), strontium oxide (SrO), iodine oxide

  14. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  15. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Jonathan J.; Fritz, Curtis L.; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G.; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G.; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R.; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  16. Hantavirus reservoir hosts associated with peridomestic habitats in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, G.; Pini, N.; Bolpe, J.; Levis, S.; Mills, J.; Segura, E.; Guthmann, N.; Cantoni, G.; Becker, J.; Fonollat, A.; Ripoll, C.; Bortman, M.; Benedetti, R.; Enria, D.

    1999-01-01

    Five species of sigmodontine rodents have been identified in Argentina as the putative reservoirs of six circulating hantavirus genotypes. Two species of Oligoryzomys are associated with the genotypes causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Oligoryzomys flavescens for Lechiguanas and O. longicaudatus for Andes and Oran genotypes. Reports of human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome prompted rodent trapping (2,299 rodents of 32 species during 27,780 trap nights) at potential exposure sites in three disease-endemic areas. Antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus was found in six species, including the known hantavirus reservoir species. Risk for peridomestic exposure to host species that carry recognized human pathogens was high in all three major disease-endemic areas. PMID:10603213

  17. Survey for antibody to hantaviruses in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro-Arellano, Iván; Suzán, Gerardo; León, Rita Flores; Jiménez, Ricardo Morales; Lacher, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Wild rodents (n=248) were trapped in two ecologically distinct sites at El Cielo Biosphere Reserve in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, during the summer of 2003. Samples from 199 individuals were tested for Hantavirus antibodies by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hantavirus antibodies to recombinant Sin Nombre virus nucleocapsid protein were found in seven rodents (3.5%) of a single species, Peromyscus levipes. Antibody-positive rodents were found only in the Cloud Forest site, which had lower rodent species diversity than the Tropical Subdecidous Forest site. Although the identity of the virus in P. levipes remains to be determined, our study provides further evidence that Hantavirus antibody-positive individuals are prevalent in the rodent fauna of Mexico. This is the first survey for Hantavirus antibodies in the rodent fauna of Tamaulipas and the first report of P. levipes as a potential host for a Hantavirus.

  18. Evolution insolite d'une plaie complexe de la voie biliaire principale post cholécystectomie cœlioscopique

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Depuis l'avènement de la chirurgie coelioscopique de la lithiase biliaire le nombre de plaies des voies biliaires a sensiblement augmenté dans la littérature en rapport avec la courbe d'apprentissage des opérateurs. Les plaies méconnues peuvent avoir des conséquences immédiates dramatiques et évoluer vers la péritonite biliaire. Ailleurs la réparation des fistules biliaires externes au stade de dilatation des voies biliaires nécessite une anastomose bilio digestive ou des résections hépatiques réglées. PMID:27279975

  19. Envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ischemique

    PubMed Central

    Bibiche, Youssef; Berdai, Adnan; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les piqûres de scorpion sont dans un certain nombre de pays, un accident fréquemment rencontré, et un risque grave. Au Maroc, les données épidémiologiques établies par le centre anti-poison (CAPM) montrent que les piqûres scorpioniques se placent en tête de toutes les intoxications relevées par le centre (60%). Les envenimations scorpioniques posent un grand problème de santé publique. L'apparition de signes neurologiques lors d'une envenimation scorpionique témoigne d'une envenimation grave et correspond au stade III de l’échelle de sévérité. Nous rapportons le cas d'une envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un Accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique (AVCI) chez un enfant. PMID:26175806

  20. Genetic evidence of hantavirus infections in wild rodents from northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Andres F; Díaz, Francisco J; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-06-01

    This report builds on recent serological evidence for the presence of hantavirus in northern Colombia by providing sequence-specific and phylogenetic data of hantavirus infections in wild rodents. From August 2007 to August 2008, 354 rodent specimens representing four families were collected in the northwestern Antioquia region of Colombia. Antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus and Maciel virus antigens by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were found in 15 of 109 (14%) Cherries cane rats (Zygodontomys cherriei), the only sigmodontinae rodents captured. Lung tissue samples from 11 of the 15 seropositive rodents were RT-polymerase chain reaction positive for hantavirus RNA, using primers for the S and M genome segments. Eight of these amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses indicated RNA of a hantavirus closely related to Calabazo virus, previously found in Panama. This is the first report of the genetic characterization of a hantavirus in rodents in Colombia.

  1. Facteurs prédictifs du fonctionnement chez les patients bipolaires de type 1 en période de rémission

    PubMed Central

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Homri, Wided; Mrabet, Ali; Labbane, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les études récentes indiquent que le trouble bipolaire est associé à une déficience profonde dans presque tous les domaines de fonctionnement. La présente étude vise à évaluer le fonctionnement au sein d'une population de patients bipolaires type I en rémission. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale réalisée auprès des patients bipolaires type I euthymiques et suivis en ambulatoire. Ont été utilisés l'échelle de dépression de Hamilton, l'échelle de manie de Young, l'Echelle d'Estime de Soi de Rosenberg, et le Functioning Assessment Short Test. Résultats Plus de la moitié de la population (53,3%) avaient une déficience fonctionnelle globale. Le fonctionnement global était associé à l'âge, au niveau scolaire, à l'activité professionnelle, au nombre d'épisodes maniaques et dépressifs, au nombre d'hospitalisations, à un score HDRS plus élevé, ainsi qu'aux deux sous-scores d'estime de soi « confiance en soi » et « autodépréciation ». Conclusion Nos résultats suggèrent qu'un changement de paradigme dans le traitement des troubles bipolaires devrait se produire, et que les objectifs de la thérapie devraient être modifiés d'une rémission symptomatique à une rémission fonctionnelle. PMID:28292029

  2. Preventive Home Visits for Older People: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tourigny, André; Bédard, Annick; Laurin, Danielle; Kröger, Edeltraut; Durand, Pierre; Bonin, Lucie; Sévigny, Andrée; Frappier, Annie; Roussel, Marie Ève; Martin, Mélanie

    2015-12-01

    RÉSUMÉ L'augmentation du nombre de personnes âgées présentant des incapacités et ayant des maladies chroniques entraîne une hausse des besoins en services de santé à domicile. Le nombre d'études et de revues systématiques traitant des approches préventives pour cette clientèle a proliféré, générant un besoin de synthèse des connaissances. Nous avons mené une revue systématique de revues systématiques évaluant l'effet des programmes de visite préventive pour les personnes âgées. Des 5 973 citations identifiées dans plus de 30 bases de données de littérature grise et scientifique, 10 articles répondaient à tous les critères d'inclusion. Les revues systématiques étaient retenues si elles comprenaient des essais randomisés contrôlés comparant des interventions de soins à domicile offerts par un professionnel de la santé et ceux sans professionnels. Les interventions sont souvent des évaluations gériatriques globales et s'accompagnent de visites de suivi. Il ressort que les visites préventives multidimensionnelles à domicile ont le potentiel de diminuer la mortalité, en particulier chez les personnes âgées plus jeunes, et offrent aussi un potentiel d'amélioration de l'autonomie fonctionnelle. Toutefois, ces résultats doivent être interprétés avec prudence vue la diversité des interventions analysées.

  3. Application du concept de maillon faible à un critère d'endurance multiaxial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flacelière, L.; Morel, F.; Palin-Luc, T.

    2002-12-01

    En fatigue à grand nombre de cycle, il est aujourd'hui admis que la distribution des contraintes, ainsi que la taille des composants, sont responsables de variations de la limite de fatigue. Sous chargement uniaxial ou multiaxial, on peut montrer qu'une approche statistique dite du maillon le plus faible, combiné à un critère multiaxial d'endurance basé sur une analyse micro plastique, permet de prédire la limite de fatigue de plusieurs matériaux métalliques. Quatre types de chargement sont analysés (traction-compression, torsion, flexion rotative et flexion plane), puis comparées aux résultats expérimentaux, pour une fonte et deux aciers haute résistance. L'approche statistique proposée permet d'intégrer un certain nombre d'aspects: la dispersion des données pour tous types de chargement, l'effet de gradient et l'influence de la présence de défauts matériaux. Enfin, ce modèle rend également compte de la diminution de la limite de fatigue avec l'augmentation du volume contraint. Les prédictions des probabilités de rupture sont raisonnables bien que seules des limites de fatigue relatives à des probabilités de rupture de 50% soient utilisées pour l'identification des paramètres du modèle.

  4. Prise en charge d’un afflux massif de brûles lors d’une situation de catastrophe par incendie au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Hatimi, E.M.; Ihrai, H.; Drissi Kamili, N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary La brûlure est l’une des lésions les plus fréquemment rencontrées lors de catastrophes naturelles ou lors de catastrophes d’origine humaine (incendies de lieux publics d’origine accidentelle, ou en temps de guerre ou encore lors d’attentats terroristes). La prise en charge et le triage de brûlés en nombre reste un problème difficile; ceci souligne la nécessité d’une réflexion et de prévisions de ces crises en insistant sur la formation des médecins et des soignants. Les défis à relever sont multiples: les soins aux brûlés requièrent un nombre important de personnel qualifié; les évacuations doivent être planifiées en fonction de la gravité de la brûlure et des lésions associées; les stocks et lots de dotation (en particulier en topiques anti-infectieux et en cristalloïdes) doivent être suffisants et adéquats. Les services hospitaliers de l’Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat doivent pouvoir être rapidement adaptés pour accueillir et surtout isoler ces patients. L’hypothèse d’une catastrophe par incendie avec afflux massif de brûlés à l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V de Rabat ne doit laisser place à aucune improvisation. PMID:23467075

  5. The origin of massive hydrothermal alterations: what drives fluid flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Martín-Martín, Juan-Diego; Corbella, Mercè; Stafford, Sherry L.; Griera, Albert; Teixell, Antonio; Salas, Ramón; Travé, Anna

    2014-05-01

    hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). The main question is whether fast flow leaves recognizable signs, like hydrofractures of different scales and hydraulic breccias. We estimate fluid pressures reached at the reaction site, and discuss whether they are high enough to break the host rock, according to its petrophysical properties. Thermal convection could have driven pervasive fluid flow at lower flow rates, keeping the fluid warm and allowing time for the rock to react. But this mechanism would have required a shallow and very large intrusion or an anomalous geothermal gradient in order to activate flow by convection. This contribution presents a quantitative analysis of these hypotheses, and discusses their plausibility. Bons, P.D., 2001. The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics 336, 1-17. Gomez-Rivas, E., Corbella, M., Martín-Martín, J.D., Stafford, S.L., Teixell, A., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Cardellach, E. 2014. Reactivity of dolomitizing fluids and Mg source evaluation of fault-controlled dolomitization at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain). Marine and Petroleum Geology, in press.

  6. Guiding soil conservation strategy in headwater mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Slimane, Abir; Raclot, Damien; Evrard, Olivier; Sanaa, Mustapha; Lefèvre, Irène; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Reservoir siltation due to water erosion is an important environmental issue in Mediterranean countries where storage of clear surface water is crucial for their economic and agricultural development. In order to reduce water erosion, this study aimed to design a methodology for guiding the implementation of efficient conservation strategies by identifying the dominant sediment sources in Mediterranean context. To this end, a fingerprinting method was combined with long-term field monitoring of catchment sediment yield in five headwater catchments (0.1-10 km2) equipped with a small reservoir between 1990 and 1995. The five catchments were chosen to cover the large diversity of environmental conditions found along the Tunisian Ridge and in the Cape Bon region. The fingerprinting techniques based on measurements of cesium-137 and Total Organic Carbon within the catchments and in reservoir sediment deposits successfully identified the contribution of rill/interrill and gully/channel erosion to sediment yield at the outlet of five small headwater catchments during the last 15-20 years. Results showed the very large variability of erosion processes among the selected catchments, with rill/interrill erosion contributions to sediment accumulated in outlet reservoirs ranging from 20 to 80%. Overall, rill/interrill erosion was the dominant process controlling reservoir siltation in three catchments whereas gully/channel erosion dominated in the other two catchments. This demonstrates that the dominant erosion process in the Mediterranean regions highly depends on the local environmental context. The lowest rill/interrill erosion contribution (2.2 Mg ha-1 yr-1) in the five catchments remained significantly higher than the tolerable soil loss indicating the severe levels reached by soil erosion along the Tunisian Ridge and in the Cape Bon region. This study also showed that although the implementation of improved topsoil management measures greatly reduced rill

  7. Modelling to very high strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, P. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Griera, A.; Evans, L. A.; Wilson, C. J. L.

    2009-04-01

    development of very high-strain structures. Jessell, M.W., Bons, P.D., Evans, L., Barr, T., Stüwe, K. 2001. Elle: a micro-process approach to the simulation of microstructures. Computers & Geosciences 27, 17-30. Houseman, G., Barr, T., Evans, L. 2008. Basil: stress and deformation in a viscous material. In: P.D. Bons, D. Koehn & M.W.Jessell (Eds.) Microdynamics Simulation. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 106, Springer, Berlin, 405p.

  8. Hindered settling and the formation of layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Baur, Albrecht; Elburg, Marlina A.; Lindhuber, Matthias J.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Soesoo, Alvar; van Milligen, Boudewijn P.; Walte, Nicolas P.

    2015-04-01

    Layered intrusions are characterized by (often repetitive) layering on a range of scales. Many explanations for the formation of such layering have been proposed over the past decades. We investigated the formation of "mats" by hindered crystal settling, a model that was first suggested by Lauder (1964). The interaction of sinking and rising crystals leads to the amplification of perturbations in crystal density within a magma chamber, a process similar to the formation of traffic jams in dense traffic (Bons et al., 2015). Once these "crystal traffic jams" form they constitute a barrier for further settling of crystals. Between these barriers, the magma evolves in a semi-closed system in which stratification may develop by gravitational sorting. Barriers, and therefore layers, form sequentially during inward cooling of the magma chamber. Barring later equilibration, mineralogical and geochemical trends within the layers are repetitive, but with variations due to the random process of initial perturbation formation. Layers can form in the transition between two end-member regimes: (1) in a fast cooling and/or viscous magma crystals cannot sink or float a significant distance and minerals are distributed homogeneously throughout the chamber; (2) in a slow cooling and/or low-viscosity magma crystals can quickly settle at the top and bottom of the chamber and crystals concentrations are never high enough to form "traffic jams". As a result, heavy and light minerals get fully separated in the chamber. Between these two end members, crystals can sink and float a significant distance, but not the whole height of the magma chamber before entrapment in "traffic jams". We illustrate the development of layers with numerical models and compare the results with the layered nepheline syenites (kakortokites) of the Ilímaussaq intrusion in SW Greenland. References: Bons, P.D., Baur, A., Elburg, M.A., Lindhuber, M.J., Marks, M.A.W., Soesoo, A., van Milligen, B.P., Walte, N.P. 2015

  9. Combustible caramel pour reacteurs de recherche: Experience acquise en fabrication, controles et irradiation du coeur d'osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Contenson, Ghislain; Foulquier, Henri; Trotabas, Maria; Vignesoult, Nicole; Cerles, Jean-Marie; Delafosse, Jacques

    1982-04-01

    L'un des aboutissements des différentes actions menées en France concernant la conception, la fabrication et le développement des combustibles nucléaires a été la mise au point par le CEA d'un combustible de type plaque (combustible CARAMEL) susceptible d'être adapté a différentes catégories de réacteurs à eau (réacteur de puissance, propulsion navale, chauffage urbain, pile de recherche). Ces travaux ont été couronnés par la réalisation de tout un coeur et des recharges du réacteur de recherche à hautes performances, Osiris, à Saclay. L'ancien combustible en alliage U Al fortement enrichi a eté remplacé par un combustible caramel de faible enrichissement (7%), non proliférant. Ce nouveau coeur fonctionne avec satisfaction, depuis janvier 1980. Après une brève description des caractéristiques du combustible caramel et de ses principaux avantages, on présente sa fabrication ainsi que l'ensemble des contrôles de qualité auxquels il est soumis. Le programme de qualification ainsi que les principaux résultáts qui en ont été tirés sont exposés. On décrit également le programme de suivi du combustible en pile dont le but est de s'assurer du bon comportement du combustible sous irradiation. Le bon fonctionnement d'Osiris, qui a terminé 11 cycles d'irradiation le 21 avril 1981, a permis de montrer le bien fondé des choix effectués et l'excellent comportement de l'élément combustible dans les conditions pourtant sévères d'un réacteur de recherche à hautes performances.

  10. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging during robotic operations.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Antonio Luiz de Vasconcellos; Schraibman, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The intraoperative identification of certain anatomical structures because they are small or visually occult may be challenging. The development of minimally invasive surgery brought additional difficulties to identify these structures due to the lack of complete tactile sensitivity. A number of different forms of intraoperative mapping have been tried. Recently, the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technology with indocyanine green has been added to robotic platforms. In addition, this technology has been tested in several types of operations, and has advantages such as safety, low cost and good results. Disadvantages are linked to contrast distribution in certain clinical scenarios. The intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging is new and promising addition to robotic surgery. Several reports show the utility of this technology in several different procedures. The ideal dose, time and site for dye injection are not well defined. No high quality evidence-based comparative studies and long-term follow-up outcomes have been published so far. Initial results, however, are good and safe. RESUMO A identificação intraoperatória de certas estruturas anatômicas, por seu tamanho ou por elas serem ocultas à visão, pode ser desafiadora. O desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe dificuldades adicionais, pela falta da sensibilidade tátil completa. Diversas formas de detecção intraoperatória destas estruturas têm sido tentadas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de fluorescência infravermelha com verde de indocianina foi associada às plataformas robóticas. Além disso, essa tecnologia tem sido testada em uma variedade de cirurgias, e suas vantagens parecem estar ligadas a baixo custo, segurança e bons resultados. As desvantagens estão associadas à má distribuição do contraste em determinados cenários. A imagem intraoperatória por fluorescência infravermelha é uma nova e promissora adição à cirurgia robótica. Diversas séries mostram

  11. Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Fendrich, V; Lopez, C L; Manoharan, J; Maschuw, K; Wichmann, S; Baier, A; Holler, J P; Ramaswamy, A; Bartsch, D K; Waldmann, J

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs.

  12. Stress and strain evolution of folding rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Griera, Albert; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    difference between pure and simple shear is less pronounced in power-law materials. It also depends on the original orientation of the layer relative to the shear plane, being the shortening rate initially relatively low when the layer makes a low angle with the shear plane. The mechanical behaviour is similar in pure and simple shear when the layer is oriented at a relative high angle (45°). M-G Llorens, PD Bons, A Griera and E Gomez-Rivas (2013a) When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566. M-G Llorens, PD Bons, A Griera, E Gomez-Rivas and LA Evans (2013b) Single layer folding in simple shear. Journal of Structural Geology, 50, 209-220.

  13. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  14. The importance of strain localisation in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Finch, Melanie; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of various types of shear bands (C, C', C'') in shear zones indicate that heterogeneity of strain is common in strongly deformed rocks. However, the importance of strain localisation is difficult to ascertain if suitable strain markers are lacking, which is usually the case. Numerical modelling with the finite-element method has so far not given much insight in the development of shear bands. We suggest that this is not only because the modelled strains are often not high enough, but also because this technique (that usually assumes isotropic material properties within elements) does not properly incorporate mineral deformation behaviour. We simulated high-strain, simple-shear deformation in single- and polyphase materials with a full-field theory (FFT) model coupled to the Elle modelling platform (www.elle.ws; Lebensohn 2001; Bons et al. 2008). The FFT-approach simulates visco-plastic deformation by dislocation glide, taking into account the different available slip systems and their critical resolved shear stresses in relations to the applied stresses. Griera et al. (2011; 2013) have shown that this approach is particularly well suited for strongly anisotropic minerals, such as mica and ice Ih (Llorens 2015). We modelled single- and polyphase composites of minerals with different anisotropies and strengths, roughly equivalent to minerals such as ice Ih, mica, quartz and feldspar. Single-phase polycrystalline aggregates show distinct heterogeneity of strain rate, especially in case of ice Ih, which is mechanically close to mica (see also Griera et al. 2015). Finite strain distributions are heterogeneous as well, but the patterns may differ from that of the strain rate distribution. Dynamic recrystallisation, however, usually masks any strain and strain rate localisation (Llorens 2015). In case of polyphase aggregates, equivalent to e.g. a granite, we observe extensive localisation in both syn- and antithetic shear bands. The antithetic shear bands

  15. Expected climate change impacts on extreme flows in Vietnam: The limits of bias correction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, Patrick; Dang, Thinh; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    We investigate possible impacts of climate change on future floods in the VuGia-ThuBon river basin, central Vietnam using a multi-model climate ensemble. An ensemble of regional climate projections (SRES) derived from different combinations of global and regional climate models in combination with different emission scenarios are used. In order to correct for the biases between the modelled climate variables and the observations, different bias correction techniques such as linear scaling, local intensity scaling, and quantile mapping are applied to the RCM outputs. Bias-corrected and raw climate data are then used as input for the fully distributed hydrological water balance model WaSIM-ETH to reproduce discharge data at NongSon station. Annual maximum discharges are extracted from the modeled daily series from the control period (1980-1999) and the future periods 2011-2030, 2031-2050, and 2080-2099 for subsequent extreme frequency analyses. To derive flood frequency curves for the four time periods, the generalized extreme value probability distribution is fitted to the data. Our analysis shows that actually none of the bias correction approaches applied to the control runs of simulated precipitation data can satisfactorily correct their distributions towards those of the observations. Therefore, this study builds further on the delta change approach, which adjusts the observed extreme values by the derived signals from the hydrological simulations fed by raw future climate projections. Adjusted return periods of e.g. HQ100 values are calculated based on the delta change method. The results inhibit a remarkable variation among the different climate scenarios in representing extreme values. Results show that MRI-MRI, ECHAM3-REMO, HadCMQ10-HadRM3P and HadCMQ13-HadRM3P models always exhibit a positive signal for all considered time slices and climate change scenarios. On the other hand, CCSM-MM5 frequently shows a negative signal for all time slices. On average, an

  16. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS); Design and Analysis, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-04-01

    representation of production. Tag loss and mortality is monitored, and the tagging files are then uploaded to the regional PTAGIS database. The PIT tags are read as the fish pass through the coils of the detector. For detection of smolts, there are detectors installed at six Snake and Columbia River dams, including Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), Lower Monumental (LMN), McNary (MCN), John Day (JDA), and Bonneville (BON). These site abbreviations will be used throughout this document. For detection of returning adults, there is current detection capability at LGR, and starting in migration year 2002, PIT tagged adults will be detected at both BON and MCN.

  17. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou

  18. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    , whereas incubation studies underlined a certain affinity of PTA for both organic colloids and clay/silt particles. Furthermore, no significant correlations (p<0.05) were found between PTA concentration in Pteridium samples and all the studied soil and climatic parameters. The present study was financed by the Ministero Italiano delle Politiche Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali (MIPAAF) (Project AZBSASP - "Agrozootecnia biologica: considerazioni in termini di sicurezza alimentare e problemi di salute pubblica").

  19. Identification des risques professionnels dans l'industrie textile en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kitronza, Panda Lukongo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude est de mettre en évidence les facteurs de risques professionnels liés aux conditions de travail. Méthodes Cette étude qualitative basée sur les entretiens de groupe a été réalisée par une équipe pluridisciplinaire dans l'industrie textile de la région du Est de la RDC; comprenant un médecin de travail, un médecin de santé publique, un toxicologue, deux infirmiers du centre hospitalier de l'usine, un représentant du comité d'hygiène et un technicien de prévention. La démarche méthodologique a consisté en des entretiens en groupe, des observations et visites guidées de lieux de travail de l'entreprise. Résultats Dans la culture du coton, les effets d'une forte exposition aux pesticides peuvent entraîner des intoxications aiguës, chroniques et voire le décès. Les autres risques sont les accidents de travail, les maladies professionnelles, les troubles psychologiques. Dans l'industrie, les travailleurs sont exposés aux risques liés à l'empoussiérage des fibres de coton, aux facteurs des risques traumatiques, physiques (bruits, vibration) et chimiques (acides forts, bases fortes, solvants et colorants minéraux), ainsi qu'aux risques psychosociaux. La pollution de l'environnement et l’écotoxicité inhérente à ces activités restent l'effet de l'usage des grandes quantités d'intrants agricoles, engrais et produits phytosanitaires. Conclusion Cette étude a permis de mettre en évidence les différents facteurs de risques auxquelles sont soumis les travailleurs textiles; ainsi que les risques environnementaux liés à cette activité. Cela est de nature à permettre la mise sur pied d'une stratégie efficace de prévention et de protection des travailleurs. PMID:25977736

  20. A computational model of wall shear and residence time of particles conveyed by steady flow in a curved tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiriet, M.; Graham, J. M. R.; Issa, R. I.

    1993-01-01

    un profil uniforme de vitesse axiale, pour des valeurs du nombre de Dean 140 leq De leq 430. Un calcul numérique de l'écoulement turbulent a été effectué pour De sim 22 100 avec un profil de vitesse plat en entrée du modèle. La vitesse axiale dépend non seulement de la valeur du nombre de Dean, mais aussi du nombre de Reynolds et de la courbure du tube séparément. Le profil de vitesses est perturbé pour de très faibles courbures. Le tronçon de conduit où les mouvements secondaires sont les plus forts est situé d'autant plus près de l'entrée du coude que la couche limite en entrée est plus épaisse. L'écoulement secondaire se développe sur une région plus étendue du coude et le cisaillement pariétal est plus élevé quand le nombre de Reynolds augmente. Le coude affecte le cisaillement pariétal en amont et en aval. La présence d'un coude dans une conduite fait croître le temps de résidence des particules en suspension par rapport aux valeurs prises dans un tube droit isolé uniquement dans l'élément de conduite droit situé en aval du coude. Quand le nombre de Reynolds augmente, le régime d'écoulement restant laminaire, cette caractéristique disparaît. Elle est cependant observée en écoulement turbulent, le temps de résidence prenant en tout point des valeurs beaucoup plus faibles que celles obtenues en regime laminaire.

