Science.gov

Sample records for agricole bon nombre

  1. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  2. Nombre de valeurs polynomiales qui divisent un entier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Bretèche, R.

    2001-09-01

    Soit P un polynôme à coefficients entiers de degré 2 et [Delta] son discriminant. La quantité [tau]P(n), définie par [tau]P(n) := card {P(m) > 0: P(m)[mid R:]n, m [set membership] [open face Z]}, compte le nombre de diviseurs d de n qui s'écrivent sous la forme d = P(m). Lorsque P(X) = X(X + 1), le cardinal [tau]X(X+1)(n) est égal au nombre de diviseurs consécutifs de n.

  3. Sin Nombre Virus Infection in Field Workers, Colorado, USA

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Wilson, Linda; Collinge, Sharon K.; Harmon, Heath; Ray, Chris; Medina, Rafael A.

    2010-01-01

    We report 2 cases of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infection in field workers, possibly contracted through rodent bites. Screening for antibodies to SNV in rodents trapped in 2 seasons showed that 9.77% were seropositive. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that 2 of 79 deer mice had detectable titers of SNV RNA. PMID:20113567

  4. Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C. H.; Sweeney, W.; Mills, J. N.; Beaty, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV. PMID:10081680

  5. Whole-exome characterization of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell lines BON-1 and QGP-1.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Timon; Peeters, Marc; Dogan, Fadime; Pauwels, Patrick; Van Assche, Elvire; Beyens, Matthias; Mortier, Geert; Vandeweyer, Geert; de Herder, Wouter; Van Camp, Guy; Hofland, Leo J; Op de Beeck, Ken

    2015-04-01

    The human BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines are two frequently used models in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) research. Data on the whole-exome genetic constitution of these cell lines is largely lacking. This study presents, to our knowledge, the first whole-exome profile of the BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines. Cell line identity was confirmed by short tandem repeat profiling. Using GTG-banding and a CytoSNP-12v2 Beadchip array, cell line ploidy and chromosomal alterations were determined in BON-1 and QGP-1. The exomes of both cell lines were sequenced on Ilumina's HiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions and deletions (indels) were detected using the Genome Analysis ToolKit. SNVs were validated by Sanger sequencing. Ploidy of BON-1 and QGP-1 was 3 and 4 respectively, with long stretches of loss of heterozygosity across multiple chromosomes, which is associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In BON-1, 57 frameshift indels and 1725 possible protein-altering SNVs were identified in the NGS data. In the QGP-1 cell line, 56 frameshift indels and 1095 SNVs were identified. ATRX, a PNET-associated gene, was mutated in both cell lines, while mutation of TSC2 was detected in BON-1. A mutation in NRAS was detected in BON-1, while KRAS was mutated in QGP-1, implicating aberrations in the RAS pathway in both cell lines. Homozygous mutations in TP53 with possible loss of function were identified in both cell lines. Various MUC genes, implicated in cell signaling, lubrication and chemical barriers, which are frequently expressed in PNET tissue samples, showed homozygous protein-altering SNVs in the BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines.

  6. Requirement of calcium binding, myristoylation, and protein-protein interaction for the Copine BON1 function in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqing; Gou, Mingyue; Sun, Qi; Hua, Jian

    2010-09-24

    Copines are highly conserved proteins with lipid-binding activities found in animals, plants, and protists. They contain two calcium-dependent phospholipid binding C2 domains at the amino terminus and a VWA domain at the carboxyl terminus. The biological roles of most copines are not understood and the biochemical properties required for their functions are largely unknown. The Arabidopsis copine gene BON1/CPN1 is a negative regulator of cell death and defense responses. Here we probed the potential biochemical activities of BON1 through mutagenic studies. We found that mutations of aspartates in the C2 domains did not alter plasma membrane localization but compromised BON1 activity. Mutation at putative myristoylation residue glycine 2 altered plasma membrane localization of BON1 and rendered BON1 inactive. Mass spectrometry analysis of BON1 further suggests that the N-peptide of BON1 is modified. Furthermore, mutations that affect the interaction between BON1 and its functional partner BAP1 abolished BON1 function. This analysis reveals an unanticipated regulation of copine protein localization and function by calcium and lipid modification and suggests an important role in protein-protein interaction for the VWA domain of copines.

  7. Population dynamics of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Sin Nombre virus, California Channel Islands.

    PubMed

    Graham, T B; Chomel, B B

    1997-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first documented in 1993, is caused by Sin Nombre virus (SNV), which is carried by the Peromyscus species. In 1994, high SNV antibody prevalence was identified in deer mice from two California Channel Islands. We sampled two locations on three islands to estimate mouse population density and SNV prevalence. Population flux and SNV prevalence appear to vary independently.

  8. TRPV6 modulates proliferation of human pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Skrzypski, Marek; Kołodziejski, Paweł A.; Mergler, Stefan; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Nowak, Krzysztof W.; Strowski, Mathias Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highly Ca2+ permeable receptor potential channel vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) modulates a variety of biological functions including calcium-dependent cell growth and apoptosis. So far, the role of TRPV6 in controlling growth of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) cells is unknown. In the present study, we characterize the expression of TRPV6 in pancreatic BON-1 and QGP-1 NET cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of TRPV6 on intracellular calcium, the activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and proliferation of BON-1 cells. TRPV6 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. TRPV6 mRNA expression and protein production were down-regulated by siRNA. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were detected by fluorescence calcium imaging (fura-2/AM). NFAT activity was studied by NFAT reporter assay; cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), MTT and propidium iodine staining. TRPV6 mRNA and protein are present in BON-1 and QGP-1 NET-cells. Down-regulation of TRPV6 attenuates BON-1 cell proliferation. TRPV6 down-regulation is associated with decreased Ca2+ response pattern and reduced NFAT activity. In conclusion, TRPV6 is expressed in pancreatic NETs and modulates cell proliferation via Ca2+-dependent mechanism, which is accompanied by NFAT activation. PMID:27450545

  9. TRPV6 modulates proliferation of human pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, Marek; Kołodziejski, Paweł A; Mergler, Stefan; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Strowski, Mathias Z

    2016-08-01

    Highly Ca(2+) permeable receptor potential channel vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) modulates a variety of biological functions including calcium-dependent cell growth and apoptosis. So far, the role of TRPV6 in controlling growth of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) cells is unknown. In the present study, we characterize the expression of TRPV6 in pancreatic BON-1 and QGP-1 NET cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of TRPV6 on intracellular calcium, the activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and proliferation of BON-1 cells. TRPV6 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. TRPV6 mRNA expression and protein production were down-regulated by siRNA. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were detected by fluorescence calcium imaging (fura-2/AM). NFAT activity was studied by NFAT reporter assay; cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), MTT and propidium iodine staining. TRPV6 mRNA and protein are present in BON-1 and QGP-1 NET-cells. Down-regulation of TRPV6 attenuates BON-1 cell proliferation. TRPV6 down-regulation is associated with decreased Ca(2+) response pattern and reduced NFAT activity. In conclusion, TRPV6 is expressed in pancreatic NETs and modulates cell proliferation via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism, which is accompanied by NFAT activation. PMID:27450545

  10. CosmoBon, tree research team, for studying utilization of woody plant in space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Baba, Keiichi; Chida, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science, as Tree research team, TRT. Trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. We have the serious problem about their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We have been investigating the tension wood formation under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. CosmoBon is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. The tension wood formation in CosmoBon was confirmed as the same as that in the natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  11. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Charles

    Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

  12. Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Sin Nombre Virus Infection In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Netski, Dale M.; Krumpe, Peter; St. Jeor, Stephen C.

    2000-01-01

    Previous data indicate that immune mechanisms may be involved in developing capillary leakage during Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infection. Therefore, we investigated production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by human alveolar macrophages and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) after infection with SNV. In addition, we examined the effect of TNF-α on HUVEC monolayer leakage. Our results reveal that although TNF-α decreases accumulation of viral nucleoproteins, TNF-α levels do not change in SNV-infected cells. In addition, supernatants from SNV-infected human alveolar macrophages did not cause a significant increase in endothelial monolayer permeability. PMID:11090198

  13. GetBonNie for building, analyzing and sharing rule-based models

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    GetBonNie is a suite of web-based services for building, analyzing, and sharing rule-based models specified according to the conventions of the BioNetGen language (BNGL). Services include (1) an applet for drawing, editing, and viewing graphs of BNGL; (2) a network-generation engine for translating a set of rules into a chemical reaction network; (3) simulation engines that implement generate-first, on-the-fly, and network-free methods for simulating rule-based models; and (4) a database for sharing models, parameter values, annotations, simulation tasks and results.

  14. CosmoBon for studying wood formation under exotic gravitational environment for future space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Funada, Ryo; Nakamura, Teruko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Cosmobon, Jstwg

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science. Japanese flowering cherry tree is one of a candidate for these studies. Mechanism behind sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively. Even molecular mechanism for the response of plant against gravity has been investigated quite intensively for various species, woody plants are left behind. Morphology of woody branch growth is different from that of stem growth in herbs. Morphology in tree is strongly dominated by the secondary xylem formation. Nobody knows the tree shape grown under the space environment. If whole tree could be brought up to space as research materials, it might provide important scientific knowledge. Furthermore, trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. The serious problem would be their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We can study secondly xylem formation, wood formation, under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. "CosmoBon" is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. It has been recognized that the reaction wood in CosmoBon is formed similar to natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  15. Remote sensing and geographic information systems: charting Sin Nombre virus infections in deer mice.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J. D.; McGwire, K. C.; Otteson, E. W.; DeBaca, R. S.; Kuhn, E. A.; Villard, P.; Brussard, P. F.; St Jeor, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    We tested environmental data from remote sensing and geographic information system maps as indicators of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infections in deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations in the Walker River Basin, Nevada and California. We determined by serologic testing the presence of SNV infections in deer mice from 144 field sites. We used remote sensing and geographic information systems data to characterize the vegetation type and density, elevation, slope, and hydrologic features of each site. The data retroactively predicted infection status of deer mice with up to 80% accuracy. If models of SNV temporal dynamics can be integrated with baseline spatial models, human risk for infection may be assessed with reasonable accuracy. PMID:10827114

  16. Increased Host Species Diversity and Decreased Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ruedas, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    Emerging outbreaks of zoonotic diseases are affecting humans at an alarming rate. Until the ecological factors associated with zoonoses are better understood, disease emergence will continue. For Lyme disease, disease suppression has been demonstrated by a dilution effect, whereby increasing species diversity decreases disease prevalence in host populations. To test the dilution effect in another disease, we examined 17 ecological variables associated with prevalence of the directly transmitted Sin Nombre virus (genus Hantavirus, etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) in its wildlife host, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Only species diversity was statistically linked to infection prevalence: as species diversity decreased, infection prevalence increased. The increase was moderate, but prevalence increased exponentially at low levels of diversity, a phenomenon described as zoonotic release. The results suggest that species diversity affects disease emergence. PMID:19624913

  17. 78 FR 3883 - The Bon-Ton Stores, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, with its principal corporate office located in York, PA. Bon... conclusions of law; and (e) any claims under the Equal Access to Justice Act. 20. The Commission may publicize... unenforceable under present or future laws effective during the terms of the Agreement and the Order,...

  18. The Nançay Pulsar Instrumentation : The BON Coherent Dedispersor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cognard, I.; Theureau, G.

    2006-08-01

    We present here a summary of the Nançay pulsar instrumentation and the on going observational pulsar timing programs. The BON coherent dedispersor is able to handle 128MHz of bandwidth. It is made of a spectrometer, plus four data servers to spread data out to a 70-node cluster of PCs (with Linux Operating System). Dedispersion is done by applying a special filter in the complex Fourier domain. This backend has been designed in close collaboration with UC Berkeley. It benefits from the many qualities of the large Nançay radiotelescope (NRT, equivalent to a 94 m circular dish), which receivers were upgraded in 2000 : a factor of 2.2 sensitivity improvement was obtained at 1.4MHz, with an efficiency of 1.4K/Jy for a system temperature of 35K ; a better frequency coverage was also achieved (from 1.1 to 3.5GHz). The first two years of BON data acquisition demonstrates that the timing data quality is comparable with the Arecibo and Green Bank results. As an example, a Time Of Arrival (TOA) measurement accuracy better than 200ns (170-180ns) is obtained in only 30 seconds of integration on the millisecond pulsar PSR B1937+21. With this up to date instrumentation, we operate two main observational programs in pulsar timing with the Nançay antenna : 1) the radio follow-up of X- and gamma-ray pulsars for the building of a complete multi-wavelength sample and 2) the monitoring of both a millisecond pulsar timing array and a targeted list of binary or unstable pulsars for gravitational wave detection. Joining both list of targets, a total sample of 150 pulsars is then monitored regularly with a dense sampling in time.

  19. Differential Lymphocyte and Antibody Responses in Deer Mice Infected with Sin Nombre Hantavirus or Andes Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection

  20. Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bondu, Virginie; Schrader, Ron; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; McGuire, Paul; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Hjelle, Brian; Buranda, Tione

    2015-01-01

    Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus) is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients. PMID:25674766

  1. Kinetics of Immune Responses in Deer Mice Experimentally Infected with Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Retamar, Mariana; Feinstein, Shira; Prescott, Joseph; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Podell, Brendan; Peters, Staci; Ye, Chunyan; Black, William C.; Hjelle, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Deer mice are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus, the etiologic agent of most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in North America. Infection of deer mice results in persistence without conspicuous pathology, and most, if not all, infected mice remain infected for life, with periods of viral shedding. The kinetics of viral load, histopathology, virus distribution, and immune gene expression in deer mice were examined. Viral antigen was detected as early as 5 days postinfection and peaked on day 15 in the lungs, hearts, kidneys, and livers. Viral RNA levels varied substantially but peaked on day 15 in the lungs and heart, and antinucleocapsid IgG antibodies appeared in some animals on day 10, but a strong neutralizing antibody response failed to develop during the 20-day experiment. No clinical signs of disease were observed in any of the infected deer mice. Most genes were repressed on day 2, suggesting a typical early downregulation of gene expression often observed in viral infections. Several chemokine and cytokine genes were elevated, and markers of a T cell response occurred but then declined days later. Splenic transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) expression was elevated early in infection, declined, and then was elevated again late in infection. Together, these data suggest that a subtle immune response that fails to clear the virus occurs in deer mice. PMID:22787210

  2. Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein exhibits a metal-dependent DNA-specific endonucleolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Möncke-Buchner, Elisabeth; Szczepek, Michal; Bokelmann, Marcel; Heinemann, Patrick; Raftery, Martin J; Krüger, Detlev H; Reuter, Monika

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that the nucleocapsid protein of Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV-N) has a DNA-specific endonuclease activity. Upon incubation of SNV-N with DNA in the presence of magnesium or manganese, we observed DNA digestion in sequence-unspecific manner. In contrast, RNA was not affected under the same conditions. Moreover, pre-treatment of SNV-N with RNase before DNA cleavage increased the endonucleolytic activity. Structure-based protein fold prediction using known structures from the PDB database revealed that Asp residues in positions 88 and 103 of SNV-N show sequence similarity with the active site of the restriction endonuclease HindIII. Crystal structure of HindIII predicts that residues Asp93 and Asp108 are essential for coordination of the metal ions required for HindIII DNA cleavage. Therefore, we hypothesized that homologous residues in SNV-N, Asp88 and Asp103, may have a similar function. Replacing Asp88 and Asp103 by alanine led to an SNV-N protein almost completely abrogated for endonuclease activity. PMID:27261891

  3. Radioisotopic data of sediment collected in Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine the extent of natural and (or) anthropogenic impacts on the sedimentary records of Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama during the last 150 years. These bays are unique in that anthropogenic activities are generally widespread and span both the eastern and western shorelines. However, there is a clear distinction in the types of human development and infrastructure between the western and eastern shorelines. These activities and the differences in land-use and -change influence the overall supply and remobilization of sediment to and within the bay. These factors could subsequently threaten the health and integrity of these environments and their ability to mitigate against long-term processes associated with climate change. In an attempt to characterize long-term accretion rates within the Mobile Bay Estuarine System (MBES), seven box cores were collected and analyzed for excess lead-210 (210Pbxs, the difference between total and supported 210Pb) and cesium-137 (137Cs) activities. The MBES receives sediment and water from the Alabama and Tombigbee River watersheds, which converge into the Mobile-Tensaw River (MTR) system just prior to discharging into Mobile Bay. Riverine discharge from the MTR system to the bay is second only to the Mississippi River discharge to the Gulf of Mexico for the conterminous United States.

  4. Sedimentological study of sandy and shaly deposits (Beglia Formation) in Cap Bon area

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjoub, M.N.; Khessibi, M.

    1988-08-01

    Sedimentological study of sandy and shaly deposits of the Beglia formation has been made in Cap Bon (northeast of Tunisia) to define a sedimentological and paleogeographical model which could be extrapolated into the Gulf of Hammamet. The main results follow. (1) The Beglia formation is serravalian in age and has a migratory deltaic complex facies which includes river and marine affinities (flood plain and tidal). (2) Three intervals within the Beglia have been studied in detail and indicate a northwest-southeast depositional trend which the authors consider the main direction of the middle Miocene detrital deposits in northeastern Tunisia. (3) The fine and well-sorted sandstones which extend up to hectometric and kilometric size, observed in outcrop, are the distal zones of the migratory fans and bars. (4) These sandstone bodies, because of their relative small size within their deltaic model, do not extend to the Gulf of Hammamet. The sandstones offshore have produced hydrocarbons in several areas. They are the distal equivalent of the poorly sorted and coarse channel deposits studied in the outcrops.

  5. Long-term patterns of immune investment by wild deer mice infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Lehmer, Erin M; Jones, Jeremy D; Bego, Mariana G; Varner, Johanna M; Jeor, Stephen St; Clay, Christine A; Dearing, M Denise

    2010-01-01

    Immunocompetence of animals fluctuates seasonally, However, there is little consensus on the cause of these fluctuations. Some studies have suggested that these patterns are influenced by changes in reproductive condition, whereas others have suggested that differences result from seasonal variations in energy expenditures. The objective of our study was to examine these contrasting views of immunity by evaluating seasonal patterns of immune response and reproduction in wild populations of deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus exposed to Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Over three consecutive fall (September, October, November) and three consecutive spring (March, April, May) sampling periods, we used titration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify virus-specific antibody production in 48 deer mice infected with SNV. Levels of reproductive hormones were quantified using ELISA. SNV antibody titers reached their lowest level during November (geometric mean titer [GMT] = 420) and their highest levels during September (GMT = 5,545) and May (GMT = 3,582), suggesting that the immune response of deer mice to SNV has seasonal patterns. The seeming decrease in antibody titer over winter coupled with the consistency in body masses suggests that during winter, immunocompetence may be compromised to offset the energetic costs of maintenance functions, including those associated with maintaining body mass. Deer mice showed distinct sex-based differences in SNV antibody production, with males producing higher antibody titers (GMT = 3,333) than females (GMT = 1,477). Levels of reproductive hormones do not appear to influence antibody production in either males or females, as there was no correlation between estradiol concentrations and SNV antibody titer in female deer mice (r² = 0.26), nor was there a significant relationship between levels of testosterone and SNV antibody titers in males (r² = 0.28). Collectively, this study demonstrates that immunocompetence of wild deer

  6. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  7. Biomass, litterfall and decomposition rates for the fringed rhizophora mangle forest lining the Bon Accord Lagoon, Tobago.

    PubMed

    Juman, Rahanna A

    2005-05-01

    The mangrove forest that fringes the Bon Accord Lagoon measures 0.8 km(2) and is dominated by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). This forest forms the landward boundary of the Buccoo Reef Marine Park in Southwest Tobago, and is part of a mangrove-seagrass-coral reef continuum. Biomass and productivity, as indicated by litterfall rates, were measured in seven 0.01 ha monospecific plots from February 1998 to February 1999, and decomposition rates were determined. Red mangrove above-ground biomass ranged between 2.0 and 25.9 kg (dry wt.) m(-2). Mean biomass was 14.1+/-8.1 kg (dry wt.) m(-2) yielding a standing crop of 11 318+/-6 488 t. Litterfall rate varied spatially and seasonally. It peaked from May to August (4.2-4.3 g dry wt. m(-2) d(-1)) and was lowest from October to December (2.3-2.8 g dry wt. m(-2) d(-1)). Mean annual litterfall rate was 3.4+/-0.9 g dry wt. m(-2) d(-1). Leaf degradation rates ranged from 0.3% loss d(-1) in the upper intertidal zone to 1% loss d(-1) at a lower intertidal site flooded by sewage effluent. Mean degradation rate was 0.4+/-1% loss d(-1) . The swamp produces 2.8 t dry wt. of litterfall and 12 kg dry wt. of decomposed leaf material daily. Biomass and litterfall rates in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to five similar sites that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Programme (CARICOMP). The Bon Accord Lagoon mangrove swamp is a highly productive fringed-forest that contributes to the overall productivity of the mangrove-seagrass-reef complex. PMID:17465160

  8. Modelling climate change impacts on tourism demand: A comparative study from Sardinia (Italy) and Cap Bon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Bird, David Neil

    2016-02-01

    Tourism represents an important source of income and employment in many Mediterranean regions, including the island of Sardinia (Italy) and the Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia). Climate change may however impact tourism in both regions, for example, by altering the regions' climatic suitability for common tourism types or affecting water availability. This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on tourism in the case study regions of Sardinia and Cap Bon. Direct impacts are studied in a quantitative way by applying a range of climate scenario data on the empirically estimated relationship between climatic conditions and tourism demand, using two different approaches. Results indicate a potential for climate-induced tourism revenue gains especially in the shoulder seasons during spring and autumn, but also a threat of climate-induced revenue losses in the summer months due to increased heat stress. Annual direct net impacts are nevertheless suggested to be (slightly) positive in both case study regions. Significant climate-induced reductions in total available water may however somewhat counteract the positive direct impacts of climate change by putting additional water costs on the tourism industry. PMID:25891683

  9. Modelling climate change impacts on tourism demand: A comparative study from Sardinia (Italy) and Cap Bon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Bird, David Neil

    2016-02-01

    Tourism represents an important source of income and employment in many Mediterranean regions, including the island of Sardinia (Italy) and the Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia). Climate change may however impact tourism in both regions, for example, by altering the regions' climatic suitability for common tourism types or affecting water availability. This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on tourism in the case study regions of Sardinia and Cap Bon. Direct impacts are studied in a quantitative way by applying a range of climate scenario data on the empirically estimated relationship between climatic conditions and tourism demand, using two different approaches. Results indicate a potential for climate-induced tourism revenue gains especially in the shoulder seasons during spring and autumn, but also a threat of climate-induced revenue losses in the summer months due to increased heat stress. Annual direct net impacts are nevertheless suggested to be (slightly) positive in both case study regions. Significant climate-induced reductions in total available water may however somewhat counteract the positive direct impacts of climate change by putting additional water costs on the tourism industry.

  10. Petrography, palynology, and paleoecology of the Lower Pennsylvanian Bon Air coal, Franklin County, Cumberland Plateau, southeast Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, S.A.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.; Saussy, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Stratigraphy, palynology, petrography, and geochemistry of the Bon Air coal from the Armfield, Dotson, Rutledge, and Shakerag mine sites of Franklin County, Tennessee suggest that Bon Air seams at all sites were small (??? 1.0 mile, 1.6 km), spatially distinct paleomires that evolved from planar to domed within the fluviodeltaic Lower Pennsylvanian Raccoon Mountain Formation. Of observed palynoflora, 88-97% are from lycopsids prevalent in the Westphalian. Densosporites palynomorphs of small lycopsids (e.g., Omphalophloios) dominate at the shale-hosted Armfield site, while Lycospora palynoflora of large arboreous lycopsids (especially Lepidodendron, with lesser Lepidophloios harcourtii and Lepidophloios hallii) dominate where intercalated siltstone/sandstone/shale hosts the coal (all other sites). Palynoflora of other lycopsids (Sigillaria and Paralycopodites), tree ferns, seed ferns, small ferns, calamites, and cordaites are generally minor. Genera of clastic-associated Paralycopodites are most common in Shakerag's coal (??? 10%), yet quite rare in Rutledge or Dotson coals. Overall, the palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Bon Air paleomires were forest swamps, and Early Pennsylvanian in age (Westphalian A, Langsettian). Dominant macerals at all sites are vitrinites, with fine collodetrinite (from strongly decomposed plant debris) more common than coarser collotelinite (from well-preserved plant fragments), and with lesser inertinites (fusinite and semifusinite) and liptinites (dominantly sporinite). Shakerag's coal has greatest abundance (mineral-matter-free) of collotelinite (up to 47%) and total vitrinite (74-79%) of any sites, but lowest liptinite (12-14.5%) and inertinite (7-11%). The Dotson and Rutledge seams contain moderate liptinite (21-23%) and highest inertinite (36-37%), lowest vitrinite (??? 41%), and lowest collotelinite (13-15%). Armfield's seam has relatively high liptinite (26-28%) and vitrinite (56.5-62%), but rather low inertinite (12

  11. Which Factors Influence the Willingness to Pay for Electronic Library Services? A Study of the Portuguese Electronic Scientific Information Consortium B-On1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence the value for the users of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on (Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online). We used the contingent valuation method based on a willingness to pay scenario to estimate the value that each user is willing to pay. Data were collected through an…

  12. Seismic sequence stratigraphy of Miocene deposits related to eustatic, tectonic and climatic events, Cap Bon Peninsula, northeastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsalli, Ramzi; Zouaghi, Taher; Soussi, Mohamed; Chebbi, Riadh; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2013-09-01

    The Cap Bon Peninsula, belonging to northeastern Tunisia, is located in the Maghrebian Alpine foreland and in the North of the Pelagian block. By its paleoposition, during the Cenozoic, in the edge of the southern Tethyan margin, this peninsula constitutes a geological entity that fossilized the eustatic, tectonic and climatic interactions. Surface and subsurface study carried out in the Cap Bon onshore area and surrounding offshore of Hammamet interests the Miocene deposits from the Langhian-to-Messinian interval time. Related to the basin and the platform positions, sequence and seismic stratigraphy studies have been conducted to identify seven third-order seismic sequences in subsurface (SM1-SM7), six depositional sequences on the Zinnia-1 petroleum well (SDM1-SDM6), and five depositional sequences on the El Oudiane section of the Jebel Abderrahmane (SDM1-SDM5). Each sequence shows a succession of high-frequency systems tract and parasequences. These sequences are separated by remarkable sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces (SB and MFS) that have been correlated to the eustatic cycles and supercycles of the Global Sea Level Chart of Haq et al. (1987). The sequences have been also correlated with Sequence Chronostratigraphic Chart of Hardenbol et al. (1998), related to European basins, allows us to arise some major differences in number and in size. The major discontinuities, which limit the sequences resulted from the interplay between tectonic and climatic phenomena. It thus appears very judicious to bring back these chronological surfaces to eustatic and/or local tectonic activity and global eustatic and climatic controls.

  13. Population density and seasonality effects on Sin Nombre virus transmission in North American deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in outdoor enclosures.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Douglass, Richard J; Alvarado, Arlene; Kuenzi, Amy J; Amman, Brian R; Waller, Lance A; Mills, James N

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of wildlife host-pathogen systems often document clear seasonal variation in transmission; conclusions concerning the relationship between host population density and transmission vary. In the field, effects of seasonality and population density on natural disease cycles are challenging to measure independently, but laboratory experiments may poorly reflect what happens in nature. Outdoor manipulative experiments are an alternative that controls for some variables in a relatively natural environment. Using outdoor enclosures, we tested effects of North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) population density and season on transmission dynamics of Sin Nombre hantavirus. In early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and fall 2007-2008, predetermined numbers of infected and uninfected adult wild deermice were released into enclosures and trapped weekly or bi-weekly. We documented 18 transmission events and observed significant seasonal effects on transmission, wounding frequency, and host breeding condition. Apparent differences in transmission incidence or wounding frequency between high- and low-density treatments were not statistically significant. However, high host density was associated with a lower proportion of males with scrotal testes. Seasonality may have a stronger influence on disease transmission dynamics than host population density, and density effects cannot be considered independent of seasonality.

  14. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  15. Probing the structures and chemical bonding of boron-boronyl clusters using photoelectron spectroscopy and computational chemistry: B4(BO)(n)- (n = 1-3).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-07-28

    The electronic and structural properties of a series of boron oxide clusters, B(5)O(-), B(6)O(2)(-), and B(7)O(3)(-), are studied using photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained, yielding electron affinities of 3.45, 3.54, and 4.94 eV for the corresponding neutrals, B(5)O, B(6)O(2), and B(7)O(3), respectively. Structural optimizations show that these oxide clusters can be formulated as B(4)(BO)(n)(-) (n = 1-3), which involve boronyls coordinated to a planar rhombic B(4) cluster. Chemical bonding analyses indicate that the B(4)(BO)(n)(-) clusters are all aromatic species with two π electrons. PMID:22852618

  16. Temporal and geographic evidence for evolution of Sin Nombre virus using molecular analyses of viral RNA from Colorado, New Mexico and Montana

    PubMed Central

    Black, William C; Doty, Jeffrey B; Hughes, Mark T; Beaty, Barry J; Calisher, Charles H

    2009-01-01

    Background All viruses in the family Bunyaviridae possess a tripartite genome, consisting of a small, a medium, and a large RNA segment. Bunyaviruses therefore possess considerable evolutionary potential, attributable to both intramolecular changes and to genome segment reassortment. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are known to cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The primary reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which is widely distributed in North America. We investigated the prevalence of intramolecular changes and of genomic reassortment among Sin Nombre viruses detected in deer mice in three western states. Methods Portions of the Sin Nombre virus small (S) and medium (M) RNA segments were amplified by RT-PCR from kidney, lung, liver and spleen of seropositive peromyscine rodents, principally deer mice, collected in Colorado, New Mexico and Montana from 1995 to 2007. Both a 142 nucleotide (nt) amplicon of the M segment, encoding a portion of the G2 transmembrane glycoprotein, and a 751 nt amplicon of the S segment, encoding part of the nucleocapsid protein, were cloned and sequenced from 19 deer mice and from one brush mouse (P. boylii), S RNA but not M RNA from one deer mouse, and M RNA but not S RNA from another deer mouse. Results Two of 20 viruses were found to be reassortants. Within virus sequences from different rodents, the average rate of synonymous substitutions among all pair-wise comparisons (πs) was 0.378 in the M segment and 0.312 in the S segment sequences. The replacement substitution rate (πa) was 7.0 × 10-4 in the M segment and 17.3 × 10-4 in the S segment sequences. The low πa relative to πs suggests strong purifying selection and this was confirmed by a Fu and Li analysis. The absolute rate of molecular evolution of the M segment was 6.76 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year. The absolute age of the M segment tree was estimated to

  17. Fingerprinting the main erosion processes delivering sediment to hillside reservoirs: Case of Kamech catchment in Cape Bon, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Slimane, A.; Raclot, D.; Evrard, O.; Sanaa, M.; Lefèvre, I.; Ahmadi, M.; Le Bissonnais, Y.

    2011-12-01

    About 74% of agricultural soils are affected by water erosion in Tunisia. This intense soil degradation threatens the sustainability of food production in the country. It also leads to the siltation of the numerous hillslide reservoirs that were constructed in the 1990s to protect downstream villages against floods and provide a source of water in cultivated areas. Very dense gully systems are observed in Tunisian agricultural land and in other Mediterranean regions, but their contribution to contemporary sediment supply to hillside reservoirs has not been quantified yet. Still, there is a need to quantify the sediment sources in this region in order to guide the implementation of erosion control measures. Sediment can be supplied by gully systems but it can also be provided by erosion of the superficial layer of cultivated soil. We propose a methodology to estimate the relative contribution of gully erosion vs. interrill erosion to the sediment accumulated in hillside reservoirs. This work was conducted in a pilot catchment (i.e., Kamech catchment, 263ha, Cape Bon, Tunisia) to define guidelines on the number and the location of sediment core samples to collect in the reservoirs, in order to provide relevant information on the evolution of sediment sources throughout the last two decades. Once validated, this methodology will be applied to other catchments of the Tunisian Ridge. We applied the sediment fingerprinting method, which consists in measuring conservative and stable properties in both sources and sinks of sediment to outline their origin. Sampling efforts were concentrated on the field surface (cropland and grassland), gullies and channel banks. Thirteen sediment cores were collected along an upstream-downstream transect across Kamech hillside reservoir, in order to estimate the contribution of each potential sediment source to the material accumulated at the outlet, and to investigate the potential spatial differences of sediment origin across the

  18. Structural characterization of the fracture systems in the porcelanites: Comparing data from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Aydin, Atilla; Wongseekaew, Kanitsorn; Maneelok, Wichanee

    2016-09-01

    The fractures in the porcelanites from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand were documented for a comparative study of their modes, distribution, and their relationship to other structures such as folds and bedding planes. Both formations consist in thinly bedded stiff units that are prone to folding, flexural slip, and cross-bedding brittle fracturing under compression. There are two assemblages in the porcelanites. The first assemblage includes commonly vertical high-angle opening mode fractures, left-lateral strike-slip faults, normal faults, and thrust faults. The second one is sub-horizontal fractures which are associated with folds, bedding slip, and thrusts faults in both Monterey and Sap Bon formations. The structural architectures of these rocks and the associated groups of structures are remarkably similar in terms of both opening and shearing modes and their relationships with the bedding due to their depositional architecture and the compressional tectonic regimes, in spite of the fact that the two locations are more than ten thousand kilometers apart and have very different ages of deformation.

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron-gold alloy clusters and boron boronyl clusters: B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Bai, Hui; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-07-28

    Photoelectron spectroscopy and density-functional theory are combined to study the structures and chemical bonding in boron-gold alloy clusters and boron boronyl clusters: B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2). Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for all four species and the B-Au and B-BO clusters exhibit similar spectral patterns, with the latter species having higher electron binding energies. The electron affinities of B3Au, B3Au2, B3(BO), and B3(BO)2 are determined to be 2.29 ± 0.02, 3.17 ± 0.03, 2.71 ± 0.02, and 4.44 ± 0.02 eV, respectively. The anion and neutral clusters turn out to be isostructural and isovalent to the B3H(n)(-)∕B3H(n) (n = 1, 2) species, which are similar in bonding owing to the fact that Au, BO, and H are monovalent σ ligands. All B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2) clusters are aromatic with 2π electrons. The current results provide new examples for the Au∕H and BO∕H isolobal analogy and enrich the chemistry of boronyl and gold. PMID:23901981

  20. Trace element geochemistry and surface water chemistry of the Bon Air coal, Franklin County, Cumberland Plateau, southeast Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, S.A.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; McLamb, E.D.; Kuers, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mean contents of trace elements and ash in channel, bench-column, and dump samples of the abandoned Bon Air coal (Lower Pennsylvanian) in Franklin County, Tennessee are similar to Appalachian COALQUAL mean values, but are slightly lower for As, Fe, Hg, Mn, Na, Th, and U, and slightly higher for ash, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, REEs, Sr, and V, at the 95% confidence level. Compared to channel samples, dump sample means are slightly lower in chalcophile elements (As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, and V) and slightly higher in clay or heavy-mineral elements (Al, K, Mn, REEs, Th, Ti, U, and Y), but at the 95% confidence level, only As and Fe are different. Consistent abundances of clay or heavy-mineral elements in low-Br, high-S, high-ash benches that are relatively enriched in quartz and mire-to-levee species like Paralycopodites suggest trace elements are largely fluvial in origin. Factor analysis loadings and correlation coefficients between elements suggest that clays host most Al, Cr, K, Ti, and Th, significant Mn and V, and some Sc, U, Ba, and Ni. Heavy accessory minerals likely house most REEs and Y, lesser Sc, U, and Th, and minor Cr, Ni, and Ti. Pyrite appears to host As, some V and Ni, and perhaps some Cu, but Cu probably exists largely as chalcopyrite. Data suggest that organic debris houses most Be and some Ni and U, and that Pb and Sb occur as Pb-Sb sulfosalt(s) within organic matrix. Most Hg, and some Mn and Y, appear to be hosted by calcite, suggesting potential Hg remobilization from original pyrite, and Hg sorption by calcite, which may be important processes in abandoned coals. Most Co, Zn, Mo, and Cd, significant V and Ni, and some Mn probably occur in non-pyritic sulfides; Ba, Sr, and P are largely in crandallite-group phosphates. Selenium does not show organic or "clausthalite" affinities, but Se occurrence is otherwise unclear. Barium, Mn, Ni, Sc, U, and V, with strongly divided statistical affinities, likely occur subequally in multiple modes. For study area

  1. Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

  2. The interplay of plant and animal disease in a changing landscape: the role of sudden aspen decline in moderating Sin Nombre virus prevalence in natural deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Lehmer, Erin M; Korb, Julie; Bombaci, Sara; McLean, Nellie; Ghachu, Joni; Hart, Lacey; Kelly, Ashley; Jara-Molinar, Edlin; O'Brien, Colleen; Wright, Kimberly

    2012-06-01

    We examined how climate-mediated forest dieback regulates zoonotic disease prevalence using the relationship between sudden aspen decline (SAD) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) as a model system. We compared understory plant community structure, small mammal community composition, and SNV prevalence on 12 study sites within aspen forests experiencing levels of SAD ranging from <10.0% crown fade to >95.0% crown fade. Our results show that sites with the highest levels of SAD had reduced canopy cover, stand density, and basal area, and these differences were reflected by reductions in understory vegetation cover. Conversely, sites with the highest levels of SAD had greater understory standing biomass, suggesting that vegetation on these sites was highly clustered. Changes in forest and understory vegetation structure likely resulted in shifts in small mammal community composition across the SAD gradient, as we found reduced species diversity and higher densities of deer mice, the primary host for SNV, on sites with the highest levels of SAD. Sites with the highest levels of SAD also had significantly greater SNV prevalence compared to sites with lower levels of SAD, which is likely a result of their abundance of deer mice. Collectively, results of our research provide strong evidence to show SAD has considerable impacts on vegetation community structure, small mammal density and biodiversity and the prevalence of SNV. PMID:22526751

  3. Bon Mots for Bad Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    This article questions how the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze has been received and connected to the field of curriculum theory. In an effort to reconnect Deleuze-thought to its political force, this essay commences a series of arguments pertaining to the ways in which the revolutionary thought of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari have been…

  4. Understanding groundwater chemistry using multivariate statistics techniques to the study of contamination in the Korba unconfined aquifer system of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghibi, Adel; Merzougui, Amira; Zouhri, Lahcen; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    The Korba aquifer of Cap-Bon peninsula (North-east of Tunisia), which extends over 40 km and occupies an area of 438 km2, is of great economic importance. Its location in an often narrow plain with intense human activity (agriculture, industry, tourism, etc.) makes it particularly vulnerable from both a qualitative and quantitative alteration. The high salinization in some parts of the study area has been attributed to seawater intrusion process, because of the high and increasing contents of chloride ions and electric conductivity value distribution. However, recent studies of this aquifer have shown that the chemical characteristics of groundwaters are the result of different components: intruding seawater, direct cation exchange linked to seawater intrusion, dissolution processes associated with cations exchange and solute recycling through irrigation return flow. In this paper, we describe the hydrological processes in the Korba coastal plain using hydrochemical data, correlation matrices and factor analysis to provide evidence of salinization processes. Based on historical hydraulic heads data (1996-2005), salinization of fresh groundwater is highly associated with groundwater withdrawal. Thus, the piezometric survey confirmed the inversion of the groundwater flow in Diarr El Hojjaj and Tafelloun villages where a piezometric depression of 12 m was observed at 3000 m from the shoreline which accelerate seawater intrusion by reversing the hydraulic gradients. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: Ca-Cl, Na-Cl and SO4-mixed types. The groundwaters showed paths of hydrochemical evolution, from Ca-SO4 type to Na-Cl type; or from Ca- SO4 type directly to Na-Cl type. Geochemical data reveal frequent participation of seawater in the coastal and central areas water samples, showing a very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes. Also, we conclude that salinization has its origin in

  5. Effect of artificial recharge by treated wastewater on the quality of the Korba coastal aquifer (Cape Bon, Tunisia): insights from Boron isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Casanova, J.; Mekni, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Guerrot, C.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean coastal aquifers are highly stressed, partly because of intensive agricultural activities in semi-arid or arid context. Water quality of groundwater is often degraded by different processes: salt water intrusion, diffuse pollution... In this context, the Korba aquifer on the eastern coast of Cape Bon (Tunisia) undergoes overexploitation. Since the 60's, reversal of hydraulic gradient and saline intrusion were studied (Ennabli, 1980; Kouzana et al. 2009a , 2009b; Kouzana et al., 2010) and the groundwater hydrogeological functioning was modeled (Kerrou et al., 2010; Panicoti et al. 2001a, 2001b; Zghibi et al., 2011). Crucial for local agriculture, aquifer management led to the implementation of artificial recharge with treated wastewaters at the end of 2008. Since then, groundwater quality was monitored to trace the effectiveness of artificial recharge, based on boron isotopes, to better determine the different system components. Samples were taken from recharge control piezometers and in farmers' wells. Cation exchange was demonstrated to be one of the main processes controlling the groundwater quality. Sodium, potassium and boron were clearly in deficit compared to a mixing line with seawater, whereas calcium, strontium and bicarbonates were in excess. Treated wastewaters were concentrated in chloride and sodium and sometimes more than in wells, equivalent to a mixing of 6 to 14 % with sea water. The 2009 isotopic signatures in wells were clearly distributed on a mixing line between a nitrate-polluted and salinized pole especially constituted by abandoned wells and which had already reached equilibrium governed by cation exchange or sorption processes, and fresh groundwater. This mixing line explained the intermediate composition of a less salinized groundwater pole of intensively pumped wells. In 2010, in a context of low rainwater inputs, a general decrease of δ11B in the same wells may indicate mixing with deeper groundwaters and a continuous

  6. Analyse thermique de systèmes de chauffage localisé à basse température dans les serres agricoles : paillage radiant et tubes enterrés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, C.; Amouroux, M.

    1993-10-01

    Greenhouse heating can be achieved using various systems, for the generator as well as for the exchanger. The exchanger characteristics involve quite different modes of energy distribution, with differing agronomic and economic consequences. This paper focuses on two ground-level heating systems with low temperature (20 40°C) water circulation: a “radiant mulch” exchanger, composed of a network of ground-level heating hoses, and a “buried pipes” exchanger, composed of a network of under-ground pipes. The first part of the paper develops a model for these exchangers and its integration into a previously described greenhouse global model. The second part compares the effects of these exchangers on the greenhouse energetical behaviour with those of classic aerial metallic pipes with hot (50 70°C) water circulation. Le chauffage des serres agricoles peut être réalisé avec divers types de systèmes, tant pour le générateur que pour l'échangeur situé au sein de la serre. Les caractéristiques de l'échangeur induisent des modes de distribution de l'énergie très différents, dont les conséquences agronomiques et économiques peuvent être importantes. Le présent article s'intéresse à deux types d'échangeurs à circulation d'eau “à basse température” (20 40°C) localisés au niveau du sol de la serre: chauffage par gaines en matière plastique posées à même le sol (ou “paillage radiant”), chauffage par réseau de tubes enterrés à faible profondeur dans le sol de la serre. Une première partie développe une modélisation de ces échangeurs et son intégration dans un modèle plus global de la serre agricole, déjà présenté par ailleurs. Une seconde partie exploite cette modélisation en effectuant une analyse comparative de ces échangeurs avec un échangeur de référence constitué de tubes métalliques aériens à circulation d'eau chaude (50 70°C), très classiquement utilisé dans les serres.

  7. Les bons conseils de la naissance à la maternelle

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Constantin, Evelyn; Carsley, Sarah; Rourke, James; Li, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Donner un aperçu de la version 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR), qui comporte aussi des nouveautés dans son site web et de nouvelles initiatives connexes et qui intègre les données des ouvrages scientifiques récents sur les soins de santé préventifs à l’intention des enfants de 0 à 5 ans. Qualité des données À l’instar des versions antérieures du RPR, la nouvelle édition présente des recommandations identifiées comme se fondant sur des preuves suffisantes, acceptables ou consensuelles, selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs en 2011. Message principal De nouveaux renseignements et des recommandations sont présentés concernant la surveillance de la croissance, la nutrition et la vaccination contre la varicelle, les pneumocoques, les méningocoques et le rotavirus. Il y a maintenant de bonnes données probantes en faveur de l’adaptation canadienne des courbes de croissance de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé, du dépistage universel des problèmes d’audition chez le nouveau-né et du recours à des stratégies de réduction de la douleur liée à la vaccination. On a mis à jour les conseils anticipatoires concernant la sécurité durant le sommeil, la supervision de la santé des enfants en foyer d’accueil, le trouble du spectre de l’alcoolisation fœtale, les facteurs de risque nécessitant le dépistage du plomb et de l’anémie, les soins dentaires et la santé buccale. Parmi les nouvelles rubriques dans le site web du RPR, on peut mentionner une section présentant des ressources pour les parents, des modifications à l’intention de populations particulières, comme les personnes vivant au Nunavut, une version du RPR qui met en évidence en un coup d’œil les modifications à la version de 2009 et une expansion de la fonction d’exploration du RPR accompagnée des hyperliens connexes menant aux renseignements pertinents. On peut aussi avoir accès au RPR sous forme d’une page par visite. Le Collège des médecins de famille du Canada et la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ont donné leur aval au RPR de 2011. Les versions nationale et ontarienne sont disponibles en français et en anglais. Conclusion Le RPR de 2011 est un outil pratique, mis à jour, fondé sur des données probantes de transposition du savoir concernant les soins de santé préventifs aux enfants de la naissance à l’âge de 5 ans. Il propose des ressources exhaustives dans le web à l’intention des professionnels de la santé, des étudiants, des résidents et des parents.

  8. From the cytoplasm into the cilium: Bon voyage

    PubMed Central

    Malicki, Jarema; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium compartmentalizes a tiny fraction of the cell surface and volume, yet many proteins are highly enriched in this area and so efficient mechanisms are necessary to concentrate them in the ciliary compartment. Here we review mechanisms that are thought to deliver protein cargo to the base of cilia and are likely to interact with ciliary gating mechanisms. Given the immense variety of ciliary cytosolic and transmembrane proteins, it is almost certain that multiple, albeit frequently interconnected, pathways mediate this process. It is also clear that none of these pathways is fully understood at the present time. Mechanisms that are discussed below facilitate ciliary localization of structural and signaling molecules, which include receptors, G-proteins, ion channels, and enzymes. These mechanisms form a basis for every aspect of cilia function in early embryonic patterning, organ morphogenesis, sensory perception and elsewhere. PMID:24786986

  9. Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Scott; Mills, James N.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Richardson, Kyle S.; Harris, Rachel L.; Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Luis, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human–reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. We found that disease cases were greatest in arid states and declined exponentially with increasing precipitation. Within arid environments, relatively rare climatic conditions (e.g., El Niño) are associated with increased rainfall and reservoir abundance, producing more frequent virus transmission and host dispersal. We suggest that deer mice increase their occupancy of peridomestic structures during spring–summer, amplifying intraspecific transmission and human infection risk. Disease incidence in arid states may increase with predicted climatic changes. Mechanistic approaches incorporating reservoir behavior, reservoir–human interactions, and pathogen spillover could enhance our understanding of global hantavirus ecology, with applications to other directly transmitted zoonoses. PMID:26955081

  10. El nombre 'Forastero' no más: A new protocol for meaningful cacao germplasm classification.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The title of this article (The name ‘Forastero’ no more) is to convey an attempt in this paper to try to convince the cacao scientific community not to use the term Forastero to identify cacao germplasm of non-Criollo origin. The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro...

  11. Excessive carbohydrate intake in pregnancy and neonatal obesity: study in Cap Bon, Tunisia.

    PubMed Central

    de Schampheleire, I; Parent, M A; Chatteur, C

    1980-01-01

    A high incidence (over 20%) of obesity was found in 250 neonates living in a rural area of Tunisia, by using weight and ponderal index per gestational age as the nutritional index. Maternal diabetes was probably excluded. Two surveys on nutritional habits--one on the general population and the other on pregnant women--showed a tendency to consume a high carbohydrate and low protein diet. The effect of a badly balanced maternal diet on the fetus is discussed. PMID:7436503

  12. Landslide mapping and analysis of Korbous area, Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Djbel Korbous is an important relief dominating the south-eastern edge of the Gulf of Tunis. It is an anticline truncated by a NS fault that passes through the axis of the fold, reason of the collapse of western slopes under the sea. This geometry gives the appearance of a large cased fold and the individualization of series of crests forming the massive of Korbous where altitudes exceed sometimes 400.0 m. Different types of landslides, with various origins and evolution, affect this area. Reactivated pre-existing structures, heterogeneity of lithology and water flow infiltration are the main agents of this phenomenon. The degradation of steep cliffs along the road is strongly accentuated by physico-chemical alteration due to the dissolution of rocks by the runoff flowing through a dense network of fractures and cracks and the spalling of the sandstone bar. The situation has become increasingly critical since 2009 when a large rock slide affected the slope over the sea, threatening, especially the only access to the village with heavy consequences for the population of the region (infrastructure, regional medical center, trade and tourism). The present study aims at defining (i) the main structurally controlled failure types;(ii) the detection of potential instabilities from steep slopes and cliff areas; (iii) the preliminary estimation of potential run-out areas. Geographical Information System GIS (generation of slope map and azimuth map), digital elevation modeling (DEM) are among the most useful tools used for a reliable analysis in this area. Additionally, field work in this paper includes a program of in situ recognition of inventoried instabilities (field measurements, discontinuities characterization, stereoplots and kinematic tests ) and digital photogrammetry using a Canon EOS 7D camera (construction of 3D models and discontinuity measurements were all achieved using VisualSFM and CloudCompare software). The application of those techniques on the area of Korbous showed different families of discontinuities NW-SE and NE-SW whose kinetic conditions allowed the identification of three main failure mechanisms: (1) wedge sliding (dense, intense and inter-crossed fracturing of two dominant directions oriented N075° and N140°); (2) toppling (located in the middle of the cliff where lithology is more less tender) and (3) circular sliding (affects the clay slopes which are sensitive to water and have apparent stability. It's where the main road MC128 passes and this presents the greatest threat facing these instabilities). The dense cutting, weathering and erosion of the whole study area lead, also, to loosen rock blocks from the slope. Their size is variable but the fall height still important reaching in many zones the sea and destroying the protection measures (retaining wall, gabion, drains, etc.). This continued landslide and its evolution in time and space are really alarming and need a more detailed diagnosis.

  13. Agricultural extension in Africa. World Bank discussion paper; Vulgarisation agricole en afrique

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchee, A.

    1995-12-31

    Detailed recommendations for extension services focus on ways of improving service management and providing technology and training that address local conditions. They also call for new ways of meeting the special needs of women, young farmers, shepherds, nomads and farmers` organizations. The main topics include how to strengthen national extension systems, promote neglected crops, encourage on-site farm research, improve the links between extension and other agencies, and advance information on water and soil conservation.

  14. Farm Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de machines agricoles. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for farm equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  15. Astronomie, écologie et poésie par Hubert Reeves

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-21

    Hubert ReevesL'astrophysicien donne une conférence puis s'entretient avec l'écrivain François Bon autour de :"Astronomie, écologie et poésie"Pour plus d'informations : http://outreach.web.cern.ch/outreach/FR/evenements/conferences.htmlNombre de places limité. Réservation obligatoire à la Réception du CERN : +41 22 767 76 76  Soirée diffusée en direct sur le Web : http://webcast.cern.ch/      

  16. Astronomie, écologie et poésie par Hubert Reeves

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Hubert ReevesL'astrophysicien donne une conférence puis s'entretient avec l'écrivain François Bon autour de :"Astronomie, écologie et poésie"Pour plus d'informations : http://outreach.web.cern.ch/outreach/FR/evenements/conferences.htmlNombre de places limité. Réservation obligatoire à la Réception du CERN : +41 22 767 76 76  Soirée diffusée en direct sur le Web : http://webcast.cern.ch/      

  17. Fiche pratique: Loup et agneau; Avec le minitel; Jeux de communication; BCBG Bon chic bon genre (Practical Ideas: Fox and Sheep; Using Minitel; Communication Games; Great Style, Great Taste).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolka, Theodora; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four ideas for French language instruction are presented, including an exploration of cultural and linguistic meaning in advertising; use of the Minitel database and computer capabilities; interpersonal communication games; and a vocabulary development and comprehension activity using text from a French weekly publication. (MSE)

  18. L'Infini, un Ensemble de Nombres? Enquete aupres de Futurs Enseignants et Enseignantes (Infinity, a Collection of Numbers? Investigation by Future Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mura, Roberta; Maurice, Louise

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the use of infinities and limits during the first 12 years of schooling while a secondary study presents ideas and comments on the observations that were made during the primary study. (MVL)

  19. Improvement of erosion risk modelling using soil information derived from aerial Vis-NIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to test the benefit of the hyperspectral imagery in soil surface properties characterisation for soil erosion modelling purposes. The research area is the Lebna catchment located in the in the north of Tunisia (Cap Bon Region). Soil erosion is evaluated with the use of two different soil erosion models: PESERA (Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment already used for the soil erosion risk mapping for the European Union, Kirkby et al., 2008) and Mesales (Regional Modelling of Soil Erosion Risk developed by Le Bissonnais et al., 1998, 2002); for that, different sources for soil properties and derived parameters such as soil erodibility map and soil crusting map have been evaluated with use of four different supports: 1) IAO soil map (IAO, 2000), 2) Carte Agricole - CA - (Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia), 3) Hyperspectral VIS-NIR map - HY - (Gomez et al., 2012; Ciampalini t al., 2012), and, 3) a here developed Hybrid map - CY - integrating information from Hyperspectral VIS-NIR and pedological maps. Results show that the data source has a high influence on the estimation of the parameters for both the models with a more evident sensitivity for Pesera. With regard to the classical pedological data, the VIS-NIR data clearly ameliorates the spatialization of the texture, then, the spatial detail of the results. Differences in the output using different maps are more important in Pesera model than in Mesales showing no-change ranges of about 15 to 41% and 53 to 67%, respectively.

  20. Geophysical and hydrochemical study of the seawater intrusion in Mediterranean semi arid zones. Case of the Korba coastal aquifer (Cap-Bon, Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzana, Lamia; Benassi, Ramdhane; Ben mammou, Abdallah; Sfar felfoul, Mennoubi

    2010-09-01

    Coastal aquifers serve as major sources for freshwater supply in many countries around the world, especially in arid and semi arid zones. The fact that coastal zones contain some of the densely populated areas in the world makes the need for freshwater even more acute. The intensive extraction of groundwater from coastal aquifers reduces freshwater outflow to the sea and creates local water aquifer depression, causing seawater migration inland and rising toward the wells. This phenomenon, called seawater intrusion, has become one of the major constraints imposed on groundwater utilization. As seawater intrusion progresses, existing pumping wells become saline and have to be abandoned. In this paper, we have the results of the seawater intrusion study of the Korba aquifer by the geophysical and hydrochemical methods. In order to locate the zones affected by saltwater intrusion, 38 Vertical electrical sounding (VES) were distributed over the coastal area between Korba and Oued Lebna. The interpretation of these electric soundings using Winsev software, based on mechanical boreholes, carry out iso-resistivity and iso-depth maps of seawater intrusion. The maps of apparent iso-resistivity having different lengths of line and the pseudosections differentiate dry grounds, grounds saturated with fresh water and those saturated with brackish water and saltwater. Mapping of the boundaries between freshwater and saltwater is an ideal application for resistivity surveys because of the high electrical conductivity of the saltwater and its contrast with that of fresh water. The correlation of the different electric surveys allowed realizing geo-electric sections showing the vertical configuration of seawater intrusion. It comes out from this study that saltwater intrusion reached approximately a distance of 3 km inland. The high groundwater salinity anomaly observed in Diar El Hajjej, Garaet Sassi and Takelsa-Korba zones was explained by the presence of seawater intrusion in these areas. This hypothesis is based on high chloride concentrations, the inverse cationic exchange reactions, and the lower piezometric level compared to sea level.

  1. Assessment of seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination on the groundwater quality in the Korba coastal plain of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghibi, Adel; Tarhouni, Jamila; Zouhri, Lahcen

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination of groundwater have become a growing concern for people in rural areas in Tunisia where groundwater is always used as drinking water. The coastal plain of Korba (north-east of Tunisia) is a typical area where the contamination of the aquifer in the form of saltwater intrusion and high nitrate concentrations is very developed and represents the major consequence of human activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate groundwater resource level, to determine groundwater quality and to assess the risk of NO3- pollution in groundwater using hydrogeochemical tools. Groundwater were sampled and analyzed for physic-chemical parameters: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Total Dissolved Solid and of the physical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and the temperature). The interpretation of the analytical results is shown numerically and graphically through the ionic deviations, Piper Diagram, seawater fractions and binary diagrams. Moreover, electrical conductivity investigations have been used to identify the location of the major intrusion plumes in this coastal area and to obtain new information on the spatial scales and dynamics of the fresh water-seawater interface. Those processes can be used as indicators of seawater intrusion progression. First, the hydrogeochemical investigation of this aquifer reveals the major sources of contamination, represented by seawater intrusion. Thus, the intensive extraction of groundwater from aquifer reduces freshwater outflow to the sea, creates several drawdown cones and lowering of the water table to as much as 12 m below mean sea level in the center part of the study area especially between Diarr El Hojjej and Tafelloun villages, causing seawater migration inland and rising toward the wells. Moreover, the results of this study revealed the presence of direct cation exchange linked to seawater intrusion and dissolution processes associated with cations exchange. Second, a common contaminant identified in groundwater is dissolved nitrogen in the form of nitrate. The average nitrate concentration of the aquifer is about 30.44 mg/l, but contents as great as about 50 mg/l occur in the central region where seawater has been identified. Nitrate survey reveals that nitrate concentration above the drinking water standard (50 mg/l) covered an area of 122.64 km2, which accounts for 28% of the whole area. Irrigation with the nitrogen fertilizers, domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and movement of contaminants in areas of high hydraulic gradients within the drawdown cones probably are responsible for localized peaks of the nitrate concentration. It is suggested that risk assessment of nitrate pollution is useful for a better management of groundwater resources, preventing soil salinisation and minimizing nitrate pollution in groundwater.

  2. L'environnement institutionnel: occupations pour un bon usage des institutions (Institutional Environment: Activities to Make the Best Use of Institutions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richterich, Rene

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen exploratory tasks are proposed to help the reader "invent" his or her solidarity with the environment. They are intended to make the person more aware of the influences of the environment on one's native and/or second language learning in order to take charge of them and increase one's independence. (AMH)

  3. [A short biography of Paul Bonét-Maury (1900-1972) or parallel lives of a pharmacist: researcher and judoka].

    PubMed

    Grognet, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacist by training, doctor in sciences and student of Marie Curie, he will be between 1925 and 1965 one of the pioneers of radiobiology, science of the study of the interaction between ionizing radiations and living matter. He will be the initiator of the teaching on the use of radioelements in medicine and pharmacy. At the same time as he develops a scientific work of international level, he makes a commitment prematurely in the judo of which he will be one of the first four French black belts. He founds in 1946 the French Federation of this sport of which he will be president until 1956, year from which he becomes a general secretary of the International Federation of Judo until 1971. PMID:26827554

  4. Potentiel des donnees AMSR-E et RADARSAT-2 pour le suivi des cycles de gel/degel du sol dans des zones agricoles au Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B-Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    Soil freezing and thawing processes are of particular importance for agricultural areas. For example, frozen soils can increase the runoff during snowmelt in the spring. Freezing and thawing also have a direct influence on the sowing and harvesting dates, as well as on the crop yield. A better understanding of those phenomena is therefore important, and several researchers focused on this topic in the past. Due to its sensitivity to changes in the state of water, microwave remote sensing is an appropriate tool for that purpose. The main objective of this study is to monitor soil freezing and thawing processes using AMSR-E and RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data acquired over an agricultural area located near Saskatoon (Saskatchewan). With AMSR-E data, the goals are to compare different combinations of frequencies for the spectral gradient's algorithm regarding their capacity for detecting frozen soils, and to analyze the temporal dynamics of the brightness temperature in order to find a new indicator of soil freezing. As for RADARSAT-2 data, several polarimetric parameters and techniques are tested in order to identify soil freezing. For the first part concerning AMSR-E data, a global precision for the discrimination of frozen and thawed soils higher than 90% was obtained with the spectral gradient's algorithm, for the combinations including high (18.7 and 36.5 GHz) and low (6.9 and 10.7 GHz) frequencies as well as for the one using only high frequencies. It is shown that, for the combination based on the 18.7 and 36.5 GHz frequencies, results are improved when a negative threshold is used for the spectral gradient. When high and low AMSR-E frequencies are combined, a null threshold is on the contrary appropriate, which constitutes an operational advantage. A new algorithm for detecting frozen soils, based on a thresholding approach applied to the spectral gradient of polarization difference and the brightness temperature at 36.5 GHz, was also proposed. The performances of the new algorithm to discriminate frozen and thawed soils are very similar to those obtained using the spectral gradient of brightness temperature (global precision around 90% and probability of detecting frozen soils between 70% and 85%). The performances are also slightly higher for the combinations including the lower AMSR-E frequencies. However, annual statistics for the spectral gradient of polarization difference are required to calculate the thresholds. The results obtained with AMSR-E data highlight the relevance of including SMOS L-band brightness temperatures for the calculation of brightness temperature and polarization difference spectral gradients. The qualitative analysis of the results obtained using RADARSAT-2 data shows that surface scattering dominates volume scattering for frozen soils, which can be explained by the rough fields in the study area, as compared to the signal's wavelength (C-band). Nevertheless, several polarimetric parameters indicate a slight increase of the volume scattering in frozen soils, which is theoretically expected. This was observed for the linear and circular depolarization ratios, the amplitude of the HHVV, RLLL and RLRR correlation coefficients, as well as for the pedestal height. Also, the entropy and α-angle of the Cloude-Pottier target decomposition increase slightly in frozen soils ; the same is true for the volume scattering component of the Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi target decompositions, with an equivalent decrease of the surface scattering component. Despite these interesting observations, a quantitative analysis of the results is necessary in order to evaluate the usefulness of polarimetry regarding the detection of frozen soils. This would allow the validation of the behavior, possibly caused by soil freezing, of the mean value and the standard deviation of the HHVV phase difference and the standard deviation of the RLLL and RLRR phase differences. Keywords : freezing, thawing, agriculture, AMSR-E, spectral gradient, polarization difference, RADARSAT-2, polarimetry.

  5. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : La prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) pharmacorésistante au Viet Nam a bénéficié d'une accélération considérable depuis 2009.Objectifs : Documenter le nombre annuel de patients enrôlés pour un traitement de TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) entre 2010 et 2014, et déterminer les caractéristiques et les résultats du traitement des patients qui l'out commencé entre 2010 et 2012.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte basée sur les rapports nationaux et les données du système national de données électroniques pour la TB pharmacorésistante.Résultats : Le nombre de patients enrôlés chaque année pour traitement de TB-MDR a augmenté de 97 en 2010 à 1522 en 2014. La majorité des patients étaient des hommes d'âge moyen qui avaient une atteinte pulmonaire et chez qui un protocole de retraitement avait échoué ; 77% d'entre eux avaient reçu au moins deux traitements de TB. De bons résultats (guérison et achèvement du traitement) ont été obtenus chez 73% des patients. Les résultats défavorables incluaient les sujets perdus de vue (12,5%), les décès (8%) et les échecs (6,3%). Avoir eu plus de deux traitements préalables et être positif pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine étaient associés à des résultats défavorables.Conclusion : Un nombre croissant de patients est traité pour TB-MDR chaque année dans le cadre du programme national de prise en charge au Viet Nam, avec de bons résultats. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'augmenter la détection des cas (actuellement seulement 30% des 5100 cas de TB-MDR estimés par an), de réduire la proportion de résultats défavorables et d'améliorer le suivi et l'évaluation.