  1. Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Proença, João Pedro; Quaresma, Cláudia; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-03-30

    The aim of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders. Through a systematic review, the first two authors defined the inclusion criteria and extracted the data, resulting in 38 studies collected from B-On, PubMed and Medline. Ninety-two per cent of the selected articles were published since 2010. This review documents 35 different gaming platforms types. Twenty-one of the 38 articles included in this review conducted a clinical trial and of those only eight report improvements in the target population following the use of the games and platforms. This review concludes that a new paradigm is emerging in the rehabilitation field, characterized by the systematic use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in/for rehabilitation. The use of this approach seems to be beneficial. However, to facilitate the full integration of these platforms, it is necessary to conduct more research in this area, explore new approaches and carry out in-depth clinical studies into the benefits of these platforms. Implications for rehabilitation This review states that the use serious games and gaming platforms for upper limb rehabilitation are starting a new paradigm in the rehabilitation. For a full integration of this technologies in the rehabilitation field more studies are needed.

  2. The PARP inhibitor ABT-888 potentiates darbazine-induced cell death in carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Somnay, Yash; Lubner, Sam; Gill, Harpreet; Matsumura, Jon Blake; Chen, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Monoagent DNA-alkylating chemotherapies like dacarbazine are among a paucity of medical treatments for advanced carcinoid tumors, but are limited by host toxicity and intrinsic chemoresistance through the base excision repair (BER) pathway via poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Hence, inhibitors of PARP may potentiate DNA-damaging agents by blocking BER and DNA restoration. We show that the PARP inhibitor ABT-888 (Veliparib) enhances the cytotoxic effects of dacarbazine in carcinoids. Two human carcinoid cell lines (BON and H727) treated with a combination of ABT-888 and dacarbazine resulted in synergistic growth inhibition signified by combination indices <1 on the Chou-Talalay scale. ABT-888 administered prior to varying dacarbazine doses promoted the suppression of neuroendocrine biomarkers of malignancy ASCL1 and CgA, shown by Western analysis. ATM phosphorylation and p21Waf1/Cip1 activation, indicative of DNA damage, were increased by ABT-888 when combined with dacarbazine treatment, suggesting BER pathway attenuation by ABT-888. PE Annexin V/7-AAD staining and sorting revealed a profound induction of apoptosis following combination treatment, which was further confirmed by increased PARP cleavage. These results demonstrate that ABT-888 synergizes dacarbazine treatment in carcinoids. Therefore, ABT-888 may help treat carcinoids unresponsive or refractory to mainstay therapies. PMID:27632933

  3. A second triclinic polymorph of (1-ammonio-1-phosphono-eth-yl)phospho-nate.

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, Natalia V; Dudko, Anatolij V; Kozachkova, Alexandra N; Pekhnyo, Vasily I

    2011-07-01

    The asymmetric unit of the second polymorph of the title compound, C(2)H(9)NO(6)P(2), contains one mol-ecule existing as a zwitterion. The N atom of the ammonio group is protonated and one of the phospho-nic acid groups is deprotonated. Bond lengths and angles are similar in both polymorphs. Besides the differences in cell parameters, the most significant structural difference between this structure and that of the first polymorph [Dudko, Bon, Kozachkova, Tsarik & Pekhno (2008 ▶), Ukr. Khim. Zh.74, 104-106] is the presence of strong symmetric hydrogen bonds between neighbouring phospho-nate groups. H atoms involved in these hydrogen bonds are located at inversion centres and O⋯O distances are observed in the range 2.458 (5)-2.523 (5) Å. These bonds and additional O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds inter-link the mol-ecules, giving a three-dimensional supromolecular network.

  4. Collaborative efforts support poor elderly. A nursing center teams up with area churches to care for the elderly in their homes.

    PubMed

    Brunner, S L

    1994-09-01

    In many communities across the United States today, churches and hospitals are forming alliances to better serve the needs of the elderly. Bon Secours Hospital-Villa Maria Nursing Center in North Miami, FL, sponsors programs that deter institutionalization. Villa Maria took these efforts one step further in September 1990 with the development of Project Good Help, a church-based outreach program that provides support services to help the poor, frail elderly continue independent living in the community. Villa Maria has coordinated the project with churches because they share a sense of mission. Only churches in areas where many needy elderly persons live are selected to participate in Project Good Help. Areas that lack services are given priority. Project Good Help often coordinates with other professional social service agencies to provide assistance. Catholic Community Services, for example, focuses on nutrition, and Project Good Help focuses on assessing unmet social service needs. The two community groups refer clients to one another. Project Good Help demonstrates that the healthcare and church communities can work together in innovative ways to provide cost-effective community service when they share a mission of caring for the poor and the elderly and are mutually supportive.

  5. Insights and participatory actions driven by a socio-hydrogeological approach for groundwater management: the Grombalia Basin case study (Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringali, C.; Re, V.; Siciliano, G.; Chkir, N.; Tuci, C.; Zouari, K.

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable groundwater management strategies in water-scarce countries need to guide future decision-making processes pragmatically, by simultaneously considering local needs, environmental problems and economic development. The socio-hydrogeological approach named `Bir Al-Nas' has been tested in the Grombalia region (Cap Bon Peninsula, Tunisia), to evaluate the effectiveness of complementing hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations with the social dimension of the issue at stake (which, in this case, is the identification of groundwater pollution sources). Within this approach, the social appraisal, performed through social network analysis and public engagement of water end-users, allowed hydrogeologists to get acquainted with the institutional dimension of local groundwater management, identifying issues, potential gaps (such as weak knowledge transfer among concerned stakeholders), and the key actors likely to support the implementation of the new science-based management practices resulting from the ongoing hydrogeological investigation. Results, hence, go beyond the specific relevance for the Grombaila basin, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the importance of including social assessment in any given hydrogeological research aimed at supporting local development through groundwater protection measures.

  6. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  7. Overexpression of BAK1 causes salicylic acid accumulation and deregulation of cell death control genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Shang, Yun; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2017-03-18

    Since the BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) was firstly identified as a co-receptor of BRI1 that mediates brassinosteroids (BR) signaling, the functional roles of BAK1, as a versatile co-receptor for various ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptor-like kinase (RLKs), are being extended to involvement with plant immunity, cell death, stomatal development and ABA signaling in plants. During more than a decade of research on the BAK1, it has been known that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BAK1 tagged with various reporters do not fully represent its natural functions. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the transgenic plants in which native BAK1 is overexpressed driven by its own promoter. We found that those transgenic plants were more sensitive to BR signaling but showed reduced growth patterns accompanied with spontaneous cell death features that are different from those seen in BR-related mutants. We demonstrated that more salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated and that expressions of the genes that are known to regulate cell death, such as BONs, BIRs, and SOBIR, were increased in the BAK1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that pleiotropic phenotypic alterations shown in the BAK1- overexpressing transgenic plants result from the constitutive activation of SA-mediated defense responses.

  8. Impacts of large dams on downstream flow conditions of rivers: Aggradation and reduction of the Medjerda channel capacity downstream of the Sidi Salem dam (Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahar, Yadh; Ghorbel, Abdelmajid; Albergel, Jean

    2008-04-01

    SummarySince the opening of the Sidi Salem dam on the watercourse of the Medjerda, in 1981, an alarming narrowing of the riverbed in the lower valley has been observed. This geo-morphological change is attributed to different factors ranking from the reduction in the discharge flows, which used to clean out the riverbed to the periodic releases of turbid water undertaken to remove the silt deposition inside the reservoir, which increased the sediment deposition in the downstream channel. Other smaller hydraulic projects are also held responsible for the loss of the water velocity including a series of concrete sills meant to raise water levels, numerous cross bridges and the management of the downstream Laroussia dam regulating the discharge from the Cap Bon canal. The above anthropogenic factors, in conjunction with natural topographical conditions characterized by a generally shallow slope and a very sinuous watercourse, led to an extremely rapid aggradation of the downstream channel-bed. This paper proposes an analysis of this process and argues that the resulting reduction in channel capacity is one of the major causes of the large floods experienced in the country since 1996.

  9. [Study impacto: Descriptive analyzis of pharmacist's clinical practice in onco-hematology].

    PubMed

    Le Guen, R; Madelaine, I; Tournamille, J-F; Bellanger, A; Astier, A; Braguer, D; Ollivier, C; Bardin, C; Lemare, F; Daouphars, M; Pinguet, F; Latour, J-F; Vigneron, J; Tilleul, P

    2015-05-01

    Pharmaceutical analyses of chemotherapy prescriptions by hospital pharmacists are activities codified by regulation and rules (bon usage). The involvement of the pharmacists in clinical pharmacy activities in the oncology setting is not clearly identified, justifying the development of a mapping of these activities from a questionnaire addressed to the professionals. One hundred and seven centers have participated to this study at the national level (overall participation rate of 32.4%). More than 95% of them used a computerized ordering system and three quarter of them submit the introduction of new compounds to an analysis by the drug therapeutic committee. Prescription analysis allowed detecting around 2% of errors from the current prescription. Clinical pharmacist participates to tumor boards of onco-hematology (RCP) at a level of 46% for senior pharmacist and 42% for junior pharmacist. This involvement in the RCP allowed anticipating protocol's modification and temporary used authorization. Ninety-two percent of the senior pharmacists estimate that they highlight the risk of no reimbursement for prescription out of the guideline during RCP, resulting to a modification of the prescription for 40% of them. This level of intervention is lower with respectively 64% and 10% for the juniors. This study underlines the expert value of the clinical pharmacist dedicated to oncology setting in pre and post analysis prescriptions. It could be targeted by a prospective analysis of both clinical and pharmacoeconomics impact of these interventions.

  10. Mathematical modeling of heavy metals contamination from MSW landfill site in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tantemsapya, N; Naksakul, Y; Wirojanagud, W

    2011-01-01

    Kham Bon landfill site is one of many municipality waste disposal sites in Thailand which are in an unsanitary condition. The site has been receiving municipality wastes without separating hazardous waste since 1968. Heavy metals including, Pb, Cr and Cd are found in soil and groundwater around the site, posing a health risk to people living nearby. In this research, contamination transport modelling of Pb, Cr and Cd was simulated using MODFLOW for two periods, at the present (2010) and 20 years prediction (2030). Model results showed that heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr migrated toward the north-eastern and south-eastern direction. The 20 years prediction showed that, heavy metals tend to move from the top soil to the deeper aquifer. The migration would not exceed 500 m radius from the landfill centre in the next 20 years, which is considered to be a slow process. From the simulation model, it is recommended that a mitigation measure should be performed to reduce the risk from landfill contamination. Hazardous waste should be separated for proper management. Groundwater contamination in the aquifer should be closely monitored. Consumption of groundwater in a 500 m radius must be avoided. In addition, rehabilitation of the landfill site should be undertaken to prevent further mobilization of pollutants.

  11. A Dual Functional Electroactive and Fluorescent Probe for Coupled Measurements of Vesicular Exocytosis with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Savy, Alexandra; Maurin, Sylvie; Grimaud, Laurence; Darchen, François; Quinton, Damien; Labbé, Eric; Buriez, Olivier; Delacotte, Jérôme; Lemaître, Frédéric; Guille-Collignon, Manon

    2017-02-20

    In this work, Fluorescent False Neurotransmitter 102 (FFN102), a synthesized analogue of biogenic neurotransmitters, was demonstrated to show both pH-dependent fluorescence and electroactivity. To study secretory behaviors at the single-vesicle level, FFN102 was employed as a new fluorescent/electroactive dual probe in a coupled technique (amperometry and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)). We used N13 cells, a stable clone of BON cells, to specifically accumulate FFN102 into their secretory vesicles, and then optical and electrochemical measurements of vesicular exocytosis were experimentally achieved by using indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes. Upon stimulation, FFN102 started to diffuse out from the acidic intravesicular microenvironment to the neutral extracellular space, leading to fluorescent emissions and to the electrochemical oxidation signals that were simultaneously collected from the ITO electrode surface. The correlation of fluorescence and amperometric signals resulting from the FFN102 probe allows real-time monitoring of single exocytotic events with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This work opens new possibilities in the investigation of exocytotic mechanisms.

  12. Buddha from space - An ancient object of art made of a Chinga iron meteorite fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Elmar; Schmieder, Martin; Kurat, Gero; Brandstńtter, Franz; Kramar, Utz; Ntaflos, Theo; Kröchert, Jörg

    2012-09-01

    The fall of meteorites has been interpreted as divine messages by multitudinous cultures since prehistoric times, and meteorites are still adored as heavenly bodies. Stony meteorites were used to carve birds and other works of art; jewelry and knifes were produced of meteoritic iron for instance by the Inuit society. We here present an approximately 10.6 kg Buddhist sculpture (the “iron man”) made of an iron meteorite, which represents a particularity in religious art and meteorite science. The specific contents of the crucial main (Fe, Ni, Co) and trace (Cr, Ga, Ge) elements indicate an ataxitic iron meteorite with high Ni contents (approximately 16 wt%) and Co (approximately 0.6 wt%) that was used to produce the artifact. In addition, the platinum group elements (PGEs), as well as the internal PGE ratios, exhibit a meteoritic signature. The geochemical data of the meteorite generally match the element values known from fragments of the Chinga ataxite (ungrouped iron) meteorite strewn field discovered in 1913. The provenance of the meteorite as well as of the piece of art strongly points to the border region of eastern Siberia and Mongolia, accordingly. The sculpture possibly portrays the Buddhist god Vaiśravana and might originate in the Bon culture of the eleventh century. However, the ethnological and art historical details of the “iron man” sculpture, as well as the timing of the sculpturing, currently remain speculative.

  13. Study of chondrogenic potential of stem cells in co-culture with chondrons

    PubMed Central

    Nikpou, Parisa; Nejad, Daryoush Mohammad; Shafaei, Hajar; Roshangar, Leila; Samadi, Nasser; Navali, Amir Mohammad; Sadegpour, Ali Reza; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Rad, Jafar Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Three-dimensional biomimetic scaffolds have widespread applications in biomedical tissue engineering due to similarity of their nanofibrous architecture to native extracellular matrix. Co-culture system has stimulatory effect on chondrogenesis of adult mesenchymal stem cells. This work presents a co-culture strategy using human articular chondrons and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) for cartilage tissue production. Materials and Methods: Isolated stem cells were characterized by flowcytometry. Electrospun and polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds (900 nm fiber diameter) was obtained from Bon Yakhteh (Tehran-Iran) and human infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (IPFP-ASCs) were seeded on them. IPFP-ASCs on scaffolds were co-cultured with articular chondrons using transwell. After 21 day, chondrogenic differentiation of stem cell was evaluated by determining the genes expression of collagen2, aggrecan and Indian hedgehog using real-time RT-PCR. Results: Genes expression of collagen2, aggrecan by IPFP-ASCs did not alter significantly in comparison with control group. Howevers, expression of Indian hedgehog decreased significantly compared to control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that chondrons obtained from osteoarthritic articular cartilage did not stimulate chondrogenic differentiation of IPFP-ASCs in co-culture. PMID:27482345

  14. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures instables des métacarpes et des phalanges reste un objet de controverse. Peu de séries ont été rapportées dans la littérature, rendant leur analyse difficile. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective comportant 12 patients, opérés par cette technique, ayant eu des fractures déplacées des métacarpes ou des phalanges, sur une période de deux ans. Les résultats globaux ont été bons dans 75% des cas, moyenne dans 16,5% des cas et mauvais dans 8,5% des cas. La stabilité du montage par mini plaques des fractures instables des métacarpiens et des phalanges ont permis une mobilisation précoce des articulations de la main, évitant ainsi la raideur. PMID:27800079

  15. Multiwavelength variability analysis of the FSRQ 3C 279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Chavushyan, V.; León-Tavares, J.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Fernandes, S.; Schlegel, E. M.; López-Rodríguez, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present a multifrequency analysis of the variability in the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 from 2008 to 2014. Our multiwavelength dataset includes gamma-ray data from Fermi/LAT (Abdo et al. 2009), observations in 1mm from SMA (Gurwell et al. 2007), Near Infrared from OAGH (Carramiñana & Carrasco 2009) and SMARTS (Bonning et al. 2012); optical V band from the Steward Observatory (Smith et al. 2009) and SMARTS; optical spectra from OAGH (Patiño-Álvarez et al. 2013) and the Steward Observatory; and polarization spectra from the Steward Observatory. The light curves are shown in Fig. 1. Six out of seven optical activity periods identified within our dataset show clear counterparts in mm, NIR and gamma-rays, however, the late 2011 - early 2012 optical flare does not have a counterpart in the GeV regime. In this contribution, we discuss the flaring evolution of 3C 279 and speculate about the production of the anomalous activity period.

  16. Experimental and modelling study of methyl oleate pyrolysis between 500 and 650 circC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, D.; Billaud, F.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes an experimental and modelling study of methyl oleate pyrolysis in a tubular flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The reaction temperatures ranged from 500 to 650 circC. The residence times were 230, 350, 500 and 600 ms. The proposed radical mechanism describes qualitatively all experimental observed species. This mechanism displays a satisfactory agreement between experimental and simulated values of molar fractions of pyrolysis reaction products. Cet article décrit une étude expérimentale et mécanistique de la pyrolyse de l'oléate de méthyle dans un réacteur tubulaire à pression atmosphérique. La température de réaction varie entre 500 et 650 circC. Les temps de passage étudiés sont 230, 350, 500 et 600 ms. Le mécanisme radicalaire proposé rend compte qualitativement de toutes les espèces observées expérimentalement. Ce mécanisme donne un bon accord entre les valeurs expérimentales et simulées des fractions molaires des produits de la réaction de pyrolyse.

  17. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  18. Distribution and evolution of the mobile vma-1b intein.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Kristen S; Soucy, Shannon M; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Lapierre, Pascal; Gogarten, Johann Peter

    2013-12-01

    Inteins are self-splicing parasitic genetic elements found in all domains of life. These genetic elements are found in highly conserved positions in conserved proteins. One protein family that has been invaded by inteins is the vacuolar and archaeal catalytic ATPase subunits (vma-1). There are two intein insertion sites in this protein, "a" and "b." The b site was previously thought to be only invaded in archaeal lineages. Here we survey the distribution and evolutionary histories of the b site inteins and show that the intein is present in more lineages than previously annotated, including a bacterial lineage, Mahella australiensis 50-1 BON. We present evidence, through ancestral character state reconstruction and substitution ratios between host genes and inteins, for several transfers of this intein between divergent species, including an interdomain transfer between the archaea and bacteria. Although inteins may persist within a single population or species for long periods of time, transfer of the vma-1b intein between divergent species contributed to the distribution of this intein.

  19. Matériaux pour la production d'hydrogène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Just, J.

    2002-04-01

    L'émergence des piles à combustible et l'apparition de l'hydrogène comme carburant dans des véhicules grand public comme les autobus, suscitent un élan fort pour la mise au point de technologies nouvelles pour la production d'hydrogène décentralisée et à petite échelle. Du fait de sa richesse en hydrogène. des réserves disponibles et de son infrastructure de distribution, le gaz naturel est considéré comme la ressource majeure pouvant fournir les quantités d'hydrogène nécessaires pour un passage progressif vers une économie de l'hydrogène dans les décennies immédiates en attendant que progressivement les énergies renouvelables prennent le relais. Des solutions innovantes, incluant de nouveaux matériaux, sont nécessaires pour la mise au point des petits générateurs d'hydrogène efficaces et bon marché alimenté au gaz naturel qui sont attendus par les fabricants (le piles à combustible, les acteurs de l'énergie et les fabricants de véhicules.

  20. Planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, paleoecology and chronostratigraphy across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in northern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Grira, Chaima; Mtimet, Moncef Saïd; Negra, Mohamed Hédi; Molina, Eustoquio

    2017-01-01

    The biostratigraphic analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene transition of the Menzel Bou Zelfa and Jhaff sections in northeastern Tunisia (Cap Bon peninsula) allows us to identify a continuous planktic foraminiferal biozonation. The following biozones were recognized: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta Zone (E14), Globigerinatheka index Zone (E15), (Hantkenina alabamensis Zone (E16) of the upper Eocene and Pseudohastigerina naguewichiensis Zone (O1) of the lower Oligocene. A rapid mass extinction event in planktic foraminifera occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, including the extinction of the turborotalids (Turborotalia cerroazulensis, Turborotalia cocoaensis and Turborotalia cunialensis) followed by a significant size reduction of the genus Pseudohastigerina and the extinction of the hantkeninids (Hantkenina alabamensis, Hantkenina brevispina, Hantkenina nanggulanensis and Cribrohantkenina lazzarii), which mark the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. These species were tropical and subtropical surface and intermediate dwellers, with distinctive morphologies (carinate turborotalids and spinose hantkeninids), which were well adapted species of k-strategy. The surviving planktic foraminifera species were quite similar in morphology with globular chambers (globigerinids) and small planispiral (pseudohastigerinids), which were opportunistic species of r-strategy. The recognition of a 4 m thick interval, between the extinction of turborotalids and hantkeninids, indicates that the section is continuous and one of the most expanded throughout the Eocene-Oligocene transition. This section could serve as an auxiliary section (hypostratotype) for the complete definition of the Global Stratotype Section and Point for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, which mark the base of the Rupelian Stage.

  1. Characterization of Pollution Outflow From India and Arabia: Biomass Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Stehr, J. W.; Dickerson, R. R.; Guazzotti, S. A.; Coffee, K.; Prather, K. A.

    One objective of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX 1999) was to character- ize the chemical composition of pollution outflow from South Asia. Real-time single particle analysis (ATOFMS, Univ. of California-Riverside), CO analysis (Nondisper- sive Infrared Gas Filter Correlation Photometer, Univ. of Maryland) and fast-response VOC measurements (PTR-MS, Univ. of Innsbruck) measurements were performed onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Gas phase and aerosol chemical compo- sition of encountered air parcels changed according to their geographic origin traced by backtrajectory analysis (continental air from Arabia and India; maritime air). The relative strength of combustion related pollution sources (biomass burning (BB) vs. fossil fuel (FF) combustion) was determined from the relative abundance of differ- ent tracers: acetonitrile (BB), CO (BB and FF), submicron particles containing car- bon but no potassium (FF), submicron particles containing carbon and potassium (BB and coal combustion), submicron particles containing carbon, potassium and lithium (coal combustion). Arabian air clearly reflected the signature of fossil fuel combustion, while air from the Indian subcontinent was strongly influenced by biomass burning.

  2. Equal path, phase shifting, sample point interferometer for monitoring the configuration of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for monitoring the configuration of a surface (e.g., a segmented parabolic surface) using orthogonally placed retroreflectors at sets of points 1, 2, and 3 dispersed throughout the surface with a stationary halfwave plate (HWP) in the front of the one retroreflector at a corner point 3 and a rotating halfwave plate (RHWP) over a source of linearly polarized coherent light, thereby causing the direction of linear polarization to continuously rotate through 360 deg and causing light returned by the retroreflector at point 3 to be continuously phase shifted through 360 deg relative to light returned by retroreflectors at points 1 and 2. The returned light from each set of points 1, 2, and 3 is focused onto a bed-of-nails (BON) phase grating diagonally oriented with respect to the orthogonal orientation of the incident beams from retroreflectors 1, 2, and 3, thereby causing overlap in the light from points 1 and 3 to produce interferometric signals 1,3 and 2,3. Any change in phase of the interferometric signals 1,3 and 2,3 indicates both the magnitude and direction of any change in the position of the retroreflector at point 3 relative to retroreflectors at points 1 and 2.

  3. Periodicity of Mrk 501 in Optical Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivest, L. Joseph; Osborne, Mckay; Moody, Joseph; Holden, Marcus; Hintz, Eric; Joner, Michael; Jeffery, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We present data for Mrk501 from 2009-2016 taken by ROVOR and WMO in Johnson B, V, and R filters. An aperture of radius 5'' was used for all data. Photometry was referenced to the same ensemble of stars in all frames. We find strong evidence for a regular light curve matching a sine wave of amplitude around 1 ×10-15(ergs-1 cm-2Å-1) in B, 0 . 6 ×10-15(ergs-1 cm-2Å-1) in V, and 0 . 5 ×10-15(ergs-1 cm-2Å-1) in R, and with a period of 2000 +/- 200 days. Additionally, a linear combination of sine waves having periods of 113 +/- 3 days and 70 +/- 5 days also show a strong presence in the light curve, both with amplitudes of around 0 . 25 +/- 0 . 03 ×10-15(ergs-1 cm-2Å-1) in V. These results are consistent with X-ray data and are qualitatively similar to the light curve found for NGC5548 (Bon et al, 2016). We lend these results as potentially bearing further evidence for the presence of a binary super-massive balck hole in Mrk 501.

  4. Les instabilités antérieures de l’épaule:à propos de 73 cas

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Louaste; Bousbaa, Hicham; Cherrad, Taoufik; Wahidi, Mohammed; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Entre 2005 et 2014, 73patients (77 épaules) ont bénéficié d’une intervention de Latarjet pour instabilité antérieure de l’épaule. Nous avons, rétrospectivement, évalué les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de cette technique opératoire. L’intervention a été réalisée pour le traitement d’une luxation récidivante dans 69 cas, subluxation récidivante douloureuse dans 5 cas et 3 épaules douloureuses Tous les patients ont eu une évaluation radiographique avant l’intervention et lors du contrôle le plus récent. Selon le score de Rowe, 73 (94.8 %) des 77 épaules ont obtenu un résultat bon ou excellent. Au plus grand recul, 74 épaules étaient indemnes d’arthrose glénohumérale. PMID:27800066

  5. Solid support synthesis of all-Rp-oligo(ribonucleoside phosphorothioate)s.

    PubMed Central

    Almer, H; Stawinski, J; Strömberg, R

    1996-01-01

    The first method for solid support synthesis of all-Rp-oligo(ribonucleoside phosphorothioate)s is presented as well as attempts to increase the stereoselectivity of the key step in this approach. The synthetic strategy consists of (i) a solid support synthesis procedure, using 5'-O-(4-methoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-ri bon ucleoside 3'-H- phosphonates, that due to stereoselectivity in the condensation step, gives oligomers with mostly Sp-H-phosphonate diesters (72-89% under standard conditions), (ii) stereospecific sulfurization with S8 in pyridine to produce oligo(ribonucleoside phosphorothioate)s enriched with internucleosidic linkages of Rp configuration, (iii) treatment of the deprotected oligonucleotides with the enzyme Nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum, that specifically catalyses cleavage of Sp-phosphorothioate diester linkages, which leaves a mixture of oligomers having all internucleosidic linkages as Rp-phosphorothioates, and finally (iv) isolation and HPLC purification of the full length all-Rp oligomer. Mixed sequences containing the four common nucleosidic residues up to the chain length of a heptamer were synthesized. Change of N-4-protection on the cytidine building block from propionyl to N-methylpyrrolidin-2-ylidene gave a slightly improved diastereoselectivity in H-phosphonate diester formation. Increased selectivity up to 99+% was obtained with the guanosine building block when the amount of pyridine in the coupling step was reduced. PMID:8871563

  6. Génération de faisceaux EPR à l'aide d'un oscillateur paramétrique optique à auto-verrouillage de phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurat, J.; Longchambon, L.; Coudreau, T.; Fabre, C.

    2004-11-01

    Les faisceaux continus orthogonalement polarisés émis par les Oscillateurs Paramétriques Optiques (OPO) de type II pompés au-dessus du seuil présentent au niveau quantique de fortes corrélations d'intensité et anti-corrélations de phase. Ils sont donc de très bons candidats pour générer des faisceaux intriqués en quadrature. Cependant, un phénomène de diffusion de phase rend difficile la mesure des propriétés sur la phase. Nous avons étudié théoriquement le régime stationnaire et les propriétés quantiques d'un OPO contenant une lame biréfringente. Le couplage linéaire qui en résulte entraîne un verrouillage en phase ainsi qu'un fonctionnement à dégénérescence en fréquence à l'intérieur d'une zone d'accrochage. L'expérience en cours au laboratoire a permis d'observer ce phénomène de verrouillage.

  7. RpoS-dependent expression of OsmY in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi: activation under stationary phase and SPI-2-inducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xueming; Ji, Ying; Weng, Xiaoqin; Huang, Xinxiang

    2015-06-01

    OsmY is a periplasmic protein with two BON domains which may attach to phospholipid membranes. Previous reports showed that the expression of OsmY in Escherichia coli was hyperosmotically inducible and RpoS dependent. But little work was done to investigate the expression and function of OsmY in Salmonella. Here, we detected the endogenous OsmY in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) with polyclonal antibody. The results showed that the expression of OsmY was also RpoS dependent and was activated under stationary phase. Further, using in vitro culture, we established the Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2-inducing conditions with hyperosmolarity and low-phosphate, low-magnesium medium (pH 5.8), respectively, and found that only SPI-2-inducing conditions can activate the expression of OsmY. osmY deletion mutant showed delayed growth compared with wild-type S. Typhi in SPI-2-inducing conditions. The results indicated that OsmY may function to resist the stress and be favorable for Salmonella's replication in the Salmonella-containing vesicles of macrophage.

  8. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Sampedro-Nuñez, Miguel; Gahete, Manuel D; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-08-14

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value.

  9. Léiomyome vésical entraînant la destruction d'un rein

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Le léiomyome de la vessie est une tumeur bénigne rare réputée avoir un bon pronostic après traitement chirurgical. Ceci n'est malheureusement pas toujours vrai. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 33 ans qui a consulté pour des douleurs lombaires droites. Les explorations réalisées ont conclu à une tumeur solide du plancher vésical avec, en amont, un rein droit non fonctionnel et des voies urinaires gauches dilatées. La cystoscopie a objectivé une tumeur solide de la vessie périméatique droite. Des biopsies tumorales ont été faites en même temps qu'une montée de sonde double J gauche. L’étude anatomopathologique a conclu à un léiomyome vésical. Elle a eu une myomectomie par voie transvésicale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. La patiente a toutefois gardé comme séquelle un rein totalement détruit. PMID:27583074

  10. Long Term Time Series of Remote Sensing Observations for Development of Regulatory Water Quality Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Spiering, Bruce A.; Holekamp, Kara L.

    2010-01-01

    Water quality standards in the U.S. consist of: designated uses (the services that a water body provides; e.g., drinking water, aquatic life, harvestable species, recreation) . criteria that define the environmental conditions that must be maintained to support the uses For estuaries and coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico, there are no numeric (quantitative) criteria to protect designated uses from effects of nutrients. This is largely due to the absence of adequate data that would quantitatively link biological conditions to nutrient concentrations. The Gulf of Mexico Alliance, an organization fostering collaboration between the Gulf States and U.S. Federal agencies, has identified the development of the numeric nutrient criteria as a major step leading to reduction in MODIS Products Figure 6. Map of the Mobile Bay with a yellow patch indicating the Bon Secour Bay area selected in this study for averaging water clarity parameters retrieved from MODIS datasets. nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. Nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters can be quantified based on response variables that measure phytoplankton biomass and water clarity. Long-term, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of chlorophyll a concentration, total concentration of suspended solids, and water clarity are needed to establish reference conditions and to quantify stressor-response relationships.

  11. The modulator driven polymorphism of Zr(IV) based metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drache, Franziska; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Getzschmann, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The reaction of ZrCl4 and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (Htfa) as modulator results in the formation of the new metal-organic framework (MOF) named DUT-126 (DUT = Dresden University of Technology). The nature and concentration of modulators are found to be decisive synthetic parameters affecting the topology of the formed product. DUT-126 (hbr) extends the series of polymorphs differing in topology, namely DUT-67 (reo), DUT-68 (bon) and DUT-69 (bct) to four, where DUT-67 and DUT-68 show the same eight-connected secondary building units as in DUT-126. In DUT-126, linker molecules have a peculiar orientation, resulting in hbr topology, which is described for the first time in this work for MOFs. DUT-126 contains three pore types, including two micropores surrounding mesoporous channels. DUT-126 is stable against hydrolysis and features permanent porosity with a specific surface area of 1297 m2 g-1 and a total pore volume of 0.48 cm3 g-1, calculated from the nitrogen physisorption isotherm measured at 77 K. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  12. Principe de commande numérique temps réel d'un onduleur à modulation de largeur d'impulsion sur charges non linéaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maussion, Pascal; Faucher, Jean; Grandpierre, Marcel

    1994-06-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the real time digital control of a P.W.M. inverter, used in U.P.S. (Uninterruptible Power Supply). The output voltage is compared to a sinusoidal reference, to compute in real time through a digital controller, the pulse width of the same interval. This strategy is verified through computer simulations and provides a very fast compensation of disturbances, caused by non linear loads such as rectifiers and triac loads, with low T.H.D. (Total Harmonic Distortion) and fondamental control. Cet article propose une méthode nouvelle et originale pour la commande numérique temps réel d'un onduleur MLI sur charges non linéaires. Un asservissement de la valeur moyenne instantanée de la tension de sortie est réalisé par l'intermédiaire d'un correcteur proportionnel dérivé et d'une boucle d'anticipation. Les variations de la charge sont prises en compte par précompensation ce qui permet d'obtenir de bons résultats vérifiés par simulation, tant pour le taux de distorsion harmonique que pour la valeur du terme fondamental.

  13. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  14. Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

    2008-01-01

    During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV.

  15. The Haiti Breast Cancer Initiative: Initial Findings and Analysis of Barriers-to-Care Delaying Patient Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ketan; Costas, Ainhoa; Damuse, Ruth; Hamiltong-Pierre, Jean; Pyda, Jordan; Ong, Cecilia T.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Meara, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In Haiti, breast cancer patients present at such advanced stages that even modern therapies offer modest survival benefit. Identifying the personal, sociocultural, and economic barriers-to-care delaying patient presentation is crucial to controlling disease. Methods. Patients presenting to the Hôpital Bon Sauveur in Cange were prospectively accrued. Delay was defined as 12 weeks or longer from initial sign/symptom discovery to presentation, as durations greater than this cutoff correlate with reduced survival. A matched case-control analysis with multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting delay. Results. Of N = 123 patients accrued, 90 (73%) reported symptom-presentation duration and formed the basis of this study: 52 patients presented within 12 weeks of symptoms, while 38 patients waited longer than 12 weeks. On logistic regression, lower education status (OR = 5.6, P = 0.03), failure to initially recognize mass as important (OR = 13.0, P < 0.01), and fear of treatment cost (OR = 8.3, P = 0.03) were shown to independently predict delayed patient presentation. Conclusion. To reduce stage at presentation, future interventions must educate patients on the recognition of initial breast cancer signs and symptoms and address cost concerns by providing care free of charge and/or advertising that existing care is already free. PMID:23840209

  16. Coût clinique des retards dans le changement de traitement

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    La prise en charge des patients séropositifs pour le VIH ayant déjà reçu un traitement continue de s’améliorer et d’évoluer. Les nouvelles lignes directrices semblent indiquer que l’objectif du traitement devrait être une suppression virologique maximale. La meilleure façon d’y parvenir consiste à utiliser une combinaison d’agents auxquels le virus sera le plus vraisemblablement sensible et, si possible, des agents appartenant à une nouvelle classe thérapeutique. Les cas discutés démontrent comment l’utilisation d’un schéma thérapeutique puissant à titre de traitement de sauvetage peut avoir de bons résultats virologiques, immunologiques et cliniques. Toutefois, si le traitement de sauvetage retenu n’est pas assez puissant pour atteindre ces objectifs, la durabilité de la réponse est limitée. Ce qu’il faut retenir ici, c’est que ces stratégies devraient reposer sur la puissance du schéma thérapeutique et qu’il ne faut pas retarder l’instauration des agents en cas d’échec d’une stratégie.

  17. Effect of shot peening and grain refinement on the fatigue life and strength of commercially pure Al and two of its alloys: Al-2024-T3 and Al-7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qandil, A.; Zaid, Adnan I. O.

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used materials in automobile, aircraft and space craft industries due to their high strength- to- weight ratio and corrosion resistance beside their other useful properties. They are the second materials in use after steel alloys. Most of the failures in parts of aircrafts and space vehicles are mainly caused by fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. In this paper, the effect of shot peening on the fatigue life of commercially pure aluminumand two of its alloys namely:Al-2024 and Al-7075-T6 is presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of addition of vanadium to Al and Al grain refined by Ti and Ti+Bon Its fatigue life and strengthis also presented and discussed using scanning electron microscope, SEM. It was that shot peening and the addition of V toAl and Al onAl grain refined by Ti and Ti+B have resulted in enhancement of the fatigue life and strength. Ffinally, the effect of shot peening on the surface quality of the peened parts is also presented and discussed.

  18. S53P4 bioactive glass and fibrin glue for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee - a preliminary in vivo study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zazgyva, AncuŢa Marilena; Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Nagy, Örs; Mühlfay, Gheorghe; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The role of the subchondral bone and the importance of treating both bone and cartilage in cases of chondral and osteochondral lesions of the knee have been highly emphasized. There are no current studies on the experimental use of bioactive glass S53P4 (BonAlive®) as granules in the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee. Our preliminary study was designed to establish an experimental model and assesses the effect of glass granules fixed with fibrin compared to fibrin alone as fillers of the osteochondral defects created in the weight-bearing and partial weight-bearing regions of the distal femur in six adult rabbits. We found that the size of the distal femur in adult domestic rabbits allows the creation of 4 mm diameter and 5 mm deep osteochondral defects on both the medial femoral condyle and the trochlea, bilaterally, without significantly affecting the activity level of the animals. Retention of the glass granules in the defects was achieved successfully using a commercially available fibrin sealant. At five weeks post-implantation, we found macroscopic and microscopic differences between the four types of defects. The use of bioactive glass S53P4 for filling condylar osteochondral defects in rabbit femora led to the initiation of an early bone repair process, observed at five weeks after implantation, while the filling of trochlear defects with fibrin glue resulted in the appearance of cartilaginous tissue characteristic of endochondral ossification.

  19. Pancreatic endocrine tumours: mutational and immunohistochemical survey of protein kinases reveals alterations in targetable kinases in cancer cell lines and rare primaries

    PubMed Central

    Corbo, V.; Beghelli, S.; Bersani, S.; Antonello, D.; Talamini, G.; Brunelli, M.; Capelli, P.; Falconi, M.; Scarpa, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kinases represent potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs). Patients and methods: Thirty-five kinase genes were sequenced in 36 primary PETs and three PET cell lines: (i) 4 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), tyrosine-protein kinase KIT (KIT), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha); (ii) 6 belonging to the Akt/mTOR pathway; and (iii) 25 frequently mutated in cancers. The immunohistochemical expression of the four RTKs and the copy number of EGFR and HER2 were assessed in 140 PETs. Results: Somatic mutations were found in KIT in one and ATM in two primary neoplasms. Among 140 PETs, EGFR was immunopositive in 18 (13%), HER2 in 3 (2%), KIT in 16 (11%), and PDGFRalpha in 135 (96%). HER2 amplification was found in 2/130 (1.5%) PETs. KIT membrane immunostaining was significantly associated with tumour aggressiveness and shorter patient survival. PET cell lines QGP1, CM and BON harboured mutations in FGFR3, FLT1/VEGFR1 and PIK3CA, respectively. Conclusions: Only rare PET cases, harbouring either HER2 amplification or KIT mutation, might benefit from targeted drugs. KIT membrane expression deserves further attention as a prognostic marker. ATM mutation is involved in a proportion of PET. The finding of specific mutations in PET cell lines renders these models useful for preclinical studies involving pathway-specific therapies. PMID:21447618

  20. Capsaicin induces cytotoxicity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells via mitochondrial action.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, M; Sassek, M; Abdelmessih, S; Mergler, S; Grötzinger, C; Metzke, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, inhibits growth of various solid cancers via TRPV1 as well as TRPV1-independent mechanisms. Recently, we showed that TRPV1 regulates intracellular calcium level and chromogranin A secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. In the present study, we characterize the role of the TRPV1 agonist - CAP - in controlling proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic BON and QGP-1 NET cells. We demonstrate that CAP reduces viability and proliferation, and stimulates apoptotic death of NET cells. CAP causes mitochondrial membrane potential loss, inhibits ATP synthesis and reduces mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein production. In addition, CAP increases cytochrome c and cleaved caspase 3 levels in cytoplasm. CAP reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) acts synergistically with CAP to reduce ROS generation, without affecting CAP-induced toxicity. TRPV1 protein reduction by 75% reduction fails to attenuate CAP-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, these results suggest that CAP induces cytotoxicity by disturbing mitochondrial potential, and inhibits ATP synthesis in NET cells. Stimulation of ROS generation by CAP appears to be a secondary effect, not related to CAP-induced cytotoxicity. These results justify further evaluation of CAP in modulating pancreatic NETs in vivo.

  1. Epidrug-induced upregulation of functional somatostatin type 2 receptors in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Marije J; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Dogan, Fadime; Farrell, William E; Feelders, Richard A; Lamberts, Steven W J; de Herder, Wouter W; Vitale, Giovanni; Hofland, Leo J

    2016-05-19

    Somatostatin receptors are a pivotal target for treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), either with somatostatin analogues (SSA) or radiolabeled SSA. The highest affinity target for the most commonly used SSA is the somatostatin receptor type 2 (sst2). An important factor that may complicate treatment efficacy, is the variable number of receptors expressed on pNETs. Gene expression is subject to complex regulation, in which epigenetics has a central role. In this study we explored the possible role of epigenetic modifications in the variations in sst2 expression levels in two human pNET cell lines, BON-1 and QGP-1. We found upregulation of sst2 mRNA after treatment with the epidrugs 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and valproic acid (VPA), an increased uptake of radiolabeled octreotide, as well as increased sensitivity to the SSA octreotide in functional cAMP inhibition. At epigenetic level we observed low methylation levels of the sst2 gene promoter region irrespective of expression. Activating histone mark H3K9Ac can be regulated with epidrug treatment, with an angle of effect corresponding to the effect on mRNA expression. Repressive histone mark H3K27me3 is not regulated by either 5-aza-dC or VPA. We conclude that epidrug treatment, in particular with combined 5-aza-dC and VPA treatment, might hold promise for improving and adding to current SSA treatment strategies of patients with pNETs.

  2. Neurotensin, a novel target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, promotes growth of neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Tae; Liu, Chunming; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

    2015-03-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and differentiation by activation of the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex and subsequent regulation of a set of target genes that have one or more TCF-binding elements (TBEs). Hyperactivation of this pathway has been implicated in numerous malignancies including human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Neurotensin (NT), an intestinal hormone, induces proliferation of several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including cancers of the pancreas and colon. Here, we analyzed the human NT promoter in silico and found at least four consensus TBEs within the proximal promoter region. Using a combination of ChIP and luciferase reporter assays, we identified one TBE (located ∼900 bp proximal from the transcription start site) that was immunoprecipitated efficiently by TCF4-targeting antibody; mutation of this site attenuated the responsiveness to β-catenin. We also confirmed that the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NT were increased by various Wnt pathway activators and decreased by Wnt inhibitors in NET cell lines BON and QGP-1, which express and secrete NT. Similarly, the intracellular content and secretion of NT were induced by Wnt3a in these cells. Finally, inhibition of NT signaling suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and decreased expression levels of growth-related proteins in NET cells. Our results indicate that NT is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and may be a mediator for NET cell growth.

  3. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D.; Castaño, Justo P.; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value. PMID:26124083

  4. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Falls, Kelly; Reed, Sara M.; Taghiyev, Agshin F.; Quelle, Frederick W.; Gourronc, Francoise; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Major, Heather J.; Askeland, Ryan; Sherman, Scott K.; O'Dorisio, Thomas M.; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Howe, James R.; Darbro, Benjamin W.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs(PNETs) that correlated with high level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A knockdown cells although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients. PMID:25273089

  5. Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-02-01

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

  6. Optical Monitoring of NGC4151 During 110 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oknyanskij, V. L.; Metlova, N. V.; Huseynov, N. A.; Guo, Di-Fu; Lyuty, V. M.

    We present the historical light curve of NGC 4151 for 1906-2016. The light curve (Oknyanskij and Lyuty, 2007) is primarily based on our published photoelectric data (1968-2007, about 1040 nightly mean measurements (Oknyanskij and Lyuty, 2007)) and photographic estimates (mostly Odessa and Moscow plates taken in 1906 - 1982 (Oknyanskij, 1978, 1983), about 350 measurements). Additionally, we include all data obtained prior to 1968 (de Vaucouleurs and de Vaucouleurs, 1968; Barnes 1968; Sandage, 1967; Wisniewski and Kleinmann, 1968; Fitch et al., 1967) in total, 19 photoelectric observations from 1958-1967, were reduced by us to the same diaphragm aperture as that used in our measurements) as well as photographic data (Pacholczyk et al., 1983) (Harvard and Steward observatories' patrol plates taken in 1910-1968, about 210 measurements). The light curve includes our old and new photometrical data obtained during last years at SAI, ShAO and Weihai Observatory as well as other published data (Roberts and Rumstey, 2012; Schnulle et al., 2015). All these data were reduced to an uniform photometric system.Applying Fourier (CLEAN algorithm) we have found periodic component ˜16 years in the 110 years light curve. 40 years ago about the same "period" was firstly reviled from Odessa's photometrical data (Oknyanskij, 1977; 1978). This "period" seen in the light curve was then found independently in the spectral variability and interpreted as a case of the supermassive binary black hole (Bon et al., 2012). We interpret these circles as some accretion dynamic time.

  7. Diffusion in phthalocyanine thin film layers: study by AES, EELS, EPES and electrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamoudi, M.; El Beqqali, O.; Benkaddour, M.; Sadoun, M. Al; Guillaud, G.; Miloua, F.; Khelifa, B.; El Ourzaz, L.; Jardin, C.

    1991-12-01

    Diffusion studies are necessary to the feasibility of molecular pn junctions. Electrical and spectroscopic measurements have been done in two superimposed phthalocyanine thin layers: Zinc phthaiocyanine (PcZn) (p material) and Lutetium bisphthalocyanine (PC2Lu) (n material). These measurements are in a good agreement. In spite of the very large dimensions of these molecules, diffusion and doping of PcZn by PC2Lu occur. Moreover, elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) seems more available than Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to follow the diffusion in such samples. Les études de diffusion sont nécessaires pour utiliser pratiquement les semiconducteurs organiques en particulier pour la réalisation de jonctions pn. Des mesures électriques et spectroscopiques ont été faites sur des couches minces de phtalocyanines superposées : phtalocyanine de Zinc(PcZn) (matériau de type p) et bisphtalocyanine de Lutetium (PC2Lu) (matériau de type n). L'ensemble de ces mesures est en bon accord, la diffusion et le dopage de PcZn par PC2Lu se produisent malgré la taille importante de ces molécules. De plus la spectroscopie de pic élastique (EPES) semble être plus adaptée à ces mesures que la spectroscopie d'électrons Auger (AES) pour suivre la diffusion dans ces échantillons.

  8. Chrysin suppresses the achaete-scute complex-like1 and alters the neuroendocrine phenotype of carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Somnay, Yash R.; Dull, Barbara Zarebczan; Eide, Jacob; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Chen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoids are neuroendocrine neoplasms that cause significant morbidity and mortality, and for which few effective therapies are available. Given the recent identification of the anti-cancer flavonoid chrysin, we sought to investigate its therapeutic potential in carcinoids. Here, we report chrysin’s ability to modulate the achaete-scute complex-like1 (ASCL1), a neuroendocrine-specific transcription factor highly implicated in the malignant phenotype of carcinoids and other neuroendocrine cancers. Moreover, we elucidate the role of ASCL1 in carcinoid growth and bioactivity. Treatment of two carcinoid cell lines (BON and H727) with varying chrysin concentrations suppressed cell proliferation, while reducing expression of ASCL1 and the neuroendocrine biomarker chromogranin A (CgA), demonstrated by Western blotting. Propidium iodide and PE AnnexinV/7-AAD staining and sorting following chrysin treatment revealed S/G2 phase arrest and apoptosis, respectively. This was corroborated by chrysin-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and activation of p21Waf1/Cip1. Furthermore, direct ASCL1 knockdown with an ASCL1-specific small interfering RNA inhibited CgA and synaptophysin expression as well as carcinoid proliferation, while also reducing cyclin B1 and D1, and increasing p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, suggesting an arrest of the cell-cycle. Collectively, these findings warrant the deliberation of targeted ASCL1 suppression by chrysin or other agents as a therapeutic approach for carcinoid management. PMID:26403073

  9. Grossesse hétérotopique à la clinique Universitaire de Gynécologies et d'Obstétrique du Centre National Hospitalier et Universitaire Hubert Koutoukou Maga du Bénin: à propos d'un cas de grossesse quadruple; 3 fœtus intra utérins et 1 fœtus abdominal

    PubMed Central

    Aguemon, Christiane Tshabu; Denakpo, Justin; Hounkpatin, Benjamin; Tossa, Lehila Bagnan; Adisso, Sosthène; Sacca, Jeanne; de Souza, José

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse quadruple hétérotopique est exceptionnelle. La revue de la littérature en parle très peu. Les auteurs rapportent 1 cas de grossesse hétérotopique quadruple développée jusqu’à 34 semaines d'aménorrhée (3 fœtus intra utérins et 1 fœtus abdominal). Les fœtus intra utérins étaient diagnostiqués à l’échographie alors que le fœtus intra abdominal était de découverte opératoire. 3 jumeaux vont décéder en post-partum immédiat et un jumeau va survivre avec un bon développement psychomoteur. Le suivi médical de la mère en post partum a vu se développer une insuffisance cardiaque globale secondairement maitrisée avec un traitement médical. PMID:26185584

  10. The modulator driven polymorphism of Zr(IV) based metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Drache, Franziska; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Getzschmann, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-01-13

    The reaction of ZrCl4 and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (Htfa) as modulator results in the formation of the new metal-organic framework (MOF) named DUT-126 (DUT = Dresden University of Technology). The nature and concentration of modulators are found to be decisive synthetic parameters affecting the topology of the formed product. DUT-126 ( HBR: ) extends the series of polymorphs differing in topology, namely DUT-67 ( REO: ), DUT-68 ( BON: ) and DUT-69 ( BCT: ) to four, where DUT-67 and DUT-68 show the same eight-connected secondary building units as in DUT-126. In DUT-126, linker molecules have a peculiar orientation, resulting in HBR: topology, which is described for the first time in this work for MOFs. DUT-126 contains three pore types, including two micropores surrounding mesoporous channels. DUT-126 is stable against hydrolysis and features permanent porosity with a specific surface area of 1297 m(2) g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.48 cm(3) g(-1), calculated from the nitrogen physisorption isotherm measured at 77 K.This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  11. Structure of dehaloperoxidase B at 1.58 Å resolution and structural characterization of the AB dimer from Amphitrite ornata

    SciTech Connect

    de Serrano, Vesna; D; Antonio, Jennifer; Franzen, Stefan; Ghiladi, Reza A.

    2012-04-18

    As members of the globin superfamily, dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzymes A and B from the marine annelid Amphitrite ornata possess hemoglobin function, but they also exhibit a biologically relevant peroxidase activity that is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Here, a comprehensive structural study of recombinant DHP B, both by itself and cocrystallized with isoenzyme A, using X-ray diffraction is presented. The structure of DHP B refined to 1.58 {angstrom} resolution exhibits the same distal histidine (His55) conformational flexibility as that observed in isoenzyme A, as well as additional changes to the distal and proximal hydrogen-bonding networks. Furthermore, preliminary characterization of the DHP AB heterodimer is presented, which exhibits differences in the AB interface that are not observed in the A-only or B-only homodimers. These structural investigations of DHP B provide insights that may relate to the mechanistic details of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-dependent oxidative dehalogenation reaction catalyzed by dehaloperoxidase, present a clearer description of the function of specific residues in DHP at the molecular level and lead to a better understanding of the paradigms of globin structure-function relationships.

  12. Structure of dehaloperoxidase B at 1.58 Å resolution and structural characterization of the AB dimer from Amphitrite ornata

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Vesna de; D’Antonio, Jennifer; Franzen, Stefan; Ghiladi, Reza A.

    2010-05-01

    The crystal structure of dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzyme B from the terebellid polychaete A. ornata, which exhibits both hemoglobin and peroxidase functions, has been determined at 1.58 Å resolution. As members of the globin superfamily, dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzymes A and B from the marine annelid Amphitrite ornata possess hemoglobin function, but they also exhibit a biologically relevant peroxidase activity that is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Here, a comprehensive structural study of recombinant DHP B, both by itself and cocrystallized with isoenzyme A, using X-ray diffraction is presented. The structure of DHP B refined to 1.58 Å resolution exhibits the same distal histidine (His55) conformational flexibility as that observed in isoenzyme A, as well as additional changes to the distal and proximal hydrogen-bonding networks. Furthermore, preliminary characterization of the DHP AB heterodimer is presented, which exhibits differences in the AB interface that are not observed in the A-only or B-only homodimers. These structural investigations of DHP B provide insights that may relate to the mechanistic details of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-dependent oxidative dehalogenation reaction catalyzed by dehaloperoxidase, present a clearer description of the function of specific residues in DHP at the molecular level and lead to a better understanding of the paradigms of globin structure–function relationships.