  6. Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Kihara, A-B; Harries, A D; Bissell, K; Kizito, W; Van Den Berg, R; Mueke, S; Mwangi, A; Sitene, J C; Gathara, D; Kosgei, R J; Kiarie, J; Gichangi, P

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Une structure de santé privée rurale, le Ruby Medical Centre (RMC), participant à un système de bons de traitement de Maternité sans risques destiné à des femmes pauvres du conté de Kiambu au Kenya.Objectifs : Entre 2007 et 2013, déterminer 1) le nombre de femmes qui ont accouché au RMC, leurs caractéristiques et le devenir de leur grossesse, et 2) le nombre ne bénéficiant que d’un paquet de soins anténataux (ANC) incomplets et les facteurs associés.Schéma : Etude rétrospective transversale basée sur les données recueillies en routine dans les programmes.Résultats : Au cours de la période d’étude, 2635 femmes ont accouché au RMC : 50% étaient âgées de 16 à 24 ans, 60% avaient été transférées d’autres structures et 59% avaient débuté les ANC au cours du 3(e) trimestre. De ces 2635 femmes, 1793 (68%) avaient un paquet d’ANC incomplet : 347 (13%) ont manqué les principaux tests sanguins, 312 (12%) n’ont pas eu de vaccination anti-tétanique et 1672 (65%) ont eu moins de quatre consultations. Un démarrage tardif et des ANC débutés ailleurs étaient associés à un paquet d’ANC incomplet. Un décès lié à la grossesse est survenu et le taux de mortinatalité a été de 10/1000 naissances.Conclusion : Cette première évaluation du système de bons de traitement dans les zones rurales du Kenya a mis en évidence des problèmes de qualité des ANC. En dépit de l’évolution favorable des grossesses, il est nécessaire d’accroitre les efforts pour faire venir les femmes enceintes plus tôt, offrir des ANC complets et un suivi plus cohérent et précis des indicateurs et des interventions de santé reproductive.

  7. NMR Investigations into Polydimethylsiloxane Adsorption on Silica Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen Addad, J. P.; Morel, N.

    1996-02-01

    Adsorption properties of polydimethylsiloxane on the surface of silica aggregates are studied from chemical microanalysis combined with proton magnetic relaxation measurements and from swelling measurements performed on mixtures. It is shown that polymer molecules, observed right after the preparation of mixtures, are strongly adsorbed on about 1/4 of the silica surface, only; they form islets. It is also shown that the number of contact points of a chain with the surface is proportional to sqrt{N} during the progressive saturation of the silica surface; N is the number of monometric units in one chain. Les propriétés d'adsorption du polydimethylsiloxane sur la surface d'agrégats de silice sont étudiées par microanalyse chimique, par des mesures de relaxation magnétique des protons liés aux chaînes et par des mesures de gonflement des mélanges polymères-particules, utilisant un bon solvant. On montre qu'immédiatement après la préparation des mélanges, les chaînes solidement adsorbées n'occupent, sous la forme d'ilôts, que le quart de la surface de silice. On montre aussi que, pendant la saturation progressive de la surface, qui dure environ 3 mois à 343 K, le nombre de points de contacts d'une chaîne avec la silice est proportionnel à sqrt{N} ; N étant le nombre de maillons dans la chaîne.

  8. Réalisation d'un réseau de pièges annulaires : une première étape vers une porte logique quantique avec des atomes froids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dépret, B.; Verkerk, P.; Hennequin, D.

    2002-06-01

    L'objectif de ce projet est de réaliser une porte logique quantique basée sur l'interaction d'atomes dans deux sites voisins dans un réseau optique très désaccordé. Le principal obstacle rencontré vient du faible taux d'occupation des sites de tels réseaux. Nous proposons ici de mettre en oeuvre un nouveau type de réseaux optiques qui devraient pallier cette limitation. Il s'agit d'un réseau unidimensionnel de pièges annulaires “empilés” avec une période de λ/2. L'utilisation d'axicons conduit à une géométrie adaptée des faisceaux et donne le confinement radial dans les anneaux. Le mouvement azimutal peut également être limité par une force auxiliaire. Le bon taux d'occupation est lié au faible nombre de sites remplis à partir du nuage d'atomes froids initial.

  9. Fiches pratiques: Fourchettes, et baguettes; La Revolution en mosaique; Bons Baisers, a bientot; Vieux Chat et jeune souris (Practical Ideas: Forks, and Bread; The Revolution in Mosaic; Hugs and Kisses, See You Later; Old Cat and Young Mouse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzeral, Isabelle; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Four classroom activities for French language instruction are described: an exercise focusing on differences in national cuisine and eating habits; a game about the French Revolution; analysis of and activities using a personal letter; and discussion based on a fable. (MSE)

  10. Fiche pratique: Des proverbes en pagaille; Debat filme; Faire un journal televise; Du bon usage d'un medicament (Practical Ideas: Proverbs in a Muddle; Filmed Debate; To Make a Televised Journal; Good Use of a Medicine).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Maria Fernanda Araujo; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four French language class activities are described, including a game using proverbs to review animal names and encourage comprehension; videotaping a class debate in French, to promote both exchange of ideas and student confidence before a group; a role-playing exercise in which a television news program is created; and a specialized activity to…

  11. What Makes a Good Teacher? Children Speak Their Minds=Qu'est-ce qu'un bon maitre? Les enfants ouvrent leur coeur=Como debe ser un buen maestro? Los ninos opinan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawajkie, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This booklet is a product of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project, a network of some 3,800 schools in 131 countries, which conducts pilot projects to promote education for peace, international understanding, and cooperation. Schools taking part in the project participated in an international contest asking for spontaneous reactions to the…

  12. En Bons Termes avec les Etudes Sociales. Glossaire pour les 10e, 11e, et 12e Annees (On Good Terms with the Social Studies. A Glossary for the 10th, 11th, and 12th Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    This social studies resource is designed for French-speaking high school students who have need for definitions of widely used terms relating to social studies. Divided into four sections, the first section presents a term, the gender of the French term, a related term, the definition, a sentence using the word, and the English equivalent. The…

  13. Prediction des rendements agricoles du mais et du soya, et du deficit en azote du mais a l'aide d'images aeroportees et d'un reseau de neurones a retropropagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serele, Zogbo Charles

    2002-01-01

    This thesis explores the suitability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network for prediction of corn and soybean yield and for classification of nitrogen corn stressed vegetation. The results show while using a combination of vegetation and texture indices, and topographic data, we can successfully predict corn yield with MLP. The regression coefficient between observed and predicted yield for corn and soybean were respectively 92% and 43% for the middle season image only. This research also indicates that the information from an image is more important when it is acquired during the period of maximum crop biological activity. Thus, MLP developed on the middle season predicts the corn and soybean yield with respective R2 of 89% and 40%. The degree of relationship between the inputs and the outputs and the quality of the data are very important, because they determine the capabilities of the MLP. When the generalization capabilities of the MLP models were tested on a non-corrected crop yield dataset, the results drop to 45% and 36% for corn and soybean respectively. The MLP demonstrated also its capability to discriminate corn nitrogen status during the growing season. MLP models based on image spectral and textural indices reach a Kappa coefficient of 72% for middle season image and 81% for the combined multidate images. Image texture features also provide useful complementary information for the discrimination of different nitrogen stress levels. The best MLP for predicting corn nitrogen status was the one that integrates image features and topographic parameters. It outperforms the first one with an accuracy of 90% for middle season image and 95% for all two images. Evidence that topographic data are a critical discriminatory information source is both obvious and strong. In consequence, crop physiological status monitoring systems require taking into account the combined effects of soil background and canopy architecture. This thesis have highlighted that MLP has a strong potential for detecting corn nitrogen stressed vegetation and that they would help farmers to better manage crop status during the growing season, when there is still time to respond to problems. The other contributions of this study are the development of crop yield data correction and filtering algorithm and the identification of discriminant analysis as the best method for the MLP inputs selection. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  15. Badhwar - O'Neill 2014 Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Slaba, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model is based on GCR measurements from particle detectors. The model has mainly been used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and the analysis of radiation health risks to astronauts in space missions. The BON14 model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model also incorporates an empirical time delay function to account for the lag of the solar activity to reach the boundary of the heliosphere. This technical paper describes the most recent improvements in parameter fits to the BON model (BON14). Using a comprehensive measurement database, it is shown that BON14 is significantly improved over the previous version, BON11.

  16. Into the Curriculum: Reading/Language Arts: Cinderella, Cinderella, Cinderella! [and] Reading/Language Arts: Fanny vs. Cinderella [and] Science: Animals of the Ocean [and] Science and Social Studies: Weather or Climate? [and] Social Studies/Science/Language Arts/Mathematics: Rivers in America [and] Social Studies/Foreign Language: Bon Voyage!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Betsey; Bailey, Annette; Rechkemmer, Rhonda; Hedrick, Judy; Stavarz, Jamie M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides lesson plans for grades two and four to five reading/language arts, grade two science, grades three to five science/social studies, grade five language arts/math/science/social studies, and grades five to seven social studies/French. Lists resources and discusses library skills, subject objectives, instructional roles, activities,…

  17. La greffe de peau totale dans le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main et des doigts: A propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukind, S.; Droussi, H.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Dhaidah, O.; Ejjiyar, M.; Quaboul, M.; Dehhaze, A.; Fkhar, S.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective s’étendant de septembre 2004 à septembre 2012 sur les données de à propos de 84 patients présentant des séquelles de brûlure majeures de la main. Ces patients étaient traités chirurgicalement par une greffe de peau totale. Le but de cette étude est, donc, d’insister sur la simplicité de cette technique et surtout son efficacité et sa fiabilité. L’âge moyen de la survenue de la brûlure était de 4 ans. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 18,3 ans (2-62 ans), avec prédominance masculine dans 60% des cas. L’agent causal le plus fréquent était un agent thermique - le plus souvent un liquide chaud (56%). Le délai moyen entre la fin de la cicatrisation et la prise en charge des séquelles était de 36 mois (2 mois - 16 ans). Dans 69 cas (82.5%), les lésions étaient localisées au niveau de la face palmaire de la main. Les séquelles ont été dominées par les rétractions digitales (65%) dont le déficit fonctionnel est évident. Une greffe de peau totale a été réalisée chez tous nos patients après libération des brides et excision des placards cicatriciels. Les rétractions commissurales ont été traitées par des plasties en Z. Dans 95% des cas, le prélèvement de peau totale était réalisé au niveau du pli inguinal. Le recul moyen était de 5,5 ans (1-8 ans). 11 patients ont été perdus de vu. Les résultats après cicatrisation complète et rééducation ont été jugés satisfaisants (bons) dans 62 cas (85%), et assez bons dans 11 cas (15%). Un traitement initial bien conduit et effectué dans les meilleures conditions permet non seulement de réduire le nombre de séquelles des brûlures mais encore de les rendre moins sévères. PMID:26336368

  18. Sexual and gender minority peoples' recommendations for assisted human reproduction services.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Tarasoff, Lesley A; Anderson, Scott; Green, Datejie; Epstein, Rachel; Marvel, Stu; Steele, Leah S

    2014-02-01

    Objectif : Chercher à connaître les recommandations que formuleraient les personnes lesbiennes, gaies, bisexuelles, transgenres et allosexuelles (LGBTQ) en ce qui concerne l’offre de services de procréation assistée (PA) à leurs communautés. Méthodes : En utilisant un guide semi-structuré, nous avons interviewé un échantillon choisi à dessein de 66 personnes s’identifiant comme étant LGBTQ et provenant de partout dans la province de l’Ontario qui avaient utilisé ou qui avaient envisagé d’utiliser des services de PA depuis 2007. Résultats : Les participantes étaient principalement des femmes cisgenres (non transgenres), blanches, ayant une partenaire du même sexe et vivant en milieu urbain qui comptaient des niveaux relativement élevés de scolarité et de revenu. Les participantes ont formulé des recommandations visant l’apport de modifications aux aspects suivants de l’offre de services de PA : (1) accès à des renseignements pertinents pour les personnes LGBTQ, (2) adoption de pratiques axées sur la patiente par les fournisseurs de services de PA, (3) formation et éducation des fournisseurs de services à l’égard des enjeux et des besoins des personnes LGBTQ, (4) accroissement de la visibilité des personnes LGBTQ en milieu clinique et (5) octroi d’une attention aux lacunes en matière de services qui préoccupent particulièrement les personnes LGBTQ. Conclusion : Bon nombre des recommandations formulées par les participantes à l’étude illustrent la façon dont l’adoption de modèles axés sur la patiente pourrait combler les inégalités en ce qui concerne l’offre de services aux personnes LGBTQ et à d’autres patientes pouvant avoir des besoins particuliers en matière de PA. Nos résultats semblent indiquer que des ressources éducatives devraient être mises à la disposition des fournisseurs de services pour leur permettre de mettre en œuvre de telles pratiques axées sur les patientes et d’offrir des

  19. Treatment referral system for tuberculosis patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Hirayama, T; Islam, A; Ishikawa, N; Afsana, K

    2015-12-21

    Objectif : Evaluer le système de référence dans les programmes de DOTS urbains dans la ville de Dhaka, Bangladesh, et sa banlieue et à identifier les opportunités de renforcer ce système.Schéma : Une étude rétrospective de cohorte a interviewé les patients ayant eu un diagnostic de TB et les prestataires de soins des centres de diagnostic et de traitement (DOTS). Les outils de recherche ont inclus des questionnaires structurés pré testés et de registres de référence de patients TB.Résultats : Un total de 4974 patients TB a été référé aux différents centres de traitement. Seulement 1756 (35%) des fiches de référence des homologues ont été retournées. Parmi eux, 250 patients ont été sélectionnés au hasard pour un entretien. Parmi eux, 165 patients sont allés dans les centres DOTS, 69 n'y sont pas allés et 16 n'ont pas pu être retrouvés. On a découvert des variations statistiquement significatives en matière de niveau d'instruction, de lieu de résidence et d'identification du centre DOTS après conseil (P < 0,05). Les personnes ayant un revenu mensuel plus faible (RR = 7,84 ; RR = 5,03), la distance par rapport au centre (RR = 36,21) et prenant leur traitement dans une pharmacie et divers autres lieux ont eu un risque plus élevé (RR = 3 ; RR = 28,48) de prendre un traitement irrégulier.Conclusion : Un bon nombre de patients référés ont été enregistrés et ont mis en route le traitement mais ne sont pas retournés au centre de traitement indiqué. Un conseil adapté et le fait de tenir compte des préférences du patient pendant la référence sont essentiels pour répondre aux contraintes d'accès, pour l'adhésion au traitement et pour un meilleur résultat du traitement.

  20. Méningiome intracrânien multiple: expérience du service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne Rabat - Salé, à propos de 4 cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Karekezi, Claire; Moussé, Nabil; Doleagbenou, Agbéko Komlan; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Les méningiomes intracrâniennes multiples sont définies comme la présence d'au moins deux méningiomes sur des sites intracrâniens différents et ceci en absence de neurofibromatose. C'est une tumeur rare dont la prévalence varie entre 1-10%. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques d'une série de 4 patients porteurs de méningiome multiple et en déduire les facteurs de risques de survenue de cette pathologie. Préciser la qualité d'exérèse chirurgicale de la lésion selon la classification de Simpson. Rapporter les suites postopératoires ainsi que le suivie à long termes des patients afin de préciser leur qualité de vie. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 4 cas de Méningiomes intracrâniens multiples sur 174 patients opérés pour méningiome au CHU Avicenne entre Janvier 2000 à Décembre 2013. En s'aidant des données cliniques, imageries, chirurgicales, histologiques mentionnée dans le dossier médical de chaque patient. Notre série est constitué de 4 patients (3 femmes pour 1 homme), d'un âge allant de 42-50 ans (moyenne d’âge= 45,5 ans). Nous avons identifié 21 méningiomes (17 en sus tentoriel et 4 en sous tentoriel), aucun cas de décès ni d'infection postopératoire dans notre échantillon. Le pronostic reste bon malgré le nombre de lésion nécessitant parfois plusieurs interventions chirurgicales. PMID:25419331

  1. L'intervention de Castaing dans le traitement chirurgical de l'instabilité chronique latérale de la cheville (à propos d'une série continue de 52 cas)

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Jalal; Mojib, Rifi; Mezghani, Sami; Jaeger, Jean Henri

    2014-01-01

    L'instabilité chronique de la cheville est l'une des évolutions possibles dans l'histoire naturelle de l'entorse aigüe de cheville. Elle représente 10% à 30% des séquelles d'entorses. Le traitement chirurgical est réservé aux patients ayant une instabilité de cheville persistante après rééducation à l'origine d'une gêne invalidante. La technique de ligamentoplastie utilisant le court fibulaire selon Castaing est la plus répondue en France. La simplicité du geste et ses bons résultats nous ont incités à poursuivre cette voie. Il s'agit d´une étude rétrospective à propos de 52 patients ayant bénéficié d'une ligamentoplastie au court fibulaire selon Castaing entre Janvier 2000 et Décembre 2010. Le recul minimum était d'un an. L’évaluation des patients reposait sur le score de Karlson et le “Ankle score” Molander et Olerud. Les patients sont satisfaits ou très satisfaits de l'intervention dans 80% des cas revus. Les résultats fonctionnels de nos patients sont comparables à ceux publiés dans la littérature. Le prélèvement du transplant du court fibulaire ne semble pas avoir de retentissement sur la stabilité de la cheville. Les patients conservent une éversion du pied satisfaisante avec une force comparable au côté opposé. L’évolution arthrosique de la cheville ne semble pas significative après cette chirurgie. Le point faible de notre étude est le nombre des patients perdus de vue, cela est lié à la jeunesse de la population opérée et au recrutement du service d'envergure nationale. PMID:25469182

  2. Prediction of seasonal water-table fluctuations in La Pampa and Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanco, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The fluctuation of the water table east of La Pampa province and northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, influences agricultural production in the region because it is closely related to the alternation of dry and wet periods. Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies have been used as predictors to forecast atmospheric variables in different regions of the world. The objective of this work is to present a simple model to forecast seasonal rainfall using SST distribution in the Pacific Ocean as a predictor. Once the relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuations was established, a methodology for the prediction of water-table fluctuations was developed. A good agreement between observed and predicted water-table fluctuations was found when estimating water-table fluctuations in the summer and autumn seasons. Résumé. Les fluctuations de la nappe à l'est de la province de La Pampa et au nord-ouest de la province de Buenos Aires (Argentine) influence la production agricole de la région parce qu'elle est étroitement liée à l'alternance de saisons sèches et humides. Les anomalies de la température de surface de l'océan (SST) ont été utilisées comme prédicteurs pour prévoir les variables atmosphériques dans différentes régions du monde. L'objectif de ce travail est de présenter un modèle simple de prévision des précipitations saisonnières en utilisant comme prédicteur la distribution des SST dans l'Océan Pacifique. Une fois que la relation entre les fluctuations des précipitations et celles de la nappe a été établie, une méthodologie de prédiction des variations de la nappe a été mise au point. Un bon accord entre les variations de la nappe observées et celles prédites a été trouvé pour les estimations des variations de nappe en été et en automne. Resumen. La fluctuación del nivel freático al este de la provincia de La Pampa y al nordeste de la de Buenos Aires (Argentina) repercute en la producción agr

  3. Profile of tuberculosis patients with delayed sputum smear conversion in the Pacific island of Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Fanai, S; Viney, K; Tarivonda, L; Roseveare, C; Tagaro, M; Marais, B J

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Programme national de lutte contre la tuberculose (PNT), Vanuatu.Objectif : Evaluer les tendances de la tuberculose (TB), caractériser les patients à crachats positifs avec une absence de conversion en 2 mois et évaluer le résultat de leur traitement.Schéma : Evaluation des données du PNT sur une période de 9 ans (2004–2012) comparant les patients sans conversion du frottis de crachats après 2 mois (conversion retardée) avec ceux ayant eu une conversion en 2011 et 2012.Résultats : Le nombre annuel de cas de TB est resté similaire tout au long de la période d'étude avec une moyenne de taux de notification de 58/100 000. Parmi les cas à frottis positifs, 74/417 (18%) ont eu une conversion retardée. Ces patients avaient plus souvent que les autres (88% contre 79%) des grades de frottis élevés avant leur traitement (OR 2,5 ; IC 95% 0,97–6,45). Parmi ces patients à conversion différée, l'adhésion au traitement était élevée (bonne dans 99% des cas), les résultats étaient généralement bons (90% de réussite thérapeutique, 85% de guérison, 4% d'échec thérapeutique) et aucune résistance au traitement n'a été détectée. Les décès étaient étonnamment fréquents (11/80 ; 14%) parmi les conversions et plus fréquents à Tafea qu'à Shefa (7/58 contre 2/80 ; OR 5,35 ; IC05% 1,07–26,79). La province de Tafea avait également le plus grand nombre de conversions retardées (30/74 ; 14,5%) et la plus haute incidence de TB.Conclusion : Une conversion retardée des frottis était relativement peu fréquente et n'était pas associée à des résultats médiocres ou à une résistance aux médicaments. Les différences régionales requièrent davantage d'investigations afin de mieux comprendre les facteurs locaux susceptibles de compromettre la prise en charge des patients.

  4. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  5. 77 FR 59890 - Reorganization and Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 220 Under Alternative Site Framework; Sioux...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 27714, 05/11/2012) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act... authority to reorganize and expand under the ASF with a service area of Bon Homme, Brookings, Clay,...

  6. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  7. Evaluation experimentale et theorique du comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metiche, Slimane

    La demande croissante en poteaux pour les differents reseaux d'electricite et de telecommunications a rendu necessaire l'utilisation de materiaux innovants, qui preservent l'environnement. La majorite des poteaux electriques existants au Canada ainsi qu'a travers le monde, sont fabriques a partir de materiaux traditionnels tel que le bois, le beton ou l'acier. Les motivations des industriels et des chercheurs a penser a d'autres solutions sont diverses, citons entre autre: La limitation en longueur des poteaux en bois ainsi que la vulnerabilite des poteaux fabriques en beton ou en acier aux agressions climatiques. Les nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites se presentent comme de bons candidats a cet effet, cependant; leur comportement structural n'est pas connu et des etudes theoriques et experimentales approfondies sont necessaires avant leur mise en marche a grande echelle. Un programme de recherche intensif comportant plusieurs projets experimentaux, analytiques et numeriques est en cours a l'Universite de Sherbrooke afin d'evaluer le comportement a court et a long termes de ces nouveaux poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF). C'est dans ce contexte que s'inscrit la presente these, et notre recherche vise a evaluer le comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux tubulaires coniques fabriques en materiaux composites par enroulement filamentaire et ce, a travers une etude theorique, ainsi qu'a travers une serie d'essais de flexion en "grandeur reelle" afin de comprendre le comportement structural de ces poteaux, d'optimiser la conception et de proposer une procedure de dimensionnement pour les utilisateurs. Les poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF) etudies dans cette these sont fabriques avec une resine epoxyde renforcee de fibres de verre type E. Chaque type poteaux est constitue principalement de trois zones ou les proprietes geometriques (epaisseur, diametre) et les proprietes mecaniques sont differentes d'une zone a l'autre. La difference

  8. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  9. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  10. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Where HPS is Found Cases ... In the US and Canada, the Sin Nombre hantavirus is responsible for the majority of cases of ...

  11. NASA Galactic Cosmic Radiation Environment Model: Badhwar-O'Neill (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Slaba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux model is used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and in the analysis of radiation health risks for human space flight missions. Of special interest to NASA is the kinetic energy region below 4.0 GeV/n due to the fact that exposure from GCR behind shielding (e.g., inside a space vehicle) is heavily influenced by the GCR particles from this energy domain. The BON model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model utilizes a GCR measurements database from various particle detectors to determine the boundary conditions. By using an updated GCR database and improved model fit parameters, the new BON model (BON14) is significantly improved over the previous BON models for describing the GCR radiation environment of interest to human space flight.

  12. NASA Galactic Cosmic Radiation Environment Model: Badhwar - O'Neill (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golge, S.; O'Neill, P. M.; Slaba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux model has been used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and in the analysis of radiation health risks for human space flight missions. Of special interest to NASA is the kinetic energy region below 4.0 GeV/n due to the fact that exposure from GCR behind shielding (e.g., inside a space vehicle) is heavily influenced by the GCR particles from this energy domain. The BON model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model utilizes a comprehensive database of GCR measurements from various particle detectors to determine boundary conditions. By using an updated GCR database and improved model fit parameters, the new BON model (BON14) is significantly improved over the previous BON models for describing the GCR radiation environment of interest to human space flight.

  13. Treatment of bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hupp, Wendy S.; Migliorati, Erica K.J.

    2007-01-01

    This mini-review will focus on the management of a patient with bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis (BON). In order to review the subject the authors report a case of a patient with prostate cancer and metastatic bone disease who was treated with zoledronic acid. Prior to cancer the patient was treated with risedronate for osteopenia but had discontinued this treatment when cancer was diagnosed. During the description of each aspect of the case, a discussion of the rationale used for the case management is presented with support of the available literature. Aspects of interest include the diagnosis of BON, the risk factor for BON for this particular patient, the decision making process for the management of acute and long-term oral cavity problems, and the introduction of high intensity laser therapy to help control pain and reduce infection and local bacterial load. PMID:22460756

  14. Betons durables a base de cendres d'ecorces de riz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William

    De nos jours, le développement durable est devenu une nécessité dans l'ensemble des sphères d'activité de notre monde, et particulièrement dans le domaine du béton. En effet, le développement des sociétés passe inévitablement par l'augmentation des infrastructures; le béton est le matériau principalement utilisé et son empreinte environnementale considérable gagnerait à être diminuée. L'industrie et la recherche sont très actives à ce niveau et la science des bétons durables est en pleine expansion. Dans ce contexte, une piste de solution est l'utilisation de résidus industriels ou agricoles comme ajouts cimentaires, ce qui permet de remplacer partiellement le ciment très polluant, tout en produisant des bétons avec une meilleure durabilité. Les cendres d'écorce de riz (RHA) présentent ainsi un potentiel cimentaire similaire aux meilleurs ajouts cimentaires actuellement utilisés, mais les applications concrètes de ce nouveau matériau demeurent peu développées à ce jour. Le présent projet a donc été conçu afin d'illustrer le potentiel des RHA d'une part dans les pays industrialisés pour améliorer la durabilité des bétons hautes performances (BHP) et pour améliorer les propriétés à l'état frais des bétons autoplaçants (BAP); et d'autre part, dans les pays en développement pour démocratiser les bétons durables produits avec des technologies adaptées aux réalités locales. Une première phase réalisée avec des RHA de haute qualité (RHAI) a ainsi été consacrée aux applications en pays industrialisés. La caractérisation des RHAI a indiqué une composition de 90% de silice amorphe, des particules légèrement plus grossières que le ciment, et une microstructure très poreuse et absorbante. Afin de pallier à cette absorption d'eau, l'optimisation du type de superplastifiant a permis de déterminer que l'utilisation du Plastol 5000 ou de l'Adva 405 avec les RHAI favorise un

  15. Betons durables a base de cendres d'ecorces de riz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William

    De nos jours, le développement durable est devenu une nécessité dans l'ensemble des sphères d'activité de notre monde, et particulièrement dans le domaine du béton. En effet, le développement des sociétés passe inévitablement par l'augmentation des infrastructures; le béton est le matériau principalement utilisé et son empreinte environnementale considérable gagnerait à être diminuée. L'industrie et la recherche sont très actives à ce niveau et la science des bétons durables est en pleine expansion. Dans ce contexte, une piste de solution est l'utilisation de résidus industriels ou agricoles comme ajouts cimentaires, ce qui permet de remplacer partiellement le ciment très polluant, tout en produisant des bétons avec une meilleure durabilité. Les cendres d'écorce de riz (RHA) présentent ainsi un potentiel cimentaire similaire aux meilleurs ajouts cimentaires actuellement utilisés, mais les applications concrètes de ce nouveau matériau demeurent peu développées à ce jour. Le présent projet a donc été conçu afin d'illustrer le potentiel des RHA d'une part dans les pays industrialisés pour améliorer la durabilité des bétons hautes performances (BHP) et pour améliorer les propriétés à l'état frais des bétons autoplaçants (BAP); et d'autre part, dans les pays en développement pour démocratiser les bétons durables produits avec des technologies adaptées aux réalités locales. Une première phase réalisée avec des RHA de haute qualité (RHAI) a ainsi été consacrée aux applications en pays industrialisés. La caractérisation des RHAI a indiqué une composition de 90% de silice amorphe, des particules légèrement plus grossières que le ciment, et une microstructure très poreuse et absorbante. Afin de pallier à cette absorption d'eau, l'optimisation du type de superplastifiant a permis de déterminer que l'utilisation du Plastol 5000 ou de l'Adva 405 avec les RHAI favorise un

  16. Oligonucleotides containing an acridine group covalently bonded to the nucleotide flanking the 3'-3' phosphodiester junction for alternate strand triple helix formation.

    PubMed

    Catalanotti, Bruno; Fattorusso, Caterina; Mayol, Luciano; Oliviero, Giorgia; Piccialli, Gennaro; Varra, Michela

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleotides with a 3'-3' inversion of polarity and containing an acridine group attached to nucleotide base flanking the 3'-3' phosphodiester bon have been synthesized, characterized and used as third strand in alternate triple helix formation. CD melting studies and molecular mechanics calculations have been carried out to investigate these triplex structures.

  17. Introductory Concepts in Information Science. ASIS Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Melanie J.

    This book is an introduction to the practical and theoretical concepts of information science. The author draws on recent research into the field of information science, as well as from scholarly and trade publications, and includes articles by Harold Borko, Klause Otten, and Anthony DeBons to emphasize the long-standing dissension in the field.…

  18. Asia Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection of lesson plans focuses on the geography and culture of several Asian countries and is intended to be used with students in grades 6-12. Lessons in the collection are: (1) "Keeping the Faith: Comparison of Major Religious Cultures in India, Indonesia, and Vietnam" (Glenda Sullivan); (2) "Namaste, Menyapa, Chao, Bon Jour, Hello!…

  19. 50 CFR 32.20 - Alabama.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL... alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge A... Gator and Little Gator Lakes. Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting....

  20. Soy protein isolates prevent loss of bone quantity associated with obesity in rats through regulation of insulin signaling in osteoblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In both rodents and humans, excessive consumption of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol during postnatal life is known to result in disruption of energy metabolism, development of obesity and of insulin resistance. However, how these high fat, energy dense diets affect bon...

  1. 33 CFR 89.27 - Waters upon which Inland Rule 24(i) applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), while transiting within the following areas: (1) St. Andrews Bay from the Hathaway Fixed Bridge at Mile 284.6 East of Harvey Locks (EHL) to the DuPont Fixed Bridge at Mile 295.4 EHL. (2) Pensacola Bay... Pensacola Fixed Bridge at Mile 189.1 EHL. (3) Mobile Bay and Bon Secour Bay from the Dauphin Island...

  2. 33 CFR 89.27 - Waters upon which Inland Rule 24(i) applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), while transiting within the following areas: (1) St. Andrews Bay from the Hathaway Fixed Bridge at Mile 284.6 East of Harvey Locks (EHL) to the DuPont Fixed Bridge at Mile 295.4 EHL. (2) Pensacola Bay... Pensacola Fixed Bridge at Mile 189.1 EHL. (3) Mobile Bay and Bon Secour Bay from the Dauphin Island...

  3. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  4. The role of osteocalcin in human glucose metabolism: marker or mediator?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence supports an association between the skeleton and energy metabolism. These interactions are mediated by a variety of hormones, cytokines, and nutrients. Here, the evidence for a role of osteocalcin in the regulation of glucose metabolism in humans is reviewed. Osteocalcin is a bon...

  5. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  6. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  7. Measuring the Economic Value of the Electronic Scientific Information Services in Portuguese Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    This article has three main objectives: i) to describe the use patterns of electronic and traditional resources in Portuguese academic libraries; ii) to estimate the value of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on by using two alternative valuation methodologies; iii) to relate the use patterns with the valuation of b-on.…

  8. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown...-Hour Standard) Designated area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora County...

  9. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown...-Hour Standard) Designated area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora County...

  10. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.342 see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings... Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County...

  11. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in bilateral and recurrent optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Reddel, Stephen W.; Henderson, Andrew; Parratt, John D.E.; Barnett, Michael; Gatt, Prudence N.; Merheb, Vera; Kumaran, Raani-Yogeeta Anusuiya; Pathmanandavel, Karrnan; Sinmaz, Nese; Ghadiri, Mahtab; Yiannikas, Con; Vucic, Steve; Stewart, Graeme; Bleasel, Andrew F.; Booth, David; Fung, Victor S.C.; Dale, Russell C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody–negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Methods: We performed a flow cytometry cell-based assay using live human lentivirus–transduced cells expressing full-length surface MOG. Serum was tested in 23 AQP4 antibody–negative NMO/NMOSD patients with bilateral and/or recurrent optic neuritis (BON, n = 11), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM, n = 10), and sequential BON and LETM (n = 2), as well as in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 76) and controls (n = 52). Results: MOG antibodies were detected in 9/23 AQP4 antibody–negative patients with NMO/NMOSD, compared to 1/76 patients with MS and 0/52 controls (p < 0.001). MOG antibodies were detected in 8/11 patients with BON, 0/10 patients with LETM, and 1/2 patients with sequential BON and LETM. Six of 9 MOG antibody–positive patients had a relapsing course. MOG antibody–positive patients had prominent optic disc swelling and were more likely to have a rapid response to steroid therapy and relapse on steroid cessation than MOG antibody–negative patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.029, respectively). While 8/9 MOG antibody–positive patients had good follow-up visual acuity, one experienced sustained visual impairment, 3 had retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, and one had residual spinal disability. Conclusions: MOG antibodies have a strong association with BON and may be a useful clinical biomarker. MOG antibody–associated BON is a relapsing disorder that is frequently steroid responsive and often steroid dependent. Failure to recognize the disorder early and institute immunotherapy promptly may be associated with sustained impairment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that MOG antibodies are associated with AQP4 antibody–negative BON (sensitivity 69%, 95% confidence interval [CI

  12. Bovine SLC11A1 3' UTR SSCP genotype evaluated by a macrophage in vitro killing assay employing a Brucella abortus strain.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Toro, R; Montoya, F; Burbano, M; Tobón, J; Gallego, J; Dunner, S; Cañón, J

    2008-08-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the bovine natural resistance-associated macrophage gene (NRAMP1 or SLC11A1) was genotyped in Colombian Creole Blanco Orejinegro (BON) (Bos taurus) (n = 140) and Zebu Brahman (Bos indicus) (Z) (n = 20) cattle and their crosses (BON x Zebu Brahman [B x Z] [n = 10]; Zebu Brahman x BON [Z x B] [n = 10]), and in animals from a Holstein x BON (H x B) (n = 10) cross. Direct sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) helped in detecting the polymorphic behaviour. The association between resistance to brucellosis infection and SSCP genotype was evaluated using a macrophage in vitro killing assay employing a virulent Brucella abortus strain. The 3' UTR (GT) repeated polymorphism was gentoyped and its association with resistance to brucellosis was evaluated. When all breeds were grouped, a high frequency in the homozygote GT(12) (AA genotype) (0.823) and a very low frequency in the homozygote GT(10) (BB genotype) (0.047) were detected. The BON (0.963), Z x B (0.60) and H x B (1.00) cattle showed high GT(12) allele frequencies, unlike that seen for the B x Z and Zebu cattle (0.3002 and 0.218, respectively). The GT(10) allele was only found in the Zebu cattle (0.391). A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between the B. abortus macrophage in vitro killing assay phenotypes and the bovine SLC11A1 3' UTR genotypes, which suggests that the A allele may be associated with resistance. Because only nine animals had the BB genotype, the results require some confirmation in more extensive populations.

  13. Bovine SLC11A1 3' UTR SSCP genotype evaluated by a macrophage in vitro killing assay employing a Brucella abortus strain.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Toro, R; Montoya, F; Burbano, M; Tobón, J; Gallego, J; Dunner, S; Cañón, J

    2008-08-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the bovine natural resistance-associated macrophage gene (NRAMP1 or SLC11A1) was genotyped in Colombian Creole Blanco Orejinegro (BON) (Bos taurus) (n = 140) and Zebu Brahman (Bos indicus) (Z) (n = 20) cattle and their crosses (BON x Zebu Brahman [B x Z] [n = 10]; Zebu Brahman x BON [Z x B] [n = 10]), and in animals from a Holstein x BON (H x B) (n = 10) cross. Direct sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) helped in detecting the polymorphic behaviour. The association between resistance to brucellosis infection and SSCP genotype was evaluated using a macrophage in vitro killing assay employing a virulent Brucella abortus strain. The 3' UTR (GT) repeated polymorphism was gentoyped and its association with resistance to brucellosis was evaluated. When all breeds were grouped, a high frequency in the homozygote GT(12) (AA genotype) (0.823) and a very low frequency in the homozygote GT(10) (BB genotype) (0.047) were detected. The BON (0.963), Z x B (0.60) and H x B (1.00) cattle showed high GT(12) allele frequencies, unlike that seen for the B x Z and Zebu cattle (0.3002 and 0.218, respectively). The GT(10) allele was only found in the Zebu cattle (0.391). A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between the B. abortus macrophage in vitro killing assay phenotypes and the bovine SLC11A1 3' UTR genotypes, which suggests that the A allele may be associated with resistance. Because only nine animals had the BB genotype, the results require some confirmation in more extensive populations. PMID:18717968

  14. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A.

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  15. Expression of neurotensin messenger RNA in a human carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Ishizuka, J; Townsend, C M; Rajaraman, S; Thompson, J C

    1991-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a distal gut peptide, has important regulatory and trophic effects throughout the gut; however the intracellular mechanisms that regulate the gene expression and release of human NT are not known. The purpose of this endeavor was to study a functioning human pancreatic carcinoid cell line (called BON) in vitro that expresses the NT gene, and to study the effect of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal-transduction pathway on the expression and release of human NT. RNA was prepared from BON cell line (which has been established in this laboratory); the RNA was analyzed for NT mRNA expression by Northern hybridization with a complementary DNA probe. RNA blot analysis demonstrated that the NT gene is expressed in BON and is transcribed to two mRNAs of 1.0- and 1.5-kb sizes. In the second part of this study, BON cells were treated with either forskolin (FSK), which increases intracellular levels of cAMP, or with serotonin (5-HT), which reduces cAMP in BON cells. Forskolin produced a dose-dependent increase in NT peptide release and, furthermore, FSK (10(-6) mol/L) rapidly increased NT mRNA abundance 1 hour after addition; conversely, 5-HT (10(-5) mol/L) decreased NT mRNA at 1 hour. Neurotensin mRNA levels returned to control values by 3 hours after either FSK or 5-HT, which suggests that the transcript half-life for NT is relatively short. These findings show that the expression and peptide release of human NT is mediated, in part, by the cAMP signal-transduction pathway. Our human carcinoid cell line will provide a useful model to study the in vitro regulation of NT gene expression and peptide release. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1659338

  16. Absorptions moléculaires à grand redshift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; Wiklind, T.

    L'observation de molécules en absorption est une technique pleine de promesses pour sonder le gaz froid à grand redshift. Les futurs instruments millimétriques bénéficieront de plus grandes surfaces collectrices, et un nombre bien supérieur de sources continuum deviendront accessibles, car le nombre de sources croit extre^mement rapidement à flux décroissant. D'autre part, à cause du biais de magnification gravitationnelle, on s'attend à trouver un excès de galaxies sur la ligne de visée des quasars brillants très lointains.

  17. Nouvelles approches en theorie du champ moyen dynamique: le cas du pouvoir thermoelectrique et celui de l'effet orbital d'un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-Francois

    Les applications reliees a la generation d'energie motivent la recherche de materiaux ayant un fort pouvoir thermoelectrique (S). De plus, S nous renseigne sur certaines proprietes fondamentales des materiaux, comme, par exemple, la transition entre l'etat coherent et incoherent des quasi-particules lorsque la temperature augmente. Empiriquement, la presence de fortes interactions electron-electron peut mener a un pouvoir thermoelectrique geant. Nous avons donc etudie le modele le plus simple qui tient compte de ces fortes interactions, le modele de Hubbard. La theorie du champ moyen dynamique (DMFT) est tout indiquee dans ce cas. Nous nous sommes concentres sur un systeme tridimensionnel (3d) cubique a face centree (fcc), et ce, pour plusieurs raisons. A) Ce type de cristal est tres commun dans la nature. B) La DMFT donne de tres bons resultats en 3d et donc ce choix sert aussi de preuve de principe de la methode. C) Finalement, a cause de la frustration electronique intrinseque au fcc, celui-ci ne presente pas de symetrie particule-trou, ce qui est tres favorable a l'apparition d'une grande valeur de S. Ce travail demontre que lorsque le materiau est un isolant a demi-remplissage a cause des fortes interactions (isolant de Mott), il est possible d'obtenir de grands pouvoirs thermoelectriques en le dopant legerement. C'est un resultat pratique important. Du point de vue methodologique, nous avons montre comment la limite de frequence infinie de S et l'approche dite de Kelvin, qui considere la limite de frequence nulle avant la limite thermodynamique pour S, donnent des estimations fiables de la vraie limite continue (DC) dans les domaines de temperature appropriee. Ces deux approches facilitent grandement les calculs en court-circuit ant la necessite de recourir a de problematiques prolongements analytiques. Nous avons trouve que la methode de calcul a frequence infinie fonctionne bien lorsque les echelles d'energie sont relativement faibles. En d'autres termes

  18. Newborn outcomes in british columbia after caesarean section for non-reassuring fetal status.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Kevin; Janssen, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    Objectif : Évaluer l’incidence (en Colombie-Britannique) de la morbidité grave chez les enfants nés par césarienne en raison d’un état fœtal non rassurant et examiner la précision de l’indice d’Apgar et des valeurs de la gazométrie du cordon ombilical pour ce qui est de la prévision de la morbidité néonatale grave. Méthodes : Nous avons évalué le taux d’encéphalopathie hypoxique ischémique, le taux d’admission à l’UNSI et le nombre de jours de soutien au moyen d’un appareil à ventilation artificielle, de façon individuelle et sous forme d’issue composite conjointement avec le décès néonatal, chez un total de 8 466 enfants étant nés à terme à la suite d’une grossesse monofœtale accouchée par césarienne en raison d’un état fœtal non rassurant entre le 1er janvier 2007 et le 31 décembre 2011. Nous avons calculé la précision prévisionnelle des indices d’Apgar et des valeurs de la gazométrie du cordon ombilical au moyen de la surface sous la courbe de la fonction d’efficacité du récepteur (ROC), ainsi qu’au moyen de leur sensibilité et de leur spécificité pour chacune des issues. Résultats : L’incidence de l’obtention d’un indice d’Apgar à une minute < 4 était de 8,0 %, tandis qu’elle était de 0,6 % pour ce qui est de l’indice d’Apgar à cinq minutes < 4. L’incidence de l’obtention d’un pH de cordon ombilical < 7,10 était de 6,5 %, tandis que l’incidence de l’obtention d’un excès basique < −12 était de 2,9 %. L’indice d’Apgar à une minute dont la valeur était < 7 constituait le paramètre disposant de la meilleure précision prévisionnelle pour ce qui est de l’issue composite (81 %, tant pour la sensibilité que pour la spécificité). Les surfaces sous la courbe ROC en ce qui concerne les indices d’Apgar à une minute et à cinq minutes, le pH du cordon ombilical et l’excès basique étaient de 0,87, de 0,86, de 0,76 et de 0

  19. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    ême lorsque des fractures et des failles existaient dans certains des intervalles d'essais. Ces mesures sont conformes aux données hydrogéologiques tirées du recoupement des argiles à Opalinus par dix tunnels du Jura plissé du nord de la Suisse. Malgré une tectonique intense, peu de manifestations de faibles venues d'eau ont été rencontrées dans plus de 6600 m de tunnel. Toutes les venues d'eau se sont produites dans des sections de tunnel où le recouvrement est inférieur à 200 m. Les données hydrauliques sont en bon accord avec les données hydrochimiques et isotopiques de l'eau porale des argiles. En se basant sur le grand nombre de données hydrogéologiques, qui portent en partie sur les environnements géologiques particulièrement peu propices, on peut avancer que le transport advectif le long des failles et des fractures n'est pas un facteur susceptible de remettre en question le choix de l'argile à Opalinus comme roche hôte pour le stockage de déchets radioactifs en formation géologique profonde. Resúmen. Dentro del programa suizo de eliminación de residuos radiactivos de alta actividad, se está investigando la posibilidad de utilizar unos esquistos Jurásicos (Arcilla Opalina) como depósito geológico. Las observaciones efectuadas en pozos en arcilla y los resultados de un programa de estudio alemán sobre eliminación de residuos peligrosos han demostrado que, a profundidades de entre 10 y 30 m, la permeabilidad de la Arcilla Opalina decrece en varios órdenes de magnitud. Los ensayos hidráulicos realizados en sondeos más profundos (en intervalos situados a más de 300 m) proporcionaron conductividades hidráulicas inferiores a 10-12 m/s, pese a que algunos de los intervalos interceptaban juntas y fallas. Estas medidas son coherentes con los datos hidrogeológicos de las secciones de Arcilla Opalina existentes en 10 túneles del Jurásico Plegado, al norte de Suiza. A pesar de las fallas extensivas, apenas se hallaron indicios de entrada de

  20. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  1. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    ême lorsque des fractures et des failles existaient dans certains des intervalles d'essais. Ces mesures sont conformes aux données hydrogéologiques tirées du recoupement des argiles à Opalinus par dix tunnels du Jura plissé du nord de la Suisse. Malgré une tectonique intense, peu de manifestations de faibles venues d'eau ont été rencontrées dans plus de 6600 m de tunnel. Toutes les venues d'eau se sont produites dans des sections de tunnel où le recouvrement est inférieur à 200 m. Les données hydrauliques sont en bon accord avec les données hydrochimiques et isotopiques de l'eau porale des argiles. En se basant sur le grand nombre de données hydrogéologiques, qui portent en partie sur les environnements géologiques particulièrement peu propices, on peut avancer que le transport advectif le long des failles et des fractures n'est pas un facteur susceptible de remettre en question le choix de l'argile à Opalinus comme roche hôte pour le stockage de déchets radioactifs en formation géologique profonde. Resúmen. Dentro del programa suizo de eliminación de residuos radiactivos de alta actividad, se está investigando la posibilidad de utilizar unos esquistos Jurásicos (Arcilla Opalina) como depósito geológico. Las observaciones efectuadas en pozos en arcilla y los resultados de un programa de estudio alemán sobre eliminación de residuos peligrosos han demostrado que, a profundidades de entre 10 y 30 m, la permeabilidad de la Arcilla Opalina decrece en varios órdenes de magnitud. Los ensayos hidráulicos realizados en sondeos más profundos (en intervalos situados a más de 300 m) proporcionaron conductividades hidráulicas inferiores a 10-12 m/s, pese a que algunos de los intervalos interceptaban juntas y fallas. Estas medidas son coherentes con los datos hidrogeológicos de las secciones de Arcilla Opalina existentes en 10 túneles del Jurásico Plegado, al norte de Suiza. A pesar de las fallas extensivas, apenas se hallaron indicios de entrada de

  2. Critical Appraisal Skills Among Canadian Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents: How Do They Fare?

    PubMed

    Bougie, Olga; Posner, Glenn; Black, Amanda Y

    2015-07-01

    taient déjà parvenus à faire publier un article (RC 1= ,82). Bon nombre de ces résidents (68 %) étaient peu à l’aise / n’étaient pas à l’aise en ce qui concerne l’application des résultats de la recherche à la pratique clinique. Le degré d’aisance connaissait une hausse considérable au fil des années de formation (P < 0,001) et en présence d’une formation officielle en épidémiologie au cours de la résidence (RC.= 2,01). Le score moyen des 355 résidents quant aux questions sur l’évaluation des connaissances a été de 69,8 %. Le niveau d’expérience était associé à une amélioration du rendement global pendant le test (P = 0,02). Parmi les rubriques ayant donné lieu au rendement le plus faible, on trouvait la méthode d’étude analytique (9,9 %), le devis d’étude (36,9 %) et la taille d’échantillon (42,0 %). La plupart des résidents (84,4 %) souhaitaient obtenir plus de formation en épidémiologie. Conclusion : Bien que les résidents canadiens en obstétrique-gynécologie détiennent les connaissances requises en biostatistique et en épidémiologie pour interpréter les résultats publiés dans la littérature, ils manquent d’aisance quant à l’application de ces connaissances en milieu clinique. La plupart des résidents souhaitent obtenir plus de formation dans ces domaines; les programmes de résidence devraient donc inclure une telle formation aux curriculums officiels, et ce, en vue d’accroître la confiance des résidents et de les préparer à pratiquer une médecine factuelle tout au long de leur carrière.

  3. Doxorubicin-loaded micelles of reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers as efficient "active" chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Cambón, A; Rey-Rico, A; Mistry, D; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Attwood, D; Barbosa, S; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V

    2013-03-10

    Five reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers, BOnEOmBOn, with BO ranging from 8 to 21 units and EO from 90 to 411 were synthesized and evaluated as efficient chemotherapeutic drug delivery nanocarriers and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump in a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line. The copolymers were obtained by reverse polymerization of poly(butylene oxide), which avoids transfer reaction and widening of the EO block distribution, commonly found in commercial poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamers). BOnEOmBOn copolymers formed spherical micelles of 10-40 nm diameter at lower concentrations (one order of magnitude) than those of equivalent poloxamers. The influence of copolymer block lengths and BO/EO ratios on the solubilization capacity and protective environment for doxorubicin (DOXO) was investigated. Micelles showed drug loading capacity ranging from ca. 0.04% to 1.5%, more than 150 times the aqueous solubility of DOXO, and protected the cargo from hydrolysis for more than a month due to their greater colloidal stability in solution. Drug release profiles at various pHs, and the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the DOXO-loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. DOXO loaded in the polymeric micelles accumulated more slowly inside the cells than free DOXO due to its sustained release. All copolymers were found to be cytocompatible, with viability extents larger than 95%. In addition, the cytotoxicity of DOXO-loaded micelles was higher than that observed for free drug solutions in a MDR ovarian NCI-ADR-RES cell line which overexpressed P-gp. The inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump by some BOnEOmBOn copolymers, similar to that measured for the common P-gp inhibitor verapamil, favored the retention of DOXO inside the cell increasing its cytotoxic activity. Therefore, poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers offer interesting features as cell

  4. A Touch of...Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatlain, Harvey; Sotiriadis, Caterina

    1985-01-01

    Describes educational games for teaching French as a second language (with one game to teach German). These include: "Comiques," for grades 7-12; "Battleship," for grades 7-8; "Scrabble au tableau," for grades 7-9""Baseball a l'interieur,""Phrase," for grades 7-12""Food-Enjoyment!" for grade 8; "Mon Nombre Secret;" and "Hallowe'en Activity." (SED)

  5. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Shores quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Shores topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, Oyster Bay, and the Bon Secour River, in Alabama. Most beachfront homes in the Gulf Shores area and most homes fronting on Little Lagoon in western Gulf Shores were either destroyed or heavily damaged. All beachfront motels were severly damaged. Damage to homes and other buildings in the Oyster Bay-Bon Secour area was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Evolutionnary models for solar twins (do Nascimento+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Nascimento, J. D. Jr; Castro, M.; Melendenz, J.; Bazot, M.; Theado, S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; de Medeiros, J. R.

    2009-05-01

    The models are computed by using the Toulouse-Geneva stellar evolution code TGEC (Hui-Bon-Hoa, 2008, Ap&SS, 316, 55). Details of the physics of these models can be found in Richard et al. (1996A&A...312.1000R, 2004, SoPh, 220, 243), do Nascimento et al. (2000A&A...357..931D), and Hui-Bon-Hoa (2008, Ap&SS, 316, 55). We computed evolutionary models of different masses from the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) to the end of the hydrogen exhaustion in the core. The calibration method of the models is based on the Richard et al. (1996A&A...312.1000R) prescription. (3 data files).

  7. Carcinome papillaire intra-kystique du sein: à propos de trois cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Bouhafa, Touria; Loukili, Kaoutar; El Kacemi, Hanan; Lalya, Issam; Kebdani, Taieb; Hassouni, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Le Carcinome papillaire intra-kystique du sein est une entité très rare et représente 0,5 à 1% de l'ensemble des carcinomes mammaires. Il se caractérise généralement par une croissance lente avec un bon pronostic. Nous rapportons 03 nouveaux cas prouvés histologiquement, chez des patientes traitées par chirurgie radicale ou conservatrice, suivie d'une radiothérapie sur le sein en place et une hormonothérapie à base de tamoxifen chez les deux patientes avec des récepteurs hormonaux positifs. Les trois patientes sont en bon contrôle locorégionale avec des suivis post-thérapeutiques de 12 à 18 mois. PMID:25419333

  8. Suitable utilization of woody plants for hibitation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been investigating the usefulness of woody plants for habitation on Mars. During our research, we have found that woody plants have several properties which can be utilized for therapy and materials for enrage and construction even on Mars. Japanese people traditionally believe that "Bonsai" have therapeudic properties. Trees can become carbon fuel which can be used as energy on Mars. Tree materials could be used as a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as for the purification and/or separation of solutions in an environment in space. Here, we will show some results of their abilities, the water leakage and vacuum seal test, separation of solutions using carbon materials made from trees. At the initiation of this research, we named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments "CosmoBon", small bonsai tree. To establish our research, as the first step, we will try to do the experiment using "CosmoBon".

  9. Larvicidal activity and effects on post embrionary development of laboratory reared Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), treated with Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) spore suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vitor Dos S B; Barcellos, Isadora da S; Carramaschi, Isabel N; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Zahner, Viviane

    2016-06-01

    The application of a spore suspension of Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) (strain Bon707), at a concentration of 1.94×10(9)CFU/mL in the diet, induced a level of 70% mortality in larvae of Musca domestica. No sublethal effects, upon feeding activity or development were recorded. However, electron microscopic examination of the digestive tract of larvae fed with B. laterosporus, revealed cellular vacuolization and cytoplasmic disorganization. PMID:27164160

  10. Temporal response properties of koniocellular (blue-on and blue-off) cells in marmoset lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pietersen, A N J; Cheong, S K; Solomon, S G; Tailby, C; Martin, P R

    2014-09-15

    Visual perception requires integrating signals arriving at different times from parallel visual streams. For example, signals carried on the phasic-magnocellular (MC) pathway reach the cerebral cortex pathways some tens of milliseconds before signals traveling on the tonic-parvocellular (PC) pathway. Visual latencies of cells in the koniocellular (KC) pathway have not been specifically studied in simian primates. Here we compared MC and PC cells to "blue-on" (BON) and "blue-off" (BOF) KC cells; these cells carry visual signals originating in short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones. We made extracellular recordings in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of anesthetized marmosets. We found that BON visual latencies are 10-20 ms longer than those of PC or MC cells. A small number of recorded BOF cells (n = 7) had latencies 10-20 ms longer than those of BON cells. Within all cell groups, latencies of foveal receptive fields (<10° eccentricity) were longer (by 3-8 ms) than latencies of peripheral receptive fields (>10°). Latencies of yellow-off inputs to BON cells lagged the blue-on inputs by up to 30 ms, but no differences in visual latency were seen on comparing marmosets expressing dichromatic ("red-green color-blind") or trichromatic color vision phenotype. We conclude that S-cone signals leaving the LGN on KC pathways are delayed with respect to signals traveling on PC and MC pathways. Cortical circuits serving color vision must therefore integrate across delays in (red-green) chromatic signals carried by PC cells and (blue-yellow) signals carried by KC cells. PMID:24920024

  11. Healthy household hints.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P

    1999-01-01

    Ten commonly found items that can help keep your home clean are listed. Baking soda and vinegar are effective in cleaning drains. Certain plants, including English ivy and the spider plant, filter carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide out of the air. In addition, specific brand-name products, such as Bon Ami and "Simple Green", are also good alternative cleansers. Contact information is provided. PMID:11366863

  12. Apprendre à apprendre

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Comment aider les enfants à réussir à l’école et, plus généralement, à développer leurs capacités intellectuelles ? Les résultats de travaux fondamentaux en psychologie et en neurosciences permettent de proposer des méthodes pédagogiques efficaces, bien qu’elles semblent parfois aller contre le bon sens. PMID:20936089

  13. Dental management of patients with a history of bisphosphonate therapy: clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Cesar A; Hsu, Chiu-Jen; Chopra, Sonia; Kaltman, Steven S

    2008-10-01

    Bisphosphonate osteonecrosis, BON, was recently described in the literature. Lack of scientific evidence explaining the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of this oral complication has generated uncertainties about proper management of patients treated with a bisphosphonate. This manuscript discusses the dental management of two breast cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates as part of their cancer management and who developed oral disease. Clinical management decisions will be presented as well as the treatment outcomes.

  14. Granting authority to a new policy. A community benefit services policy becomes part of the general business strategy.

    PubMed

    Karibo, J

    1994-05-01

    Bon Secours Health System's new strategic plan and community benefit services policy integrates the planning, budgeting, evaluating, and reporting of community benefit services into management processes at the same level of authority as other operational activities. The strategic plan of Bon Secours Health System, headquartered in Marriottsville, MD, documents the system's mission, operating principles, vision, and five goals, one of which is to improve the communities' health status. The community benefit services operating policy requires that the Bon Secours Health System chief executive officer (CEO) and each local system CEO and nursing home administrator form a multidisciplinary local work group to be responsible for community benefit services. Each local work group assesses the needs of its community within the framework of the annual planning process. Determining what services are needed and how to deliver them is relatively easy. The difficult task is determining which of the many needs to address. What a community lacks may be the result of poor or inadequate public policy. For example, its priority may not be healthcare. In these situations healthcare providers may be best able to serve the community by providing indirect support to social service providers or by advocating for change. The community benefit services operating policy provides a standard approach to match the community's priority needs with the institution's resources and produce a measurable improvement in health status.

  15. Thiocoraline activates the Notch pathway in carcinoids and reduces tumor progression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wyche, Thomas P.; Dammalapati, Ajitha; Cho, Hyunah; Harrison, April D.; Kwon, Glen S.; Chen, Herbert; Bugni, Tim S.; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoids are slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that are characterized by hormone overproduction; surgery is currently the only option for treatment. Activation of the Notch pathway has previously been shown to have a role in tumor suppression in NETs. The marine-derived thiodepsipeptide thiocoraline was investigated in vitro in two carcinoid cell lines (BON and H727). Carcinoid cells treated with nanomolar concentrations of thiocoraline resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation and an alteration of malignant phenotype evidenced by decrease of NET markers, ASCL-1, CgA, and NSE. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of Notch1 on the protein level in BON cells. Additionally, thiocoraline activated downstream Notch targets HES1, HES5, and HEY2. Thiocoraline effectively suppressed carcinoid cell growth by promoting cell cycle arrest in BON and H727 cells. An in vivo study demonstrated that thiocoraline, formulated with polymeric micelles, slowed carcinoid tumor progression. Thus, the therapeutic potential of thiocoraline, which induced activation of the Notch pathway, in carcinoid tumors was demonstrated. PMID:25412645

  16. Opposing Effects on Two Phases of Defense Responses from Concerted Actions of HEAT SHOCK COGNATE70 and BONZAI1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gou, Mingyue; Zhang, Zemin; Zhang, Ning; Huang, Quansheng; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Yang, Huijun; Shi, Zhenying; Zipfel, Cyril; Hua, Jian

    2015-11-01

    The plant immune system consists of multiple layers of responses targeting various phases of pathogen infection. Here, we provide evidence showing that two responses, one controlling stomatal closure and the other mediated by intracellular receptor proteins, can be regulated by the same proteins but in an antagonistic manner. The HEAT SHOCK COGNATE70 (HSC70), while previously known as a negative regulator of stomatal closure, is a positive regulator of immune responses mediated by the immune receptor protein SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1, CONSTITUTIVE1 (SNC1) as well as basal defense responses. In contrast to HSC70, a calcium-binding protein, BONZAI1 (BON1), promotes abscisic acid- and pathogen-triggered stomatal closure in addition to and independent of its previously known negative role in SNC1 regulation. BON1 likely regulates stomatal closure through activating SUPPESSOR OF THE G2 ALLELE OF SKP1 VARIANT B and inhibiting HSC70. New functions of BON1 and HSC70 identified in this study thus reveal opposite effects of each of them on immunity. The opposing roles of these regulators at different phases of plant immune responses exemplify the complexity in immunity regulation and suggest that immune receptors may guard positive regulators functioning at stomatal closure control. PMID:26408532

  17. Jaw osteonecrosis related to bisphosphonate therapy: a severe secondary disorder.

    PubMed

    Dannemann, C; Grätz, K W; Riener, M O; Zwahlen, R A

    2007-04-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BON), first described in 2003, is gaining importance due to the increasing indication spectrum of bisphosphonate therapy [S. Takeyama, M. Ito, H. Shinoda, A novel bisphosphonate, TRK-530, for periodontitis, Bone 38 (2006) 31-31; M. Tagil, A. W-Dahl, J. Astrand, D. Little, S. Toksvig-Larsen, Decreasing the catabolic response by a single bisphosphonate infusion shortens the healing time in hemicallotasis operations, Bone 38 (2006) 84-85; E. Rodriguez, M.C. Duran, L.M. Rodriguez, R. Ros, M.R. Aleman, M. Rodriguez-Gaspar, A.M. Lopez, E. Garcia-Valdecasas, F. Santolaria, Intravenous (IV) bisphosphonates for osteopenic cancer survivor women: an alternative treatment, Bone 38 (2006) 72-73; D.G. Little, K. Ward, P. Kiely, M.C. Bellemore, J. Briody, C.T. Cowell, Bisphosphonate rescue in distraction osteogenesis: a case series, Bone 38 (2006) 80-80; R. Marx, Pamidronate (Aredia) and zoledronate (Zometa) induced avascular necrosis of the jaws: a growing epidemic, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61 (2003) 1115-1118]. BON patients suffering from varying bony defects and symptoms are extremely restricted in their quality of life. Due to a limited knowledge of the aetiology of BON efficient evidence-based treatment strategies are lacking. Until now 23 patients with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis have been admitted to the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Zurich. A complete history has been recorded. All patients underwent clinical and radiographic examination. CT scans and MRI have been performed in selected cases. All patients had in common that, before signs of BON were observed, a local traumatic incidence had occurred. All patients showed signs of infection which could be remarkably reduced by antibacterial treatment. Furthermore, the period of bisphosphonate treatment was found to be one of the significant factors causing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. The aetiology of BON

  18. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  19. [Network for surveillance of zoonoses in agriculture].

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Emma; Abadia, Geneviève

    2007-06-15

    Currently, health risk monitoring and observation are major issues in terms of prevention. These principles specifically apply to biological risks with the onset of emerging or re-emerging zoonoses and the implementation of a specific regulation on workers' protection against these risks. It is in this context that the Mutualité Sociale Agricole (French social security agency) decided in 1999 to create a monitoring network for non-food zoonoses in agriculture, supported by field professionals. More than a case recording system, it is an exchange network between various actors specialized in human health, prevention and animal health. Many different actions were initiated: studies, surveys, training, development of information tools etc., to give the various actors means to know and create awareness on these often ill-known diseases, to strengthen risk assessment, adapt prevention measures to each situation and react in the event of a sanitary crisis. PMID:17708088

  20. Development of a diagnostic method applicable to various serotypes of hantavirus infection in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Ivanov, Leonid I; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2012-09-01

    Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes.