  13. [The first anti-cancer center in Lyon (1923): surgeon Leon Berard and Auguste Lumiere].

    PubMed

    Fischer, L P; Martinet, B; Glas, P Y

    2001-01-01

    At present, little is known about the creation of cancer hospitals. I will report on that of Lyons, France, with the famous surgeon, Léon Bérard (1870-1956). A specialist of neck surgery, he was the first to carry out major thoracoplasties. The cancer hospital was inaugurated in 1923 under the Great Dome of the hôtel-Dieu hospital. (The dome is the creation of the famous architect Germain Soufflot (1748)). In 1933, the cancer hospital moved in the newly-built Edouard Herriot Hospital; it became independent in 1958, two years after the famous surgeon's death, and it was rightly named after him: "Centre anticancéreux Léon Bérard". Its creation and its quick development owes a lot to generosity of Auguste Lumière, one of the two inventors of cinematograph. Auguste Lumière sponsored radiotherapy material and, at Léon Bérard's request (as there was a lack of space in Edouard Herriot hospital), created a centre for cancer patients (Bon Abr Hospital, rue Mistral, with Dr Vigne). A Lumière gave his time as well as his money for the centre; he was the car-driver, he helped L. Bérard with his university classes, and he often comforted the patients while running a private clinic (La Clinique Lumière), which combined dispensary services with research. (Micheline Bonin)

  14. Prise en charge du phéochromocytome bilatéral - à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Khattala, Khalid; Elmadi, Aziz; Mahmoudi, Abdelhalim; Rami, Mohamed; Bouabdallah, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Le phéochromocytome est une pathologie rare et sévère; sa survenue à un âge précoce, sa bilatéralité et son association à des signes de gravité en font la sévérité. Notre observation en fait l'exemple; le phéochromocytome bilatéral est révélé par un accident vasculaire ischémique qui a dominé le tableau initial chez une fille de 10 ans. L'imagerie a orienté vers le diagnostic (échographie et TDM abdominales), confirmé par le dosage des catécholamines urinaires. Après une préparation soigneuse, l'exérèse chirurgicale (surrénalectomie totale droite et partielle gauche), avec bonne surveillance péri opératoire, ont permis d'avoir de bons résultats. L’étude histologique a étayé la nature anatomo pathologique de la pièce opératoire. PMID:25404959

  15. The Real-Time Dose Measurement Scintillating Fiber Array for Brachytherapy Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynes, Lawrence

    2007-03-01

    Brachytherapy is a treatment modality that uses tiny radioactive sources (few mm in length) by delivering enough doses to kill cancer tumors or plaque build-up. The type of sources used in hospitals include both gamma and beta emitters. Presently, the technique suffers from not having a single detector with the capability of providing accurate dose distribution information within sub-mm accuracy. The current standard is based primarily on well chambers and film dosimetry. The Center for Advanced Medical Instrumentation (CAMI) at Hampton University is developing a Scintillating Fiber Based Beta Detector prototype in collaboration with the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) to address this problem. The device is composed of an array of 1x1 mm^2 scintillating fibers optically coupled to photo-multiplier tubes for photon-to-current conversion. A CAMAC LabView based data acquisition system is used for real time data collection and histogramming, data analysis. A set of data were collected at the nearby Bon Secours DePaul Medical Center using a GammaMed 12i HDR after-loader housing a 6.62 mCi Ir-192 source. Preliminary comparison between our device and film dosimetry will be discussed.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of quantum dots designed for biomedical use.

    PubMed

    Kuzyniak, Weronika; Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Sekhosana, Kutloano; D'Souza, Sarah; Tshangana, Sesethu Charmaine; Hoffmann, Björn; Ermilov, Eugeny A; Nyokong, Tebello; Höpfner, Michael

    2014-05-15

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have become promising nanoparticles for a wide variety of biomedical applications. However, the major drawback of QDs is their potential toxicity. Here, we determined possible cytotoxic effects of a set of QDs by systematic photophysical evaluation in vitro as well as in vivo. QDs were synthesized by the hydrothermal aqueous route with sizes in the range of 2.0-3.5 nm. Cytotoxic effects of QDs were studied in the human pancreatic carcinoid cell line BON. Cadmium telluride QDs with or without zinc sulfide shell and coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were highly cytotoxic even at nanomolar concentrations. Capping with l-glutathione (GSH) or thioglycolic acid (TGA) reduced the cytotoxicity of cadmium telluride QDs and cadmium selenide QDs. Determination of the toxicity of QDs revealed IC50 values in the micromolar range. In vivo studies showed good tolerability of CdSe QDs with ZnS shell and GSH capping. We could demonstrate that QDs with ZnS shell and GSH capping exhibit low toxicity and good tolerability in cell models and living organisms. These QDs appear to be promising candidates for biomedical applications such as drug delivery for enhanced chemotherapy or targeted delivery of light sensitive substances for photodynamic therapy.

  17. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P; Falls, Kelly C; Reed, Sara M; Taghiyev, Agshin F; Quelle, Frederick W; Gourronc, Francoise A; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Major, Heather J; Askeland, Ryan W; Sherman, Scott K; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Howe, James R; Darbro, Benjamin W; Quelle, Dawn E

    2014-11-15

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood, and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs (PNET) that correlated with high-level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor-suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating that RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A-knockdown cells, although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients.

  18. How to improve lithotripsy and chemolitholysis of brushite-stones: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, D; Jacobs, D; Hesse, A; Müller, S C; Zhong, P; Preminger, G M

    1999-08-01

    Because of their resistance to fragmentation, treatment of brushite stones is a big problem. This study was performed to look for an improvement in therapeutic strategies by using artificial stones made of brushite (Bon(n)-stones), which are comparable to their natural counterparts. Using an ultrasound transmission technique, longitudinal wave propagation speeds were measured at different time intervals during treatment with hemiacidrin. From these and density measurements, transverse wave speed, wave impedance and dynamic mechanical properties of the artificial stones were calculated. Moreover, the microhardness of artificial stones was measured and investigations on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) combined with initial chemolytic treatment of the stones were performed. The suggestion was confirmed that stone fragility and thus SWL can be improved by varying the physical properties of brushite stones through treatment with hemiacidrin. Additionally, we demonstrated the efficacy of Suby G in dissolving artificial brushite stones using an experimental arrangement simulating the physiological conditions in the upper urinary tract. Moreover, the efficacy of four different intracorporeal lithotripsy devices (electrohydraulic, pneumatic, laser and ultrasound) was tested and it was shown that electrohydraulic lithotripsy seems to be the best system for comminution of brushite stones.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of nanoparticle stability at liquid interfaces: Effect of nanoparticle-solvent interaction and capillary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David L.

    2011-08-01

    While the interaction of colloidal particles (sizes in excess of 100 nm) with liquid interfaces may be understood in terms of continuum models, which are grounded in macroscopic properties such as surface and line tensions, the behaviour of nanoparticles at liquid interfaces may be more complex. Recent simulations [D. L. Cheung and S. A. F. Bon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 066103 (2009)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.066103 of nanoparticles at an idealised liquid-liquid interface showed that the nanoparticle-interface interaction range was larger than expected due, in part, to the action of thermal capillary waves. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations of a Lennard-Jones nanoparticle in a binary Lennard-Jones mixture are used to confirm that these previous results hold for more realistic models. Furthermore by including attractive interactions between the nanoparticle and the solvent, it is found that the detachment energy decreases as the nanoparticle-solvent attraction increases. Comparison between the simulation results and recent theoretical predictions [H. Lehle and M. Oettel, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 404224 (2008)], 10.1088/0953-8984/20/40/404224 shows that for small particles the incorporation of capillary waves into the predicted effective nanoparticle-interface interaction improves agreement between simulation and theory.

  20. Le méningiome du sinus maxillaire: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mezouri, Imane; Bellefqih, Sara; Chenna, Hanane; El Kacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Les méningiomes extracrâniens sont rares, leur localisation au niveau du sinus maxillaire est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 41 ans, ayant présenté une exophtalmie avec des céphalées intermittentes évoluant depuis 8 ans. Le diagnostic a été retenu à partir de la biopsie et du scanner cérébral et du massif facial. Le traitement a consisté en une irradiation exclusive à la dose de 54 Gray (Gy). La patiente est restée en bon contrôle locorégional, après un recul de 18 mois. A travers ce cas clinique on a démontré que le sinus maxillaire peut être touché par le méningiome, et qu'il doit être inclus dans le diagnostic différentiel des tumeurs des tissus mous. PMID:25419275

  1. Identification of Pyrus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluation for genetic mapping in European pear and interspecific Pyrus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sara; Saeed, Munazza; Knäbel, Mareike; Kim, YoonKyeong; Troggio, Michela; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Fontana, Paolo; Won, KyungHo; Durel, Charles-Eric; Perchepied, Laure; Schaffer, Robert; Wiedow, Claudia; Bus, Vincent; Brewer, Lester; Gardiner, Susan E; Crowhurst, Ross N; Chagné, David

    2013-01-01

    We have used new generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium® II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium® II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear ('Old Home'×'Louise Bon Jersey') and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array) were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.

  2. Tribological performance of hard carbon coatings on 440C bearing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustas, Frank N.; Misra, Mohan S.; Shepard, Donald F.; Froechtenigt, Joseph F.

    1990-12-01

    Hard carbon coating such as diamond and diamond-like c :bon (also referred to as amorphous carbon) have received considerable attention for tribological applications due to their high hardness high modulus and desirable surface properties. Unfortunately most of the deposition techniques induce high substrate temperatures that temper traditional bearing steels and reduce the substrate load-carrying capability. Therefore to effectively use these desirable coatings a lower temperature deposition technique is required. Ion beam deposition offers essentially ambient temperature conditions accurate control ofprocess parameters and good coating-substrate adhesion. To use these attributes a test program was initiated to deposit mass analyzed high purity carbon and methane ions onto molybdenum and 440C bearing steel for subsequent characterization by Raman spectroscopy and friction-wear tests. Preliminary results for a coating deposited from a CO source showed an amorphous carbon/microcrystalline graphite structure which exhibited very high microhardness and a 3-fold reduction in coefficient of friction for unlubricated tests compared to untreated 440C steel. In addition incrementally increasing the applied load up to a factor of 5 resulted in progressively lower coefficients of friction only a minor increase (about 11) in the wear scar depth and no dramatic coating delamination or damage. Therefore an amorphous carbon/graphite coating applied to 440C steel at ambient temperature exhibits solid lubricating film characteristics with extremely high load-carrying capability. *Work performed under Martin Marietta Independent Research and Development Project D-8 1R Materials Technology. 116

  3. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  4. Inhomogeneites dans le Vent des Etoiles Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1992-01-01

    autres, une correlation entre le nombre d'inhomogeneites detectees et la vitesse terminale. Cette relation explique bien l'anti-correlation observee entre le niveau de variabilite spectroscopique, photometrique ou polarimetrique et la vitesse terminale. On estime pour toutes les etoiles une masse moyenne des inhomogeneites de 7 times 10^{ -10} Modot et un taux de perte de masse sous la forme d'inhomogeneites detectables qui correspond a 10% de la perte de masse du vent total. L'histogramme du nombre d'inhomogeneites en fonction du leur flux pourrait cependant predire l'existence d'un grand nombre de petites structures non-detectees ici a cause du rapport signal sur bruit relativement trop faible. Ce resultat interessant, qui demande cependant a etre verifie, suggere que le vent pourrait etre forme d'un ensemble quasi infini d'inhomogeneites. En ajustant une loi de puissance dans l'histogramme du flux de chaque etoile, on calcule, pour les plus grosses structures, un exposant = -2.4 +/- 0.2. On constate alors que cette valeur est compatible avec celle que predit la turbulence supersonique. Les structures observees dans les spectres des etoiles WR ont des caracteristiques tres semblables a celles des etoiles O. On propose alors que les perturbations observees chez ces 2 types d'etoiles ont une meme origine. Parmi les mecanismes deja proposes dans le passe pour expliquer les variations des etoiles O et WR (instabilites radiatives, pulsations et champ magnetique) on ne saurait encore dire <=uel, ou lesquels, correspondent le mieux aux observations. Dans les projets futurs, on propose de considerer aussi le role que pourrait avoir la turbulence pour expliquer les perturbations du vent stellaire.

  5. Fasting capillary glucose as a screening test for ruling out gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Valerie; Ye, Chang; Sermer, Mathew; Connelly, Philip W; Hanley, Anthony J G; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Objectif : Une approche courante pour le dépistage du diabète sucré gestationnel (DSG) consiste à soumettre toutes les femmes enceintes à une épreuve de charge en glucose (ECG, soit la glycémie une heure après l’ingestion de 50 g de glucose), suivie de la tenue d’une épreuve d’hyperglycémie provoquée par voie orale (EHPVO) diagnostique lorsque l’ECG s’avère positive (≥ 7,8 mmol/l). Puisque seul un faible sous-ensemble des femmes ayant obtenu des résultats positifs à l’ECG présenteront un DSG, un grand nombre de femmes sont donc inutilement soumises à une EHPVO. Dans ce contexte, nous avons émis l’hypothèse selon laquelle la mesure de la glycémie capillaire à jeun (GCJ) pourrait fournir une stratégie qui permettrait de réduire le nombre d’EHPVO menées inutilement. Ainsi, nous avons cherché à identifier un seuil de GCJ en deçà duquel la présence possible d’un DSG pourrait être écartée à la suite de l’obtention de résultats positifs à l’ECG, sans devoir avoir recours à l’EHPVO. Méthodes : Après avoir obtenu des résultats positifs à l’ECG, 888 femmes ont été soumises à la mesure de la GCJ avant la tenue d’une EHPVO. Nous avons évalué la valeur prévisionnelle de la GCJ pour ce qui est de l’identification des 209 femmes ayant obtenu un diagnostic de DSG à la suite de l’EHPVO. Résultats : La glycémie capillaire à jeun a été positivement associée à chacune des mesures de la glycémie obtenues au moyen de l’EHPVO (toutes P < 0,001) et s’est avérée inversement proportionnelle à l’insulinosensibilité et à la fonction des cellules β pancréatiques (toutes deux P < 0,001). La GCJ s’est avérée directement proportionnelle à la prévalence du DSG (P < 0,001). Toutefois, la surface sous la courbe de la fonction d’efficacité du récepteur pour ce qui est de la valeur prévisionnelle de la GCJ en matière de DSG était modeste (0,67). Bien que l’utilisation d’un seuil

  6. L’echographie trans-oesophagienne (ETO ) à l’Institut de cardiologie d’Abidjan: indications, resultats et rentabilité diagnostique

    PubMed Central

    Anzouan-Kacou, Jean-Baptiste; Konin, Christophe; Zobo, Charles-Philippe; Bamba-Kamagaté, Djenamba; N’cho-Mottoh, Marie-Paule; Boka, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectifs Préciser les indications, les principaux résultats et la rentabilité diagnostique de l’échographie trans-oesophagienne (ETO) à l’Institut de Cardiologie d’Abidjan (ICA). Méthode Analyse rétrospective de 103 compte-rendus d’ETO réalisés consécutivement de février 2007 à janvier 2011 à l’ICA. L’analyse a porté sur les caractéristiques d’âge, de sexe, la qualité des médecins prescripteurs, les indications et la rentabilité diagnostique (proportion de diagnostics confirmés soit le ratio anomalie retrouvée/nombre d’examen réalisés dans l’indication). Résultats La série se composait de 47 femmes (45.6%) et de 56 hommes (54.4%) d’âge moyen 37.9 ± 16.4 ans. Les médecins prescripteurs étaient majoritairement des cardiologues (n = 57 soit 55.4%). Les indications étaient dominées par la recherche ou l’évaluation d’une communication inter-auriculaire (34.9%), la recherche de thrombus dans un trouble du rythme supra-ventriculaire avant cardioversion (18.4%), le bilan étiologique d’un accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique (13.5%) et l’évaluation d’une insuffisance mitrale (bilan lésionnel, mécanisme et/ou quantification 9.7%). Dans la recherche d’une CIA, l’ETO était contributive dans 17.3% et dans la recherche de thrombus dans 21% des cas. Aucune étiologie embolique n’a été retrouvée dans les accidents vasculaires cérébraux ischémiques. Trois examens ont été réalisés en per opératoire pour évaluation du fonctionnement des valves mécaniques et de la qualité de plasties mitrales. Aucun incident ni accident n’a été signalé au cours des 103 examens. Conclusion Du fait du nombre élevé des cardiopathies congénitales découvertes à l’âge adulte, des troubles du rythme et des valvulopathies, l’ETO est appelée à se développer. Les indications doivent être bien posées de façon obtenir une rentabilité diagnostique optimale. Les prescriptions devraient toucher

  7. Mesures experimentales de l'impact des revetements hydrophobeset superhydrophobes sur la trainee et la portance d'un profil aerodynamique propre et glace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Eric

    Ce projet, realise a la demande du Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre, a pour but de mesurer et definir experimentalement l'impact de revetements hydrophobes sur les coefficients de trainee et de portance d'un profil NACA 0012. Pour ce faire, la balance aerodynamique du LIMA devait tout d'abord etre amelioree afin d'offrir une sensibilite suffisante pour realiser le projet. Plusieurs ameliorations ont ete faites, comme le changement des cellules de charge, la diminution du nombre de cellules de charge, le changement du cadre de la balance, etc. Une fois ces ameliorations terminees, la reproductibilite, l'exactitude et la sensibilite ont ete valides afin de s'assurer de la fiabilite des resultats offerts par la balance. Pour les angles d'attaque etudies avec les revetements, soient -6° et 0°, la balance a une reproductibilite de +/-2,06% a 360 000 de nombre de Reynolds. Pour valider la sensibilite, des essais a -6° et 0° d'angle d'attaque et des nombres de Reynolds de 360 000 et 500 000 ont ete faits avec des papiers sables. Les resultats de ces essais ont permis de, tracer des courbes de tendances du coefficient de trainee du NACA 0012 en fonction de la rugosite de surface et d'etablir la valeur de la sensibilite de la balance a +/-8 mu m. Cinq revetements populaires ont ete choisis pour l'experimentation, soient le Wearlon, le Staclean, le Hirec, le Phasebreak ainsi que le Nusil. Les revetements sont soumis aux memes conditions experimentales que les papiers sables, et une rugosite equivalente est trouvee par extrapolation des resultats. Cependant, les rugosites equivalentes de surfaces different entre -6° et 0°. Les essais avec le Staclean et le Hirec donnent des coefficients de trainee equivalent a ceux avec l'aluminium, alors que le Wearlon, le Nusil et le Phasebreak donnent une augmentation du coefficient de trainee de 13%, 17% et 25% respectivement par rapport a l'aluminium. Pour les coefficients de portance, la balance ne detecte pas l

  8. Impact of using physiotherapy self-referral in the medical-surgical neurological intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Catharine; Muc, Lisa; Heck, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectif : Décrire la pratique de référence en physiothérapie (PT) dans une unité des soins intensifs médico-chirurgicaux neurologiques (USIMSN) dans un grand hôpital d'enseignement de soins quaternaires avant et après la mise en œuvre de l'autoréférence en PT (avant et après respectivement). Méthodes : On a étudié les dossiers pour déterminer les patients de l'USIMSN qui ont reçu des traitement de PT avant (n=90) et après (n=100) afin de recueillir des données sur l'opportunité, le nombre de références et la durée du séjour (DDS) à l'USIMSN; on a procédé à des tests t pour déterminer les différences entre les groupes. Résultats : L'âge moyen des patients de l'USIMSN référés en PT s'établissait à 60,6 (ET 18,6) ans, et 59,5% étaient des hommes. En PT, les intéressés ont reçu des traitements portant sur l'appareil cardiorespiratoire (39% avant, 51,1% après), sur la mobilité (22% avant, 28,8% après) et combinés (39% avant, 20% après). Dans l'ensemble, le nombre de jours écoulés entre l'admission à l'USIMSN et le début des traitements de PT, et la DDS à l'USIMSN, ne présentaient pas de différence significative entre le traitement avant et après. Dans le cas des patients (n=50) qui ont bénéficié d'une autoréférence précoce en PT (dans les 7 jours de l'admission à l'USIMSN) après par rapport aux patients référés par un médecin seulement (n=83) avant, on a constaté une diminution importante (p=0,01) du temps écoulé avant le début du traitement PT qui s'est établie à 1,4 jour (3,2 avant, 1,8 après). Conclusions : L'autoréférence en PT a augmenté à la fois le nombre de patients bénéficiant d'un accès plus opportun aux services de PT et la prestation de traitements à un groupe reporté de patients qui n'avaient pas été référés auparavant. Des études futures doivent évaluer l'incidence des méthodes de référence dans tout un éventail de groupes cliniques.

  9. Emerging and Reemeriging Human Bunyavirus Infections and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Laura J.; Anyamba, Assaf; LaBeaud, A. Desiree

    2013-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. Many of these viruses cause severe clinical outcomes in human and animal populations, the results of which can be detrimental to public health and the economies of affected communities. The threat to endemic and non-native regions is particularly high, and national and international public health agencies are often on alert. Many of the bunyaviruses cause severe clinical disease including hemorrhage, organ failure, and death leading to their high-risk classification. Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, a classification that includes many bunyaviruses, are immediately notifiable in the European Union. The emergence of new and reemerging bunyaviruses has resulted in numerous human and animal fatalities. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa (1997/1998, 2006/2007), Sudan (2007), Southern Africa (2008-2010), Kenya (1997/1998, 2006/2007) (Anyamba et al., 2009, 2010; Breiman et al., 2010; Grobbelaar et al., 2011; Woods et al., 2002) and Saudi Arabia & Yemen (2000, 2010) (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2000; Hjelle and Glass, 2000; Madani et al., 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. Climate variability (precipitation and temperature in particular) greatly influence the ecological conditions that drive arboviral disease outbreaks across the globe. Several human and animal disease outbreaks have been influenced by changes in climate associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon including the bunyaviruses RVFV and Sin

  10. Using tuberculosis patient characteristics to predict future cases with matching genotype results.

    PubMed

    Oeltmann, J E; Click, E S; Moonan, P K

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Etats-Unis.Cadre : On ne sait pas si les caractéristiques d'un cas de tuberculose (TB) ou du patient permettent de prévoir la probabilité de contamination dans l'avenir.Objectif : Estimer la probabilité de cas présentant un génotype similaire dans le même conté et dans une période de 2 ans suivant le cas index.Schéma : Nous avons étudié tous les cas de TB avec génotypage déclarés aux Etats-Unis entre 2004 et 2010. Les scores prédictifs ont été calculés en fonction des caractéristiques du patient en divisant le nombre de patients qui n'étaient pas le dernier cas d'un groupement de génotypes au niveau d'un conté par le nombre total de patients.Résultats : Le risque global de nouveau cas lié à un autre cas était de 30,8% pendant les 2 années suivant l'année de déclaration de tout nouveau cas. Ces contaminations ont été détectées dans 34,7% des circonstances après diagnostic d'un cas à frottis positif, 51,9%, après diagnostic d'un patient sans domicile fixe et 45,2%, après diagnostic d'un patient toxicomane. Les scores prédictifs variaient en fonction de l'ethnie (Blancs 13,9% ; Amérindiens/Hawaïens 43,8%), l'âge (>65 ans 13,1% ; 0–4 ans 43%) et étaient plus élevé chez les patients nés aux Etats-Unis.Conclusion: Les facteurs comportementaux et socio-démographiques peuvent contribuer à prévoir la probabilité d'infection de cas dans le futur et peuvent servir à prioriser les recherches de sujets contacts.

  11. No Differences in Outcomes in People with Low Back Pain Who Met the Clinical Prediction Rule for Lumbar Spine Manipulation When a Pragmatic Non-thrust Manipulation Was Used as the Comparator.

    PubMed

    Learman, Kenneth; Showalter, Christopher; O'Halloran, Bryan; Donaldson, Megan; Cook, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Étudier les différences au niveau de la douleur et de la capacité entre les patients traités par manipulation avec pression (MP) et ceux qui sont traités par manipulation sans pression (MSP) chez un groupe de patients souffrant de lombalgie mécanique (LM) qui ont réagi au cours d'une séance après une évaluation initiale et satisfaisaient à la règle de prévision clinique (RPC). Méthodes : On a extrait des données sur 71 patients qui satisfaisaient à la RPC d'une base de données sur des patients d'un essai contrôlé randomisé de plus grande envergure comparant la MP et la MSP. Au cours des deux premières visites, le traitement a comporté une MP ou une MSP (selon l'affectation) et un programme normalisé d'exercice domicile. L'analyse des données a inclus des statistiques descriptives et une analyse bidirectionnelle des écarts portant sur les effets à l'intérieur d'un même groupe et entre les groupes en ce qui a trait à la douleur et à l'incapacité, ainsi que le nombre total de visites, le nombre total de jours de soins et la rapidité du rétablissement. Résultats : On n'a constaté aucune différence entre les groupes au niveau de la douleur ou de l'incapacité pour le traitement MSP par rapport au traitement MP (p=0,55), mais on a constaté des effets chez les mêmes sujets pour les deux groupes (p<0,001). Conclusions : Cette analyse secondaire indique que les patients qui satisfont aux critères de la RPC bénéficient autant d'une MSP que d'une MP.

  12. The relief operation in puno district, peru, after the 1986 floods of lake titicaca.

    PubMed

    Sztorch, L; Gicquel, V; Desenclos, J C

    1989-03-01

    The 1985-86 rainy season in Peru was disastrous due to very high precipitation. Because of the unusual level of floods in the Lake Titicaca area and the increasing number of affected people, the Peruvian Government established an emergency relief plan and appealed for international aid. At that time the situation was already very critical. The lack of preparedness made the implementation of the relief operation difficult. Our paper describes the intervention of a French N.G.O. (Médecins Sans Trontières), requested by the Peruvian authorities. The early phase of the relief programme and its methodology are described. Problems within this relief programme and the further long-term development action that should be undertaken are discussed. Au Pérou, la saison des pluies 85-86 a été catastrophique par l'importance des précipitations. Au cours des premiers mois de l'année 1986, devant l'ampleur inhabituelle des inondations dans la région du lac Titicaca et le nombre sans cesse croissant de sinistrés, le gouvernement pbruvien décide de mettre en route un plan national de secours d'urgence enfaisant appel à l'aide internationale. Mais la réponse est déjá tardive et le manque de mesures préventives fait que l'organisation des secours se heurte à un grand nombre de difficultés. Notre étude se situe dans le cadre de l'intervention d'une organisation non gouvernementale européenne, sollicitée par le gouvernement péruvien pour une collaboration dans la phase des premiers secours à cette population. Les problémes posés lors de cette opération et la suite à donner à l'assistance a moyen et a long terme sont discutés.