  1. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  2. A small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from Indiana.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, N; Pruden, S; Ksiazek, T G; Morzunov, S P; Camp, J W

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine if hantaviruses were present in mice and other small mammals in Indiana (USA), small mammals were trapped in Brown, LaPorte, Tippecanoe and Whitley counties. Sixty-seven small mammals were trapped during August and September 1994. Sixty-three Peromyscus leucopus, one Microtus pennsylvanicus, one Zapus hudsonius and two Blarina brevicauda were captured and tested for hantaviruses. Six P. leucopus were found to have antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SN) by IgG ELISA, and a 139 bp fragment of SN-like hantavirus was amplified from five of them. All six of the positive P. leucopus were from LaPorte County. No other small mammals had evidence of infection with SN virus. This study presents the first report of Sin Nombre-like hantavirus in P. leucopus from Indiana. PMID:9391967

  3. Everest

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-20

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  4. Rapid parallel flow cytometry assays of active GTPases using effector beads

    PubMed Central

    Buranda, Tione; BasuRay, Soumik; Swanson, Scarlett; Agola, Jacob; Bondu, Virginie; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We describe a rapid assay for measuring the cellular activity of small GTPases in response to a specific stimulus. Effector functionalized beads are used to quantify in parallel multiple, GTP-bound GTPases in the same cell lysate by flow cytometry. In a biologically relevant example, five different Ras family GTPases are shown for the first time to be involved in a concerted signaling cascade downstream of receptor ligation by Sin Nombre hantavirus. PMID:23928044

  5. Everest

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  6. Evaluation of the 2008 Predictions of Run-Timing and Survival of Wild Migrant Yearling Chinook and Steelhead on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, W. Nicholas; Iltis, Susannah; Anderson, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Columbia Basin Research uses the COMPASS model on a daily basis during the outmigration of Snake River Chinook and steelhead smolts to predict downstream passage and survival. Fish arrival predictions and observations from program RealTime along with predicted and observed environmental conditions are used to make in-season predictions of arrival and survival to various dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. For 2008, calibrations of travel and survival parameters for two stocks of fish-Snake River yearling PIT-tagged wild chinook salmon (chin1pit) and Snake River PIT-tagged steelhead (lgrStlhd)-were used to model travel and survival of steelhead and chinook stocks from Lower Granite Dam (LWG) or McNary Dam (MCN) to Bonneville Dam (BON). This report summarizes the success of the COMPASS/RealTime process to model these migrations as they occur. We compared model results on timing and survival to data from two sources: stock specific counts at dams and end-of-season control survival estimates (Jim Faulkner, NOAA, pers. comm. Dec. 16, 2008). The difference between the predicted and observed day of median passage and the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between predicted and observed arrival cumulative distributions are measures of timing accuracy. MAD is essentially the average percentage error over the season. The difference between the predicted and observed survivals is a measure of survival accuracy. Model results and timing data were in good agreement from LWG to John Day Dam (JDA). Predictions of median passage days for the chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks were 0 and 2 days (respectively) later than observed. MAD for chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks at JDA were 2.3% and 5.9% (respectively). Between JDA and BON modeling and timing data were not as well matched. At BON, median passage predictions were 6 and 10 days later than observed and MAD values were 7.8% and 16.0% respectively. Model results and survival data were in good agreement from LWG to MCN. COMPASS predicted

  7. Place de l’embrochage fasciculé selon Hackethal dans le traitement des fractures de l’humérus: à propos de 80 cas

    PubMed Central

    Margad, Omar; Boukhris, Jalal; Sallahi, Hicham; Daoudi, Mohamed; Azriouil, Ouahb; Koulali, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Le débat principal autour des fractures de l’humérus se centre sur les indications thérapeutiques car tout type de stabilisation orthopédique ou chirurgicale trouve des défenseurs parfois inconditionnels et véhéments. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous avons revu 80 patients traités initialement par embrochage fasciculé centromédullaire selon Hackethal au service de traumatologie orthopédie de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne entre janvier 2000 et janvier 2012. Les fractures ont été classées selon la classification AO et selon la classification de Hackethal modifiée par De La Caffinière. L’évaluation fonctionnelle a utilisé la classification de Stewart et Hundley modifiée. Nous avons obtenu 60 très bons résultats, 6 bons résultats, 2 assez bons résultats et 2 mauvais résultats. Les deux mauvais résultats étaient des cas de pseudarthrose. Nous n’avons pas noté de paralysie radiale iatrogène, ni d’infection, ni de migration de broches. Le délai moyen de consolidation a été de 9semaines et 6 jours. C’est une méthode fiable, de réalisation facile et à faible cout économique, qui fournit une bonne stabilisation du foyer de fracture permettant ainsi la mobilisation précoce avec des résultats fonctionnels excellents. PMID:27800106

  8. A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude

  9. Tumeur pseudopapillaire et solide du pancréas: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Jakhlal, Nabil; Njoumi, Noureddine; Hachi, Hafid; Bougtab, Abdesslam

    2016-01-01

    Les tumeurs pseudopapillaires et solides du pancréas sont des tumeurs rares, d’étiopathogénie encore incertaine, et surviennent surtout chez la jeune femme. Leur pronostic reste bon surtout après exérèse complète. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'une jeune femme, révélée par des douleurs abdominales. Le diagnostic est porté sur l’étude histologique associée à l'immuno-histochimie de la pièce de spléno-pancréatectomie caudale. PMID:27642443

  10. Platinum group elements in a 3.5 Ga nickel-iron occurrence - Possible evidence of a deep mantle origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tredoux, Marian; Hart, Rodger J.; Lindsay, Nicholas M.; De Wit, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of new field observations and the geochemical analyses for the area of the Bon Accord (BA) (the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa) Ni-Fe deposit, with particular consideration given to the trace element, platinum-group element, and isotopic (Pb, Nd, and Os) compositions. On the basis of these data, an interpretation of BA is suggested, according to which the BA deposit is a siderophile-rich heterogeneity remaining in the deep mantle after a process of incomplete core formation. The implications of such a model for the study of core-mantle segregation and the geochemistry of the lowermost mantle are discussed.

  11. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  12. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  13. Diversity and spatial distribution of surname structure in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik

    2015-11-01

    We studied the population structure of South Korea by using the distributions of surnames for all 246 administrative regions. Every 4,177 surnames are distinguished by their bon-gwan which indicates the place of their family clans. Using Fisher's Alpha, we found that the level of inbreeding increases as the distance from the capital Seoul increases. We introduced the Shannon index to measure the level of spatial diffusion for each surname population, and the geographical clusters based on similarities of the surname compositions among the regions show almost exact agreement with those at the administrative districts.

  14. Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis: a clinician's reference to patient management.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Varinder S; Fayans, Edgar P

    2008-08-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs), as inhibitors of osteoclasts, are widely used in the management of metastatic bone disease and in the prevention of osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Recent cases of bone necrosis of the jaws have been associated with the use of bisphosphonate therapy. A case is presented of a patient with osteonecrosis of the maxilla with a history of long-term bisphosphonate therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The authors treated the patient and suggest appropriate patient management guidelines with reference to current knowledge. Although a definitive treatment for bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis has not yet been established, clinicians must be aware of the pharmacologic properties of several bisphosphonates currently available and their indications, susceptible risk factors in the development of osteonecrosis of the jaws, the clinical signs and symptoms, and recommendations for patient management, including prevention and early recognition. BPs, potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, were first introduced more than 20 years ago. Since then, they have been used widely in the management of bone diseases, including hypercalcemia related to malignancy, myeloma-related bone disease, Paget's disease and osteoporosis. They have also been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and inhibit angiogenesis. These additional features have made BPs useful in the treatment of metastatic disease, including breast and prostate cancer, resulting in a rise in the medical use of these drugs. However, recent reports suggest that BPs, particularly the nitrogen-containing BPs pamidronate (Aredia) and zoledronic acid (Zometa), both manufactured by Novartis of East Hanover, NJ, are capable of causing bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BON). With 2.5 million patients treated with pamidronate and/or zoledronate worldwide, BON occurs in about one per 10,000 treated patients (Novartis, unpublished data, 2004). Currently, the total number

  15. Scénarios dynamiques d'une fibre dopée erbium fonctionnant sur deux longueurs d'onde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérisson, W.; Besnard, P.; Ginovart, F.; Le Boudecl, P.; Sanchez, F.; Stéphan, G. M.

    2002-06-01

    Nous montrons la sensibilité à l'anisotropie de pompe des diagrammes de bifurcation d'une fibre dopée erbium fonctionnant sur deux longueurs d'onde. Un très bon accord entre les diagrammes de bifurcation expérimentaux et ceux obtenus théoriquement a été obtenu. De nouveaux types de bistabilités (3T-chaos et IT-chaos) sont mis en évidence pour ces systèmes.

  16. An Observational Study of Consumers’ Accessing of Nutrition Information in Chain Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions. PMID:19299679

  17. An observational study of consumers' accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Christina A; Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-05-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions.

  18. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Ron; Cotton, Matthew; Harris, Ernest; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David

    2013-06-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in plate impact experiments can yield useful information about the dynamic properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to fabricate a graded-density flyer, termed the ``bed of nails'' (BON). A 2 mm thick x 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. Two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at The Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in free surface velocity over a period of about 2.5 microseconds. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum.

  19. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2014-05-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed of nails" (BON). A 2 mm thick × 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ~2.5 us, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress strain curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  20. High-performance flexible all-solid-state microbatteries based on solid electrolyte of lithium boron oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Lee, Ki-Chang; Park, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly growing interest and demand for wearable electronics require the development of flexible and lightweight all-solid-state batteries as power sources that guarantee high performance and safety with the absence of the risk of fire or explosion that can occur with traditional liquid electrolyte systems. Herein, we successfully fabricate new flexible all-solid-state microbatteries integrating a solid electrolyte film of lithium boron oxynitride (LiBON) on a flexible substrate using sophisticated thin-film fabrication technology. The new microbattery of Li/LiBON/LiCoO2 exhibits excellent mechanical integrity even under severe bending and twisting test conditions, enabling the realization of flexible microbatteries. The microbatteries demonstrate superior electrochemical cycling stability relative to conventional batteries, delivering an outstanding capacity retention of 90% on the 1000th cycle. Furthermore, operation at various temperatures from -10 °C to +60 °C and fast charging within 3-6 min are achieved. With various types of flexible substrates, the microbatteries can provide diverse opportunities for flexible and wearable electronics.

  1. Monoubiquitination of Histone 2B at the Disease Resistance Gene Locus Regulates Its Expression and Impacts Immune Responses in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Baohong; Yang, Dong-Lei; Shi, Zhenying; Dong, Hansong; Hua, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Disease resistance (R) genes are key components in plant immunity. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) E3 ubiquitin ligase genes HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) and HUB2 regulate the expression of R genes SUPPRESSOR OF npr1-1, CONSTITUTIVE1 (SNC1) and RESISTANCE TO PERONOSPORA PARASITICA4. An increase of SNC1 expression induces constitutive immune responses in the bonzai1 (bon1) mutant, and the loss of HUB1 or HUB2 function reduces SNC1 up-regulation and suppresses the bon1 autoimmune phenotypes. HUB1 and HUB2 mediate histone 2B (H2B) monoubiquitination directly at the SNC1 R gene locus to regulate its expression. In addition, SNC1 and HUB1 transcripts are moderately up-regulated by pathogen infection, and H2B monoubiquitination at SNC1 is enhanced by pathogen infection. Together, this study indicates that H2B monoubiquitination at the R gene locus regulates its expression and that this histone modification at the R gene locus has an impact on immune responses in plants. PMID:24664204

  2. Genome-wide association study on growth traits in Colombian creole breeds and crossbreeds with Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R; Gómez, Y; Rocha, J F M

    2014-08-25

    Whole genome selection represents an important tool for improving parameters related to the production of livestock. In order to build genomic selection indexes within a particular breed, it is important to identify polymorphisms that have the most significant association with a desired trait. A genome-wide marker association approach based on the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip(TM) was used to identify genomic regions affecting birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and daily weight gain (DWG) in purebred and crossbred creole cattle populations. We genotyped 654 individuals of Blanco Orejinegro (BON), Romosinuano (ROMO) and Cebú breeds and the crossbreeds BON x Cebú and ROMO x Cebú, and tested 5 genetic control models. In total, 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related (P < 0.05) to the 3 evaluated traits; BW was associated with the highest number of SNPs. For statistical false-positive correction, Bonferroni correction was used. From the results, we identified 7, 6, and 4 SNPs with strong associations with BW, WW, and DWG, respectively. Many of these SNPs were located on important coding regions of the bovine genome; their ontology and interactions are discussed herein. The results could contribute to the identification of genes involved in the physiology of beef cattle growth and the development of new strategies for breeding management via genomic selection to improve the productivity of creole cattle herds.

  3. Interferon α/β Receptor-Deficient Mice as a Model for Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jennifer M; Froude, Jeffery W; Prugar, Laura I; Bakken, Russell R; Zak, Samantha E; Daye, Sharon P; Wilhelmsen, Catherine E; Dye, John M

    2015-10-01

    A major obstacle in ebolavirus research is the lack of a small-animal model for Sudan virus (SUDV), as well as other wild-type (WT) ebolaviruses. Here, we expand on research by Bray and by Lever et al suggesting that WT ebolaviruses are pathogenic in mice deficient for the type 1 interferon (IFN) α/β receptor (IFNα/βR-/-). We examined the disease course of several WT ebolaviruses: Boneface (SUDV/Bon) and Gulu variants of SUDV, Ebola virus (EBOV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Taï Forest virus, and Reston virus (RESTV). We determined that exposure to WT SUDV or EBOV results in reproducible signs of disease in IFNα/βR-/- mice, as measured by weight loss and partial lethality. Vaccination with the SUDV or EBOV glycoprotein (GP)-expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis viral replicon particle vaccine protected these mice from SUDV/Bon and EBOV challenge, respectively. Treatment with SUDV- or EBOV-specific anti-GP antibodies protected mice from challenge when delivered 1-3 days after infection. Serial sampling experiments revealed evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in the livers of mice infected with the Boneface variant of SUDV, EBOV, and BDBV. Taken together, these data solidify the IFNα/βR-/- mouse as an important and useful model for the study of WT EBOV disease.

  4. More Limitations to Monolingualism: Bilinguals Outperform Monolinguals in Implicit Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E.; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    To succeed at cross-situational word learning, learners must infer word-object mappings by attending to the statistical co-occurrences of novel objects and labels across multiple encounters. While past studies have investigated this as a learning mechanism for infants and monolingual adults, bilinguals’ cross-situational word learning abilities have yet to be tested. Here, we compared monolinguals’ and bilinguals’ performance on a cross-situational word learning paradigm that featured phonologically distinct word pairs (e.g., BON-DEET) and phonologically similar word pairs that varied by a single consonant or vowel segment (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT, respectively). Both groups learned the novel word-referent mappings, providing evidence that cross-situational word learning is a learning strategy also available to bilingual adults. Furthermore, bilinguals were overall more accurate than monolinguals. This supports that bilingualism fosters a wide range of cognitive advantages that may benefit implicit word learning. Additionally, response patterns to the different trial types revealed a relative difficulty for vowel minimal pairs than consonant minimal pairs, replicating the pattern found in monolinguals by Escudero et al. (2016) in a different English accent. Specifically, all participants failed to learn vowel contrasts differentiated by vowel height. We discuss evidence for this bilingual advantage as a language-specific or general advantage. PMID:27574513

  5. More Limitations to Monolingualism: Bilinguals Outperform Monolinguals in Implicit Word Learning.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E; Fu, Charlene S L; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    To succeed at cross-situational word learning, learners must infer word-object mappings by attending to the statistical co-occurrences of novel objects and labels across multiple encounters. While past studies have investigated this as a learning mechanism for infants and monolingual adults, bilinguals' cross-situational word learning abilities have yet to be tested. Here, we compared monolinguals' and bilinguals' performance on a cross-situational word learning paradigm that featured phonologically distinct word pairs (e.g., BON-DEET) and phonologically similar word pairs that varied by a single consonant or vowel segment (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT, respectively). Both groups learned the novel word-referent mappings, providing evidence that cross-situational word learning is a learning strategy also available to bilingual adults. Furthermore, bilinguals were overall more accurate than monolinguals. This supports that bilingualism fosters a wide range of cognitive advantages that may benefit implicit word learning. Additionally, response patterns to the different trial types revealed a relative difficulty for vowel minimal pairs than consonant minimal pairs, replicating the pattern found in monolinguals by Escudero et al. (2016) in a different English accent. Specifically, all participants failed to learn vowel contrasts differentiated by vowel height. We discuss evidence for this bilingual advantage as a language-specific or general advantage. PMID:27574513

  6. Cross-Situational Learning of Minimal Word Pairs.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E; Vlach, Haley A

    2016-03-01

    Cross-situational statistical learning of words involves tracking co-occurrences of auditory words and objects across time to infer word-referent mappings. Previous research has demonstrated that learners can infer referents across sets of very phonologically distinct words (e.g., WUG, DAX), but it remains unknown whether learners can encode fine phonological differences during cross-situational statistical learning. This study examined learners' cross-situational statistical learning of minimal pairs that differed on one consonant segment (e.g., BON-TON), minimal pairs that differed on one vowel segment (e.g., DEET-DIT), and non-minimal pairs that differed on two or three segments (e.g., BON-DEET). Learners performed above chance for all pairs, but performed worse on vowel minimal pairs than on consonant minimal pairs or non-minimal pairs. These findings demonstrate that learners can encode fine phonetic detail while tracking word-referent co-occurrence probabilities, but they suggest that phonological encoding may be weaker for vowels than for consonants. PMID:25866868

  7. Genome-wide association study on growth traits in Colombian creole breeds and crossbreeds with Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R; Gómez, Y; Rocha, J F M

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome selection represents an important tool for improving parameters related to the production of livestock. In order to build genomic selection indexes within a particular breed, it is important to identify polymorphisms that have the most significant association with a desired trait. A genome-wide marker association approach based on the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip(TM) was used to identify genomic regions affecting birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and daily weight gain (DWG) in purebred and crossbred creole cattle populations. We genotyped 654 individuals of Blanco Orejinegro (BON), Romosinuano (ROMO) and Cebú breeds and the crossbreeds BON x Cebú and ROMO x Cebú, and tested 5 genetic control models. In total, 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related (P < 0.05) to the 3 evaluated traits; BW was associated with the highest number of SNPs. For statistical false-positive correction, Bonferroni correction was used. From the results, we identified 7, 6, and 4 SNPs with strong associations with BW, WW, and DWG, respectively. Many of these SNPs were located on important coding regions of the bovine genome; their ontology and interactions are discussed herein. The results could contribute to the identification of genes involved in the physiology of beef cattle growth and the development of new strategies for breeding management via genomic selection to improve the productivity of creole cattle herds. PMID:25158260

  8. A single expression for solute and heat dispersion in homogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Milligen, Boudewijn Ph.; Bons, Paul D.

    2014-05-01

    A variety of expressions have been proposed for dispersion in homogeneous porous media. These expressions are either for heat (thermal) or solute dispersion, and often only valid for a limited range of flow rates, typically expressed in terms of the Péclet number. We present a single, universal expression for both the heat and solute dispersion coefficient (both transverse and longitudinal) in homogeneous porous media, valid over a wide range of Péclet numbers as long as flow is laminar. The expression covers the complex intermediate regime between diffusion and advection controlled dispersion, where dispersion increases non-linearly with flow velocity. Using numerical simulations of pore channel networks, we show that that the intermediate regime can be regarded as a phase transition between random, diffusive transport at low flow velocity and ordered transport controlled by the geometry of the pore space at high flow velocities. This phase transition explains the first-order behavior in the intermediate regime. A new quantifier, the ratio of the amount of solute in dominantly advective versus dominantly diffusive pore channels, plays the role of "order parameter" of this phase transition. Bons, P.D., van Milligen, B.P., Blum, P. 2013. A general unified expression for solute and heat dispersion in homegeneous porous media. Water Resources Research 49, 1-13. van Milligen, B.Ph., Bons, P.D. 2012. Analytical model for tracer dispersion in porous media. Physical Review E 85.

  9. Non-supersymmetric D1/D5, F/NS5 and closed string tachyon condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Roy, Shibaji; Wang, Zhao-Long; Wu, Rong-Jun

    2009-09-01

    We construct the intersecting non-supersymmetric (non-susy) D1/D5 solution of type IIB string theory. While, as usual, the solution is charged under an electric two-form and an electric six-form gauge field, it also contains a non-susy chargeless (non-BPS) D0-brane. The S-dual of this solution is the non-susy F/NS5 solution. We show how these solutions nicely interpolate between the corresponding black (or non-extremal) solutions and the Kaluza-Klein (KK) "bubble of nothing" (BON) by continuously changing some parameters characterizing the solutions from one set of values to another. We show, by a time symmetric general bubble initial data analysis, that the final bubbles in these cases are static and stable and the interpolations can be physically interpreted as closed string tachyon condensation. As special cases, we recover the transition of two charge black F-string to BON, considered by Horowitz, and also the transition from AdS 3 black hole to global AdS 3.

  10. Genetic analysis of the diversity and origin of hantaviruses in Peromyscus leucopus mice in North America.

    PubMed

    Morzunov, S P; Rowe, J E; Ksiazek, T G; Peters, C J; St Jeor, S C; Nichol, S T

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for the complete M genome segments of two distinct hantavirus genetic lineages which were detected in hantavirus antibody- and PCR-positive white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) from Indiana and Oklahoma. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that although divergent from each other, the virus lineages in Indiana and Oklahoma were monophyletic and formed a newly identified unique ancestral branch within the clade of Sin Nombre-like viruses found in Peromyscus mice. Interestingly, P. leucopus-borne New York virus was found to be most closely related to the P. maniculatus-borne viruses, Sin Nombre and Monongahela, and monophyletic with Monongahela virus. In parallel, intraspecific phylogenetic relationships of P. leucopus were also determined, based on the amplification, sequencing, and analysis of the DNA fragment representing the replication control region of the rodent mitochondrial genome. P. leucopus mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were found to form four separate genetic clades, referred to here as Eastern, Central, Northwestern, and Southwestern groups. The distinct Indiana and Oklahoma virus lineages were detected in P. leucopus of the Eastern and Southwestern mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, respectively. Taken together, our current data suggests that both cospeciation of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses with their specific rodent hosts and biogeographic factors (such as allopatric migrations, geographic separation, and isolation) have played important roles in establishment of the current genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Sin Nombre-like hantaviruses. In particular, the unusual position of New York virus on the virus phylogenetic tree is most consistent with an historically recent host-switching event.

  11. The trend of tuberculosis cases over 60 years in Fiji's largest treatment centre: 1950-2010.

    PubMed

    Tamani, T; Bissell, K; Tayler-Smith, K; Gounder, S; Linh, N N; Graham, S M

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Hôpital P J Twomey, Programme National contre la Tuberculose, Fidji.Objectifs : Revoir les tendances des nombres de cas de tuberculose (TB) enregistrés chaque année de 1950 à 2010 à l'Hôpital P J Twomey, le plus grand centre de traitement de la TB et l'unité centrale du pays. Les tendances sont interprétées en fonction des différentes étapes de la lutte contre la TB.Schéma : Etude descriptive des données des dossiers médicaux et des registres de TB, notamment l'âge, le sexe, l'origine ethnique, le diagnostic et le résultat du frottis.Résultats : Entre 1950 et 2010, 14 616 cas ont été enregistrés à l'Hôpital P J Twomey. Parmi eux, 58% étaient de sexe masculin, 70% étaient des indigènes des îles Fidji (i-taukei) et 64% étaient âgés entre 15 et 49 ans. Le nombre de cas a chuté de façon brutale dans les années 1960 et a poursuivi sa descente progressive depuis 1990. Des résultats de frottis étaient disponibles dans 91% des cas. Entre 1950 et 1985, 19% des cas avaient un frottis positif ; cette proportion est passée à 41% après 1985 à la suite du recyclage des laborantins. Le nombre de cas à frottis de crachats positifs enregistré chaque année a augmenté au cours de la dernière décennie.Conclusion : Il y a eu des changements marquants du volume des cas dans le plus grand centre de traitement de la TB au Fidji au cours des 60 dernières années. L'accroissement récent des cas à frottis de crachats positifs alors que le nombre total de cas a diminué requiert de plus amples investigations.

  12. Screening difficult-to-reach populations for tuberculosis using a mobile medical unit, Punjab India.

    PubMed

    Binepal, G; Agarwal, P; Kaur, N; Singh, B; Bhagat, V; Verma, R P; Satyanarayana, S; Oeltmann, J E; Moonan, P K

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : En Inde, la Mission nationale santé a fourni une unité médicale mobile (MMU) par district dans l'état du Penjab afin d'offrir des services de soins de santé primaires aux populations difficilement accessibles.Objectifs : Déterminer le nombre de patients présumés atteints de la tuberculose (TB) et le nombre de cas de TB détectés et traités parmi les patients qui ont utilisé les services de la MMU de mai à décembre 2012 dans le district de Mohali de l'état du Penjab, Inde.Méthodes : Une étude transversale a été réalisée et l'étude des registres des consultations, du laboratoire, de la radiologie et des services de TB de la MMU a permis de compter le nombre de personnes présumées atteintes de TB et le nombre de personnes ayant eu un diagnostic de TB.Résultats : Un total de 8346 patients ont fréquenté la MMU, dont 663 (8%) avaient des symptômes suggérant une TB. Parmi ces derniers, 540 (81%) ont bénéficié d'une recherche de TB pulmonaire grâce à un examen de l'expectoration ou à une radiographie pulmonaire. Au total, 58 (11%) patients ont eu des preuves cliniques ou biologiques de TB pulmonaire, dont 21 (36%) ont mis en route un traitement de la tuberculose.Conclusion : Comme les MMU font partie intégrante du système de santé publique général, ces unités ont le potentiel de détecter les cas de TB parmi les populations « difficiles à atteindre ». De plus amples recherches sont requises afin d'optimiser le diagnostic de la TB dans les MMU pour accélérer la mise en route du traitement de la TB.

  13. Torleif Ericson 60th Birthday

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plusieurs discours à l'occasion du 60me anniversaire de Torleif Ericson, physicien né à Lund (Suède), et remerciements pour son travail et son effort de relier la physique des particules à la physique nucléaire. A la fin de la cérémonie un document scientifique de 400 pages "die Festschrift" lui est remis comme cadeau d'anniversaire avec un grand nombre de contributions d'amis etc...

  14. Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Los Santos, Panama, 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bayard, Vicente; Barria, Eduardo O.; Ruedas, Luis A.; Tinnin, David S.; Muñoz, Carlos; de Mosca, Itza B.; Guerrero, Gladys; Kant, Rudick; Garcia, Arsenio; Caceres, Lorenzo; Gracia, Fernando G.; Quiroz, Evelia; de Castillo, Zoila; Armien, Blas; Libel, Marlo; Mills, James N.; Khan, Ali S.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Peters, Clarence J.

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in the province of Los Santos, Panama, in late 1999 and early 2000. Eleven cases were identified; 9 were confirmed by serology. Three cases were fatal; however, no confirmed case-patient died. Case-neighborhood serologic surveys resulted in an overall hantavirus antibody prevalence of 13% among household and neighborhood members from the outbreak foci. Epidemiologic investigations did not suggest person-to-person transmission of hantavirus infection. By use of Sin Nombre virus antigen, hantavirus antibodies were detected in Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda cherriei. This outbreak resulted in the first documented cases of human hantavirus infections in Central America. PMID:15498167

  15. Piqures massives par un essaim d'abeilles chez un enfant

    PubMed Central

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; El Balbal, Monia; Harandou, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Les piqûres multiples d'abeilles sont responsables d'envenimation sévère. Nous rapportons un cas d'une attaque massive par un essaim d'abeilles chez un enfant de sept ans. Sa gravité est liée à la localisation céphalique et au nombre important des piqûres qui était d'environ 270. Ses complications étaient l'insuffisance rénale, l'anémie et une conjonctivite. La prise en charge était symptomatique avec bonne évolution clinique et biologique. PMID:22187598

  16. Development of Extended Content Standards for Biodiversity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim; Schmidt, Jochen; Saarenmaa, Hannu

    2013-04-01

    Interoperability in the field of Biodiversity observation has been strongly driven by the development of a number of global initiatives (GEO, GBIF, OGC, TDWG, GenBank, …) and its supporting standards (OGC-WxS, OGC-SOS, Darwin Core (DwC), NetCDF, …). To a large extent, these initiatives have focused on discoverability and standardization of syntactic and schematic interoperability. Semantic interoperability is more complex, requiring development of domain-dependent conceptual data models, and extension of these models with appropriate ontologies (typically manifested as controlled vocabularies). Biodiversity content has been standardized partly, for example through Darwin Core for occurrence data and associated taxonomy, and through Genbank for genetic data, but other contexts of biodiversity observation have lagged behind - making it difficult to achieve semantic interoperability between distributed data sources. With this in mind, WG8 of GEO BON (charged with data and systems interoperability) has started a work programme to address a number of concerns, one of which is the gap in content standards required to make Biodiversity data truly interoperable. The paper reports on the framework developed by WG8 for the classification of Biodiversity observation data into 'families' of use cases and its supporting data schema, where gaps, if any, in the availability if content standards have been identified, and how these are to be addressed by way of an abstract data model and the development of associated content standards. It is proposed that a minimum set of standards (1) will be required to address the scope of Biodiversity content, aligned with levels and dimensions of observation, and based on the 'Essential Biodiversity Variables' (2) being developed by GEO BON . The content standards are envisaged as loosely separated from the syntactic and schematic standards used for the base data exchange: typically, services would offer an existing data standard (DwC, WFS

  17. Communication and social capital in the control of avian influenza: lessons from behaviour change experiences in the Mekong Region.

    PubMed

    Waisbord, S R; Michaelides, T; Rasmuson, M

    2008-01-01

    International development agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations are increasingly collaborating with local civil society groups in mounting behaviour change communication (BCC) interventions. Even in countries with weakened civil societies, the social capital of local organizations can be a fundamental communication resource. The experience of three programmes in the Mekong Region that used BCC to prevent and control outbreaks of avian influenza bore out this finding. These programmes worked with the Vietnam Women's Union to mobilize local women as conduits for education; worked with the Centre d'Etude et de Developpement Agricole Cambodgien (CEDAC), in Cambodia, to educate and train village health promoters and model farmers; and worked with the Lao Journalists Association to educate and build skills among print and broadcast journalists to enhance avian influenza coverage. Collaborating with civil society organizations can enhance communication reach, trust, and local ownership, but poses many challenges, particularly institutional capacity. Our experience, nevertheless, holds promise for a measured approach that views social capital as a set of communication resources at the community level that can be mobilized to promote complex behaviours, particularly in a rapidly changing outbreak situation.

  18. [The French National Institute for Agricultural Medicine (INMA)].

    PubMed

    Gagey, Michel; Grillet, Jean-Pierre; Crochet, Benoît; Choutet, Patrick

    2007-06-15

    Since 1958, the French National institute for agricultural medicine (INMA) has been studying the determinant health factors (non-exclusively medical) in the agricultural and rural environment. To reach this objective, the INMA organizes various types of training (degree in agricultural medicine, training for the physicians from the Mutualité Sociale Agricole--a French social security agency--, continuing education, seminars and symposiums etc.) designed for various health and safety professionals (occupational physicians, consultant physicians, general practitioners, especially from rural areas, members of safety committees etc.). This agricultural and rural specificity of the INMA is also one of the characteristics of its oldest training (2,500 physicians trained to date): the degree in agricultural medicine, which, following one or two years of courses, allows trainees to carry on occupational medicine in the agricultural sector. Through its holdings, the INMA website (www.inma.fr) provides physicians with a lot of answers to their questions regarding the health issue in agriculture. PMID:17708086

  19. Agricultural contaminants in Quaternary aquitards: A review of occurrence and fate in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodvang, S. J.; Simpkins, W. W.

    2001-01-01

    The intensity of agriculture has increased significantly during the past 30 years, resulting in increased detection of agricultural contaminants (nutrients, pesticides, salts, trace elements, and pathogens) in groundwater. Till, glaciolacustrine, and loess deposits of Quaternary age compose the most common surficial deposits underlying agricultural areas in North America. Quaternary aquitards generally contain higher concentrations of solid organic carbon (SOC, as much as 1.4%), dissolved organic carbon (DOC, as much as 205 mg/L), and reduced sulfur (as much as 0.9%) than do aquifers. Their potential to sorb pesticides increases with the percent of older SOC, because diagenesis increases Koc. Denitrification consistently reduces nitrate to non-detectable levels in unweathered Quaternary aquitards. Organic carbon of Quaternary age is a more labile electron donor than carbon from shale clasts. Pyrite is a more labile electron donor than carbon in many instances. Unweathered Quaternary aquitards provide a high degree of protection for underlying aquifers, due to their large reserves of SOC and reduced sulfur for sorption and denitrification, combined with their typically low hydraulic conductivity. In contrast, agricultural contaminants are common in weathered Quaternary aquitards. Lower reserves of reduced sulfur and sorptive/labile organic carbon, and a higher bulk K due to fractures, limit their ability to attenuate nitrate and pesticides. Subsurface drainage, which is common in Quaternary aquitards because of high water tables, bypasses the attenuation capacity of Quaternary aquitards and facilitates the transport of agricultural contaminants to surface water. Résumé. L'agriculture s'est significativement accrue au cours des dernières 30 années, provoquant une détection plus fréquente dans les eaux souterraines de contaminants agricoles (engrais, pesticides, sels, éléments en traces et germes pathogènes). Les moraines, les formations glacio-lacustres et

  20. Zoonotic infections in communities of the James Bay Cree territory: An overview of seroprevalence

    PubMed Central

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Lévesque, Benoit; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Côté, Suzanne; Serhir, Bouchra; Ward, Brian J; Libman, Michael D; Drebot, Michael A; Makowski, Kai; Dimitrova, Kristina; Ndao, Momar; Dewailly, Éric

    2013-01-01

    The Cree communities of James Bay are at risk for contracting infectious diseases transmitted by wildlife. Data from serological testing for a range of zoonotic infections performed in the general population (six communities), or trappers and their spouses (one community), were abstracted from four population-based studies conducted in Cree territory (Quebec) between 2005 and 2009. Evidence of exposure to Trichinella species, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Leptospira species, Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis was verified in all communities, whereas antibodies against Sin Nombre virus and California serogroup viruses (Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses) were evaluated in three and six communities, respectively. Seroprevalence varied widely among communities: snowshoe hare virus (1% to 42%), F tularensis (14% to 37%), Leptospira species (10% to 27%), Jamestown Canyon virus (9% to 24%), C burnetii (0% to 18%), T gondii (4% to 12%), T canis (0% to 10%), E granulosus (0% to 4%) and Trichinella species (0% to 1%). No subject had serological evidence of Sin Nombre virus exposure. These data suggest that large proportions of the Cree population have been exposed to at least one of the targeted zoonotic agents. The Cree population, particularly those most heavily exposed to fauna, as well as the medical staff living in these regions, should be aware of these diseases. Greater awareness would not only help to decrease exposures but would also increase the chance of appropriate diagnostic testing. PMID:24421806

  1. Perspective sur les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments en établissement de santé de 2006 à 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Jean-François; Chiveri, Andrei; Lebel, Denis

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte: Si les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments font partie de la réalité de la pratique pharmaceutique depuis plusieurs décennies, elles deviennent une préoccupation quotidienne pour les pharmaciens dans les années 2000 et dépassent les frontières de la littérature pharmaceutique. Objectif: L’objectif principal de cette étude était de quantifier le nombre de médicaments en rupture de stock par année et la durée de ces interruptions. L’objectif secondaire visait à décrire le nombre de médicaments en rupture de stock par fabricant et par classe thérapeutique. Méthode: Cette étude descriptive et rétrospective des ruptures d’approvisionnement en médicaments a porté sur l’ensemble des médicaments à contrat pour les hôpitaux des régions administratives de Montréal, de Laval et de l’Estrie, au Québec. Le nombre de ruptures de stocks, le nombre de jours de rupture de stock et leur durée moyenne par année ont été calculés par fabricant et par classe thérapeutique. De plus, la proportion de produits en rupture de stock et la proportion de jours de rupture de stocks ont été déterminées par classe thérapeutique. Les données ont été analysées à l’aide de statistiques descriptives (c.-à-d. somme, moyenne, écart-type, médiane, intervalle). Résultats: Entre le 1er janvier 2006 et le 31 août 2010 (une période de 56 mois), 2400 ruptures de stocks ont été dénombrées pour un total de 258 105 jours de rupture de stocks (durée moyenne de 108 jours, écart-type de 130 jours et intervalle de 5 à 1623 jours). Un total de 70 fabricants étaient impliqués dans la survenue de toutes les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments relevées durant cette période. Cinquante pour cent (50 %) des ruptures de stocks et des jours de rupture de stocks provenaient de quatre fabricants. Les interruptions étudiées touchaient la majorité des classes thérapeutiques de médicaments disponibles sur le

  2. Biodiversity and ecosystem services science for a sustainable planet: the DIVERSITAS vision for 2012-20.

    PubMed

    Larigauderie, Anne; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène; Mace, Georgina M; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold A; Brussaard, Lijbert; Cooper, David; Cramer, Wolfgang; Daszak, Peter; Díaz, Sandra; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Faith, Daniel P; Jackson, Louise E; Krug, Cornelia; Leadley, Paul W; Le Prestre, Philippe; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Palmer, Margaret; Perrings, Charles; Pulleman, Mirjam; Reyers, Belinda; Rosa, Eugene A; Scholes, Robert J; Spehn, Eva; Turner, Bl; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2012-02-01

    DIVERSITAS, the international programme on biodiversity science, is releasing a strategic vision presenting scientific challenges for the next decade of research on biodiversity and ecosystem services: "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Science for a Sustainable Planet". This new vision is a response of the biodiversity and ecosystem services scientific community to the accelerating loss of the components of biodiversity, as well as to changes in the biodiversity science-policy landscape (establishment of a Biodiversity Observing Network - GEO BON, of an Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services - IPBES, of the new Future Earth initiative; and release of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020). This article presents the vision and its core scientific challenges. PMID:25104977

  3. OA01.40. A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of leech therapy and panchatikta ghrita in the management of psoriasis)

    PubMed Central

    Gond, Pushpa; Rani, Rekha; Shringi, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Modern medical science treats psoriasis with PUVA, corticosteroid, anti-mitotic drugs which gives serious side effects like liver and kindney failure etc. There is a need to discover safe and effective medicine without any side effects for Psoriasis and the role of Leech Therapy (Shodhan) and Panchatikta Ghrita (Shaman Karma) is evaluated in this study. Method: 30 patients were included who matched the clinical signs and symptoms of psoriasis. These patients were randomised into three groups. Group A Only on leech therapy, Group B-Only on panchatikta ghrita and Group C On both leech therapy and panchatikta ghrita Result: Group A showed 45% improvement and group B showed 47% improvement, while group C reported 65% improvement. Conclusion: It can be concluded that shodan(leech application) along with shaman (panchatikta ghrita) is effective in the management of psoriasis as it is safe, cost effective and free from any side effects.

  4. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  5. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979 along the Gulf Coast, Magnolia Springs quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Magnolia Springs topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along Weeks Bay and the northern shore of Bon Secour Bay, along the Fish River to Marlow and along the Magnolia River to Magnolia Springs, Alabama. Many homes and buildings that were constructed at or near the ground level were damaged by floodwater and tidal waves. Many fishing piers along the shores of Mobile Bay and Weeks Bay were damaged. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  6. Culinary nationalism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement. PMID:21539054

  7. The Occurrence of Two Species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), Pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan) and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota), Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana) were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia. PMID:23862158

  8. A propos d'un cas de grossesse abdominale très prolongée

    PubMed Central

    Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Umba, Elie Kilolo Ngoy; Cibuabua, Deddy Kalonji; Ilunga, Clovis Mwamba; Ndolo, Adellard Umba; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Mwenze

    2013-01-01

    Un cas de grossesse abdominale prolongée d'environ 18 mois avec mort fœtale, vécu à l'hôpital général de référence de Mulongo dans la province du Katanga, en République Démocratique du Congo, est rapporté dans ce papier. Ce cas clinique d’évolution étonnante permet de faire la revue de la littérature, de rappeler l'importance d'un bon suivi clinique et échographique de la grossesse et de s'interroger sur le niveau d’éducation de la femme ainsi que la qualité des soins prénataux en milieu rural congolais. PMID:24570787

  9. Arrêt cardiocirculatoire par accidents d’électrisations: intérêt du défibrillateur semi-automatique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures par accidents électriques sont graves car elles peuvent entraîner le décès par arrêt cardiocirculatoire. Les arrêts cardiocirculatoires induits par le courant de basse tension sont en règle générale dûs à une fibrillation ventriculaire, plutôt de bon pronostic si la chaîne des secours est efficace. Il faut donner la priorité à la défibrillation systématique d’emblée en utilisant un défibrillateur semi-automatique. La défibrillation électrique est susceptible de procurer immédiatement une restauration de l’activité circulatoire spontanée. PMID:21991238

  10. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Arienti, Marco; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Kopacz, Adrian M; Geier, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  11. Essential biodiversity variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  12. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge.

  13. Assessing collective affect recognition via the Emotional Aperture Measure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Bartel, Caroline A; Rees, Laura; Huy, Quy

    2016-01-01

    Curiosity about collective affect is undergoing a revival in many fields. This literature, tracing back to Le Bon's seminal work on crowd psychology, has established the veracity of collective affect and demonstrated its influence on a wide range of group dynamics. More recently, an interest in the perception of collective affect has emerged, revealing a need for a methodological approach for assessing collective emotion recognition to complement measures of individual emotion recognition. This article addresses this need by introducing the Emotional Aperture Measure (EAM). Three studies provide evidence that collective affect recognition requires a processing style distinct from individual emotion recognition and establishes the validity and reliability of the EAM. A sample of working managers further shows how the EAM provides unique insights into how individuals interact with collectives. We discuss how the EAM can advance several lines of research on collective affect. PMID:25809581

  14. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. PMID:27699202

  15. Les Protheses d'Expansion dans le Traitement des Sequelles de Brulures

    PubMed Central

    Tourabi, K.; Ribag, Y.; Arrob, A.; Moussaoui, A.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs présentent leur protocole pour l'expansion cutanée et rapportent quatre cas colligés au service des brûlures de leur hôpital au Maroc. Ils décrivent leur technique opératoire et les résultats obtenus. L'expansion cutanée reste la méthode de choix pour la couverture des pertes de substance étendues et la correction des séquelles de brûlure, et l'expérience rapportée par les Auteurs confirme les bons résultats que l'on peut obtenir avec cette technique, y compris les résultats esthétiques. PMID:21991194

  16. Assessing collective affect recognition via the Emotional Aperture Measure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Bartel, Caroline A; Rees, Laura; Huy, Quy

    2016-01-01

    Curiosity about collective affect is undergoing a revival in many fields. This literature, tracing back to Le Bon's seminal work on crowd psychology, has established the veracity of collective affect and demonstrated its influence on a wide range of group dynamics. More recently, an interest in the perception of collective affect has emerged, revealing a need for a methodological approach for assessing collective emotion recognition to complement measures of individual emotion recognition. This article addresses this need by introducing the Emotional Aperture Measure (EAM). Three studies provide evidence that collective affect recognition requires a processing style distinct from individual emotion recognition and establishes the validity and reliability of the EAM. A sample of working managers further shows how the EAM provides unique insights into how individuals interact with collectives. We discuss how the EAM can advance several lines of research on collective affect.

  17. Culinary nationalism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.

  18. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Pine Beach, St. Andrews Bay and Fort Morgan quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of St. Andrews Bay, Mobile Bay, and Bon Secour Bay from Fort Morgan eastward to about four miles east of Gasque, Ala. The storm tide went completely across the land between the beach and Mobile Bay throughout much of the area. Most homes on the beach side of Alabama State Highway 180 were completely destroyed, and the highway was washed out in several places. Damage to homes and other structures on the bay side was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  19. Ostéochondrome volumineux de l'omoplate: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Karabila, Mohamed Amine; Otmani, Leila; Azouz, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Younes; Hmouri, Ismail; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed; Lahlou, Abdou; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Salehberrada, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'un ostéochondrome de l'omoplate ayant un aspect radiologique et une localisation inhabituelle chez un jeune homme de 24 ans qui consulte pour une déformation de son épaule gauche avec une bosse postérieure refoulant son omoplate. Un bilan radiologique standard a montré une exostose pédiculée à la partie supérieure de l'omoplate. La tomodensitométrie était en faveur d'une exostose volumineuse. La résection chirurgicale de la tumeur et l'examen anatomo-pathologique ont permis de confirmer le diagnostic d'un ostéochondrome. Après un recul de dix mois, les résultats fonctionnels étaient très bons. PMID:26985278

  20. In situ time-resolved measurements of carbon nanotube and nanohorn growth

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, David B; Puretzky, Alexander A; Styers-Barnett, David J; Hu, Hui; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Hongtao; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; Jackson, Jeremy Joseph; Wood, Richard F; Pannala, Sreekanth; Wells, Jack C

    2007-01-01

    Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes are investigated and compared for both high- and low-temperature synthesis methods through experiments utilizing time-resolved, in situ imaging and spectros-copy. High-speed videography and pyrometry measured the timeframes for growth for single-wall car-bon nanotubes (SWNTs) and nanohorns (SWNHs) by laser vaporization (LV) at 1150 C, revealing that C can self-assemble at high temperatures preferentially into SWNH structures without catalyst assistance at rates comparable to catalyst-assisted SWNT growth by either laser vaporization or chemical vapor depo-sition (CVD). Laser interferometry and videography reveal the coordinated growth of vertically-aligned nanotube arrays (VANTAs) by CVD at 550-900 C.

  1. Generation of ramp waves using variable areal density flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ramp loading using graded density impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacturing technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed-of-nails" (BON). A 2.5-mm-thick × 99.4-mm-diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 5.5 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 and 1100 m/s using the 100-mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College London. In each experiment, a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry (Het-V) was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ˜ 2.5 μs, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  2. Gravitational fractionation of solutes and isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    In a stagnant pore fluid, dissolved heavy components tend to gravitate downwards, while light components concentrate towards the top of the reservoir. This gravitational gravitation (Bons & Gomez-Rivas, 2013) is counteracted by Fickian diffusion, which strives to equalize concentrations of all components. Numerical simulations show that gravitational fractionation can be significant in crustal fluid reservoirs, provided the fluid is stagnant for prolonged periods of times (tens of millions of years) and that the vertical connectivity of the pores extends over at least a few kilometres. In that case, up to double digit shifts in hydrogen and oxygen isotopic signatures can develop and, for example, Cl/Br ratios can be modified by more than a factor of two. Stagnant fluid reservoirs can be expected in basement rocks under unconformities, such as the Variscan basement in Western Europe during the Mesozoic. Published fluid ages based on halogen isotopes confirm that basement fluids can be tens of millions of years old (e.g. Fehn & Snyder, 2005). Considering that fluid compositions (isotopic signatures, halogen ratios, etc.) are commonly used to determine origin of fluids and the processes that may have modified them, recognizing the potential modification of fluid signatures by gravitational fractionation is of importance in models for crustal fluid flow and ore formation. Bons, P.D., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. Gravitational fractionation of isotopes and dissolved components as a first-order process in hydrothermal crustal fluids. Economic Geology 108, 1195-120. Fehn, U., and Snyder, G.T. 2005. Residence times and source ages of deep crustal fluids: interpretation of 129I and 36Cl results from the KTB-VB drill site, Germany. Geofluids 5, 42-51.

  3. Les ruptures traumatiques du tendon quadricipital: à propos de 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    Benyass, Youssef; Chafry, Bouchaib; Koufagued, Kaldadak; Bouabid, Salim; Chagar, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Les ruptures traumatiques du tendon quadricipital sont rares, elles surviennent préférentiellement après 40 ans, suite à un traumatisme indirect chez le sportif (flexion contrariée du genou) ou traumatisme banal chez le sédentaire. La tendinopathie préexistante est fréquente. La rupture est le plus souvent totale et siège au corps du tendon 60% des cas ou décallotement quadricipital au bord supérieur de la rotule (40% des cas). Le diagnostic est essentiellement clinique. Les examens complémentaires (échographie et imagerie par résonance magnétique) sont utiles et appuient le diagnostique, mais sont souvent faussement rassurants hormis la radiographie qui montre une rotule basse. Le traitement essentiellement chirurgical associé à la rééducation fonctionnelle donne des résultats largement meilleurs. Le délai d'intervention est un facteur pronostic très important. Les auteurs rapportent 03cas de rupture de tendon quadricipital. L’âge moyen est de 50ans. Ils ont été traités chirurgicalement et revus régulièrement, avec un recul de 16 mois pour apprécier l’évolution. Les résultats ont été très bons chez 02 cas et bon chez 01 cas. L'amélioration a été très nette selon les critères: marche, douleur et reprise d'activité physique. PMID:26985261

  4. Fresh from the Ornamental Garden: Hips of Selected Rose Cultivars Rich in Phytonutrients.

    PubMed

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Weber, Nika; Jakopic, Jerneja; Zupan, Anka; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Morphological parameters (size, weight, color), the content of sugars, organic acids, lycopene, β-carotene, and phenolics were determined in hips of Rosa canina (RCA), Rosa sweginzowii (RSW), Rosa rugosa (RUG), and selected ornamental Rosa cultivars Fru Dagmar Hastrup (FDH), Repandia (REP), Veilchenblau (RVB), Aloha (RAL), Bonica (BON), and Golden Gate (RGG). Although traditionally used RCA hips contained the highest amount of cyanidin-3-glucoside (83 μg/g DW) and were the reddest (h° = 17.5), they did not stand out in other analyzed parameters. RGG climber had the biggest hips (8.86 g), which also contained highest sugar levels (50.9 g/100 g DW). RAL stood out as the cultivar rich in organic acids (33.9 g/100 g DW), mainly because of high quinic acid content (17.6 g/100g DW). FDH and RSW hips were characterized by particularly high ascorbic acid levels (4325 mg/100 g DW and 4711 mg/100 g DW). Other ornamental cultivars contained low amounts of ascorbic acid compared to the analyzed species. The phenolic profile was species/cultivars-specific. The greatest diversity of phenolic compounds was detected in RUG and FDH hips (55 and 54 different tentatively identified compounds with HPLC/MS). Flavanols represented the main phenolic class in most of the investigated species/cultivars and RGG hips contained the highest amount of catechin and proanthocyandin derivatives (15855 μg/g DW). Altogether RAL hips contained the highest quantity of phenolics (44746 μg/g DW) mainly due to high levels of hydrolysable tannins compared to other species/cultivars. Although small, hips of BON and REP were most abundant regarding β-carotene and lycopene content, respectively.

  5. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections.

  6. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    PubMed

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses. PMID:26187862

  7. Extensive survey of molecules related to wood formation and gravity for space agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Kyohei; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Furukawa, Jun; Sato, Seigo; Suzuki, Toshisada; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Japanese Space Tree Working Group

    Most, if not all, terrestrial subjects are under the influence of gravity. Since the gravitational force is proportional to the mass of subject, gravity is dominant for larger masses. The response of a plant against gravity is not an exception in this respect even it shows rather complicated features. For the angiosperm tree, its shape is determined by the forming tension wood, which induces more tensile stress in the xylem than in the normal wood. The mechanism of tension wood formation and its relevance to gravity have been extensively studied. Gibberellin is known to be responsible for this phenomenon in angiosperm tree, for example, the Japanese cherry tree, Prunus jamasakura. However, full understanding of the mechanisms has not yet been clarified. For an extensive survey of molecules related to tension wood formation, we induced an artificial tension wood formation and examined the tension wood formation by microscopic observations with double-staining. This enables the screening of really functional molecules in the space environment for future space agriculture. We demonstrated that Prunus incise is suitable for this research as a test material based on several reasons. We focused our attention in the region of the branch, i.e., the CosmoTree in CosmoBon, and established an experimental system to analyze the real functional factors of the tension wood. This study might ensure wood formation in a space environment and use woody plants as a material for space development. ("CosmoBon" is the Bonsai small tree for our space experiments. "CosmoTree" is a small branch/tree.)

  8. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    PubMed

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses.

  9. Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin

    2014-05-01

    Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

  10. Influence of mechanical rock properties and fracture healing rate on crustal fluid flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel; de Riese, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow in the Earth's crust is very slow over extended periods of time, during which it occurs within the connected pore space of rocks. If the fluid production rate exceeds a certain threshold, matrix permeability alone is insufficient to drain the fluid volume and fluid pressure builds up, thereby reducing the effective stress supported by the rock matrix. Hydraulic fractures form once the effective pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the rock matrix and act subsequently as highly effective fluid conduits. Once local fluid pressure is sufficiently low again, flow ceases and fractures begin to heal. Since fluid flow is controlled by the alternation of fracture permeability and matrix permeability, the flow rate in the system is strongly discontinuous and occurs in intermittent pulses. Resulting hydraulic fracture networks are largely self-organized: opening and subsequent healing of hydraulic fractures depends on the local fluid pressure and on the time-span between fluid pulses. We simulate this process with a computer model and describe the resulting dynamics statistically. Special interest is given to a) the spatially and temporally discontinuous formation and closure of fractures and fracture networks and b) the total flow rate over time. The computer model consists of a crustal-scale dual-porosity setup. Control parameters are the pressure- and time-dependent fracture healing rate, and the strength and the permeability of the intact rock. Statistical analysis involves determination of the multifractal properties and of the power spectral density of the temporal development of the total drainage rate and hydraulic fractures. References Bons, P. D. (2001). The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics, 336, 1-17. Miller, S. a., & Nur, A. (2000). Permeability as a toggle switch in fluid-controlled crustal processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 183(1-2), 133-146. Sachau, T., Bons, P. D

  11. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections. PMID:27289012

  12. Two methods for setting child-focused tuberculosis care targets.

    PubMed

    Yuen, C M; Jenkins, H E; Chang, R; Mpunga, J; Becerra, M C

    2016-06-21

    Objectif : Pour allouer des ressources aux recherches de contacts domiciliaires, les programmes de lutte contre la tuberculose (TB) ont besoin d'estimations du nombre d'enfants contacts nécessitant une prise en charge.Schéma : Nous avons élaboré deux méthodes afin d'estimer les nombres annuels d'enfants contacts âgés de 0–14 ans requérant une évaluation et un traitement. La Méthode 1 combine des données locales utilisant des formules simples. En utilisant les données disponibles publiquement, la Méthode 2 se sert d'un modèle de régression linéaire basé sur les données de l'Enquête Démographie et Santé et celles de la Banque Mondiale afin d'estimer le nombre d'enfants dans chaque famille, puis de combiner ces résultats avec ceux de la déclaration des cas et des estimations de risque de maladie et d'infection.Résultats : En appliquant la Méthode 1 aux données du Malawi, nous avons abouti à ce que ~21 000 enfants contacts par an requéraient une évaluation et ~1900 devraient avoir un diagnostic de TB. Appliquer la Méthode 2 à tous les pays a suggéré que, dans le monde, 2,41 millions d'enfants âgés de <5 ans (intervalle d'incertitude [II] à 95% 2,36–2,46 millions) et 5,07 millions (II95% 4,81–5,34 millions) d'enfants âgés de 5–14 ans vivent dans des foyers comprenant un patient adulte atteint de TB chaque année. Parmi eux, 239 014 (II95% 118 649–478 581) et 419 816 (II95% 140 600–1 268 805), respectivement, auront la TB et 848 453 autres enfants (II95% 705838–1017 551) et 2660 885 (II95% 2080 517–3413 189) seront infectés.Conclusion : Il est possible d'utiliser les données disponibles pour établir des objectifs d'évaluation programmatique et de traitement afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des enfants contacts de patients tuberculeux.

  13. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers. PMID:16623730

  14. [Update in infectious diseases. Part I: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Salzberger, B; Franzen, C; Fätkenheuer, G

    2000-06-15

    A number of infectious agents has been newly detected in the last 10 years. Climatic changes and migration have been the most important factors in the emergence of new and old infections. Additionally, new methods for the detection of DNA and RNA have played an important role in the detection of agents difficult to culture. Relevant new bacterial pathogens are Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis), Tropheryma whippeli (Whipple's disease) and new Rickettsiae. Newly detected viral pathogens include Sin-nombre virus (pulmonary Hanta virus syndrome), Nipah- and Hendra virus and avian influenza. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been transmitted to humans causing the newly described syndrome of variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. The extent of this new epidemic is not yet clear. These trends from the last years clearly indicate, that further new infections and infectious agents will be detected in the future.

  15. A survey of hantavirus antibody in small-mammal populations in selected United States National Parks.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; Johnson, J M; Ksiazek, T G; Ellis, B A; Rollin, P E; Yates, T L; Mann, M O; Johnson, M R; Campbell, M L; Miyashiro, J; Patrick, M; Zyzak, M; Lavender, D; Novak, M G; Schmidt, K; Peters, C J; Childs, J E

    1998-04-01

    Hantavirus activity in 39 National Parks in the eastern and central United States was surveyed by testing 1,815 small mammals of 38 species for antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus. Antibody-positive rodents were found throughout the area sampled, and in most biotic communities. Antibody was detected in 7% of 647 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), 2% of 590 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 17% of 12 rice rats (Oryzomys palustris), 3% of 31 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), and 33% of 18 western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis). Antibody was also found in three of six species of voles, and in one of 33 chipmunks (Tamias minimus). Prevalence among Peromyscus was highest in the northeast. Although few cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been identified from the eastern and central regions, widespread infection in reservoir populations indicates that potential exists for human infection throughout much of the United States.

  16. Génération de photons uniques monomodes par une boite quantique d'InAs en microcavité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J. M.; Robert, I.; Moreau, E.; Abram, I.

    2002-06-01

    Nous présentons la première source solide monomode de photons uniques; constituée par une boîte quantique semiconductrice placée dans une microcavité optique. Cette source exploite la forte interaction coulombienne entre porteurs piégés pour contrôler le nombre de photons, et l'effet Purcell pour collecter et préparer dans un état donné (même mode spatial, même polarisation) les photons émis. Nous discutons plus particulièrement les performances et l'intérêt potentiel de cette nouvelle source dans le contexte de la distribution de clefs quantiques.

  17. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  18. The role of age structure in the persistence of a chronic pathogen in a fluctuating population.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Sean M; Adler, Frederick R

    2009-03-01

    Small mammal populations exhibit large fluctuations, potentially leading to local extinction of specialist pathogens after bottlenecks. Pathogen persistence in recovering populations depends on the epidemiological characteristics of the hosts that survive the bottlenecks. Sin Nombre virus is a largely asymptomatic infection of deer mice, which creates a chronic lifelong infection. Earlier work on this virus has shown that males play a key role in pathogen persistence through a combination of longer lifespan and higher seroprevalence. Other evidence indicates that mouse age could play an equally important role, as older mice may have higher survivorship and higher contact rates. We use age structured models to examine the relationships among prevalence, age-dependent demographics, and age-dependent epidemiology.

  19. Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies in divergent small mammals.

    PubMed

    Cautivo, Karla; Schountz, Tony; Acuña-Retamar, Mariana; Ferrés, Marcela; Torres-Pérez, Fernando

    2014-05-06

    We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV), using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in sera from Peromyscus maniculatus. The assay uses a protein A/G horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. Serum samples from Oligoryzomys longicaudatus collected in central-south Chile were used and the assay identified several that were antibody positive. This assay can be used for the rapid detection of antibodies to divergent hantaviruses from geographically and phylogenetically distant rodent species.

  20. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  1. Hantavirus infections among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Jonathan J; Fritz, Curtis L; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P; Vugia, Duc J

    2014-03-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  2. Environmental monitoring to enhance comprehension and control of infectious diseases†

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In a world of emerging and resurging infectious diseases, dominated by zoonoses, environmental monitoring plays a vital role in our understanding their dynamics and their spillover to humans. Here, we critically review the ecology, epidemiology and need for monitoring of a variety of directly transmitted (Sin Nombre virus, Avian Influenza) and vector-borne (Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis) zoonoses. We focus on the valuable role that existing monitoring plays in the understanding of these zoonoses, the demands for new monitoring, and how improvements can be made to existing monitoring. We also identify the fruitful outcomes which would result from implementation of the monitoring demands we have highlighted. This review aims to promote improvements in our understanding of zoonoses, their management, and public health by encouraging discussion among researchers and public health officials. PMID:20957286

  3. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  4. Envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ischemique

    PubMed Central

    Bibiche, Youssef; Berdai, Adnan; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les piqûres de scorpion sont dans un certain nombre de pays, un accident fréquemment rencontré, et un risque grave. Au Maroc, les données épidémiologiques établies par le centre anti-poison (CAPM) montrent que les piqûres scorpioniques se placent en tête de toutes les intoxications relevées par le centre (60%). Les envenimations scorpioniques posent un grand problème de santé publique. L'apparition de signes neurologiques lors d'une envenimation scorpionique témoigne d'une envenimation grave et correspond au stade III de l’échelle de sévérité. Nous rapportons le cas d'une envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un Accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique (AVCI) chez un enfant. PMID:26175806

  5. Hantavirus reservoir hosts associated with peridomestic habitats in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, G.; Pini, N.; Bolpe, J.; Levis, S.; Mills, J.; Segura, E.; Guthmann, N.; Cantoni, G.; Becker, J.; Fonollat, A.; Ripoll, C.; Bortman, M.; Benedetti, R.; Enria, D.

    1999-01-01

    Five species of sigmodontine rodents have been identified in Argentina as the putative reservoirs of six circulating hantavirus genotypes. Two species of Oligoryzomys are associated with the genotypes causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Oligoryzomys flavescens for Lechiguanas and O. longicaudatus for Andes and Oran genotypes. Reports of human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome prompted rodent trapping (2,299 rodents of 32 species during 27,780 trap nights) at potential exposure sites in three disease-endemic areas. Antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus was found in six species, including the known hantavirus reservoir species. Risk for peridomestic exposure to host species that carry recognized human pathogens was high in all three major disease-endemic areas. PMID:10603213

  6. Exposure to rodents and rodent-borne viruses among persons with elevated occupational risk.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Curtis L; Fulhorst, Charles F; Enge, Barryett; Winthrop, Kevin L; Glaser, Carol A; Vugia, Duc J

    2002-10-01

    Persons who have frequent contact with rodents as part of their occupation may be at increased risk of exposure to rodent-borne viruses such as Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWA), a New World arenavirus. Eighty-one persons with possible occupational exposure to rodents completed questionnaires and provided specimens for serologic testing. Seventy-two participants reported handling rodents as part of their job. The mean total number of rodents handled during participants' careers was approximately 2200. IgG antibody to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in serum from one (1.2%) participant. IgG antibody to SNV, WWA, and Amapari viruses was not detected in any of the serum specimens. Despite considerable exposure to rodents, participants did not have significant serological evidence of exposure to rodent-borne viruses. PMID:12391776

  7. Seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in California.

    PubMed Central

    Jay, M.; Ascher, M. S.; Chomel, B. B.; Madon, M.; Sesline, D.; Enge, B. A.; Hjelle, B.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Rollin, P. E.; Kass, P. H.; Reilly, K.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to Sin Nombre virus. All nonrodent species were antibody negative. Among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. Of 1,921 Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. The highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among P. maniculatus on Santa Cruz Island, off the southern California coast. Prevalence of antibodies among deer mice trapped near sites of human cases (26.8% of 164) was significantly higher than that of mice from other sites (odds ratio = 4.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 11.6). Antibody prevalence increased with rising elevation (> 1,200 meters) and correlated with a spatial cluster of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the Sierra Nevada. PMID:9204301

  8. Evolution insolite d'une plaie complexe de la voie biliaire principale post cholécystectomie cœlioscopique

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Depuis l'avènement de la chirurgie coelioscopique de la lithiase biliaire le nombre de plaies des voies biliaires a sensiblement augmenté dans la littérature en rapport avec la courbe d'apprentissage des opérateurs. Les plaies méconnues peuvent avoir des conséquences immédiates dramatiques et évoluer vers la péritonite biliaire. Ailleurs la réparation des fistules biliaires externes au stade de dilatation des voies biliaires nécessite une anastomose bilio digestive ou des résections hépatiques réglées. PMID:27279975

  9. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  10. The relation between type of farming and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among agricultural workers in five French districts.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Frédéric; Spinosi, Johan; Dupupet, Jean-Luc; Delabre, Laurène; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2011-02-01

    Retrospective assessment of pesticide exposure is complex; however, patterns of pesticide use strongly depend on farming type, which is easier to assess than pesticide exposure. Our aim was to estimate Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence in five French districts in 2007 among affiliates of Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) and to investigate the relation between PD prevalence and farming type. We identified PD cases from administrative files as persons who used levodopa and/or benefited from free health care for PD. Densities of 16 farming types were defined at the canton of residence level (1988 French agricultural census). We used logistic regression to study the relation between PD prevalence and density of farming types and a semi-Bayes approach to deal with correlated exposures. We identified 1,659 PD cases, yielding an age- and sex-standardized PD prevalence of 3.01/1,000. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in men than women. We found a higher PD prevalence among affiliates living in cantons characterized by a higher density of farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops (multivariable semi-Bayes model: OR(4+5 vs 1+2+3 quintiles) = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08-1.36; test for trend, P = 0.035). In France, farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops rank first in terms of insecticide use per hectare. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting an association between PD and insecticide use and show that workers in farms specialized in fruits or permanent crops may be an occupational group at higher PD risk.