  13. Active and passive case detection strategies for the control of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, A K; Harries, A D; Hinderaker, S G; Zachariah, R; Ahmed, B; Shah, G N; Khogali, M A; Das, G I; Ahmed, E M; Ritmeijer, K

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Deux sous-districts du Bangladesh, Fulbaria et Trishai, où la leishmaniose est hyper-endémique.Objectif : Déterminer 1) le nombre de patients ayant eu un diagnostic de leishmaniose viscérale (VL) et de leishmaniose dermique post-kala azar (PKDL) grâce à une stratégie de détection active des cas (ACD) à Fulbaria et à une stratégie de détection passive (PCD) à Trishai, et 2) le temps écoulé entre les symptômes et le diagnostic dans le sous-district à ACD.Schéma : Etude descriptive transversale des patients diagnostiqués entre mai 2010 et décembre 2011. La stratégie ACD comportait une éducation des communautés et des stratégies avancées ciblant les foyers des patients index grâce à un dépistage basé sur les symptômes et au test rK-39 pour les patients suspects.Résultats : Dans les districts de stratégie ACD (Fulbaria) et le sous-district de stratégie PCD (Trishai), 1088 et 756 patients respectivement ont eu un diagnostic de VL et 1145 et 37 respectivement ont eu un diagnostic de PKDL. Dans ce sous-district, le délai médian de diagnostic était de 60 jours pour tous les patients atteints de VL, qu'ils soient référés par du personnel des stratégies avancées ou viennent d'eux-mêmes. Il était respectivement de 345 et 360 jours pour la PKDL.Conclusion : Une stratégie ACD au niveau d'un sous-district permet de dépister un nombre accru de VL et encore plus de PKDL. Comme la PKDL constitue un réservoir d'infection, la stratégie d'ACD et le traitement des cas dépistés peuvent contribuer à l'élimination régionale de la leishmaniose du sous-continent indien.

  14. Assessment of the quality of sample labelling for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huertas, Pablo; Tordera-Baviera, María; Martínez-Nieto, Concepción; Benito-Zazo, Natalia; García-Robles, Ana; Poveda-Andrés, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de las etiquetas de muestras para ensayos clínicos mediante la normativa vigente y analizar su posible correlación con las características específicas de cada muestra. Método: Estudio transversal multicéntrico en el que se analizaron las muestras de ensayos clínicos de dos hospitales de tercer nivel. Se estudió la presencia de los once ítems de la Directiva 2003/94/CE, el nombre del ensayo y la dosis en la portada de la etiqueta como variables de calidad del etiquetado. Se analizó la influencia de las características propias de la muestra con la calidad del etiquetado. Resultado: Se analizaron un total de 503 muestras de 220 ensayos. La calidad media del etiquetado, entendido como el porcentaje de ítems del Anexo 13, fue del 91,9%. El 6,6% no contenía el nombre de la muestra en la cara externa de la etiqueta, mientras que a un 9,7% les faltaba la dosis. Las muestras con presentación de tipo ensayo clínico presentaron mayor calidad (p < 0,049), el enmascaramiento disminuía la calidad (p = 0,017) y la identificación por número de kit o por paciente la aumentaban (p < 0,01). La variable promotor fue la que más variabilidad introdujo en el análisis. Conclusiones: La calidad media del etiquetado es adecuada en la mayoría de las muestras del ensayo clínico. Resulta preocupante la ausencia de información esencial, como el código del ensayo clínico y el período de validez, en algunas muestras que pueden ser fuente potencial de errores de dispensación o de administración.

  15. Radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante des adénocarcinomes gastriques: à propos de 34 cas et d'une revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    James, Laurianne; Dossou, Sepos; Bellfiq, Sarah; Irigo, Joëlle; Ogandaga, Etienne; Mouden, Karima; Loughmari, Saïda; Filali, Dounia; El Majjaoui, Sanaa; Kebdani, Tayeb; Ahid, Samir; Benjafaar, Nourredine

    2014-01-01

    Notre étude consistera en l’évaluation du pronostic des patients porteurs d'un adénocarcinome gastrique opérés et traités par radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante en technique conformationnelle. Entre Janvier 2007 et Décembre 2011, 34 patients ont reçu après une chirurgie radicale (R0 ou R1), un à trois cycles de 5-Fluoro-uracile associé à de l'Elvorine en adjuvant, suivi d'une radio-chimiothérapie selon le même protocole à la dose de 45Gy, puis de deux cycles de chimiothérapie à un mois d'intervalle après la radio-chimiothérapie concomitante. Dans le groupe d’étude, il y avait 34 patients d’âge médian 50 ans (47-58), avec un sexe ratio (H/F) de 2,4. Une chirurgie de type R1 a été réalisée dans 26,5% des cas, et 53% des patients étaient de stade III-IV. Le rapport nombres de ganglions positifs, sur nombre de ganglions prélevés étaient > 0,4 dans 26,5% des cas. Durant le traitement mené à terme, une neutropénie de grade III a été observée chez quatre patients, avec des troubles digestifs (nausées, vomissement, ou diarrhée) de grade I/II dans la majorité des cas. Après un suivi médian de 20 mois, 70,6% des patients étaient en survie sans rechute, et 29,4% ont présenté une récidive métastatique; la survie globale à 5 ans était de 35,4% et la survie sans progression de 58,7%. La radio-chimiothérapie concomitante postopératoire pourrait être un régime efficace et sûre chez les patients ayant bénéficié d'une gastrectomie à visée curative dans le cancer de l'estomac localement avancé. PMID:25709728

  16. Cancer pulmonaire: parcours de soins au service de radiothérapie à l'institut national d'oncologie de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Lachgar, Amine; Sahli, Nadir; Toulba, Ahmedou; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est d'expliquer la discordance entre le nombre important de patients présentant un cancer du poumon localement avancé demandeurs de consultations en service de radiothérapie et le faible nombre de patients effectivement traité. Il s'agit d'une étude décrivant le circuit de soins des patients admis au service de radiothérapie de l'Institut national d'oncologie de Rabat entre le premier mars 2011 et le 29 février 2012 pour la prise en charge d'un cancer du poumon inopérable et/ou non résécable. On a utilisé pour la collecte des données les dossiers cliniques, le registre des nouveaux patients du bureau des admissions de l'institut ainsi que les registres des rendez-vous de consultation et de traitement du service de radiothérapie. 117 patients ont été collectés. Le stade de la maladie n'a pu être déterminé que chez 102 patients, on a ainsi trouvé 53 cancers non métastatiques et 49 cancers métastatiques. Chez les patients avec un cancer non métastatique une radiothérapie palliative a été réalisée chez 9 patients, chez 2 patients la radiothérapie a été contre indiquée, une chimiothérapie néo-adjuvante a été réalisée chez 7 patients et la radio-chimiothérapie concomitante d'emblée fut proposée à 35 patients, mais 34 patients seulement ont pu avoir leur première séance de radiothérapie à visée curative. Cette étude nous a permis de décrire le circuit de soins de nos patients en repérant les points critiques, auxquels on propose des mesures correctives. PMID:26523190

  17. Manipulation coherente de qubits de spin dans une boite quantique triple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudreau, Louis

    Nous presentons dans cette these une etude detaillee du moment magnetique intrinseque de l'electron, i.e. le spin electronique, incluant la manipulation quantique coherente des etats de spin de trois electrons couples. A cette fin, nous utilisons des boites quantiques laterales pour confiner les electrons. Ces nano-structures, d'une grandeur autour de 1 pm, permettent de confiner un nombre precis d'electrons de facon controlee, allant jusqu'a zero electrons. Les developpements technologiques et d'ingeniosite durant la derniere decennie ont permis de coupler trois boites quantiques, ainsi l'interaction entre plusieurs electrons confines peut etre controlee comme par exemple le couplage quantique tunnel et l'interaction d'echange entre les spins de chacun d'entre eux. A l'aide de boites quantiques couplees, il est possible de realiser des experiences dans plusieurs domaines de la physique moderne : les etats up et down du spin des electrons confines peuvent etre utilisees comme etats quantiques binaires (qubits) dans le domaine de l'informatique quantique, la non-localite quantique peut etre testee en separant spatialement deux electrons enchevetres, il est possible de creer des 'courants de spin enchevetres' utiles en spintronique, et bien d'autres. La manipulation coherente des etats de spin du systeme a trois electrons se fait de facon purement electrique grace a des pulses a haute frequence qui permettent d'augmenter le couplage entre les electrons et de faire la mesure de l'etat resultant apres la manipulation. Nous utilisons l'interaction hyperfine entre les spins des electrons et ceux des noyaux du cristal dans lequel ils resident pour creer les rotations quantiques entre les etats, notamment les etats |Q +3/2> et (D+1/2>. Les resultats obtenus indiquent un temps de coherence de l'ordre de 10 ns. Ces experiences demontrent un niveau de controle sans precedant de boites quantiques triples et pavent la voie vers des nano-structures plus sophistiquees dans

  18. Écologie des soins de santé au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de santé et de leur utilisation, facile d’accès et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec d’autres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux d’utilisation des soins de santé entre les provinces en utilisant des données d’enquêtes et des renseignements administratifs sur la santé. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise santé (présence de problèmes chroniques) et d’utilisation des soins de santé (contacts avec des médecins de famille, avec d’autres médecins spécialistes, avec des infirmières et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalisées en fonction de l’âge et du genre. Résultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant d’au moins 1 problème chronique variait de 524 au Québec à 638 en Nouvelle-Écosse; les contacts avec un médecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Québec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec d’autres médecins spécialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmières se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Québec. Le nombre de séjours à l’hôpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions étaient semblables d’une province à l’autre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnaître les distinctions entre les provinces pour éclairer les politiques sur la santé dans l’ensemble du pays. Les différences persistaient lorsque les taux étaient normalisés en fonction de la composition démographique variable selon l’âge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article présente une méthodologie simple à l’aide de données publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province à examiner, à l’avenir, l

  19. Oncology Rehabilitation Provision and Practice Patterns across Canada.

    PubMed

    Canestraro, Alyssa; Nakhle, Anthony; Stack, Malissa; Strong, Kelly; Wright, Ashley; Beauchamp, Marla; Berg, Katherine; Brooks, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : La réadaptation est de plus en plus reconnue comme une intervention thérapeutique importante pour les personnes aux prises avec un cancer. Le principal objectif de cette étude était d'analyser les modèles de pratique actuels pour la prestation de réadaptation en oncologie au Canada. Méthode : Une enquête descriptive transversale a été réalisée en ligne auprès d'établissements canadiens offrant des traitements contre le cancer ou répertoriés comme établissant des services de réadaptation aux personnes souffrant de cancer, au cours ou après leur traitement (centres d'oncologie, hôpitaux de réadaptation, centres de santé communautaires et cliniques privées). Résultats : Des 116 établissements contactés, 62 ont rempli le questionnaire et de ce nombre, 20 ont dit être dotés d'un programme de réadaptation en oncologie. La majorité des répondants ont dit ne pas répondre entièrement aux besoins de leur clientèle en matière de réadaptation. Les programmes de réadaptation y sont offerts par des équipes multidisciplinaires qui comportent un physiothérapeute dans la majorité des cas. Le financement et la disponibilité des ressources ont été déterminés comme étant les principaux obstacles au développement de réels programmes de réadaptation en oncologie. Conclusions : Les programmes officiels de réadaptation en oncologie semblent rares, malgré un nombre croissant de preuves que ce type d'intervention offre des avantages tangibles dans le cadre du continuum de survie au cancer.

  20. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  1. Screening retreatment tuberculosis patients for drug resistance in mid-west Nepal: how well are we doing?

    PubMed

    Tharu, M B; Harries, A D; Goel, S; Srivastava, S; Kumar, A M V; Adhikari, M; Shrestha, B; Maharjan, B; Khadka, H

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : La tuberculose multi-résistante (TB-MDR, définie comme une résistance à l'isoniazide et à la rifampicine) est mal détectée au Népal; une des raisons pourrait être le mauvais fonctionnement des services de culture et de tests de sensibilité aux médicaments (CDST) pour les tuberculeux en retraitement.Objectifs : Déterminer parmi les patients tuberculeux du Centre Ouest du Népal 1) le nombre de patients enregistrés pour un traitement de juillet 2011 à juillet 2012; 2) le nombre de patients ayant eu un examen de crachats pour CSDT au laboratoire central de référence (CRL) à Katmandou ainsi que les résultats; et 3) le délai de fourniture et de réception des échantillons.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte par revue des registres de traitement et de laboratoire du centre de référence de la TB Nepalgunj et du CRL.Résultats : Sur 431 patients en retraitement, 66 ont fourni des échantillons de crachats dont 63 (15% du total) sont parvenus au CRL. Parmi eux, 39 (62%) étaient positifs; 13 patients (33%) avaient une TB-MDR. Les résultats du CDST sont parvenus au centre de référence de la TB pour 19 patients. Le délai médian entre l'envoi des échantillons et la réception des résultats au centre de référence de la TB était de 119 jours.Conclusion : Dans le Centre Ouest du Népal, moins de 10% des patients ont eu des résultats d'examens de CSDT, ce qui induisait un sous-diagnostic de la TB-MDR dans cette région. Il est urgent de trouver des solutions à ce problème.

  2. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert(®) MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Baral, S; Shrestha, P; Puri, M; Kandel, S; Lamichanne, B; Elsey, H; Brouwer, M; Goel, S; Chinnakali, P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Vingt-deux districts du Népal où des activités intensifiées de recherche des cas (ICF) de la tuberculose (TB) ont été mises en œuvre au sein de groupes à risque sous l'égide du projet TB REACH en collaboration avec le programme national TB entre juillet 2013 et novembre 2015.Objectifs : Evaluer le rendement du dépistage de la TB grâce à un algorithme basé sur la microscopie de frottis suivie d'un test Xpert(®) MTB/RIF.Schéma : Etude descriptive basée sur des données recueillies en routine.Résultats : Sur un total de 145 679 individus dépistés, 28 574 (19,6%) ont été présumés atteints de TB ; 1239 (4,3%) d'entre eux ont eu une confirmation du diagnostic de TB ; parmi ces derniers, 1195 (96%) ont mis en route un traitement anti-tuberculose. Le rendement a été le plus élevé parmi les personnes vivant avec le virus l'immunodéficience humaine (PVVIH) (6,1%) suivies par les contacts domiciliaires (3,5%) et les habitants des bidonvilles (0,5%). Dans d'autres groupes à risque comme les prisonniers, les travailleurs d'usine, les réfugiés et les diabétiques, le rendement a été inférieur à 0,5%. Le nombre de personnes à dépister (NNS) pour diagnostiquer un cas de TB active a été de 17 pour les PVVIH, de 29 pour les contacts domiciliaires et de 197 pour les habitants des bidonvilles urbains. Sur 11 525 patients émanant soit du programme ICF soit du dépistage de routine, 112 (1%) ont eu un diagnostic de TB multirésistante.Conclusion : Le rendement en termes de cas de TB dépistés parmi les groupes à risque comme les PVVIH et les contacts domiciliaires a été substantiel. Même si ce rendement a été modeste parmi les habitants des bidonvilles, ceux-ci justifient néanmoins une intervention en raison de leur nombre élevé et de leur médiocre accès aux soins.

  3. Investigation experimentale de l'ecoulement et des performances thermiques du nanofluide eau-oxyde de cuivre dans un Micro-Canal Chauffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbault, Benjamin

    Cette these de maitrise presentee par articles visait a etudier le comportement hydraulique et thermique d'un ecoulement de nanofluides en micro-canal chauffe. Nous avons etudie premierement de l'eau distillee, ensuite des melanges de particules d'oxyde de cuivre (taille 29nm) avec de l'eau distillee en concentrations particulaires volumiques 4.5%, 1.03%, et 0.24% (CuO-H2O). L'ecoulement force des differents fluides a ete realise au moyen de pompes a engrenages au sein d'un circuit ferme, comprenant un micro-canal a section rectangulaire (e=1.116mm,1=25.229mm) chauffe sur deux faces paralleles via des cartouches electriques, deux echangeurs de chaleurs en serie, ainsi qu'un debitmetre magnetique. A notre connaissance peu d'etudes sur l'ecoulement de nanofluides d'oxyde de cuivre-eau en micro-canal rectangulaire chauffe sont disponibles dans la litterature, cette recherche sert de contribution. Premierement, une validation avec la litterature a ete effectuee pour le cas d'un ecoulement d'eau entre plaques planes paralleles chauffees. Des essais hydrauliques ont ete realises pour une gamme du nombre de Reynolds allant jusqu'a Re=5000 a temperature constante. Par la suite des essais thermiques jusqu'a Re=2500 ont consiste en une elevation de temperature fixe (20.5°C a 30.5°C) a travers la longueur du micro-canal sous un regime stationnaire. Les resultats ont demontre une augmentation de la perte de pression et du coefficient de frottement des nanofluides sur l'eau pour un meme debit. Une telle augmentation de perte de pression etait de +70%, +25%, et +0 a 30% respectivement pour les concentrations 4.50%, 1.03%, et 0.24%. Concernant la transition laminaire a turbulent les comportements semblaient indiquer une valeur critique semblable entre l'eau et les differentes concentrations avec et sans chauffage a un nombre de Reynolds critique Rem 1000. Nous avons observe une legere augmentation du coefficient de convection thermique avec le debit massique pour les faibles

  4. Risk factors for falls in older adults with lower extremity arthritis: a conceptual framework of current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Cathy M; Gyurcsik, Nancy C

    2012-01-01

    Objectif : Le nombre de Canadiens de 65 ans et plus augmentera au cours des 20 prochaines années et la prévalence des maladies chroniques, dont l'arthrite, sera en hausse, tout comme le nombre de chutes. Bien que des facteurs de risques de chute connus soient associés à l'arthrose du genou ou de la hanche, une somme minimale de recherches a évalué les risques ou les taux de chutes et de fractures chez ce segment de la population. En conséquence, l'objectif de cette étude était de dresser un résumé des recherches réalisées sur les risques de chute ou de fracture chez les adultes plus âgés aux prises avec de l'arthrose au genou ou à la hanche, et d'élaborer un cadre conceptuel pour le dépistage et l'évaluation des risques de chute. Méthode : La Classification internationale du fonctionnement, du handicap et de la santé (CIF), qui forme les directives cliniques pour le dépistage des risques de chute, et une revue documentaire sélective ont été utilisées. Résultats : Il existe des lacunes dans nos connaissances relatives aux risques de chute et de fracture au sein de ce segment de la population. La dégradation de la performance musculaire, de l'équilibre et de la mobilité a été établie, mais on sait peu de choses en ce qui a trait aux répercussions possibles de facteurs contextuels personnels ou environnementaux sur les risques de chute ou de fracture. L'activité physique peut aider à prévenir les chutes, mais la non-adhésion des patients à un programme d'activité physique pose problème. Conclusion : Une évaluation des risques de chute chez les adultes plus âgés souffrant d'arthrose du genou ou de la hanche est nécessaire. La promotion de l'activité physique régulière, en se concentrant sur les facteurs contextuels personnels propres à la maladie ou à l'activité, pourrait aider directement la planification du traitement.

  5. La violence sur les réseaux canadiens de télévision

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Guy

    2003-01-01

    La question des effets de la violence à la télévision occupe une place très importante dans l’opinion publique depuis les vingt dernières années, et des centaines d’études y ont été consacrées. Plusieurs chercheurs concluent à une influence négative de cette violence sur le comportement. Le public, les diffuseurs et les autorités politiques ont tous endossé l’idée de réduire la quantité totale de violence présentée au petit écran – en particulier dans les émissions accessibles aux enfants. Nous avons analysé un millier d’émissions de fiction présentées entre 1993 et 2001 sur les principaux réseaux généralistes de télévision au Canada : TVA et TQS ainsi que CTV et Global pour les réseaux privés français et anglais, ainsi que Radio-Canada français et anglais pour les réseaux publics. La méthodologie utilisée est l’analyse de contenu classique, où l’acte de violence constitue l’unité d’analyse. Les données recueillies démontrent que la quantité de violence a augmenté régulièrement depuis 1993, malgré la volonté affirmée des télédiffuseurs de présenter une programmation moins violente. C’est le cas du nombre brut d’actes et du nombre d’actes à l’heure, qui est lui aussi en forte croissance. Les réseaux privés véhiculent trois fois plus de violence que les réseaux publics. On constate également qu’une très forte proportion d’actes de violence figure dans des émissions qui commencent avant 21 h, et que de nombreux enfants y sont probablement exposés. Nous signalons finalement la place de plus en plus importante occupée par la violence psychologique. PMID:20020031

  6. Les campagnes de dépistage du VIH, une stratégie efficace pour l’accès universel à la prévention et au traitement ? L’expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, J.F.; Desclaux, A.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Lougué, M.; Kéré, S.; Obermeyer, C.; Simaga, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectifs l’augmentation du taux de personnes qui connaissent leur statut VIH est un impératif, notamment en Afrique subsaharienne, ce qui impose d’évaluer les stratégies utilisées pour accroître la fréquentation des services de dépistage. Cet article vise à faire le bilan de la pertinence, de la faisabilité et de l’efficacité des campagnes nationales de dépistagemenées entre 2006 et 2010 au Burkina Faso. Méthodologie une analyse de toutes les données de fréquentation du conseil dépistage sur cette période a été faite, couplée à des entretiens avec les principaux acteurs intervenant dans le dépistage. Résultats les résultats montrent que les huit campagnes de dépistage organisées sur la période ont permis à 487 727 personnes de faire leur test VIH. Ce nombre représente 50 % du nombre total de personnes ayant fait leur test et contribue à hauteur de 24,6 % au dépistage des personnes séropositives identifiées au cours de cette période. Les campagnes ont touché des populations difficiles à atteindre (en particulier les jeunes), à un coût moindre. Conclusions cette stratégie est donc pertinente pour identifier les personnes VIH+. Son intérêt pour la prévention, important selon les soignants et au vu des populations jeunes qui y participent, devrait être mesuré par des études complémentaires. Les campagnes sont efficaces et coût-efficaces même dans un pays de niveau de prévalence faible. Ces résultats soulignent l’intérêt de la synergie entre les associations et les services de santé dans l’offre de services de conseil et dépistage. PMID:24681563

  7. Patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus: préfèrent-ils traiter le diabète ou l'hypertension artérielle?

    PubMed Central

    Aassri, Hind El; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2014-01-01

    Les diabétologues sont confrontés à des diabétiques le plus souvent hypertendus et polypathologiques, les rendant peu observants des différentes thérapeutiques prescrites. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer l'observance au traitement chez les patients diabétiques hypertendus. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective transversale. La population est faite de patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus vus aux urgences, à la consultation ou hospitalisés au service d'Endocrinologie. L’échantillon est non probabiliste. La population est faite de 61 patients, d'un âge moyen de 48,9 ans avec une hypertension (HTA) de type systolique dans 59%, diastolique dans 16% et systolo-diastolique dans 25% des cas. Les patients sont équilibrés sur le plan glycémique dans 65% des cas, alors que l’équilibre tensionnel n'est atteint que dans 41% des cas. En ce qui concerne l'observance thérapeutique, 24% des patients sont observant totalement au traitement prescrit, 33% ne sont pas observant au traitement et 43% ont une observance partielle au traitement dont 73.68% préfèrent le traitement destiné au diabète et 26,32% prennent le traitement anti hypertenseur. Les facteurs altérant l'observance au traitement médicamenteux sont un surcoût du traitement un nombre élevé de médicaments prescrits, un nombre important de prises quotidiennes de médicaments, une intolérance au traitement et une mauvaise information du patient sur la justification du traitement. Enfin, les patients diabétiques hypertendus sont classés comme patients à haut risque cardiovasculaire ce qui impose l'application de stratégies thérapeutiques parfois lourdes. Cette polymédication entrave la qualité de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ayant une pathologie chronique dont la compliance au traitement constitue la pierre angulaire de la prise en charge, et ce pour plusieurs raisons en particulier d'ordre économique. PMID:25396019

  8. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Chapitre 1 : Contraception au Canada Déclarations sommaires  1. Les Canadiennes sont exposées à des risques de grossesse non planifiée pendant une partie considérable de leur vie. (II-2)  2. Les modes efficaces de contraception sont sous-utilisés au Canada, particulièrement au sein des populations vulnérables. (II-2)  3. Les modes de contraception réversible à action prolongée, dont les implants contraceptifs et la contraception intra-utérine (dispositifs / systèmes à libération de cuivre ou de lévonorgestrel), sont les modes de contraception réversible les plus efficaces; de plus, ils comptent les taux les plus élevés de poursuite du traitement. (II-1)  4. Au Canada à l’heure actuelle, nous ne recueillons pas de données fiables qui permettraient d’établir le taux d’utilisation des modes de contraception, le taux d’avortement et la prévalence des grossesses non planifiées chez les femmes en âge de procréer. (II-2)  5. L’octroi d’une subvention universelle destinée aux modes de contraception, à l’instar de bon nombre d’autres pays et de quelques provinces canadiennes, pourrait générer des économies pour le système de santé. (II-2)  6. Dans le cas des contraceptifs, les processus d’homologation de Santé Canada ont été moins efficaces que ceux d’autres organismes d’homologation, en plus d’être moins efficaces que les processus qu’elle a elle-même mis en vigueur en ce qui concerne d’autres catégories de produits pharmaceutiques. (II-2)  7. L’offre de contraceptifs et de services de planification familiale par des professionnels paramédicaux (tels que les sages-femmes, les infirmières autorisées, les infirmières praticiennes et les pharmaciens) ayant bénéficié d’une formation adéquate est faisable et sûre. (II-2) Recommandations  1. Les services de counseling traitant de la contraception

  9. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Chapitre 1 : Contraception au Canada Déclarations sommaires  1. Les Canadiennes sont exposées à des risques de grossesse non planifiée pendant une partie considérable de leur vie. (II-2)  2. Les modes efficaces de contraception sont sous-utilisés au Canada, particulièrement au sein des populations vulnérables. (II-2)  3. Les modes de contraception réversible à action prolongée, dont les implants contraceptifs et la contraception intra-utérine (dispositifs / systèmes à libération de cuivre ou de lévonorgestrel), sont les modes de contraception réversible les plus efficaces; de plus, ils comptent les taux les plus élevés de poursuite du traitement. (II-1)  4. Au Canada à l’heure actuelle, nous ne recueillons pas de données fiables qui permettraient d’établir le taux d’utilisation des modes de contraception, le taux d’avortement et la prévalence des grossesses non planifiées chez les femmes en âge de procréer. (II-2)  5. L’octroi d’une subvention universelle destinée aux modes de contraception, à l’instar de bon nombre d’autres pays et de quelques provinces canadiennes, pourrait générer des économies pour le système de santé. (II-2)  6. Dans le cas des contraceptifs, les processus d’homologation de Santé Canada ont été moins efficaces que ceux d’autres organismes d’homologation, en plus d’être moins efficaces que les processus qu’elle a elle-même mis en vigueur en ce qui concerne d’autres catégories de produits pharmaceutiques. (II-2)  7. L’offre de contraceptifs et de services de planification familiale par des professionnels paramédicaux (tels que les sages-femmes, les infirmières autorisées, les infirmières praticiennes et les pharmaciens) ayant bénéficié d’une formation adéquate est faisable et sûre. (II-2) Recommandations  1. Les services de counseling traitant de la contraception

  10. Acides gras oméga-3 et dyslexie

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question À la lumière de la hausse du nombre d’enfants d’âge scolaire ayant reçu un diagnostic de dyslexie, quel est le rôle des suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 dans la prise en charge de cette affection? Réponse La dyslexie est le trouble d’apprentissage le plus répandu et elle est connue pour ses causes multifactorielles. De récentes données probantes pointent vers une corrélation entre le métabolisme défectueux des acides gras polyinsaturés et les troubles de neurodéveloppement, tels que la dyslexie. Bien que l’administration de suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 aux enfants dyslexiques ait fait l’objet d’études, les données probantes sont limitées. Les critères diagnostiques homogènes de dyslexie, les mesures objectives de carence en acides gras et la surveillance étroite de l’apport alimentaire ne sont que quelques-uns des facteurs pouvant améliorer la qualité de la recherche dans ce domaine.