  11. How to measure the agroecological performance of farming in order to assist with the transition process.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Meriam; Mandart, Elisabeth; Le Grusse, Philippe; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant protection products enables farmers to maximize economic performance and yields, but in return, the environment and human health can be greatly affected because of their toxicity. There are currently strong calls for farmers to reduce the use of these toxic products for the preservation of the environment and the human health, and it has become urgent to invest in more sustainable models that help reduce these risks. One possible solution is the transition toward agroecological production systems. These new systems must be beneficial economically, socially, and environmentally in terms of human health. There are many tools available, based on a range of indicators, for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems on conventional farm holdings. These methods are little suitable to agroecological farms and do not measure the performance of agroecological transition farms. In this article, we therefore develop a model for the strategic definition, guidance, and assistance for a transition to agroecological practices, capable of assessing performance of this transition and simulating the consequences of possible changes. This model was built by coupling (i) a decision-support tool and a technico-economic simulator with (ii) a conceptual model built from the dynamics of agroecological practices. This tool is currently being tested in the framework of a Compte d'Affectation Spéciale pour le Développement Agricole et Rural (CASDAR) project (CASDAR: project launched in 2013 by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, on the theme "collective mobilisation for agroecology," http://agriculture.gouv.fr/Appel-a-projets-CASDAR ) using data from farms, most of which are engaged in agroenvironmental process and reducing plant protection treatments since 2008.

  12. Capteur de CO{2} à fibres optiques par absorption moléculaire à 4,3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendamardji, S.; Alayli, Y.; Huard, S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a remote optical fibre sensor for the carbon dioxide detection by molecular absorption in the near infrared (4.3 μm) corresponding to fundamental mode ν3. To overcome the problem of the strong attenuation signal of optical fibre in the near infrared, we have used the opto-suppling technique which changes the working wavelength from 4.3 μm to 860 nm and permits the use of standard optical fibre 50/125. The simulation of absorption has been obtained by original modelisation of the absorption spectrum and the establishment of the calibration curves takes to the sensor to detect a partial pressures greater than 100 μbar with a minimal error margin of 100 μbar, which is acceptable considering the future use of the device. The sensor has been designed to monitor the CO{2} rate in enriched greenhouses. Cet article décrit un capteur à fibres optiques de gaz carbonique par absorption moléculaire dans l'infrarouge moyen (4,3 μm) correspondant au mode fondamental ν3. La liaison entre le site de mesure et le site de contrôle est assurée par un fibre optique standard 50/125 après une transposition de longueur d'onde de 4,3 μm à 860 nm par opto-alimentation. La simulation de l'absorption a été obtenue par modélisation originale du spectre d'absorption et l'établissement des courbes d'étalonnage prévoit une marge d'erreur minimale de 100 μbar, ce qui est suffisant pour l'application du dispositif à la régulation de taux CO{2} dans les serres agricoles enrichies par de gaz.

  13. Response of durum wheat to water variability under climate change scenarios in southern Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soddu, Antonino; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Meloni, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Ludwig, Ralf; Sodde, Marcella; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Perra, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    produzioni agricole conseguenti alle condizioni di cambiamento climatico, funded by L7/2007 of the Sardinia Region.

  14. Agricultural contaminants in Quaternary aquitards: A review of occurrence and fate in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodvang, S. J.; Simpkins, W. W.

    2001-01-01

    The intensity of agriculture has increased significantly during the past 30 years, resulting in increased detection of agricultural contaminants (nutrients, pesticides, salts, trace elements, and pathogens) in groundwater. Till, glaciolacustrine, and loess deposits of Quaternary age compose the most common surficial deposits underlying agricultural areas in North America. Quaternary aquitards generally contain higher concentrations of solid organic carbon (SOC, as much as 1.4%), dissolved organic carbon (DOC, as much as 205 mg/L), and reduced sulfur (as much as 0.9%) than do aquifers. Their potential to sorb pesticides increases with the percent of older SOC, because diagenesis increases Koc. Denitrification consistently reduces nitrate to non-detectable levels in unweathered Quaternary aquitards. Organic carbon of Quaternary age is a more labile electron donor than carbon from shale clasts. Pyrite is a more labile electron donor than carbon in many instances. Unweathered Quaternary aquitards provide a high degree of protection for underlying aquifers, due to their large reserves of SOC and reduced sulfur for sorption and denitrification, combined with their typically low hydraulic conductivity. In contrast, agricultural contaminants are common in weathered Quaternary aquitards. Lower reserves of reduced sulfur and sorptive/labile organic carbon, and a higher bulk K due to fractures, limit their ability to attenuate nitrate and pesticides. Subsurface drainage, which is common in Quaternary aquitards because of high water tables, bypasses the attenuation capacity of Quaternary aquitards and facilitates the transport of agricultural contaminants to surface water. Résumé. L'agriculture s'est significativement accrue au cours des dernières 30 années, provoquant une détection plus fréquente dans les eaux souterraines de contaminants agricoles (engrais, pesticides, sels, éléments en traces et germes pathogènes). Les moraines, les formations glacio-lacustres et

  15. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  16. Transmission Sur Fibres Optiques Dans Un Systeme D'Archivage Et De Communication D'Images Pour Des Applications Medicales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Gilles; Bonnard, Rene

    1984-03-01

    Dans l'hOpital, le besoin d'un reseau de communication electronique ne cesse de crottre au fur et a mesure de la numerisation des images. Ce reseau local a pour but de relier quelques sources d'images telles la radiologie numerique, la tomodensitometrie, la resonance magnetique nucleaire, l'echographie ultraso-nore etc..., a un systme d'archivage. Des consoles de visualisation interacti-ves peuvent etre utilisees dans les salles d'examens, les bureaux des medecins et les services de soins. Dans un tel systme, trois caracteristiques princi-pales doivent etre prises en compte le debit, la longueur du cable et le nombre de connexions. - Le debit est tr?)s important, en effet, un temps de reponse maxima de quel-ques secondes doit etre garanti pour des images de plusieurs millions d'ele-ments binaires. - La distance entre connexions peut etre de quelques km dans certains grands hopitaux. - Le nombre de connexions au reseau ne depasse jamais quelques dizaines car les sources d'images et les unites de traitement representent des materiels importants, par ailleurs les consoles de visualisation simples peuvent etre groupees en grappe. Toutes ces conditions sont remplies par les transmissions sur fibres optiques. Selon la topologie et la methode d'accNs, deux solutions peuvent etre envisa-gees : - Anneau actif - Etoile active ou passive Enfin, les developpements de Thomson-CSF en composants pour transmissions optiques pour les grands reseaux de tel4distribution nous apportent un support technologique et une production de masse qui diminuera les collts du materiel.

  17. Prise en charge d’un afflux massif de brûles lors d’une situation de catastrophe par incendie au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Hatimi, E.M.; Ihrai, H.; Drissi Kamili, N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary La brûlure est l’une des lésions les plus fréquemment rencontrées lors de catastrophes naturelles ou lors de catastrophes d’origine humaine (incendies de lieux publics d’origine accidentelle, ou en temps de guerre ou encore lors d’attentats terroristes). La prise en charge et le triage de brûlés en nombre reste un problème difficile; ceci souligne la nécessité d’une réflexion et de prévisions de ces crises en insistant sur la formation des médecins et des soignants. Les défis à relever sont multiples: les soins aux brûlés requièrent un nombre important de personnel qualifié; les évacuations doivent être planifiées en fonction de la gravité de la brûlure et des lésions associées; les stocks et lots de dotation (en particulier en topiques anti-infectieux et en cristalloïdes) doivent être suffisants et adéquats. Les services hospitaliers de l’Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat doivent pouvoir être rapidement adaptés pour accueillir et surtout isoler ces patients. L’hypothèse d’une catastrophe par incendie avec afflux massif de brûlés à l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V de Rabat ne doit laisser place à aucune improvisation. PMID:23467075

  18. Application du concept de maillon faible à un critère d'endurance multiaxial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flacelière, L.; Morel, F.; Palin-Luc, T.

    2002-12-01

    En fatigue à grand nombre de cycle, il est aujourd'hui admis que la distribution des contraintes, ainsi que la taille des composants, sont responsables de variations de la limite de fatigue. Sous chargement uniaxial ou multiaxial, on peut montrer qu'une approche statistique dite du maillon le plus faible, combiné à un critère multiaxial d'endurance basé sur une analyse micro plastique, permet de prédire la limite de fatigue de plusieurs matériaux métalliques. Quatre types de chargement sont analysés (traction-compression, torsion, flexion rotative et flexion plane), puis comparées aux résultats expérimentaux, pour une fonte et deux aciers haute résistance. L'approche statistique proposée permet d'intégrer un certain nombre d'aspects: la dispersion des données pour tous types de chargement, l'effet de gradient et l'influence de la présence de défauts matériaux. Enfin, ce modèle rend également compte de la diminution de la limite de fatigue avec l'augmentation du volume contraint. Les prédictions des probabilités de rupture sont raisonnables bien que seules des limites de fatigue relatives à des probabilités de rupture de 50% soient utilisées pour l'identification des paramètres du modèle.

  19. The origin of massive hydrothermal alterations: what drives fluid flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Martín-Martín, Juan-Diego; Corbella, Mercè; Stafford, Sherry L.; Griera, Albert; Teixell, Antonio; Salas, Ramón; Travé, Anna

    2014-05-01

    hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). The main question is whether fast flow leaves recognizable signs, like hydrofractures of different scales and hydraulic breccias. We estimate fluid pressures reached at the reaction site, and discuss whether they are high enough to break the host rock, according to its petrophysical properties. Thermal convection could have driven pervasive fluid flow at lower flow rates, keeping the fluid warm and allowing time for the rock to react. But this mechanism would have required a shallow and very large intrusion or an anomalous geothermal gradient in order to activate flow by convection. This contribution presents a quantitative analysis of these hypotheses, and discusses their plausibility. Bons, P.D., 2001. The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics 336, 1-17. Gomez-Rivas, E., Corbella, M., Martín-Martín, J.D., Stafford, S.L., Teixell, A., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Cardellach, E. 2014. Reactivity of dolomitizing fluids and Mg source evaluation of fault-controlled dolomitization at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain). Marine and Petroleum Geology, in press.

  20. Hindered settling and the formation of layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Baur, Albrecht; Elburg, Marlina A.; Lindhuber, Matthias J.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Soesoo, Alvar; van Milligen, Boudewijn P.; Walte, Nicolas P.

    2015-04-01

    Layered intrusions are characterized by (often repetitive) layering on a range of scales. Many explanations for the formation of such layering have been proposed over the past decades. We investigated the formation of "mats" by hindered crystal settling, a model that was first suggested by Lauder (1964). The interaction of sinking and rising crystals leads to the amplification of perturbations in crystal density within a magma chamber, a process similar to the formation of traffic jams in dense traffic (Bons et al., 2015). Once these "crystal traffic jams" form they constitute a barrier for further settling of crystals. Between these barriers, the magma evolves in a semi-closed system in which stratification may develop by gravitational sorting. Barriers, and therefore layers, form sequentially during inward cooling of the magma chamber. Barring later equilibration, mineralogical and geochemical trends within the layers are repetitive, but with variations due to the random process of initial perturbation formation. Layers can form in the transition between two end-member regimes: (1) in a fast cooling and/or viscous magma crystals cannot sink or float a significant distance and minerals are distributed homogeneously throughout the chamber; (2) in a slow cooling and/or low-viscosity magma crystals can quickly settle at the top and bottom of the chamber and crystals concentrations are never high enough to form "traffic jams". As a result, heavy and light minerals get fully separated in the chamber. Between these two end members, crystals can sink and float a significant distance, but not the whole height of the magma chamber before entrapment in "traffic jams". We illustrate the development of layers with numerical models and compare the results with the layered nepheline syenites (kakortokites) of the Ilímaussaq intrusion in SW Greenland. References: Bons, P.D., Baur, A., Elburg, M.A., Lindhuber, M.J., Marks, M.A.W., Soesoo, A., van Milligen, B.P., Walte, N.P. 2015

  1. Guiding soil conservation strategy in headwater mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Slimane, Abir; Raclot, Damien; Evrard, Olivier; Sanaa, Mustapha; Lefèvre, Irène; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Reservoir siltation due to water erosion is an important environmental issue in Mediterranean countries where storage of clear surface water is crucial for their economic and agricultural development. In order to reduce water erosion, this study aimed to design a methodology for guiding the implementation of efficient conservation strategies by identifying the dominant sediment sources in Mediterranean context. To this end, a fingerprinting method was combined with long-term field monitoring of catchment sediment yield in five headwater catchments (0.1-10 km2) equipped with a small reservoir between 1990 and 1995. The five catchments were chosen to cover the large diversity of environmental conditions found along the Tunisian Ridge and in the Cape Bon region. The fingerprinting techniques based on measurements of cesium-137 and Total Organic Carbon within the catchments and in reservoir sediment deposits successfully identified the contribution of rill/interrill and gully/channel erosion to sediment yield at the outlet of five small headwater catchments during the last 15-20 years. Results showed the very large variability of erosion processes among the selected catchments, with rill/interrill erosion contributions to sediment accumulated in outlet reservoirs ranging from 20 to 80%. Overall, rill/interrill erosion was the dominant process controlling reservoir siltation in three catchments whereas gully/channel erosion dominated in the other two catchments. This demonstrates that the dominant erosion process in the Mediterranean regions highly depends on the local environmental context. The lowest rill/interrill erosion contribution (2.2 Mg ha-1 yr-1) in the five catchments remained significantly higher than the tolerable soil loss indicating the severe levels reached by soil erosion along the Tunisian Ridge and in the Cape Bon region. This study also showed that although the implementation of improved topsoil management measures greatly reduced rill

  2. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS); Design and Analysis, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-04-01

    representation of production. Tag loss and mortality is monitored, and the tagging files are then uploaded to the regional PTAGIS database. The PIT tags are read as the fish pass through the coils of the detector. For detection of smolts, there are detectors installed at six Snake and Columbia River dams, including Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), Lower Monumental (LMN), McNary (MCN), John Day (JDA), and Bonneville (BON). These site abbreviations will be used throughout this document. For detection of returning adults, there is current detection capability at LGR, and starting in migration year 2002, PIT tagged adults will be detected at both BON and MCN.

  3. Stress and strain evolution of folding rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Griera, Albert; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    difference between pure and simple shear is less pronounced in power-law materials. It also depends on the original orientation of the layer relative to the shear plane, being the shortening rate initially relatively low when the layer makes a low angle with the shear plane. The mechanical behaviour is similar in pure and simple shear when the layer is oriented at a relative high angle (45°). M-G Llorens, PD Bons, A Griera and E Gomez-Rivas (2013a) When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566. M-G Llorens, PD Bons, A Griera, E Gomez-Rivas and LA Evans (2013b) Single layer folding in simple shear. Journal of Structural Geology, 50, 209-220.

  4. Modelling to very high strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, P. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Griera, A.; Evans, L. A.; Wilson, C. J. L.

    2009-04-01

    development of very high-strain structures. Jessell, M.W., Bons, P.D., Evans, L., Barr, T., Stüwe, K. 2001. Elle: a micro-process approach to the simulation of microstructures. Computers & Geosciences 27, 17-30. Houseman, G., Barr, T., Evans, L. 2008. Basil: stress and deformation in a viscous material. In: P.D. Bons, D. Koehn & M.W.Jessell (Eds.) Microdynamics Simulation. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 106, Springer, Berlin, 405p.

  5. The importance of strain localisation in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Finch, Melanie; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of various types of shear bands (C, C', C'') in shear zones indicate that heterogeneity of strain is common in strongly deformed rocks. However, the importance of strain localisation is difficult to ascertain if suitable strain markers are lacking, which is usually the case. Numerical modelling with the finite-element method has so far not given much insight in the development of shear bands. We suggest that this is not only because the modelled strains are often not high enough, but also because this technique (that usually assumes isotropic material properties within elements) does not properly incorporate mineral deformation behaviour. We simulated high-strain, simple-shear deformation in single- and polyphase materials with a full-field theory (FFT) model coupled to the Elle modelling platform (www.elle.ws; Lebensohn 2001; Bons et al. 2008). The FFT-approach simulates visco-plastic deformation by dislocation glide, taking into account the different available slip systems and their critical resolved shear stresses in relations to the applied stresses. Griera et al. (2011; 2013) have shown that this approach is particularly well suited for strongly anisotropic minerals, such as mica and ice Ih (Llorens 2015). We modelled single- and polyphase composites of minerals with different anisotropies and strengths, roughly equivalent to minerals such as ice Ih, mica, quartz and feldspar. Single-phase polycrystalline aggregates show distinct heterogeneity of strain rate, especially in case of ice Ih, which is mechanically close to mica (see also Griera et al. 2015). Finite strain distributions are heterogeneous as well, but the patterns may differ from that of the strain rate distribution. Dynamic recrystallisation, however, usually masks any strain and strain rate localisation (Llorens 2015). In case of polyphase aggregates, equivalent to e.g. a granite, we observe extensive localisation in both syn- and antithetic shear bands. The antithetic shear bands

  6. Basin Dynamics and Sedimentary Infilling of Miocene Sandstone Reservoir Systems In Eastern Tunisian African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédir, Mourad; Khomsi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Most of hydrocarbon accumulations and aquifers within the Cap Bon, Gulf of Hammamet and Sahel basins in eastern tunisian foreland are reservoired within the Upper Miocene Birsa and Saouaf sandstones and shales Formations. In the gulf of Hammamet, these sandstones constitutes oil and gas fields and are exploited on anticline highs and described as varying from shoreface to shallow marine and typically exhibit excellent reservoir quality of 30% to 35% porosity and good permeability from 500 to 1100 md. In addition, the fracturing of faults enhanced the reservoir quality potential. In contrary, the same hydrocarbon reservoirs are important hydrogeologic ones in the Cap Bon and Sahel basins with huge amount of hundred millions of cubic meters of water only partially exploited. Integrated wire line logging correlations, seismic sequence stratigraphic, tectonics and outcrop geologic analogue studies had permitted to highlight the basin structuring and sedimentary environments of sequence deposits infilling of the reservoir distribution between high platforms to subsiding graben and syncline basins bounded by deep-seated transtensive and transpressive flower faults. Seven third order sequence deposits limited by downlap prograding and onlap/toplap aggrading/retrograding system tracts extend along the eastern margin around the three basins by facies and thickness variances. System tracts exhibit around high horst and graben a channelized and levee infillings extending from 100 meters to more than a kilometer of width. They present a stacked single story and multistory channels types showing space lateral and vertical migrations along NE-SW, E-W and N-S directions. Paleogeographic depositional reservoir fair maps distribution highlight deltaic horst domain with floodplain and incised valley of fluvial amalgamed and braided sandstones distributary channels that occupy the high folded horsts. Whereas folded horst-graben and syncline borders domain of Shelf prodelta are

  7. Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Fendrich, V; Lopez, C L; Manoharan, J; Maschuw, K; Wichmann, S; Baier, A; Holler, J P; Ramaswamy, A; Bartsch, D K; Waldmann, J

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs.

  8. Expected climate change impacts on extreme flows in Vietnam: The limits of bias correction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, Patrick; Dang, Thinh; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    We investigate possible impacts of climate change on future floods in the VuGia-ThuBon river basin, central Vietnam using a multi-model climate ensemble. An ensemble of regional climate projections (SRES) derived from different combinations of global and regional climate models in combination with different emission scenarios are used. In order to correct for the biases between the modelled climate variables and the observations, different bias correction techniques such as linear scaling, local intensity scaling, and quantile mapping are applied to the RCM outputs. Bias-corrected and raw climate data are then used as input for the fully distributed hydrological water balance model WaSIM-ETH to reproduce discharge data at NongSon station. Annual maximum discharges are extracted from the modeled daily series from the control period (1980-1999) and the future periods 2011-2030, 2031-2050, and 2080-2099 for subsequent extreme frequency analyses. To derive flood frequency curves for the four time periods, the generalized extreme value probability distribution is fitted to the data. Our analysis shows that actually none of the bias correction approaches applied to the control runs of simulated precipitation data can satisfactorily correct their distributions towards those of the observations. Therefore, this study builds further on the delta change approach, which adjusts the observed extreme values by the derived signals from the hydrological simulations fed by raw future climate projections. Adjusted return periods of e.g. HQ100 values are calculated based on the delta change method. The results inhibit a remarkable variation among the different climate scenarios in representing extreme values. Results show that MRI-MRI, ECHAM3-REMO, HadCMQ10-HadRM3P and HadCMQ13-HadRM3P models always exhibit a positive signal for all considered time slices and climate change scenarios. On the other hand, CCSM-MM5 frequently shows a negative signal for all time slices. On average, an

  9. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  10. A computational model of wall shear and residence time of particles conveyed by steady flow in a curved tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiriet, M.; Graham, J. M. R.; Issa, R. I.

    1993-01-01

    un profil uniforme de vitesse axiale, pour des valeurs du nombre de Dean 140 leq De leq 430. Un calcul numérique de l'écoulement turbulent a été effectué pour De sim 22 100 avec un profil de vitesse plat en entrée du modèle. La vitesse axiale dépend non seulement de la valeur du nombre de Dean, mais aussi du nombre de Reynolds et de la courbure du tube séparément. Le profil de vitesses est perturbé pour de très faibles courbures. Le tronçon de conduit où les mouvements secondaires sont les plus forts est situé d'autant plus près de l'entrée du coude que la couche limite en entrée est plus épaisse. L'écoulement secondaire se développe sur une région plus étendue du coude et le cisaillement pariétal est plus élevé quand le nombre de Reynolds augmente. Le coude affecte le cisaillement pariétal en amont et en aval. La présence d'un coude dans une conduite fait croître le temps de résidence des particules en suspension par rapport aux valeurs prises dans un tube droit isolé uniquement dans l'élément de conduite droit situé en aval du coude. Quand le nombre de Reynolds augmente, le régime d'écoulement restant laminaire, cette caractéristique disparaît. Elle est cependant observée en écoulement turbulent, le temps de résidence prenant en tout point des valeurs beaucoup plus faibles que celles obtenues en regime laminaire.

  11. Capsaicin induces cytotoxicity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells via mitochondrial action.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, M; Sassek, M; Abdelmessih, S; Mergler, S; Grötzinger, C; Metzke, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, inhibits growth of various solid cancers via TRPV1 as well as TRPV1-independent mechanisms. Recently, we showed that TRPV1 regulates intracellular calcium level and chromogranin A secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. In the present study, we characterize the role of the TRPV1 agonist - CAP - in controlling proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic BON and QGP-1 NET cells. We demonstrate that CAP reduces viability and proliferation, and stimulates apoptotic death of NET cells. CAP causes mitochondrial membrane potential loss, inhibits ATP synthesis and reduces mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein production. In addition, CAP increases cytochrome c and cleaved caspase 3 levels in cytoplasm. CAP reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) acts synergistically with CAP to reduce ROS generation, without affecting CAP-induced toxicity. TRPV1 protein reduction by 75% reduction fails to attenuate CAP-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, these results suggest that CAP induces cytotoxicity by disturbing mitochondrial potential, and inhibits ATP synthesis in NET cells. Stimulation of ROS generation by CAP appears to be a secondary effect, not related to CAP-induced cytotoxicity. These results justify further evaluation of CAP in modulating pancreatic NETs in vivo. PMID:24075930

  12. Génération de faisceaux EPR à l'aide d'un oscillateur paramétrique optique à auto-verrouillage de phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurat, J.; Longchambon, L.; Coudreau, T.; Fabre, C.

    2004-11-01

    Les faisceaux continus orthogonalement polarisés émis par les Oscillateurs Paramétriques Optiques (OPO) de type II pompés au-dessus du seuil présentent au niveau quantique de fortes corrélations d'intensité et anti-corrélations de phase. Ils sont donc de très bons candidats pour générer des faisceaux intriqués en quadrature. Cependant, un phénomène de diffusion de phase rend difficile la mesure des propriétés sur la phase. Nous avons étudié théoriquement le régime stationnaire et les propriétés quantiques d'un OPO contenant une lame biréfringente. Le couplage linéaire qui en résulte entraîne un verrouillage en phase ainsi qu'un fonctionnement à dégénérescence en fréquence à l'intérieur d'une zone d'accrochage. L'expérience en cours au laboratoire a permis d'observer ce phénomène de verrouillage.

  13. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P; Falls, Kelly C; Reed, Sara M; Taghiyev, Agshin F; Quelle, Frederick W; Gourronc, Francoise A; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Major, Heather J; Askeland, Ryan W; Sherman, Scott K; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Howe, James R; Darbro, Benjamin W; Quelle, Dawn E

    2014-11-15

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood, and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs (PNET) that correlated with high-level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor-suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating that RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A-knockdown cells, although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients.

  14. RpoS-dependent expression of OsmY in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi: activation under stationary phase and SPI-2-inducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xueming; Ji, Ying; Weng, Xiaoqin; Huang, Xinxiang

    2015-06-01

    OsmY is a periplasmic protein with two BON domains which may attach to phospholipid membranes. Previous reports showed that the expression of OsmY in Escherichia coli was hyperosmotically inducible and RpoS dependent. But little work was done to investigate the expression and function of OsmY in Salmonella. Here, we detected the endogenous OsmY in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) with polyclonal antibody. The results showed that the expression of OsmY was also RpoS dependent and was activated under stationary phase. Further, using in vitro culture, we established the Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2-inducing conditions with hyperosmolarity and low-phosphate, low-magnesium medium (pH 5.8), respectively, and found that only SPI-2-inducing conditions can activate the expression of OsmY. osmY deletion mutant showed delayed growth compared with wild-type S. Typhi in SPI-2-inducing conditions. The results indicated that OsmY may function to resist the stress and be favorable for Salmonella's replication in the Salmonella-containing vesicles of macrophage.

  15. [Confrontation of experience and perspectives on the functioning of family planning centers].

    PubMed

    Basuyaux, M; Gallimard, E; Delaby, J P; Simet-lutin; Hainaut; Perets; Darmon; Verdoux, C; Dio, J P; Brunerie, J

    1974-01-01

    The bureaucratic aspects of establishing and operating a "centre d'orthogenie" (contraception clinic) and a "centre de planinication et d'education familiale" (family planning center) are discussed. The "orthogenics" centers are authorized to provide medical and psychosocial services, but are oriented toward the "reproductive organism" only. About 100 such centers exist in France as of November 1973, excluding private clinics such as that at the Hospital Notre-Dame de Bon Secours opened in 1963. No family planning and education centers are operating to date. The law requires that these centers be staffed by a director who is a gynecologist-obstetrician, a psychiatrist, a midwife, a marital counselor and social worker. Furthermore, the facility must be at least 70 square meters and have rooms for counseling, medical consultation, waiting room, toilet room, 2 dressing rooms, soundprooffing and fireproof paint, besides specified equipment and official permits. Much discussion concentrated on government subsidies, prescriptions, official permits, salary scales, how to deal with government officials, whether to do abortions and how to handle abortion requests. A network of family planning centers founded in Guadeloupe in 1964, now 78 clinics, was described briefly.

  16. Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-02-01

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

  17. Les fracture-luxations transolécraniennes

    PubMed Central

    Fahsi, Mohamed; Benameur, Hamza; El Andaloussi, Yassir; Bennouna, Driss; Fadili, Mustapha; Nechad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Les fracture-luxations transolécraniennes sont une entité rare des fracture-luxations du coude. Il s'agit d'une lésion complexe qui peut compromettre le pronostic fonctionnel du coude. Dix patients étaient diagnostiqués dans notre service entre janvier 2005 et novembre 2012. Tous nos patients étaient de sexe masculin, l’âge moyen était de 29 ans. Les fractures de l'olécrane étaient complexes et comminutives dans sept cas et simples chez trois patients. Deux cas étaient associés à des fractures de la tête radiale (Mason III) et deux autres à des fractures de l'apophyse coronoïde. Les résultats étaient évalués après un recul moyen de trois ans et demi par le score de BROBERG et MORREY: trois cas étaient excellents, quatre bons, deux moyens et un mauvais. Cette lésion complexe nécessite une bonne reconstruction de la surface articulaire et une réparation des lésions associées pour permettre une rééducation précoce, seul garant d'une bonne récupération fonctionnelle. PMID:26664553

  18. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval Art. III: the 13th and 14th Centuries, and the case of the French "Ordre de L'Étoile"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bònoli, F.; Incerti, M.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Going ahead in our long-term project of analysis of the role of transient astronomical events as inspirational sources of medieval art, we extend our interest towards the 13th and 14th centuries, epochs of strong changes either in society, art or science. It is our aim to verify if the relationship we found in the 11th century between the number of artworks where a star is represented, and astonishing transient astronomical events was, in this new situation, still valid. Moreover, in order to check the influence of astronomical events on the 14th-century social and cultural environment, we focus on the case of the Ordre de l'Étoile, a chivalrous society founded by John II of France (Jan le Bon, roi de France) at the end of 1351, looking in ancient chronicles for some relevant contemporary astronomical event as an inspiration source for the "star" in the Order's name, in the garb of its knights and in its motto.

  19. Observation of suspended sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama from satellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive geologic study of coastal Alabama and Mississippi, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating coastal sediment transport in Mobile Bay and the adjacent shelf. Satellite imagery from the NOAA AVHRR is being used to provide data on the variability of spatial patterns in the near-surface suspended sediment concentration. This imagery is processed using atmospheric corrections to remove haze and Rayleigh radiance in order to obtain water reflectances; the reflectances are than converted to approximate sediment concentrations using standard relationships between water reflectance and in situ sediment concentrations. A series of images from early 1990 shows rapid changes in sediment concentrations in response to high river flow of the Alabama-Tombigbee river system. During these times, suspended sediment tends to flow out Mobile Bay without mixing into the eastern lobe of the Bay (Bon Secour Bay). The sediment concentration field also appears to be disturbed by the main ship channel. The sediment plume extends more than 60 km offshore after the peak flow event. One wind event in December 1989 was identified as increasing sediment concentration in the Bay. It is not believed that such an event has been previously observed from satellite.

  20. Buddha from space - An ancient object of art made of a Chinga iron meteorite fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Elmar; Schmieder, Martin; Kurat, Gero; Brandstńtter, Franz; Kramar, Utz; Ntaflos, Theo; Kröchert, Jörg

    2012-09-01

    The fall of meteorites has been interpreted as divine messages by multitudinous cultures since prehistoric times, and meteorites are still adored as heavenly bodies. Stony meteorites were used to carve birds and other works of art; jewelry and knifes were produced of meteoritic iron for instance by the Inuit society. We here present an approximately 10.6 kg Buddhist sculpture (the “iron man”) made of an iron meteorite, which represents a particularity in religious art and meteorite science. The specific contents of the crucial main (Fe, Ni, Co) and trace (Cr, Ga, Ge) elements indicate an ataxitic iron meteorite with high Ni contents (approximately 16 wt%) and Co (approximately 0.6 wt%) that was used to produce the artifact. In addition, the platinum group elements (PGEs), as well as the internal PGE ratios, exhibit a meteoritic signature. The geochemical data of the meteorite generally match the element values known from fragments of the Chinga ataxite (ungrouped iron) meteorite strewn field discovered in 1913. The provenance of the meteorite as well as of the piece of art strongly points to the border region of eastern Siberia and Mongolia, accordingly. The sculpture possibly portrays the Buddhist god Vaiśravana and might originate in the Bon culture of the eleventh century. However, the ethnological and art historical details of the “iron man” sculpture, as well as the timing of the sculpturing, currently remain speculative.

  1. Le carcinome verruqueux de la vulve: à propos de quatre cas

    PubMed Central

    Boujoual, Majdouline; Hachi, Hafid; Rimani, Mouna; El Khannoussi, Basma; Bougtab, Abdesslam

    2014-01-01

    Le cancer verruqueux de la vulve est une variante rare et bien différenciéedu carcinome épidermoïdedont les particularités diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques méritent d’être distinguées. Il se caractérise par son importante croissance exophytique sans infiltration de la membrane basale. Son évolution est surtout locale rarement métastatique. Il est l'indication d'un traitement chirurgical exclusif avec exérèse large sans curage ganglionnaire de principe. La radiothérapie n'apporte aucun bénéfice en survie. Le pronostic est relativement bon mais grevé par les récidives locales. Nous rapportons quatre cas de carcinome verruqueux de la vulve colligés au Service de Chirurgieà l'Institut National d'Oncologie Rabat, nous discuterons à travers une revue de littérature, leurs modalités diagnostiques thérapeutiques et évolutives. PMID:25328599

  2. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Sampedro-Nuñez, Miguel; Gahete, Manuel D; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-08-14

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value.

  3. Induction of BAP1 by a Moderate Decrease in Temperature Is Mediated by ICE1 in Arabidopsis1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying; Yang, Huijun; Mang, Hyung-Gon; Hua, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Temperature variations at the nonextreme range modulate various processes of plant growth, development, and physiology, but how plants perceive and transduce these temperature signals is not well understood. Moderate cooling from 28°C to 22°C induces transcription of a number of genes in salicylic acid-dependent and -independent manners. Here, we report the study of the transcriptional control of the BON1-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (BAP1) gene that is responsive to a moderate decrease of temperature as well as to many environmental stimuli. Using reporter genes under the control of series of regions of the BAP1 promoter, we identified a 35-bp fragment that is necessary and sufficient for the BAP1 transcript induction by a moderate cooling. This fragment also confers an induction of BAP1 by cold and reactive oxygen species-generating paraquat. Furthermore, the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) protein that is involved in transcriptional control of cold responses is found to bind to a MYC element in this promoter and is required for the cooling induction of BAP1. The ice1 mutant has a low induction of BAP1 and enhanced resistance to a bacterial pathogen. Thus, responses to a moderate decrease in temperature may utilize components in the cold response as well as a potentiating signaling involving salicylic acid. PMID:21098676

  4. The Real-Time Dose Measurement Scintillating Fiber Array for Brachytherapy Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynes, Lawrence

    2007-03-01

    Brachytherapy is a treatment modality that uses tiny radioactive sources (few mm in length) by delivering enough doses to kill cancer tumors or plaque build-up. The type of sources used in hospitals include both gamma and beta emitters. Presently, the technique suffers from not having a single detector with the capability of providing accurate dose distribution information within sub-mm accuracy. The current standard is based primarily on well chambers and film dosimetry. The Center for Advanced Medical Instrumentation (CAMI) at Hampton University is developing a Scintillating Fiber Based Beta Detector prototype in collaboration with the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) to address this problem. The device is composed of an array of 1x1 mm^2 scintillating fibers optically coupled to photo-multiplier tubes for photon-to-current conversion. A CAMAC LabView based data acquisition system is used for real time data collection and histogramming, data analysis. A set of data were collected at the nearby Bon Secours DePaul Medical Center using a GammaMed 12i HDR after-loader housing a 6.62 mCi Ir-192 source. Preliminary comparison between our device and film dosimetry will be discussed.

  5. Long Term Time Series of Remote Sensing Observations for Development of Regulatory Water Quality Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Spiering, Bruce A.; Holekamp, Kara L.

    2010-01-01

    Water quality standards in the U.S. consist of: designated uses (the services that a water body provides; e.g., drinking water, aquatic life, harvestable species, recreation) . criteria that define the environmental conditions that must be maintained to support the uses For estuaries and coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico, there are no numeric (quantitative) criteria to protect designated uses from effects of nutrients. This is largely due to the absence of adequate data that would quantitatively link biological conditions to nutrient concentrations. The Gulf of Mexico Alliance, an organization fostering collaboration between the Gulf States and U.S. Federal agencies, has identified the development of the numeric nutrient criteria as a major step leading to reduction in MODIS Products Figure 6. Map of the Mobile Bay with a yellow patch indicating the Bon Secour Bay area selected in this study for averaging water clarity parameters retrieved from MODIS datasets. nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. Nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters can be quantified based on response variables that measure phytoplankton biomass and water clarity. Long-term, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of chlorophyll a concentration, total concentration of suspended solids, and water clarity are needed to establish reference conditions and to quantify stressor-response relationships.

  6. [[Molecular composition of saturated hydrocarbons in diesels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Niu, Luna; Liu, Zelong; Zhou, Jian; Cai, Xinheng; Tian, Songbai

    2014-11-01

    An analytical method for separation and identification of the saturated hydrocarbons in diesels at molecular level by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOF MS)was established. The saturated hydrocarbons were pre-separated from diesel samples by solid phase extraction before GC x GC-TOF MS analysis. More than 1,000 individual compounds (including paraffins, naphthenes and ole- fins) in coker diesel were tentatively identified based on NIST library search, mass spectrum resolution, boiling point distribution law and separation characteristics. Normal paraffins showed great regularity and could be identified easily through the relative position with pristane and phytane. The cyclic alkanes arranged above paraffins with the increasing number of rings. The normal alkyl cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes were well distinguished due to the difference of their polarity. Normal α-olefins which were often neglected in the past were also identified. With the support of the above-introduced identification, the distribution by structural type and carbon number were presented using peak area normalization. This analytical method was suc- cessfully used to investigate the molecular composition of saturated fractions in different diesel samples. All the results indicated that the molecular compositions of saturates in catalytic cracking diesel and coker diesel were significantly different because of the processing mechanism. This method provided technical support for the characterization of saturated hydrocar- bons in diesels and the investigation of processing mechanism. PMID:25764659

  7. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Falls, Kelly; Reed, Sara M.; Taghiyev, Agshin F.; Quelle, Frederick W.; Gourronc, Francoise; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Major, Heather J.; Askeland, Ryan; Sherman, Scott K.; O'Dorisio, Thomas M.; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Howe, James R.; Darbro, Benjamin W.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs(PNETs) that correlated with high level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A knockdown cells although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients. PMID:25273089

  8. Identification of Pyrus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluation for genetic mapping in European pear and interspecific Pyrus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sara; Saeed, Munazza; Knäbel, Mareike; Kim, YoonKyeong; Troggio, Michela; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Fontana, Paolo; Won, KyungHo; Durel, Charles-Eric; Perchepied, Laure; Schaffer, Robert; Wiedow, Claudia; Bus, Vincent; Brewer, Lester; Gardiner, Susan E; Crowhurst, Ross N; Chagné, David

    2013-01-01

    We have used new generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium® II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium® II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear ('Old Home'×'Louise Bon Jersey') and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array) were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.

  9. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures instables des métacarpes et des phalanges reste un objet de controverse. Peu de séries ont été rapportées dans la littérature, rendant leur analyse difficile. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective comportant 12 patients, opérés par cette technique, ayant eu des fractures déplacées des métacarpes ou des phalanges, sur une période de deux ans. Les résultats globaux ont été bons dans 75% des cas, moyenne dans 16,5% des cas et mauvais dans 8,5% des cas. La stabilité du montage par mini plaques des fractures instables des métacarpiens et des phalanges ont permis une mobilisation précoce des articulations de la main, évitant ainsi la raideur. PMID:27800079

  10. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  11. Mathematical modeling of heavy metals contamination from MSW landfill site in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tantemsapya, N; Naksakul, Y; Wirojanagud, W

    2011-01-01

    Kham Bon landfill site is one of many municipality waste disposal sites in Thailand which are in an unsanitary condition. The site has been receiving municipality wastes without separating hazardous waste since 1968. Heavy metals including, Pb, Cr and Cd are found in soil and groundwater around the site, posing a health risk to people living nearby. In this research, contamination transport modelling of Pb, Cr and Cd was simulated using MODFLOW for two periods, at the present (2010) and 20 years prediction (2030). Model results showed that heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr migrated toward the north-eastern and south-eastern direction. The 20 years prediction showed that, heavy metals tend to move from the top soil to the deeper aquifer. The migration would not exceed 500 m radius from the landfill centre in the next 20 years, which is considered to be a slow process. From the simulation model, it is recommended that a mitigation measure should be performed to reduce the risk from landfill contamination. Hazardous waste should be separated for proper management. Groundwater contamination in the aquifer should be closely monitored. Consumption of groundwater in a 500 m radius must be avoided. In addition, rehabilitation of the landfill site should be undertaken to prevent further mobilization of pollutants.

  12. Grossesse hétérotopique à la clinique Universitaire de Gynécologies et d'Obstétrique du Centre National Hospitalier et Universitaire Hubert Koutoukou Maga du Bénin: à propos d'un cas de grossesse quadruple; 3 fœtus intra utérins et 1 fœtus abdominal

    PubMed Central

    Aguemon, Christiane Tshabu; Denakpo, Justin; Hounkpatin, Benjamin; Tossa, Lehila Bagnan; Adisso, Sosthène; Sacca, Jeanne; de Souza, José

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse quadruple hétérotopique est exceptionnelle. La revue de la littérature en parle très peu. Les auteurs rapportent 1 cas de grossesse hétérotopique quadruple développée jusqu’à 34 semaines d'aménorrhée (3 fœtus intra utérins et 1 fœtus abdominal). Les fœtus intra utérins étaient diagnostiqués à l’échographie alors que le fœtus intra abdominal était de découverte opératoire. 3 jumeaux vont décéder en post-partum immédiat et un jumeau va survivre avec un bon développement psychomoteur. Le suivi médical de la mère en post partum a vu se développer une insuffisance cardiaque globale secondairement maitrisée avec un traitement médical. PMID:26185584

  13. Structure of dehaloperoxidase B at 1.58 Å resolution and structural characterization of the AB dimer from Amphitrite ornata

    SciTech Connect

    de Serrano, Vesna; D; Antonio, Jennifer; Franzen, Stefan; Ghiladi, Reza A.

    2012-04-18

    As members of the globin superfamily, dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzymes A and B from the marine annelid Amphitrite ornata possess hemoglobin function, but they also exhibit a biologically relevant peroxidase activity that is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Here, a comprehensive structural study of recombinant DHP B, both by itself and cocrystallized with isoenzyme A, using X-ray diffraction is presented. The structure of DHP B refined to 1.58 {angstrom} resolution exhibits the same distal histidine (His55) conformational flexibility as that observed in isoenzyme A, as well as additional changes to the distal and proximal hydrogen-bonding networks. Furthermore, preliminary characterization of the DHP AB heterodimer is presented, which exhibits differences in the AB interface that are not observed in the A-only or B-only homodimers. These structural investigations of DHP B provide insights that may relate to the mechanistic details of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-dependent oxidative dehalogenation reaction catalyzed by dehaloperoxidase, present a clearer description of the function of specific residues in DHP at the molecular level and lead to a better understanding of the paradigms of globin structure-function relationships.

  14. Structure of dehaloperoxidase B at 1.58 Å resolution and structural characterization of the AB dimer from Amphitrite ornata

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Vesna de; D’Antonio, Jennifer; Franzen, Stefan; Ghiladi, Reza A.

    2010-05-01

    The crystal structure of dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzyme B from the terebellid polychaete A. ornata, which exhibits both hemoglobin and peroxidase functions, has been determined at 1.58 Å resolution. As members of the globin superfamily, dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzymes A and B from the marine annelid Amphitrite ornata possess hemoglobin function, but they also exhibit a biologically relevant peroxidase activity that is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Here, a comprehensive structural study of recombinant DHP B, both by itself and cocrystallized with isoenzyme A, using X-ray diffraction is presented. The structure of DHP B refined to 1.58 Å resolution exhibits the same distal histidine (His55) conformational flexibility as that observed in isoenzyme A, as well as additional changes to the distal and proximal hydrogen-bonding networks. Furthermore, preliminary characterization of the DHP AB heterodimer is presented, which exhibits differences in the AB interface that are not observed in the A-only or B-only homodimers. These structural investigations of DHP B provide insights that may relate to the mechanistic details of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-dependent oxidative dehalogenation reaction catalyzed by dehaloperoxidase, present a clearer description of the function of specific residues in DHP at the molecular level and lead to a better understanding of the paradigms of globin structure–function relationships.

  15. The Haiti Breast Cancer Initiative: Initial Findings and Analysis of Barriers-to-Care Delaying Patient Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ketan; Costas, Ainhoa; Damuse, Ruth; Hamiltong-Pierre, Jean; Pyda, Jordan; Ong, Cecilia T.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Meara, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In Haiti, breast cancer patients present at such advanced stages that even modern therapies offer modest survival benefit. Identifying the personal, sociocultural, and economic barriers-to-care delaying patient presentation is crucial to controlling disease. Methods. Patients presenting to the Hôpital Bon Sauveur in Cange were prospectively accrued. Delay was defined as 12 weeks or longer from initial sign/symptom discovery to presentation, as durations greater than this cutoff correlate with reduced survival. A matched case-control analysis with multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting delay. Results. Of N = 123 patients accrued, 90 (73%) reported symptom-presentation duration and formed the basis of this study: 52 patients presented within 12 weeks of symptoms, while 38 patients waited longer than 12 weeks. On logistic regression, lower education status (OR = 5.6, P = 0.03), failure to initially recognize mass as important (OR = 13.0, P < 0.01), and fear of treatment cost (OR = 8.3, P = 0.03) were shown to independently predict delayed patient presentation. Conclusion. To reduce stage at presentation, future interventions must educate patients on the recognition of initial breast cancer signs and symptoms and address cost concerns by providing care free of charge and/or advertising that existing care is already free. PMID:23840209

  16. Reducing The Climate Change Impact of Aviation By Restricting Cruise Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, V.; Noland, R. B.; Toumi, R.

    Aviation has the potential to influence the global climate. The total annual fuel burned by aircraft contributes a small but significant proportion of global anthropogenic car- bon dioxide emissions, with this proportion set to increase with the projected rise in demand for air travel. Additionally, the emission of nitrogen oxides at altitude can have a much greater impact on ozone, and in turn on the atmospheric radiation bud- get, than emission at the surface. A third mechanism for the influence of aviation on climate is through the production of contrails. Contrails cover 0.1 Cruise altitude restrictions could severely constrain air space capacity, especially in parts of Europe. In addition, carbon emissions may increase due to less efficient air- craft operation at lower cruise altitudes, which would offset some of the benefits of eliminating contrail formation. An analysis of these trade-offs is presented, using the RAMS air space simulation model as applied to European airspace. This model sim- ulates the flight paths and altitudes of each aircraft and is here used to calculate emis- sions of carbon dioxide and changes in the journey time. Our analysis demonstrates that altitude restrictions on commercial aircraft could be an effective means of re- ducing climate change impacts, though it will be necessary to mitigate the increased controller workload conflicts that this will generate.

  17. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  18. Committee monitors mission vitality in local holding companies.

    PubMed

    Clifton, R

    1987-01-01

    Although consciousness of a religious institute's sponsorship or mission in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was secondary to the more important function of religious formation, the health care environment in recent years has demanded a closer attention to mission. Religious institutes have identified the need to further articulate statements of mission and philosophy and to develop mechanisms to evaluate their effectiveness in promoting the community's values. In response to this need, Bon Secours Health System, Columbia, MD, developed a standing committee, the mission committee, to oversee the mission activities of the entities within each of its local holding companies. Among its responsibilities are the periodic review of programs, the monitoring of social justice actions in which the local corporation may be involved, the recommendation of policy concerning ethical and medical-moral issues to the board of directors, and the identification of educational need in these areas. A special focus on the system's mission activity has been indigent care, an area that the mission committee both monitors and directs. As a governance structure, the mission committee complements rather than detracts from the chief executive officer's responsibility for mission. Since its creation in 1983, it has proved valuable not only in ensuring the system's mission effectiveness but also in integrating the operations and mission perspectives.

  19. Midazolam intranasal pour arrêter les convulsions en contexte extra-hospitalier

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Il arrive parfois que des parents se présentent à ma clinique après que leur enfant eut eu une crise convulsive et qu’une deuxième crise ait lieu à la clinique. En attendant le transfert à l’hôpital, existe-t-il des moyens de mettre fin aux convulsions sans devoir obtenir l’accès intraveineux à la clinique? Réponse Le diazépam par voie intraveineuse est depuis de nombreuses années un traitement de première intention pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives chez les enfants. Il est aussi possible d’administrer le médicament par les voies intramusculaire, rectale ou buccale, mais ces voies d’administration s’accompagnent de plusieurs inconvénients. D’autres données probantes laissent croire que la voie intranasale est rapide et efficace chez les enfants, et le midazolam continue de se montrer prometteur pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives. Doté d’un bon profil d’innocuité, le midazolam intranasal s’utilise en clinique et en contexte préhospitalier pour arrêter les convulsions chez les enfants.

  20. The Haiti Breast Cancer Initiative: Initial Findings and Analysis of Barriers-to-Care Delaying Patient Presentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ketan; Costas, Ainhoa; Damuse, Ruth; Hamiltong-Pierre, Jean; Pyda, Jordan; Ong, Cecilia T; Shulman, Lawrence N; Meara, John G

    2013-01-01

    Background. In Haiti, breast cancer patients present at such advanced stages that even modern therapies offer modest survival benefit. Identifying the personal, sociocultural, and economic barriers-to-care delaying patient presentation is crucial to controlling disease. Methods. Patients presenting to the Hôpital Bon Sauveur in Cange were prospectively accrued. Delay was defined as 12 weeks or longer from initial sign/symptom discovery to presentation, as durations greater than this cutoff correlate with reduced survival. A matched case-control analysis with multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting delay. Results. Of N = 123 patients accrued, 90 (73%) reported symptom-presentation duration and formed the basis of this study: 52 patients presented within 12 weeks of symptoms, while 38 patients waited longer than 12 weeks. On logistic regression, lower education status (OR = 5.6, P = 0.03), failure to initially recognize mass as important (OR = 13.0, P < 0.01), and fear of treatment cost (OR = 8.3, P = 0.03) were shown to independently predict delayed patient presentation. Conclusion. To reduce stage at presentation, future interventions must educate patients on the recognition of initial breast cancer signs and symptoms and address cost concerns by providing care free of charge and/or advertising that existing care is already free. PMID:23840209

  1. Study of chondrogenic potential of stem cells in co-culture with chondrons

    PubMed Central

    Nikpou, Parisa; Nejad, Daryoush Mohammad; Shafaei, Hajar; Roshangar, Leila; Samadi, Nasser; Navali, Amir Mohammad; Sadegpour, Ali Reza; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Rad, Jafar Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Three-dimensional biomimetic scaffolds have widespread applications in biomedical tissue engineering due to similarity of their nanofibrous architecture to native extracellular matrix. Co-culture system has stimulatory effect on chondrogenesis of adult mesenchymal stem cells. This work presents a co-culture strategy using human articular chondrons and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) for cartilage tissue production. Materials and Methods: Isolated stem cells were characterized by flowcytometry. Electrospun and polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds (900 nm fiber diameter) was obtained from Bon Yakhteh (Tehran-Iran) and human infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (IPFP-ASCs) were seeded on them. IPFP-ASCs on scaffolds were co-cultured with articular chondrons using transwell. After 21 day, chondrogenic differentiation of stem cell was evaluated by determining the genes expression of collagen2, aggrecan and Indian hedgehog using real-time RT-PCR. Results: Genes expression of collagen2, aggrecan by IPFP-ASCs did not alter significantly in comparison with control group. Howevers, expression of Indian hedgehog decreased significantly compared to control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that chondrons obtained from osteoarthritic articular cartilage did not stimulate chondrogenic differentiation of IPFP-ASCs in co-culture. PMID:27482345

  2. Le méningiome du sinus maxillaire: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mezouri, Imane; Bellefqih, Sara; Chenna, Hanane; El Kacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Les méningiomes extracrâniens sont rares, leur localisation au niveau du sinus maxillaire est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 41 ans, ayant présenté une exophtalmie avec des céphalées intermittentes évoluant depuis 8 ans. Le diagnostic a été retenu à partir de la biopsie et du scanner cérébral et du massif facial. Le traitement a consisté en une irradiation exclusive à la dose de 54 Gray (Gy). La patiente est restée en bon contrôle locorégional, après un recul de 18 mois. A travers ce cas clinique on a démontré que le sinus maxillaire peut être touché par le méningiome, et qu'il doit être inclus dans le diagnostic différentiel des tumeurs des tissus mous. PMID:25419275

  3. Elevations and discharges produced by a simulated flood wave on the lower Sabine River, Louisiana and Texas, caused by a theoretical dam failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.; Stiltner, Gloria J.

    1979-01-01

    The Toledo Bend Reservoir is located on the lower Sabine River between Louisiana and Texas. Two mathematical models were coupled to calculate the flood wave that would result from the theoretical failure of 25 percent of Toledo Bend Dam and route the wave downstream to Orange, Tex. Computations assumed failure (1) at the peak of the 100-year flood when discharge of the Sabine River is 102,000 cubic feet per second and (2) when the average discharge is 10,000 cubic feet per second. Two techniques were used in the dam-break model. The method of characteristics was used to propagate the shock wave following dam failure. The linear implicit finite-difference solution was used to route the flood wave following shock wave dissipation. The magnitude of the flow was determined for Burkeville, Bon Wier, Ruliff, and Orange, Tex., along the lower Sabine River. For these sites, respectively, the following peak elevations were calculated: 119, 82, 31, and 13 feet for the 100-year flood and 110, 75, 27, and 9 feet for the average discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Multiwavelength variability analysis of the FSRQ 3C 279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Chavushyan, V.; León-Tavares, J.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Fernandes, S.; Schlegel, E. M.; López-Rodríguez, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present a multifrequency analysis of the variability in the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 from 2008 to 2014. Our multiwavelength dataset includes gamma-ray data from Fermi/LAT (Abdo et al. 2009), observations in 1mm from SMA (Gurwell et al. 2007), Near Infrared from OAGH (Carramiñana & Carrasco 2009) and SMARTS (Bonning et al. 2012); optical V band from the Steward Observatory (Smith et al. 2009) and SMARTS; optical spectra from OAGH (Patiño-Álvarez et al. 2013) and the Steward Observatory; and polarization spectra from the Steward Observatory. The light curves are shown in Fig. 1. Six out of seven optical activity periods identified within our dataset show clear counterparts in mm, NIR and gamma-rays, however, the late 2011 - early 2012 optical flare does not have a counterpart in the GeV regime. In this contribution, we discuss the flaring evolution of 3C 279 and speculate about the production of the anomalous activity period.

  5. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here.

  6. Hydrodynamic extrusion of membrane nanotubes: the role of the cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Borghi, Nicolas; Kremer, Séastien; Buguin, Axel; Brochard, Françise

    2007-03-01

    We have investigated membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion properties by extrusion of tubes from tethered vesicles and cells using hydrodynamic flows. Our experimental results show that impermeable membranes (giant vesicles) act as entropic springs, i.e. the extruded tubes reach a stationary length, whereas porous membranes (vesicles decorated with pores) lead to tubes, which extrude at constant velocity without reaching a stationary length. On the other hand, experiments on red blood cells (RBC) suggest that the dynamics of extruded tubes is dominated by the detachment of the membrane from the cytoskeleton and the flow of lipids through the binding membrane proteins. We have estimated the membrane-cytoskeleton binding energy and the viscosity of the membrane for RBC-s. Tube extrusion from other cell types (S180, MDCK, BON) show phenomena such as healing time for the membrane-cytoskeleton rebinding, and cell aging (breakage of the tube after a few consecutive extrusions). We will discuss how these phenomena depend on the properties of the cytoskeleton and on the presence of cell adhesion molecules.

  7. Spectres d'absorption X dans les plasmas femtosecondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Audebert, P.; Renaudin, P.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Geindre, J. P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Nagels-Silvert, V.; Shepherd, R.; Matsushima, I.; Gary, S.; Girard, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Gauthier, J. C.

    2005-06-01

    Nous avons mesuré le spectre d'absorption en couche K de plasmas d'aluminium à haute densité. Deux faisceaux de la chaîne laser femtoseconde 100 TW du LULI (de durée 300 fs) ont été utilisés pour produire le plasma absorbant sur une feuille mince d'Al (830 Å ou 500 Å), et la source de radiographie sur du samarium massif. Les spectres X étaient résolus spatialement dans une direction perpendiculaire à la direction de la dispersion spectrale. Les spectres ont été mesurés pour différents retards entre la source deradiographie et le plasma d'Al. Des simulations des spectres et de l'ionisation en fonction du temps et de l'intensité, obtenues au moyen de codes hydrodynamiques et de structure atomique, montrent un bon accord avec les résultats expérimentaux.

  8. Les instabilités antérieures de l’épaule:à propos de 73 cas

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Louaste; Bousbaa, Hicham; Cherrad, Taoufik; Wahidi, Mohammed; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Entre 2005 et 2014, 73patients (77 épaules) ont bénéficié d’une intervention de Latarjet pour instabilité antérieure de l’épaule. Nous avons, rétrospectivement, évalué les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de cette technique opératoire. L’intervention a été réalisée pour le traitement d’une luxation récidivante dans 69 cas, subluxation récidivante douloureuse dans 5 cas et 3 épaules douloureuses Tous les patients ont eu une évaluation radiographique avant l’intervention et lors du contrôle le plus récent. Selon le score de Rowe, 73 (94.8 %) des 77 épaules ont obtenu un résultat bon ou excellent. Au plus grand recul, 74 épaules étaient indemnes d’arthrose glénohumérale. PMID:27800066

  9. Nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    The influence of CO2 addition to high rate algal ponds (HRAPS) on nitrogen removal was investigated using two pilot-scale HRAPs operated with different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 4 and 8 days), and was compared to the nitrogen removal by the 8-day HRT pond before CO2 addition was installed. Nitrogen balances were calculated by partitioning total nitrogen into organic and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N), and by separation of the organic nitrogen into particulate (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). PON was further divided into algal organic nitrogen (AON) and bacteria organic nitrogen (BON) to investigate nitrogen mass flow in the HRAPS. This research shows that the proportion of algae in the algal/bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP8d (55.6%) was appreciably lower than that in the shorter 4-day HRT HRAP4d (80.5%) when CO2 was added to control the maximum pH to <8.0 during the summer. Higher bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP corresponded with higher nitrification rates, indicating that the longer 8-day HRT in the summer was detrimental for two reasons: lower algal productivity and increased nitrogen loss through nitrification/denitrification. Overall nitrogen removal of approximately 60% in the HRAPS with CO2 addition was mainly achieved by algal assimilation followed by sedimentation in the settling unit.

  10. Effect of shot peening and grain refinement on the fatigue life and strength of commercially pure Al and two of its alloys: Al-2024-T3 and Al-7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qandil, A.; Zaid, Adnan I. O.

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used materials in automobile, aircraft and space craft industries due to their high strength- to- weight ratio and corrosion resistance beside their other useful properties. They are the second materials in use after steel alloys. Most of the failures in parts of aircrafts and space vehicles are mainly caused by fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. In this paper, the effect of shot peening on the fatigue life of commercially pure aluminumand two of its alloys namely:Al-2024 and Al-7075-T6 is presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of addition of vanadium to Al and Al grain refined by Ti and Ti+Bon Its fatigue life and strengthis also presented and discussed using scanning electron microscope, SEM. It was that shot peening and the addition of V toAl and Al onAl grain refined by Ti and Ti+B have resulted in enhancement of the fatigue life and strength. Ffinally, the effect of shot peening on the surface quality of the peened parts is also presented and discussed.

  11. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  12. Synthetic organic pigments of the 20th and 21st century relevant to artist's paints: Raman spectra reference collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Nadim C.; Stefan, Zumbuehl; Francoise, Delavy; Annette, Fritsch; Renate, Kuehnen

    2009-08-01

    Some 170 organic pigments relevant to artist's paints have been collected from historic collections and modern manufacturers. The number includes multiples of the same pigment from different sources and comprises 118 different color indices (C.I.). All of them have been analysed with FTIR spectroscopy and 125 pigments (93 different C.I. No.s) of particular relevance to artist's paints have been characterised with Raman spectroscopy so far. The pigment collection encompasses the following pigment classes and subgroups: monoazo pigments represented by acetoacetic arylide yellow (hansa yellow), β-naphthol, BON, naphthol AS and benzimidazolone; disazo pigments with disazo condensation, diarylide, bisacetoacetarylide, pyrazolone; azo-azomethin metal complex pigments; non-azo, polycyclic pigments such as phthalocyanines, diketopyrrolo-pyrroles (DPP), perylenes and perinones, quinacridones, isoindolinones, polycarbocyclic anthraquinones and dioxanines. The selection of references was based on availability (historic collections) and current use in 16 acrylic, alkyd and oil-based artist's paints, and it covers pigment colors PY yellow (27 C.I. No.s), PR red (38), PO orange (9), PB blue (8), PV violet (6), PG green (3) and PBr brown (2). Besides peak tables and spectra patterns, flow charts based on color, pigment class, group and individual color index are presented to help identification of unknowns and mixed paint samples. While Raman could isolate all different C.I. numbers, multiple references of the same C.I. from different sources could not be distinguished.

  13. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D.; Castaño, Justo P.; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value. PMID:26124083

  14. The "Quadroon-Plaçage" myth of antebellum New Orleans: Anglo-American (mis)interpretations of a French-Caribbean phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Aslakson, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The intimate relationships between white men and women of color in antebellum New Orleans, commonly known by the term plaçage, are a large part of the romanticized lore of the city and its history. This article exposes the common understanding of plaçage as myth. First, it reveals the source of the myth in a collection of accounts by travelers to the city in the decades leading up to the Civil War. Next, it uses a database of information on hundreds of white male-colored female relationships during the period to provide a more accurate account of the people in and nature of these relationships. Finally, it explains the purpose served by the myth by identifying three traditions that shaped its development: the culture of Southern Honor, the Anti-Slavery movement, and the bon-ton tradition of Georgian England. In a broader sense, this paper shows how myths are created and perpetuated, the temptations and dangers of uncritically accepting them, and the value to understanding their creation.

  15. Kyste hydatique cérébral chez l'enfant: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Belahcen, Mohamed; Khattala, Khalid; Elmadi, Aziz; Bouabdellah, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique cervical est une pathologie rare, mais non exceptionnel chez l'enfant. Nous rapportons rétrospectivement une série de cinq cas de kyste hydatique cérébral opérés, avec une revue de la littérature. Le syndrome d'hypertension intracrânien a été révélateur dans la majorité des cas. Le diagnostic a été posé par la TDM cérébrale, le traitement a été chirurgical dans tout les cas, avec une rupture du kyste dans un seul cas, traité par l'albendazol en post opératoire. L’évolution a été bonne dans 3 cas, dans un cas l'atrophie optique était irréversible, et dans un autre cas l'enfant a présenté un syndrome maniaque stabilisé sous traitement. En conclusion le kyste hydatique cérébral reste une cause non négligeable de manifestations neurologiques dans les pays endémiques, le diagnostic positif est fait par la TDM, le traitement est chirurgical, et le pronostic est généralement bon. PMID:25379117

  16. Léiomyome vésical entraînant la destruction d'un rein

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Le léiomyome de la vessie est une tumeur bénigne rare réputée avoir un bon pronostic après traitement chirurgical. Ceci n'est malheureusement pas toujours vrai. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 33 ans qui a consulté pour des douleurs lombaires droites. Les explorations réalisées ont conclu à une tumeur solide du plancher vésical avec, en amont, un rein droit non fonctionnel et des voies urinaires gauches dilatées. La cystoscopie a objectivé une tumeur solide de la vessie périméatique droite. Des biopsies tumorales ont été faites en même temps qu'une montée de sonde double J gauche. L’étude anatomopathologique a conclu à un léiomyome vésical. Elle a eu une myomectomie par voie transvésicale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. La patiente a toutefois gardé comme séquelle un rein totalement détruit. PMID:27583074

  17. Geochemical study of groundwater mineralization in the Grombalia shallow aquifer, north-eastern Tunisia: implication of irrigation and industrial waste water accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Moussa, Amor; Zouari, Kamel; Oueslati, Naceur

    2009-08-01

    Hydrochemistry of groundwater is largely determined by both natural processes, such as dissolution, cation exchange, mixing, evaporation; and anthropogenic activities, which can affect the aquifer systems by contaminating them or by modifying their hydrological cycle. Both natural and anthropogenic processes vary in time and space; which is reflected in groundwater hydrochemistry variation. The objective of this study is the determination of the main hydrogeochemical processes that affect the quality of shallow groundwaters in the Grombalia basin, located in the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-eastern Tunisia. In this area, the chemical composition of groundwater is mostly characterized by Na-Cl-NO3-Ca water type which reveals the implication of natural and anthropogenic major factors. Natural factors are dissolution of evaporatic minerals, i.e. halite and gypsum and cation exchange with clays, while anthropogenic factors are pollution with industrial Sr-rich waste water and return flow of irrigation water, highly contaminated by MgSO4 and methyl-bromide fertilizers.

  18. Zebrafish hhex, nk2.1a, and pax2.1 regulate thyroid growth and differentiation downstream of Nodal-dependent transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Elsalini, Osama A; von Gartzen, Julia; Cramer, Matthias; Rohr, Klaus B

    2003-11-01

    During zebrafish development, the thyroid primordium initiates expression of molecular markers such as hhex and nk2.1a in the endoderm prior to pharynx formation. As expected for an endodermally derived organ, initiation of thyroid development depends on Nodal signalling. We find that it also depends on three downstream effectors of Nodal activity, casanova (cas), bonnie and clyde (bon), and faust (fau)/gata5. Despite their early Nodal-dependent expression in the endoderm, both hhex and nk2.1a are only required relatively late during thyroid development. In hhex and nk2.1a loss-of-function phenotypes, thyroid development is initiated and arrests only after the primordium has evaginated from the pharyngeal epithelium. Thus, like pax2.1, both hhex and nk2.1a have similarly late roles in differentiation or growth of thyroid follicular cells, and here, we show that all three genes act in parallel rather than in a single pathway. Our functional analysis suggests that these genes have similar roles as in mammalian thyroid development, albeit in a different temporal mode of organogenesis.

  19. Inhomogeneites dans le Vent des Etoiles Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1992-01-01

    autres, une correlation entre le nombre d'inhomogeneites detectees et la vitesse terminale. Cette relation explique bien l'anti-correlation observee entre le niveau de variabilite spectroscopique, photometrique ou polarimetrique et la vitesse terminale. On estime pour toutes les etoiles une masse moyenne des inhomogeneites de 7 times 10^{ -10} Modot et un taux de perte de masse sous la forme d'inhomogeneites detectables qui correspond a 10% de la perte de masse du vent total. L'histogramme du nombre d'inhomogeneites en fonction du leur flux pourrait cependant predire l'existence d'un grand nombre de petites structures non-detectees ici a cause du rapport signal sur bruit relativement trop faible. Ce resultat interessant, qui demande cependant a etre verifie, suggere que le vent pourrait etre forme d'un ensemble quasi infini d'inhomogeneites. En ajustant une loi de puissance dans l'histogramme du flux de chaque etoile, on calcule, pour les plus grosses structures, un exposant = -2.4 +/- 0.2. On constate alors que cette valeur est compatible avec celle que predit la turbulence supersonique. Les structures observees dans les spectres des etoiles WR ont des caracteristiques tres semblables a celles des etoiles O. On propose alors que les perturbations observees chez ces 2 types d'etoiles ont une meme origine. Parmi les mecanismes deja proposes dans le passe pour expliquer les variations des etoiles O et WR (instabilites radiatives, pulsations et champ magnetique) on ne saurait encore dire <=uel, ou lesquels, correspondent le mieux aux observations. Dans les projets futurs, on propose de considerer aussi le role que pourrait avoir la turbulence pour expliquer les perturbations du vent stellaire.

  20. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    , whereas incubation studies underlined a certain affinity of PTA for both organic colloids and clay/silt particles. Furthermore, no significant correlations (p<0.05) were found between PTA concentration in Pteridium samples and all the studied soil and climatic parameters. The present study was financed by the Ministero Italiano delle Politiche Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali (MIPAAF) (Project AZBSASP - "Agrozootecnia biologica: considerazioni in termini di sicurezza alimentare e problemi di salute pubblica").

  1. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou

  2. Refroidissement évaporatif de l'air des serres : mesures et modélisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraibi, A.; Makhlouf, S.; Jaffrin, A.; Bentounes, N.

    1995-07-01

    Summer overheat in agricultural greenhouses generates plant stresses which decrease the productivity and the quality of crops. High saturation deficits can be reduced by means of evaporative cooling. In order to promote the use of trickle pads in large greenhouses, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the heat and mass transfers that take place inside a combination of such pads for various inlet temperature and humidity conditions. This was done in a wind tunnel equipped with commercial corrugated cellulose pads. A semi-analytic model, using a specific heat transfer coefficient valid for this geometry, and assuming complete similitude between mass and heat transfers, accounts reasonably well with the measured data. With this model, it is possible to determine the efficiency of the cooling and humidifying process of various combinations of pads. La surchauffe estivale de l'air des serres de culture, responsable de stress végétal et d'une baisse de productivité et de qualité, impose une forme de climatisation simple et peu coûteuse. La réfrigération évaporative sur échangeurs ruisselants à plaques corruguées est une technique ancienne mais insuffisamment exploitée en grandes serres. Cette étude a consisté à mesurer au sein d'une veine d'air les performances de “cooling pads” commerciaux. Une modélisation semi-analytique a été mise au point à partir d'une loi d'échange spécifiquement développée pour cette géométrie, avec similitude entre transferts de masse et transferts de chaleur. Elle permet de reproduire fidèlement l'abaissement de la température et l'accroissement de l'hygrométrie obtenus suivant les conditions de fonctionnement. Les simulations de ce modèle permettent de dimensionner des systèmes mettant en jeu des configurations variées de pads pour humidifier et refroidir des serres agricoles.

  3. Identification des risques professionnels dans l'industrie textile en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kitronza, Panda Lukongo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude est de mettre en évidence les facteurs de risques professionnels liés aux conditions de travail. Méthodes Cette étude qualitative basée sur les entretiens de groupe a été réalisée par une équipe pluridisciplinaire dans l'industrie textile de la région du Est de la RDC; comprenant un médecin de travail, un médecin de santé publique, un toxicologue, deux infirmiers du centre hospitalier de l'usine, un représentant du comité d'hygiène et un technicien de prévention. La démarche méthodologique a consisté en des entretiens en groupe, des observations et visites guidées de lieux de travail de l'entreprise. Résultats Dans la culture du coton, les effets d'une forte exposition aux pesticides peuvent entraîner des intoxications aiguës, chroniques et voire le décès. Les autres risques sont les accidents de travail, les maladies professionnelles, les troubles psychologiques. Dans l'industrie, les travailleurs sont exposés aux risques liés à l'empoussiérage des fibres de coton, aux facteurs des risques traumatiques, physiques (bruits, vibration) et chimiques (acides forts, bases fortes, solvants et colorants minéraux), ainsi qu'aux risques psychosociaux. La pollution de l'environnement et l’écotoxicité inhérente à ces activités restent l'effet de l'usage des grandes quantités d'intrants agricoles, engrais et produits phytosanitaires. Conclusion Cette étude a permis de mettre en évidence les différents facteurs de risques auxquelles sont soumis les travailleurs textiles; ainsi que les risques environnementaux liés à cette activité. Cela est de nature à permettre la mise sur pied d'une stratégie efficace de prévention et de protection des travailleurs. PMID:25977736

  4. Using tuberculosis patient characteristics to predict future cases with matching genotype results.

    PubMed

    Oeltmann, J E; Click, E S; Moonan, P K

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Etats-Unis.Cadre : On ne sait pas si les caractéristiques d'un cas de tuberculose (TB) ou du patient permettent de prévoir la probabilité de contamination dans l'avenir.Objectif : Estimer la probabilité de cas présentant un génotype similaire dans le même conté et dans une période de 2 ans suivant le cas index.Schéma : Nous avons étudié tous les cas de TB avec génotypage déclarés aux Etats-Unis entre 2004 et 2010. Les scores prédictifs ont été calculés en fonction des caractéristiques du patient en divisant le nombre de patients qui n'étaient pas le dernier cas d'un groupement de génotypes au niveau d'un conté par le nombre total de patients.Résultats : Le risque global de nouveau cas lié à un autre cas était de 30,8% pendant les 2 années suivant l'année de déclaration de tout nouveau cas. Ces contaminations ont été détectées dans 34,7% des circonstances après diagnostic d'un cas à frottis positif, 51,9%, après diagnostic d'un patient sans domicile fixe et 45,2%, après diagnostic d'un patient toxicomane. Les scores prédictifs variaient en fonction de l'ethnie (Blancs 13,9% ; Amérindiens/Hawaïens 43,8%), l'âge (>65 ans 13,1% ; 0–4 ans 43%) et étaient plus élevé chez les patients nés aux Etats-Unis.Conclusion: Les facteurs comportementaux et socio-démographiques peuvent contribuer à prévoir la probabilité d'infection de cas dans le futur et peuvent servir à prioriser les recherches de sujets contacts.

  5. Assessment of the quality of sample labelling for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huertas, Pablo; Tordera-Baviera, María; Martínez-Nieto, Concepción; Benito-Zazo, Natalia; García-Robles, Ana; Poveda-Andrés, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de las etiquetas de muestras para ensayos clínicos mediante la normativa vigente y analizar su posible correlación con las características específicas de cada muestra. Método: Estudio transversal multicéntrico en el que se analizaron las muestras de ensayos clínicos de dos hospitales de tercer nivel. Se estudió la presencia de los once ítems de la Directiva 2003/94/CE, el nombre del ensayo y la dosis en la portada de la etiqueta como variables de calidad del etiquetado. Se analizó la influencia de las características propias de la muestra con la calidad del etiquetado. Resultado: Se analizaron un total de 503 muestras de 220 ensayos. La calidad media del etiquetado, entendido como el porcentaje de ítems del Anexo 13, fue del 91,9%. El 6,6% no contenía el nombre de la muestra en la cara externa de la etiqueta, mientras que a un 9,7% les faltaba la dosis. Las muestras con presentación de tipo ensayo clínico presentaron mayor calidad (p < 0,049), el enmascaramiento disminuía la calidad (p = 0,017) y la identificación por número de kit o por paciente la aumentaban (p < 0,01). La variable promotor fue la que más variabilidad introdujo en el análisis. Conclusiones: La calidad media del etiquetado es adecuada en la mayoría de las muestras del ensayo clínico. Resulta preocupante la ausencia de información esencial, como el código del ensayo clínico y el período de validez, en algunas muestras que pueden ser fuente potencial de errores de dispensación o de administración.

  6. Emerging and Reemeriging Human Bunyavirus Infections and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Laura J.; Anyamba, Assaf; LaBeaud, A. Desiree

    2013-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. Many of these viruses cause severe clinical outcomes in human and animal populations, the results of which can be detrimental to public health and the economies of affected communities. The threat to endemic and non-native regions is particularly high, and national and international public health agencies are often on alert. Many of the bunyaviruses cause severe clinical disease including hemorrhage, organ failure, and death leading to their high-risk classification. Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, a classification that includes many bunyaviruses, are immediately notifiable in the European Union. The emergence of new and reemerging bunyaviruses has resulted in numerous human and animal fatalities. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa (1997/1998, 2006/2007), Sudan (2007), Southern Africa (2008-2010), Kenya (1997/1998, 2006/2007) (Anyamba et al., 2009, 2010; Breiman et al., 2010; Grobbelaar et al., 2011; Woods et al., 2002) and Saudi Arabia & Yemen (2000, 2010) (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2000; Hjelle and Glass, 2000; Madani et al., 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. Climate variability (precipitation and temperature in particular) greatly influence the ecological conditions that drive arboviral disease outbreaks across the globe. Several human and animal disease outbreaks have been influenced by changes in climate associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon including the bunyaviruses RVFV and Sin

  7. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert(®) MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Baral, S; Shrestha, P; Puri, M; Kandel, S; Lamichanne, B; Elsey, H; Brouwer, M; Goel, S; Chinnakali, P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Vingt-deux districts du Népal où des activités intensifiées de recherche des cas (ICF) de la tuberculose (TB) ont été mises en œuvre au sein de groupes à risque sous l'égide du projet TB REACH en collaboration avec le programme national TB entre juillet 2013 et novembre 2015.Objectifs : Evaluer le rendement du dépistage de la TB grâce à un algorithme basé sur la microscopie de frottis suivie d'un test Xpert(®) MTB/RIF.Schéma : Etude descriptive basée sur des données recueillies en routine.Résultats : Sur un total de 145 679 individus dépistés, 28 574 (19,6%) ont été présumés atteints de TB ; 1239 (4,3%) d'entre eux ont eu une confirmation du diagnostic de TB ; parmi ces derniers, 1195 (96%) ont mis en route un traitement anti-tuberculose. Le rendement a été le plus élevé parmi les personnes vivant avec le virus l'immunodéficience humaine (PVVIH) (6,1%) suivies par les contacts domiciliaires (3,5%) et les habitants des bidonvilles (0,5%). Dans d'autres groupes à risque comme les prisonniers, les travailleurs d'usine, les réfugiés et les diabétiques, le rendement a été inférieur à 0,5%. Le nombre de personnes à dépister (NNS) pour diagnostiquer un cas de TB active a été de 17 pour les PVVIH, de 29 pour les contacts domiciliaires et de 197 pour les habitants des bidonvilles urbains. Sur 11 525 patients émanant soit du programme ICF soit du dépistage de routine, 112 (1%) ont eu un diagnostic de TB multirésistante.Conclusion : Le rendement en termes de cas de TB dépistés parmi les groupes à risque comme les PVVIH et les contacts domiciliaires a été substantiel. Même si ce rendement a été modeste parmi les habitants des bidonvilles, ceux-ci justifient néanmoins une intervention en raison de leur nombre élevé et de leur médiocre accès aux soins.

  8. La violence sur les réseaux canadiens de télévision

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Guy

    2003-01-01

    La question des effets de la violence à la télévision occupe une place très importante dans l’opinion publique depuis les vingt dernières années, et des centaines d’études y ont été consacrées. Plusieurs chercheurs concluent à une influence négative de cette violence sur le comportement. Le public, les diffuseurs et les autorités politiques ont tous endossé l’idée de réduire la quantité totale de violence présentée au petit écran – en particulier dans les émissions accessibles aux enfants. Nous avons analysé un millier d’émissions de fiction présentées entre 1993 et 2001 sur les principaux réseaux généralistes de télévision au Canada : TVA et TQS ainsi que CTV et Global pour les réseaux privés français et anglais, ainsi que Radio-Canada français et anglais pour les réseaux publics. La méthodologie utilisée est l’analyse de contenu classique, où l’acte de violence constitue l’unité d’analyse. Les données recueillies démontrent que la quantité de violence a augmenté régulièrement depuis 1993, malgré la volonté affirmée des télédiffuseurs de présenter une programmation moins violente. C’est le cas du nombre brut d’actes et du nombre d’actes à l’heure, qui est lui aussi en forte croissance. Les réseaux privés véhiculent trois fois plus de violence que les réseaux publics. On constate également qu’une très forte proportion d’actes de violence figure dans des émissions qui commencent avant 21 h, et que de nombreux enfants y sont probablement exposés. Nous signalons finalement la place de plus en plus importante occupée par la violence psychologique. PMID:20020031

  9. Manipulation coherente de qubits de spin dans une boite quantique triple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudreau, Louis

    Nous presentons dans cette these une etude detaillee du moment magnetique intrinseque de l'electron, i.e. le spin electronique, incluant la manipulation quantique coherente des etats de spin de trois electrons couples. A cette fin, nous utilisons des boites quantiques laterales pour confiner les electrons. Ces nano-structures, d'une grandeur autour de 1 pm, permettent de confiner un nombre precis d'electrons de facon controlee, allant jusqu'a zero electrons. Les developpements technologiques et d'ingeniosite durant la derniere decennie ont permis de coupler trois boites quantiques, ainsi l'interaction entre plusieurs electrons confines peut etre controlee comme par exemple le couplage quantique tunnel et l'interaction d'echange entre les spins de chacun d'entre eux. A l'aide de boites quantiques couplees, il est possible de realiser des experiences dans plusieurs domaines de la physique moderne : les etats up et down du spin des electrons confines peuvent etre utilisees comme etats quantiques binaires (qubits) dans le domaine de l'informatique quantique, la non-localite quantique peut etre testee en separant spatialement deux electrons enchevetres, il est possible de creer des 'courants de spin enchevetres' utiles en spintronique, et bien d'autres. La manipulation coherente des etats de spin du systeme a trois electrons se fait de facon purement electrique grace a des pulses a haute frequence qui permettent d'augmenter le couplage entre les electrons et de faire la mesure de l'etat resultant apres la manipulation. Nous utilisons l'interaction hyperfine entre les spins des electrons et ceux des noyaux du cristal dans lequel ils resident pour creer les rotations quantiques entre les etats, notamment les etats |Q +3/2> et (D+1/2>. Les resultats obtenus indiquent un temps de coherence de l'ordre de 10 ns. Ces experiences demontrent un niveau de controle sans precedant de boites quantiques triples et pavent la voie vers des nano-structures plus sophistiquees dans

  10. Modern techniques for the study of electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Werner; Turq, Pierre; Barthel, Josef

    In the last decade a variety of new or optimized techniques considerably enriched our knowledge about electrolyte solutions. In the present review we discuss some of these techniques which are applied to aqueous as well as non-aqueous solutions. Among the theoretical approaches computer simulations and numerical or analytical equations based on statistical mechanics are particularly powerful. The field of experimental methods is even more vast. We selected four examples: an efficient technique for the determination of free energy data, neutron scattering experiments for the direct access to structural data, dielectric measurements as an example of a spectroscopic method and recent developments in the field of electrolyte diffusion as an example of transport properties. Finally we show an example of a data compilation which covers a wide range of properties of a great number of electrolyte solutions. Dans les années 80, la connaissance des propriétés des solutions électrolytiques s'est considérablement élargie par l'apparition de techniques nouvelles ou l'optimisation de techniques plus anciennes. Dans cet article, nous en discutons quelquesunes qui sont appliquées à des solutions aqueuses et non-aqueuses. Parmi les approches théoriques, les simulations par ordinateur et les équations basées sur la méchaniquestatistique sont particulièrement puissantes. En ce qui concerne les méthodes expérimentales, le nombre de techniques est encore plus grand. Nous avons choisi quatre exemples: une technique bien adaptée à la détermination de l'énergie libre, la diffusion de neutron pour la détermination directe de la structure d'une solution, des mesures diélectriques comme exemple d'une méthode spectroscopique et des développements recents dans le domaine de la diffusion des électrolytes. A la fin, nous montrons un exemple d'une banque de données qui contient un grand nombre de propriétés d'une multitude d'électrolytes.

  11. Les campagnes de dépistage du VIH, une stratégie efficace pour l’accès universel à la prévention et au traitement ? L’expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, J.F.; Desclaux, A.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Lougué, M.; Kéré, S.; Obermeyer, C.; Simaga, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectifs l’augmentation du taux de personnes qui connaissent leur statut VIH est un impératif, notamment en Afrique subsaharienne, ce qui impose d’évaluer les stratégies utilisées pour accroître la fréquentation des services de dépistage. Cet article vise à faire le bilan de la pertinence, de la faisabilité et de l’efficacité des campagnes nationales de dépistagemenées entre 2006 et 2010 au Burkina Faso. Méthodologie une analyse de toutes les données de fréquentation du conseil dépistage sur cette période a été faite, couplée à des entretiens avec les principaux acteurs intervenant dans le dépistage. Résultats les résultats montrent que les huit campagnes de dépistage organisées sur la période ont permis à 487 727 personnes de faire leur test VIH. Ce nombre représente 50 % du nombre total de personnes ayant fait leur test et contribue à hauteur de 24,6 % au dépistage des personnes séropositives identifiées au cours de cette période. Les campagnes ont touché des populations difficiles à atteindre (en particulier les jeunes), à un coût moindre. Conclusions cette stratégie est donc pertinente pour identifier les personnes VIH+. Son intérêt pour la prévention, important selon les soignants et au vu des populations jeunes qui y participent, devrait être mesuré par des études complémentaires. Les campagnes sont efficaces et coût-efficaces même dans un pays de niveau de prévalence faible. Ces résultats soulignent l’intérêt de la synergie entre les associations et les services de santé dans l’offre de services de conseil et dépistage. PMID:24681563

  12. Patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus: préfèrent-ils traiter le diabète ou l'hypertension artérielle?

    PubMed Central

    Aassri, Hind El; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2014-01-01

    Les diabétologues sont confrontés à des diabétiques le plus souvent hypertendus et polypathologiques, les rendant peu observants des différentes thérapeutiques prescrites. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer l'observance au traitement chez les patients diabétiques hypertendus. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective transversale. La population est faite de patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus vus aux urgences, à la consultation ou hospitalisés au service d'Endocrinologie. L’échantillon est non probabiliste. La population est faite de 61 patients, d'un âge moyen de 48,9 ans avec une hypertension (HTA) de type systolique dans 59%, diastolique dans 16% et systolo-diastolique dans 25% des cas. Les patients sont équilibrés sur le plan glycémique dans 65% des cas, alors que l’équilibre tensionnel n'est atteint que dans 41% des cas. En ce qui concerne l'observance thérapeutique, 24% des patients sont observant totalement au traitement prescrit, 33% ne sont pas observant au traitement et 43% ont une observance partielle au traitement dont 73.68% préfèrent le traitement destiné au diabète et 26,32% prennent le traitement anti hypertenseur. Les facteurs altérant l'observance au traitement médicamenteux sont un surcoût du traitement un nombre élevé de médicaments prescrits, un nombre important de prises quotidiennes de médicaments, une intolérance au traitement et une mauvaise information du patient sur la justification du traitement. Enfin, les patients diabétiques hypertendus sont classés comme patients à haut risque cardiovasculaire ce qui impose l'application de stratégies thérapeutiques parfois lourdes. Cette polymédication entrave la qualité de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ayant une pathologie chronique dont la compliance au traitement constitue la pierre angulaire de la prise en charge, et ce pour plusieurs raisons en particulier d'ordre économique. PMID:25396019

  13. Active and passive case detection strategies for the control of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, A K; Harries, A D; Hinderaker, S G; Zachariah, R; Ahmed, B; Shah, G N; Khogali, M A; Das, G I; Ahmed, E M; Ritmeijer, K

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Deux sous-districts du Bangladesh, Fulbaria et Trishai, où la leishmaniose est hyper-endémique.Objectif : Déterminer 1) le nombre de patients ayant eu un diagnostic de leishmaniose viscérale (VL) et de leishmaniose dermique post-kala azar (PKDL) grâce à une stratégie de détection active des cas (ACD) à Fulbaria et à une stratégie de détection passive (PCD) à Trishai, et 2) le temps écoulé entre les symptômes et le diagnostic dans le sous-district à ACD.Schéma : Etude descriptive transversale des patients diagnostiqués entre mai 2010 et décembre 2011. La stratégie ACD comportait une éducation des communautés et des stratégies avancées ciblant les foyers des patients index grâce à un dépistage basé sur les symptômes et au test rK-39 pour les patients suspects.Résultats : Dans les districts de stratégie ACD (Fulbaria) et le sous-district de stratégie PCD (Trishai), 1088 et 756 patients respectivement ont eu un diagnostic de VL et 1145 et 37 respectivement ont eu un diagnostic de PKDL. Dans ce sous-district, le délai médian de diagnostic était de 60 jours pour tous les patients atteints de VL, qu'ils soient référés par du personnel des stratégies avancées ou viennent d'eux-mêmes. Il était respectivement de 345 et 360 jours pour la PKDL.Conclusion : Une stratégie ACD au niveau d'un sous-district permet de dépister un nombre accru de VL et encore plus de PKDL. Comme la PKDL constitue un réservoir d'infection, la stratégie d'ACD et le traitement des cas dépistés peuvent contribuer à l'élimination régionale de la leishmaniose du sous-continent indien.

  14. Écologie des soins de santé au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de santé et de leur utilisation, facile d’accès et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec d’autres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux d’utilisation des soins de santé entre les provinces en utilisant des données d’enquêtes et des renseignements administratifs sur la santé. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise santé (présence de problèmes chroniques) et d’utilisation des soins de santé (contacts avec des médecins de famille, avec d’autres médecins spécialistes, avec des infirmières et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalisées en fonction de l’âge et du genre. Résultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant d’au moins 1 problème chronique variait de 524 au Québec à 638 en Nouvelle-Écosse; les contacts avec un médecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Québec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec d’autres médecins spécialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmières se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Québec. Le nombre de séjours à l’hôpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions étaient semblables d’une province à l’autre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnaître les distinctions entre les provinces pour éclairer les politiques sur la santé dans l’ensemble du pays. Les différences persistaient lorsque les taux étaient normalisés en fonction de la composition démographique variable selon l’âge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article présente une méthodologie simple à l’aide de données publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province à examiner, à l’avenir, l

  15. Screening retreatment tuberculosis patients for drug resistance in mid-west Nepal: how well are we doing?

    PubMed

    Tharu, M B; Harries, A D; Goel, S; Srivastava, S; Kumar, A M V; Adhikari, M; Shrestha, B; Maharjan, B; Khadka, H

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : La tuberculose multi-résistante (TB-MDR, définie comme une résistance à l'isoniazide et à la rifampicine) est mal détectée au Népal; une des raisons pourrait être le mauvais fonctionnement des services de culture et de tests de sensibilité aux médicaments (CDST) pour les tuberculeux en retraitement.Objectifs : Déterminer parmi les patients tuberculeux du Centre Ouest du Népal 1) le nombre de patients enregistrés pour un traitement de juillet 2011 à juillet 2012; 2) le nombre de patients ayant eu un examen de crachats pour CSDT au laboratoire central de référence (CRL) à Katmandou ainsi que les résultats; et 3) le délai de fourniture et de réception des échantillons.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte par revue des registres de traitement et de laboratoire du centre de référence de la TB Nepalgunj et du CRL.Résultats : Sur 431 patients en retraitement, 66 ont fourni des échantillons de crachats dont 63 (15% du total) sont parvenus au CRL. Parmi eux, 39 (62%) étaient positifs; 13 patients (33%) avaient une TB-MDR. Les résultats du CDST sont parvenus au centre de référence de la TB pour 19 patients. Le délai médian entre l'envoi des échantillons et la réception des résultats au centre de référence de la TB était de 119 jours.Conclusion : Dans le Centre Ouest du Népal, moins de 10% des patients ont eu des résultats d'examens de CSDT, ce qui induisait un sous-diagnostic de la TB-MDR dans cette région. Il est urgent de trouver des solutions à ce problème.

  16. Cancer pulmonaire: parcours de soins au service de radiothérapie à l'institut national d'oncologie de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Lachgar, Amine; Sahli, Nadir; Toulba, Ahmedou; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est d'expliquer la discordance entre le nombre important de patients présentant un cancer du poumon localement avancé demandeurs de consultations en service de radiothérapie et le faible nombre de patients effectivement traité. Il s'agit d'une étude décrivant le circuit de soins des patients admis au service de radiothérapie de l'Institut national d'oncologie de Rabat entre le premier mars 2011 et le 29 février 2012 pour la prise en charge d'un cancer du poumon inopérable et/ou non résécable. On a utilisé pour la collecte des données les dossiers cliniques, le registre des nouveaux patients du bureau des admissions de l'institut ainsi que les registres des rendez-vous de consultation et de traitement du service de radiothérapie. 117 patients ont été collectés. Le stade de la maladie n'a pu être déterminé que chez 102 patients, on a ainsi trouvé 53 cancers non métastatiques et 49 cancers métastatiques. Chez les patients avec un cancer non métastatique une radiothérapie palliative a été réalisée chez 9 patients, chez 2 patients la radiothérapie a été contre indiquée, une chimiothérapie néo-adjuvante a été réalisée chez 7 patients et la radio-chimiothérapie concomitante d'emblée fut proposée à 35 patients, mais 34 patients seulement ont pu avoir leur première séance de radiothérapie à visée curative. Cette étude nous a permis de décrire le circuit de soins de nos patients en repérant les points critiques, auxquels on propose des mesures correctives. PMID:26523190

  17. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  18. Investigation experimentale de l'ecoulement et des performances thermiques du nanofluide eau-oxyde de cuivre dans un Micro-Canal Chauffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbault, Benjamin

    Cette these de maitrise presentee par articles visait a etudier le comportement hydraulique et thermique d'un ecoulement de nanofluides en micro-canal chauffe. Nous avons etudie premierement de l'eau distillee, ensuite des melanges de particules d'oxyde de cuivre (taille 29nm) avec de l'eau distillee en concentrations particulaires volumiques 4.5%, 1.03%, et 0.24% (CuO-H2O). L'ecoulement force des differents fluides a ete realise au moyen de pompes a engrenages au sein d'un circuit ferme, comprenant un micro-canal a section rectangulaire (e=1.116mm,1=25.229mm) chauffe sur deux faces paralleles via des cartouches electriques, deux echangeurs de chaleurs en serie, ainsi qu'un debitmetre magnetique. A notre connaissance peu d'etudes sur l'ecoulement de nanofluides d'oxyde de cuivre-eau en micro-canal rectangulaire chauffe sont disponibles dans la litterature, cette recherche sert de contribution. Premierement, une validation avec la litterature a ete effectuee pour le cas d'un ecoulement d'eau entre plaques planes paralleles chauffees. Des essais hydrauliques ont ete realises pour une gamme du nombre de Reynolds allant jusqu'a Re=5000 a temperature constante. Par la suite des essais thermiques jusqu'a Re=2500 ont consiste en une elevation de temperature fixe (20.5°C a 30.5°C) a travers la longueur du micro-canal sous un regime stationnaire. Les resultats ont demontre une augmentation de la perte de pression et du coefficient de frottement des nanofluides sur l'eau pour un meme debit. Une telle augmentation de perte de pression etait de +70%, +25%, et +0 a 30% respectivement pour les concentrations 4.50%, 1.03%, et 0.24%. Concernant la transition laminaire a turbulent les comportements semblaient indiquer une valeur critique semblable entre l'eau et les differentes concentrations avec et sans chauffage a un nombre de Reynolds critique Rem 1000. Nous avons observe une legere augmentation du coefficient de convection thermique avec le debit massique pour les faibles

  19. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Chapitre 1 : Contraception au Canada Déclarations sommaires  1. Les Canadiennes sont exposées à des risques de grossesse non planifiée pendant une partie considérable de leur vie. (II-2)  2. Les modes efficaces de contraception sont sous-utilisés au Canada, particulièrement au sein des populations vulnérables. (II-2)  3. Les modes de contraception réversible à action prolongée, dont les implants contraceptifs et la contraception intra-utérine (dispositifs / systèmes à libération de cuivre ou de lévonorgestrel), sont les modes de contraception réversible les plus efficaces; de plus, ils comptent les taux les plus élevés de poursuite du traitement. (II-1)  4. Au Canada à l’heure actuelle, nous ne recueillons pas de données fiables qui permettraient d’établir le taux d’utilisation des modes de contraception, le taux d’avortement et la prévalence des grossesses non planifiées chez les femmes en âge de procréer. (II-2)  5. L’octroi d’une subvention universelle destinée aux modes de contraception, à l’instar de bon nombre d’autres pays et de quelques provinces canadiennes, pourrait générer des économies pour le système de santé. (II-2)  6. Dans le cas des contraceptifs, les processus d’homologation de Santé Canada ont été moins efficaces que ceux d’autres organismes d’homologation, en plus d’être moins efficaces que les processus qu’elle a elle-même mis en vigueur en ce qui concerne d’autres catégories de produits pharmaceutiques. (II-2)  7. L’offre de contraceptifs et de services de planification familiale par des professionnels paramédicaux (tels que les sages-femmes, les infirmières autorisées, les infirmières praticiennes et les pharmaciens) ayant bénéficié d’une formation adéquate est faisable et sûre. (II-2) Recommandations  1. Les services de counseling traitant de la contraception

  20. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Chapitre 1 : Contraception au Canada Déclarations sommaires  1. Les Canadiennes sont exposées à des risques de grossesse non planifiée pendant une partie considérable de leur vie. (II-2)  2. Les modes efficaces de contraception sont sous-utilisés au Canada, particulièrement au sein des populations vulnérables. (II-2)  3. Les modes de contraception réversible à action prolongée, dont les implants contraceptifs et la contraception intra-utérine (dispositifs / systèmes à libération de cuivre ou de lévonorgestrel), sont les modes de contraception réversible les plus efficaces; de plus, ils comptent les taux les plus élevés de poursuite du traitement. (II-1)  4. Au Canada à l’heure actuelle, nous ne recueillons pas de données fiables qui permettraient d’établir le taux d’utilisation des modes de contraception, le taux d’avortement et la prévalence des grossesses non planifiées chez les femmes en âge de procréer. (II-2)  5. L’octroi d’une subvention universelle destinée aux modes de contraception, à l’instar de bon nombre d’autres pays et de quelques provinces canadiennes, pourrait générer des économies pour le système de santé. (II-2)  6. Dans le cas des contraceptifs, les processus d’homologation de Santé Canada ont été moins efficaces que ceux d’autres organismes d’homologation, en plus d’être moins efficaces que les processus qu’elle a elle-même mis en vigueur en ce qui concerne d’autres catégories de produits pharmaceutiques. (II-2)  7. L’offre de contraceptifs et de services de planification familiale par des professionnels paramédicaux (tels que les sages-femmes, les infirmières autorisées, les infirmières praticiennes et les pharmaciens) ayant bénéficié d’une formation adéquate est faisable et sûre. (II-2) Recommandations  1. Les services de counseling traitant de la contraception

  1. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  2. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  3. [The possible causes of the tragedy of "Port Famine" in the Strait of Magellan].

    PubMed

    Espinoza G, Juan Pablo; Espinoza G, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    The attempts to colonize the Strait of Magellan soon followed the discovery of this route. PeDro Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Spanish sailor, established human settlements to fortify those lands and control the transit of vessels, especially those of English corsairs, which devastated Chilean and Peruvian coasts. During the summer of 1584, approximately 500 soldiers, artisans, priests, women and children established two villages called "Nombre de Jesús" and "Rey Don Felipe". From the beginning, these settlers had leadership and communication problems and difficulties to obtain food. After three winters only 17 to 18 people survived according to the testimony of one of the survivors, that was rescued by an English sailor named Cavendish, which renamed the village "Rey Don Felipe" as "Port Famine". When he observed the scenes of abandonment and death, he supposed that the settlers died due to lack of food. Other factors that facilitated the desolation were hypothermia, execution, anthropophagy and lesions caused by natives. There is also a possibility that intoxication by red tide (harmful algal bloom) could explain in part the finding of unburied corpses in the strait beaches.

  4. The role of behavioural heterogeneity on infection patterns: implications for pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Dizney, Laurie; Dearing, M Denise

    2013-11-01

    Animals infected with pathogens often differ in behaviour from their uninfected counterparts, and these differences may be key to understanding zoonotic pathogen transmission. To explore behavioural heterogeneity and its role in pathogen transmission, we studied deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, under field conditions. Deer mice are the natural host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a zoonotic pathogen with high human mortality. We live-trapped mice in May, July and September of 2009 and 2010, marked captures with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, recorded physical characteristics and collected blood samples for SNV analysis. For 4 nights after each trapping session, we observed behaviour with a novel surveillance system of nine camera stations, each consisting of a foraging tray, infrared camera, PIT antenna and data logger. We found that deer mice infected with SNV (30.0%) engaged more frequently in behaviours that increased the probability of intraspecific encounters and SNV transmission than did uninfected deer mice. When deer mice were categorized as bold (31.7%) or shy (68.3%) based on these behaviours, bold behaviour was predictive of positive SNV status. Bold deer mice were three times more likely to be infected with SNV than were shy deer mice. These results suggest that a small percentage of bold individuals are responsible for a majority of SNV transmission events, and that behavioural phenotype is an important consideration in transmission dynamics of zoonotic diseases. PMID:24319292

  5. The role of behavioural heterogeneity on infection patterns: implications for pathogen transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dizney, Laurie; Dearing, M. Denise

    2013-01-01

    Animals infected with pathogens often differ in behaviour from their uninfected counterparts, and these differences may be key to understanding zoonotic pathogen transmission. To explore behavioural heterogeneity and its role in pathogen transmission, we studied deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, under field conditions. Deer mice are the natural host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a zoonotic pathogen with high human mortality. We live-trapped mice in May, July and September of 2009 and 2010, marked captures with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, recorded physical characteristics and collected blood samples for SNV analysis. For 4 nights after each trapping session, we observed behaviour with a novel surveillance system of nine camera stations, each consisting of a foraging tray, infrared camera, PIT antenna and data logger. We found that deer mice infected with SNV (30.0%) engaged more frequently in behaviours that increased the probability of intraspecific encounters and SNV transmission than did uninfected deer mice. When deer mice were categorized as bold (31.7%) or shy (68.3%) based on these behaviours, bold behaviour was predictive of positive SNV status. Bold deer mice were three times more likely to be infected with SNV than were shy deer mice. These results suggest that a small percentage of bold individuals are responsible for a majority of SNV transmission events, and that behavioural phenotype is an important consideration in transmission dynamics of zoonotic diseases. PMID:24319292

  6. Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Romo, Hannah E.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Iñiguez-Dávalos, L. Ignacio; Bradley, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    To increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in Mexico, we tested 876 cricetid rodents captured in 18 Mexican states (representing at least 44 species in the subfamily Neotominae and 10 species in the subfamily Sigmodontinae) for anti-hantavirus IgG. We found antibodies against hantavirus in 35 (4.0%) rodents. Nucleotide sequence data from 5 antibody-positive rodents indicated that Sin Nombre virus (the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [HPS] in the United States) is enzootic in the Mexican states of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. However, HPS has not been reported from these states, which suggests that in northeastern Mexico, HPS has been confused with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory diseases. Analyses of nucleotide sequence data from 19 other antibody-positive rodents indicated that El Moro Canyon virus and Limestone Canyon virus are geographically widely distributed in Mexico. PMID:22469569

  7. Modèle de comportement dynamique d'un matériau en présence de l'endommagement par cisaillement adiabatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longère, P.; Dragon, A.; Trumel, H.; de Resseguier, T.; Deprince, X.; Petitpas, E.

    2002-12-01

    L'objectif industriel du travail dans lequel s'inscrit ce papier est la simulation numérique de la réponse de structures à l'impact. Or, pour un grand nombre de matériaux métalliques à haute résistance soumis à des sollicitations à grande vitesse, le cisaillement adiabatique constitue un processus endommageant conduisant souvent à la ruine par macrofissuration. Nous présentons ici un modèle continu qui, construit sur des bases thermodynamiques, rend compte du comportement thermo-élasto/viscoplastique du matériau sain et de l'anisotropie mécanique (dégradation directionnelle des modules élastiques et viscoplastiques induite par la présence des bandes de cisaillement adiabatique dans le matériau endommagé. Dans notre démarche de modélisation qui tend à refléter les constats expérimentaux, la population de bandes est représentée par une variable tensorielle d'endommagement au sein d'un matériau homogène équivalent. Le modèle est formulé dans le cadre des transformations finies élasto-plastiques avec prise en compte de l'anisotropie induite. Sa particularisation au cas des petites perturbations est illustrée pour certains processus homogènes.

  8. The Syrian hamster model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a relatively rare, but frequently fatal disease associated with New World hantaviruses, most commonly Sin Nombre and Andes viruses in North and South America, respectively. It is characterized by fever and the sudden, rapid onset of severe respiratory distress and cardiogenic shock, which can be fatal in up to 50% of cases. Currently there are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of HPS. A major obstacle in the development of effective medical countermeasures against highly pathogenic agents like the hantaviruses is recapitulating the human disease as closely as possible in an appropriate and reliable animal model. To date, the only animal model that resembles HPS in humans is the Syrian hamster model. Following infection with Andes virus, hamsters develop HPS-like disease which faithfully mimics the human condition with respect to incubation period and pathophysiology of disease. Perhaps most importantly, the sudden and rapid onset of severe respiratory distress observed in humans also occurs in hamsters. The last several years has seen an increase in studies utilizing the Andes virus hamster model which have provided unique insight into HPS pathogenesis as well as potential therapeutic and vaccine strategies to treat and prevent HPS. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of HPS disease progression in Syrian hamsters and discuss the suitability of utilizing this model to evaluate potential medical countermeasures against HPS. PMID:22705798

  9. Sequence analysis of the complete S genomic segment of a newly identified hantavirus isolated from the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): phylogenetic relationship with other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, J W; Baek, L J; Gavrilovskaya, I N; Mackow, E R; Hjelle, B; Yanagihara, R

    1996-01-01

    Four Corners (FC) or Sin Nombre virus, a hantavirus harbored by the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Recently, a hantavirus, designated New York (NY) virus, isolated from a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) captured on Shelter Island, New York, was molecularly linked to a fatal case of HPS occurring in the northeastern United States. To clarify the genetic and phylogenetic relationship between NY and FC viruses and other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses, we amplified and sequenced the entire S genomic segment of NY virus. The S segment of NY virus was 2078 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame of 1284 nucleotides in the virus complementary strand, capable of encoding a protein of 428 amino acids, and with a 752-nucleotide long 3'-noncoding region, comprised of numerous imperfect repeats. Pairwise analysis indicated that NY virus was more similar to FC virus than to other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses, differing from strains of FC virus by 16.6-17.8% and 7.0-8.2% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. As determined by the maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods, NY virus formed a separate lineage from FC virus and was phylogenetically distinct from hantaviruses harbored by other sigmodontine rodents. Whether or not NY and FC viruses represent distinct viral species is unclear. Further analyses of hantaviruses harbored by white-footed mice are needed to clarify the genetic diversity and evolution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses.

  10. Modélisation des effets de la photoabsorption K sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrigneaud, J. M.; Terrissol, M.

    1999-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate the transport of photons and their secondary electrons produced on a linear and hydrated DNA model. Between 150 and 550eV, the variation of photon cross section upon the K-ionisation threshold in C, N, O atoms of DNA is responsible for an increase of the biological effectiveness. We showed that, with the same number of absorbed photons, the distribution of breaks as a function of energy reaches a maximum around 450eV. Nous avons simulé le transport des photons et de leurs électrons secondaires mis en mouvement dans un modèle d'ADN linéaire hydraté, en utilisant la méthode de Monte Carlo. Entre 150 et 550 eV, la variation de section efficace photonique au- dessus du seuil d'ionisation K des atomes C, N, O de l'ADN est responsable d'un accroissement de l'efficacité biologique. Nous avons montré que, pour un même nombre de photons absorbés, la distribution des cassures en fonction de l'énergie passe par un maximum autour de 450 eV.

  11. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: epidemiology, prevention, and case presentation of a new viral strain.

    PubMed

    Stelzel, W

    1996-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a viral infection from a new strain of Hantavirus. The Hantavirus was first discovered in North America in 1993 after an outbreak of fatal illness on a Navajo Indian reservation in New Mexico. Since then, 122 cases of HPS (with a high mortality rate of more than 50%) have been reported in 23 states, with the highest prevalence in the Four Corners area. The reservoir for Hantavirus is small rodents, mostly field mice, vole, and chipmunks. It is transmitted through inhalation of airborne virus from dry rodent excreta and saliva. A North American strain of Hantavirus, named ain nombre virus (SNV), primarily affects the lungs, causing rapid accumulation of fluids and leading to noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the prodromal stage, HPS presents with flu-like symptoms, nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal pain and is often mistaken on the first visit for other infectious diseases or gastroenteritis. In the second acute stage, rapid respiratory deterioration begins: HPS is often misdiagnosed for pneumonia, idiopathic ARDS, and pulmonary edema. HPS treatment with an experimental antiviral intravenous drug, ribavirin, is under investigation. Practitioners must possess through clinical knowledge on the diagnoses, pathology, treatment, and course of the disease to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate of this rare but serious infection. A case report based on a recent HPS death in New York State on Long island in April 1995 is presented. PMID:8784877

  12. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  13. Identification of Dobrava, Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala viruses by one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Aitichou, Mohamed; Saleh, Sharron S; McElroy, Anita K; Schmaljohn, C; Ibrahim, M Sofi

    2005-03-01

    We developed four assays for specifically identifying Dobrava (DOB), Hantaan (HTN), Puumala (PUU), and Seoul (SEO) viruses. The assays are based on the real-time one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the small segment used as the target sequence. The detection limits of DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 25, 25, 25, and 12.5 plaque-forming units, respectively. The assays were evaluated in blinded experiments, each with 100 samples that contained Andes, Black Creek Canal, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Sin Nombre viruses in addition to DOB, HTN, PUU and SEO viruses. The sensitivity levels of the DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 98%, 96%, 92% and 94%, respectively. The specificity of DOB, HTN and SEO assays was 100% and the specificity of the PUU assay was 98%. Because of the high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we believe that these assays can be useful for diagnosing and differentiating these four Old-World hantaviruses.

  14. Traitement intra-artériel des métastases hépatiques de cancer colorectal

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, O.; Geschwind, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer colorectal représente un problème majeur de santé publique. Son incidence annuelle mondiale est d’environ un million de cas et la mortalité annuelle est de plus de 500 000 cas par an. Le foie est l’organe le plus fréquemment touché par les métastases. Leur survenue est observée dans 40 à 60% des cas (contemporaines dans 25% des cas). Bien que la résection chirurgicale soit le seul traitement curatif, nombre de patients ne peuvent en bénéficier en raison de l’importante diffusion des métastases hépatiques. Chimiothérapies et biothérapies systémiques sont les options conventionnelles de la prise en charge des métastases hépatiques multiples. C’est dans ces situations cliniques que les thérapies intra-artérielles peuvent jouer un rôle important. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les différentes thérapies endovasculaires applicables aux métastases hépatiques de cancers colorectaux, avec leurs indications, résultats et complications éventuelles. PMID:21944243

  15. Design and manufacture of sputtered multilayers for applications to soft X-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdy, Ph.; Boher, P.

    1994-09-01

    Nanometer scale multilayers has been deposited using high vacuum diode rf sputtering chamber equipped with in situ kinetic ellipsometers. The influence of the composition, the roughness, the interface layer and the number of periods have been studied in order to optimize the stacks for soft X-ray reflection. The behaviour of the structures under thermal annealing has been observed. At last, gratings have been successfully manufactured. Des muticouches nanométriques ont été déposées par pulvérisation diode rf ultravide dans une chambre équipée d'ellipsomètres in situ. L'influence de la composition, de la rugosité, de la présence d'une couche d'interface et du nombre de périodes a été estimée afin d'optimiser les empilements pour la réflexion de rayons X mous. Le comportement de ces structures sous recuit thermique a été observé. Enfin des réseaux ont été réalisés avec succès.

  16. Dégénérescence Maculaire Liée à l' âge et Risque d' Accident Vasculaire Cérébral

    PubMed Central

    Biousse, Valérie; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Gaudric, Alain

    2010-01-01

    La dégénérescence maculaire liée à l' âge (DMLA) et les accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) affectent un nombre important de sujets de plus de 40 ans à travers le monde et contribuent largement aux dépenses de la santé. Les causes de la DMLA restent mystérieuses et de nombreuses études épidémiologiques ont suggéré une association entre DMLA et facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire associés aux AVC. Il a également été suggéré que les patients atteints de DMLA ont un risque plus important d' AVC que la population générale du même âge. Les arguments en faveur de cette association entre DMLA et AVC sont résumés dans cet article. PMID:18401309

  17. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  18. Comparison of innate immune responses to pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shim, So Hee; Park, Man-Seong; Moon, Sungsil; Park, Kwang Sook; Song, Jin-Won; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju

    2011-09-01

    Hantaviruses are human pathogens that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The mechanisms accounting for the differences in virulence between pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses are not well known. We have examined the pathogenesis of different hantavirus groups by comparing the innate immune responses induced in the host cell following infection by pathogenic (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, and Seoul virus) and putative non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill, Tula, and Thottapalayam virus) hantaviruses. Pathogenic hantaviruses were found to replicate more efficiently in interferon-competent A549 cells than putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses. The former also suppressed the expression of the interferon-β and myxovirus resistance protein genes, while the transcription level of both genes increased rapidly within 24 h post-infection in the latter. In addition, the induction level of interferon correlated with the activation level of interferon regulatory factor-3. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed differences are correlated with viral pathogenesis and further indicate that pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses differ in terms of early interferon induction via activation of the interferon regulatory factor-3 in infected host cells.

  19. Newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Mills, James N; Padula, Paula J; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Mendes, Wellington S; Santos, Elizabeth D; Araújo, Gisele C B; Martinez, Valeria P; Rosa, Jorge F S T; Edelstein, Alexis; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2005-01-01

    Following the occurrence of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Maranhao State, Brazil, rodents were trapped and rodent materials screened by ELISA for antibodies to Sin Nombre and Andes hantaviruses. Antibody-positive samples were tested by RT-PCR, amplified products were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparison with known hantaviruses. From 104 rodent blood samples collected (40 Bolomys lasiurus, 52 Holochilus sciureus, 12 Oligoryzomys fornesi, and one Proechimys guyannensis), 21 (20.2%) were antibody-positive (one B. lasiurus, five O. fornesi, and 15 H. sciureus). Hantavirus RNA was amplified by PCR from two O. fornesi and four H. sciureus. Viral sequencing identified two hantavirus genotypes. The genotype recovered from O. fornesi, is designated herein as Anajatuba (ANAJ) and the genotype recovered from H. sciureus is designated Rio Mearim (RIME). Phylogenetic analysis of a 643-nucleotide region of the N segment showed both viruses to be most closely related (94-96% nucleotide homology) to Río Mamoré virus, a virus associated with Oligoryzomys microtis in Bolivia and Peru, but not found in northern Brazil. O. fornesi was frequently captured in and around human dwellings. H. sciureus, is a semi-aquatic rodent captured only in remote areas rarely frequented by humans.

  20. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  1. Movements and diving behavior of internesting green turtles along Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gabriela S; Morreale, Stephen J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Paladino, Frank V; Piedra, Rotney; Spotila, James R

    2013-09-01

    Using satellite transmitters, we determined the internesting movements, spatial ecology and diving behavior of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting on Nombre de Jesús and Zapotillal beaches along the Pacific coast of northwestern Costa Rica. Kernel density analysis indicated that turtles spent most of their time in a particularly small area in the vicinity of the nesting beaches (50% utilization distribution was an area of 3 km(2) ). Minimum daily distance traveled during a 12 day internesting period was 4.6 ± 3.5 km. Dives were short and primarily occupied the upper 10 m of the water column. Turtles spent most of their time resting at the surface and conducting U-dives (ranging from 60 to 81% of the total tracking time involved in those activities). Turtles showed a strong diel pattern, U-dives mainly took place during the day and turtles spent a large amount of time resting at the surface at night. The lack of long-distance movements demonstrated that this area was heavily utilized by turtles during the nesting season and, therefore, was a crucial location for conservation of this highly endangered green turtle population. The unique behavior of these turtles in resting at the surface at night might make them particularly vulnerable to fishing activities near the nesting beaches. PMID:24020468

  2. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  3. Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama.

  4. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  5. Acides gras oméga-3 et dyslexie

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question À la lumière de la hausse du nombre d’enfants d’âge scolaire ayant reçu un diagnostic de dyslexie, quel est le rôle des suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 dans la prise en charge de cette affection? Réponse La dyslexie est le trouble d’apprentissage le plus répandu et elle est connue pour ses causes multifactorielles. De récentes données probantes pointent vers une corrélation entre le métabolisme défectueux des acides gras polyinsaturés et les troubles de neurodéveloppement, tels que la dyslexie. Bien que l’administration de suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 aux enfants dyslexiques ait fait l’objet d’études, les données probantes sont limitées. Les critères diagnostiques homogènes de dyslexie, les mesures objectives de carence en acides gras et la surveillance étroite de l’apport alimentaire ne sont que quelques-uns des facteurs pouvant améliorer la qualité de la recherche dans ce domaine.

  6. Application of MODIS GPP to Forecast Risk of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Based on Fluctuations in Reservoir Population Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehman, R.; Heinsch, F. A.; Mills, J. N.; Wagoner, K.; Running, S.

    2003-12-01

    Recent predictive models for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have used remotely sensed spectral reflectance data to characterize risk areas with limited success. We present an alternative method using gross primary production (GPP) from the MODIS sensor to estimate the effects of biomass accumulation on population density of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), the principal reservoir species for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of diagnosed HPS cases in North America are attributed to SNV, which is transmitted to humans through inhalation of excretions and secretions from infected rodents. A logistic model framework is used to evaluate MODIS GPP, temperature, and precipitation as predictors of P. maniculatus density at established trapping sites across the western United States. Rodent populations are estimated using monthly minimum number alive (MNA) data for 2000 through 2002. Both local meteorological data from nearby weather stations and 1.25 degree x 1 degree gridded data from the NASA DAO were used in the regression model to determine the spatial sensitivity of the response. MODIS eight-day GPP data (1-km resolution) were acquired and binned to monthly average and monthly sum GPP for 3km x 3km grids surrounding each rodent trapping site. The use of MODIS GPP to forecast HPS risk may result in a marked improvement over past reflectance-based risk area characterizations. The MODIS GPP product provides a vegetation dynamics estimate that is unique to disease models, and targets the fundamental ecological processes responsible for increased rodent density and amplified disease risk.

  7. Cutis verticis gyrata primitif essentiel, une affection cutanée rare: cas clinique et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Samira, Boukind; Meriem, Dlimi; Oumkeltoum, Elatiqi; Driss, Elamrani; Yassine, Benchamkha; Saloua, Ettalbi

    2014-01-01

    Le cutis verticis gyrata (CVG), du cuir chevelu, est une maladie rare et évolutive de la peau du scalp. Elle est caractérisée par une hypertrophie et une hyperlaxité cutanée formant des plis semblables aux gyri du cortex cérébral. Nous présentons le cas d'une patiente de 21 ans atteinte de CVG primitif essentiel, ayant débuté à l’âge de 8 ans, au niveau du scalp et était d'aggravation progressive. La malade présentait une déformation du scalp avec de nombreux plis longitudinaux et transversaux. Sa demande était motivée par une gêne sociale et esthétique. Une résection chirurgicale de l'excédent cutané dans un plan transversal et longitudinal était réalisée. Le traitement de cette maladie est chirurgical, par l'excision des plis cutanés et remise en tension du scalp. Le nombre et la localisation des incisions doivent préserver la vascularisation des lambeaux de scalp et tenir compte du caractère évolutif de cette pathologie. PMID:25922634

  8. Use of the comet assay to measure DNA damage in cells exposed to photosensitizers and gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouget, J.-P.; Ravanat, J.-L.; Douki, T.; Richard, M.-J.; Cadet, J.

    1999-01-01

    We used the comet assay associated with DNA-glycosylases to estimate DNA damage in cells exposed to gamma irradiation or photosensitized either with methylene blue or orange acridine. A calibration performed using irradiation allowed the measurement of the steady-state level and the yield of 8-oxodGuo as well as strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Nous avons utilisé la méthode des comètes associée à des ADN-glycosylases, pour estimer les dommages de l'ADN dans des cellules après l'exposition à un rayonnement gamma ou après photosensibilisation par le bleu de méthylène ou l'acridine orange. Une calibration de la méthode des comètes a permis de mesurer le niveau basal et les taux de formation de 8-oxodGuo ainsi que le nombre de cassures de brins et de sites alcali labiles.

  9. Découverte fortuite de quadruplets au cours d'un accouchement: illustration d'un cas à l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé (Cameroun)

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Dingom, Madye Ange Ngo; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Enow, Robinson Mbu

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent une grossesse de haut rang (quadruplés) dont le nombre de fœtus n'a été découvert que pendant l'accouchement par voie vaginale. Faute de moyens, la parturiente reçue en phase active du travail n'a pas pu bénéficier de la césarienne d'urgence indiquée pour présentation en siège du premier jumeau. Ce n'est qu'après l'accouchement du deuxième fœtus que les deux derniers quadruplés ont été successivement découverts. Les difficultés et les pièges contextuels de la prise en charge des grossesses multiples sont passés en revue. Ce cas rappelle au personnel des salles d'accouchement la possibilité d'erreur de diagnostique sur les résultats d'échographies présentés par les parturientes. PMID:25419323

  10. Consensus formalisé: recommandations de pratiques cliniques pour la prise en charge de la migraine du patient adulte africain

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mahmoud Ait Kaci; Haddad, Monia; Kouassi, Beugré; Ouhabi, Hamid; Serrie, Alain

    2016-01-01

    La migraine est une céphalée primaire (selon les derniers critères de l'International Headache Society) qui affecte environ 8% de la population africaine. Les femmes sont plus fréquemment touchées que les hommes et les crises apparaissent le plus souvent avant l’âge de 40 ans. Bien qu'un certain nombre de traitements, de mesure hygiéno-diététiques, et d'autres méthodes non pharmacologiques permettent de limiter l'intensité et la fréquence des crises, la prise en charge médicamenteuse de la crise de migraine est très souvent nécessaire. La disponibilité des traitements et l'accès aux soins diffèrent sur le continent africain et ont conduit à la réalisation du 1er consensus d'experts pour la prise en charge du patient adulte africain. Destiné aux praticiens, ce travail collaboratif multinational a pour objectif de fournir 16 recommandations de pratiques cliniques simples, fondées sur les preuves, et adaptées aux conditions de l'exercice médical en Afrique. PMID:27642420

  11. Modélisation macroscopique des milieux stratifiés conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matagne, E.; Conard, J. Ph.

    1997-11-01

    Many laminated structures are recognised in Electrotechnics : magnetic cores, flat conductors windings, slotted surfaces... These structures exhibit macroscopic properties, as magnetic than electric ones. This paper shows how these characteristics can be obtained by homogenisation. It deals with linear materials but taking into account the effect of eddy currents, as well on the macroscopic magnetic permeability as on the macroscopic electric conductivity, which become then complex numbers. An example of use of the macroscopic properties is provided. On peut identifier en électrotechnique de nombreuses structures stratifiées: noyaux magnétiques, bobinages formés de conducteurs plats, surfaces encochées... Ces structures présentent des propriétés macroscopiques tant magnétiques qu'électriques. Cet article montre comment ces caractéristiques peuvent être obtenues par homogénéisation. Il se limite au cas de matériaux linéaires mais en prenant en compte l'effet des courants de Foucault aussi bien sur la perméabilité magnétique macroscopique que sur la conductivité électrique macroscopique, grandeurs qui deviennent alors des nombres complexes. Un exemple d'utilisation des caractéristiques macroscopiques est fourni.

  12. Complete sequence of the genome of the human isolate of Andes virus CHI-7913: comparative sequence and protein structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Nicole D; Fernández, Jorge; Müller, Ilse; Martínez, Rodrigo; Galeno, Héctor; Villagra, Eliecer; Mora, Judith; Ramírez, Eugenio; Rosemblatt, Mario; Valenzuela, Pablo D

    2003-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the Chilean human isolate of Andes virus CHI-7913. The S, M, and L genome segment sequences of this isolate are 1,802, 3,641 and 6,466 bases in length, with an overall GC content of 38.7%. These genome segments code for a nucleocapsid protein of 428 amino acids, a glycoprotein precursor protein of 1,138 amino acids and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of 2,152 amino acids. In addition, the genome also has other ORFs coding for putative proteins of 34 to 103 amino acids. The encoded proteins have greater than 98% overall similarity with the proteins of Andes virus isolates AH-1 and Chile R123. Among other sequenced Hantavirus, CHI-7913 is more closely related to Sin Nombre virus, with an overall protein similarity of 92%. The characteristics of the encoded proteins of this isolate, such as hydrophobic domains, glycosylation sites, and conserved amino acid motifs shared with other Hantavirus and other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are identified and discussed.

  13. Identification and Mapping of the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence in the State of Chihuahua Assisted by ten ArcMap Based Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Pina, C.; Granados, A.; Goodell, P.

    2007-05-01

    Edwards Formation is a reef limestone that hosts one of the largest aquifers of the State of Texas. In 2004 the United States and Mexico signed an agreement intended to characterize and identify the shared binational underground resources. Texas Water Development Board Report 360 established for the Edwards Aquifer an area of more than 31,000 km2, half of which is in the State of Coahuila, Mexico (the agreement did not include the State of Chihuahua). This led to the idea that Chihuahua may also have hydrologic potential in the Edwards equivalent, where numerous large cavern systems are already recognized (Naica's Sword Cavern, and the Coyame, Nombre de Dios and Bocagrande Caverns). The objective of this study is to establish the existence, in the State of Chihuahua, of the stratigraphic sequence and geohydrologic properties such as faulting, sinkholes, and springs, within the Edwards equivalent. The Consejo de Recursos Minerales geologic map, INEGI's hydrologic study, petroleum, mining and hydrogeology studies of Chihuahua, and many others, constitute the database used. ArcMap is used to define the geologic framework and construct different thematic layers (structural, lithological, hydrological) that would aid in the identification of the stratigraphic sequence. The results show that all the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence (ESS) exists in Chihuahua; that there are isolated areas of groundwater production in eastern Chihuahua possibly from ESS but this is not well established. Overall the ESS presents an unusual opportunity as a potentially productive aquifer in the State of Chihuahua.

  14. Strategies of highly pathogenic RNA viruses to block dsRNA detection by RIG-I-like receptors: hide, mask, hit.

    PubMed

    Zinzula, Luca; Tramontano, Enzo

    2013-12-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is synthesized during the course of infection by RNA viruses as a byproduct of replication and transcription and acts as a potent trigger of the host innate antiviral response. In the cytoplasm of the infected cell, recognition of the presence of viral dsRNA as a signature of "non-self" nucleic acid is carried out by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), a set of dedicated helicases whose activation leads to the production of type I interferon α/β (IFN-α/β). To overcome the innate antiviral response, RNA viruses encode suppressors of IFN-α/β induction, which block RLRs recognition of dsRNA by means of different mechanisms that can be categorized into: (i) dsRNA binding and/or shielding ("hide"), (ii) dsRNA termini processing ("mask") and (iii) direct interaction with components of the RLRs pathway ("hit"). In light of recent functional, biochemical and structural findings, we review the inhibition mechanisms of RLRs recognition of dsRNA displayed by a number of highly pathogenic RNA viruses with different disease phenotypes such as haemorrhagic fever (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa fever, Lujo, Machupo, Junin, Guanarito, Crimean-Congo, Rift Valley fever, dengue), severe respiratory disease (influenza, SARS, Hendra, Hantaan, Sin Nombre, Andes) and encephalitis (Nipah, West Nile).