  11. 13C and 31P NMR for the diagnosis of muscular phosphorylase-kinase deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehenson, P.; Duboc, D.; Laforet, P.; Eymard, B.; Lombès, A.; Fardeau, M.; Brunet, P.; Syrota, A.

    1998-02-01

    To further develop and specify the range of medical applications of in vivo NMR spectroscopy for the study of myopathies, it is ncessary to study the largest number of well characterized cases. We here report on the 31P and 13C NMR study of a purely muscular form of phosphorylase-kinase (PK) deficiency. Abnormalities were observed that agree with and increase our pathophysiological knowledge, in particular on the activation of phosphorylase and PK. Also, the abnormalities are different from those found in other clinically similar metabolic myopathies and could be used for the differential diagnosis. Afin de continuer à développer et préciser les applications médicales de la spectroscopie RMN in vivo, il faut étudier le plus grand nombre possible de cas bien caractérisés. Nous avons étudié ici une forme purement musculaire de déficit en phosphorylase-kinase (PK) par RMN du phosphore 31 et du carbone 13. Les altérations observées sont en accord avec et augmentent nos connaissances physiopathologiques, par exemple concernant l'activation de la phosphorylase et PK. Par ailleurs, la combinaison d'altérations observées en 31P et 13C est différente de celle retrouvée dans d'autres myopathies métaboliques cliniquement semblables et pourrait être utilisée pour le diagnostic différentiel.

  12. Modélisation macroscopique des milieux stratifiés conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matagne, E.; Conard, J. Ph.

    1997-11-01

    Many laminated structures are recognised in Electrotechnics : magnetic cores, flat conductors windings, slotted surfaces... These structures exhibit macroscopic properties, as magnetic than electric ones. This paper shows how these characteristics can be obtained by homogenisation. It deals with linear materials but taking into account the effect of eddy currents, as well on the macroscopic magnetic permeability as on the macroscopic electric conductivity, which become then complex numbers. An example of use of the macroscopic properties is provided. On peut identifier en électrotechnique de nombreuses structures stratifiées: noyaux magnétiques, bobinages formés de conducteurs plats, surfaces encochées... Ces structures présentent des propriétés macroscopiques tant magnétiques qu'électriques. Cet article montre comment ces caractéristiques peuvent être obtenues par homogénéisation. Il se limite au cas de matériaux linéaires mais en prenant en compte l'effet des courants de Foucault aussi bien sur la perméabilité magnétique macroscopique que sur la conductivité électrique macroscopique, grandeurs qui deviennent alors des nombres complexes. Un exemple d'utilisation des caractéristiques macroscopiques est fourni.

  13. Prediction du transfert thermique parietal pour la chambre de combustion d'une turbine a gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Pierre

    Des travaux ont demontre que la temperature de paroi pouvait etre predite avec precision (+/-6 a 10%) pour une chambre de combustion a pleine-echelle. Pour les resultats obtenus d'une autre chambre, aussi identique mais de plus petit diametre, la prediction de temperature de paroi n'offrait pas la meme precision de calcul. Cette etude est limitee aux turbines aeronautiques. L'objectif a ete de reevaluer globalement la prediction de la temperature de paroi d'une chambre de combustion de type GHOST a la lumiere des resultats obtenus des programmes experimentaux, tout en prenant en consideration l'influence des differents types de carburants. Par l'analyse du grand nombre de donnees experimentales, des modifications furent apportees a la methode de prediction utilisee pour les chambres a pleine echelle afin de reduire l'erreur de prediction pour les echelles a 1:2 (basse pression), 1:3 (basse pression) et 1:3 (haute pression). Une modelisation de la chambre de combustion a ete effectuee. L'analyse numerique nous a demontree que le code FLUENT/UNS predisait tres bien l'ecoulement a froid a l'interieur de la chambre de combustion GHOST echelle 1:1. La prediction etait acceptable au niveau des profils de temperature a l'interieur de la chambre. Cependant, une lacune a ete observee au niveau du modele d'evaporation du code.

  14. Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Romo, Hannah E.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Iñiguez-Dávalos, L. Ignacio; Bradley, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    To increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in Mexico, we tested 876 cricetid rodents captured in 18 Mexican states (representing at least 44 species in the subfamily Neotominae and 10 species in the subfamily Sigmodontinae) for anti-hantavirus IgG. We found antibodies against hantavirus in 35 (4.0%) rodents. Nucleotide sequence data from 5 antibody-positive rodents indicated that Sin Nombre virus (the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [HPS] in the United States) is enzootic in the Mexican states of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. However, HPS has not been reported from these states, which suggests that in northeastern Mexico, HPS has been confused with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory diseases. Analyses of nucleotide sequence data from 19 other antibody-positive rodents indicated that El Moro Canyon virus and Limestone Canyon virus are geographically widely distributed in Mexico. PMID:22469569

  15. Modèle de comportement dynamique d'un matériau en présence de l'endommagement par cisaillement adiabatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longère, P.; Dragon, A.; Trumel, H.; de Resseguier, T.; Deprince, X.; Petitpas, E.

    2002-12-01

    L'objectif industriel du travail dans lequel s'inscrit ce papier est la simulation numérique de la réponse de structures à l'impact. Or, pour un grand nombre de matériaux métalliques à haute résistance soumis à des sollicitations à grande vitesse, le cisaillement adiabatique constitue un processus endommageant conduisant souvent à la ruine par macrofissuration. Nous présentons ici un modèle continu qui, construit sur des bases thermodynamiques, rend compte du comportement thermo-élasto/viscoplastique du matériau sain et de l'anisotropie mécanique (dégradation directionnelle des modules élastiques et viscoplastiques induite par la présence des bandes de cisaillement adiabatique dans le matériau endommagé. Dans notre démarche de modélisation qui tend à refléter les constats expérimentaux, la population de bandes est représentée par une variable tensorielle d'endommagement au sein d'un matériau homogène équivalent. Le modèle est formulé dans le cadre des transformations finies élasto-plastiques avec prise en compte de l'anisotropie induite. Sa particularisation au cas des petites perturbations est illustrée pour certains processus homogènes.

  16. A review of hazard control in condensed energetic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, M.

    1991-08-01

    A number of hazards testing procedures, simulating impact, friction and thermal events, and used in the commercial explosives industry are briefly reviewed. Two specific studies are discussed in more detail : 1) A model of void collapse for the determination of safe pressurization regimes in the compression of propellant dough. 2)The measurement of Minimum Burning Pressures for the assessment of pressure relief systems as a basis of safety in manufacturing operations. Un certain nombre de procédures visant à tester les dangers dans l'industrie des explosifs commerciaux sont présentées. En particulier, on citera les méthodes de simulation d'impact, de frottement et de sollicitation thermique. Deux études spécifiques sont discutées plus en détail : 1) Le modèle d'implosion des espaces vides pour la détermination des régimes de pressurisation mis en jeu dans la compression des matériaux propulsifs. 2) La mesure des pressions minimales de combustion pour l'évaluation de soupapes d'échappement en tant qu'éléments de sécurité dans les opérations de fabrication.

  17. Movements and diving behavior of internesting green turtles along Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gabriela S; Morreale, Stephen J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Paladino, Frank V; Piedra, Rotney; Spotila, James R

    2013-09-01

    Using satellite transmitters, we determined the internesting movements, spatial ecology and diving behavior of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting on Nombre de Jesús and Zapotillal beaches along the Pacific coast of northwestern Costa Rica. Kernel density analysis indicated that turtles spent most of their time in a particularly small area in the vicinity of the nesting beaches (50% utilization distribution was an area of 3 km(2) ). Minimum daily distance traveled during a 12 day internesting period was 4.6 ± 3.5 km. Dives were short and primarily occupied the upper 10 m of the water column. Turtles spent most of their time resting at the surface and conducting U-dives (ranging from 60 to 81% of the total tracking time involved in those activities). Turtles showed a strong diel pattern, U-dives mainly took place during the day and turtles spent a large amount of time resting at the surface at night. The lack of long-distance movements demonstrated that this area was heavily utilized by turtles during the nesting season and, therefore, was a crucial location for conservation of this highly endangered green turtle population. The unique behavior of these turtles in resting at the surface at night might make them particularly vulnerable to fishing activities near the nesting beaches.

  18. Use of the comet assay to measure DNA damage in cells exposed to photosensitizers and gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouget, J.-P.; Ravanat, J.-L.; Douki, T.; Richard, M.-J.; Cadet, J.

    1999-01-01

    We used the comet assay associated with DNA-glycosylases to estimate DNA damage in cells exposed to gamma irradiation or photosensitized either with methylene blue or orange acridine. A calibration performed using irradiation allowed the measurement of the steady-state level and the yield of 8-oxodGuo as well as strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Nous avons utilisé la méthode des comètes associée à des ADN-glycosylases, pour estimer les dommages de l'ADN dans des cellules après l'exposition à un rayonnement gamma ou après photosensibilisation par le bleu de méthylène ou l'acridine orange. Une calibration de la méthode des comètes a permis de mesurer le niveau basal et les taux de formation de 8-oxodGuo ainsi que le nombre de cassures de brins et de sites alcali labiles.

  19. Leucémie à plasmocytes primitive: à propos de 03 cas

    PubMed Central

    Miloudi, Mouhcine; Messaoudi, Nezha

    2016-01-01

    La leucémie à plasmocytes est une hémopathie maligne rare définie par la présence de plus de 20 % de plasmocytes de la formule leucocytaire ou un nombre de plasmocytes circulants supérieur à 2 × 109/L (2G/L). Elle peut être primitive, dans 60% des cas, et se manifeste d'emblée sur un mode leucémique ou secondaire, dans 40% des cas, compliquant un myélome multiple connu. Vu la rareté de cette affection, seuls quelques cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Elle est caractérisée par son agressivité et son mauvais pronostic. A travers 03 cas diagnostiqués au laboratoire d'hématologie de l'hôpital militaire Mohammed V les auteurs présentent les particularités cliniques, biologiques et pronostic de cette affection. PMID:27795764

  20. Genetic diversity and distribution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, M. C.; Morzunov, S. P.; Johnson, A. M.; Bowen, M. D.; Artsob, H.; Yates, T.; Peters, C. J.; Rollin, P. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Nichol, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    The 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the southwestern United States was associated with Sin Nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; The virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of North America. An extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus M genomic segments was generated. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SNV-like hantaviruses are widely distributed in Peromyscus species rodents throughout North America. Classic SNV is the major cause of HPS in North America, but other Peromyscine-borne hantaviruses, e.g., New York and Monongahela viruses, are also associated with HPS cases. Although genetically diverse, SNV-like viruses have slowly coevolved with their rodent hosts. We show that the genetic relationships of hantaviruses in the Americas are complex, most likely as a result of the rapid radiation and speciation of New World sigmodontine rodents and occasional virus-host switching events. PMID:10081674

  1. Vibrational properties of polymer and quenched CsC{60} phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvajol, J.-L.; Anglaret, E.; Chesnel, K.; Palpacuer, M.; Girard, A.; Moreac, A.; Ameline, J.-C.; Delugeard, Y.; Hennion, B.

    1998-06-01

    We report new results on the vibrational dynamics of polymer and quenched CSC{60} phases. Both the splitting and the structure of new activated lines of polymer CsC{60} are in agreement with the lowering of C{60} molecular symmetry from Ih to D{2h}. An inelastic neutron investigation on polymer and quenched CsC{60} is reported. It allows one to identify the vibrational signature of the low-temperature (T < 150 K) ordered monomer phase on quenched CsC{60}. Nous présentons un certain nombre de résultats originaux concernant la dynamique vibrationnelle de la phase polymère et des phases obtenues par trempe du CsC{60}. Les spectres infrarouge de la phase polymère sont interprétés dans le cadre d'un abaissement de la symétrie du monomère C{60} de Ih à D{2h}. Une étude par diffusion neutronique de la phase polymère et des phases obtenues par trempe a été réalisée. Elle a permis en particulier de déterminer la 'signature' vibrationnelle d'une phase ordonnée monomère à très basse température (T < 150 K) dans le CsC{60} trempé.

  2. Cutis verticis gyrata primitif essentiel, une affection cutanée rare: cas clinique et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Samira, Boukind; Meriem, Dlimi; Oumkeltoum, Elatiqi; Driss, Elamrani; Yassine, Benchamkha; Saloua, Ettalbi

    2014-01-01

    Le cutis verticis gyrata (CVG), du cuir chevelu, est une maladie rare et évolutive de la peau du scalp. Elle est caractérisée par une hypertrophie et une hyperlaxité cutanée formant des plis semblables aux gyri du cortex cérébral. Nous présentons le cas d'une patiente de 21 ans atteinte de CVG primitif essentiel, ayant débuté à l’âge de 8 ans, au niveau du scalp et était d'aggravation progressive. La malade présentait une déformation du scalp avec de nombreux plis longitudinaux et transversaux. Sa demande était motivée par une gêne sociale et esthétique. Une résection chirurgicale de l'excédent cutané dans un plan transversal et longitudinal était réalisée. Le traitement de cette maladie est chirurgical, par l'excision des plis cutanés et remise en tension du scalp. Le nombre et la localisation des incisions doivent préserver la vascularisation des lambeaux de scalp et tenir compte du caractère évolutif de cette pathologie. PMID:25922634

  3. Supergroupes de Lie et solutions invariantes pour des equations differentielles non-lineaires a valeurs de Grassmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, Mohamed Ali

    Le present travail est une contribution a l'etude des equations aux derivees partielles a valeurs de Grassmann (superequations) qui constituent une extension des equations usuelles en ce sens qu'elles contiennent en plus des variables dependantes et independantes anticommutantes (fermioniques). Nous nous sommes d'abord poses la question de savoir comment generaliser la notion de groupe de Lie de symetrie de telles superequations. En effet, de telles equations etant souvent supersymetriques, elles englobent une symetrie plus large que les equations usuelles. Ensuite, nous avons utilise la methode de reduction par symetrie pour donner des solutions explicites. Nous nous sommes attardes plus specifiquement sur la superequation de KdV (N = 2) qui apparai t comme la version supersymetrique des equations de KdV et KdV modifiee. Calculer la superalgebre de Lie de symetrie d'un supersysteme est une tache tres lourde qui depend de l'ordre et du nombre de variables dependantes et independantes. Afin de surmonter ce probleme algorithmique, nous avons realise une premiere version d'un code appele GLie permettant non seulement le calcul des superequations determinantes des systemes d'equations differentielles a valeurs de Grassmann mais aussi des equations aux derivees partielles usuelles. Ce programme ecrit dans le langage Maple permet d'economiser le temps et d'echapper aux inevitables erreurs de calculs.

  4. A study of the fracture process and factors that control toughness variability in Charpy V-notch specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Real

    La presente etude a ete initiee pour developper une comprehension quantitative du processus de rupture avec les facteurs qui controlent la dispersion des mesures de tenacite lorsque des eprouvettes Charpy entaillees en V sont utilisees. Un grand nombre d'essais ont ete realises pour un acier C-Mn: eprouvettes Charpy testees sous impact, eprouvettes Charpy testees en flexion lente, eprouvettes axisymetriques entaillees et sollicitees en traction et essais de tenacite sur eprouvettes prefissurees. Base sur le concept de la statistique de Weibull, l'approche locale developpee par le groupe Beremin a ete utilisee pour decrire la probabilite de rupture par clivage en fonction de la contrainte appliquee aussi bien qu'en fonction de l'energie Charpy obtenue. Le calcul par elements finis a ete realise pour determiner la distribution de la deformation et des contraintes en pointe d'entaille et de fissure. La nouvelle approche introduite decrit bien les resultats experimentaux. Les points d'initiation du clivage ont ete identifies au MEB et par la suite, avec la technique de faisceau d'ions focalise, sectionnes, polis et examines. L'examen de la microstructure sous le point d'initiation revele clairement que le clivage s'initie par un mecanisme d'empilement de dislocations ou les dislocations sont arretees aux joints de grain, aux interfaces de perlite/ferrite ou de perlite qui agissent comme barrieres physiques.

  5. Complications inattendues de la chirurgie: deux cas de brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique

    PubMed Central

    Diop, B.; Sy, A.; Ba, P.A.; MBaye, B.; Wane, Y.; Sarre, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Les risques d’accidents électriques sont une réalité dans les blocs opératoires avec le nombre croissant d’équipements électriques, électroniques et de liquides inflammables utilisés. Le bistouri électrique demeure le dispositif le plus utilisé pour son effet électrochirurgical de coagulation ou section tissulaire. Lorsque qu’elle est défectueuse ou mal placée sur une surface réduite de la peau, la plaque du bistouri peut être à l’origine de brûlure cutanée classiquement profonde, de cicatrisation lente. Elle ajoute à l’affection initiale une surmorbidité iatrogène, inattendue, aux conséquences dévastatrices pour le patient, le chirurgien et parfois la structure hospitalière. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlure cutanée par plaque de bistouri survenue en peropératoire lors de l’utilisation du bistouri électrique en mode monopolaire et discutons les aspects étiologiques, cliniques et préventifs. PMID:28289364

  6. Asymptotics of Simple Branching Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry; Kłopotowski, Andrzej; Porzio, Anna

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we study a simple deterministic tree structure: an initial individual generates a finite number of offspring, each of which has given integer valued lifetime, iterating the same procedure when dying. Three asymptotic distributions of this asynchronous deterministic branching procedure are considered: the generation distribution, the ability of individuals to generate offspring and the age distribution. Thermodynamic formalism is then developped to reveal the multifractal nature of the mass splitting associated to our process. On considère l'itération d'une structure déterministe arborescente selon laquelle un ancêtre engendre un nombre fini de descendants dont la durée de vie (à valeurs entières) est donnée. Dans un premier temps on s'intéresse aux trois distributions asymptotiques suivantes : répartition des générations, aptitude à engendrer des descendants et répartition selon l'âge. Ensuite nous développons le formalisme thermodynamique pour mettre en évidence le caractère multifractal de la scission d'une masse unitaire associée à cette arborescence.

  7. Spectrometre de masse a ionisation Penning selective: Elimination des corrections necessaires a la determination du rapport isotopique de l'hydrogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letarte, Sylvain

    Dans le but d'ameliorer la precision avec laquelle le rapport isotopique de l'hydrogene peut etre determine, un spectrometre de masse a ionisation Penning a ete construit pour provoquer l'ionisation selective de l'hydrogene moleculaire et de l'hydrure de deuterium a partir d'un melange gazeux. L'utilisation d'atomes dans des etats d'excitation metastable s'est averee une solution adequate pour reponde a cette attente. L'emploi de l'helium, a l'interieur d'une source d'atomes metastables construit specifiquement pour ce travail, ne permet pas d'obtenir un spectre de masse compose uniquement des deux molecules d'interet. L'ionisation de ces dernieres provient de deux processus distincts, soient l'ionisation Penning et l'ionisation par bombardement electronique. Contrairement a l'helium, il a ete demontre que le neon metastable est un candidat ideal pour produire l'ionisation selective de type Penning. Le nombre d'ions produits est directement proportionnel au courant de la decharge electrique et de la pression d'operation de la source d'atomes metastables. Ces resultats demontrent le potentiel d'un tel spectrometre de masse pour ameliorer la precision a laquelle le rapport isotopique peut etre determine comparativement aux autres techniques existantes.

  8. Traitement intra-artériel des métastases hépatiques de cancer colorectal

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, O.; Geschwind, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer colorectal représente un problème majeur de santé publique. Son incidence annuelle mondiale est d’environ un million de cas et la mortalité annuelle est de plus de 500 000 cas par an. Le foie est l’organe le plus fréquemment touché par les métastases. Leur survenue est observée dans 40 à 60% des cas (contemporaines dans 25% des cas). Bien que la résection chirurgicale soit le seul traitement curatif, nombre de patients ne peuvent en bénéficier en raison de l’importante diffusion des métastases hépatiques. Chimiothérapies et biothérapies systémiques sont les options conventionnelles de la prise en charge des métastases hépatiques multiples. C’est dans ces situations cliniques que les thérapies intra-artérielles peuvent jouer un rôle important. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les différentes thérapies endovasculaires applicables aux métastases hépatiques de cancers colorectaux, avec leurs indications, résultats et complications éventuelles. PMID:21944243

  9. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  10. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  11. A longitudinal study of hantavirus infection in three sympatric reservoir species in agroecosystems on the Argentine Pampa.

    PubMed

    Mills, James N; Schmidt, Karina; Ellis, Barbara A; Calderón, Gladys; Enría, Delia A; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of antibody reactive with Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV) was evaluated from rodents captured over 31 months (March 1988 to September 1990) from six mark-recapture grids on the central Argentine Pampa. The most frequently infected rodents were: Akodon azarae (31/459), Necromys benefactus (8/141), and Oligoryzomys flavescens (10/281), which are known hosts of Pergamino, Maciel, and Lechiguanas hantaviruses, respectively. Relative population density and antibody prevalence varied seasonally and from year to year, population densities were highest in fall and prevalences were highest in spring. A positive association between antibody prevalence and body weight corroborated findings from other studies suggesting that hantaviruses are maintained in reservoir populations by horizontal transmission. In two of three host species, transmission was more frequent among male than among female mice. We found no evidence for a detrimental effect of hantavirus infection on host body weight, growth, longevity, movement, or reproductive preparedness. This analysis, based on cryopreserved specimens, represents the earliest conducted longitudinal, mark-recapture study of the dynamics of infection of autochthonous American hantaviruses in their sigmodontine host populations.

  12. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  13. Sources X super-Eddington dans les Galaxies Proches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirioni, L.; Pakull, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Un certain nombre de galaxies proches abritent, en dehors de leur noyau, des sources X extrêmement lumineuses qui, apparemment dépassent la limite d'Eddington d'un objet compact de quelques masses solaires. Nous avons réalisé une étude photométrique et spectroscopique d'un échantillon de ces sources X brillantes en utilisant pour cela le télescope de 193 cm de l'OHP, le CFHT et le NTT de l'ESO. Ceci nous a permis de mettre en évidence l'association d'une source X avec une nébuleuse hautement ionisée, il s'agit de la première identification optique d'une source X super-Eddington. cette découverte est un argument en faveur de l'existence de trous noirs de plusieurs dizaines de masses solaires dans les systèmes binaires. Nous avons également découvert des nébuleuses annulaires de quelques centaines de parsecs apparemment excitées par les sources X très lumineuses.

  14. Double synthèse modale : bilan et perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezequel, L.; Dessombz, O.; Thouverez, F.

    2002-12-01

    Depuis une quinzaine d'années, 1'Equipe D2S (Dynamique des Structures et des Systèmes) a mis en œuvre des méthodes de synthèse modale spécifiques basées sur une formulation hybride des problèmes de dynamique. Leur particularité réside dans l'utilisation de modes d'interfaces reliés à la notion de modes de branche et dans l'analyse des effets de troncature. L'utilisation conjointe de modes internes, libres ou encastrés suivant le choix de la formulation, et des modes d'interfaces permet d'obtenir des modèles dynamiques à très faible nombre de degrés de liberté. En rattachant ces modèles aux problèmes intermédiaires de Weinstein, il est possible d'analyser leur convergence dans un cadre mathématique rigoureux.