  15. Coexistence of several novel hantaviruses in rodents indigenous to North America.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J E; St Jeor, S C; Riolo, J; Otteson, E W; Monroe, M C; Henderson, W W; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Nichol, S T

    1995-10-20

    Three genetically distinct members of the Hantavirus genus have been detected in Nevada rodents by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis. These include Sin Nombre (SN), El Moro Canyon (ELMC), and Prospect Hill (PH)-like viruses which are primarily associated with Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), Reithrodontomys megalotis (western harvest mouse), and Microtus spp. (voles), respectively. Although this region of the United States is ecologically diverse, rodents infected with different hantaviruses appear to coexist in several different geographical and ecological zones. In two widely separated states, Nevada and North Dakota, PH-like viruses are present in three different species of vole. In addition, ELMC-like virus has been detected in both R. megalotis and M. montanus (mountain vole). SN virus is a cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome throughout much of the United States. SN virus RNA is found in 12.5% of P. maniculatus in Nevada and eastern California. Two lineages of SN virus coexist in this region and differ from SN viruses originally found in infected rodents in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. These data show the complexity of hantavirus maintenance in rodents. Distinct hantaviruses or virus lineages can coexist either in different or the same rodent species and in either different or the same geographic or ecological zones. PMID:7483255

  16. Evolution de la charge électrique d'une particule heurtant une paroi solide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchard, G.; Zerghouni, A.; Watanabe, S.; Borzeix, J.

    1991-07-01

    This study, essentially experimental, relates the electric charge generated by the shock of particles on a conducting wall (copper) and on an insulating one (polyethylene). The experiments are realised with an equipment connected to a data acquisition system. We have analysed the influence of differents parameters: impact angle; particle size; initial charge of the particles; impact velocity. Then from these experiments it is possible to point out the charging process of a particle for successive shocks. Le travail que nous présentons est une étude expérimentale du phénomène de génération de charges par collisions sur des surfaces métallique (cuivre) et isolante (polyéthylène). Les expériences sont réalisées sur un dispositif relié à un système d'acquisition de données. Nous avons procédé à l'étude de l'influence de plusieurs paramètres sur ce phénomène tels que : l'angle de choc ; les dimensions des particules ; la charge initiale des particules ; la vitesse au moment du choc. Nous avons aussi mis en évidence l'existence d'une charge de saturation qu'acquiert une particule après un grand nombre de chocs avec une paroi solide.

  17. A study of the fracture process and factors that control toughness variability in Charpy V-notch specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Real

    La presente etude a ete initiee pour developper une comprehension quantitative du processus de rupture avec les facteurs qui controlent la dispersion des mesures de tenacite lorsque des eprouvettes Charpy entaillees en V sont utilisees. Un grand nombre d'essais ont ete realises pour un acier C-Mn: eprouvettes Charpy testees sous impact, eprouvettes Charpy testees en flexion lente, eprouvettes axisymetriques entaillees et sollicitees en traction et essais de tenacite sur eprouvettes prefissurees. Base sur le concept de la statistique de Weibull, l'approche locale developpee par le groupe Beremin a ete utilisee pour decrire la probabilite de rupture par clivage en fonction de la contrainte appliquee aussi bien qu'en fonction de l'energie Charpy obtenue. Le calcul par elements finis a ete realise pour determiner la distribution de la deformation et des contraintes en pointe d'entaille et de fissure. La nouvelle approche introduite decrit bien les resultats experimentaux. Les points d'initiation du clivage ont ete identifies au MEB et par la suite, avec la technique de faisceau d'ions focalise, sectionnes, polis et examines. L'examen de la microstructure sous le point d'initiation revele clairement que le clivage s'initie par un mecanisme d'empilement de dislocations ou les dislocations sont arretees aux joints de grain, aux interfaces de perlite/ferrite ou de perlite qui agissent comme barrieres physiques.

  18. Conception, instrumentation, modelisation et analyse d'un element de stockage d'energie par chaleur latente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millette, Jocelyn

    . Cette validation de la methode NTU-epsilon n'avait d'ailleurs jamais ete realisee et constituait, selon la litterature, un obstacle majeur a l'utilisation de cette methode dans un but de conception. L'element a une capacite d'environ 5 kWh. La paraffine P116, avant un point de fusion d'environ 47°C est utilisee comme MCP. Des mesures de temperature de l'air et du MCP a l'interieur de l'ESECL sont presentees afin de tracer un portrait global de l'ESECL lors du stockage et du destockage. La mesure de la puissance thermique lors du destockage est effectuee a l'aide d'un calorimetre construit selon la norme ANSI-ASHRAE 94.2. Des ameliorations et des commentaires sont appliques a cette norme. D'autres mesures auxiliaires sont aussi realisees. Une evolution typique de la temperature peut etre etablie. Les predictions du modele sont en bon accord avec les mesures experimentales. Ce modele est utilise afin de predire le comportement d'un ESECS typique. Ces predictions sont en bon accord avec les donnees experimentales tirees d'une autre etude. Cette modelisation d'un ESECS permet de comparer un ESECS et un ESECL de meme capacite et un ESECS et un ESECL de meme encombrement. Ces comparaisons permettent de suggerer un element de stockage hybride ou le stockage s'effectue a plus haute temperature (130°C), le MCP demeure solide et la capacite est d'environ 18 kWh. Les performances de cet element, tel que predites par le modele sont presentees.

  19. La valgisation tibiale par addition d'ouverture interne avec comblement cimenté dans la gonarthrose fémorotibiale médiale sur 38 genu-varum

    PubMed Central

    Mahraoui, Mohamed Amine; Abouchane, Merouane; El Andaloussi, Yassir; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le genu varum sur gonarthrose fémorotibiale interne est une pathologie en nette recrudescence dans notre pays, affectant spécialement les femmes âgées et hautement invalidante chez l'adulte jeune; Souvent, elle pose un problème d'indication et de choix thérapeutique d'ordre multifactoriel. L'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation par ouverture interne est une technique de référence, bien connue depuis longtemps et d'efficacité validée à court, moyen et long terme, et constitue un outil thérapeutique de choix et d'apport marqué, notamment pour les sujets jeunes actifs avec gonarthrose débutante. Par ailleurs, cette technique peut voir ses indications s’élargir au dépend de l’âge et du stade évolutif. Le but de notre travail est d’évaluer les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels de notre technique d'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation avec comblement cimenté chez l'adulte jeune de plus de 40 ans et de préciser les facteurs pronostiques qui régissent ces résultats. Ce travail propose à travers une étude rétrospectivement menée à propos de 38 genoux opérés chez 28 patients de dresser un bilan épidémiologique, clinique, et radiologique afin d’évaluer les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels immédiats et à distance avec un recul minimum de 2 ans, de l'ostéotomie tibiale de valgisation avec comblement cimenté. Les 28 cas ont été revus à un recul moyen de 3,7 ans avec des extrêmes entre 2 et 9 ans, l’âge moyen de nos malades était de 52 ans avec des extrêmes de 40 à 67 ans, le sexe féminin était prédominant (64%). Le genu varum était primitif dans 20 cas (71,4%), et secondaire dans 8 cas (28,5%). Les stades I et II d'Ahlback constituaient la majorité des cas de l'arthrose fémoro-tibiale (94,7%). La déviation angulaire globale moyenne était de 11,3° avec des extrêmes de 8,5° à 18°. Les résultats évalués selon le protocole du groupe Guépar étaient excellents et très bons dans 86% des cas, et moyens et

  20. Evaluation des résultats de l'implantation cochléaire

    PubMed Central

    Hssaine, Khaoula; Belhoucha, Btissam; Benhommad, Othman; Rochdi, Youssef; Nouri, Hassan; Aderdour, Lahcen; Raji, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Les implants cochléaires sont des prothèses électro-acoustiques qui ont pour rôle de pallier une déficience bilatérale de l'oreille interne, qu'elle soit profonde ou sévère, acquise ou congénitale. Nous rapportons l'expérience du service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital universitaire Mohammed VI de Marrakech, dont l'objectif est d'évaluer l'implantation cochléaire et de préciser les facteurs influençant les résultats dans notre pratique. Le profil APCEI a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats orthophoniques. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur une période de 7 ans (Décembre 2007 à Décembre 2014). Durant cette période; 54 patients ont été implantés et suivient dans notre formation. Il s'agit de 30 filles et 24 garçons atteints d'une surdité sévères à profonde bilatérale, dont 48 enfants avaient une surdité pré-linguale. L'âge moyen d'implantation cochléaire pédiatrique était de 5,15 ans. L'implantation était unilatérale chez tous les patients. L'intervention était suivie par des réglages et une rééducation orthophonique régulière. L'évaluation était réalisée par la même équipe chaque mois durant les premiers 6 mois, puis tous les 6 mois. La durée moyenne de suivi était de 30,86 mois. Tous les patients ont tiré un bénéfice de leurs implants avec une variabilité interindividuelle. Les bons résultats étaient corrélés à l'implantation précoce, à un investissement parental important et au un bon suivi de la rééducation orthophonique. L'implantation cochléaire a révolutionnée la prise en charge de la surdité profonde et sévère. C'est une technique sûre, efficace lorsqu'elle s'adresse à des populations correctement sélectionnées. PMID:26848357

  1. Numerical simualtions and implications of air inclusions on the microdynamics of ice and firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka; Bons, Paul; Griera, Albert; Kerch, Johanna; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Llorens-Verde, Maria-Gema

    2016-04-01

    Although ice sheets are valuable paleo-climate archives, they can loose their integrity by ice flow (Faria et al. 2010). Consequently, understanding the dynamic processes that control the flow of ice is essential when investigating the past and future climate. While recent research successfully modelled the microdynamics of pure ice (e.g. Montagnat et al., 2014; Llorens et al., 2015), work taking into account second phases is scarce. Only a few studies also show the microstructural influence of air inclusions (Azuma et al., 2012, Roessiger et al., 2014). Therefore, modelling was performed focussing on the implications of the presence of bubbles on the microdynamical mechanisms and microstructure evolution. The full-field theory crystal plasticity code (FFT) of Lebensohn (2001), was coupled to the 2D multi-process modelling platform Elle (Bons et al., 2008), following the approach by Griera et al. (2013). FFT calculates the viscoplastic response of polycrystalline materials deforming by dislocation glide, taking into account mechanical anisotropy. The models further incorporate surface- and stored strain energy driven grain boundary migration (GBM) and intracrystalline recovery simulating annihilation and rearrangement of dislocations by reduction of internal misorientations. GBM was refined for polyphase materials following Becker et al. (2008) and Roessiger et al. (2014). Additionally, the formation of new high angle grain boundaries by nucleation and polygonisation based on critical internal misorientations has been implemented. Successively running the codes for different processes in very short numerical timesteps effectively enables multi-process modelling of deformation and concurrent recrystallisation. Results show how air inclusions control and increase strain localisation, leading to locally enhanced dynamic recrystallisation. This is in compliance with Faria et al. (2014), who theoretically predicted these localizations based on firn data from EPICA

  2. On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The

  3. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers,; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  4. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and siRNA using octreotide-conjugated gold nanorods for targeted neuroendocrine cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yuling; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Javadi, Alireza; Xu, Wenjin; Eide, Jacob; Dammalapati, Ajitha; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Chen, Herbert; Gong, Shaoqin

    2012-10-01

    A multifunctional gold (Au) nanorod (NR)-based nanocarrier capable of co-delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) against achaete-scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin (DOX)) specifically to neuroendocrine (NE) cancer cells was developed and characterized for combined chemotherapy and siRNA-mediated gene silencing. The Au NR was conjugated with (1) DOX, an anticancer drug, via a pH-labile hydrazone linkage to enable pH-controlled drug release, (2) polyarginine, a cationic polymer for complexing siRNA, and (3) octreotide (OCT), a tumor-targeting ligand, to specifically target NE cancer cells with overexpressed somatostatin receptors. The Au NR-based nanocarriers exhibited a uniform size distribution as well as pH-sensitive drug release. The OCT-conjugated Au NR-based nanocarriers (Au-DOX-OCT, targeted) exhibited a much higher cellular uptake in a human carcinoid cell line (BON cells) than non-targeted Au NR-based nanocarriers (Au-DOX) as measured by both flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, Au-DOX-OCT-ASCL1 siRNA (Au-DOX-OCT complexed with ASCL1 siRNA) resulted in significantly higher gene silencing in NE cancer cells than Au-DOX-ASCL1 siRNA (non-targeted Au-DOX complexed with ASCL1 siRNA) as measured by an immunoblot analysis. Additionally, Au-DOX-OCT-ASCL1 siRNA was the most efficient nanocarrier at altering the NE phenotype of NE cancer cells and showed the strongest anti-proliferative effect. Thus, combined chemotherapy and RNA silencing using NE tumor-targeting Au NR-based nanocarriers could potentially enhance the therapeutic outcomes in treating NE cancers.A multifunctional gold (Au) nanorod (NR)-based nanocarrier capable of co-delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) against achaete-scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin (DOX)) specifically to neuroendocrine (NE) cancer cells was developed and characterized for combined chemotherapy and siRNA-mediated gene silencing. The

  5. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Design Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants’ menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. Participants 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Main outcome measures Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers’ register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. Results For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P=0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P=0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald’s 829 v 785 kcal, P=0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, P<0.001; KFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Conclusion Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices. PMID:21791497

  6. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  7. La prise en charge à long terme de l’asthme chez les enfants inuits et des Premières nations : un outil de transfert du savoir fondé sur les lignes directrices canadiennes pour l’asthme pédiatrique, conçu pour être utilisé par les professionnels de la santé de première ligne qui travaillent dans des communautés isolées

    PubMed Central

    Kovesi, Tom; Giles, Brenda Louise; Pasterkamp, Hans

    L’asthme est un grave problème de santé pour les enfants inuits et des Premières nations. Chez les enfants de moins d’un an, il faut distinguer l’asthme de la bronchiolite virale, anormalement fréquente chez les enfants autochtones du Canada. Chez les enfants de moins de six ans, le diagnostic dépend de la présence de symptômes classiques, de l’absence de caractéristiques atypiques et de la consignation de la réponse au traitement, notamment la réponse rapide et transitoire aux bronchodilatateurs. Chez les enfants plus âgés, il faut, dans la mesure du possible, déterminer la présence d’une obstruction réversible des voies aériennes par spirométrie afin de confirmer le diagnostic, ainsi qu’évaluer et corriger les déclencheurs environnementaux. L’utilisation régulière de corticoïdes en aérosol est la principale mesure à prendre pour maintenir un bon contrôle de l’asthme chez les enfants asthmatiques. Les clients et leur famille devraient recevoir une formation sur l’asthme. Il faut réévaluer régulièrement le contrôle aux visites de suivi dans des centres de santé et rajuster le traitement à la dose la plus basse possible pour le maintien de ce contrôle.

  8. [Comparative research into the process of forming the theory of constitution in ancient western medicine and that of four trigrams constitution in Korean medicine and contents of two theories of constitution].

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hong

    2009-06-01

    After conducting comparative research into the process of forming the Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine and that of Four Trigrams Constitution(Sasang Constitution) in Korean Medicine and contents of two Theories of Constitution in terms of medical history, both theories were found to be formed by an interaction between philosophy and medicine, followed by a combination of the two, on a philosophical basis. The Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine began with the Theory of Four Elements presented by Empedocles, followed by the Theory of Four Humors presented by Hippocrates and the Theory of Four Temperaments by Galenos, forming and developing the Theory of Constitution. After the Middle Ages, there was no significant advance in the Theory of Constitution by modern times ; however, it developed into the theory of constitution type of Kretschmer and others after the 19th century and into the scientific theory of constitution based on genetics presented by Garrod and others early in the 20th century. The Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution began with the Theory of Constitution in Huangdi Neijing, followed by developments and influences of existing medicine called beginning, restoration, and revival periods and DongeuisoosebowonSaSangChoBonGwon based on the original philosophy of Four Trigrams presented by Lee Je-ma, which is found in GyeokChiGo, DongMuYuGo and so on, ultimately forming and developing into the Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution in Dongeuisoosebowon. Recently, a lot of research is being conducted into making it objective in order to achieve reproducibility in diagnosis and so forth of Four Trigrams Constitution.

  9. Kyste hydatique de la rate: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Oumar, Touré Alpha; Ibrahima, Kâ; Sitor, Sarr Ibrahima; Mamadou, Cissé; Ibrahima, Konaté; Ousmane, Kâ; Madieng, Dieng; Abdarahmane, Dia; Tidiane, Touré Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique de la rate est une affection rare en Afrique sub-saharienne. Il arrive en 3ème position après celui du foie et du poumon. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical en dehors d'un traitement médical ayant prouvé son efficacité. Nous rapportons le 1er cas pris en charge au Service de Chirurgie Générale du CHU Le Dantec à Dakar. Il s'agit d'un patient de 33 ans, originaire de Mauritanie, sans antécédent particulier qui nous a été adressé pour prise en charge d'un kyste splénique de découverte fortuite à l’échographie lors d'un bilan de routine avec sérologie hydatique positive à Eccinochoccus granulosa. L'examen clinique était sans particularité. La biologie retrouvait une thrombopénie à 88000 plaquettes/mm3. Le scanner montrait des kystes spléniques avec calcifications occupant plus de la moitié du parenchyme splénique. Il a bénéficié d'une splénectomie totale dont les suites ont été simples. Aucune particularité n’était notée après un suivi d'un an. Le kyste hydatique splénique est rare. Le traitement est chirurgical qu'il soit radical ou conservateur avec de bons résultats. PMID:23717708

  10. Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy.

    PubMed

    Wickramasekera, Ian E

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews a growing body of research and theory in hypnosis and neuroscience that supports the empathic involvement theory (EIT) of hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001; Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003; Wickramasekera II, 2007c). The EIT is a unified transpersonal theory of hypnosis and the self, which weaves together empathic elements of Dzogchen, neodissociative, neuroscience, psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, and other theories by proposing that hypnotic phenomena are inherently characterized by their deep involvement with processes of empathy and the self. The EIT proposes that the experience of hypnosis is embodied in a system of neural networks in the brain that utilizes empathy-related processes, adaptive resonance between perceptual input and top-down expectancies, and connectionist learning algorithms to (a) empathically enact the affect, cognition, body language, response expectancies, social roles, sensations, etc. that are presented to them during hypnosis in accordance with socio-cognitive theories of hypnosis; (b) engage in a convergent psychophysiological relationship with another person in accordance with psychoanalytic, Ericksonian, and polyvagal/social engagement system theories; (c) alter the empathic self/other (theory of mind) coding of phenomenological experiences during hypnosis in accordance with aspects of the neo-dissociative and socio-cognitive traditions; and (d) develop an experiential understanding of the illusion of self that may lead, in some people, to its transcendence in accordance with Bon-Buddhist, Dzogchen, and transpersonal scholars. A unified definition of hypnosis is proposed based on findings in the empathic neuroscience of hypnosis as well as a working model of the neuromatrix of the self.

  11. Evaluation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Laulainen, Nels S.; Easter, Richard C.; Wagener, Richard; Nemesure, Seth; Chapman, Elaine G.; Zhang, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2001-04-01

    A variety of measurements have been used to evaluate the treatment of aerosol radiative properties and radiative impacts of aerosols simulated by the Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Global Exchanges (MIRAGE). The treatment of water uptake in MIRAGE agrees with laboratory measurements for the aerosol components that have been measured. The simulated frequency of relative humidity near 100% is about twice that of European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analyzed relative humidity. When the analyzed relative humidity is used to calculate aerosol water uptake in MIRAGE, the simulated aerosol optical depth agrees with most surface measurements after cloudy conditions are filtered out and differences between model and station elevations are accounted for. Simulated optical depths are low over sites in Brazil during the biomass burning season and over sites in central Canada during the wildfire season, which can be attributed to limitations in the organic and black car bon emissions data used by MIRAGE. The simulated aerosol optical depths are mostly within a factor of two of satellite estimates, but MIRAGE simulates excessively high aerosol optical depths off the east coast of the US and China, and too little dust off the coast of West Africa and in the Arabian Sea. The simulated distribution of single-scatter albedo is consistent with the available in situ surface measurements. The simulated sensitivity of radiative forcing to aerosol optical depth is consistent with estimates from measurements where available. The simulated spatial distribution of aerosol radiance is broadly consistent with estimates from satellite measurements, but with the same errors as the aerosol optical depth. The simulated direct forcing is within the uncertainty of estimates from measurements in the North Atlantic.

  12. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2).

  13. CO2 Fluxes: The Upwelling Systems of South America & South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Badger, Merete; Soresen, Lise Lotte

    2010-12-01

    In order to estimate the atmospheric concentration of car- bon dioxide knowledge of the fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere are important. Different ocean regions can act as sinks or sources of CO2 depending on temperature, salinity and biological activity. The flux of CO2 depends on the partial pressures of atmospheric and oceanic CO2 and the exchange velocity which is commonly parametrized by the wind speed. Direct in-situ measurements are expensive, operationally demanding and of low spatial resolution. It has been shown that in- direct estimation of oceanic pCO2 is possible due to its strong dependence on temperature, however primary production also influences the concentration of CO2 in the water. The present study aims at estimating the oceanic pCO2 with the use of satellite measurements for water temperature and chlorophyll-a (chl-A). Envisat MERIS Level 2 Reduced Resolution products were used for the chl-A concentration. Sea Surface Temperature data were taken from a composite optimally interpolated SST product of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). In-situ measurements were retrieved during the Danish Galathea III expedition, from August 2006 until April 2007. Based on [4] and [5], empirical algorithms for the estimation of pCO2,w were created using regression analyses. The final result was an estimate of the pCO2,w along the known upwelling systems of North Chile-Peru and Namibia. Estimates of pCO2,w produced by different combinations of physical parameters are compared with measurements. Correlation coefficients show that there was a dependency of pCO2,w with SST, Salinity and chl-A.

  14. Greffe de cornée: expérience du service d'ophtalmologie au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Belghmaidi, Sarah; Hajji, Ibtissam; Soummane, Hasna; Ennassiri, Wiam; Essafi, Hafsa; Moutaouakil, Abdeljalil

    2016-01-01

    La kératoplastie transfixiante est l'une des plus fréquentes des greffes de tissus et transplantations d'organes. Le but de notre travail est de rapporter notre expérience en matière de greffe de cornée. C'est une étude prospective de 195 patients ayant bénéficié d'une greffe de cornée sur une période allant d'aout 2009 à Août 2015. Le recul moyen est de 21 mois. Les indications de la greffe étaient le kératocône 33.8%, les séquelles de traumatisme 10.7%, la kératopathie bulleuse 19.5%, les dystrophies héréditaires 10.7%, et les kératites herpétiques 9.2%. L'acuité visuelle initiale était inférieure à 1/10 dans 90% des cas. Nous avons observé une réaction de rejet dans 19 yeux dont 14 étaient récupérables, 33 hypertonies oculaires, 20cataracte, et 2 décollements descmetiques. La greffe de cornée apparaît comme une intervention donnant de bons résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels. Les résultats ne doivent pas occulter une surveillance post opératoire étroite et régulière pour dépister à temps d’éventuelles complications, en particulier le rejet de greffe. PMID:27303575

  15. [Characteristics of carbon storage of Inner Mongolia forests: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Hu, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Li, Sheng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    Forests in Inner Mongolia account for an important part of the forests in China in terms of their large area and high living standing volume. This study reported carbon storage, carbon density, carbon sequestration rate and carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems in Inner Mongolia using the biomass carbon data from the related literature. Through analyzing the data of forest inventory and the generalized allometric equations between volume and biomass, previous studies had reported that biomass carbon storage of the forests in Inner Mongolia was about 920 Tg C, which was 12 percent of the national forest carbon storage, the annual average growth rate was about 1.4%, and the average of carbon density was about 43 t · hm(-2). Carbon storage and carbon density showed an increasing trend over time. Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest and Betula platyphylla forest had higher carbon sequestration capacities. Carbon storage was reduced due to human activities such as thinning and clear cutting. There were few studies on carbon storage of the forests in Inner Mongolia with focus on the soil, showing that the soil car- bon density increased with the stand age. Study on the carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems was still less. Further study was required to examine dynamics of carbon storage in forest ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, i. e., to assess carbon storage in the forest soils together with biomass carbon storage, to compute biomass carbon content of species organs as 45% in the allometric equations, to build more species-specific and site-specific allometric equations including root biomass for different dominant species, and to take into account the effects of climate change on carbon sequestration rate and carbon sequestration potential.

  16. Genetic history of Southeast Asian populations as revealed by ancient and modern human mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lertrit, Patcharee; Poolsuwan, Samerchai; Thosarat, Rachanie; Sanpachudayan, Thitima; Boonyarit, Hathaichanoke; Chinpaisal, Chatchai; Suktitipat, Bhoom

    2008-12-01

    The 360 base-pair fragment in HVS-1 of the mitochondrial genome were determined from ancient human remains excavated at Noen U-loke and Ban Lum-Khao, two Bronze and Iron Age archaeological sites in Northeastern Thailand, radio-carbon dated to circa 3,500-1,500 years BP and 3,200-2,400 years BP, respectively. These two neighboring populations were parts of early agricultural communities prevailing in northeastern Thailand from the fourth millennium BP onwards. The nucleotide sequences of these ancient samples were compared with the sequences of modern samples from various ethnic populations of East and Southeast Asia, encompassing four major linguistic affiliations (Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, and Austroasiatic), to investigate the genetic relationships and history among them. The two ancient samples were most closely related to each other, and next most closely related to the Chao-Bon, an Austroasiatic-speaking group living near the archaeological sites, suggesting that the genetic continuum may have persisted since prehistoric times in situ among the native, perhaps Austroasiatic-speaking population. Tai-Kadai groups formed close affinities among themselves, with a tendency to be more closely related to other Southeast Asian populations than to populations from further north. The Tai-Kadai groups were relatively distant from all groups that have presumably been in Southeast Asia for longer-that is, the two ancient groups and the Austroasiatic-speaking groups, with the exception of the Khmer group. This finding is compatible with the known history of the Thais: their late arrival in Southeast Asia from southern China after the 10th-11th century AD, followed by a period of subjugation under the Khmers.

  17. Les fractures pathologiques secondaires des tumeurs bénignes chez l'enfant: à propos de 20 cas

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Youssef; Koulali, Idrissi Khalid; Hicham, Salahi

    2015-01-01

    Une fracture est dite pathologique ou sur os pathologique quand elle survient sur un tissu osseux remanié par un processus pathologique, elle ne tient compte, ni du mécanisme de la fracture ni de la lésion préexistante, on élimine ainsi les fractures dites de fatigue, survenant sur un os normal. Elles constituent un événement assez rare en traumatologie pédiatrique. Ces traumatismes posent au praticien un double problème, celui de la fracture et celui de la pathologie tumorale en cause. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le profil de ces fractures et d'analyser leur prise en charge dans notre contexte. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective sur une période de 10 ans au service. Nous avons colligé 20 cas. L’âge moyen était de 10 ans, 70% étaient de sexe masculin. 98% des traumatismes étaient de faible énergie. 80% des lésions ont touché soit le fémur soit l'humérus, le kyste osseux essentiel était la principale étiologie causale. Le résultat final était bon dans 60% des cas. La prise en charge de ces fractures dépend surtout de la tumeur causale et des caractéristiques de la fracture. Le rôle de la radiologie est incontournable et let traitement doit se faire selon une méthodologie précise. PMID:26421099

  18. Unfolding single- and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    When planar structures (e.g. sedimentary layers, veins, dykes, cleavages, etc.) are subjected to deformation, they have about equal chances to be shortened or stretched. The most common shortening and stretching structures are folds and boudinage, respectively. However, boudinage requires additional deformation mechanisms apart from viscous flow, like formation of fractures or strain localization. When folded layers are subjected to extension, they could potentially unfold back to straight layers. Although probably not uncommon, this would be difficult to recognize. Open questions are whether folded layers can unfold, what determines their mechanical behaviour and how we can recognize them in the field. In order to approach these questions, we present a series of numerical experiments that simulate stretching of previously folded single- and multi-layers in simple shear, using the two dimensional numerical modelling platform ELLE, including the finite element module BASIL that calculates viscous deformation. We investigate the parameters that affect a fold train once it rotates into the extensional field. The results show that the unfolding process strongly depends on the viscosity contrast between the layer and matrix (Llorens et al., 2013). Layers do not completely unfold when they experience softening before or during the stretching process or when other neighbouring competent layers prevent them from unfolding. The foliation refraction patterns are the main indicators of unfolded folds. Additionally, intrafolial folds and cusp-like folds adjacent to straight layers, as well as variations in fold amplitudes and limb lengths of irregular folds can also be used as indicators of stretching of a layer after shortening and folding. References: Llorens, M-.G., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566.

  19. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  20. Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy.

    PubMed

    Wickramasekera, Ian E

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews a growing body of research and theory in hypnosis and neuroscience that supports the empathic involvement theory (EIT) of hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001; Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003; Wickramasekera II, 2007c). The EIT is a unified transpersonal theory of hypnosis and the self, which weaves together empathic elements of Dzogchen, neodissociative, neuroscience, psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, and other theories by proposing that hypnotic phenomena are inherently characterized by their deep involvement with processes of empathy and the self. The EIT proposes that the experience of hypnosis is embodied in a system of neural networks in the brain that utilizes empathy-related processes, adaptive resonance between perceptual input and top-down expectancies, and connectionist learning algorithms to (a) empathically enact the affect, cognition, body language, response expectancies, social roles, sensations, etc. that are presented to them during hypnosis in accordance with socio-cognitive theories of hypnosis; (b) engage in a convergent psychophysiological relationship with another person in accordance with psychoanalytic, Ericksonian, and polyvagal/social engagement system theories; (c) alter the empathic self/other (theory of mind) coding of phenomenological experiences during hypnosis in accordance with aspects of the neo-dissociative and socio-cognitive traditions; and (d) develop an experiential understanding of the illusion of self that may lead, in some people, to its transcendence in accordance with Bon-Buddhist, Dzogchen, and transpersonal scholars. A unified definition of hypnosis is proposed based on findings in the empathic neuroscience of hypnosis as well as a working model of the neuromatrix of the self. PMID:25928682

  1. Tuberculose multifocale chez les immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Rezgui, Amel; Fredj, Fatma Ben; Mzabi, Anis; Karmani, Monia; Laouani, Chadia

    2016-01-01

    La tuberculose multifocale est définie par la l'atteinte d'au moins deux sites extra-pulmonaires associée ou non à une atteinte pulmonaire. On se propose d’étudier les différentes caractéristiques cliniques et évolutives de la tuberculose multifocale à travers une étude rétrospective de 10 cas. Parmi 41 cas de tuberculose colligés entre 1999 et 2013. Dix patients avaient une tuberculose multifocale, soit 24% des patients. Il s'agissait de 9 femmes et 1 homme d’âge moyen à 50 ans (30-68 ans). Nos patients étaient tous correctement vaccinés par le BCG. Un bilan à la recherche d'une éventuelle immunodépression fait pour tous les patients était négatif. Il s'agissait d'une tuberculose ganglionnaire dans 7 cas, digestive dans 3 cas, péricardique dans 2 cas, ostéo-articulaire dans 2 cas, cérébrale dans 1 cas, urinaire dans 2 cas, uro-génitale dans 4 cas, surrénalienne dans 1 cas, cutanée dans 1 cas et musculaire dans 1 cas. Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement antituberculeux pour une durée moyenne de 10 mois avec bonne évolution. La tuberculose multifocale est une des maladies à diagnostic difficile. Elle peut toucher les immunocompétents mais son pronostic est souvent bon. Un traitement anti-tuberculeux doit être instauré le plus rapidement possible pour éviter les séquelles. PMID:27583077

  2. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  3. Rupture utérine sur utérus bicorne à 12 semaines d'aménorrhée: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    La fréquence des malformations utérines ayant un impact sur la reproduction est difficile à apprécier. Leur mise en évidence nécessite un bilan spécifique (hystérosalpingographie, hystéroscopie, cœlioscopie). La fertilité spontanée peut être altérée en fonction du type d'anomalie utérine. Toutes ces anomalies peuvent avoir des répercussions sur l’évolution de la conception à type de fausses couches précoces et tardives, de grossesse extra utérine, de menace d'accouchement prématuré, d'accouchement prématuré, de pathologies vasculaires gravidiques et de retard de croissance intra-utérin. L'utérus bicorne est la plus connue des malformations et représente environ la moitié des anomalies de l'utérus. La survenue d'une telle grossesse constitue une situation à risque pouvant entraîner une mort maternelle, mais le diagnostic précoce et un bon suivi peut mener des grossesses à terme sur des utérus malformé. Le dépistage échographique devrait permettre la détection systématique de ce genre de cas afin de prendre préventivement les mesures qui s'imposent. Nous rapportons un cas de rupture utérine sur utérus bicorne unicervical sur grossesse à 12 semaines d'aménorrhée. PMID:27642490

  4. Use of the Aquacrop model for the simulation of wheat evapotranspiration in north-eastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, A.; Masmoudi, M.; Jacob, F.; Ben Mechlia, N.

    2012-04-01

    Improvement of rainfed cropping systems is based on the use of rainfall water for crop transpiration. This could be achieved by the appropriate partitioning of rainfall between green water and blue water. Under semiarid conditions, the AquaCrop model which has a driving engine based on the direct link between dry matter production and crop evapotranspiration, seems to be a powerful tool to perform this task. For this purposes, an experimental work was conducted on the wheat crop, grown under various farming conditions, to determine how simulation modeling could be used to monitor canopy changes and actual crop evapotranspiration. The study area -CapBon- is located in north eastern Tunisia where rainfall is about 500 mm and ET0 around 1200mm Field monitoring consisted in regular measurements of the leaf area index (LAI), vegetation cover changes (CC) and soil moisture content profiles over the cropping season December 2009-April 2010. The usefulness of using hemispherical and standard images to determine LAI and CC was also investigated for their adoption as a standard methods for the assessment of these important parameter as input data. Results show that good estimates of LAI and CC could be obtained from digital images. Fairly reliable linear relationships were obtained between measurements on samples using a leaf area meter and indirect assessments (r2 = 0.78) Aqua-Crop simulations where also mostly accurate in estimating soil moisture temporal variations and soil water content of well textured soils. However for soils with high clay content, important differences were observed between simulation outputs and direct gravimetric measurements.

  5. Contribution à la modélisation du soudage TIG des tôles minces d'acier austénitique 304L par un modèle source bi-elliptique, avec confrontation expérimentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissani, M.; Maza, H.; Belkessa, B.; Maamache, B.

    2005-05-01

    Ce travail contribue dans la modélisation du phénomène du soudage de l'acier inoxydable Austénitique 304L, afin d'étudier le comportement thermique d'un joint de soudure, obtenu par le procédé de soudage à l'arc électrique TIG (Tungsten-Inert-Gas). Le modèle simulant la source d'énergie de soudage, utilise une distribution surfacique Gaussienne du flux de chaleur provenant de l'arc électrique. La forme de cette source est supposée circulaire pour un premier cas et de forme bi-elliptique pour un second cas, tout en procédant à l'évaluation des champs et cycles thermiques à chaque instant, pour déterminer l'étendu des zones à risque, et l'effet de la vitesse de soudage sur ces dernières. Permettant ainsi de remonter par la suite, aux problèmes de contraintes résiduelles et déformations générées dans l'assemblage soudé. L'équation de chaleur régissant le problème est discrétisée par la méthode des volumes finis. Les calculs sont effectués en considérant que les propriétés physiques et thermiques ainsi que les conditions aux limites de convection et rayonnement, sont dépendante de la température. Pour évaluer la précision du modèle, une comparaison avec des mesures expérimentales de température d'un essai de soudage a été effectuée, les résultats indiquent un bon accord.

  6. Décompression chirurgicale du syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial est une pathologie souvent méconnue à cause de diagnostic difficile par manque des signes pathognomoniques conduisant souvent à des errances. Les manifestations cliniques dépendent selon qu'il s'agit d'une compression nerveuse, vasculaire ou vasculo-nerveuse. Le but de cette étude est de décrire certains aspects cliniques particuliers et évaluer le résultat fonctionnel après la décompression chirurgicale du paquet vasculo-nerveux. Notre étude rétrospective a porté sur l'analyse des données cliniques, radiologiques, IRM et EMG sur les patients opérés entre janvier 2010 et juillet 2013 du syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial dans le service de traumatologie orthopédie de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat. 15 cas ont été colligés: 12 cas post traumatiques (fracture de la clavicule) et 3 cas d'origines congénitales, dont l’âge moyen était 35 ans (20 à 50 ans) avec 9 femmes et 6 hommes. A la fin du traitement, le score de Dash est passé de 109 (46% Normal=0) à 70 (20%), et le stress test de Roos était de 70/100 à 80/100. Le résultat était excellent dans 12 cas soit (80%) et moins bon dans dans 3 cas (20%). En définitive, la résection de malformations osseuses, l'excision des brides et la neurolyse du plexus brachial suivie de la rééducation a donné une bonne évolution fonctionnelle. PMID:25709735

  7. Eliminating Unwanted Far-Field Excitation in Objective-Type TIRF. Part II. Combined Evanescent-Wave Excitation and Supercritical-Angle Fluorescence Detection Improves Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Brunstein, Maia; Hérault, Karine; Oheim, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Azimuthal beam scanning makes evanescent-wave (EW) excitation isotropic, thereby producing total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images that are evenly lit. However, beam spinning does not fundamentally address the problem of propagating excitation light that is contaminating objective-type TIRF. Far-field excitation depends more on the specific objective than on cell scattering. As a consequence, the excitation impurities in objective-type TIRF are only weakly affected by changes of azimuthal or polar beam angle. These are the main results of the first part of this study (Eliminating unwanted far-field excitation in objective-type TIRF. Pt.1. Identifying sources of nonevanescent excitation light). This second part focuses on exactly where up beam in the illumination system stray light is generated that gives rise to nonevanescent components in TIRF. Using dark-field imaging of scattered excitation light we pinpoint the objective, intermediate lenses and, particularly, the beam scanner as the major sources of stray excitation. We study how adhesion-molecule coating and astrocytes or BON cells grown on the coverslip surface modify the dark-field signal. On flat and weakly scattering cells, most background comes from stray reflections produced far from the sample plane, in the beam scanner and the objective lens. On thick, optically dense cells roughly half of the scatter is generated by the sample itself. We finally show that combining objective-type EW excitation with supercritical-angle fluorescence (SAF) detection efficiently rejects the fluorescence originating from deeper sample regions. We demonstrate that SAF improves the surface selectivity of TIRF, even at shallow penetration depths. The coplanar microscopy scheme presented here merges the benefits of beam spinning EW excitation and SAF detection and provides the conditions for quantitative wide-field imaging of fluorophore dynamics at or near the plasma membrane. PMID:24606929

  8. Perched groundwater-surface interactions and their consequences in stream flow generation in a semi-arid headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenat, Jerome; Bouteffeha, Maroua; Raclot, Damien; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2013-04-01

    In semi-arid headwater catchment, it is usually admitted that stream flow comes predominantly from Hortonian overland flow (infiltration excess overland flow). Consequently, subsurface flow processes, and especially perched or shallow groundwater flow, have not been studied extensively. Here we made the assumption that perched groundwater flow could play a significant role in stream flow generation in semi-arid catchment. To test this assumption, we analyzed stream flow time series of a headwater catchment in the Tunisian Cap Bon region and quantified the flow fraction coming from groundwater discharge and that from overland flow. Furthermore, the dynamics of the perched groundwater was analyzed, by focusing on the different perched groundwater-surface interaction processes : diffuse and local infiltration, diffuse exfiltration, and direct groundwater discharge to the stream channel. This work is based on the 2.6 km² Kamech catchment (Tunisia), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Results show that even though Hortonian overland flow was the main hydrological process governing the stream flow generation, groundwater discharge contribution to the stream channel annually accounted for from 10% to 20 % depending on the year. Furthermore, at some periods, rising of groundwater table to the soil surface in bottom land areas provided evidences of the occurrence of saturation excess overland flow processes during some storm events. Reference Voltz , M. and Albergel , J., 2002. OMERE : Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Environnement Rural et de l'Eau - Impact des actions anthropiques sur les transferts de masse dans les hydrosystèmes méditerranéens ruraux. Proposition d'Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement, Ministère de la Recherche.

  9. Exercise and ankylosing spondylitis with New York modified criteria: a systematic review of controlled trials with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, N A; Furtado, Guilherme Eustáquio; Campos, Maria João; Leitão, José Carlos; Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, José Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causing inflammatory back pain, structural and functional changes which decrease quality of life. Several treatments for ankylosing spondylitis have been proposed and among them the use of exercise. The present study aims to synthesize information from the literature and identify the results of controlled clinical trials on exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis with the New York modified diagnostic criteria and to assess whether exercise is more effective than physical activity to reduce functional impairment. The sources of studies used were: LILACS, Pubmed, EBSCOhost, B-on, personal communication, manual research and lists of references. The criteria used for the studies selection was controlled clinical trials, participants with New York modified diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, and with interventions through exercise. The variables studied were related to primary outcomes such as BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) as a functional index, BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) as an index of intensity of disease activity and BASMI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index) as a metrological index assessing patient's limitation on movement. From the 603 studies identified after screening only 37 articles were selected for eligibility, from which 18 studies were included. The methodological quality was assessed to select those with an high methodological expressiveness using the PEDro scale. A cumulative meta-analysis was subsequently performed to compare exercise versus usual level of physical activity. Exercise shows significant statistical outcomes for the BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI, higher than those found for usual level of physical activity.

  10. Air pollution model for an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, N. A.; Venegas, L. E.

    On présente un modèle de diffusion atmosphérique pour des polluants émis en zone urbaine par des sources multiples. On considère l'équation de continuité de la masse et les profils de vent habituels dans la couche limite. On suppose que la distribution verticale des polluants est représentée par une forme polynomiale. Les coefficients du polynôme dépendent des conditions de stabilité atmosphérique. On prend comme hauteur limite supérieure du panache une fonction potentielle de la distance. On compare les estimations de la concentration normalisée aux valeurs obtenues avec le modèle urbain de Gifford-Hanna. Il y a une bonne concordance entre les deux modèles en conditions de stabilité atmosphérique. Les différences augmentent en conditions d'instabilité. L'analyse de la sensibilité du modèle montre que des variations relatives de la rugosité du sol ont peu d'effet sur les valeurs de la concentration calculée. Les variations de l'exposant de la fonction potentielle prise pour le sommet du panache deviennent plus critiques avec la distance. Les distributions de la concentration au sol calculées par le modèle pour Nashville (E.U.), Bremen (R.F.A.) et Frankfort (R.F.A.) sont en bon accord avec les valeurs observées. On obtient un indice de concordance de 0,983 et une erreur relative moyenne de 0,0408 entre les valeurs calculées et observées.

  11. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited Fe and Fe/Cu nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, S.; Chassaing, E.; Duvail, J. L.; Piraux, L.; Waals, M. G.

    1999-09-01

    Fe and Fe/Cu multilayered nanowires with layer thicknesses in the 10nm range were successfully synthesized within the voids of nanoporous polycarbonate membranes and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements show that the shape anisotropy of individual Fe wires dominates the magnetic properties. Fe(8 nm)/Cu(10 nm) multilayered nanowires show CPP-GMR ratios as large as 12% at low temperature. The variations of the CPP-GMR as a function of the Cu layer thickness are consistent with the Valet-Fert model. Our data yield a value of about 0.3 for the bulk spin asymmetry coefficient β. Des nanofilaments constitués de Fe ou de multicouches Fe/Cu sont élaborés par dépôt électrochimique à l'intérieur des pores de membranes polycarbonate et caractérisés en microscopie électronique à transmission. Les propriétés magnétiques des nanofils de Fe sont très largement dominées par l'anisotropie de forme des fils. La magnéto-résistance géante (MRG) de multicouches Fe(8 nm)/Cu(10 nm) atteint 12 % à basse température tandis que la variation de la MRG est en bon accord avec le modèle de Valet-Fert. La valeur du coefficient d'asymétrie de spin β associé aux collisions au sein des couches de Fe est de l'ordre de 0.3.

  12. Microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau : faisabilité et intérêt pour la biologie d'un instrument de laboratoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. F.; Moy, J. P.

    2005-06-01

    La biologie étudie des structures ou des phénomènes sub-cellulaires. Pour cela la microscopie est la technique d'observation privilégiée. La résolution spatiale de la microscopie optique s'avère bien souvent insuffisante pour de telles observations. Les techniques plus résolvantes, comme la microscopie électronique par transmission sont souvent destructrices et d'une complexité peu adaptée aux besoins des biologistes. La microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau permet l'imagerie rapide de cellules dans leur milieu naturel, nécessite peu de préparation et offre des résolutions de quelques dizaines de nanomètres. De plus, il existe un bon contraste naturel entre les structures carbonées (protéines, lipides) et l'eau. Actuellement cette technique est limitée aux centres de rayonnement synchrotron, ce qui impose une planification et des déplacements incompatibles avec les besoins de la biologie. Un tel microscope fonctionnant avec uns source de laboratoire serait d'une grande utilité. Ce document présente un état de l'art de la microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau. Un cahier des charges détaillé pour un appareil de laboratoire ayant les performances optiques requises par les biologistes est présenté et confronté aux microscopes X de laboratoire déjà existants. Des solutions concernant la source et les optiques sont également discutées.

  13. Spatial and vertical distribution of soil organic carbon at the catchment scale in Mediterranean ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Haithem; Mekki, Insaf; Annabi, Mohamed; Jacob, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in enhancing crop production and mitigating additional greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, the assessment of the amount of SOC at the regional scale is important to better understand the role of the SOC reservoir in global climate and environmental issues. Besides, the vertical SOC profile may be of great importance for SOC cycling, both on short time scale, due to interactions with the soil temperature and moisture profile, as well as on long time scale because of depth-specific stabilization mechanisms of organic matter. The objective of this study is: i) to characterize the spatial variability of SOC in a catchment at different soil depths and ii) to assess the contributions of factors controlling this variability. The studied catchment, named Lebna, is located in the Cap Bon north-eastern Tunisia and it covers about 218 km². We used a dataset from a survey provided by the IAO (Instituto Agronomico per l'Oltremare) 20th course professional master "remote sensing and natural resources evaluation" field survey staff from 2 to 28 April 2000 (IAO, 2002). Ninety-one profiles with 345 soil horizons were described according to the IAO framework and the total carbon was determined using the combustion method with the Carlo Erba Analyser 1500. The results showed the high spatial variation of SOC content depending on soil types and land use. In fact, agricultural practices mainly crop residues management and tillage influence SOC dynamic. Concerning vertical distribution, SOC content is higher in topsoil compared to subsoil. The results suggest that further work is required to better characterize the quality of the SOC at different depths.

  14. Proceedings of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, February 11-14, 2008: Painting the Big Picture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.

    2009-01-01

    The Second USGS Modeling Conference was held February 11-14, 2008, in Orange Beach, Ala. Participants at the conference came from all U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regions and represented all four science discipline - Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water. Representatives from other Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies and partners from the academic community also participated. The conference, which was focused on 'painting the big picture', emphasized the following themes: Integrated Landscape Monitoring, Global Climate Change, Ecosystem Modeling, and Hazards and Risks. The conference centered on providing a forum for modelers to meet, exchange information on current approaches, identify specific opportunities to share existing models and develop more linked and integrated models to address complex science questions, and increase collaboration across disciplines and with other organizations. Abstracts for the 31 oral presentations and more than 60 posters presented at the conference are included here. The conference also featured a field trip to review scientific modeling issues along the Gulf of Mexico. The field trip included visits to Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, the 5 Rivers Delta Resource Center, and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. On behalf of all the participants of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, the conference organizing committee expresses our sincere appreciation for the support of field trip oganizers and leaders, including the managers from the various Reserves and Refuges. The organizing committee for the conference included Jenifer Bracewell, Sally Brady, Jacoby Carter, Thomas Casadevall, Linda Gundersen, Tom Gunther, Heather Henkel, Lauren Hay, Pat Jellison, K. Bruce Jones, Kenneth Odom, and Mark Wildhaber.

  15. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    'eau souterraine. Dans la région étudiée, les fractures N35°-55°E ont été identifiées comme étant en extension, et les fractures N35°-55°W comme étant à la fois en extension et en cisaillement. Ces fractures sont apparemment les fractures ouvertes les plus jeunes. Partout où la densité des fractures N35°-55°E et N35°-55°W est élevée, la zone altérée est plus épaisse, les fluctuations de la nappe sont faibles et les rendements des puits sont forts. Des zones à potentiel en eau souterraine ont ainsi été délimitées et classées en excellent, bon à très bon, assez bon et médiocre. Resumen. Las zonas de fracturación y de meteorización son las que condicionan el flujo de agua subterránea en rocas duras, debido a la falta de porosidad primaria en la matriz rocosa. Se utilizaron cinco conjuntos de datos fotográficos del satélite Landsat con el fin de preparar un mapa integrado hidrogeomorfológico de la cuenca del río Niva, al sur del estado Andhra Pradesh (India). El objetivo era estudiar el potencial de aguas subterráneas en esta región, que es propensa a períodos de sequía, en la que predominan las rocas duras. Se aplicó el modelo de deformación integrado de Larsson a la identificación de los sistemas de fracturación. El propósito era, por un lado, identificar los conjuntos de fracturas de tracción más jóvenes, que desempeñan un papel principal como reservorios de aguas subterráneas. Por otro lado, se quería comprender la importancia de la densidad de fracturación en el desarrollo de las aguas subterráneas. Se identificó una familia de fracturas de tracción con orientación N35°-55°E y otra familia N35°-55°W que contenía tanto bandas de cizalla como fracturas de tracción. Aparentemente, se trataba de las fracturas abiertas más recientes. El espesor de la zona de meteorización es grande cuando la densidad de fracturas de estas dos familias es elevada, hecho que está asociado a fluctuaciones pequeñas del nivel freático y

  16. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    'eau souterraine. Dans la région étudiée, les fractures N35°-55°E ont été identifiées comme étant en extension, et les fractures N35°-55°W comme étant à la fois en extension et en cisaillement. Ces fractures sont apparemment les fractures ouvertes les plus jeunes. Partout où la densité des fractures N35°-55°E et N35°-55°W est élevée, la zone altérée est plus épaisse, les fluctuations de la nappe sont faibles et les rendements des puits sont forts. Des zones à potentiel en eau souterraine ont ainsi été délimitées et classées en excellent, bon à très bon, assez bon et médiocre. Resumen. Las zonas de fracturación y de meteorización son las que condicionan el flujo de agua subterránea en rocas duras, debido a la falta de porosidad primaria en la matriz rocosa. Se utilizaron cinco conjuntos de datos fotográficos del satélite Landsat con el fin de preparar un mapa integrado hidrogeomorfológico de la cuenca del río Niva, al sur del estado Andhra Pradesh (India). El objetivo era estudiar el potencial de aguas subterráneas en esta región, que es propensa a períodos de sequía, en la que predominan las rocas duras. Se aplicó el modelo de deformación integrado de Larsson a la identificación de los sistemas de fracturación. El propósito era, por un lado, identificar los conjuntos de fracturas de tracción más jóvenes, que desempeñan un papel principal como reservorios de aguas subterráneas. Por otro lado, se quería comprender la importancia de la densidad de fracturación en el desarrollo de las aguas subterráneas. Se identificó una familia de fracturas de tracción con orientación N35°-55°E y otra familia N35°-55°W que contenía tanto bandas de cizalla como fracturas de tracción. Aparentemente, se trataba de las fracturas abiertas más recientes. El espesor de la zona de meteorización es grande cuando la densidad de fracturas de estas dos familias es elevada, hecho que está asociado a fluctuaciones pequeñas del nivel freático y

  17. Eco-environmental problems and effective utilization of water resources in the Kashi Plain, western Terim Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Nian-Feng; Tang, Jie; Han, Feng-Xiang

    2001-02-01

    Since ancient times, water resources, mainly from melting snow in the high mountains, have nourished a large area of an oasis in the Kashi Plain in the western Terim Basin, China. In the last half-century, however, the rapid growth of population and the overexploitation of water, soil, and biological resources have led to drought, salinization, and desertification in the area, and consequently have hindered the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, groundwater reservoirs with sustainable water supplies equivalent to 44.65×108 m3/year were identified, which has made it possible to implement several projects in the area to improve the ecological and agricultural environment. Three strategies are proposed for the integrated development and management of both surface-water and groundwater resources in the area. Résumé. Depuis des temps anciens, les ressources en eaux, provenant surtout de la fonte des neiges en montagne, ont alimenté une large part d'une oasis de la plaine de Kashi, dans le bassin occidental de Terim (Chine). Au cours des derniers cinquante ans, toutefois, l'accroissement rapide de la population et la surexploitation de l'eau, des sols et des ressources biologiques ont provoqué la sécheresse, la salinisation et la désertification de la région cela a eu pour conséquence d'entraver le développement d'une agriculture durable. Cette étude identifie les réserves en eau souterraine, susceptibles de fournir durablement 44,65×108 m3/an, ce qui a permis de réaliser plusieurs projets dans cette région pour améliorer l'environnement écologique et agricole. Trois stratégies sont proposées pour le développement intégré et la gestion simultanée des ressources en eau de surface et en eau souterraine de cette région. Resumen. Los recursos hídricos, procedentes fundamentalmente del deshielo en alta montaña, han nutrido desde tiempo inmemorial una gran área de un oasis situado en las llanuras de Kashi, en la cuenca occidental

  18. Shallow vs. Deep Fluid Sources In Hydrothermal Systems: New Insights From VOC Composition In Fumarolic Discharges And Soil Gases Of Yellowstone National Park (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Montegrossi, G.; Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Vaselli, O.

    2008-12-01

    the fumarolic condensates. This seems to indicate that biodegradation likely occurs even within the hydrothermal systems, since the production of low molecular mass organic acids is to be related to bacterial activity (Arnetoli et al., 2008 and references therein). S-bearing compounds are strongly controlled by the fS values and this would explain the relatively high concentrations of these species in the H2S-rich fumarolic discharges. As far as it concerns the relatively high abundance of halogenated compounds in the soil gases, it can be suggested that the origin of these species is likely to be related to atmospheric contribution. Actually, formation of Cl- bearing species from reactions between VOCs and Cl-rich fluids, such as those of the deep hydrothermal reservoir, is still matter of debate. Therefore, we may speculate that these compounds, characterized by chemical inertness, are added to the hydrothermal fluids from meteoric water recharging the system. References: Arnetoli, M., Montegrossi, G., Buccianti, A., Gonnelli, C., 2008. J. Agricol. Food Chem., 56, 789- 795. Capaccioni, B., Mangani, F., 2001. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 188, 543-555. Des Marais, D.J., Donchin, J.H., Truesdell, A.H., Nehring, N.L., 1981. Nature, 292, 826-828. Mango, F.D., 2000. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 64, 1265-1277.

  19. Laboratory simulation of water-resources conservation by means of the layout of a series of ponds along a streambank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Hung, Chao-Chi

    The purpose of this research is to describe a water-storage method that is more reliable than reservoirs, and to study the efficacy of interception and storage of surface runoff in ponds. In this method, a series of ponds is laid out along a streambank so that interception of surface runoff can be increased and more water can be stored in the wet season for use in the dry season. The simulated results show that the structure of a pond, vegetation and the extent of land development, topographic slope, and the degree to which a pond penetrates an aquifer affect the efficacy of interception and storage of surface runoff in ponds. Résumé Le but de ce travail est de décrire une méthode de stockage d'eau qui soit plus sure que les réservoirs, et d'étudier l'efficacité de l'interception et du stockage d'eau de ruissellement dans des bassins. Dans cette méthode, une série de bassins est disposée le long d'une berge de rivière de façon à ce que l'interception de l'écoulement de surface puisse être accrue et que plus d'eau puisse être stockée pendant la saison humide pour être utilisée en saison sèche. Les résultats de la simulation montrent que l'efficacité de l'interception et du stockage du ruissellement dans les bassins sont déterminés par la structure du bassin, la végétation et l'importance du développement agricole, la pente des versants et le degré de pénétration du bassin dans la nappe. Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un método de almacenamiento de agua que ofrece mayor garantía que los embalses, así como estudiar la eficacia de la intercepción y almacenamiento de la escorrentía superficial en pequeñas lagunas artificiales. Este método consiste en crear una serie de lagunas a lo largo de las riberas de un torrente, de manera que intercepción de la escorrentía superficial se pueda incrementar y se almacene más agua en la época húmeda para su utilización en la época seca. Los resultados simulados muestran

  20. Assessment of long-term erosion in a mountain vineyard, Aosta Valley (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Zecca, Odoardo; Barmaz, Andrea; Godone, Franco; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    Tillage and chemical weeding are common soil management techniques adopted in mountain vineyards, with high slope gradient, to maintain bare soil. Both techniques exposes the soil to degradation, favoring runoff and soil losses, that may cause relevant on-site and off-site damage. Steep mountain slopes makes optimum conditions for grape-growing. In the mountain region of Aosta Valley, NW Italy, the vineyards were, in the past, traditionally grown on terraces supported by dry stone walls. Since the 1960s the plantation of vines in the direction of the slope became more and more widespread, also on very steep slopes. Generally, no particular measure to channel and control surface water is adopted in this area due to the low rainfall (560 mm/year). Nevertheless in steep mountain slope rainfall events can cause important runoff erosion. In order to evaluate the long-term effect of vineyard management techniques on soil erosion, a study was carried out on a mountain slope vineyard located near Aosta, at about 900 m above the sea level. The vineyard was planted at the end of 1960s and is managed by the Institut Agricole Régional. The rows are accommodated oriented along the slope, which is about 45%. The inter-rows' soil management of the vineyard included chemical weeding and, in first year after plantation, the adoption of irrigation (by fixed overhead sprinklers) and hilling-up/taking-out the soil around the vine plants, to protect them from cold weather. The long-term soil erosion rate was determined adopting the technique of botanical benchmark (Casalí et al.,2009). The grafting callus was used as a marker to identify the paleo-surface at the time of planting. A detailed topographic survey was carried out to determine the present surface of the vineyard while the current position of the grafting callus was recorded for a number of plants. The original position of the callus was estimated by data obtained by farmers and by a survey on reference vineyards. Two

  1. Major water balance variables Estimation, soil moisture and evaporation time series, using X-band SAR moisture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrab, Azza; Simonneaux, Vincent; Zribi, Mehrez; Saadi, Sameh; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, the rain scarcity in front of long periods of drought especially in semi-arid regions, have a negative impact on the available water resources. In addition, a major part of the intercepted water is lost either by evaporation from the soil back to the atmosphere or by drainage, deep percolation and subsurface runoff. Therefore, knowledge and calculating the water fluxes within the soil-atmosphere system is a major issue for the improvement of water use efficiency. Many studies have been carried out to quantify these fluxes by developing various tools which estimate the soil water regime and may consequently the sustainable management of natural resources (Simmoneaux et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2010; Sutanto et al., 2012 and Saadi et al., 2015). The amount of water stored in the soil is a crucial parameter that can be used as inputs to simulate surface evaporation fluxes and vertical water circulation as surface water capillarity movements and underground percolation. Great progress has been made in the recent decades aiming at developing soil moisture (SM) retrieval techniques by using Imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. Several algorithms have been developed to retrieve SM from radar data (Zribi et al., 2011 Baghdadi et al., 2008 and Gorrab et al., 2015). The assimilation of SM SAR products into hydrological balance models is one exciting aspect that offers an opportunity to improve hydrologic model forecasts. In this context, the present study highlighted the capability of the high resolution TerraSAR-X SM products in reproducing real conditions of SM variations. We developed a soil hydrological model MHYSAN (Modelisation de Bilan HYdrique des Sols Agricoles Nus) over agricultural bare soil in Central Tunisia (North Africa). The MHYSAN tool computes surface evaporation and SM time series to simulate water balance in Central Tunisia. The accuracy of the MHYSAN tool was assessed at both regional scale (calibration based on ground

  2. Vers une méthode de réglage expérimentale des commandes PID floues : application aux systèmes électromécaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maussion, P.; Hissel, D.

    1998-08-01

    Electrical and electromechanical systems have to satisfy to more and more constrained specifications. Therefore, non-linear control structures must be spread out. Among them, fuzzy logic control can be one interessant and performant alternative. The main handicap of this kind of stucture resides in the fact that the tuning parameters are very numerous. In this paper, we first propose an on-site tuning strategy of this set of parameters in the case of a fuzzy proportionnal-integrative controller based on the experimental designs methodology and on a limited number of pre-defined closed-loop experiments. Then, a complete set of predetermined parameters for a fuzzy proportionnal-integrative-derivative controller will be given. These parameters have been optimized on a specified benchmark according to an IAE criterion. They are calculated like the Ziegler-Nichols or Broïda methodology on conventional controllers; that is, using a single open-loop step response to obtain a model of a first-order plus delay transfert function. Validity limits for this method are provided. Les systèmes électriques ou électromécaniques doivent satisfaire à des spécifications de plus en plus contraignantes qui nécessitent la mise au point de structures de commande non linéaires. Parmi celles-ci, la commande par logique floue constitue une alternative intéressante et performante. Son principal handicap réside dans le nombre très important de paramètres à régler. Dans cet article, nous nous proposons de systématiser ces réglages dans deux cas de figure. Tout d'abord nous utiliserons la méthodologie des plans d'expérimentations pour effectuer un réglage sur site d'un contrôleur flou de type proportionnel-intégral. Ce réglage sera obtenu en ne réalisant qu'un nombre limité d'essais expérimentaux en boucle fermée avec des combinaisons prédéfinies des paramètres à régler. La combinaison optimale de ces paramètres au sens d'un critère de type IAE (Intégrale de la

  3. Cost-effectiveness of the management of rh-negative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Duplantie, Julie; Martinez Gonzales, Odilon; Bois, Antoine; Nshimyumukiza, Léon; Gekas, Jean; Bujold, Emmanuel; Morin, Valérie; Vallée, Maud; Giguère, Yves; Gagné, Christian; Rousseau, François; Reinharz, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Objectif : Cette étude avait pour objectif d’identifier l’option la plus rentable pour la prévention de l’allo-immunisation contre le facteur Rh. Méthodes : Une population virtuelle québécoise de femmes enceintes séronégatives pour le facteur Rh a été créée pour simuler la rentabilité de la prévention de l’allo-immunisation. Ce modèle a pris en considération quatre options : (1) l’utilisation systématique d’immunoglobuline anti-D; (2) le génotypage Rh(D) fœtal; (3) la détermination immunologique du type Rh du père; (4) le dépistage mixte : détermination immunologique du type Rh du père, suivie (en présence de résultats positifs) du génotypage Rh(D) fœtal. Deux critères d’évaluation ont été pris en considération, en plus des coûts estimés : (1) le nombre d’enfants nés sans maladie hémolytique et (2) le nombre de nouveau-nés survivants. Résultats : Dans le cas d’une première grossesse, deux options se sont avérées les plus rentables : la prophylaxie systématique et la détermination immunologique du type Rh du père; leurs intervalles de confiance se chevauchaient. Dans le cas d’une deuxième grossesse, les résultats ont été semblables. Dans tous les cas (première ou deuxième grossesse, ou une combinaison des deux), nous avons constaté que le génotypage fœtal ne constituait pas une option rentable. Conclusion : La mise en œuvre systématique d’une prophylaxie et la détermination immunologique du type Rh du père constituent les options les plus rentables pour la prévention de l’allo-immunisation contre le facteur Rh. Puisqu’il est peu probable que la détermination immunologique du type Rh du père soit mise en œuvre par la majorité des cliniciens, la prophylaxie systématique demeure l’option à privilégier. Cependant, cela pourrait changer si le coût du génotypage Rh(D) fœtal chutait en deçà de 140 $ par prélèvement.

  4. Technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique et ring-tree: Un nouveau systeme de communication P2P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Simon

    Le reseau de distribution et de transport de l'electricite se modernise dans plusieurs pays dont le Canada. La nouvelle generation de ce reseau que l'on appelle smart grid, permet entre autre l'automatisation de la production, de la distribution et de la gestion de la charge chez les clients. D'un autre cote, des appareils domestiques intelligents munis d'une interface de communication pour des applications du smart grid commencent a apparaitre sur le marche. Ces appareils intelligents pourraient creer une communaute virtuelle pour optimiser leurs consommations d'une facon distribuee. La gestion distribuee de ces charges intelligentes necessite la communication entre un grand nombre d'equipements electriques. Ceci represente un defi important a relever surtout si on ne veut pas augmenter le cout de l'infrastructure et de la maintenance. Lors de cette these deux systemes distincts ont ete concus : un systeme de communication peer-to-peer, appele Ring-Tree, permettant la communication entre un nombre important de noeuds (jusqu'a de l'ordre de grandeur du million) tel que des appareils electriques communicants et une technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique. Le systeme de communication Ring-Tree inclut une nouvelle topologie reseau qui n'a jamais ete definie ou exploitee auparavant. Il inclut egalement des algorithmes pour la creation, l'exploitation et la maintenance de ce reseau. Il est suffisamment simple pour etre mis en oeuvre sur des controleurs associes aux dispositifs tels que des chauffe-eaux, chauffage a accumulation, bornes de recharges electriques, etc. Il n'utilise pas un serveur centralise (ou tres peu, seulement lorsqu'un noeud veut rejoindre le reseau). Il offre une solution distribuee qui peut etre mise en oeuvre sans deploiement d'une infrastructure autre que les controleurs sur les dispositifs vises. Finalement, un temps de reponse de quelques secondes pour atteindre 1'ensemble du reseau peut etre obtenu, ce qui est

  5. Drépanocytose chez l'enfant lushois de 6 à 59 mois en phase stationnaire: épidémiologie et clinique

    PubMed Central

    Shongo, Mick Ya Pongombo; Mukuku, Olivier; Lubala, Toni Kasole; Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Kanteng, Gray Wakamb; Umumbu, Winnie Sombodi; Lukamba, Robert Mbuli; Wembonyama, Stanislas Okitotsho; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La drépanocytose constitue un véritable problème de santé publique avec une prévalence importante des formes majeures SS. L'objectif de notre étude est de déterminer le profil épidémiologique et clinique de la drépanocytose chez les homozygotes SS lushois âgés de 6 à 59 mois en phase stationnaire. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive des aspects épidémio-cliniques des enfants drépanocytaires homozygotes SS lushois âgés de 6 à 59 mois en phase inter critique de la maladie. Les paramètres étudiés sont: l’âge, le sexe, le niveau socio-économique, l'origine ethnique, le passé médical (âge et type de la première crise et nombre de transfusion), l'appréciation de l'ictère, la classification de la splénomégalie et la recherche du déficit moteur. Résultats La moyenne d’âge est de 39,1±16,3 mois et le sexe féminin était prédominant (53,7%). Les 3/5 de nos patients sont d'un niveau de vie bas et l'ethnie Luba représente 68,3% de cas. L’âge moyen d'apparition de la première crise se situe à 10,1±10,0 mois. La majorité a présenté sa première crise avant d'atteindre l’âge de 12 mois et plus de la moitié a présenté un syndrome pieds-main ou dactylite comme première crise. Le nombre moyen de transfusion est de 2,1 transfusions. La rate était palpable dans 73,2% des cas et l'ictère était observé dans plus de 60% de cas. Conclusion La drépanocytose reste un véritable problème de santé publique dans notre pays. Faute de dépistage néonatal systématique, le diagnostic est souvent posé en présence d'un signe d'appel. La meilleure connaissance des différents aspects cliniques de la maladie devraient permettre de réduire la mortalité infanto-juvénile. PMID:25709729

  6. Variation spatiotemporelle de la cryptorchidie et de l’hypospadias au Québec : Une étude exploratoire

    PubMed Central

    Guertin, Sophie; Lemieux, Karine-Sylvie; Makhoulian, Natalie; Michaud, Sébastien; Patry, Rose-Marie; Côté, Anne-Andrée; Gagnon, Fabien; Ayotte, Pierre; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectifs : La majorité des études effectuées au cours des dernières décennies ont mis en évidence une augmentation du nombre de cas de cryptorchidie et d’hypospadias entre 1970 et 1990. De plus, l’importante variabilité géographique de ces anomalies est bien décrite. Cette étude vise à mesurer la prévalence à la naissance de la cryptorchidie et de l’hypospadias au Québec, à vérifier si ces anomalies sont en augmentation et à en évaluer la répartition interrégionale. Méthode : Une étude épidémiologique descriptive a été réalisée à partir du nombre de garçons de cinq ans et moins hospitalisés pour une cryptorchidie ou un hypospadias au Québec de 1989 à 2004 selon les données du fichier administratif d’hospitalisation MED-ÉCHO. Les données sur les naissances provenaient de l’Institut de la statistique du Québec. Résultats : La prévalence annuelle moyenne pour 1000 naissances vivantes de sexe masculin est de 19,1 (IC à 95 % : 18,8–19,4) pour la cryptorchidie et 11,4 (IC à 95 % 11,1–11,6) pour l’hypospadias au Québec. Au cours de la période étudiée, la prévalence de cryptorchidie a légèrement diminué, alors que celle de l’hypospadias est demeurée stable. Comparativement à la province du Québec, des régions présentent une prévalence significativement différente de cryptorchidie et/ou d’hypospadias. . Conclusion : Au Québec, la prévalence de cryptorchidie est en légère diminution alors que celle de l’hypospadias est stable. Des variations régionales significatives sont observables. D’autres études sont nécessaires afin d’évaluer l’hypothèse d’un lien avec les contaminants environnementaux en émergence. L’implantation d’un système de surveillance des anomalies congénitales permettrait une représentation plus valide de la situation. PMID:21672476

  7. Experiencing Health Advocacy During Cervical Cancer Awareness Week: A National Initiative for Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents.

    PubMed

    Posner, Glenn; Finlayson, Sarah; Luna, Vilma; Miller, Dianne; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Objectif : Le Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada exige que les résidents fassent preuve de compétence dans le rôle de promoteur de la santé (PS ou promotion de la santé). Nous avons cherché à élaborer et à mettre en œuvre, à l’intention des résidents en obstétrique-gynécologie, un module pédagogique national traitant de ce rôle de PS. Ce programme pilote était centré sur la prévention du cancer du col utérin, soit un sujet se prêtant bien à l’application des principes de la promotion de la santé. Méthodes : Un module pédagogique a été élaboré et transmis à tous les programmes de résidence en obstétrique-gynécologie au Canada. Ce module décrit les options de PS mettant en jeu le dépistage de la dysplasie cervicale (telles qu’une clinique visant l’élargissement de la population desservie ou un forum d’éducation visant le public / la population étudiante) qui devaient être mises en œuvre au cours de la Semaine de sensibilisation au cancer du col de l’utérus. La réussite a été mesurée en fonction du nombre de programmes mettant en œuvre le curriculum, du nombre de résidents y ayant participé, de la diversité des projets mis en œuvre, de la nature des personnes (patientes ou apprenants) atteintes par le programme et de l’expérience globale des stagiaires. Résultats : Trois programmes ont mis en œuvre le curriculum en 2011, un programme l’a fait en 2012 et sept l’ont fait en 2013. Après trois ans, le module s’est attiré la participation directe ou indirecte de sept des 16 facultés de médecine, de plus de 100 résidents et de milliers de femmes. De plus, les attributs de la PS vécus par les résidents ont été identifiés : travail d’équipe, leadership, connaissances accrues au sujet des systèmes, capital social accru au sein de la communauté, créativité, innovation et adaptabilité. Conclusion : Nous avons démontré qu’un module pédagogique, visant

  8. Provoked Vestibulodynia and the Health Care Implications of Comorbid Pain Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lester, Robynn A; Brotto, Lori A; Sadownik, Leslie A

    2015-11-01

    Objectif : La douleur sexuelle attribuable à la vestibulodynie provoquée (VDP) est un trouble de douleur chronique qui affecte jusqu’à 16 % des femmes. Les femmes qui présentent une VDP pourraient en venir à signaler d’autres troubles de douleur chronique. Cette étude avait pour objectif (1) d’identifier la prévalence des troubles de douleur chronique auto-signalés au sein d’un échantillon de femmes ayant obtenu un diagnostic de VDP et cherchant à obtenir un traitement; et (2) de comparer les caractéristiques démographiques et cliniques et les besoins en soins de santé des femmes qui ne présentent qu’une VDP et des femmes qui présentent une VDP et au moins deux troubles de douleur chronique auto-signalés. Méthodes : Nous avons évalué les caractéristiques de 236 femmes ne présentant qu’une VDP et de 55 femmes présentant une VDP et une douleur chronique comorbide au moyen d’un questionnaire standardisé, de l’Inventaire de dépression de Beck, du State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, du Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire et de la Female Sexual Distress Scale. Résultats : Par comparaison avec les femmes qui ne présentaient qu’une VDP, les femmes qui présentaient celle-ci et une autre douleur concomitante ont signalé une douleur d’une durée significativement prolongée, une douleur irradiant vers d’autres parties de la vulve et une douleur nuisant à diverses activités de la vie quotidienne. Les femmes de ce groupe étaient également significativement plus susceptibles que les femmes ne présentant qu’une VDP d’avoir consulté un plus grand nombre de gynécologues et de s’être rendues un plus grand nombre de fois au cabinet de leur gynécologue. Elles étaient plus susceptibles d’avoir fait l’essai d’anticonvulsivants, d’antidépresseurs et d’une thérapie anti-stress / de relaxation pour contrer leur VDP, et également plus susceptibles de connaître des allergies et des sensibilités cutan

  9. Parametrisation D'effets Non-Standard EN Phenomenologie Electrofaible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymyk, Ivan

    Cette these pat articles porte sur la parametrisation d'effets non standard en physique electrofaible. Dans chaque analyse, nous avons ajoute plusieurs operateurs non standard au lagrangien du modele standard electrofaible. Les operateurs non standard decrivent les nouveaux effets decoulant d'un modele sous-jacent non-specefie. D'emblee, le nombre d'operateurs non standard que l'on peut inclure dans une telle analyse est illimite. Mais pour une classe specifique de modeles sous-jacents, les effets non standard peuvent etre decrits par un nombre raisonnable d'operateurs. Dans chaque analyse nous avons developpe des expressions pour des observables electrofaibles, en fonction des coefficients des operateurs nouveaux. En effectuant un "fit" statistique sur un ensemble de donnees experimentales precises, nous avons obtenu des contraintes phenomenologiques sur ces coefficients. Dans "Model-Independent Global Constraints on New Physics", nous avons adopte des hypotheses tres peu contraignantes relatives aux modeles sous-jacents. Nous avons tronque le lagrangien effectif a la dimension cinq (inclusivement). Visant la plus grande generalite possible, nous avons admis des interactions qui ne respectent pas les symetries discretes (soit C, P et CP) ainsi que des interactions qui ne conservent pas la saveur. Le lagrangien effectif contient une quarantaine d'operateurs nouveaux. Nous avons determine que, pour la plupart des coefficients des nouveaux operateurs, les contraintes sont assez serrees (2 ou 3%), mais il y a des exceptions interessantes. Dans "Bounding Anomalous Three-Gauge-Boson Couplings", nous avons determine des contraintes phenomenologiques sur les deviations des couplages a trois bosons de jauge par rapport aux interactions prescrites par le modele standard. Pour ce faire, nous avons calcule les contributions indirectes des CTBJ non standard aux observables de basse energie. Puisque le lagrangien effectif est non-renormalisable, certaines difficultes techniques

  10. The Cost of Unintended Pregnancies in Canada: Estimating Direct Cost, Role of Imperfect Adherence, and the Potential Impact of Increased Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Guilbert, Edith; Hassan, Fareen; Chatziheofilou, Ismini; Lowin, Julia; Jeddi, Mark; Filonenko, Anna; Trussell, James

    2015-12-01

    Objectif : Les grossesses non planifiées (GNP) sont associées à un fardeau financier considérable; au Canada, l’ampleur de ce fardeau demeure inconnue. Cette étude avait pour objectif de quantifier les coûts directs des GNP au Canada, la proportion des coûts liés aux GNP attribuables à une observance imparfaite du schéma posologique contraceptif et les économies potentielles associées à un accroissement de l’utilisation de modes de contraception réversible à action prolongée (CRAP). Méthodes : Un modèle de coût a été conçu pour estimer le nombre annuel de GNP et leurs coûts directs chez les femmes âgées de 18 à 44 ans. Les taux de GNP associés à l’observance ont été estimés au moyen des taux d’échec de la contraception en utilisation parfaite et en utilisation typique. Les modifications du nombre annuel de GNP et les effets sur le fardeau financier ont été projetés dans le cadre de trois scénarios prévoyant un accroissement du recours aux modes de CRAP. Des analyses simples de la variance en matière de sensibilité ont été menées pour évaluer les effets de variables clés sur les scénarios prévoyant un accroissement du recours aux modes de CRAP. Résultats : On compte plus de 180 700 GNP chaque année au Canada. Les coûts directs qui leur sont associés sont de plus de 320 millions de dollars. Cinquante-huit pour cent (58 %) des GNP se sont manifestées chez des femmes de 20 à 29 ans, ce qui représente un coût annuel de 175 millions de dollars; 82 % de ce coût (143 millions de dollars) étaient attribuables à la non-observance du schéma posologique contraceptif. L’accroissement du recours aux modes de CRAP a généré des économies de plus de 34 millions de dollars dans le cadre des trois scénarios de transition envisagés; les économies les plus importantes (35 millions de dollars) ont été constatées dans le cadre du scénario prévoyant que 10 % des utilisatrices de contraceptifs

  11. Evaluation de l’état vaccinal contre l’hépatite B et portage de l’Ag HBs chez le personnel médical et paramédical de l’Hôpital Central de Yaoundé, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Dominique Noah; Ngaba, Guy Pascal; Bagnaka, Servais Fiacre Eloumou; Assi, Constant; Ngantchet, Emmanuel; Njoya, Oudou

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L’hépatite virale B est une affection à haut risque pour le personnel de santé. Au Cameroun, la vaccination contre le virus de l’hépatite B n'est pas obligatoire pour le personnel de santé. Le but de l’étude était d'évaluer l’état vaccinal contre l’hépatite virale B et la prévalence de l’Antigène HBs au sein du personnel médical et paramédical de l’Hôpital Central de Yaoundé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective, transversale menée à l’Hôpital Central de Yaoundé du 1er juillet au 31 octobre 2011. Toute personne membre du corps médical et paramédical ayant signée la fiche de consentement éclairé était incluse dans l’étude. Ceux ayant refusé de signer la fiche de consentement éclairé ou dont la fiche d'enquête n'avait pas été complètement remplie étaient exclus de l’étude. Une recherche systématique de l’antigène HBs était effectuée chez chaque personne incluse dans l’étude. Résultats Au total 282 personnes ont participé à l’étude sur 760, soit un taux de participation de 37,1%. Les personnes ne connaissant pas leur statut sérologique vis-à-vis du virus de l’hépatite B était au nombre de 221 (85%). Deux cent vingt-cinq (86,5%) personnes n'étaient pas vaccinées contre l’hépatite B. Les personnes ayant reçu moins de 3 doses du vaccin contre l’hépatite virale B étaient au nombre de 23 (8,8%). Douze personnes (4,6%) déclaraient avoir reçu les 3 doses du vaccin contre l’hépatite virale B. La prévalence de l’antigène HBs était de 6,6% (n = 12). Conclusion Cette étude montre que la prévalence de l’hépatite virale B reste élevée chez le personnel de l’Hôpital Central de Yaoundé (6,6%). Il ya un besoin de sensibilisation du personnel médical aux risques liés à l’exercice de leur profession. PMID:24778748

  12. Ecoulement et mise en structure de suspensions macroscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, L.

    In this review, we report the various experimental studies performed on suspensions of solid particules in liquids, and concerning the rheological behaviour of such systems and the ordering of particules under the applied velocity fields. The number of materials which are flowing suspensions (reagents in chemical engineering, paints while spreading, blood flow, muds in oil reservoir) gave rise to a number of experimental studies, especially in the last twenty years. The results show a wide variety of behaviour, even for systems of intermediate concentration. In addition, even for identical systems, the results depend of the type of flow. Then, it is clear that, in addition of the standard parameters which are to be taken into account, it is necessary to consider the type of flow the suspension is submitted to. The flow influences the spatial distribution of the particules, leading to their ordering or migration. These ordering or motions influence the flow, and then, the rheological behaviour of the whole system. So, there is a feedback mechanism from the ordering to the flow, which explains the experimental observations. Nous reportons dans cette revue les différentes études expérimentales réalisées sur les suspensions de particules solides dans un liquide et qui concernent le comportement rhéologique de ces systèmes ainsi que les mouvements des particules sous l'effet des champs de vitesse imposés. Ces mouvements peuvent conduire soit à des mises en structure, ou encore à des migrations des particules. L'importance du nombre de matériaux qui se présentent sous forme de suspension et qui sont mis en écoulement (réactif en génie chimique, peintures lors de leur mise en place, écoulement sanguin, boues dans les forages pétroliers,...) a motivé un grand nombre de travaux expérimentaux plus fondamentaux sur le sujet, particulièrement dans les vingt dernières années. Les résultats correspondants montrent une très grande diversité des

  13. Antiviral efficacy of favipiravir against two prominent etiological agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P; Furuta, Yousuke; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B

    2013-10-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by infection with several Sigmodontinae- and Neotominae-borne hantaviruses and has a case fatality rate of 30 to 50%. Humans often become infected by inhalation of materials contaminated with virus-laden rodent urine or saliva, although human-to-human transmission has also been documented for Andes virus (ANDV). The ability to transmit via aerosolization, coupled with the high mortality rates and lack of therapeutic options, makes the development of medical countermeasures against HPS imperative. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) against Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and ANDV, the predominant causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. In vitro, T-705 potently inhibited SNV and ANDV, as evidenced by decreased detection of viral RNA and reduced infectious titers. For both viruses, the 90% effective concentration was estimated at ≤5 μg/ml (≤31.8 μM). In the lethal ANDV hamster model, daily administration of oral T-705 at 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight diminished the detection of viral RNA and antigen in tissue specimens and significantly improved survival rates. Oral T-705 therapy remained protective against HPS when treatment was initiated prior to the onset of viremia. No disease model for SNV exists; however, using a hamster-adapted SNV, we found that daily administration of oral T-705 significantly reduced the detection of SNV RNA and antigen in tissue specimens, suggesting that the compound would also be effective against HPS in North America. Combined, these results suggest that T-705 treatment is beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis against HPS-causing viruses and should be considered for probable exposures.

  14. Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for the Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies against Clinically Important Old and New World Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Sabine; Lattwein, Erik; Hanke, Merle; Sonnenberg, Karen; Stoecker, Winfried; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Chan, Paul K. S.; Feldmann, Heinz; Dick, Daryl; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Padula, Paula; Vial, Pablo A.; Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca; Ceianu, Cornelia; Heyman, Paul; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala (PUUV), Seoul (SEOV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Dobrava (DOBV), Sin Nombre (SNV) or Andes (ANDV). For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n = 97); SEOV (China, n = 5); DOBV (Romania, n = 7); SNV (Canada, n = 23); ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n = 52). The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n = 177; 96%) and/or IgM (n = 131; 72%), while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99%) of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71%) IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%). Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%). Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2%) showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV). PMID:23593524

  15. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  16. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa C; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running") bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food. PMID:25898267

  17. Facteurs déterminants le regret après ligature tubaire

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Houssine; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Samouh, Naïma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La ligature tubaire peut générer regret. Le but de cette étude est d’étudier le vécu après la stérilisation ainsi que le regret et ses facteurs de risque. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective chez 52 femmes stérilisées entre 2004 et 2010. Résultats Vingt cinq (48%) femmes avaient regretté la réalisation de la ligature tubaire. La moyenne d’âge était de 40,5 ans. Le temps consacré aux explications était très court dans tous les cas. Trois quart des femmes n’était pas au courant des complications de la ligature tubaire. Le regret était dû au facteur religieux (23%), aux algies pelviennes (11,5%), au désir d'autres enfants (9,6%) ou à la prise de connaissance d'autres moyens contraceptifs (3,9%). Conclusion Un certains nombre de facteurs de risque de regret de la ligature tubaire sont retrouvés dans la littérature, comme dans notre série, dont l’âge, le désir de procréer, l'information incomplète, le délai de réflexion et le facteur religieux. PMID:25309644

  18. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  19. Polarized entry and release in epithelial cells of Black Creek Canal virus, a New World hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Ravkov, E V; Nichol, S T; Compans, R W

    1997-02-01

    Black Creek Canal (BCC) virus is a newly identified hantavirus from Florida which is carried by the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) and is associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). We have investigated the interaction of BCC virus with polarized epithelial cells to examine whether entry and release of this virus occur at specific plasma membrane domains. The polarized Vero C1008 monkey kidney cell line was grown on permeable filters and infected with BCC virus either through the apical or basolateral surface. As shown by indirect immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation analysis, cells infected through the apical surface demonstrated a high level of susceptibility to BCC virus infection. In contrast, Vero C1008 cells infected basolaterally exhibited a barely detectable level of BCC virus-synthesized proteins. Titration of virus from apical and basolateral media of infected cells has demonstrated that virus titers released from the apical surface are about 1,200-fold greater than the titer of virus released into the basolateral media. The site of BCC virus release from polarized cells is, therefore, different from that previously described for release of other members of the family Bunyaviridae and may reflect one of the determinants of hantavirus pathogenesis. In addition, we have shown that BCC viral glycoproteins are expressed at the plasma membrane on the apical surface of polarized cells. Electron microscopy studies of the infected cells revealed evidence of BCC virus budding at the plasma membrane. This strongly indicates that, in contrast to most other members of the Bunyaviridae, BCC virus is assembled at the plasma membrane. Since the same site of virus assembly was recently described for Sin Nombre virus, it is likely that all of the new American hantaviruses associated with HPS utilize this same type of virus maturation.

  20. Antiviral Efficacy of Favipiravir against Two Prominent Etiological Agents of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P.; Furuta, Yousuke; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by infection with several Sigmodontinae- and Neotominae-borne hantaviruses and has a case fatality rate of 30 to 50%. Humans often become infected by inhalation of materials contaminated with virus-laden rodent urine or saliva, although human-to-human transmission has also been documented for Andes virus (ANDV). The ability to transmit via aerosolization, coupled with the high mortality rates and lack of therapeutic options, makes the development of medical countermeasures against HPS imperative. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) against Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and ANDV, the predominant causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. In vitro, T-705 potently inhibited SNV and ANDV, as evidenced by decreased detection of viral RNA and reduced infectious titers. For both viruses, the 90% effective concentration was estimated at ≤5 μg/ml (≤31.8 μM). In the lethal ANDV hamster model, daily administration of oral T-705 at 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight diminished the detection of viral RNA and antigen in tissue specimens and significantly improved survival rates. Oral T-705 therapy remained protective against HPS when treatment was initiated prior to the onset of viremia. No disease model for SNV exists; however, using a hamster-adapted SNV, we found that daily administration of oral T-705 significantly reduced the detection of SNV RNA and antigen in tissue specimens, suggesting that the compound would also be effective against HPS in North America. Combined, these results suggest that T-705 treatment is beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis against HPS-causing viruses and should be considered for probable exposures. PMID:23856782

  1. Single- and double-strand breaks induced in plasmid DNA irradiated by ultra-soft X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayard, B.; Touati, A.; Sage, E.; Abel, F.; Champion, C.; Chetoui, A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular consequences of a carbon K photo-ionization located on DNA, dry pBS plasmid samples were irradiated with ultra-soft X-rays at energies below and above the carbon K-threshold (E_K=278 eV). Single- and double-strand breaks (ssb and dsb) were quantified after resolution of the three plasmid forms (supercoiled, relaxed circular, linear) by gel electrophoresis. A factor of 1.2 was found between the doses required at 250 eV and 380 eV to induce the same number of dsb per plasmid. Dans le but d'étudier les conséquences à l'échelle moléculaire d'une photo- ionisation en couche K du carbone de l'ADN, des dépots de plasmides ont été irradiés à sec par des X ultra-mous d'énergies situées de part et d'autre du seuil d'ionisation en couche interne du carbone (E_K=278 eV). Les taux de cassures simple- et double-brin (ssb et dsb) ont été quantifiées après résolution des trois formes de plasmide (surenroulé, circulaire relaché, linéaire) par électrophorèse. Un facteur de 1.2 a été mesuré entre les doses nécessaires à 250 eV et 380 eV pour produire le même nombre de dsb par plasmide.

  2. Learning algorithms for perceptrons from statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Mirta B.; Peretto, Pierre; Berchier, Dominique

    1993-02-01

    Learning algorithms for perceptrons are deduced from statistical mechanics. Thermodynamical quantities are used as cost functions which may be extremalized by gradient dynamics to find the synaptic efficacies that store the learning set of patterns. The learning rules so obtained are classified in two categories, following the statistics used to derive the cost functions, namely, Boltzmann statistics, and Fermi statistics. In the limits of zero or infinite temperatures some of the rules behave like already known algorithms, but new strategies for learning are obtained at finite temperatures, which minimize the number of errors on the training set. Nous déduisons des algorithmes d'apprentissage pour des perceptrons à partir de considérations de mécanique statistique. Des quantités thermodynamiques sont considérées comme des fonctions de coût, dont on obtient, par une dynamique de gradient, les efficacités synaptiques qui apprennent l'ensemble d'apprentissage. Les règles ainsi obtenues sont classées en deux catégories suivant les statistiques, de Boltzmann ou de Fermi, utilisées pour dériver les fonctions de coût. Dans les limites de températures nulle ou infinie, la plupart des règles trouvées tendent vers les algorithmes connus, mais à température finie on trouve des stratégies nouvelles, qui minimisent le nombre d'erreurs dans l'ensemble d'apprentissage.

  3. Recognition of decay accelerating factor and alpha(v)beta(3) by inactivated hantaviruses: Toward the development of high-throughput screening flow cytometry assays.

    PubMed

    Buranda, Tione; Wu, Yang; Perez, Dominique; Jett, Stephen D; BonduHawkins, Virginie; Ye, Chunyan; Edwards, Bruce; Hall, Pamela; Larson, Richard S; Lopez, Gabriel P; Sklar, Larry A; Hjelle, Brian

    2010-07-15

    Hantaviruses cause two severe diseases in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). The lack of vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HFRS and HCPS and the requirement for conducting experiments in a biosafety level 3 laboratory (BSL-3) limit the ability to probe the mechanism of infection and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we developed a generalizable spectroscopic assay to quantify saturable fluorophore sites solubilized in envelope membranes of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) particles. We then used flow cytometry and live cell confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to show that ultraviolet (UV)-killed SNV particles bind to the cognate receptors of live virions, namely, decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) expressed on Tanoue B cells and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins expressed on Vero E6 cells. SNV binding to DAF is multivalent and of high affinity (K(d) approximately 26pM). Self-exchange competition binding assays between fluorescently labeled SNV and unlabeled SNV are used to evaluate an infectious unit-to-particle ratio of approximately 1:14,000. We configured the assay for measuring the binding of fluorescently labeled SNV to Tanoue B suspension cells using a high-throughput flow cytometer. In this way, we established a proof-of-principle high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for binding inhibition. This is a first step toward developing HTS format assays for small molecule inhibitors of viral-cell interactions as well as dissecting the mechanism of infection in a BSL-2 environment.

  4. Intérêt de la plaque en crochet dans les luxations récentes acromio claviculaire stade III et V de Rockwood: à propos de 12 cas

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Mohammed; Elidrissi, Mohamed; Mechchat, Atif; Elibrahimi, Abedelhalim; Elmrini, Abedelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations acromio-claviculaires récentes stade III et V de Rockwood posent un problème d'indication thérapeutique, un grand nombre d'auteurs s'accordent sur l'intérêt du traitement chirurgical à fin de garantir la stabilité des résultats. Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical par plaque en crochet. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur deux ans et demi, comportant 12 patients, tous de sexe masculin présentant une luxation aigue stade III dans 09 cas et un stade V dans 03 cas, l’étiologie été dominée par les AVP dans 75% des cas. Tous les patients ont été opérés par plaque en crochet sans aucune réparation ligamentaire. Après un recul moyen de 17 mois (06 et 30 mois), on a eu un score de Constant moyen de 92,4 (88 et 100), on eu un cas d'ostéolyse au niveau de l'acromion et un cas d'inconfort sous acromial. A travers notre travail et la littérature on peut dire que la plaque en crochet est un moyen simple, peu invasif qui donne des résultats satisfaisants dans la prise en charge des luxations acromio-claviculaires stade III et V avec peu de complications. PMID:25161747

  5. Hantavirus testing in rodents of north-central New Mexico 1993-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Salisbury, M.

    1996-03-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993, 1994, and 1995 the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations using live capture-recapture methods in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, to determine seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region. EST used trapping grids in 1993 and 1994 and used trapping webs in 1995. Grids were 120 m x 120 m (400 ft x 400 ft) with 144 trap stations at each grid. Three webs consisting of 148 traps each were used in 1995. Trapping took place over 4 to 8 consecutive nights. Programs CAPTURE and Distance were used to determine density estimates for grids and webs, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control and the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The 1994 and 1995 samples were analyzed by the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most commonly captured species at all locations except one site where voles (Microtus spp.) were the most commonly captured species. Other species sampled included: harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), shrews (Sorex spp.), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). Results of the 1993, 1994, and 1995 testing identified a total overall seroprevalence rate among deer mice of approximately 5.5%, 4.2%, and 0%, respectively. Several other species tested positive for the hantavirus but it is uncertain if it is Sin Nombre virus. Further studies will be necessary to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Higher seroprevalence rates were found in males than females. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  6. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Sabine; Lattwein, Erik; Hanke, Merle; Sonnenberg, Karen; Stoecker, Winfried; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Chan, Paul K S; Feldmann, Heinz; Dick, Daryl; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Padula, Paula; Vial, Pablo A; Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca; Ceianu, Cornelia; Heyman, Paul; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala (PUUV), Seoul (SEOV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Dobrava (DOBV), Sin Nombre (SNV) or Andes (ANDV). For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97); SEOV (China, n=5); DOBV (Romania, n=7); SNV (Canada, n=23); ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52). The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96%) and/or IgM (n=131; 72%), while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99%) of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71%) IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%). Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%). Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2%) showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV).

  7. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  8. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  9. Etude théorique des paramètres principaux réglant la sensibilité des capteurs d'accélération à cristal de quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaite, R.; Aïch, Y.

    1994-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of quartz accelerometers is performed to determine their optimal mechanical and sensitivity performances. A general analytical model is used to investigate the parameters and their effects on the sensitivity of these sensors. The analysis of physical characteristics shows that feasibility and performances depend on three factors such as dimensions of the quartz plate, quantity of holders located at the crystal edge and location of these holders with respect to the crystal's crystallographic reference. This study is applied to various design sensors with different supporting quartz crystal. The conditions on parameters are given to achieve optimum performances. Une étude théorique de la sensibilité des capteurs d'accélération à cristal de quartz est présentée. Son but est d'optimiser les performances mécaniques et métrologiques de ces capteurs. Les paramètres sensibles sont mis en évidence. L'analyse des caractéristiques physiques démontre que la faisabilité et les performances des accéléromètres à quartz dépendent, pour une coupe donnée du cristal, de trois facteurs : les dimensions de la lame de quartz, le nombre de liaisons à la périphérie du cristal et la position de ces liaisons par rapport à la référence cristallographique. L'étude est appliquée aux cas des capteurs bipodes, multipodes et monopodes. Pour chaque type de capteur, les valeurs des paramètres sensibles correspondant aux performances optimales sont précisées.

  10. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa C; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running") bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  11. Prediction of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) population dynamics in Montana, USA, using satellite-driven vegetation productivity and weather data.

    PubMed

    Loehman, Rachel A; Elias, Joran; Douglass, Richard J; Kuenzi, Amy J; Mills, James N; Wagoner, Kent

    2012-04-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for development of early-warning systems for disease risk. Relationships among weather variables, satellite-derived vegetation productivity, and deer mouse populations were examined for a grassland site east of the Continental Divide and a sage-steppe site west of the Continental Divide in Montana, USA. We acquired monthly deer mouse population data for mid-1994 through 2007 from long-term study sites maintained for monitoring changes in hantavirus reservoir populations, and we compared these with monthly bioclimatology data from the same period and gross primary productivity data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor for 2000-06. We used the Random Forests statistical learning technique to fit a series of predictive models based on temperature, precipitation, and vegetation productivity variables. Although we attempted several iterations of models, including incorporating lag effects and classifying rodent density by seasonal thresholds, our results showed no ability to predict rodent populations using vegetation productivity or weather data. We concluded that trophic cascade connections to rodent population levels may be weaker than originally supposed, may be specific to only certain climatic regions, or may not be detectable using remotely sensed vegetation productivity measures, although weather patterns and vegetation dynamics were positively correlated. PMID:22493110

  12. ALHAMBRA-survey: a new tool for photo-z calibrations in absence of spec-z information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino Benito, A.; Benitez Lozano, N.; The Alhambra-Team

    2013-05-01

    La estimación de los desplazamientos al rojo (redshift) de las galaxias, derivados mediante fotometría multi-banda, se conoce con el nombre de photometric redshifts (photo-z). Es bien sabido que la precisión alcanzable por estas técnicas puede verse incrementada si se dispone de una muestra espectroscópica de galaxias (cuyos redshifts (spec-z) sean conocidos) con la que re-calibrar los puntos cero fotométricos. (Coe et al. 2006, Ilbert et al. 2008, Molino et al. 2012 in prep). ALHAMBRA-survey, que es un cartografiado extragaláctico (de ˜4 grados cuadrados) dedicado a la realización de un estudio de la evolución de las propiedades y contenido del Universo (Moles et al. 2005, 2008), presenta solapamientos parciales con otros cartografiados espectroscópicos ya existentes con el objetivo de validar y mejorar la precisión de sus photo-z. Sin embargo, dada la variabilidad fotométrica entre sus campos, resulta ineficiente extrapolar las correcciones de punto cero, introduciendo sesgos de inhomogeneidad en la precisión de los resultados. En este trabajo se presenta una nueva metodología que permite mejorar la calibración de los puntos cero fotométricos mediante la utilización de la información estadística proporcionada por los propios photo-z. Mediante esta técnica resulta posible no sólo mejorar la precisión de las estimaciones sino, además, soslayar la necesidad de obtener grandes muestras espectroscópicas.

  13. [Translation and adaptation to Spanish language of the quality of life questionnaire for celiac people called Canadian Celiac Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Pelegrí, Cristina; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Adaptar y valorar el cuestionario de calidad de vida denominado Canadian Celiac Health Survey (CCHS). Objetivo: Traducir y adaptar en castellano el cuestionario CCHS para poder ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana puesto que se trata de un cuestionario específico para la celiaquía. Método: La adaptación del CCHS, que consta de 76 ítems distribuidos en 11 secciones diferentes, se realizó mediante el método de traducción-retrotraducción y tras ser revisado y consensuado se procedió a realizar una prueba piloto con 25 personas celíacas, de forma individual y por un miembro del grupo de investigación, para valorar la comprensión de los ítems y sus secciones. Las aportaciones fueron introducidas, configurando el cuestionario definitivo. Resultados: La máxima dificultad en la traducción se produjo en la pregunta donde existían principios activos y nombres comerciales de medicamentos, optándose para ello a los comercializados a nivel nacional. Por otro lado, para el estudio piloto del cuestionario se observó un buen valor de la naturalidad de la comprensión con valores comprendidos entre 8,4 y 10,0. Conclusiones: La herramienta específica CHCS permitirá el uso de un cuestionario que pueda ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana en estudios, ensayos clínicos o en la práctica profesional sanitaria cotidiana, permitiendo un mejor conocimiento del estado de salud de los celíacos.

  14. Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutashkonko, Sergii

    Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

  15. Potential Role of Masting by Introduced Bamboos in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) Population Irruptions Holds Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Melissa C.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic (“running”) bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food. PMID:25898267

  16. New World Hantaviruses Activate IFNλ Production in Type I IFN-Deficient Vero E6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Hall, Pamela; Acuna-Retamar, Mariana; Ye, Chunyan; Wathelet, Marc G.; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hjelle, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN), rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon λ, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNλ. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNλ expression in this cell line. The IFNλ contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7) without inducing ISGs. Conclusions/Significance Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNλ. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNλ production in these cells

  17. Afflux massif de brûlés : la doctrine française de triage en temps de paix

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Fall, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les situations de catastrophe impliquant un grand nombre de brûlés peuvent survenir à tout moment après un incendie, une attaque terroriste, une explosion industrielle ou un accident de transport. Les différentes sociétés internationales de brûlologie ont publié des recommandations sur la préparation à l’afflux massif de brûlés. La Société Française d’Étude et de Traitement des Brûlés (SFETB) propose le triage des victimes selon la Surface Cutanée Brûlée (SCB), l’inhalation de fumées et les lésions traumatiques associées. Ce plan cherche à catégoriser les victimes et à attribuer à chaque patient un lit adapté à ses besoins thérapeutiques (centre des brûlés, réanimation médicale ou chirurgicale, service d’urgences, chirurgie, poste de triage). Les Services d’Aide Médicale Urgente (SAMU) sont au coeur du dispositif : premiers soins, poste Médical Avancé (pMA), régulation, triage et transport, renfort en matériel dans l’hôpital de proximité. Un plan catastrophe pour brûlés doit être adapté aux capacités hospitalières du pays. PMID:26668563

  18. Social determinants and risk factors for tuberculosis in national surveillance systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    de Colombani, P; Hovhannesyan, A

    2015-09-21

    Contexte : Programmes nationaux contre la tuberculose (PNT) des 53 états membres de la région Europe de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS).Objectifs: Identifier les déterminants sociaux et les facteurs de risque sous-jacents de la tuberculose (TB) tels qu'ils sont suivis en routine par les PNT et identifier ceux qui sont faciles à recueillir et appropriés pour les inclure dans le rapport annuel à la plate-forme conjointe du Centre européen de prévention et contrôle des maladies (CEPCM) et l'OMS.Schéma : Un questionnaire semi-structuré a été envoyé à 53 correspondants des programmes nationaux de surveillance de la TB.Résultats : Au total, 47 pays ont soumis leurs questionnaires ; la plupart des pays recueillent un certain nombre de déterminants sociaux et de facteurs de risque qui ne sont pas exigés dans les rapports destinés à la plate-forme conjointe CEPCM-OMS. Profession, absence de domicile fixe, diabète et consommation d'alcool sont recueillis par la majorité des pays, mais sans définitions standardisées.Conclusions : Quatre déterminants sociaux/facteurs de risque sont déjà inclus dans le système national de surveillance de la TB dans la majorité des pays et pourraient être incorporés dans le rapport annuel à la plate-forme conjointe CEPCM/OMS. Mais il faut adopter des définitions de cas épidémiologiques standardisées.

  19. Apport de la biopsie radioguidée dans le diagnostic histopathologique des tumeurs de l'enfant: expérience de l'Hôpital d'Enfant de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    El Ochi, Mohamed Réda; Bellarbi, Salma; Rouas, Lamiae; Lamalmi, Najat; Malihy, Abderrahmane; Alhamany, Zaitouna; Cherradi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    La biopsie radioguidée constitue une alternative à la biopsie chirurgicale invasive et à la cytologie pour le diagnostic des tumeurs pédiatriques. L'intérêt de notre étude est d’évaluer la valeur diagnostique des biopsies radioguidées examinées au laboratoire d'anatomopathologie de l'hôpital d'Enfants de Rabat (HER). L’étude a porté sur 78 biopsies radioguidées recueillies dans notre laboratoire entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2011. l’âge moyen des patients était de 5 ans et 10 mois avec une prédominance masculine (65,4%). La tumeur était abdominale dans 80% des cas, thoracique dans 15% cas, thoracique et abdominale dans 2,5% et sacrée dans 1,2%. Les biopsies étaient écho-guidées dans 90% des cas et scannoguidées dans 10% des cas. Le diagnostic histopathologique était posé dans 89% des cas. L'immuno-histochimie a été indiquée dans 35% des cas. Les diagnostics les plus fréquents étaient: tumeurs neuroblastiques (42 cas), lymphomes non hodgkiniens (10 cas), rhabdomyosarcomes (6 cas), autres (sarcome d'Ewing, néphroblastomes, tumeur myofibroblastique inflammatoire, maladies de Hodgkin, leucémie aiguë, hépatoblastome et ostéosarcome). Dans notre série, la biopsie radioguidée a permis un diagnostic histopathologique certain dans 89% des cas. Elle nécessite une étroite collaboration entre clinicien, radiologue et anatomopathologiste pour discuter son indication, afin de diminuer le nombre de biopsies peu ou non représentatives. PMID:26587165

  20. L'émergence de la thérapeutique de précision: de nouveaux défis et de nouvelles possibilités pour les leaders en santé du Canada.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jim; Shields, Laura; Racette, Ray J; Juzwishin, Donald; Coppes, Max

    2015-11-01

    À l'ère de la médecine personnalisée et de la médecine de précision, l'approche envers les soins est en rapide mutation. Les cliniciens exigent de plus en plus d'information génétique et moléculaire et les patients s'attendent à la fournir pour la prévention, le dépistage, le diagnostic, le pronostic, la promotion de la santé et le traitement d'un nombre croissant de maladies. Les leaders en santé canadiens doivent comprendre les changements nécessaires liés à ces technologies perturbantes et ouvrir la voie. Le présent article s'attarde sur la thérapeutique de précision, mais contient également de l'information générale sur les concepts et la terminologie liés à la médecine personnalisée et à la médecine de précision. Il explore également le leadership en santé canadien et les problèmes liés au système qui peuvent nuire à leur mise en œuvre. L'article vise à inspirer, informer et mobiliser les leaders en santé canadiens à amorcer un dialogue sur les transformations nécessaires pour préparer le système de santé à profiter des bienfaits de la thérapeutique de précision.

  1. L'effet des deformations plastiques severes sur les proprietes d'hydruration du magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Julien

    Le travail de recherche effectue durant mon projet de maitrise en physique a l'Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres dans les laboratoires de l'Institut de Recherche sur l'Hydrogene etait de comparer l'effet du laminage a froid de la poudre de MgH2 avec celui du broyage mecanique. Nous avons etudie cette nouvelle technique en utilisant un laminoir vertical concu specialement pour laminer de la poudre. Nous avons lamine la poudre de MgH2 5, 25, 50 et 100 fois. La comparaison de la morphologie de la poudre de MgH 2 telle que recu du manufacturier et broye mecaniquement pendant 30 minutes avec celle de la poudre laminee ete faite a l'aide d'un microscope electronique a balayage. Nous avons par la suite mesure les proprietes de sorption d'hydrogene grace un appareil PCT de type Sievert. Nous avons aussi determine la structure cristalline par diffraction de rayons X. A partir de ces resultats, nous avons constate que le nombre optimal de laminages est de cinq et a les caracteristiques d'absorption/desorption d'hydrogene similaires a un broyage mecanique de 30 minutes. Nous avons aussi utilise les courbes de cinetiques d'absorption et de desorption d'hydrogene pour calculer l'etape limitative dans les reactions de sorption des echantillons lamines. Comme cinq laminages se font en environ 10 secondes, on voit que le laminage a froid est une technique plus interessante industriellement que le broyage mecanique a cause de l'important gain en temps et en energie.

  2. Historical Perspective: What Constitutes Discovery (of a New Virus)?

    PubMed

    Murphy, F A

    2016-01-01

    A historic review of the discovery of new viruses leads to reminders of traditions that have evolved over 118 years. One such tradition gives credit for the discovery of a virus to the investigator(s) who not only carried out the seminal experiments but also correctly interpreted the findings (within the technological context of the day). Early on, ultrafiltration played a unique role in "proving" that an infectious agent was a virus, as did a failure to find any microscopically visible agent, failure to show replication of the agent in the absence of viable cells, thermolability of the agent, and demonstration of a specific immune response to the agent so as to rule out duplicates and close variants. More difficult was "proving" that the new virus was the etiologic agent of the disease ("proof of causation")-for good reasons this matter has been revisited several times over the years as technologies and perspectives have changed. One tradition is that the discoverers get to name their discovery, their new virus (unless some grievous convention has been broken)-the stability of these virus names has been a way to honor the discoverer(s) over the long term. Several vignettes have been chosen to illustrate several difficulties in holding to the traditions (vignettes chosen include vaccinia and variola viruses, yellow fever virus, and influenza viruses. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, Sin Nombre virus, and Ebola virus). Each suggests lessons for the future. One way to assure that discoveries are forever linked with discoverers would be a permanent archive in one of the universal virus databases that have been constructed for other purposes. However, no current database seems ideal-perhaps members of the global community of virologists will have an ideal solution. PMID:27112283

  3. Les brulures electriques chez les voleurs de cuivre

    PubMed Central

    Belmir, R.; Fejjal, N.; Achbouk, H.; El Mazouz, S.; Gharib, N.; Abassi, A.; Belmahi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les vols de biens fabriqués avec le cuivre semblent en hausse depuis un certain temps du fait de son prix élevé de revente, ce qui est à l’origine d’une augmentation du nombre d’accidents électriques par haut voltage (AEHV) qui sont graves du fait des brûlures profondes qu’elles provoquent le long des axes vasculo-nerveux. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de neuf cas d’AEHV traités au service de chirurgie plastique et de brûlés de l’Hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat, Maroc, à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. La population intéressée était jeune et active. Les brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec des câbles à haute tension lors de tentatives de vol par arrachement de conducteurs en cuivre dans les transformateurs dans 67% des cas, et lors de tentatives de coupure de caténaires alimentant les trains électriques sur le réseau ferroviaire dans 33% des cas. Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation et désarticulation des segments de membres nécrosés dans 66% des cas, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention de ce type d’AEHV reste fondamentale. PMID:22262961

  4. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    Cette these s'attaque a deux problemes majeurs de l'information quantique: - Comment caracteriser efficacement un systeme quantique? - Comment stocker de l'information quantique? Elle se divise done en deux parties distinctes reliees par des elements techniques communs. Chacune est toutefois d'un interet propre et se suffit a elle-meme. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques. Le calcul quantique exige un tres grand controle des systemes quantiques composes de plusieurs particules, par exemple des atomes confines dans un piege electromagnetique ou des electrons dans un dispositif semi-conducteur. Caracteriser un tel systeme quantique consiste a obtenir de l'information sur l'etat grace a des mesures experimentales. Or, chaque mesure sur le systeme quantique le perturbe et doit done etre effectuee apres avoir reprepare le systeme de facon identique. L'information recherchee est ensuite reconstruite numeriquement a partir de l'ensemble des donnees experimentales. Les experiences effectuees jusqu'a present visaient a reconstruire l'etat quantique complet du systeme, en particulier pour demontrer la capacite de preparer des etats intriques, dans lesquels les particules presentent des correlations non-locales. Or, la procedure de tomographie utilisee actuellement n'est envisageable que pour des systemes composes d'un petit nombre de particules. Il est donc urgent de trouver des methodes de caracterisation pour les systemes de grande taille. Dans cette these, nous proposons deux approches theoriques plus ciblees afin de caracteriser un systeme quantique en n'utilisant qu'un effort experimental et numerique raisonnable. - La premiere consiste a estimer la distance entre l'etat realise en laboratoire et l'etat cible que l'experimentateur voulait preparer. Nous presentons un protocole, dit de certification, demandant moins de ressources que la tomographie et tres efficace pour plusieurs classes d'etats importantes pour l'informatique quantique. - La seconde

  5. Bibliometric Analyses of Physical and Occupational Therapy Faculty across Canada Indicate Productivity and Impact of Rehabilitation Research.

    PubMed

    MacDermid, Joy C; Fung, Eunice H; Law, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objet : La présente étude examine le corps professoral en physiothérapie et en ergothérapie dans l'ensemble du Canada, en se servant de la bibliométrie et du financement fédéral à titre d'indicateurs de l'incidence sur le plan universitaire, et considère la validité de divers indices bibliométriques. Méthodes : On a choisi des membres du corps professoral et obtenu leur rang, leur titre professionnel et leur département à partir des sites Web des facultés. Les indicateurs bibliométriques ont été déterminés grâce au logiciel Publish or Perish (publier ou périr). Un auteur indépendant (qui n'est pas membre du corps professoral) a examiné les données afin de supprimer les publications incorrectement attribuées. L'indice h, les années des citations, l'indice g et le nombre total de citations pour chaque membre du corps professoral ont été récupérés. La base de données de financement des Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada (IRSC) a servi à déterminer la somme du financement de recherche attribuée à chaque professeur à titre de chercheur principal, de même que le total du financement reçu des IRSC. Les indicateurs moyens du corps professoral ont été déterminés par université, rang, sexe et profession. ANOVA a servi à repérer les différences en fonction du rang et du sexe, et les mesures d'association (Pearson et la régression multiple) ont servi à déterminer les facteurs qui avaient une incidence sur l'indice h et le financement reçu par le chercheur principal. Résultats : Un total de 347 professeurs de physiothérapie et d'ergothérapie ont été dénombrés. L'indice h médian correspond à 5 (intervalle interquartile de 2 à 8) pour les professeurs adjoints, à 11 (intervalle interquartile 10 à 13) pour les professeurs agréés, et à 18 (intervalle interquartile de 12 à 26) pour les professeurs titulaires. ANOVA n'a pas permis de relever des différences significatives entre les membres féminins et les

  6. Demographic and management trends among HIV-positive pregnant women over 10 years at one Canadian urban hospital.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Daniela; Shah, Rajiv; Macgillivray, S Jay; Urquia, Marcelo; Yudin, Mark H

    2014-02-01

    Objectif : Nous ne disposons que de données limitées au sujet de l’évolution (au fur et à mesure que sont mises à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes et internationales) des tendances pour ce qui est de la prise en charge des grossesses séropositives pour le VIH au Canada. Nous avons analysé, sur une période de 10 ans, l’expérience d’un hôpital urbain canadien en ce qui concerne les tendances en matière de caractéristiques démographiques et de prise en charge des femmes enceintes séropositives pour le VIH. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une analyse rétrospective des dossiers de toutes les femmes enceintes séropositives pour le VIH ayant accouché dans cet hôpital entre mars 2000 et mars 2010. Les données liées aux caractéristiques démographiques, à la grossesse et à la période intrapartum ont été recueillies et analysées. Résultats : Au cours de la période d’étude, nous avons recensé 141 grossesses monofœtales chez des femmes séropositives pour le VIH. L’âge moyen au sein de cette cohorte était de 30,4 ans. Le nombre des femmes se présentant à cet hôpital a connu une hausse considérable avec le temps (P < 0,001), 63 % des cas étudiés ayant été pris en charge entre 2007 et 2010. La plupart des femmes étaient d’origine africaine et avaient récemment immigré au Canada. Nous avons constaté une tendance significative sur le plan statistique indiquant une hausse régulière du nombre de femmes d’origine afro-antillaise pendant la période d’étude (P = 0,03). Seulement 4 % des femmes ont signalé avoir consommé des drogues illicites pendant la grossesse alors en cours. Bien que la majorité des femmes aient présenté un diagnostic connu de VIH avant la grossesse, 30 d’entre elles (22,4 %) ont obtenu ce diagnostic à la suite d’un dépistage antepartum. La plupart des femmes faisaient preuve d’observance en ce qui concerne leur traitement antirétroviral hautement actif (94,3 %) et leurs

  7. Translation into French of: "Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?". Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne - qu'est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    RésuméLes changements au CodeInternational de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIII(e) CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s'est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1(er) janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en 'Portable Document Format' (PDF) avec un 'International Standard Serial Number' (ISSN) ou un 'International Standard Book Number' (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1(er) janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d'un identifiant ('identifier') fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés.Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et Taxon. PMID:22287925

  8. SMARTScience Tools: Interacting With Blazar Data In The Web Browser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Imran; Isler, Jedidah; Urry, C. Megan; MacPherson, Emily; Buxton, Michelle; Bailyn, Charles D.; Coppi, Paolo S.

    2014-08-01

    The Yale-SMARTS blazar group has accumulated 6 years of optical-IR photometry of more than 70 blazars, mostly bright enough in gamma-rays to be detected with Fermi. Observations were done with the ANDICAM instrument on the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. As a result of this long-term, multiwavelength monitoring, we have produced a calibrated, publicly available data set (see www.astro.yale.edu/smarts/glast/home.php), which we have used to find that (i) optical-IR and gamma-ray light curves are well correlated, supporting inverse-Compton models for gamma-ray production (Bonning et al. 2009, 2012), (ii) at their brightest, blazar jets can contribute significantly to the photoionization of the broad-emission-line region, indicating that gamma-rays are produced within 0.1 pc of the black hole in at least some cases (Isler et al. 2014), and (iii) optical-IR and gamma-ray flares are symmetric, implying the time scales are dominated by light-travel-time effects rather than acceleration or cooling (Chatterjee et al. 2012). The volume of data and diversity of projects for which it is used calls out for an efficient means of visualization. To this end, we have developed a suite of visualization tools called SMARTScience Tools, which allow users to interact dynamically with our dataset. The SMARTScience Tools is publicly available via our webpage and can be used to customize multiwavelength light curves and color magnitude diagrams quickly and intuitively. Users can choose specific bands to construct plots, and the plots include features such as band-by-band panning, dynamic zooming, and direct mouse interaction with individual data points. Human and machine readable tables of the plotted data can be directly printed for the user's convenience and for further independent study. The SMARTScience Tools significantly improves the public’s ability to interact with the Yale-SMARTS 6-year data base of blazar photometry, and should make

  9. [β-Tricalcium Phosphate in the Surgical Treatment of Proximal Humeral Fractures].

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Marco; Martins, Samuel; Monteiro, Jacinto

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: As fraturas proximais do úmero são cada vez mais frequentes, com maior tendência para o seu tratamento cirúrgico, predominado a utilização da osteossíntese com placa e parafusos bloqueados. Pela falência mecânica e biológica, apesar da evolução deste tipo de implantes, a utilização de enxertos ósseos sintéticos passaram a ser uma opção. Material e Métodos: Num período de 96 meses, avaliámos os doentes com fraturas proximais do úmero, tratados cirurgicamente com placa e parafusos bloqueados e nos quais foi usado enxerto ósseo sintético de fosfato β-tricálcico. Avaliaram-se os resultados funcionais pelo arco de mobilidade e pelos exames radiográficos. Resultados: Nos 19 doentes avaliados, para um follow-up médio de 53 meses, obteve-se um arco de mobilidade com valores médio de abdução de 140º, flexão anterior de 142º, rotação externa de 37º e rotação interna com mão a L3, para um ângulo cefalo-diafisário de 136º. Discussão: A utilização de enxerto ósseo sintético de fosfato β-tricálcico permite a estabilização da redução após fixação das fraturas proximais do úmero estabilizadas com placa e parafusos bloqueados. Esta redução que se traduz na manutenção do ângulo cefalodiafisário, permite a obtenção de bons resultados funcionais como o demonstra o arco de mobilidade nos vários planos. Conclusão: O enxerto ósseo sintético de fosfato β-tricálcico deverá ser encarado como uma terapêutica auxiliar na osteossíntese extramedular das fraturas proximais do úmero, principalmente naquelas com maior dificuldade de manutenção da redução pela maior cominução do calcar medial.

  10. Tuberculosis case burden and treatment outcomes in children, adults and older adults, Vanuatu, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Tagaro, M; Harries, A D; Kool, B; Ram, S; Viney, K; Marais, B; Tarivonda, L

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Les cinq centres DOTS du Vanuatu.Objectifs : Déterminer le fardeau de la tuberculose (TB) à travers les classes d'âge, le profil de la maladie et les résultats du traitement des patients enregistré entre 2007 et 2011.Schema : Etude de cohorte rétrospective impliquant des registres de TB et des cartes de traitement.Resultats : Sur 588 patients enregistrés, 142 (24%) étaient des enfants (âgés de 0–14 ans), 327 étaient des adultes (âgés de 15–54 ans) et 119 des adultes plus âgés (âgés de ⩾55 ans, subdivisés en 55–64 et ⩾65 ans). Parmi eux, 568 étaient des nouveaux patients, et 13 avaient déjà été traités ; pour 7 d'entre eux, le statut était inconnu. Comparés aux adultes, les enfants avec une TB nouvelle avaient une plus grande prévalence de TB extra pulmonaire (75% contre 34% ; OR 5,7 ; IC95% 3,6–9,0) et une prévalence plus faible de TB pulmonaire frottis positif (11% contre 45% ; OR 0,15 ; IC95% 0,3–0,3). Les adultes âgés de ⩾55 ans avaient une prévalence plus élevée de TB pulmonaire à frottis négatif (38% contre 21% ; OR 2,4 ; IC95% 1,5–3,8). Le succès du traitement de la TB a été de 83% pour l'ensemble du groupe, mais seulement de 67% pour les patients âgés de ⩾65 ans avec un taux de létalité de 18%.Conclusion : Les enfants et les adultes plus âgés constituent 45% du fardeau de la TB au Vanuatu. Les différences constatées en termes de profil de la maladie et de résultats thérapeutiques moins bons chez les adultes âgés ont des implications en matière de politique et de pratiques.

  11. Transport et bruit quantique dans les fils mésoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrès, J.

    2002-01-01

    Un conducteur quantique est bien caractérisé par sa conductance donnée par la formule de Landauer. Mais le bruit contient davantage d'informations que la conductance : il mesure les fluctuations temporelles du courant autour de sa valeur moyenne. De plus, le signe des corrélations de bruit est lié à la statistique des porteurs de charge. Dans une jonction entre un métal normal et un supraconducteur, le bruit présente une singularité à la fréquence Josephson, signature de la charge 2e des paires de Cooper impliquées dans le transport. Lorsque la tension appliquée est supérieure au gap du supraconducteur, la courbe du bruit exhibe des singularités à plusieurs fréquences auxquelles on peut associer un processus de réflexion ou de transmission. L'analogue fermionique de l'expérience d'Hanbury-Brown et Twiss avec un supraconducteur permet d'observer à la fois des corrélations positives et négatives dans un même système. Maintenir une différence de potentiel entre les deux extrémités d'un fil crée une situation relevant de la thermodynamique hors de l'équilibre. Formellement, on peut se ramener à un calcul à l'équilibre et écrire une théorie des perturbations grâce à la méthode de Keldysh. La théorie des liquides de Luttinger décrit les systèmes unidimensionnels d'électrons en interaction. Le hamiltonien peut se mettre sous forme quadratique grâce à la bosonisation. D'autre part, un liquide de Luttinger chiral constitue un bon modèle des états de bord de l'effet Hall quantique fractionnaire. Grâce au formalisme de Keldysh, on peut retrouver une formule de type Schottky et identifier la charge des quasiparticules de Laughlin.

  12. [PET/CT with 18F-Fluorocholine in Patients with Prostatic Cancer in Biochemical Recurrence].

    PubMed

    Lapa, Paula; Silva, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Tiago; Figueiredo, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Rui; Costa, Gracinda; Lima, João Pedroso

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: No carcinoma da próstata, é frequente, após terapêutica com intuito curativo, ocorrer recidiva bioquímica. O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 no restadiamento e orientação destes doentes e analisar a influência, da estratificação de risco, dos valores do PSA e da terapêutica de supressão hormonal, na sensibilidade da técnica. Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de 107 doentes com carcinoma da próstata em recidiva bioquímica que realizaram PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 no nosso hospital, entre dezembro de 2009 e maio de 2014. Resultados: A sensibilidade global foi de 63,2% sendo 80,0% quando PSA > 2 ng/mL. Foi possível identificar doença à distância em 28% dos doentes. A sensibilidade aumentou de 40,0% em doentes de risco baixo e intermédio para 55,2% em doentes de alto risco. Sem terapêutica de supressão hormonal, a sensibilidade foi de 61,8% enquanto no grupo sob essa terapêutica, foi de 67,7%. Discussão: A PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 forneceu informações relevantes, mesmo em doentes com baixos valores do PSA, contudo, com incremento significativo da sensibilidade nos doentes com PSA >2 ng/mL. A sensibilidade foi superior nos doentes de alto risco comparativamente com os de risco baixo e intermédio, contudo, sem uma diferença estatisticamente significativa. A terapêutica de supressão hormonal parece não influenciar a captação de Fluorocolina-F18 nos doentes resistentes à castração. Conclusões: Neste estudo, a PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 apresentou bons resultados no restadiamento de doentes com carcinoma da próstata em recidiva bioquímica, distinguindo entre doença loco-regional e sistémica, informação com importantes consequências na definição da estratégia terapêutica.

  13. Prothèse totale de hanche dans les séquelles de coxalgie: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Benbouha, Abdelatif; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El yaacoubi, Moradh

    2016-01-01

    La coxalgie entraine des destructions ostéo-cartilagineuses de l'articulation de la hanche, ces lésions sont responsables de douleurs intenses provoquant des gènes fonctionnelles et des limitations dans la vie quotidienne. Leur traitement chirurgical est encore mal codifié. Notre objectif est de montrer à travers cette étude l'intérêt de l'arthroplastie totale de hanche associée à la chimiothérapie antituberculeuse pour l'amélioration de la qualité de vie des patients. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 10 cas de prothèses totales de hanche posées sur séquelles de coxalgie au service de traumatologie-orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire Rabat de 2002 à 2011. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 38 ans. La découverte de la coxalgie s'est faite dans des circonstances différentes en fonction des patients. La voie d'abord que nous avons utilisé est exclusivement postéro-externe de Moore. Les prothèses posées ont toute été cimentées. Quatre patients ont nécessité la reconstruction du cotyle. La biopsie peropératoire est positive chez un patient, négative chez les neuf restants. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Aucune récidive n'a été notée après un recul minimal de 3 ans. Les résultats selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné sont jugés bons. En cas de destruction osseuse avancée avec retentissement fonctionnel très mal supporté chez le sujet d’âge mûr, l'arthroplastie totale demeure le traitement de choix des séquelles de coxalgie sous couverture systématique d'une chimiothérapie antituberculeuse efficace. PMID:27642444

  14. Intrapartum interventions for singleton pregnancies arising from assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu-Ming; Lanes, Andrea; Kingdom, John C P; Cao, Huiling; Kramer, Michael; Wen, Shi Wu; Wu, Junqing; Chen, Yue; Walker, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) sont associées à une hausse du recours à des interventions intrapartum, par comparaison avec les grossesses monofœtales spontanées. Méthodes : Au total, 1 327 grossesses attribuables aux TPA et 5 222 grossesses spontanées s’étant déroulées au cours de la période 2004-2008 ont été extraites du système informatique BORN (Better Outcomes Registry and Network ou, en français, « bons résultats dès la naissance ») de l’Ontario. L’incidence des interventions intrapartum courantes a été comparée et divers systèmes de classification des césariennes ont été utilisés pour en comparer les indications dans le cadre des grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux TPA (avec ou sans injection intracytoplasmique d’un spermatozoïde) et dans le cadre des grossesses monofœtales spontanées. Résultats : Par comparaison avec le groupe « spontanée », le groupe « TPA » présentait une hausse de l’incidence du monitorage fœtal électronique interne (RC, 1,60; IC à 95 %, 1,37 - 1,87), de la rupture artificielle des membranes (RC, 1,39; IC à 95 %, 1,17 - 1,66), de l’accélération du travail au moyen d’oxytocine (RC, 1,51; IC à 95 %, 1,28 - 1,77), du déclenchement du travail (RC, 1,31; IC à 95 %, 1,14 - 1,50) et de la césarienne (RC, 1,40; IC à 95 %, 1,24 - 1,60). Conclusion : Les grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux TPA ont été associées à une utilisation plus fréquente de plusieurs interventions intrapartum, dont la césarienne.