  15. Consensus formalisé: recommandations de pratiques cliniques pour la prise en charge de la migraine du patient adulte africain

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mahmoud Ait Kaci; Haddad, Monia; Kouassi, Beugré; Ouhabi, Hamid; Serrie, Alain

    2016-01-01

    La migraine est une céphalée primaire (selon les derniers critères de l'International Headache Society) qui affecte environ 8% de la population africaine. Les femmes sont plus fréquemment touchées que les hommes et les crises apparaissent le plus souvent avant l’âge de 40 ans. Bien qu'un certain nombre de traitements, de mesure hygiéno-diététiques, et d'autres méthodes non pharmacologiques permettent de limiter l'intensité et la fréquence des crises, la prise en charge médicamenteuse de la crise de migraine est très souvent nécessaire. La disponibilité des traitements et l'accès aux soins diffèrent sur le continent africain et ont conduit à la réalisation du 1er consensus d'experts pour la prise en charge du patient adulte africain. Destiné aux praticiens, ce travail collaboratif multinational a pour objectif de fournir 16 recommandations de pratiques cliniques simples, fondées sur les preuves, et adaptées aux conditions de l'exercice médical en Afrique. PMID:27642420

  16. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  17. Nouveautes Dans la Reconstruction Cutanee: Cultures de Cellules et Substituts Dermiques et Revue de la Litterature

    PubMed Central

    Koch, N.; Erba, P.; Benathan, M.; Raffoul, W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La prise en charge de patients souffrant de brûlures profondes et étendues reste un défi important pour les chirurgiens reconstructeurs. Ceci est d'autant plus vrai que les grands progrès réalisés dans la réanimation assurent actuellement la survie de patients brûlés sur plus de 90% de leur surface corporelle. De ce fait la reconstruction moderne a dû innover et est devenue une chirurgie complexe nécessitant un plan stratégique impliquant des matériaux et des méthodes chirurgicales multiples adaptées à chaque situation clinique. Ce type de prise en charge nécessite aussi la collaboration étroite et coordonnée de plusieurs équipes hautement spécialisées. Le taux de survie ainsi que de la qualité de vie de ces patients sont alors nettement améliorés. De même nous observons clairement que le nombre de complications secondaires telles que les rétractions et les instabilités cicatricielles ont également diminué de façon significative. Mots-clés: brûlure, greffe, culture, substitut dermique, reconstruction PMID:21991212

  18. Application of MODIS GPP to Forecast Risk of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Based on Fluctuations in Reservoir Population Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehman, R.; Heinsch, F. A.; Mills, J. N.; Wagoner, K.; Running, S.

    2003-12-01

    Recent predictive models for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have used remotely sensed spectral reflectance data to characterize risk areas with limited success. We present an alternative method using gross primary production (GPP) from the MODIS sensor to estimate the effects of biomass accumulation on population density of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), the principal reservoir species for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of diagnosed HPS cases in North America are attributed to SNV, which is transmitted to humans through inhalation of excretions and secretions from infected rodents. A logistic model framework is used to evaluate MODIS GPP, temperature, and precipitation as predictors of P. maniculatus density at established trapping sites across the western United States. Rodent populations are estimated using monthly minimum number alive (MNA) data for 2000 through 2002. Both local meteorological data from nearby weather stations and 1.25 degree x 1 degree gridded data from the NASA DAO were used in the regression model to determine the spatial sensitivity of the response. MODIS eight-day GPP data (1-km resolution) were acquired and binned to monthly average and monthly sum GPP for 3km x 3km grids surrounding each rodent trapping site. The use of MODIS GPP to forecast HPS risk may result in a marked improvement over past reflectance-based risk area characterizations. The MODIS GPP product provides a vegetation dynamics estimate that is unique to disease models, and targets the fundamental ecological processes responsible for increased rodent density and amplified disease risk.

  19. Prediction of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) population dynamics in Montana, USA, using satellite-driven vegetation productivity and weather data.

    PubMed

    Loehman, Rachel A; Elias, Joran; Douglass, Richard J; Kuenzi, Amy J; Mills, James N; Wagoner, Kent

    2012-04-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for development of early-warning systems for disease risk. Relationships among weather variables, satellite-derived vegetation productivity, and deer mouse populations were examined for a grassland site east of the Continental Divide and a sage-steppe site west of the Continental Divide in Montana, USA. We acquired monthly deer mouse population data for mid-1994 through 2007 from long-term study sites maintained for monitoring changes in hantavirus reservoir populations, and we compared these with monthly bioclimatology data from the same period and gross primary productivity data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor for 2000-06. We used the Random Forests statistical learning technique to fit a series of predictive models based on temperature, precipitation, and vegetation productivity variables. Although we attempted several iterations of models, including incorporating lag effects and classifying rodent density by seasonal thresholds, our results showed no ability to predict rodent populations using vegetation productivity or weather data. We concluded that trophic cascade connections to rodent population levels may be weaker than originally supposed, may be specific to only certain climatic regions, or may not be detectable using remotely sensed vegetation productivity measures, although weather patterns and vegetation dynamics were positively correlated.

  20. Characterization of Ordered 3D Arrays of Ag2S Nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, L.; Billoudet, F.; Thiaudière, D.; Naudon, A.; Pileni, M.-P.

    1997-03-01

    Reverse micelles have been used to synthetize 5.6 nm silver sulfide particles. These nanoparticles are coated with dodecanethiol, extracted from reverse micelles and then dissolved in heptane. The extracting process induces a size selection with a decrease in the polydispersity from 30% to 14%. By leaving a drop of a solution on any support, or immerse the support in the solution, mono and multilayers made of nanosized particles are formed. The monolayer is arranged in a hexagonal network whereas the 3D multilayers are arranged in a face centered cubic structure. From T.E.M. (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and G.I.S.A.X.S (Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering) techniques morphological information is provided. Dans cet article, la préparation et la caractérisation de réseaux ordonnés à deux et trois dimensions de nanocristallites de sulfure d'argent sont présentées. La morphologie des réseaux est étudiée à l'aide de deux techniques : la microscopie électronique à transmission et la diffusion des rayons X aux petits angles sous incidence rasante. La microscopie électronique met en évidence un empilement de nanoparticules selon une structure cubique à faces centrées. La distance moyenne entre particules et le nombre de couches formant la structure tridimensionnelle sont déterminés.

  1. Comparison of innate immune responses to pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shim, So Hee; Park, Man-Seong; Moon, Sungsil; Park, Kwang Sook; Song, Jin-Won; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju

    2011-09-01

    Hantaviruses are human pathogens that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The mechanisms accounting for the differences in virulence between pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses are not well known. We have examined the pathogenesis of different hantavirus groups by comparing the innate immune responses induced in the host cell following infection by pathogenic (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, and Seoul virus) and putative non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill, Tula, and Thottapalayam virus) hantaviruses. Pathogenic hantaviruses were found to replicate more efficiently in interferon-competent A549 cells than putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses. The former also suppressed the expression of the interferon-β and myxovirus resistance protein genes, while the transcription level of both genes increased rapidly within 24 h post-infection in the latter. In addition, the induction level of interferon correlated with the activation level of interferon regulatory factor-3. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed differences are correlated with viral pathogenesis and further indicate that pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses differ in terms of early interferon induction via activation of the interferon regulatory factor-3 in infected host cells.

  2. Prediction of Pan-Specific B-Cell Epitopes From Nucleocapsid Protein of Hantaviruses Causing Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, Sagadevan; Sankar, Sathish; Ramamurthy, Mageshbabu; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Nandagopal, Balaji; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2017-01-20

    Hantaviruses are emerging viral pathogens that causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas, a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans with a case fatality rate of ≥50%. IgM and IgG-based serological detection methods are the most common approaches used for laboratory diagnosis of hantaviruses. Such emerging viral pathogens emphasizes the need for improved rapid diagnostic devices and vaccines incorporating pan-specific epitopes of genotypes. We predicted linear B-cell epitopes for hantaviruses that are specific to genotypes causing HCPS in humans using in silico prediction servers. We modeled the Andes and Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein to locate the identified epitopes. Based on the mean percent prediction probability score, epitope IMASKSVGS/TAEEKLKKKSAF was identified as the best candidate B-cell epitope specific for hantaviruses causing HCPS. Promiscuous epitopes were identified in the C-terminal of the protein. Our study for the first time has reported pan-specific B-cell epitopes for developing immunoassays in the detection of antibodies to hantaviruses causing HCPS. Identification of epitopes with pan-specific recognition of all genotypes causing HCPS could be valuable for the development of immunodiagnositic tools toward pan-detection of hantavirus antibodies in ELISA. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-5, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Mills, James N; Padula, Paula J; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Mendes, Wellington S; Santos, Elizabeth D; Araújo, Gisele C B; Martinez, Valeria P; Rosa, Jorge F S T; Edelstein, Alexis; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2005-01-01

    Following the occurrence of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Maranhao State, Brazil, rodents were trapped and rodent materials screened by ELISA for antibodies to Sin Nombre and Andes hantaviruses. Antibody-positive samples were tested by RT-PCR, amplified products were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparison with known hantaviruses. From 104 rodent blood samples collected (40 Bolomys lasiurus, 52 Holochilus sciureus, 12 Oligoryzomys fornesi, and one Proechimys guyannensis), 21 (20.2%) were antibody-positive (one B. lasiurus, five O. fornesi, and 15 H. sciureus). Hantavirus RNA was amplified by PCR from two O. fornesi and four H. sciureus. Viral sequencing identified two hantavirus genotypes. The genotype recovered from O. fornesi, is designated herein as Anajatuba (ANAJ) and the genotype recovered from H. sciureus is designated Rio Mearim (RIME). Phylogenetic analysis of a 643-nucleotide region of the N segment showed both viruses to be most closely related (94-96% nucleotide homology) to Río Mamoré virus, a virus associated with Oligoryzomys microtis in Bolivia and Peru, but not found in northern Brazil. O. fornesi was frequently captured in and around human dwellings. H. sciureus, is a semi-aquatic rodent captured only in remote areas rarely frequented by humans.

  4. Geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine and sigmodontine rodents, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary L; Cajimat, Maria N B; Romo, Hannah E; Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Iñiguez-Dávalos, L Ignacio; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2012-04-01

    To increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in Mexico, we tested 876 cricetid rodents captured in 18 Mexican states (representing at least 44 species in the subfamily Neotominae and 10 species in the subfamily Sigmodontinae) for anti-hantavirus IgG. We found antibodies against hantavirus in 35 (4.0%) rodents. Nucleotide sequence data from 5 antibody-positive rodents indicated that Sin Nombre virus (the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [HPS] in the United States) is enzootic in the Mexican states of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. However, HPS has not been reported from these states, which suggests that in northeastern Mexico, HPS has been confused with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory diseases. Analyses of nucleotide sequence data from 19 other antibody-positive rodents indicated that El Moro Canyon virus and Limestone Canyon virus are geographically widely distributed in Mexico.

  5. Acarine infracommunities associated with the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in arid regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Cornejo, C; García-Prieto, L; Morales-Malacara, J B; Pérez-Ponce De León, G

    2003-11-01

    The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, is one of the most widely distributed bats, and its range includes the whole Mexican territory. Ectoparasites of this bat have been the subject of isolated reports, but no studies of its community ecology have been conducted. The acarine infracommunities associated with this bat were analyzed, comparing bat populations from three arid regions of Mexico: an abandoned factory in Nombre de Dios, Durango; a cave in Santiago, Nuevo León; and a church in Concepción del Oro, Zacatecas. The acarine infracommunity in Nuevo Le6n's bats exhibited the highest levels of diversity as reflected by a higher richness, a lower dominance, and a moderate and relatively homogeneous abundance in this locality in relation to the other two. This pattern is influenced by stable cave conditions relative to artificial habitats. Notwithstanding, further studies are required to determine whether or not different habitat conditions are a primary factor in the process of structuring the acari infracommunities.

  6. Identification and Mapping of the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence in the State of Chihuahua Assisted by ten ArcMap Based Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Pina, C.; Granados, A.; Goodell, P.

    2007-05-01

    Edwards Formation is a reef limestone that hosts one of the largest aquifers of the State of Texas. In 2004 the United States and Mexico signed an agreement intended to characterize and identify the shared binational underground resources. Texas Water Development Board Report 360 established for the Edwards Aquifer an area of more than 31,000 km2, half of which is in the State of Coahuila, Mexico (the agreement did not include the State of Chihuahua). This led to the idea that Chihuahua may also have hydrologic potential in the Edwards equivalent, where numerous large cavern systems are already recognized (Naica's Sword Cavern, and the Coyame, Nombre de Dios and Bocagrande Caverns). The objective of this study is to establish the existence, in the State of Chihuahua, of the stratigraphic sequence and geohydrologic properties such as faulting, sinkholes, and springs, within the Edwards equivalent. The Consejo de Recursos Minerales geologic map, INEGI's hydrologic study, petroleum, mining and hydrogeology studies of Chihuahua, and many others, constitute the database used. ArcMap is used to define the geologic framework and construct different thematic layers (structural, lithological, hydrological) that would aid in the identification of the stratigraphic sequence. The results show that all the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence (ESS) exists in Chihuahua; that there are isolated areas of groundwater production in eastern Chihuahua possibly from ESS but this is not well established. Overall the ESS presents an unusual opportunity as a potentially productive aquifer in the State of Chihuahua.

  7. Découverte fortuite de quadruplets au cours d'un accouchement: illustration d'un cas à l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé (Cameroun)

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Dingom, Madye Ange Ngo; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Enow, Robinson Mbu

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent une grossesse de haut rang (quadruplés) dont le nombre de fœtus n'a été découvert que pendant l'accouchement par voie vaginale. Faute de moyens, la parturiente reçue en phase active du travail n'a pas pu bénéficier de la césarienne d'urgence indiquée pour présentation en siège du premier jumeau. Ce n'est qu'après l'accouchement du deuxième fœtus que les deux derniers quadruplés ont été successivement découverts. Les difficultés et les pièges contextuels de la prise en charge des grossesses multiples sont passés en revue. Ce cas rappelle au personnel des salles d'accouchement la possibilité d'erreur de diagnostique sur les résultats d'échographies présentés par les parturientes. PMID:25419323

  8. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  9. Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama.

  10. Mesure des coefficients de la matrice de diffusion d'une jonction mécanique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulet, M.-H.; Gautier, F.; Pascal, J.-C.

    2002-12-01

    La caractérisation expérimentale des jonctions mécaniques souvent complexes rencontrées dans nombre d'applications industrielles est un élément essentiel intervenant dans l'élaboration de modèles vibratoires. Les jonctions permettant de relier des structures simples de type plaque ou poutre peuvent être représentées à l'aide de matrice de diffusion. L'objet de cette communication est de présenter un dispositif expéri mental permettant la mesure des caractéristiques d'une jonction constituée d'une masse symétrique raccordant deux poutres soumises à des vibrations de flexion. La méthode de mesure et ses conditions optimales de mise en oeuvre sont présentées et permettent d'obtenir les coefficients de transmission et de réflexion. Un modèle, tenant compte de l'élasticité des liaisons poutre/masse permet de rendre compte des coefficients mesurés et d'interpréter leur variation fréquentielle à l'aide du phénomène de masse bloquante.

  11. On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The

  12. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and siRNA using octreotide-conjugated gold nanorods for targeted neuroendocrine cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yuling; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Javadi, Alireza; Xu, Wenjin; Eide, Jacob; Dammalapati, Ajitha; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Chen, Herbert; Gong, Shaoqin

    2012-10-01

    A multifunctional gold (Au) nanorod (NR)-based nanocarrier capable of co-delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) against achaete-scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin (DOX)) specifically to neuroendocrine (NE) cancer cells was developed and characterized for combined chemotherapy and siRNA-mediated gene silencing. The Au NR was conjugated with (1) DOX, an anticancer drug, via a pH-labile hydrazone linkage to enable pH-controlled drug release, (2) polyarginine, a cationic polymer for complexing siRNA, and (3) octreotide (OCT), a tumor-targeting ligand, to specifically target NE cancer cells with overexpressed somatostatin receptors. The Au NR-based nanocarriers exhibited a uniform size distribution as well as pH-sensitive drug release. The OCT-conjugated Au NR-based nanocarriers (Au-DOX-OCT, targeted) exhibited a much higher cellular uptake in a human carcinoid cell line (BON cells) than non-targeted Au NR-based nanocarriers (Au-DOX) as measured by both flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, Au-DOX-OCT-ASCL1 siRNA (Au-DOX-OCT complexed with ASCL1 siRNA) resulted in significantly higher gene silencing in NE cancer cells than Au-DOX-ASCL1 siRNA (non-targeted Au-DOX complexed with ASCL1 siRNA) as measured by an immunoblot analysis. Additionally, Au-DOX-OCT-ASCL1 siRNA was the most efficient nanocarrier at altering the NE phenotype of NE cancer cells and showed the strongest anti-proliferative effect. Thus, combined chemotherapy and RNA silencing using NE tumor-targeting Au NR-based nanocarriers could potentially enhance the therapeutic outcomes in treating NE cancers.A multifunctional gold (Au) nanorod (NR)-based nanocarrier capable of co-delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) against achaete-scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin (DOX)) specifically to neuroendocrine (NE) cancer cells was developed and characterized for combined chemotherapy and siRNA-mediated gene silencing. The

  13. Evaluation of an advanced-practice physical therapist in a specialty shoulder clinic: diagnostic agreement and effect on wait times.

    PubMed

    Razmjou, Helen; Robarts, Susan; Kennedy, Deborah; McKnight, Cheryl; Macleod, Anne Marie; Holtby, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Examiner le rôle du physiothérapeute en pratique avancée en ce qui a trait (1) aux accords avec un chirurgien orthopédique sur le diagnostic et la gestion de patients aux prises avec des problèmes à l'épaule; (2) au temps d'attente; (3) à la satisfaction par rapport aux soins. Méthode : Cette étude prospective a fait appel à des patients avec des douleurs à l'épaule qui ont été dirigés vers des spécialistes de l'épaule dans un centre de soins tertiaires. Les accords ont été examinés pour sept catégories de diagnostics, en fonction de la nécessité d'examens plus poussés ou de chirurgie et du type d'intervention chirurgicale projeté. On a comparé les temps d'attente pour le physiothérapeute en pratique avancée et les cliniques dirigées par un chirurgien à partir de la date où le patient a été redirigé à la consultation initiale, jusqu'à la date de diagnostic définitif, jusqu'à la date de diagnostic confirmé et jusqu'au traitement planifié. Une version modifiée et validée de l'instrument d'évaluation de la satisfaction à la suite d'une consultation (Visit-Specific Satisfaction Instrument) a permis de mesurer la satisfaction dans sept domaines. Les coefficients kappa (κ) et les valeurs kappa ajustées pour la prévalence et le biais (PABAK) ont été calculés et les accords ont été catégorisés selon leur force. Les données sur les temps d'attente et la satisfaction ont été examinées à l'aide de statistiques non paramétriques. Résultats : Le degré d'accord sur les diagnostics importants variait de 0,68 (bon) à 0,96 (excellent). Les accords en ce qui concerne le recours à la chirurgie étaient de κ=0,75, p<0,001, I.C. 95%, 0,62–0,88 (bon). Les temps d'attente pour une évaluation par un physiothérapeute en pratique avancée étaient considérablement plus courts que ceux pour une consultation auprès d'un chirurgien à toutes les étapes (p<0,001); les temps d'attente pour un chirurgien

  14. Evaluation des résultats de l'implantation cochléaire

    PubMed Central

    Hssaine, Khaoula; Belhoucha, Btissam; Benhommad, Othman; Rochdi, Youssef; Nouri, Hassan; Aderdour, Lahcen; Raji, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Les implants cochléaires sont des prothèses électro-acoustiques qui ont pour rôle de pallier une déficience bilatérale de l'oreille interne, qu'elle soit profonde ou sévère, acquise ou congénitale. Nous rapportons l'expérience du service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital universitaire Mohammed VI de Marrakech, dont l'objectif est d'évaluer l'implantation cochléaire et de préciser les facteurs influençant les résultats dans notre pratique. Le profil APCEI a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats orthophoniques. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur une période de 7 ans (Décembre 2007 à Décembre 2014). Durant cette période; 54 patients ont été implantés et suivient dans notre formation. Il s'agit de 30 filles et 24 garçons atteints d'une surdité sévères à profonde bilatérale, dont 48 enfants avaient une surdité pré-linguale. L'âge moyen d'implantation cochléaire pédiatrique était de 5,15 ans. L'implantation était unilatérale chez tous les patients. L'intervention était suivie par des réglages et une rééducation orthophonique régulière. L'évaluation était réalisée par la même équipe chaque mois durant les premiers 6 mois, puis tous les 6 mois. La durée moyenne de suivi était de 30,86 mois. Tous les patients ont tiré un bénéfice de leurs implants avec une variabilité interindividuelle. Les bons résultats étaient corrélés à l'implantation précoce, à un investissement parental important et au un bon suivi de la rééducation orthophonique. L'implantation cochléaire a révolutionnée la prise en charge de la surdité profonde et sévère. C'est une technique sûre, efficace lorsqu'elle s'adresse à des populations correctement sélectionnées. PMID:26848357

  15. Numerical simualtions and implications of air inclusions on the microdynamics of ice and firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka; Bons, Paul; Griera, Albert; Kerch, Johanna; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Llorens-Verde, Maria-Gema

    2016-04-01

    Although ice sheets are valuable paleo-climate archives, they can loose their integrity by ice flow (Faria et al. 2010). Consequently, understanding the dynamic processes that control the flow of ice is essential when investigating the past and future climate. While recent research successfully modelled the microdynamics of pure ice (e.g. Montagnat et al., 2014; Llorens et al., 2015), work taking into account second phases is scarce. Only a few studies also show the microstructural influence of air inclusions (Azuma et al., 2012, Roessiger et al., 2014). Therefore, modelling was performed focussing on the implications of the presence of bubbles on the microdynamical mechanisms and microstructure evolution. The full-field theory crystal plasticity code (FFT) of Lebensohn (2001), was coupled to the 2D multi-process modelling platform Elle (Bons et al., 2008), following the approach by Griera et al. (2013). FFT calculates the viscoplastic response of polycrystalline materials deforming by dislocation glide, taking into account mechanical anisotropy. The models further incorporate surface- and stored strain energy driven grain boundary migration (GBM) and intracrystalline recovery simulating annihilation and rearrangement of dislocations by reduction of internal misorientations. GBM was refined for polyphase materials following Becker et al. (2008) and Roessiger et al. (2014). Additionally, the formation of new high angle grain boundaries by nucleation and polygonisation based on critical internal misorientations has been implemented. Successively running the codes for different processes in very short numerical timesteps effectively enables multi-process modelling of deformation and concurrent recrystallisation. Results show how air inclusions control and increase strain localisation, leading to locally enhanced dynamic recrystallisation. This is in compliance with Faria et al. (2014), who theoretically predicted these localizations based on firn data from EPICA

  16. Conception, instrumentation, modelisation et analyse d'un element de stockage d'energie par chaleur latente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millette, Jocelyn

    . Cette validation de la methode NTU-epsilon n'avait d'ailleurs jamais ete realisee et constituait, selon la litterature, un obstacle majeur a l'utilisation de cette methode dans un but de conception. L'element a une capacite d'environ 5 kWh. La paraffine P116, avant un point de fusion d'environ 47°C est utilisee comme MCP. Des mesures de temperature de l'air et du MCP a l'interieur de l'ESECL sont presentees afin de tracer un portrait global de l'ESECL lors du stockage et du destockage. La mesure de la puissance thermique lors du destockage est effectuee a l'aide d'un calorimetre construit selon la norme ANSI-ASHRAE 94.2. Des ameliorations et des commentaires sont appliques a cette norme. D'autres mesures auxiliaires sont aussi realisees. Une evolution typique de la temperature peut etre etablie. Les predictions du modele sont en bon accord avec les mesures experimentales. Ce modele est utilise afin de predire le comportement d'un ESECS typique. Ces predictions sont en bon accord avec les donnees experimentales tirees d'une autre etude. Cette modelisation d'un ESECS permet de comparer un ESECS et un ESECL de meme capacite et un ESECS et un ESECL de meme encombrement. Ces comparaisons permettent de suggerer un element de stockage hybride ou le stockage s'effectue a plus haute temperature (130°C), le MCP demeure solide et la capacite est d'environ 18 kWh. Les performances de cet element, tel que predites par le modele sont presentees.

  17. La valgisation tibiale par addition d'ouverture interne avec comblement cimenté dans la gonarthrose fémorotibiale médiale sur 38 genu-varum

    PubMed Central

    Mahraoui, Mohamed Amine; Abouchane, Merouane; El Andaloussi, Yassir; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le genu varum sur gonarthrose fémorotibiale interne est une pathologie en nette recrudescence dans notre pays, affectant spécialement les femmes âgées et hautement invalidante chez l'adulte jeune; Souvent, elle pose un problème d'indication et de choix thérapeutique d'ordre multifactoriel. L'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation par ouverture interne est une technique de référence, bien connue depuis longtemps et d'efficacité validée à court, moyen et long terme, et constitue un outil thérapeutique de choix et d'apport marqué, notamment pour les sujets jeunes actifs avec gonarthrose débutante. Par ailleurs, cette technique peut voir ses indications s’élargir au dépend de l’âge et du stade évolutif. Le but de notre travail est d’évaluer les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels de notre technique d'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation avec comblement cimenté chez l'adulte jeune de plus de 40 ans et de préciser les facteurs pronostiques qui régissent ces résultats. Ce travail propose à travers une étude rétrospectivement menée à propos de 38 genoux opérés chez 28 patients de dresser un bilan épidémiologique, clinique, et radiologique afin d’évaluer les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels immédiats et à distance avec un recul minimum de 2 ans, de l'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation avec comblement cimenté. Les 28 cas ont été revus à un recul moyen de 3,7 ans avec des extrêmes entre 2 et 9 ans, l’âge moyen de nos malades était de 52 ans avec des extrêmes de 40 à 67 ans, le sexe féminin était prédominant (64%). Le genu varum était primitif dans 20 cas (71,4%), et secondaire dans 8 cas (28,5%). Les stades I et II d'Ahlback constituaient la majorité des cas de l'arthrose fémoro-tibiale (94,7%). La déviation angulaire globale moyenne était de 11,3° avec des extrêmes de 8,5° à 18°. Les résultats évalués selon le protocole du groupe Guépar étaient excellents et très bons dans 86% des cas, et moyens et

  18. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers,; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  19. Optimization of unconfined shallow aquifer water storage for irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    A physically based simulation model was developed to optimize pumping from shallow unconfined aquifers for irrigation. The model uses evapotranspiration, rainfall, crop, soil, and aquifer properties to calculate runoff, recharge, rejected recharge, and water table depth. The model predicted water table elevations over the five-year period with reasonable accuracy using the data from a small watershed in northwest Bangladesh. Four optimized pumping regimes were developed for shallow deep tubewell irrigation of rice and wheat grown in the Rabi (dry) sea-Bon. The improved irrigation system management increased groundwater recharge, thereby decreasing rejected recharge. Under improved management, pumping of groundwater was distributed over three crop: growing seasons, increasing total crop production as the cropping intensity increased. The net benefits for crop production from the improved management with the rice-based cropping pattern were 15 percent and 27 percent more with shallow and deep tubewells, respectively, than with the existing irrigation management. The average yearly rejection of rainfall recharge decreased from 590 mm under rain fed cropping to 440 mm for the existing irrigation management when irrigation was applied only in the Rabi season. When irrigation was applied in all three crop seasons under an improved irrigation management system, the rejection of recharge was only 160 mm. Thus it was possible to minimize the rejection of recharge by optimizing pumping and thereby to significantly increase the available irrigation water supply. Minimizing the rejected recharge reduced the surface runoff that contributes to the flooding that occurs most years in Bangladesh. By irrigating less than 100 percent of the area with tubewells, it was possible to avoid the overdraft of groundwater. The model can be used for other areas where soil, aquifer, crop, and weather data are available.