  15. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in a Tanzanian prison and computer-aided interpretation of chest X-rays.

    PubMed

    Steiner, A; Mangu, C; van den Hombergh, J; van Deutekom, H; van Ginneken, B; Clowes, P; Mhimbira, F; Mfinanga, S; Rachow, A; Reither, K; Hoelscher, M

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : La Tanzanie est lourdement frappée par la tuberculose (TB) et les prisonniers sont un groupe à haut risque qui devrait bénéficier d'un dépistage actif, comme le recommande l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. Les algorithmes de dépistage qui débutent par une radiographie pulmonaire peuvent détecter des cas asymptomatiques, mais ils requièrent des lecteurs de radiographies expérimentés, qui sont rares dans le contexte pénitentiaire. Des études récentes sur des patients sollicitant des soins pour des symptômes liés à la TB ont mis en évidence une bonne performance diagnostique du logiciel CAD4TB.Objectif : Evaluer le potentiel d'un dépistage assisté par ordinateur en utilisant CAD4TB au sein d'une population carcérale en majorité asymptomatique.Schéma : Étude transversale.Résultats : CAD4TB et sept professionnels de santé lisant des radiographies dans des services de TB locaux ont évalué un ensemble de 511 radiographies pulmonaires provenant de la prison d'Ukonga à Dar es Salaam et les performances ont été comparées grâce à une radiographie de référence. Deux lecteurs ont été significativement plus performants que CAD4TB, trois ont été comparables et deux ont été significativement moins bons (zone sous la courbe de 0,75 dans l'analyse ROC —fonction d'efficacité du receveur). Sur un ensemble de 1321 radiographies pulmonaires, CAD4TB en a interprété avec succès plus de 99% avec un délai de détection prévisible court, tandis que 160 (12,2%) réponses ont été retardées de plus de 24 h avec la méthode de lecture conventionnelle.Conclusion : CAD4TB évalue de manière fiable les radiographies pulmonaires dans une population en majorité asymptomatique de détenus, avec une performance diagnostique inférieure à celle de lecteurs experts mais comparable à celle des lecteurs locaux.

  16. Catalogue of type specimens of fungi and lichens deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Granada (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A catalogue of types from the Herbarium of the University of Granada has not previously been compiled. As a result, a search of these collections in order to compile digital images for preservation and publication yielded a large number of formerly unrecognized types. New information This dataset contains the specimen records from the catalogue of the nomenclature types of fungi and lichens in the Herbarium of the University of Granada, Spain. These herbarium specimens are included in the GDA and GDAC collections, acronyms from Index Herbariorum (Thiers 2014). At this time, the type collection of fungi and lichens contains 88 type specimens of 49 nominal taxa, most from Agaricales and the genus Cortinarius, described from the western Mediterranean, mainly Spain, by the following authors: V.Antonin, J.Ballarà, A.Bidaud, G.F.Bills, M.Bon, C.Cano, M.Casares, G.Chevassut, M.Contu, F.Esteve-Raventós, R.Galán, L.Guzmán-Dávalos, R.Henry, E.Horak, R.Mahiques, G.Malençon, P.Moënne-Loccoz, G.Moreno, A.Ortega, F.Palazón, V.N.Suárez.-Santiago, A.Vêzda, J.Vila, and M.Villareal. For each specimen, the locality indication, species name, observation date, collector, type status, related information, associated sequences, other catalogue numbers related to each type, and image URL are recorded. The dataset is associated with an image collection named “Colección de imágenes de los tipos nomenclaturales de hongos, líquenes, musgos y algas incluidos en el Herbario de la Universidad de Granada (GDA y GDAC)” (Vizoso and Quesada 2013) which is housed and accessible at the Global Biodiversity Information Facility in Spain (GBIF.ES) Hosting and Publishing Service “Biodiversity Image Portal of Spanish collections” and is also available at the Herbarium of University of Granada institutional web (Vizoso 2014a, Vizoso 2014b). That image collection contains 113 images, of which 56 correspond to the nomenclature types of 49 taxa (47 fungi, 2 lichens

  17. Greenhouse gas sources in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California derived from Positive Matrix Factorization of CalNex 2010 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Baer, D. S.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    by 'vehicular combustion' and 'evaporative emissions' had negligible contributions to regional CH4 or N2O emissions. We identified an 'agricultural emissions' factor as the dominant regional source of N2O. Emission Factors of GHG enhancements with respect to specific source tracers are derived from the PMF analysis and compared to emission factors from prior source-specific and regional field studies (e.g. Shaw et al., 2007; Bon et al., 2006; CABERNET 2011) to gain a better understanding of GHG source contributions in the southern San Joaquin valley.

  18. Does research through Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) courses impact policy and practice?

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Shewade, H D; Tripathy, J P; Guillerm, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Berger, S Dar; Bissell, K; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Les cours de l'Initiative de Recherche et de Formation Structurées Opérationnelles (SORT IT) sont bien connus pour leurs bons résultats : près de 90% des participants terminent le cours et publient dans des revues scientifiques.Objectif : Evaluer l'impact sur la politique/les pratiques de ces articles de recherche qui ont été le résultat de six cours SORT IT initiés entre juillet 2012 et mars 2013.Schéma : Une étude transversale impliquant des questionnaires auto-administrés envoyés par courriel et des réponses par téléphone/skype/en personne des auteurs principaux et/ou des co-auteurs des articles liés au cours. Une analyse descriptive du contenu des réponses a été réalisée et catégorisée par thèmes.Résultats : Sur 72 participants, 63 (88%) ont terminé le cours. Les résultats du cours ont inclus 81 articles soumis, dont 76 (94%) ont été publiés. Sur les 81 articles publiés évalués, 45 (55%) ont contribué à une modification de la politique et/ou des pratiques : 29 articles ont contribué à une modification de la politique/des pratiques par le gouvernement (20 au niveau national, 4 au niveau sous-national et 5 au niveau hospitalier), 11 à des modifications de politique d'organisations non gouvernementales et cinq à un renforcement de la politique existante. Ces changements allaient de modifications des outils de suivi et d'évaluation à une nouvelle rédaction des directives nationales et à une accélération des politiques existantes.Conclusion : Plus de la moitié des articles du cours SORT IT ont contribué à une modification de la politique et/ou des pratiques. Les évaluations futures devraient inclure des vérifications plus solides et indépendantes des modifications rapportées avec toutes les parties concernées afin d'améliorer leur rigueur et leur richesse.

  19. Effects of methylphenidate on acute math performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Grizenko, Natalie; Cai, Emmy; Jolicoeur, Claude; Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Joober, Ridha

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Examiner les effets à court terme (aigus) du méthylphénidate (MPH) sur la performance en mathématique chez des enfants souffrant du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH), et quels facteurs prédisent une amélioration de la performance en math. Méthode : Cent quatre-vingt-dix-huit enfants souffrant du TDAH ont participé à un essai de MPH croisé, randomisé, à double insu et contrôlé avec placebo. La réponse du MPH en math a été déterminée par l’administration de problèmes de math ajustés à leur niveau scolaire durant la Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS). Les tests t de Student ont été menés afin d’évaluer le changement de la performance en math avec les psychostimulants. La corrélation entre le changement à la RASS et le changement de la performance en math a aussi été examinée. Une régression linéaire a été exécutée pour déterminer les variables prédictives. Résultats : Les enfants souffrant du TDAH se sont améliorés significativement en math avec le MPH (P < 0,001). Le degré d’amélioration à la RASS (qui évalue l’activité motrice et l’orientation dans les tâches) et dans la performance en math avec MPH était hautement corrélé. L’âge de l’enfant au départ et les scores normaux au départ au Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) – des opérations numériques représentaient 15 % des variances d’amélioration aiguë en math. Conclusions : Le MPH améliore la performance aiguë en mathématique chez les enfants souffrant du TDAH. Les enfants plus jeunes qui ont de moins bons scores en math (évalué par le WIAT) ont surtout amélioré leurs scores en math lorsqu’ils ont reçu des psychostimulants. Numéro d’enregistrement d’essai clinique : NCT00483106.

  20. Geochemistry, biota and natural background levels in an arsenic naturally contaminated volcanic aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Parrone, Daniele; Rossi, David; Ghergo, Stefano; Lungarini, Silvia; Zoppini, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    sampling area are related to occurrence of arsenic from natural sources, fluoride and coliforms, which make the water resource unsuitable for human consumption. The aim of this work is to present the first outcomes of this activity. References Amalfitano S, Del Bon A, Zoppini AM, Ghergo S, Fazi S, Parrone D, Casella P, Stano F, Preziosi E (2014) Groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure in the aquifer transition from volcanic to alluvial areas. Water Research, 65 (2014) 384-394. Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.08.004

  1. La radiothérapie du cancer de l'endomètre: expérience de l'institut national d'oncologie à propos de 52 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mezouri, Imane; Berhili, Soufiane; Mouhajir, Nawal; Bellefqih, Sara; Elkacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Le cancer de l'endomètre est le cancer gynécologique le plus fréquent en occident. Il concerne principalement les femmes ménopausées. L'objectif de notre travail est de rapporter l'expérience du service de radiothérapie à l'Institut National d'Oncologie (INO) dans la prise en charge du cancer de l'endomètre. Nous avons analysé rétrospectivement 52 cas de cancer de l'endomètre traités dans le service de radiothérapie de l'INO entre 2007 à 2009. Les données collectées à partir des dossiers médicaux de nos patientes concernaient les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs de ce cancer. La médiane d’âge des patientes était de 57 ans, 87% étaient ménopausées. Le délai moyen de consultation était de six mois. Le maitre symptôme était des métrorragies chez 51 patientes. Le diagnostic histologique a été porté sur un curetage biopsique de l'endomètre dans 51% des cas. L'examen anatomopathologique a montré un adénocarcinome endométrioïde dans 92% des cas. Après le bilan, 27% des patientes étaient stade I, 30% stade II, 20% stade III et 1% stade IVA selon la classification de la Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie Obstétrique (FIGO). Après la chirurgie, 51% des patientes ont reçu une radiothérapie externe. La dose délivrée était de 46 Gray (Gy). Une curiethérapie du fond vaginal a été délivrée chez toutes les patientes. Sur le plan évolutif, 83% des patientes étaient toujours suivies en situation de bon contrôle de leur maladie, 8% ont eu une récidive locorégionale et 4% avaient des métastases à distance. Ainsi, le cancer de l'endomètre est un cancer dont le traitement repose sur la chirurgie. La radiothérapie est le traitement adjuvant principal. PMID:27279969

  2. Irreversible adsorption from concentrated polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvray, Loïc; Cruz, Margerida; Auroy, Philippe

    1992-05-01

    We study the adsorption of concentrated Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) solutions in Dichloromethane on porous silica. We vary the plymerization index N and the chain volume fraction Φ from the overlap concentration to the melt. The adsorption of PDMS on silica by hydrogen bonding is very strong and a large amount of polymer remains bound to the surface after the washing of the silica with a good solvent of the chains. We measure this quantity Γ by small angle neutron scattering. If there is no chain desorption, Γ represents the weight of polymer attached to the solid in the initial solution, which varies as the product N^{1/2} Φ^{7/8} according to a recent prediction. This relation of proportionality indeed interprets our experimental results. When the size of the chains is comparable to the pore diameter (either 500, 1 200, or 3 000 Å depending on the samples) we observe confinement effects which lower the adsorbed amount. Nous étudions d'adsorption de solutions concentrées de Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) dans le chlorure de méthylène sur de la silice poreuse. Nous varions le degré de polymérisation N et la fraction volumique Φ des chaînes depuis la concentration de recouvrement jusqu'au fondu. L'adsorption de PDMS sur la silice par liaison hydrogène est très forte et une grande quantité de polymère reste liée à la surface après lavage de la silice par du bon solvant. Nous mesurons cette quantité Γ par diffusion centrale des neutrons. S'il n'y a pas eu désorption des chaînes, Γ représente le poids de polymère attaché au solide dans la solution initiale qui varie selon une prédiction récente comme le produit N^{1/2} Φ^{7/8}. Cette relation de proportionnalité rend effectivement compte de nos résultats. Quand la taille des chaînes est du même ordre de grandeur que le diamètre des pores (qui prend les valeurs 500, 1 200 et 3 000 Å selon les échantillons), nous observons des effets de confinement abaissant la quantité adsorbée.

  3. Differentiation potentials of perivascular cells in the bone tissue remodeling zones under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Adaptive remodeling processes in the skeleton bones occur in the close topographical interconnection with blood capillaries followed by perivascular cells. Radioautographic studies with 3Н- thymidine (Kimmel D.B., Fee W.S., 1980; Rodionova N.V., 1989, 2006) has shown that in osteogenesis zones there is sequential differentiation process of the perivascular cells into osteogenic ones. Using electron microscopy and cytochemistry we studied perivsacular cells in metaphysis of the rats femoral bones under conditions of modeling microgravity (28 days duration) and in femoral bonеs metaphyses of rats flown on board of the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) It was revealed that population of the perivascular cells is not homogeneous in adaptive zones of the remodeling in both control and test groups (lowering support loading). This population comprises adjacent to endothelium little differentiated forms and isolated cells with differentiation features (specific volume of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm is increased). Majority of the perivascular cells in the control group reveals reaction to alkaline phosphatase (marker of the osteogenic differentiation). In little differentiated cells this reaction is registered in nucleolus, nucleous and cytoplasm. In differentiating cells activity of the alkaline phosphatase is also detected on the outer surface of the cellular membrane. Unlike the control group in the bones of animals under microgravitaty reaction to the alkaline phosphatase is registered not for all cells of perivascular population. Part of the differentiating perivascular cells does not contain a product of the reaction. There is also visible trend of individual alkaline phosphatase containing perivascular cells amounts decrease (i.e. osteogenic cells-precursors). Under microgravity some little differentiated perivascular cells reveal destruction signs. Found decrease trend of the alkaline phosphatase containing cells (i.e. osteogenic cells) number in

  4. Impact du traitement antirétroviral sur le profil biologique des enfants VIH positifs suivis au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Yaoundé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Assoumou, Marie-Claire Okomo; Kamgaing, Nelly; Monebenimp, Francisca; Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était d’évaluer l'impact du traitement antirétroviral sur le profil biologique des enfants VIH positifs suivis au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective réalisée de Mai 2003 à Décembre 2012 au CHU de Yaoundé au Cameroun. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’âge moyen était de 54.02±46.34 mois. The sexe ratio était de 0.96 en faveur des garçons. Le diagnostic s’était fait tardivement (74.2%) ainsi que la mise sous traitement (83.3%). Seuls 36 des 116 enfants (31%) avait pu avoir un bilan biologique à l'initiation du traitement antirétroviral et six mois après l'initiation du traitement antirétroviral. Après six mois de traitement, nous avons enregistrés une augmentation significative des paramètres biologiques suivants: taux de glycémie de 0.09g/L (0.75-0.84; p= 0.007), pourcentage de CD4 chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans de 4.62% (20.12-24.75; p = 0.022), valeur absolue de CD4 chez les enfants de plus de 5 ans de 294 cellules/mm3 (151.18-445.18; p = 0.011), le rapport CD4/CD8 de 0.35 (0.55-0.90; p = 0.000). Enfin, après six mois de traitement, on enregistrait une baisse significative de la charge virale du VIH de 3.90 log (5.85-1.95; p = 0.006). Conclusion Il ressort de cette étude que la restauration immunitaire et la suppression virologique peuvent être obtenus après six mois de traitement antirétroviral. Cependant, des efforts doivent encore être faits en ce qui concerne la prise en charge du suivi biologique, gage d'un bon suivi thérapeutique au Cameroun. PMID:26113902

  5. [Development and Validation of the National Functionality Table for Chronic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla Sandra; Banco, Jaime; Lopes, Manuel; Escoval, Ana; Nogueira, Paulo; Diniz, José Alexandre; Guerra, Fernando; Coelho, Anabela

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: A avaliação sistemática e registo da funcionalidade de pessoas adultas com doença crónica permite horizontalizar políticas de saúde, sociais e emprego de acordo com a funcionalidade; dotar os profissionais de saúde e sociais de um instrumento de recolha de informação, que complemente os registos de doença; medindo os ganhos de funcionalidade. O objetivo de estudo foi desenvolver uma Tabela Nacional de Funcionalidade para adultos em idade ativa com doença crónica, de acordo com a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Material e Métodos: Recorremos a métodos quantitativos e qualitativos; revisão da literatura (17 artigos), grupo focal (nove peritos), painel de Delphi (16 peritos) e estudo exploratório (309 pessoas com doença crónica). Resultados: Na revisão da literatura, foram identificadas 67 atividades limitadas na população em estudo das quais foram selecionadas 40 atividades pelo grupo focal e 38 validadas pelo painel de Delphi. Discussão: Para testar as propriedades psicométricas comparamos o valor médio de todos os coeficientes possíveis do tipo consistência interna (split-half). Na análise da discriminação dos níveis de funcionalidade em amostras diferentes, verificou-se a igualdade de vari'ncias pelo teste de Levene e a igualdade de média por recurso ao teste t. De acordo com a observação e análise do coeficiente α de Cronbach, verificou-se que a Tabela Nacional de Funcionalidade proposta apresenta bons níveis de fiabilidade. Na análise de componentes principais, identificaram-se cinco dimensões. Conclusão: A referida tabela tem características psicométricas apropriadas no que diz respeito à consistência, fiabilidade e validade interna.

  6. Ensino de gravitação clássica no nível médio: uma proposta de abordagem e resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, G. C. M.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    O ensino de gravitação clássica é comumente realizado de maneira formal e descontextualizado da experiência com a força-peso e da história do tema. Fustigados por anos de experiência de ensino no assunto, nem sempre com bons resultados, propomos uma abordagem ancorada nos eixos: a) contextualização histórica; e b) reconhecimento do peso como a força de atração gravitacional. O primeiro eixo integra o tema no desenvolvimento cultural do ser humano, praticando a interdisciplinaridade. O segundo eixo embasa construtivamente a abordagem, levando o aluno a realizar experiências e a vivenciar o reconhecimento de uma força universal. A abordagem foi construída através das etapas: 1) análise crítica do tema em livros didáticos; 2) elaboração de um curso para professores das várias disciplinas do ensino médio, identificando conexões para a prática da interdisciplinaridade; 3) elaboração de material didático; e 4) avaliação da eficácia da abordagem. No trabalho discutimos em detalhe as quatro etapas. Como resultados, adiantamos que: tabulamos a abordagem de gravitação nos livros didáticos, ainda muito tradicional e carecedora de atividades criativas que poderiam melhor explorar esse assunto; mapeamos, junto aos professores, padrões de conceitos espontâneos e erros associados ao tema; e, no curso, adaptamos e testamos a eficiência de materiais instrucionais existentes e criamos outros novos (e.g., para trabalhar excentricidades das órbitas planetárias), além disto elaboramos roteiros e figuras para tratamentos qualitativo e quantitativo da lei da gravitação universal. As avaliações feitas pelos professores foram muito animadoras. O espaço da presente reunião será aproveitado para socializar a proposta e os resultados obtidos e para submeter o projeto à análise crítica. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  7. One-stop TB-HIV services evaluation in Rwanda: comparison of the 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 cohorts.

    PubMed

    Ndagijimana, A; Rugigana, E; Uwizeye, C B; Ntaganira, J

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : Une co-infection par la tuberculose (TB) et le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) reste fréquente au Rwanda. Depuis que des services TB-VIH à guichet unique ont été mis en œuvre afin de prendre en charge cette co-infection TB-VIH, leur fonctionnement et leur impact sur les résultats du traitement de la TB n'ont pas été évalués.Objectif : Evaluer les services TB-VIH à guichet unique du Rwanda, en comparant les résultats du traitement de la TB avant et après leur mise en œuvre, dans les districts de Kicukiro et Rulindo.Méthodes : Un étude descriptive rétrospective et un questionnaire quantitatif ont permis de connaître le fonctionnement du service TB-VIH à guichet unique ; des entretiens approfondis et des discussions en groupes focaux avec les prestataires de soins, les directeurs des structures et les patients co-infectés ont permis de connaître leur opinion à propos du fonctionnement.Résultats : Après la mise en œuvre des services TB-VIH à guichet unique, les 12 structures de santé visitées fonctionnaient selon les critères établis. Cependant, les résultats du traitement de la TB n'ont pas été significativement différents avant et après l'intervention. Les données qualitatives ont mis en évidence un effet positif de l'intervention sur la qualité de service, notamment sur la réduction du temps d'attente, et sur un meilleur respect des rendez-vous en réponse au bon fonctionnement du service.Conclusion : Les services TB-VIH à guichet unique ont amélioré la qualité des services dans les districts de Kicukiro et Rulindo. Cependant, le service doit être renforcé en termes de programme afin d'améliorer les résultats du traitement de la TB.

  8. Assessing human impact on droughts in a tropical Vietnamese catchment using a combined modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauditt, Alexandra; Birkel, Christian; Ribbe, Lars; Tran Van, Tra; Viet, Trinh Quoc; Firoz, Abm; Fink, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Historical drought frequency, drought risk and types are still poorly investigated in tropical regions and particularly in South East Asia. However, evolving drought periods during the dry season severely impact on socio economic factors such as livelihood (irrigated rice production), hydropower generation and urban water supply in such regions as in the VuGiaThuBon river basin (10,350 km²) in Central Vietnam. Besides the increasing frequency of heat waves and prolonged dry periods without rainfall, hydropower development and over-exploitation of water resources due to demographic and socioeconomic development are the main causes for drought-related disasters and subsequent salt water intrusion. Precipitation and runoff time series from 1982 to 2009 were used to assess drought severity and typology before hydropower development started in 2010. We applied different rainfall-runoff modelling approaches of increasing complexity (HBV light, J2000 and Mike NAM) as well as meteorological and hydrological drought indices such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and its runoff homologue (SRI). In the scope of the BMBF funded research project "Land use and Climate Change interactions (LUCCi)" (www.lucci-vietnam.info), the impacts of the human-induced hydrological alterations on drought risk were quantified by integrating the distributed physically-based hydrological model J2000 with the reservoir operation tool HEC ResSim and the River basin model Mike Basin to simulate the runoff to the coastal system. The salt water intrusion behavior in the flat coastal area was represented by the hydrodynamic Mike 11 model relating low flow thresholds to salt intrusion. The different discharge simulations before and after the reservoir construction were compared and evaluated regarding their relevance for the drought severity being dominated either by meteorological dry spells or hydrological alterations. Results show a clear impact of the hydropower reservoir and resulting

  9. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  10. La pseudarthrose du col fémoral traitée par prothèse totale de la hanche: à propos de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Bassir, Réda Allah; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Saleh Berrada, Mohammed; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    La pseudarthrose du col fémoral est une complication redoutée de la facture du col fémoral, elle est due soit à une négligence thérapeutique, soit à une ostéosynthèse imparfaite. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans sa genèse, l’âge, les caractéristiques de la fracture, l’état de la tête fémorale, et une ostéosynthèse non solide. Le diagnostic des pseudarthroses est essentiellement radiologique. Le traitement reste encore difficile et mal codifié, les limites entre traitement conservateur et arthroplastie de la hanche ne sont pas encore bien définies. Nous rapportons une série de 15 cas de pseudarthrose du col fémoral traités par arthroplastie de la hanche au service de traumato-orthopédie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rabat de 2008 à 2014 soit un recul de 40 mois en moyenne. Nos patients ont bénéficié d'une évaluation clinique et radiologique. L’âge de nos patients varie entre 48 et 81 ans, avec une moyenne de 69,2 ans. 85% d'entre eux sont âgés de plus de 60 ans. Nous avons dans notre série une prédominance féminine, soit 8 femmes pour 7 hommes. La négligence thérapeutique est la cause de la majorité des pseudarthroses du col du fémur traitées dans notre série. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilisé exclusivement la voie d'abord postéro externe de Moore. Nous avons mis en place une prothèse totale de couple polyéthylène-métal chez tous les patients, ces prothèses étaient cimentées chez 12 patients. Le résultat fonctionnel a été coté selon la classification de Merle d'Aubigné. Nos résultats ont été jugés bons selon cette cotation. L'arthroplastie totale de la hanche a une place importante dans le traitement des pseudarthroses du col fémoral et peut donner des résultats satisfaisants en permettant de récupérer une hanche mobile et indolore. PMID:25667720

  11. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  12. The observed evapotranspiration combining the energy and water balance for different land use under semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, Rim; Mekki, Insaf; Jacob, Frédéric; Masmoudi, Moncef; Prévot, Laurent; Ben Mechlia, Netij; Voltz, Marc; Albergel, Jean

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean semiarid cultivated catchments are affected by global and climate change and are characterized by very complex hydrological systems. The improvement of their management requires a best understanding of the hydrological processes and developing reliable means for characterizing the temporal dynamics of soil water balance in a spatially distributed manner. The main objective of this study is: i) to analyze the observed evapotranspiration in relation to natural drivers (i.e. rainfall and soil properties) and anthropogenic forcing (i.e. land use and crop successions), and ) ii to assess the differences in both energy and water balances. We focus on a hilly semiarid Mediterranean catchment devoted to rainfed agriculture, so-called the Kamech catchment, which is located in the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-eastern Tunisia. The site belongs to the OMERE observatory for environmental research and it is monitored for the different hydrological cycle components under influence of anthropogenic forcing. The analysis is based on in-situ data measured under the common cereals/legumes/pasture cropping systems within the Kamech catchment. Energy and water balance components and vegetation parameters were collected in different fields and during various crop growth cycles. The results showed the highly variable response of energy and water balances depending on soil types, land use, and climatic conditions. The annual rainfall is mainly converted into evapotranspiration during the growing cycle for different land uses. The runoff amounts, for most of the sites, correspond to less than 10% of the rainfall amount. The evapotransipration ratios differed significantly across site and season in relation to soil properties and cumulated rainfall. We observe large differences in soil water dynamics among the legumes (fababean and chickpea) and cereals (wheat, oat, and triticale). Soil water is larger for legume crops, despite substantial plant growth during winter

  13. Les manifestations oculaires au cours de la pré-éclampsie sévère ou l’éclampsie au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou de Bobo Dioulasso

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Méda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Ouattara, Souleymane; Yanogo, Armande; Tougouma, Somnoma Jean Baptiste; Somé, Der; Sanou, Jérôme; Dolo, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    La pré-éclampsie sévère est un problème de santé publique. L'atteinte oculaire est une de ses nombreuses complications. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les atteintes oculaires chez les patientes présentant une pré-éclampsie et/ou éclampsie afin de contribuer à leur meilleure prise en charge. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er novembre 2013 au 31 juillet 2014, chez les patientes ayant souffert de pré-éclampsie sévère/éclampsie. Nous avons inclus 127 patientes dans notre étude. La moyenne d’âge des patientes de notre étude était de 26,37 ans (ET= 6,8 ans), avec des extrêmes de 15 et 40 ans. Les tranches d’âge les plus représentées étaient celles de 26 à 30 ans avec 29,1% des cas et celle des 15 à 20 ans avec 25,2%. Le diagnostic de pré-éclampsie sévère a été retenu dans 69,3% des cas. Les primigestes représentaient 40,9% de la population. Les troubles visuels à type de phosphènes ont été observés chez 33,1% des patientes. Nous avons noté un courant granulaire conjonctival dans 41,7%, des lésions du segment postérieur chez 32,3% des patientes. Ces résultats ont été discutés par rapport à la littérature, et nous notons plus de cas d'atteinte rétinienne. Nous n'avons pas trouvé de lien statistiquement significatif entre la tension artérielle à l'admission et le stade de la rétinopathie hypertensive. Les complications oculaires de la pré-éclampsie sévère sont très fréquentes et souvent ignorées. Les atteintes rétiniennes sont fréquentes mais de bon pronostic. PMID:26405485

  14. Les conjonctivites néonatales dans le canton de Glidji au Sud du Togo: une étude transversale à propos de 159 nouveau-nés

    PubMed Central

    Kokou, Vonor; Nidain, Maneh; Kassoula, Nononsaa Batomguela; Kwassi, Fiaty- Amenouvor; Meba, Banla; Patrice, Balo Komi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le but de l’étude était décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des conjonctivites néonatales dans le canton de Glidji au Sud du Togo. Methodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale dans les 4 Unités Sanitaires Périphériques du canton de Glidji du 19 Mars au 13 Mai 2009 soit 8 semaines. Tous les nouveau-nés ont été inclus et la conjonctivite néonatale était définie par la présence chez un nouveau-né d'au moins deux des signes suivants: hyperhémie conjonctivale, œdème palpébral, chémosis, sécrétions purulentes, larmoiement. Les paramètres étudiés étaient l’âge, le sexe, les facteurs de risque, les antécédents, la présence ou non de conjonctivite, les germes en causes et l’évolution sous traitement. Resultats Sur la période, 159 nouveau-nés ont été examinés. L’âge moyen était de 10,9 jours avec des extrêmes de 0 à 28 jours. Il y avait 80 garçons pour 79 filles soit un sex-ratio de 1,01. Sur les 159 nouveau-nés, 7 cas de conjonctivite ont été diagnostiqués soit une prévalence de 4,4%. Les facteurs de risque identifiés étaient l'accouchement par voie basse et la présence d'IST chez la mère pendant la grossesse. Sur les 7 cas de conjonctivite, l'examen cytobactériologique a permis d'isoler le staphylococcus aureus dans 2 cas. L’évolution des cas de conjonctivite sous traitement était favorable avec régression des signes dès le 3è jour. Conclusion Les conjonctivites néonatales avaient une prévalence de 4,4% dans le canton de Glidji au sud du Togo et le staphylocoque doré était le germe en cause. Leur prévention passe par un bon suivi lors de la consultation prénatale et l'instillation de collyre antibiotique à la naissance PMID:27642383

  15. La luxation chronique du coude chez l'enfant: à propos de 20 cas

    PubMed Central

    Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    La luxation négligée du coude chez l'enfant est peu fréquente dans les pays industrialisés, elle n'est pas en revanche rare dans notre contexte. Nous rapportons une série de 20 cas, colligée au service d'Orthopédie Pédiatrique du CHU HASSAN II de Fès, sur une période de 4 ans. En effet, 14 malades étaient de sexe masculin, avec un âge moyen de 8,5 ans. Le mécanisme principal était la chute d'olivier. Le délai de consultation était très variable. 19 enfants ont été traités traditionnellement. La raideur constituait le motif principal de consultation. Avec une flexion inférieure à 70°. Un seul malade avait présenté un syndrome de Volkmann. La luxation était isolée et postéro-externe dans la majorité des cas. La voie d'abord médiane postérieure était adoptée chez tous nos malades. 15 patients ont bénéficié d'une arthrolyse avec arthrodèse provisoire. La rééducation était systématique. Le résultat a été bon avec une flexion à 90° et un secteur de mobilité supérieur à 60° chez 9 de nos malades sur un recul de 3 ans. En définitive, la luxation invétérée du coude est une pathologie du milieu rural; la facilité d'accès au soin reste la meilleure prévention. PMID:25574324

  16. Generalization and formalization of the US EPA procedure for design of treated wastewater aquifer recharge basins: II. Retrofit of Souhil Wadi (Nabeul, Tunisia) pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Kallali, Hamadi; Yoshida, Mitsuo; Tarhouni, Jamila; Jedidi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    The 'Cap Bon' peninsula in Tunisia suffers from intensive tourist activities, high demographic increase and industrial development. As groundwater had been for a long time the main water source, aquifers had been subject to a severe depletion and seawater intrusion. Despite the measures taken prohibiting new drillings and water carrying by the construction of a waterway linking the region to the north-west region of Tunisia, the problem of water shortage persists. Artificial recharge of groundwater with treated wastewater has been decided as a technique to replenish the region aquifers. A pilot plant was constructed in the early 1980s in Souhil Wadi (Nabeul) area. Many experiments have been carried out on this plant and have led to controversial opinions about its performance and its impact on groundwater contamination. This contribution concerns the application of the procedure that we developed from the generalization and the formalization of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) methodology for the design of treated wastewater aquifer recharge basins. This upgrading procedure implemented in a spreadsheet, has been used to retrofit the Souhil Wadi facility in order to improve its performance. This method highlighted the importance of the safety factor to estimate wastewater infiltration rate from clean water permeability measurements. It has, also, demonstrated the discordance between the initial design parameters of Souhil Wadi facility and their current status as they have changed with time and the infiltration capacity of the basins has been affected by clogging. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that with the current state of clogging of the basins, the design infiltration rate limited by the most restrictive layer (6.1 cm/hr) corresponds to 22% of the surface infiltration rate reached after a drying period of 10 d, which means that we need more basins to absorb the daily loading rate. The design method leads to the construct ion of five

  17. Elaboration de nouvelles approches micromecaniques pour l'optimisation des performances mecaniques des materiaux heterogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutajeddine, Ahmed

    donner de bons resultats. Finalement, ce modele de Mori-Tanaka corrige est utilise avec les operateurs de Hill pour construire un modele de transition d'echelle pour les materiaux ayant une interphase elastoplastique. La loi de comportement effective trouvee est de nature incrementale et elle est conjuguee a la relation de la plasticite de l'interphase. Des simulations d'essais mecaniques pour plusieurs proprietes de l'interphase plastique a permis de dresser des profils de l'enrobage octroyant un meilleur comportement au materiau.

  18. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales: aspects épidémiologique, clinique et thérapeutique au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Rafik, Amine; Chabak, Hakim; Diouri, Mounia; Bahechar, Naïma; Chlihi, Abdessamad

    2015-01-01

    Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales représentent une entité fréquente des séquelles de brûlure, elles affectent la fonction, l'esthétique et l’état psychologique des patients et peuvent être de traitement difficile. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur 5 ans de Mars 2009 au Octobre2014, réalisée au centre national des brûlés et de chirurgie plastique au CHU Ibn Rochd Casablanca. Nous avons analysé les caractéristiques épidémiologiqueset cliniques ainsi que les indications et les résultats thérapeutiques chez 300 patients présentant des rétractions cervicales post-brûlure, suivis dans notre formation. Les jeunes femmes étaient le plus souvent touchées (56%). la brûlure thermique par flamme de butane dans le cadre d'accident domestique était l’étiologie la plus fréquente (91%).75% des patients ont été pris en charge dans un délai de 18 mois après avoir présenté une incapacité fonctionnelle. Les brides cervicales modérées et sévères sont les plus fréquentes et représentent respectivement 60% et 16% des cas. Le traitement chirurgical a fait appel aux greffes cutanées dans 67%des cas, aux plasties locales dans 24%des cas et aux lambeaux dans 24% des cas, les résultats sont jugés bons dans 75%des cas et moyens dans 18% des cas, tandis que les cas restants (7%) ont nécessité une reprise chirurgicale. Le traitement des brides cervicales doit être associé à un programme de rééducation adapté, afin d'assurer la pérennité des résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques. PMID:26301017

  19. Charles Fabry métrologue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchareine, P.

    We describe the two main experimental results obtained by Charles Fabry in fundamental metrology. First, the measurement of the volume of a quartz cube was achieved with Macé de Lépinay, conducting to an enhanced value of the ratio between one "litre" and one cubic decimetre. The probably most important experimental result is the second measurement of the "metre" in optical wavelengths, made in "Conservatoire des arts et métiers”, some years after the first one achieved by Albert Michelson with Jean-René Benoît in the "Bureau international des poids et mesures" in Sèvres. We compare the two experimental devices and processes, the results and their uncertainties. The very good agreement between the two interferometrists was an argument to convince the international community that an atomic wavelength is a better standard for lengths measurements than the platinum Prototype, and lead to the two new definitions of the "mètre" in 1960 and1983. Nous décrivons les deux principaux résultats obtenus par Charles Fabry en métrologie fondamentale. Tout d'abord la mesure du volume d'un cube de quartz a été faite avec Macé de Lépinay, conduisant à une meilleure valeur du rapport du litre au décimètre cube. Le résultat expérimental le plus significatif est probablement la mesure du mètre en longueurs d'onde lumineuses, effectuée au Conservatoire des arts et métiers, quelques années après la première mesure de ce type faite par Albert Michelson avec Jean-René Benoît au Bureau international des poids et mesures à Sèvres. Nous comparons les deux dispositifs expérimentaux et leur exploitation, les résultats et leurs incertitudes. Le très bon accord entre les deux expérimentateurs fut décisif pour convaincre la communauté internationale que la longueur d'onde d'une radiation atomique est un meilleur étalon pour les mesures de longueur que le Prototype international en platine iridié, et conduisit aux deux nouvelles définitions du mètre de 1960

  20. Dissociations and friction forces in metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couret, A.; Caillard, D.

    1991-06-01

    50 years after the first basic idea of Peierls, a review is made on the different aspects of friction forces in metals and alloys. Different approachs are compared, and it is shown that all lead to similar results, corresponding to different behaviours in two stress ranges. Experimental results in BCC, HCP, and FCC metals, are in good agreement with these theoretical developments. In a second part, an extension of the Peierls model, called locking-unlocking, is developed on the basis of experimental results in the prismatic planes of beryllium. It applies to many other situations, such as prismatic glide in magnesium and titanium, cube and octahedral glide in LI2 nickel-based ordered alloys, and possibly some BCC metals. The relation between locking-unlocking and Peierls mechanisms is discussed, as the role of locking-unlocking in the formation of strength anomalies. 50 ans après la première idée de base de Peierls, nous faisons une revue des différents aspects des forces de friction dans les métaux et les alliages. Les diverses approches sont comparées, et nous montrons que toutes conduisent à des résultats semblables, correspondant à deux comportements différents dans deux domaines de température. Les résultats expérimentaux dans les métaux CC, HC et CFC sont en bon accord avec ces développements théoriques. Dans une seconde partie, nous développons une extension du modèle de Peierls, appelée blocage-déblocage, sur la base de résultats expérimentaux obtenus dans les plans prismatiques du béryllium. Elle s'applique à de nombreuses autres situations, telles que le glissement prismatique du magnésium et du titane, le glissement cubique et octaédrique des alliages ordonnés LI2 à base nickel, et peut-être quelques métaux CC. Nous discutons la relation entre les mécanismes de blocage-déblocage et de Peierls, ainsi que le rôle du blocage-déblocage dans la formation des anomalies de limite élastique.

  1. Measuring emotional awareness from a cognitive-developmental perspective: Portuguese adaptation studies of the levels of emotional awareness scale.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Marco; Ouakinin, Sílvia; Lane, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A Escala de Níveis de Consciência Emocional (LEAS) foi desenvolvida para avaliar o constructo consciência emocional, numa perspectiva cognitivo-desenvolvimentista e influenciada pelas Teorias de Piaget e Werner. É composta por 20 situações ou cenários que evocam emoções e tem sido usada em múltiplas investigações nos domínios da regulação emocional, alexitimia e perturbações psiquiátricas. Trata-se de uma medida bem documentada, validada e precisa. Em virtude da sua extensão, alguns investigadores têm vindo a utilizar uma das formas paralelas que compõe a versão completa, a LEAS-A, sendo contudo notória a vacuidade de estudos que descrevam as qualidades psicométricas desta versão. Face à inexistência de uma medida de caracterização da organização da experiência emocional para a população portuguesa, desenvolveu-se a versão portuguesa da LEAS, caracterizaram-se diversos indicadores de precisão e validade, assim como para a versão reduzida LEAS-A. Materiais e Métodos: Foram desenvolvidos três estudos com estas versões, dois deles com recurso a estudantes universitários e um outro com uma amostra da população em geral. Resultados: A versão portuguesa demonstrou níveis elevados de precisão, mais robustos do que os encontrados em estudos de adaptação da escala noutros países. A LEAS-A apresentou bons níveis de precisão e indicadores de validade discriminante e concorrente. As pontuações obtidas na LEAS-A mostraram-se independentes da presença de afecto negativo e associaram-se significativamente a um estilo cognitivo externalizado, próprio do funcionamento alexitímico. Conclusões: As versões portuguesas da LEAS e da LEAS-A apresentam qualidades psicométricas muito adequadas, o que permite o seu uso científico. São discutidas as implicações da sua utilização nos contextos clínico e de investigação.

  2. A Conceptual Framework to Enhance the Interoperability of Observatories among Countries, Continents and the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, H.; Fundamental Instrument Unit

    2013-05-01

    , GEO-BON, NutNet, etc.) and domestically, (e.g., NSF-CZO, USDA-LTAR, DOE-NGEE, Soil Carbon Network, etc.), there is a strong and mutual desire to assure interoperability of data. Developing interoperability is the degree by which each of the following is mapped between observatories (entities), defined by linking i) science requirements with science questions, ii) traceability of measurements to nationally and internationally accepted standards, iii) how data product are derived, i.e., algorithms, procedures, and methods, and iv) the bioinformatics which broadly include data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and semantics. Here, we explore the rationale and focus areas for interoperability, the governance and work structures, example projects (NSF-NEON, EU-ICOS, and AU-TERN), and the emergent roles of scientists in these endeavors.

  3. Prise en compte de l'anisotropie des collisions ion-atome sur le transport des ions par simulation de Monte-Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennad, A.; Eichwald, O.; Yousfi, M.; Lamrous, O.

    1997-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the determination of the differential and integral collision cross sections needed for the calculation of the transport coefficient of ions in weakly ionized gases. In the case of Ar^+/Ar system and for energy interval varying up to 100 eV, the cross sections are obtained from the interaction potential of polarization for low energies and of Lennard-Jones for higher energies. The calculation method of the collision cross sections based on the classical mechanics has been first validated from comparisons of measured and calculated differential cross sections. Then, these cross sections have been used in a Monte-Carlo code for simulation of the transport of Ar^+ ions in Ar gas at room temperature (300 K). The obtained transport coefficients (ion mobility, drift velocity and diffusion coefficient) are in good agreement with the drift tube measurements given in the literature thus confirming the validity of the method of collision cross section calculation. Cet article est consacré à la détermination des sections efficaces différentielles et intégrales ion-atome nécessaires au calcul des coefficients de transport des ions dans les gaz faiblement ionisés. Dans le cas du système Ar^+/Ar et pour des intervalles d'énergie allant jusqu'à quelques dizaines d'eV, les sections efficaces sont obtenues à partir des potentiels d'interaction de polarisation pour les faibles énergies et de Lennard-Jones pour les énergies plus élevées. La méthode de calcul des sections efficaces basée sur la mécanique classique a d'abord été validée par comparaison des sections efficaces différentielles mesurées et calculées. Ensuite, ces sections efficaces ont été utilisées dans un code de simulation statistique de Monte-Carlo du transport des ions Ar^+ dans l'Argon à la température ambiante (300 K). Les coefficients de transport (vitesse de dérive, mobilité ionique et coefficient de diffusion) obtenus sont en bon accord avec les mesures de

  4. An overview of historical channel adjustment and selected hydraulic values in the Lower Sabine and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.; John D. Gordon, John D.

    2010-01-01

    lower Brazos River Basins were evaluated. An in-depth discussion of results from streamflow-gaging station 08028500 Sabine River near Bon Weir, Tex., is featured here as an example of the analyses that were done at each station.

  5. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées: à propos de 121 cas

    PubMed Central

    Hazmiri, Fatima Ezzahra; Fakhri, Anas; Rais, Hanane; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said; Belaabidia, Badia

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées sont des tumeurs dermiques et/ou hypodermiques relativement fréquentes. Elles sont dominées par les tumeurs bénignes. A travers une série de 121 cas, nous avons étudié le profil épidémiologique, anatomopathologique et évolutif de ces tumeurs. C'est une étude rétrospective réalisée au service d'anatomie pathologique du CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech entre 2004 et 2012. Il s'agit de 121 patients. La moyenne d’âge était de 36 ans (1-80ans). Le sex-ratio H/F était de 1,12. La tumeur avait un aspect nodulaire dans 90% des cas. Le membre inférieur était la localisation la plus fréquente (30,5%). L’étude anatomopathologique a porté sur un matériel biopsique dans 100% des cas. Soixante-neuf pour cent de ces tumeurs étaient bénignes. Elles étaient représentées essentiellement par les tumeurs vasculaires, suivies par les tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires. Trente et un pour cent des tumeurs étaient malignes. Il s'agissait essentiellement de tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires, suivies de tumeurs vasculaires. L’étude immunohistochimique était réalisée dans 2cas. Le traitement chirurgical était entrepris dans 73% des cas. L’évolution était précisée dans 19% des cas avec une évolution favorable dans 13% des cas. Un cas de décès et 2 cas de récidive étaient notés. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées bénignes sont de bon pronostic, mais posent un problème majeur de nosologie et de classification. D'autre part, la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique ainsi que l’évaluation pronostique des sarcomes cutanés restent difficiles. PMID:25379113

  6. Hernie inguinale en Afrique subsaharienne: quelle place pour la technique de Shouldice?

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Drissa; Diarra, Lasseny; Coulibaly, Bréhima; Bengaly, Brehima; Togola, Birama; Traoré, Alhassane; Traoré, Hamady; Ongoïba, Nouhoum; Sissoko, Filifing; Koumaré, Abdel Karim

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’étudier l'aspect épidémio-clinique et thérapeutique de la hernie inguinale selon la technique de Shouldice. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective, portant sur les patients opérés pour hernie inguinale selon la technique de Shouldice dans le service de chirurgie B du CHU du Point G, Bamako, Mali. Il a été enregistré 225patients opérés selon la technique de Shouldice. L’âge moyen était de 49 ans +/- 17,7. Il y avait 90,7% (204) hommes soit un sex-ratio de 9,7. Les cultivateurs, les ménagères et les ouvriers ont représenté 51,1% (115). Dans 75,2% (169) les patients ont consulté pour tuméfaction inguinale. En pré opératoire, la hernie était compliquée chez 82 (36,4%) patients dont 24 cas de récidive. L’étranglement herniaire a été la principale complication pré opératoire 58,5% (48/82). Les suites opératoires à un an ont été simples chez 94,2%(210) des patients; elles étaient marquées par 8 cas de récidive, 4 cas de névralgie, 2 cas d'atrophie testiculaire, 1 cas de chéloïde. La technique de Shouldice est la technique de choix pour la cure de la hernie inguinale dans les pays en voie de développement à cause du bon résultat et son coût peu onéreux par rapport aux autres techniques utilisant des dispositifs médicaux. PMID:26664551

  7. Traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main dans les pays à ressources limitées ; notre expérience en république démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kibadi, K.; Moutet, F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les séquelles de brûlures de la main sont encore fréquentes dans les pays à ressources limitées. Trente-deux patients, représentant 38 mains, ont été admis et traités, entre le 1er décembre 2010 et le 1er mai 2014 aux Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). nous avons observé 22 patients (69 %) dans le groupe de jeunes (patients âgés de moins de 18 ans), et 10 patients (31 %) chez les adultes (18 à 59 ans). Aucun patient dans le groupe de seniors (60 ans et plus) n’a été observé. Dans le groupe de jeunes, la tranche d’âge de 1 à 5 ans a été la plus atteinte avec 13 malades (40 %). l’accident à la maison était le plus fréquent (72 %). le mécanisme de la brûlure était le plus souvent thermique par flammes (51 %) ou par liquide chaud (34 %). les rétractions et brides sont les lésions le plus observées (84 %). la rétraction dorsale globale « main en griffe» est observée chez 40 % de patients traités, associée à des cicatrices hypertrophiques et chéloïdiennes dans 84 % de cas. Chez les 32 mains traitées chirurgicalement, des excision-greffes ont été réalisées dans 43,7 %, des lambeaux locaux dans 43,7 % et des lambeaux à distance dans 12,5 % de cas. A la sortie de l’hôpital, 84 % de « bons » résultats ont été observés. le suivi a été de 18 mois. le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main est possible dans ces pays, exemple de la rDC. Mais les défis à surmonter dans ces pays sont nombreux : la faible accessibilité aux techniques actuelles de la chirurgie plastique, la prise en charge initiale inadéquate des brûlures, la pauvreté. PMID:26668560

  8. Generalization and formalization of the US EPA procedure for design of treated wastewater aquifer recharge basins: II. Retrofit of Souhil Wadi (Nabeul, Tunisia) pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Kallali, Hamadi; Yoshida, Mitsuo; Tarhouni, Jamila; Jedidi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    The 'Cap Bon' peninsula in Tunisia suffers from intensive tourist activities, high demographic increase and industrial development. As groundwater had been for a long time the main water source, aquifers had been subject to a severe depletion and seawater intrusion. Despite the measures taken prohibiting new drillings and water carrying by the construction of a waterway linking the region to the north-west region of Tunisia, the problem of water shortage persists. Artificial recharge of groundwater with treated wastewater has been decided as a technique to replenish the region aquifers. A pilot plant was constructed in the early 1980s in Souhil Wadi (Nabeul) area. Many experiments have been carried out on this plant and have led to controversial opinions about its performance and its impact on groundwater contamination. This contribution concerns the application of the procedure that we developed from the generalization and the formalization of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) methodology for the design of treated wastewater aquifer recharge basins. This upgrading procedure implemented in a spreadsheet, has been used to retrofit the Souhil Wadi facility in order to improve its performance. This method highlighted the importance of the safety factor to estimate wastewater infiltration rate from clean water permeability measurements. It has, also, demonstrated the discordance between the initial design parameters of Souhil Wadi facility and their current status as they have changed with time and the infiltration capacity of the basins has been affected by clogging. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that with the current state of clogging of the basins, the design infiltration rate limited by the most restrictive layer (6.1 cm/hr) corresponds to 22% of the surface infiltration rate reached after a drying period of 10 d, which means that we need more basins to absorb the daily loading rate. The design method leads to the construct ion of five

  9. Disequilibrium melt distributions during static recrystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walte, N. P.; Bons, P. D.; Passchier, C. W.; Koehn, D.; Arnold, J.

    2003-04-01

    DISEQUILIBRIUM MELT DISTRIBUTIONS DURING STATIC RECRYSTALLISATION N.P. Walte (1), P.D. Bons (2), C.W. Passchier (1), D. Koehn (1), J. Arnold (1) (1) Institute for Earth Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany, (2) Institute for Earth Sciences, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany (walte@mail.uni-mainz.de) The geometry of melt-filled pores in a partially molten rock strongly controls the permeability, rheology and initial segregation of melt. Current theory for monomineralic aggregates, using only the wetting angle and melt fraction as parameters, predicts a perfectly regular melt framework or equally shaped melt inclusions on grain boundary junctions. However, published melt-present high-temperature experiments with rock forming minerals such as quartz or olivine show considerable deviations from this predicted regular equilibrium melt geometry. Disequilibrium features, such as fully wetted grain boundaries, melt lenses, and large melt patches have been described, and were attributed to surface energy anisotropy of the minerals. This study used static analogue experiments with norcamphor plus ethanol liquid, that allow continuous in-situ observation of the evolving distribution of melt during static recrystallisation. The liquid-crystal surface energy of norcamphor is effectively isotropic. For the experiments an approximately 0.1 mm thin sample of norcamphor plus ethanole was placed between two glass plates and observed with a miroscope. Ethanol was used as a melt analogue because it allows to run experiments at room temperature, avoiding any temperature gradients. The wetting angle is approximately 15°, which is well below 60° and within the range reported for quartz and olivine plus melt experiments. The experiments show that all described disequilibrium features can form during fluid-enhanced static recrystallisation, especially where surrounding grains consume small, few-sided grains. These features are unstable and transient: a

  10. Translation into French of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII e Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne – qu’est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Les changements au Code International de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIIIe CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s’est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1er janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en ‘Portable Document Format’ (PDF) avec un ‘International Standard Serial Number’ (ISSN) ou un ‘International Standard Book Number’ (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1er janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d’un identifiant (‘identifier’) fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés. Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients with rifampicin resistance detected using Xpert(®) MTB/RIF in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Charambira, K; Ade, S; Harries, A D; Ncube, R T; Zishiri, C; Sandy, C; Mutunzi, H; Takarinda, K; Owiti, P; Mafaune, P; Chonzi, P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Au Zimbabwe, la prise en charge des patients tuberculeux ayant une résistance à la rifampicine (RMP) diagnostiqués par Xpert(®) MTB/RIF est préoccupante.Objectif : Evaluer les liens entre le diagnostic et le traitement de ces patients dans les provinces de Harare et de Manicaland en 2014.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte.Résultats : Sur 20 329 tests Xpert, 90% ont été réussis, 11% ont détecté Mycobacterium tuberculosis et 4,5% ont mis en évidence une résistance à la RMP. Il y a eu 77 patients atteints d'une tuberculose (TB) résistante à la RMP diagnostiqués par Xpert. Parmi eux, 70% ont bénéficié d'un envoi d'échantillon au laboratoire de référence pour une culture et un test de pharmacosensibilité (CDST) ; pour 53% d'entre eux, les échantillons sont arrivés à bon port ; pour 21%, les échantillons ont mis en évidence une croissance de M. tuberculosis ; et chez 17%, les résultats du CDST ont été enregistrés et tous ont confirmé la résistance à la RMP. Sur 77 patients, 34 (44%) n'ont jamais mis en route un traitement pour le TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) ; les motifs documentés étaient le décès, la perte de vue ou un traitement incorrect. Des 43 patients qui ont débuté le traitement de TB-MDR, 12 (71%) à Harare et 17 (65%) au Manicaland ont commencé dans les 2 semaines suivant le diagnostic.Conclusion : L'Xpert a été lancé avec succès dans deux provinces du Zimbabwe. Cependant, le processus de confirmation du CDST pour une TB résistante à la RMP diagnostiquée par Xpert ne fonctionne pas bien, et de nombreux patients sont soit traités avec retard, soit ne démarrent jamais le traitement de TB-MDR. Ces problèmes doivent être examinés par le programme.

  12. Laser X-UV en schéma collisionnel OFI à 41,8 nm créé dans des tubes capillaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieux, G.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.; Mocek, T.; Bettaibi, I.; Farinet, M.; Dubau, J.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons les résultats expérimentaux et théoriques obtenus sur le laser X-UV à 41,8 nm créé en schéma collisisonnel à ionisation par champ optique dans des tubes capillaires. Une étude détaillée a été menée dans le but de comprendre les effets liés au guidage. Le plasma amplificateur est créé dans un tube capillaire de quelques cm de long. L'émission X-UV maximum est obtenue en fonctionnant en régime de guidage multimode dans un tube capillaire de 25 mm de long. Le signal X-UV mesuré est 3 fois plus élevé que celui observé dans une cellule de gaz et la divergence du faisceau est réduite d'un facteur3. Un code numérique, baptisé COFIXE, est en développement pour calculer le signal X-UV émis par le plasma amplificateur. Il inclut le calcul de la propagation du faisceau pompe, de l'état du plasma juste après l'interaction avec le faisceau pompe, le calcul de l'évolution des propriétés locales du plasma pendant les quelques ps suivantes ainsi que le calcul de l'amplification et du transport de l'émission X-UV. Un très bon accord a été obtenu entre les résultats expérimentaux et les résultats théoriques pour plusieurs caractéristiques telles la divergence du faisceau, la corrélation entre la transmission du faisceau pompe guidé et l'énergie du signal X-UV, ainsi que l'amélioration apportée par le guidage.

  13. Managing menopause.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Johnston, Shawna; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy; Fortier, Michel; Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Graves, Lisa; Guthrie, Bing; Khan, Aliya; Johnston, Shawna; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    contraceptifs oraux à faible dose peuvent être offerts à titre de solutions de rechange pour le soulagement des symptômes ménopausiques au cours de la transition ménopausique. (I-A) 4. Les traitements d’ordonnance non hormonaux (y compris certains antidépresseurs, la gabapentine et la clonidine) peuvent entraîner une certaine atténuation des bouffées de chaleur; ils présentent toutefois leurs propres effets indésirables. Ces solutions de rechange peuvent être envisagées lorsque l’hormonothérapie s’avère contre-indiquée ou lorsque la patiente ne souhaite pas y avoir recours. (I-B) 5. Nous ne disposons que de données limitées sur l’efficacité de la plupart des approches parallèles en ce qui concerne la prise en charge des bouffées de chaleur. Ainsi, en l’absence de preuves solides de leur efficacité et compte tenu des données minimales dont nous disposons quant à leur innocuité, ces approches ne devraient pas être recommandées. Les femmes devraient être avisées que, jusqu’en janvier 2004, la plupart des produits de santé naturels entraient sur le marché canadien en tant que « produits alimentaires » et n’étaient pas soumis à la réglementation régissant les produits pharmaceutiques. Ainsi, la plupart de ces produits n’ont pas fait l’objet de tests rigoureux en ce qui concerne la prise en charge des bouffées de chaleur allant de modérées à graves; de plus, pour bon nombre d’entre eux, nous ne disposons pas de données sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité. (I-B) 6. L’œstrogénothérapie peut être offerte aux femmes qui ont subi une ménopause chirurgicale dans le cadre de la prise en charge de l’endométriose. (I-A) Chapitre 5 : Santé urogénitale Recommandations 1. La crème d’œstrogènes conjugués, l’anneau intravaginal d’estradiol à libération prolongée ou les comprimés vaginaux d’estradiol sont recommandés à titre de traitement efficace contre l’atrophie vaginale. (I-A) 2. La mise en

  14. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ↔ NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux

  15. Sputum smear microscopy referral rates and turnaround time in the Tonga Islands.

    PubMed

    Fonua, L; Bissell, K; Vivili, P; Gounder, S; Hill, P C

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Le programme national de lutte contre la tuberculose et le laboratoire de référence de Tonga, situé sur l'île principale, Tongatapu, et trois laboratoires d'hôpitaux de district situés sur d'autres îles.Objectifs : Comparer Tongatapu avec les autres îles en ce qui concerne le taux de référence des crachats, le nombre d'échantillons par patient, la qualité des échantillons, les résultats de l'examen, le délai de retour du résultat et le délai entre le résultat et la mise en route du traitement.Schéma: Etude rétrospective par revue des dossiers de laboratoire et des registres de traitement anti tuberculeux des quatre hôpitaux des Tonga entre 2003 et 2012.Résultats : Parmi 3078 échantillons de crachats, 71,7% étaient de bonne qualité. Le taux de référence des crachats était presque deux fois plus élevé à Tongatapu que dans les îles extérieures (353 contre 180/100 000). Le délai de retour des crachats à Tongatapu et dans les îles extérieures était respectivement de 4,02 et 4,11 jours. Sur 83 cas positifs, 91,2% étaient traités le jour même à Tongatapu contre 80% dans les îles extérieures.Conclusion : Entre l'île principale et les îles extérieures, on note des différences en matière de taux d'examen de crachats mais pas en termes de délai de retour. Les données relatives à la qualité des frottis et aux dates de réalisation ont des limitations qui méritent une intervention avec des directives et des registres spécifiques de la TB. Une recherche supplémentaire est requise pour comprendre les différences entre les taux de référence.

  16. Appréciation de la sévérité de l'affection des patients admis en réanimation par la mesure de la CRP

    PubMed Central

    Djuma, Jackson; Kalenga, Prosper; Kazadi, Costa; Orbegozo, Diego; Vincent, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La CRP est produite en grande quantité dans les processus inflammatoires aigus et chroniques. L'hypothèse de ce travail est que la CRP permet, à faible coût, d'apprécier la sévérité des patients admis en réanimation. Méthodes La valeur journalière du taux sérique de CRP a été corrélée aux scores APACHE II à l'admission et SOFA pris quotidiennement durant le séjour en réanimation. La population étudiée était constituée de 100 patients admis en réanimation aux cliniques universitaires de Bruxelles. Résultats Les patients septiques avaient un taux de CRP plus élevé comparé aux non septiques. Les patients ayant une CRP élevée avaient les scores APACHE (26 ± 6 vs 20 ± 9, p < 0,05), SOFA à l'admission (8 ± 4 vs 4 ± 3, p < 0.05), SOFA maximum plus élevés (9 ± 4 vs 7 ± 3 et 9 ± 4 vs 7 ± 3, p < 0.05) et un séjour en réanimation plus long. Les patients ayant un plus grand nombre d'organes défaillants ont la CRP la plus élevée (365 mg/L vs 80 mg/L, 205 mg/L vs 60 mg/L, 110 mg/L vs 60 mg/L, 150 mg/L vs 60 mg/L). Conclusion Chez les patients présentant un taux sérique de CRP élevé, les scores de gravité (APACHE et SOFA), le pourcentage de patients présentant une infection et la durée du séjour en réanimation sont plus élevés. PMID:26301005

  17. Patient delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in China: findings of case detection projects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Enarson, D A; Chiang, C-Y; Rusen, I D; Qiu, L-X; Kan, X-H; Yuan, Y-L; Du, J; Zhang, T-H; Li, Y; Li, X-F; Du, C-T; Zhang, L-X

    2015-03-21

    Objectif : Evaluer le délai d’accès aux services des santé de nouveaux patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire (TBP) à frottis positif détectés au sein de sept projets FIDELIS (Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB) exécutés en Chine entre 2003 et 2008 ; 2) comparer les retards du traitement par province ; et 3) évaluer les facteurs associés aux retards.Méthode : Les dossiers des patients TPB à frottis positif ont été revus. Les données émanaient du registre des consultations, de celui du laboratoire, des dossiers des patients, des cartes de traitement et des formulaires d’évaluation des personnes ayant un accès limité aux services de santé (PWLAHS). Les données ont été recueillies grâce à un questionnaire standard et vérifiées par le personnel des sites et de l’Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose et les Maladies Respiratoires (L’Union) et analysées par L’Union.Résultats : De 75 401 nouveaux patients atteints de TBP à frottis positif, 63–89% étaient des PWLAHS. Le produit intérieur brut moyen des sites du projet et du niveau national était de 557 et 998 $US respectivement. Le délai médian d’accès aux soins était de 93 jours (extrêmes 68–128). Ce délai était plus long pour les femmes, les patients âgés, les résidents ruraux et ceux estimés être des PWLAHS. Ce délai d’accès aux services était significativement associé à un nombre de symptômes plus élevé.Conclusions : Le délai d’accès aux services de santé en Chine est long et offre des opportunités d’amélioration en matière de lutte contre la TB et de traitement.

  18. Follow-up examinations: are multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Uttar Pradesh, India, on track?

    PubMed

    Tripathi, U C; Nagaraja, S B; Tripathy, J P; Sahu, S K; Parmar, M; Rade, K; Bhatnagar, S; Ranjan, A; Sachdeva, K S

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Tous les patients atteints de tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR) qui avaient achevé 6 mois de traitement dans le cadre du Programme National Révisé de Lutte contre la Tuberculose (RNTCP) dans l’Uttar Pradesh, le plus grand état dans le nord de l’Inde.Objectif : Déterminer la proportion de patients TB-MDR bénéficiant d’examens de suivi régulier et la vision des prestataires et des patients sur ces services de suivi.Méthodes : Une étude rétrospective de cohorte a été réalisée grâce à la revue des dossiers de 64 patients TB-MDR éligibles enregistrés entre avril et juin 2013 dans 11 districts de l’état. Les patients et le personnel du RNTCP des districts sélectionnés ont également été interviewés grâce à un questionnaire semi-structuré.Résultats : Au total, 34 (53,1%) patients ont bénéficié d’examens de culture de crachats au 3(e) mois, 43 (67,2%) au 4(e) mois, 36 (56,3%) au 5(e) mois et 37 (57,8%) au 6(e) mois. Les principaux facteurs associés à un suivi irrégulier émanant des entretiens étaient le nombre élevé de consultations, la distance à parcourir, les ruptures de stock dans les structures et le manque de connaissances des patients vis-à-vis du programme de suivi.Conclusion : La majorité des patients TB-MDR ont eu un suivi irrégulier. Les facteurs liés aux prestataires dépassent ceux liés aux patients en matière d’examens de suivi médiocres. Le RNTCP devrait se concentrer sur la décentralisation des services de suivi, assurer la logistique et le conseil centré sur le patient afin d’accroitre la régularité du suivi.