  20. Investigation of ascorbate metabolism during inducement of storage disorders in pear.

    PubMed

    Cascia, Giuseppe; Bulley, Sean M; Punter, Matthew; Bowen, Judith; Rassam, Maysoon; Schotsmans, Wendy C; Larrigaudière, Christian; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-02-01

    In pear and apple, depletion of ascorbate has previously been associated with development of stress-related flesh browning. This disorder occurs in intact fruit and differs from browning associated with tissue maceration and processing. We investigated changes in ascorbate content, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and gene expression of l-galactose pathway genes, ascorbate recycling genes and APXs from harvest to 30 days storage for three pear varieties ['Williams Bon Chretien' (WBC), 'Doyenne du Comice' and 'Beurre Bosc']. The pears were stored at 0.5°C in air or controlled atmosphere (CA, 2 kPa O(2) and 5 kPa CO(2)). Storage in CA caused significant amounts of storage disorders in WBC only. Ascorbate content generally declined after harvest, although a transient increase in ascorbate in the form of dehydroascorbate (DHA) between harvest and 3 days was observed in CA stored WBC, possibly due to low at-harvest monodehydroascorbate reductase and CA-decreased dehydroascorbate reductase expression. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that all cultivars responded to CA storage by increasing transcripts for APXs, and surprisingly the pre-l-galactose pathway gene GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, of which the product GDP mannose, is utilized either for cell wall polysaccharides, protein N-glycosylation or ascorbate production. Overall, the small differences in ascorbate we observed suggest how ascorbate is utilized, rather than ascorbate content, determines the potential to develop internal browning. Moreover, a transitory increase in DHA postharvest may indicate that fruits are at risk of developing the disorder.

  1. Proceedings of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, February 11-14, 2008: Painting the Big Picture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.

    2009-01-01

    The Second USGS Modeling Conference was held February 11-14, 2008, in Orange Beach, Ala. Participants at the conference came from all U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regions and represented all four science discipline - Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water. Representatives from other Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies and partners from the academic community also participated. The conference, which was focused on 'painting the big picture', emphasized the following themes: Integrated Landscape Monitoring, Global Climate Change, Ecosystem Modeling, and Hazards and Risks. The conference centered on providing a forum for modelers to meet, exchange information on current approaches, identify specific opportunities to share existing models and develop more linked and integrated models to address complex science questions, and increase collaboration across disciplines and with other organizations. Abstracts for the 31 oral presentations and more than 60 posters presented at the conference are included here. The conference also featured a field trip to review scientific modeling issues along the Gulf of Mexico. The field trip included visits to Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, the 5 Rivers Delta Resource Center, and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. On behalf of all the participants of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, the conference organizing committee expresses our sincere appreciation for the support of field trip oganizers and leaders, including the managers from the various Reserves and Refuges. The organizing committee for the conference included Jenifer Bracewell, Sally Brady, Jacoby Carter, Thomas Casadevall, Linda Gundersen, Tom Gunther, Heather Henkel, Lauren Hay, Pat Jellison, K. Bruce Jones, Kenneth Odom, and Mark Wildhaber.

  2. Evaluation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Laulainen, Nels S.; Easter, Richard C.; Wagener, Richard; Nemesure, Seth; Chapman, Elaine G.; Zhang, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2001-04-01

    A variety of measurements have been used to evaluate the treatment of aerosol radiative properties and radiative impacts of aerosols simulated by the Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Global Exchanges (MIRAGE). The treatment of water uptake in MIRAGE agrees with laboratory measurements for the aerosol components that have been measured. The simulated frequency of relative humidity near 100% is about twice that of European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analyzed relative humidity. When the analyzed relative humidity is used to calculate aerosol water uptake in MIRAGE, the simulated aerosol optical depth agrees with most surface measurements after cloudy conditions are filtered out and differences between model and station elevations are accounted for. Simulated optical depths are low over sites in Brazil during the biomass burning season and over sites in central Canada during the wildfire season, which can be attributed to limitations in the organic and black car bon emissions data used by MIRAGE. The simulated aerosol optical depths are mostly within a factor of two of satellite estimates, but MIRAGE simulates excessively high aerosol optical depths off the east coast of the US and China, and too little dust off the coast of West Africa and in the Arabian Sea. The simulated distribution of single-scatter albedo is consistent with the available in situ surface measurements. The simulated sensitivity of radiative forcing to aerosol optical depth is consistent with estimates from measurements where available. The simulated spatial distribution of aerosol radiance is broadly consistent with estimates from satellite measurements, but with the same errors as the aerosol optical depth. The simulated direct forcing is within the uncertainty of estimates from measurements in the North Atlantic.

  3. Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy.

    PubMed

    Wickramasekera, Ian E

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews a growing body of research and theory in hypnosis and neuroscience that supports the empathic involvement theory (EIT) of hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001; Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003; Wickramasekera II, 2007c). The EIT is a unified transpersonal theory of hypnosis and the self, which weaves together empathic elements of Dzogchen, neodissociative, neuroscience, psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, and other theories by proposing that hypnotic phenomena are inherently characterized by their deep involvement with processes of empathy and the self. The EIT proposes that the experience of hypnosis is embodied in a system of neural networks in the brain that utilizes empathy-related processes, adaptive resonance between perceptual input and top-down expectancies, and connectionist learning algorithms to (a) empathically enact the affect, cognition, body language, response expectancies, social roles, sensations, etc. that are presented to them during hypnosis in accordance with socio-cognitive theories of hypnosis; (b) engage in a convergent psychophysiological relationship with another person in accordance with psychoanalytic, Ericksonian, and polyvagal/social engagement system theories; (c) alter the empathic self/other (theory of mind) coding of phenomenological experiences during hypnosis in accordance with aspects of the neo-dissociative and socio-cognitive traditions; and (d) develop an experiential understanding of the illusion of self that may lead, in some people, to its transcendence in accordance with Bon-Buddhist, Dzogchen, and transpersonal scholars. A unified definition of hypnosis is proposed based on findings in the empathic neuroscience of hypnosis as well as a working model of the neuromatrix of the self.

  4. RSUME is implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonghe; Tedesco, Lucas; Lucia, Kristin; Schlitter, Anna M.; Garcia, Jose Monteserin; Esposito, Irene; Auernhammer, Christoph J.; Theodoropoulou, Marily; Arzt, Eduardo; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, Günter K.

    2016-01-01

    The factors triggering pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) progression are largely unknown. Here we investigated the role and mechanisms of the sumoylation enhancing protein RSUME in PanNET tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that RSUME is strongly expressed in normal human pancreas, in particular in β-cells. RSUME expression is reduced in insulinomas and is nearly absent in other types of PanNETs suggesting a role in PanNET tumorigenesis. In human pancreatic neuroendocrine BON1 cells, RSUME stimulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), which are key components of tumor neovascularisation. In contrast, RSUME suppresses nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its target interleukin-8 (IL-8). Correspondingly, PanNET cells with RSUME knockdown showed decreased HIF-1α activity and increased NF-κB and IL-8 production leading to a moderate reduction of VEGF-A release as reduced HIF-1α/VEGF-A production is partly compensated by NF-κB/IL-8-induced VEGF-A. Notably, RSUME stabilizes the tumor suppressor PTEN, which is frequently lost in PanNETs and whose absence is associated with metastasis formation. In vivo orthotopic transplantation of PanNET cells with or without RSUME expression into nude mice showed that PanNETs without RSUME have reduced PTEN expression, grow faster and form multiple liver metastases. In sum, RSUME differentially regulates key components of PanNET formation suggesting that the observed loss of RSUME in advanced PanNETs is critically involved in PanNET tumorigenesis, particularly in metastasis formation. PMID:27506944

  5. Exercise and ankylosing spondylitis with New York modified criteria: a systematic review of controlled trials with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, N A; Furtado, Guilherme Eustáquio; Campos, Maria João; Leitão, José Carlos; Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, José Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causing inflammatory back pain, structural and functional changes which decrease quality of life. Several treatments for ankylosing spondylitis have been proposed and among them the use of exercise. The present study aims to synthesize information from the literature and identify the results of controlled clinical trials on exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis with the New York modified diagnostic criteria and to assess whether exercise is more effective than physical activity to reduce functional impairment. The sources of studies used were: LILACS, Pubmed, EBSCOhost, B-on, personal communication, manual research and lists of references. The criteria used for the studies selection was controlled clinical trials, participants with New York modified diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, and with interventions through exercise. The variables studied were related to primary outcomes such as BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) as a functional index, BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) as an index of intensity of disease activity and BASMI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index) as a metrological index assessing patient's limitation on movement. From the 603 studies identified after screening only 37 articles were selected for eligibility, from which 18 studies were included. The methodological quality was assessed to select those with an high methodological expressiveness using the PEDro scale. A cumulative meta-analysis was subsequently performed to compare exercise versus usual level of physical activity. Exercise shows significant statistical outcomes for the BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI, higher than those found for usual level of physical activity.

  6. Genetic history of Southeast Asian populations as revealed by ancient and modern human mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lertrit, Patcharee; Poolsuwan, Samerchai; Thosarat, Rachanie; Sanpachudayan, Thitima; Boonyarit, Hathaichanoke; Chinpaisal, Chatchai; Suktitipat, Bhoom

    2008-12-01

    The 360 base-pair fragment in HVS-1 of the mitochondrial genome were determined from ancient human remains excavated at Noen U-loke and Ban Lum-Khao, two Bronze and Iron Age archaeological sites in Northeastern Thailand, radio-carbon dated to circa 3,500-1,500 years BP and 3,200-2,400 years BP, respectively. These two neighboring populations were parts of early agricultural communities prevailing in northeastern Thailand from the fourth millennium BP onwards. The nucleotide sequences of these ancient samples were compared with the sequences of modern samples from various ethnic populations of East and Southeast Asia, encompassing four major linguistic affiliations (Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, and Austroasiatic), to investigate the genetic relationships and history among them. The two ancient samples were most closely related to each other, and next most closely related to the Chao-Bon, an Austroasiatic-speaking group living near the archaeological sites, suggesting that the genetic continuum may have persisted since prehistoric times in situ among the native, perhaps Austroasiatic-speaking population. Tai-Kadai groups formed close affinities among themselves, with a tendency to be more closely related to other Southeast Asian populations than to populations from further north. The Tai-Kadai groups were relatively distant from all groups that have presumably been in Southeast Asia for longer-that is, the two ancient groups and the Austroasiatic-speaking groups, with the exception of the Khmer group. This finding is compatible with the known history of the Thais: their late arrival in Southeast Asia from southern China after the 10th-11th century AD, followed by a period of subjugation under the Khmers.

  7. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2).

  8. La prise en charge à long terme de l’asthme chez les enfants inuits et des Premières nations : un outil de transfert du savoir fondé sur les lignes directrices canadiennes pour l’asthme pédiatrique, conçu pour être utilisé par les professionnels de la santé de première ligne qui travaillent dans des communautés isolées

    PubMed Central

    Kovesi, Tom; Giles, Brenda Louise; Pasterkamp, Hans

    L’asthme est un grave problème de santé pour les enfants inuits et des Premières nations. Chez les enfants de moins d’un an, il faut distinguer l’asthme de la bronchiolite virale, anormalement fréquente chez les enfants autochtones du Canada. Chez les enfants de moins de six ans, le diagnostic dépend de la présence de symptômes classiques, de l’absence de caractéristiques atypiques et de la consignation de la réponse au traitement, notamment la réponse rapide et transitoire aux bronchodilatateurs. Chez les enfants plus âgés, il faut, dans la mesure du possible, déterminer la présence d’une obstruction réversible des voies aériennes par spirométrie afin de confirmer le diagnostic, ainsi qu’évaluer et corriger les déclencheurs environnementaux. L’utilisation régulière de corticoïdes en aérosol est la principale mesure à prendre pour maintenir un bon contrôle de l’asthme chez les enfants asthmatiques. Les clients et leur famille devraient recevoir une formation sur l’asthme. Il faut réévaluer régulièrement le contrôle aux visites de suivi dans des centres de santé et rajuster le traitement à la dose la plus basse possible pour le maintien de ce contrôle.

  9. Tétanos compliqué de septicémie sur hémoglobinopathie majeure

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; François, Lionnet; Canestri, Ana; Bellaud, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Rapporter un cas de tétanos compliqué de septicémie chez un enfant souffrant d'une hémoglobinopathie majeure. Enfant de 9 ans drépanocytaire (SC), non vacciné contre le tétanos, a été admis au CHU YO pour raideur de la nuque, difficulté à l'ouverture de la bouche et hyperthermie. L'examen à son admission notait un syndrome infectieux avec une hyperthermie (température à 39°1C), Pouls = 100/mn, Fréquence cardiaque = 100batt/mn, fréquence respiratoire = 30cycles/mn, poids =22Kg, un trismus, une contracture des muscles para vertébraux, des paroxysmes toniques à la palpation (stade II de Mollaret), un syndrome méningé. L'examen n'avait pas retrouvé une porte d'entrée. La ponction lombaire avait ramené un liquide céphalo rachidien clair; l'hémogramme avait montré une hyperleucocytose à 10 200/mm3, et l'hémoculture a permis d'isoler Staphylococcus aureus. Sous antibiothérapie et sous sédatifs, l’évolution a été favorable. Les porteurs d'hémoglobinopathie majeure sont plus exposés aux infections. La physiopathologie de ces infections s'explique par l'immunodépression et les troubles de la phagocytose. Un dépistage précoce de ces hémoglobinopathies, un bon suivi et une bonne couverture vaccinale des enfants drépanocytaires sont essentiels pour prévenir le tétanos et ses complications. PMID:25995786

  10. Ptosis congénital: expérience d'un centre de soins tertiaires Marocain et mise au point

    PubMed Central

    Handor, Hanan; Hafidi, Zouheir; Bencherif, Moulayzahid; Amrani, Youssef; Belmokhtar, Adil; Laghmari, Mina; Daoudi, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Le ptosis congénital constitue la malposition palpébrale la plus fréquente de l'enfant. Le but de ce travail est de rapporter l'expérience de notre service dans la prise en charge de cette affection. Cette étude analyse les données épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques des patients opérés pour ptosis congénital dans notre service entre Janvier 2005 et Décembre 2012. 44 patients (48 yeux) ont été opérés. La médiane d'âge était de 10 ans et une prédominance masculine a été retrouvée. Le ptosis était unilatéral et isolé dans 40 cas (90,90 %), bilatéral et associé à un syndrome de blépharophimosis dans 3 cas et à un syndrome de fibrose congénitale des muscles oculomoteurs dans un cas. Une amblyopie a été notée dans 11 cas (25%). La résection du muscle releveur de la paupière supérieure était la technique chirurgicale la plus utilisée (81,81%). Les résultats postopératoires étaient bons dans 33 cas (75%). PMID:25767669

  11. Outcome of renal transplantation from a donor with polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Migone, Silvia Regina da Cruz; Bentes, Camila Guerreiro; Nunes, Débora Bacellar Cruz; Nunes, Juliana Bacellar Cruz; Pinon, Rodolfo Marcial da Silva; Silva, Thales Xavit Souza E

    2016-01-01

    Faced with the long waiting list for a kidney transplant, the use of donors with expanded criteria, like polycystic kidneys, is an option that aims to increase in a short time the supply of kidneys for transplant. This report of two cases of transplants performed from a donor with polycystic kidneys showed promising results, and the receptors evolved with good renal function, serum creatinine measurements within the normal range and with adequate glomerular filtration rate, evaluated over a period of four years post transplant. This fact confirms that the option of using donors with polycystic kidneys is safe and gives good results. Resumo Diante da longa fila de espera por um transplante renal, a utilização de doadores com critério expandido, a exemplo de rins policísticos, torna-se uma opção que visa aumentar a oferta de rins para transplante a curto prazo. O presente relato de dois casos de transplantes realizados a partir de um doador com rins policísticos apresentou resultado promissor, tendo os receptores evoluído com boa função renal, dosagens de creatinina sérica dentro da faixa de normalidade e com taxa de filtração glomerular adequada, avaliados num período de quatro anos pós-transplante. Isto confirma que a opção da utilização de doadores com rins policísticos é segura e apresenta bons resultados.

  12. Tuberculose multifocale chez les immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Rezgui, Amel; Fredj, Fatma Ben; Mzabi, Anis; Karmani, Monia; Laouani, Chadia

    2016-01-01

    La tuberculose multifocale est définie par la l'atteinte d'au moins deux sites extra-pulmonaires associée ou non à une atteinte pulmonaire. On se propose d’étudier les différentes caractéristiques cliniques et évolutives de la tuberculose multifocale à travers une étude rétrospective de 10 cas. Parmi 41 cas de tuberculose colligés entre 1999 et 2013. Dix patients avaient une tuberculose multifocale, soit 24% des patients. Il s'agissait de 9 femmes et 1 homme d’âge moyen à 50 ans (30-68 ans). Nos patients étaient tous correctement vaccinés par le BCG. Un bilan à la recherche d'une éventuelle immunodépression fait pour tous les patients était négatif. Il s'agissait d'une tuberculose ganglionnaire dans 7 cas, digestive dans 3 cas, péricardique dans 2 cas, ostéo-articulaire dans 2 cas, cérébrale dans 1 cas, urinaire dans 2 cas, uro-génitale dans 4 cas, surrénalienne dans 1 cas, cutanée dans 1 cas et musculaire dans 1 cas. Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement antituberculeux pour une durée moyenne de 10 mois avec bonne évolution. La tuberculose multifocale est une des maladies à diagnostic difficile. Elle peut toucher les immunocompétents mais son pronostic est souvent bon. Un traitement anti-tuberculeux doit être instauré le plus rapidement possible pour éviter les séquelles. PMID:27583077

  13. Building a leadership brand.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.

  14. Boronyl Mimics Gold: a Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have found that gold atom and boronyl bear similarities in bonding in many gas phase clusters. B10(BO), B12(BO), B3(BO)n (n=1, 2) were found to possess similar bonding and structures to B10Au, B12Au, B3Aun (n=1, 2), respectively. During the recent photoelectron spectroscopy experiments, the spectra of BiBO- and BiAu- clusters are found to exhibit similar patterns, hinting that they possess similar geometric structures. While BiAu- is a linear molecule, BiBO- is also linear. The similarity in bonding between BiBO- and BiAu- is owing to the fact that Au and BO are monovalent σ ligands. The electron affinities are measured to be 1.79±0.04eV for BiBO- and 1.36±0.02eV for BiAu-. The current results provide new examples for the BO/Au isolobal analogy and enrich the chemistry of boronyl and gold. H.-J. Zhai, C.-Q. Miao, S.-D. Li, L.-S. Wang, J. Phys. Chem. A 2010, 114, 12155-1216 Q. Chen, H. Bai, H.-J. Zhai, S.-D. Li, L.-S. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 044308 H. Bai, H.-J. Zhai, S.-D. Li, L.-S. Wang, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 9646-9653 H.-J. Zhai, Q. Chen, H. Bai, S.-D. Li, L.-S. Wang, Acc. Chem. Res. 2014, 47, 2435-2445

  15. Unfolding single- and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    When planar structures (e.g. sedimentary layers, veins, dykes, cleavages, etc.) are subjected to deformation, they have about equal chances to be shortened or stretched. The most common shortening and stretching structures are folds and boudinage, respectively. However, boudinage requires additional deformation mechanisms apart from viscous flow, like formation of fractures or strain localization. When folded layers are subjected to extension, they could potentially unfold back to straight layers. Although probably not uncommon, this would be difficult to recognize. Open questions are whether folded layers can unfold, what determines their mechanical behaviour and how we can recognize them in the field. In order to approach these questions, we present a series of numerical experiments that simulate stretching of previously folded single- and multi-layers in simple shear, using the two dimensional numerical modelling platform ELLE, including the finite element module BASIL that calculates viscous deformation. We investigate the parameters that affect a fold train once it rotates into the extensional field. The results show that the unfolding process strongly depends on the viscosity contrast between the layer and matrix (Llorens et al., 2013). Layers do not completely unfold when they experience softening before or during the stretching process or when other neighbouring competent layers prevent them from unfolding. The foliation refraction patterns are the main indicators of unfolded folds. Additionally, intrafolial folds and cusp-like folds adjacent to straight layers, as well as variations in fold amplitudes and limb lengths of irregular folds can also be used as indicators of stretching of a layer after shortening and folding. References: Llorens, M-.G., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566.

  16. CO2 Fluxes: The Upwelling Systems of South America & South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Badger, Merete; Soresen, Lise Lotte

    2010-12-01

    In order to estimate the atmospheric concentration of car- bon dioxide knowledge of the fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere are important. Different ocean regions can act as sinks or sources of CO2 depending on temperature, salinity and biological activity. The flux of CO2 depends on the partial pressures of atmospheric and oceanic CO2 and the exchange velocity which is commonly parametrized by the wind speed. Direct in-situ measurements are expensive, operationally demanding and of low spatial resolution. It has been shown that in- direct estimation of oceanic pCO2 is possible due to its strong dependence on temperature, however primary production also influences the concentration of CO2 in the water. The present study aims at estimating the oceanic pCO2 with the use of satellite measurements for water temperature and chlorophyll-a (chl-A). Envisat MERIS Level 2 Reduced Resolution products were used for the chl-A concentration. Sea Surface Temperature data were taken from a composite optimally interpolated SST product of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). In-situ measurements were retrieved during the Danish Galathea III expedition, from August 2006 until April 2007. Based on [4] and [5], empirical algorithms for the estimation of pCO2,w were created using regression analyses. The final result was an estimate of the pCO2,w along the known upwelling systems of North Chile-Peru and Namibia. Estimates of pCO2,w produced by different combinations of physical parameters are compared with measurements. Correlation coefficients show that there was a dependency of pCO2,w with SST, Salinity and chl-A.

  17. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Final technical report, September 1989--November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this project were to investigate the effects of coal surface charge on the uptake of aqueous soluble metal catalysts from solution and to determine the influence of the interfacial interaction on char reactivity. Another goal is to assess the potential of using potassium carbonate, potassium acetate or their mixtures as catalysts for char gasification. The lower cost and the high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of potassium carbonate required for efficient char reactivities on a commercial scale. To minimize the interference of the coals` inherent inorganic materials with the added calcium or potassium, the gasification studies were restricted to the demineralized coals. In a manner similar to the effect of pH on the surface electrochemistry of the coals, the reactivities of the calcium- or potassium-loaded chars in bon dioxide at 800{degree}C were dependent upon the pH at which the catalysts were ion-exchanged onto the coals. For the calcium-containing chars, the reactivities increased in the order: pH 6 > pH 10 > pH 1. In contrast, the variation of the gasification rates with potassium loading pH was: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much_gt} pH 1. However, simultaneous adsorption of the metals at {approximately} pH 1 enhanced char reactivity relative to metals loading at pH 6 or 10. These findings are attributed to the differences in the extent of electrostatic interaction between the calcium or potassium ions and the charged coal surface during catalyst loading from solution.

  18. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  19. Les fractures pathologiques secondaires des tumeurs bénignes chez l'enfant: à propos de 20 cas

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Youssef; Koulali, Idrissi Khalid; Hicham, Salahi

    2015-01-01

    Une fracture est dite pathologique ou sur os pathologique quand elle survient sur un tissu osseux remanié par un processus pathologique, elle ne tient compte, ni du mécanisme de la fracture ni de la lésion préexistante, on élimine ainsi les fractures dites de fatigue, survenant sur un os normal. Elles constituent un événement assez rare en traumatologie pédiatrique. Ces traumatismes posent au praticien un double problème, celui de la fracture et celui de la pathologie tumorale en cause. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le profil de ces fractures et d'analyser leur prise en charge dans notre contexte. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective sur une période de 10 ans au service. Nous avons colligé 20 cas. L’âge moyen était de 10 ans, 70% étaient de sexe masculin. 98% des traumatismes étaient de faible énergie. 80% des lésions ont touché soit le fémur soit l'humérus, le kyste osseux essentiel était la principale étiologie causale. Le résultat final était bon dans 60% des cas. La prise en charge de ces fractures dépend surtout de la tumeur causale et des caractéristiques de la fracture. Le rôle de la radiologie est incontournable et let traitement doit se faire selon une méthodologie précise. PMID:26421099

  20. Greffe de cornée: expérience du service d'ophtalmologie au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Belghmaidi, Sarah; Hajji, Ibtissam; Soummane, Hasna; Ennassiri, Wiam; Essafi, Hafsa; Moutaouakil, Abdeljalil

    2016-01-01

    La kératoplastie transfixiante est l'une des plus fréquentes des greffes de tissus et transplantations d'organes. Le but de notre travail est de rapporter notre expérience en matière de greffe de cornée. C'est une étude prospective de 195 patients ayant bénéficié d'une greffe de cornée sur une période allant d'aout 2009 à Août 2015. Le recul moyen est de 21 mois. Les indications de la greffe étaient le kératocône 33.8%, les séquelles de traumatisme 10.7%, la kératopathie bulleuse 19.5%, les dystrophies héréditaires 10.7%, et les kératites herpétiques 9.2%. L'acuité visuelle initiale était inférieure à 1/10 dans 90% des cas. Nous avons observé une réaction de rejet dans 19 yeux dont 14 étaient récupérables, 33 hypertonies oculaires, 20cataracte, et 2 décollements descmetiques. La greffe de cornée apparaît comme une intervention donnant de bons résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels. Les résultats ne doivent pas occulter une surveillance post opératoire étroite et régulière pour dépister à temps d’éventuelles complications, en particulier le rejet de greffe. PMID:27303575